WorldWideScience

Sample records for refiners crude slates

  1. China's refiners face massive overhaul, expansion to meet demand growth, new crude slate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    China's refining industry has embarked on a massive overhaul and expansion to accommodate soaring domestic growth in refined products demand. Currently that growth in demand is being met by increasing imports of refined products, in recent years attaining triple digit growth rates and squeezing direly needed foreign exchange. The focus is on adding refining capacity of about 1.4 million b/d to the current capacity of about 3.2 million b/d by 2000. Priority for increasing capacity is being given to expanding existing refineries and participating in foreign joint venture grassroots refineries along China's booming coastal regions as well as hiking output. A major challenge for China's refineries is that country's reentry into the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), recently signed in Morocco by more than 100 nations. The accompanying reduction of tariffs on imported refined products will make it more difficult for China's marginal refineries to compete in the domestic market. The paper discusses imports and exports, LPG outlook, refining capacity, revamps needed, third party processing, China's first joint venture refinery, industry plans, and GATT challenges

  2. A Canadian refiner's perspective of synthetic crudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halford, T.L.; McIntosh, A.P.; Rasmussen

    1997-01-01

    Some of the factors affecting a refiner's choice of crude oil include refinery hardware, particularly gas oil crackers, products slate and product specifications, crude availability, relative crude price and crude quality. An overview of synthetic crude, the use of synthetic crude combined with other crudes and a comparison of synthetic crude with conventional crude oil was given. The two main users of synthetic crude are basically two groups of refiners, those large groups who use synthetic crude combined with other crudes, and a smaller group who run synthetic crude on specially designed units as a sole feed. The effects of changes in fuel legislation were reviewed. It was predicted that the changes will have a mixed impact on the value of synthetic crude, but low sulphur diesel regulations and gasoline sulphur regulations will make current synthetic crudes attractive. The big future change with a negative impact will be diesel cetane increases to reduce engine emissions. This will reduce synthetic crude attractiveness due to distillate yields and quality and high gas oil yields. Similarly, any legislation limiting aromatics in diesel fuel will also make synthetic crudes less attractive. Problems experienced by refiners with hardware dedicated to synthetic crude (salt, naphthenic acid, fouling, quality variations) were also reviewed. 3 tabs

  3. Refining crude oils and gasolines, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1931-11-23

    A process of refining crude oils and gasolines distilled from shale and the like is described, consisting of submitting them to a prewash with soda, an oxidation preferably with hypochlorite solution, a hydrogenation with nascent hydrogen, and finally rectification and neutralization.

  4. Pilot scale refinning of crude soybean oil | Mensah | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pilot scale refinning of crude soybean oil. ... Abstract. A laboratory process for refining soybean has been scaled up to a 145 tonne per annum pilot plant to refine crude soybean oil. ... The quality of the refined oil was found to be within national and codex standard specifications for edible oil from vegetable sources.

  5. A refined approach: Saudi Arabia moves beyond crude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krane, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Saudi Arabia's role in global energy markets is changing. The kingdom is reshaping itself as a supplier of refined petroleum products while moving beyond its long-held role as a simple exporter of crude oil. This change is commensurate with the typical development trajectory of a state progressing to a more advanced stage of global economic integration. Gains from increased refining include reducing fuel imports and capturing margins now bequeathed to competitors. Refining also allows the kingdom to export its heavy crude oil to a wider array of customers, beyond select importers configured to handle heavy crudes. However, the move also presents strategic complications. The world's 'swing supplier' of oil may grow less willing or able to adjust supply to suit market demands. In the process, Saudi Arabia may have to update the old “oil for security” relationship that links it with Washington, augmenting it with a more diverse set of economic and investment ties with individual companies and countries, including China. -- Highlights: •Saudi Arabia is diverting crude oil into an expanding refining sector. •In doing so, the kingdom is moving beyond its role as global “swing supplier” of crude oil. •The kingdom will benefit from increased refining, including enhanced demand for heavy crude. •Strategic complications may force it to seek security partners beyond Washington

  6. Operation : motor city : Michigan's only refinery to handle an increased slate of heavy Canadian crude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaremko, D.

    2008-01-01

    A planned $1.9 billion upgrade and expansion will see a Detroit, Michigan refinery producing nearly 100 per cent Canadian crude oil. The upgrade will have important social, economic, and environmental implications for the oil sands industry, and is being seen as an important step for the future of the entire energy industry. The site was selected after a consultation of pipeline routes in North America. The refinery's coking capacity will help to ease the market constraints that Canadian crude is currently facing in the United States. The Midwest downstream oil and gas industry is well-positioned to help maximize the value of Canada's bitumen resources. In addition to expanding processing facilities, the refinery will also add capacity of approximately 15,000 barrels per day, as well as a delayed coker, sulphur recovery complex, ultra-low nitrogen oxide (NO x ) burners, a 33,000 barrel-per-day distillate hydrotreater, and a hydrogen plant. It was concluded that construction of the refinery will be completed by 2010. 2 figs

  7. Linkages between the markets for crude oil and the markets for refined products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didziulis, V.S.

    1990-01-01

    To understand the crude oil price determination process it is necessary to extend the analysis beyond the markets for petroleum. Crude oil prices are determined in two closely related markets: the markets for crude oil and the markets for refined products. An econometric-linear programming model was developed to capture the linkages between the markets for crude oil and refined products. In the LP refiners maximize profits given crude oil supplies, refining capacities, and prices of refined products. The objective function is profit maximization net of crude oil prices. The shadow price on crude oil gives the netback price. Refined product prices are obtained from the econometric models. The model covers the free world divided in five regions. The model is used to analyze the impacts on the markets of policies that affect crude oil supplies, the demands for refined products, and the refining industry. For each scenario analyzed the demand for crude oil is derived from the equilibrium conditions in the markets for products. The demand curve is confronted with a supply curve which maximizes revenues providing an equilibrium solution for both crude oil and product markets. The model also captures crude oil price differentials by quality. The results show that the demands for crude oil are different across regions due to the structure of the refining industries and the characteristics of the demands for refined products. Changes in the demands for products have a larger impact on the markets than changes in the refining industry. Since markets for refined products and crude oil are interrelated they can't be analyzed individually if an accurate and complete assessment of a policy is to be made. Changes in only one product market in one region affect the other product markets and the prices of crude oil

  8. Price Relationships in the Petroleum Market: An Analysis of Crude Oil and Refined Product Prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asche, Frank; Gjoelberg, Ole; Voelker, Teresa

    2001-08-01

    In this paper the relationships between crude oil and refined product prices are investigated in a multivariate framework. This allows us to test several (partly competing) assumptions of earlier studies. In particular, we find that the crude oil price is weakly exogenous and that the spread is constant in some but not all relationships. Moreover, the multivariate analysis shows that the link between crude oil prices and several refined product prices implies market integration for these refined products. This is an example of supply driven market integration and producers will change the output mix in response to price changes. (author)

  9. Price relationships in the petroleum market. An analysis of crude oil and refined product prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asche, Frank; Gjoelberg, Ole; Volker, Teresa

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the relationships between crude oil and refined product prices are investigated in a multivariate framework. This allows us to test several (partly competing) assumptions of earlier studies. In particular, we find that the crude oil price is weakly exogenous and that the spread is constant in some but not all relationships. Moreover, the multivariate analysis shows that the link between crude oil prices and several refined product prices implies market integration for these refined products. This is an example of supply driven market integration and producers will change the output mix in response to price changes

  10. Price relationships in the petroleum market: an analysis of crude oil and refined product prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asche, F.; Gjoelberg, O.; Voelker, T.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the relationships between crude oil and refined product prices are investigated in a multivariate framework. This allows us to test several (partly competing) assumptions of earlier studies. In particular, we find that the crude oil price is weakly exogenous and that the spread is constant in some but not all relationships. Moreover, the multivariate analysis shows that the link between crude oil prices and several refined product prices implies market integration for these refined products. This is an example of supply driven market integration and producers will change the output mix in response to price changes. (author)

  11. Process technology for refining crude soybean oil – a product from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Process technology for refining crude soybean oil – a product from soycake meal production in Ghana. ... yield of 83.3 per cent was recorded. Results of quality assessment of the final laboratory refined oil compared favourably with Ghana Standards Board's specification for edible soybean oil. Ghana Journal of Science Vol.

  12. Nonlinear joint dynamics between prices of crude oil and refined products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Ma, Guofeng; Liu, Guangsheng

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the relationships between crude oil and refined product prices. We find that nonlinear correlations are stronger in the long-term than in the short-term. Crude oil and product prices are cointegrated and financial crisis in 2007-2008 caused a structural break of the cointegrating relationship. Moreover, different from the findings in most studies, we reveal that the relationships are almost symmetric based on a threshold error correction model. The so-called 'asymmetric relationships' are caused by some outliers and financial crisis. Most of the time, crude oil prices play the major role in the adjustment process of the long-term equilibrium. However, refined product prices dominated crude oil prices during the period of financial crisis. Important policy and risk management implications can be learned from the empirical findings.

  13. Causes for an asymmetric relation between the price of crude oil and refined petroleum products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, R.K.; Laskowski, C.

    2005-01-01

    We revisit the issue of asymmetries in the relation between the price of crude oil and refined petroleum products in the United States. An econometric analysis of monthly data indicates that the asymmetric relationship between the price of crude oil and motor gasoline is generated by refinery utilization rates and inventory behavior. The asymmetric relation between the price of crude oil and home heating oil probably is generated by contractual arrangements between retailers and consumers. Together, these results imply that price asymmetries may be generated by efficient markets. Under these conditions, there is little justification for policy interventions to reduce or eliminate price asymmetries in motor gasoline and home heating oil markets. (author)

  14. Fortum Oil and Gas 2000: Exceptionally high price of crude oil and strong refining margins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ropponen, V.-M.

    2001-01-01

    Fortum intends to be an active player in the structural reorganization of the oil business by utilizing its niche position in oil refining. Fortum produces sophisticated motor fuel components, which it uses in its reformulated gasolines and sells and exports to other oil companies, even to highly demanding markets in California. The increase in the price of crude oil considerably improved the results of Oil and Gas Upstream. Similarly, an improvement in the refining margin, as well as profitable shipping operations and a strong demand for gasoline components, boosted the results of Oil Refining and Marketing. (orig.)

  15. Challenges and choices : a U.S. refiner's perspective on Western Canadian crude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, C.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation included a map depicting refineries, pipelines, terminals, coastal terminals and inland terminals in the eastern United States. Major oil trade movements between the United States, Canada, Mexico, South America, Central America, Europe, Middle East, Africa, and Asia-Pacific were also illustrated. A graph depicting Western Canada's long range crude supply forecast shows a decrease in conventional heavy oil supply but an increase in supply of diluent bitumen blend and synthetic bitumen blends. The presentation focused on this shift in refining and how product quality is viewed differently by producers and refiners in terms of gravity, sulfur content, boiling range distribution, distillate cetane, total acid number (TAN), asphalt properties, nitrogen and particulates. Refiners are looking for affordability, quality, consistency, yields and unit balance. Canadian marketing connections to PADD 1, 2, 4 and 5 were outlined. It was noted that more than 45 refineries in over 20 regions in the United States use Western Canadian crude oil. 22 figs

  16. Thermal properties and burning efficiency of crude oils and refined fuel oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Alva, Wilson Ulises Rojas; Mindykowski, Pierrick Anthony

    2017-01-01

    The thermal properties and burning efficiencies of fresh and weathered crude oils and a refined fuel oil were studied in order to improve the available input data for field ignition systems for the in-situ burning of crude oil on water. The time to ignition, surface temperature upon ignition, heat......-cooled holder for a cone calorimeter under incident heat fluxes of 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 kW/m2. The results clearly showed that the weathered oils were the hardest to ignite, with increased ignition times and critical heat fluxes of 5-10 kW/m2. Evaporation and emulsification were shown...

  17. The energy efficiency of crude oil refining in Brazil: A Brazilian refinery plant case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Romulo S. de; Schaeffer, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    This article evaluates energy efficiency in Brazilian crude oil refining in comparison with the crude oil refining in the United States between 1930 and 2008. It aims to show that increased refinery complexity reduces the energy consumption of products of high value added. Moreover, the article shows that improvements in energy efficiency result in higher quality products and increased processing of oil. A Brazilian refinery with a capacity of 157,000 barrels per day (kbpd) was modernized in 2008 at a cost of US $1.3 billion. As a result, its capacity increased by 17%, from 157 to 189 kbpd. Its complexity index also rose from 3.2 to 6.8, allowing an improvement in the EII (energy intensity index) from 110% to 93%. In relation to the crude oil processed before being modernized, energy consumption fell from 0.75 to 0.52 MBtu (million British thermal units) per barrel processed. These proceedings show that increases in complexity reduce the energy consumed in the production of final products with high value added, such as gasoline, diesel and jet fuel. -- Highlights: → Increased refinery complexity reduces the energy consumption of products of high value added. → Improvements in refinery energy efficiency result in higher quality products and increased processing of oil. → Brazilian refineries were not affected significantly in the 2008 crisis, such as the US refineries, due to many factors. → The EII of Brazilian refining presents real opportunities for gains through changes in the profile of energy consumed.

  18. PM-10 emissions and power of a Diesel engine fueled with crude and refined Biodiesel from salmon oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.F. Reyes; M.A. Sepulveda [University of Concepcion (Chile). Department of Mechanization and Energy, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering

    2006-09-15

    Power response and level of particulate emissions were assessed for blends of Diesel-crude Biodiesel and Diesel-refined Biodiesel. Crude Biodiesel and refined Biodiesel or methyl ester, were made from salmon oil with high content of free fatty acids, throughout a process of acid esterification followed by alkaline transesterification. Blends of Diesel-crude Biodiesel and Diesel-refined Biodiesel were tested in a diesel engine to measure simultaneously the dynamometric response and the particulate material (PM-10) emission performance. The results indicate a maximum power loss of about 3.5% and also near 50% of PM-10 reduction with respect to diesel when a 100% of refined Biodiesel is used. For blends with less content of either crude Biodiesel or refined Biodiesel, the observed power losses are lower but at the same time lower reduction in PM-10 emissions are attained. 21 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Impact of Crude Oil Quality on the Refining Conditions and Composition of Nutraceuticals in Refined Palm Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Klicia A; Ayala, Jose Vila; Van Hoed, Vera; Monteiro, Simone; Ceriani, Roberta; Verhé, Roland; Meirelles, Antonio J A

    2017-08-01

    Palm oil is the major vegetable oil used worldwide due to its unique properties. The effect of crude palm oil acidity on the final free fatty acids (FFA) content, neutral oil loss (NOL), and nutraceutical compounds, such as carotenes, total tocols (tocopherols and tocotrienols), squalene, and phytosterols was investigated. A central composite design was employed to study the influence of the refining conditions: temperature (200 to 260 °C), steam percentage (0.5% to 3.5%), and initial FFA content (2.2% to 6.0%) on the quality of the refined product. The results revealed that initial palm oil acidity is a statistically important parameter to obtain commercially acceptable values for final FFA content. The increase of temperature presented the most important effect on the reduction of all nutraceutical compounds. The highest tocopherols (88%), phytosterols (98%), and squalene retention (84%) was obtained when applying the mildest temperature (200 °C). From the experimental results, 3 equations were generated enabling the prediction of the free fatty acids content, the tocols content, and the losses of neutral oil. Therefore, this work contributes to the understanding and optimization of the process for the production of palm oil with high nutraceutical quality and low free fatty acid contents. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  20. Petroleum refining industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walls, W.D.

    2010-01-01

    The oil refining industry in China has faced rapid growth in oil imports of increasingly sour grades of crude with which to satisfy growing domestic demand for a slate of lighter and cleaner finished products sold at subsidized prices. At the same time, the world petroleum refining industry has been moving from one that serves primarily local and regional markets to one that serves global markets for finished products, as world refining capacity utilization has increased. Globally, refined product markets are likely to experience continued globalization until refining investments significantly expand capacity in key demand regions. We survey the oil refining industry in China in the context of the world market for heterogeneous crude oils and growing world trade in refined petroleum products. (author)

  1. Refining of crude uranium by solvent extraction for production of nuclear pure uranium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.K.; Manna, S.; Singha, M.; Hareendran, K.N.; Chowdhury, S.; Satpati, S.K.; Kumar, K.

    2007-01-01

    Uranium is the primary fuel material for any nuclear fission energy program. Natural uranium contains only 0.712% of 235 U as fissile constituent. This low concentration of fissile isotope in natural uranium calls for a very high level of purity, especially with respect to neutron poisons like B, Cd, Gd etc. before it can be used as nuclear fuel. Solvent extraction is a widely used technique by which crude uranium is purified for reactor use. Uranium metal plant (UMP), BARC, Trombay is engaged in refining of uranium concentrate for production of nuclear pure uranium metal for fabrication of fuel for research reactors. This paper reviews some of the fundamental aspects of this refining process with some special references to UMP, BARC. (author)

  2. New heavy crude oil flow improver increases delivery : application scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, J.; Johnston, R.; Lauzon, P. [ConocoPhillips Specialty Products Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Flow improvers or drag reducing agents have been used for over 25 years as a method to increase fluid flow in hydrocarbon pipelines. The technology is effective in refined projects, light and medium crude oils. This paper presented a new development in flow improver technology that allows treatment of heavy crude oil slates. It discussed case studies of flow improver treatment of heavy oils in various pipeline system as well as factors that affect commercial success. tabs., figs.

  3. The Slate Garden

    CERN Multimedia

    Alexandre Pelletier and Anaïs Schaeffer

    2011-01-01

    On the patio of the Main Building, a new garden has been unveiled. Inspired by physicists themselves, the garden uses a clever combination of flower arrangements and slate slabs to create the shape of the CMS particle tracker.   Scribbling, crossing out, and writing over it again. In an age of digital "tablets", scientists have remained faithful to the traditional blackboard... the inspiration for the Slate Garden. Completed just a few days ago on the Main Building patio (Building 500), the garden was designed by landscape architect Laurent Essig – who also created the InGRID installation outside Building 33 – and is the perfect combination of organic and mineral materials. Composed of 100 pieces of slate laid across three concentric circles, the work recalls the elegant lines of the CMS particle tracker. The project was completed thanks to the collaboration of a number of CERN technical services, in particular the Green Spaces Service, the Transport Serv...

  4. The impacts of the export ban on Alaskan crude oil trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farah, P.G.; Bausell, C.W.; Vogelsang, A.

    1990-01-01

    The authors investigated the petroleum markets impacts of lifting the ban on Alaska North Slope (ANS) crude oil exports. This paper reports on some aspects of this investigation. The economic analysis relied heavily on the modeling of the ANS crude trade conducted on behalf of GAO by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) using the Transportation and Refining of International Petroleum model (TRIP). In contrast to previous studies, this one suggests that transportation costs may not be the only major factor in the realignment of ANS crude trade in response to lifting the ban. The differences in the yields of ANS crude and various crudes used by refiners in Pacific Rim countries on the one hand, and the product demand slates of the US West Coast and the potential buyers of ANS crude in Pacific Rim may also figure prominently in determining the reallocation of ANS crude if exports are permitted

  5. Crude biodiesel refining using membrane ultra-filtration process: An environmentally benign process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Atadashi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic membrane separation system was developed to simultaneously remove free glycerol and soap from crude biodiesel. Crude biodiesel produced was ultra-filtered by multi-channel tubular membrane of the pore size of 0.05 μm. The effects of process parameters: transmembrane pressure (TMP, bar, temperature (°C and flow rate (L/min on the membrane system were evaluated. The process parameters were then optimized using Central Composite Design (CCD coupled with Response Surface Methodology (RSM. The best retention coefficients (%R for free glycerol and soap were 97.5% and 96.6% respectively. Further, the physical properties measured were comparable to those obtained in ASTMD6751-03 and EN14214 standards.

  6. Proceedings of the 5. NCUT upgrading and refining conference 2009 : bitumen, synthetic crude oil and heavy oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This conference examined various upgrading technologies related to bitumen production. It provided a forum to review new developments to exploit oil sands bitumen and extra heavy crudes in terms of production, upgrading and environmental issues facing the industry. This 2009 conference focused on the many existing and emerging technical solutions that will help consolidate the position of the vast reserves in Western Canada as a sustainable source of crudes for North America and other selected markets. Some of the technical challenges that have an effect on upgrading include poor quality bitumen and heavy oils; bitumen and diluent blending; pipeline issues; desalting; fouling and corrosion; high costs; dependence on natural gas for energy; poor middle distillates; and greenhouse gas emissions. The sessions of the conference were entitled: heavy oil and bitumen upgrading technologies; secondary upgrading and refining technologies; bitumen transportation; and bitumen and heavy oil processability. The conference featured a total of 50 presentations and posters, of which 43 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs

  7. Electra-slate. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, M

    2004-09-15

    The aim of this project was to develop a photovoltaic (PV) roofing tile that could safely be installed by any roofer without additional training and supervision on a roof constructed using a traditional truss/rafter/felt/batten approach. It is hoped that such a tile, which would closely resemble conventional roofing tiles, would overcome the conservatism of the UK building industry to new ideas. The project involves improving on the design of 'Electra-Slate', a solar roof slate using thin film silicon that was originally produced in 2003 by ICP Solar Technologies and PV Systems. The overall aim is to design a slate that would be simple to install, robust for site handling, visually similar to standard slates and suitable for distribution through builders merchants. The design specification of the Electra-Slate has now been finalised and prototypes produced to prove the concept in terms of both installation and manufacturing. A laser system that replaces the need for four separate laser systems taking over 20 minutes processing time, a two-part connector (the female on the slate and the male on the wiring loom) and an effective system of mounting the Electra-Slate without the need to drill holes have been developed. ICP will now be able to undertake post qualification production of Electra-Slate and to seek collaborators for large-scale manufacture and launch of the product.

  8. Effect of fertilizer formulation and bioaugmentation on biodegradation and leaching of crude oils and refined products in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulon, F; Brassington, K J; Bazin, R; Linnet, P E; Thomas, K A; Mitchell, T R; Lethbridge, G; Smith, J W N; Pollarda, S J T

    2012-09-01

    The effects of soil characteristics and oil types as well as the efficacy of two fertilizer formulations and three bioaugmentation packages in improving the bioremediation of oil-contaminated soils were assessed as a means of ex situ treatment selection and optimization through seven laboratory microcosm studies. The influence of bioremediation on leaching of oil from the soil was also investigated. The studies demonstrated the benefits ofbiostimulation to overcome nutrient limitation, as most of the soils were nutrient depleted. The application of both liquid and pelleted slow-release N and P fertilizers increased both the hydrocarbon biodegradation rates (by a factor of 1.4 to 2.9) and the percentage of hydrocarbon mass degraded (by > 30% after 12 weeks and 80% after 37 weeks), when compared with the unamended soils. Slow-release fertilizers can be particularly useful when multiple liquid applications are not practical or cost-effective. Bioaugmentation products containing inoculum plus fertilizer also increased biodegradation by 20% to 37% compared with unamended biotic controls; however, there was no clear evidence of additional benefits due to the inocula, compared with fertilizer alone. Therefore biostimulation is seen as the most cost-effective bioremediation strategy for contaminated soils with the levels of crude oil and refined products used in this study. However, site-specific considerations remain essential for establishing the treatability of oil-contaminated soils.

  9. Proceedings of the 3. NCUT meeting on upgrading and refining of heavy oil, bitumen and synthetic crude oil and the 2. symposium on stability and compatibility during the production, transportation and refining of petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This conference highlights new developments in refining processes for heavy oil, bitumen, and synthetic crudes. The oil sands/heavy oil industry in Canada has grown significantly in the last decade and could triple by 2012 to reach 2.6 million barrels per day. Experts from the petroleum industry, government organizations and technology providers attended this conference which identified technology gaps and areas where improvements are needed. The presentations demonstrated that many new technologies associated with heavy oil bitumen upgrading and refining have posed compatibility and stability challenges for pipeliners, upgraders and refiners. One of the issues addressed at the conference was the effect of upgrading technologies on market price due to the expected increase in production. Another important issue is how production of bitumen can be increased without significantly increasing greenhouse gas emissions from the refineries and upgrading facilities. The sessions of the conference were entitled: new technology developments in bitumen upgrading; secondary upgrading developments and expanded product opportunities; environmental issues and expanded oil sands development; and, stability and compatibility during the production, transportation and refining of petroleum. Twenty six presentations were indexed separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs

  10. Petroleum movements and investments in the refining industry: The impact of worldwide environmental regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guariguata U., G.

    1995-01-01

    Since the enactment of the US Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, the worldwide refining industry has aligned itself to become increasing attuned to the future well-being of the environment. Refiners must now develop strategies which address careful selection of crude slates, significant increases and changes in product movements, and upgrading of facilities to meet growing demand--in short, strategies which allow them to make substantial increases in capital investments. The objective of this paper is to determine the regional capital investments refiners must make in order to comply with environmental legislation. The methodology in making this determination was founded on a comprehensive analysis of worldwide petroleum supply/demand and distribution patterns for the coming five years, and included evaluation of a set of linear programming (LP) models based on forecasts for regional product demands and projections of regional specifications. The models considered two scenarios, in which either (1) refinery expansion occurs chiefly in the market consuming regions, or (2) crude producers take control of incremental crude volumes and further expand their planned refining projects and the marketing of refined products. The results of these models, coupled with an understanding of geopolitical situations and economic analyses, provided estimates for capital expenditures for the coming decade. In specific, the following issues were addressed, and are discussed in this paper: refined product trade outlook; crude supply; crude quality; shipping; and capital investments

  11. Rockets and Feathers: The Asymmetric Effect between China’s Refined Oil Prices and International Crude Oil Prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufeng Chen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper employs an asymmetric error-correction model (AECM, and uses monthly data on wholesale prices of gasoline and diesel products in China and international crude oil prices from February 2006 to October 2013 to examine whether China’s gasoline and diesel prices adjust asymmetrically to international crude oil price changes. Our empirical results suggest that increases and decreases in international oil prices have asymmetric effects on both wholesale prices of gasoline and diesel fuel in China, and that both increases and decreases in international oil prices have a greater effect on diesel prices than on gasoline prices in China. If there is no change in the maximum retail price, the asymmetry results from the transmission of wholesale prices in China with international oil prices. However, if there is a change in maximum retail prices, both international oil prices and maximum retail prices cause the asymmetry.

  12. Pilot study on the corrosion monitoring and control of the crude oil refining system by thin layer activation (TLA) technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choochartchaikulkarn, Bodin; Chueinta, Siripone; Santawamaitre, Todsadol

    2001-01-01

    This report represents a pilot study on application of Ta technique for measurement monitoring the corrosion rates occurring in the refinery crude oil overhead crude oil system at the Bangchak Petroleum Co., Ltd. in Thailand during mid 1999 to mid 2000. TLA coupons containing very low activity of 5 6 Co produced by the accelerator was attached to the used electrical resistance probe inserted into production system at the test position. Gamma intensity of 56 Co was routinely monitored at external cladding and corrosion rates calculated in comparison with the non corroded standard after decay correction. From the study, TLA technique provides accurate corrosion rates less than 75 mm/year as compared to the standard Electrical Resistance Probes (ERP) technique. (author)

  13. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA. Cis 9, trans 11 and trans 10, cis 12 isomer detection in crude and refined corn oils by capillary GC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Tokuşoğlu

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs exhibit protective effects against various types of cancer and heart diseases. With the newly developed capillary gas chromatographic method (GC, cis9, trans11 and trans10, cis12 octadecadienoic acid isomers of CLA (C18:2 were determined in crude and refined corn oils as qualitative and quantitative measurements. Cis 9, trans11 C18:2 (c9, t11 CLA was the major CLA isomer in both oils. It was found that c9, t11 CLA was 0.62% of the total lipid in crude oil and 1.24% of the total lipid in refined oil. Using the refining process, the total CLA was 1.38% whereas that of crude corn oil was 0.62%. An approximate 2.2 fold increase in the total CLA was found in refined oil (n = 9 (p y = 2.782x + 0.046 (R2 = 0.9999] were performed (p El ácido linoleico conjugado (CLA parece exhibir efecto protector frente a enfermedades cardiovasculares y varios tipos de cáncer. En este trabajo, se establece un mátodo analítico mediante cromatografía de gases con columna capilar para la determinación cualitativa y cuantitativa de los isómeros cis 9,trans 11 y trans 10, cis 12 en aceites de maiz crudo y refinado. El isómero cis 9, trans11 C18:2 fue el mayoritario encontrándose en concentraciones de 0.62% en el aceite cru,do y de 1.24 % en el aceite refinado. La cantidad total de CLA encontrada en el aceite refinado (n = 9 (p 2 = 0.9999 y de recuperación [y = 2.782x+0.046 (R2 = 0.9999]. El método cromatográfico propuesto podría ser usado para el control de calidad de los aceites vegetales.

  14. Traditional application of slates in Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Demarco, Manuela; Cardenes Van den Eynde, Víctor

    2017-04-01

    Commercial slates in Uruguay are represented by dolomitic and pelitic slates, which are known in the local market with the generic name of "piedra laja". The dolomitic slates, or more precisely the "slaty dolomitic semipelites" and "slaty dolomitic metacarbonate rocks" (following the nomenclature of the British Geological Survey for metamorphic rocks, Robertson 1999), dominates the production since 1960. The mining started in a quarry called "Libro Gigante", which means "giant book" in Spanish, as the slaty cleavage of these rocks is almost vertical, which resembles a book when looked from far away. These slates integrate the Lavalleja Group, a unit that comprises the schist belt of the Neoproterozoic Dom Feliciano Belt that crops out in south-eastern Uruguay. According to Morales Demarco et al (2013), there are two active slate mining districts in this region: the northern, called "Arroyo Minas Viejas Mining District", from where light grey, light and dark green and green-red slate varieties are mined, and the southern called "Arroyo Mataojo Mining District" and where only dark grey slates are extracted. Few kilometres eastern from these districts, and still in Lavalleja Group, a quarry of slaty dolomitic pelite is found with sporadic production. Far to the east, the slaty muscovitic pelites of Rocha Group are mined from one quarry in "Puntas del Chafalote". The traditional applications of these slates in the country are as façade cladding and floor slabs, both indoor and outdoor. The potential use of the dolomitic slates as roofing slates has been investigated and discarded by Morales Demarco et al (2013), as the slabs resulting from splitting are too thick (0.5 to 2 cm) and thus too heavy for this application. The parameter that controls the fissility of slates is the mass value (Bentz and Martini, 1968; DIN EN 12326-2, 2000) and is very important to determine their potential applications. It takes into account the number of mica layers per mm and the average

  15. Clean slate corrective action investigation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The Clean Slate sites discussed in this report are situated in the central portion of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), north of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) on the northwest portion of the Nellis Air Force Range (NAFR) which is approximately 390 kilometers (km) (240 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. These sites were the locations for three of the four Operation Roller Coaster experiments. These experiments evaluated the dispersal of plutonium in the environment from the chemical explosion of a plutonium-bearing device. Although it was not a nuclear explosion, Operation Roller Coaster created some surface contamination which is now the subject of a corrective action strategy being implemented by the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project (NV ERP) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Corrective Action Investigation (CAI) activities will be conducted at three of the Operation Roller Coaster sites. These are Clean Slate 1 (CS-1), Clean Slate 2 (CS-2), and Clean Slate 3 (CS-3) sites, which are located on the TTR. The document that provides or references all of the specific information relative to the various investigative processes is called the Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP). This CAIP has been prepared for the DOE Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) by IT Corporation (IT).

  16. Clean slate corrective action investigation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    The Clean Slate sites discussed in this report are situated in the central portion of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), north of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) on the northwest portion of the Nellis Air Force Range (NAFR) which is approximately 390 kilometers (km) (240 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. These sites were the locations for three of the four Operation Roller Coaster experiments. These experiments evaluated the dispersal of plutonium in the environment from the chemical explosion of a plutonium-bearing device. Although it was not a nuclear explosion, Operation Roller Coaster created some surface contamination which is now the subject of a corrective action strategy being implemented by the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project (NV ERP) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Corrective Action Investigation (CAI) activities will be conducted at three of the Operation Roller Coaster sites. These are Clean Slate 1 (CS-1), Clean Slate 2 (CS-2), and Clean Slate 3 (CS-3) sites, which are located on the TTR. The document that provides or references all of the specific information relative to the various investigative processes is called the Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP). This CAIP has been prepared for the DOE Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) by IT Corporation (IT)

  17. 1999 Crude oil market outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochener, J.

    1998-01-01

    Baseline projection handling of crude oil prices was discussed, based on actual crude oil price trends from 1992 to 1998. Attention was drawn to the lack of correlation between crude oil and natural gas prices. Predictions for crude oil production were extended to the year 2015. As far as the immediate future is concerned the crude oil price for 1999 was predicted to continue to be sluggish due to competitive pressure from refined products at burner tip. tabs., figs

  18. Clean Slate 1 revegetation and monitoring plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    This document is a reclamation plan for short-term and long-term stabilization of land disturbed by activities associated with interim cleanup of radionuclide-contaminated surface soil at the Clean Slate 1 site (located on the Tonopah Test Range). This document has been prepared to provide general reclamation practices and procedures that will be followed during restoration of the cleanup site. Reclamation demonstration plots were established near the Double Tracks cleanup site in the fall of 1994 to evaluate the performance of several native plant species and to evaluate different irrigation strategies. Results of that study, and the results from numerous other studies conducted at other sites (Area 11 and Area 19 of the Nevada Test Site), have been summarized and incorporated into this final reclamation plan for the cleanup of the Clean Slate 1 site. The plan also contains procedures for monitoring both short-term and long-term reclamation

  19. Clean Slate 2 Revegetation and Monitoring Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David Anderson

    1998-01-01

    This document is a reclamation plan for short-term and long-term stabilization of land disturbed by activities associated with interim clean-up of radionuclide-contaminated surface soil at Clean Slate 2 located northwest of the Nevada Test Site on the Nellis Air Force Range. Surface soils at Clean Slate 2 were contaminated as a result of the detonation of a device containing plutonium and depleted uranium using chemical explosives. Excavation of contaminated soils at Clean Slate 2 will follow procedures similar to those used during the cleanup of the Double Tracks and Clean Slate 1 sites. A maximum of approximately 33 cm (12 in) of the surface soils will be excavated and removed from the site. Near ground zero, where contamination levels are highest, approximately 2 m (7 ft) of soil may be removed. The maximum area to be excavated is estimated to be 18.4 hectares (45.4) acres. In addition to the disturbance associated with soil excavation, approximately 2.0 hectares (5.0) acres will be disturbed by the construction of staging areas and placement of support facilities. Short term stabilization consists of an application of a chemical soil stabilizer and long-term stabilizations involves the establishment of a permanent vegetative cover using selective native plant species, site preparation techniques, increasing organic matter and water holding capacity, irrigation to ensure seed germination and plant establishment. The cleanup site will be monitored to ensure success of revegetation and resuspension of soil particles is within established limits

  20. Spanish Refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lores, F.R.

    2001-01-01

    An overview of petroleum refining in Spain is presented (by Repsol YPF) and some views on future trends are discussed. Spain depends heavily on imports. Sub-headings in the article cover: sources of crude imports, investments and logistics and marketing, -detailed data for each are shown diagrammatically. Tables show: (1) economic indicators (e.g. total GDP, vehicle numbers and inflation) for 1998-200; (2) crude oil imports for 1995-2000; (3) oil products balance for 1995-2000; (4) commodities demand, by product; (5) refining in Spain in terms of capacity per region; (6) outlets in Spain and other European countries in 2002 and (7) sales distribution channel by product

  1. Geotechnical design of underground slate mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iglesias Comesaña, C.; Taboada Castro, J.; Arzúa Touriño, J.; Giráldez Pérez, E.; Martín Suárez, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Slate is one of the most important natural materials in Spain, with a potent extractive and processing industry concentrated in the autonomous communities of Galicia, Castile and León. Thanks to its resistance to external agents, its impermeability and its excellent cleavability, slate is used as for roofing and tiling. Almost all the active exploitations in our country where this resource is extracted are open pit mines, where the exploitation ratios have nearly reached their economic limit, making it necessary to look for alternatives that will allow the mining works to be continued. Underground mining is a solution that offers low exploitation ratios, with low spoil generation. The room-and-pillar method with barrier pillars is usually applied for the exploitation of slate deposits. There are several factors to be taken into account when designing a mine (economic, logistical, geotechnical, technical, environmental…), especially for an underground mine. This study focuses on the geotechnical design process of a room-and-pillar underground mine, based on the tributary area theory, the analysis of the tensions in the ground with numerical methods and the choice of an appropriate reinforcement in view of the expected instabilities. This explanation is completed with an example of a design that includes the estimate exploitation rates and production. [es

  2. Latin American oil markets and refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.; Obadia, C.

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the oil markets and refining in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela, and examines the production of crude oil in these countries. Details are given of Latin American refiners highlighting trends in crude distillation unit capacity, cracking to distillation ratios, and refining in the different countries. Latin American oil trade is discussed, and charts are presented illustrating crude production, oil consumption, crude refining capacity, cracking to distillation ratios, and oil imports and exports

  3. Characteristic roofing slates from Spain: Mormeau and Los Molinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenes Van den Eynde, Victor; Cnudde, Veerle; Cnudde, Jean Pierre

    2014-05-01

    Characteristic roofing slates from Spain: Mormeau and Los Molinos Cardenes1, V., Cnudde1, V., Cnudde1, J.P. 1 Department of Geology and Soil Science, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281, S8, 9000 Ghent, Belgium. The world's major roofing slate outcrops are found in the NW of Spain, in the Ordovician terrains of the domain of the Truchas Syncline. In this remote area, slate was quarried since ancient times for the use of the inhabitants of the region. Half of a century ago, an industrialization process took place in this area, which began to produce high quality roofing slate for many buildings from Japan to the USA, and especially in Europe. Since then, Spanish slate roofing has been widely used for new buildings and also for restoration of historical buildings. This work revises the occurrence and characteristics of the two most representative grey slate varieties from the Truchas Syncline, Mormeau, a fine-grained slate, and Los Molinos, also a grey slate with a slightly coarser grain. Both slates have a very similar aspect, but Mormeau slate have some iron sulphides on its composition that sometimes forms oxidation spots. Mormeau beds are found at the Middle-Upper Ordovician age Casaio Formation, while Los Molinos beds are located at the Rozadais Formation, of age Upper Ordovician, defined as formation just for the Truchas Syncline domain. Both slates have a high degree of homogeneity on their constructive characteristics, with a typical composition of quartz, mica and chlorites, and a metamorphic degree corresponding to the green schists facies. This work revises the history and characteristics of both slates, that can be considered as lithotypes that can be used as a reference during the prospection of new slate outcrops worldwide. The presented varieties of slate are proposed for their inclusion as Global Heritage Stones.

  4. North American refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osten, James; Haltmaier, Susan

    2000-01-01

    This article examines the current status of the North American refining industry, and considers the North American economy and the growth in demand in the petroleum industry, petroleum product demand and quality, crude oil upgrading to meet product standards, and changes in crude oil feedstocks such as the use of heavier crudes and bitumens. Refining expansion, the declining profits in refining, and changes due to environmental standards are discussed. The Gross Domestic Product and oil demand for the USA, Canada, Mexico, and Venezuela for the years 1995-2020 are tabulated

  5. Clean Slate 1 revegetation and monitoring plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.C.; Hall, D.B.

    1997-07-01

    This document constitutes a reclamation plan for the short-term and long-term stabilization of land disturbed by activities associated with the cleanup of radionuclide contaminated surface soil at the Clean Slate 1 site. This document has been prepared to provide general reclamation practices and procedures that will be followed during restoration of the cleanup site. The results of reclamation trials at Area 11, Area 19 and more recently the reclamation demonstration plots at the Double Tracks cleanup site, have been summarized and incorporated into this reclamation and monitoring plan. The plan also contains procedures for monitoring both the effectiveness and success of short-term and long-term soil stabilization. The Clean Slate 1 site is located on the Tonopah Test Range. The surface soils were contaminated as a result of the detonation of a device containing plutonium and depleted uranium using chemical explosives. Short-term stabilization consists of the application of a chemical soil stabilizer that is applied immediately following excavation of the contaminated soils to minimize Pu resuspension. Long-term stabilization is accomplished by the establishment of a permanent vegetation

  6. Influence of heavy crude oil refining about the mains characteristics of jet fuel; Influencia do refino de petroleos pesados sobre as principais caracteristicas do combustivel de aviacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Om, Neyda [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica; Cavado, Alberto; Reyes, Yordanka [Centro de Pesquisas do Petroleo, Cidade de Havana (Cuba); Salazar, Rodolfo [Centro de Eletromagnetismo Aplicado, Cidade de Havana (Cuba); Dominguez, Zulema [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE)

    2004-07-01

    The aviation technology in the world, is to use gas turbines engines feted for fuel type Jet A1. The main exigency of quality for this products is concentrated in extreme security and secure answer during the functioning. The conductivity and thermal stability to oxidation are the principals characteristics to assure these quality exigencies. The use of additives is the methods most used for establish the quality for international specification. The incorporation of heavy crude oils in mixtures to produce fuels has caused a diminution of the quality of the derivatives produced. High viscosity, density and high sulfur content in the heavy crude oils affect some of properties of the jet fuel, influencing in its composition, increasing the mercaptanes and total sulfur content, getting a jet fuel unstable, with low conductivity and highly corrosive. So, for obtain the quality required internationally is necessary use additives. This paper study how the heavy crude oils affect the conductivity and the thermal stability of the jets fuels type Jet A1. Also analyze of the use of dissipater electrostatic and antioxidants additives, to improve these properties in the jet fuel. (author)

  7. Crude oil market report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    Falling demand for refined products and an excess of production capacity are driving world oil prices down further. Competitive price cutting, notably by Mexico, Britain, and the Soviet Union, has left Saudi Arabia the only guardian of a costly pricing discipline in terms of crude oil sales. The current crisis is limited to the producers of crude oil. Refineries are now deciding what, where, and how to buy crude in order to meet the requirements of a slack market place. Saudi Arabia could precipitate a price collapse below $20 per barrel by increasing production volume, but that seems unlikely. 1 figure, 2 tables.

  8. Refining and end use study of coal liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Two direct coal liquids were evaluated by linear programming analysis to determine their value as petroleum refinery feedstock. The first liquid, DL1, was produced from bitiuminous coal using the Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc.(HTI) two-stage hydrogenation process in Proof of Concept Run No.1, POC-1. The second liquid, DL2,was produced from sub-bituminous coal using a three-stage HTI process in Proof of Concept Run No. 2, POC-2; the third stage being a severe hydrogenation process. A linear programming (LP) model was developed which simulates a generic 150,000 barrel per day refinery in the Midwest U.S. Data from upgrading tests conducted on the coal liquids and related petroleum fractions in the pilot plant testing phase of the Refining and End Use Study was inputed into the model. The coal liquids were compared against a generic petroleum crude feedstock. under two scenarios. In the first scenario, it was assumed that the refinery capacity and product slate/volumes were fixed. The coal liquids would be used to replace a portion of the generic crude. The LP results showed that the DL1 material had essentially the same value as the generic crude. Due to its higher quality, the DL2 material had a value of approximately 0.60 $/barrel higher than the petroleum crude. In the second scenario, it was assumed that a market opportunity exists to increase production by one-third. This requires a refinery expansion. The feedstock for this scenario could be either 100% petroleum crude or a combination of petroleum crude and the direct coal liquids. Linear programming analysis showed that the capital cost of the refinery expansion was significantly less when coal liquids are utilized. In addition, the pilot plant testing showed that both of the direct coal liquids demonstrated superior catalytic cracking and naphtha reforming yields. Depending on the coal liquid flow rate, the value of the DL1 material was 2.5-4.0 $/barrel greater than the base petroleum crude, while the DL2

  9. Welsh Slate: A Candidate for Global Heritage Stone Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, Jana; Hughes, Terry; Lott, Graham

    2013-04-01

    Slate is the iconic stone of Wales, and has a temporal and geographic record of usage such that it is considered worthy of consideration for Global Heritage Stone status. The reputation of Welsh slate is built on the quality and durability of the stone, enabling it to be used in a wide range of contexts from industrial roofing, through domestic housing to higher prestige buildings. Although metamorphic slates are present in several across Wales, the highest quality roofing material was extracted from just two areas in north-west Wales; the Cambrian Slate Belt, around Bethesda to Nantlle, working purple and green slates of the Llanberis Slate Formation and a second area to the south around Blaenau Ffestiniog - the Ordovician Slate Belt - which works grey slates of the Nant Francon Supergroup. These two areas are considered to form the core of the Welsh Slate Province. Welsh slate has been extracted for at least 2000 years, as evidenced by their presence as roofing slates in Roman forts in North Wales dating from 77AD. Slates from medieval churches and castles in north Wales indicate extraction continued throughout this period. In the 16th century exportation of Welsh slate commenced, initially limited to Ireland and those parts of England where it could be transported by boat. The second half of 18th century saw the first major expansion of the industry, facilitated by improved road transportation and some mechanisation, and subsequently in the 1830s by repeal of punitive boat taxes: production increased substantially through the late 19th century supported by the introduction of steam railways, and both production and exports peaked around 1900. The industry is still active today, although on a much reduced scale, with an estimate of around 20% of output being exported. Considerable reserves of this high quality slate resource remain in North Wales and it is important to ensure that they are protected to maintain continuity of supply to the heritage sector and are

  10. SPARCHS: Symbiotic, Polymorphic, Automatic, Resilient, Clean-Slate, Host Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    SPARCHS: SYMBIOTIC , POLYMORPHIC, AUTOMATIC, RESILIENT, CLEAN-SLATE, HOST SECURITY COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY MARCH 2016 FINAL... SYMBIOTIC , POLYMORPHIC, AUTOTOMIC, RESILIENT, CLEAN-SLATE, HOST SECURITY 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER N/A 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA8750-10-2-0253 5c. PROGRAM...17 4.2.3 SYMBIOTIC EMBEDDED MACHINES

  11. Modeling of cumulative release on long term leaching behaviour of selected oil sludge from crude oil terminal and petroleum refining plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Fadzil, S.; Khoo, K.S.; Sarmani, S.; Majid, A.Ab.; Hamzah, A.

    2013-01-01

    Management of oil sludge containing environmentally toxic elements is a major problem in crude oil processing industry. Oil sludge samples from the petroleum refinery plant in Melaka and crude oil terminal in Sarawak were analysed. The aim of present work is to study long term leaching behaviour of arsenic (As), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr) and zinc (Zn) from oil sludge. Tank leaching test was carried out and the samples were analysed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results were studied using LeachXS software to plot the graphs of elements concentration in order to study the leaching behaviour of toxic elements in oil sludge. The long term leaching (100 years) modeling was calculated using equations referred to National Institute of Public Health and the Environment Bilthoven (RIVM) and the results were plotted for cumulative release in different areas of oil sludge. Tank leaching test of the oil sludge samples from petroleum refinery plant in Melaka showed concentrations of As, Co, Cr and Zn ranging from 0.205 to 1.102, 0.031-0.454, 0.016-0.086 and 0.409-8.238 mg/l, respectively while the concentrations of As, Co, Cr and Zn in oil sludge samples from crude oil terminal in Sarawak were in the range of 0.002-0.089, 0.001-0.033, 0.006-1.016 and 0.100-2.744 mg/l, respectively. On the other hand, results on cumulative release from the modeling of long term leaching (100 years) showed that As, Co, Cr and Zn concentrations were proportional to the quantity of oil sludge. In conclusion, during extrapolation of release of toxic elements using the data in the laboratory, several other factors were taken into account to suit environmental conditions such as soil moisture, the negative logarithm of the effective diffusion coefficient (pD e ) and temperature, while the long-term behaviour of As, Co, Cr and Zn was proportional to the quantity of oil sludge to be disposed off. (author)

  12. Comparison of lattice preferred orientation and magnetic fabric of a chloritoid-bearing slate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haerinck, Tom; Wenk, Hans-Rudolf; Debacker, Timothy N.; Sintubin, Manuel

    2014-05-01

    contribution of strongly anisotropic ferromagnetic (s.l.)minerals. To validate this assumption a texture analysis has been performed on a representative sample of the chloritoid-bearing slates (PJ = 1.40), using hard X-ray synchrotron diffraction (e.g. Wenk et al. 2010). For estimation of the mineralogical composition and the preferred orientation a Rietveld refinement of the synchrotron X-ray diffraction images has been performed. The Rietveld refinement confirms that the slate contains a significant fraction of chloritoid (21 vol%). The resulting orientation distribution of both muscovite and chloritoid display an approximate axial symmetric (001) pole figure pattern with respect to the minimum magnetic susceptibility axis K3, that has an extremely strong preferred orientation (~36 m.r.d. for muscovite and ~19 m.r.d. for chloritoid). It is therefore fair to conclude that the strong preferred orientation of the chloritoid basal planes parallel to the magnetic fabric, in combination with the pronounced magnetocrystalline anisotropy of chloritoid, explains the very high values for the degree of magnetic anisotropy (PJ) observed in the chloritoid-bearing slates. References Haerinck et al. 2013a. Journal of the Geological Society, London 170, 263-280, doi:10.1144/jgs2012-062. Haerinck et al. 2013b. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth 118(8), 3886-3898, doi:10.1002/jgrb.50276. Wenk et al. 2010. Journal of Structural Geology 32(4), 478-489, doi:10.1016/j.jsg.2010.02.003.

  13. Market potential for Canadian crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, M.; Fisher, L.; Golosinski, D.; Luthin, A.; Gill, L.; Raggett, C.

    1997-01-01

    Future key markets for Canadian crude were evaluated, and probable flow volumes and prices were identified. Key concerns of market participants such as pricing, alternative crude sources, pipeline tariffs and crude quality, were examined. An overview of the competition faced by Canadian crude supply in global markets was presented. World crude oil supply and demand was discussed. US and Canadian crude oil supply (2000 to 2010), refinery demand for light and heavy crudes, existing future crude oil and refined product pipeline infrastructure, and pricing implications of changing crude oil flows were analyzed. The general conclusion was that the US market will continue to provide growing markets for Canadian crude oil, and that the Canadian supply to fulfill increased export requirements will be available due to the combined effects of increasing heavy crude supply, growing production from the east coast offshore, and recent and ongoing pipeline expansions and additions. 20 refs., 64 tabs., 42 figs

  14. Heavy crude oil and synthetic crude market outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, G.R.

    1997-01-01

    This presentation included an outline of the international heavy crude supply and demand versus Canadian heavy crude supply and disposition, and pricing outlook for synthetic crudes. Differences among crude oils such as light sweet, light sour, heavy and bitumen were described and illustrated with respect to their gravity, API, percentage of sulphur, metals and nitrogen. Internationally, heavy and sour crude supplies are forecast to increase significantly over the next four years. Discoveries of light sour crude in offshore Gulf of Mexico will provide a major new source of sour crude to U.S. Gulf Coast refineries. Venezuela's supplies of heavy and sour crude are also expected to increase over the next few years. Mexico and Canada have plans to increase their heavy crude production. All of the crudes will be aimed at the U.S. Gulf Coast and Midwest markets. Pentanes and condensates are also expected to increase based on the growing Canadian natural gas production. Diluent demand will also grow to match Canadian heavy crude/bitumen production. U.S. midwest refiners are proposing expansions to allow them to process more Canadian heavy crude oil. At present, only a few refineries are equipped to process significant amounts of synthetic crude. It was suggested that to absorb available heavy and synthetic production, increased penetration into both Canadian and U.S. markets will be required. Some refineries may have to be modified to process heavy and synthetic oil supplies. Heavy oil and synthetic producers may need to develop relationships with refiners such as joint ventures and term supply agreements to secure markets. 2 tabs., 12 figs

  15. Crude petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Crude petroleum statistics by country of production, export values and import values from 1983 to 1988 are given. Table A.1 of the Annex includes free market prices and price indices for crude petroleum based on average of Dubai, United Kingdom Brent and Alaska N Slope crude prices (price expressed in dollars/barrel). The data sources are: Crude petroleum United Nations Statistical Office; OPEC Annual Statistical Bulletin, and Petroleum Economist. For trade the sources of data are: National trade statistics; United Nations international trade statistics; International Moneytary Fund (IMF); Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC); UNCTAD secretariat estimates. Tabs

  16. Crude value management through pipeline systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segato, R. [Suncor Energy Marketing Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation reviewed Suncor's integrated oil flow operations with particular focus on the best practices in crude oil quality management from source rocks to refineries. Suncor produces synthetic crude at its operations in Fort McMurray, Alberta. The crude reaches destinations across North America. The quality of injected and delivered crude varies because of pipeline and terminal logistics, which implies changes in valuation. Refinery planners, engineers and crude traders are faced with the challenge of maximizing profitability while minimizing risk. Refiners face a continuously changing landscape in terms of crude classifications, new commodity developments, batch interferences, shared tank bottoms and sampling limitations. tabs., figs.

  17. Protocol to assess covering products for roofing slates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De la Horra, R.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Spain is a world-wide leader in roofing slate production, quarriying more than 600,000 tons of slate of great quality and generating around 300 euros million in sales each year. However, an enormous quantity of slate plates is considered as a low quality product or discarded every year as waste. The application of protective products on roofing slate tiles helps to commercialise slate with higher oxidation rates, reducing wastes and environmental problems. The present protocol serves to evaluate the new protective products that are now used by slate producers. A combination of three technological tests is proposed here, along with a visual questionnaire to grant quality indices. Each test is oriented to clarify critical properties for the future use of the roofing slate, as follows: (i Thermal cycles were used to determine the oxidation rate of iron sulphides; (ii Slate behaviour in acid urban atmospheres was interpreted by exposition of slate tiles to SO2 gas; (iii Effectiveness of the protective layer under saline corrosion and solar radiation was obtained by exposition to saline fog and UV-irradiation. Physico-chemical tests have been performed in the Technological Centre of the Slate (Orense, Spain whereas the chemical-structural characterizations of natural, impregnated and altered slate plates were carried out by X-ray diffraction and optical and electronic microscopy in the University of Santiago de Compostela (NW Spain. The quantitative analyses of the alteration grades have been determined using a freeware program (IMAGEJ on the scanned images of roofing slate tiles. The protocol here presented has been experienced with the more important protective slate products nowadays, i.e., siloxanes, organic resins and polyurethanes.España es líder mundial en producción de pizarras de techar; la producción supera las 600.000 toneladas de pizarra de gran calidad, suponiendo mas de 300 millones euros. La aplicación de la pizarra con productos

  18. Conditions for the clean slate effect after success or failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körner, Anita; Strack, Fritz

    2018-03-20

    The act of physically cleaning one's hands may reduce the impact of past experiences, termed clean-slate effect. Cleaning was found to affect negative, neutral, and mildly positive states. We extend this influence to success, a self-serving state. We manipulated success vs. failure and measured changes in optimism (Experiment 1) or self-esteem (Experiment 2). Moreover, we examined boundary conditions for the clean-slate effect. Experiment 1 indicates that the influence of performance on optimism diminishes if participants knew (compared to did not know) they were cleaning their hands. Experiment 2 indicates that the influence of performance on self-esteem diminishes if participants cleaned themselves (compared to an object). These results suggest that the clean-slate effect requires both awareness and self-reference of the cleaning act. Thus, the clean-slate effect seems to depend on both conscious inferences and automatic processes. A meta-analysis across the experiments confirms a moderate-sized clean-slate effect.

  19. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Welsh slate miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, C J; MacNeill, S J; Williams, J; Hodges, N G; Campbell, M J; Newman Taylor, A J; Cullinan, P

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to respirable crystalline silica (RCS) causes emphysema, airflow limitation and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Slate miners are exposed to slate dust containing RCS but their COPD risk has not previously been studied. To study the cumulative effect of mining on lung function and risk of COPD in a cohort of Welsh slate miners and whether these were independent of smoking and pneumoconiosis. The study was based on a secondary analysis of Medical Research Council (MRC) survey data. COPD was defined as forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity (FEV 1 /FVC) ratio association between mining and lung function after adjusting for age and smoking status. We used linear regression models for FEV 1 and FVC and logistic regression for COPD. In the original MRC study, 1255 men participated (726 slate miners, 529 unexposed non-miners). COPD was significantly more common in miners (n = 213, 33%) than non-miners (n = 120, 26%), P mining was associated with a reduction in %predicted FEV 1 [β coefficient = -3.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) -6.65, -1.29] and FVC (β coefficient = -2.32, 95% CI -4.31, -0.33) and increased risk of COPD (odds ratio: 1.38, 95% CI 1.06, 1.81). Slate mining may reduce lung function and increase the incidence of COPD independently of smoking and pneumoconiosis. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. The Charfuel coal refining process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, L.G.

    1991-01-01

    The patented Charfuel coal refining process employs fluidized hydrocracking to produce char and liquid products from virtually all types of volatile-containing coals, including low rank coal and lignite. It is not gasification or liquefaction which require the addition of expensive oxygen or hydrogen or the use of extreme heat or pressure. It is not the German pyrolysis process that merely 'cooks' the coal, producing coke and tar-like liquids. Rather, the Charfuel coal refining process involves thermal hydrocracking which results in the rearrangement of hydrogen within the coal molecule to produce a slate of co-products. In the Charfuel process, pulverized coal is rapidly heated in a reducing atmosphere in the presence of internally generated process hydrogen. This hydrogen rearrangement allows refinement of various ranks of coals to produce a pipeline transportable, slurry-type, environmentally clean boiler fuel and a slate of value-added traditional fuel and chemical feedstock co-products. Using coal and oxygen as the only feedstocks, the Charfuel hydrocracking technology economically removes much of the fuel nitrogen, sulfur, and potential air toxics (such as chlorine, mercury, beryllium, etc.) from the coal, resulting in a high heating value, clean burning fuel which can increase power plant efficiency while reducing operating costs. The paper describes the process, its thermal efficiency, its use in power plants, its pipeline transport, co-products, environmental and energy benefits, and economics

  1. Hydrogen and energy recovery by gasification of petroleum coke from heavy crude refining; Recuperacion de hidrogeno y energia mediante gasificacion de coques de petroleo provenientes de refinacion de crudos pesados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paniagua-Rodriguez, J.C [Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Jimenez-Garcia, G. [Instituto Tecnologico del Valle de Morelia, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Maya-Yescas, R. [Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: rmayay@umich.mx

    2013-03-15

    Heavy oils exhibit high yields to bottom-of barrel products (low commercial value); depending on the metals content and on carbon residue the upgrading of bottoms could follow either hydroprocessing or carbon rejection. In particular the Mexican Maya, which is the most refined crude in Mexico, is upgraded by carbon rejection via delayed coking of vacuum residue. In order to obtain acceptable economic profit, it is necessary to transform that carbon (mainly petroleum coke) into useful higher added value products. Coke gasification could be used to obtain hydrogen and/or energy (preferable electrical), via the reaction of coke molecules with oxygen, carbon dioxide and water. Departing from the empiric formulas of five petroleum cokes, a kinetic scheme that consists of three linearly independent stoichiometric equations was recently developed; by including the enthalpy of each reaction and considering the gasification reactor as adiabatic, it is possible to predict product stream composition and high pressure steam that could be generated by the process. [Spanish] Los crudos pesados exhiben rendimientos altos a productos de-fondo-de-barril (de bajo valor comercial); dependiendo del contenido de metales y del residuo carbonoso, la mejora de fondos puede llevarse a cabo por hidrotratamiento o rechazo de carbon. En particular el crudo Maya, que es el mas refinado en Mexico, se mejora via rechazo de carbon por coquizacion retardada del residuo de vacio. A fin de obtener ganancias aceptables, es necesario transformar ese carbon (coque de petroleo, principalmente) en producto util de alto valor agregado. La gasificacion de coque puede usarse para obtener hidrogeno y/o energia (electrica de preferencia), via la reaccion de moleculas de coque con oxigeno, dioxido de carbono y agua. Recientemente se desarrollo un esquema cinetico que consiste de tres reacciones linealmente independientes, partiendo de las formulas empiricas de cinco coques de petroleo; incluyendo la entalpia

  2. Canada's crude oil resources : crude oil in our daily lives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bott, R.

    2001-10-01

    Created in 1975, the Petroleum Communication Foundation is a not-for-profit organization. The objective of the Foundation is to inform Canadians about the petroleum industry in Canada. It produces educational, fact-based publications and programs, employing a multi-stakeholder review process. The first section of this publication is devoted to crude oil and the benefits that are derived from it. It begins by providing a brief definition of crude oil, then moves to the many uses in our daily lives and the environmental impacts like air pollution, spills, and footprint on the land from exploration and production activities. Section 2 details the many uses of crude oil and identifies the major oil producing regions of Canada. A quick mention is made of non-conventional sources of crude oil. The search for crude oil is the topic of section 3 of the document, providing an overview of the exploration activities, the access rights that must be obtained before gaining access to the resource. The drilling of oil is discussed in section 4. Section 5 deals with issues pertaining to reservoirs within rocks, while section 6 covers the feeding of the refineries, discussing topics from the movement of oil to market to the refining of the crude oil, and the pricing issues. In section 7, the uncertain future is examined with a view of balancing the supply and demand, as crude oil is a non-renewable resource. Supplementary information is provided concerning additional publications published by various organizations and agencies. figs

  3. Standard tests for the characterization of roofing slate pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cárdenes, V.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The pathologies formed in slate roofs are mainly due to the presence of potentially unstable minerals (iron sulfides, carbonates and organic matter. These minerals may become altered by the effect of environmental agents, once the slate roof is finished. The pathologies are mainly associated with oxidation and gypsification processes of the cited mineral phases. In this work, the potential pathologies of several Spanish roofing slates are identified, using the tests defined in the European Norms EN 12326:2005, 14147:2004 and 11597:2007.

    Las patologías que se originan en pizarra para cubiertas son debidas fundamentalmente a la presencia de materiales alterables (sulfuros de hierro, carbonatos y materia orgánica. Estos minerales pueden llegar a alterarse por efecto de los agentes medioambientales, una vez que la pizarra es puesta en obra. Las patologías están principalmente asociadas a procesos de oxidación y yesificación de las citadas fases minerales. En este trabajo se determinan las patologías potenciales de varias pizarras para cubiertas españolas, utilizando los ensayos definidos en las normas UNE-EN 12326:2005, 14147:2004 y 11597:2007.

  4. US refining reviewed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.

    1998-01-01

    The paper reviews the history, present position and future prospects of the petroleum industry in the USA. The main focus is on supply and demand, the high quality of the products, refinery capacity and product trade balances. Diagrams show historical trends in output, product demand, demand for transport fuels and oil, refinery capacity, refinery closures, and imports and exports. Some particularly salient points brought out were (i) production of US crude shows a marked downward trend but imports of crude will continue to increase, (ii) product demand will continue to grow even though the levels are already high, (iii) the demand is dominated by those products that typically yield the highest income for the refiner, (i.e. high quality transport fuels for environmental compliance), (iv) refinery capacity has decreased since 1980 and (v) refining will continue to have financial problems but will still be profitable. (UK)

  5. Preparation of refined oils, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1931-02-03

    A process is disclosed for the preparation of refined sulfur-containing oils from sulfur-containing crude oils obtained by distillation of bituminous limestone, characterized by this crude oil being first subjected to a purification by distillation with steam in the known way, then treated with lime and chloride of lime and distilled preferably in the presence of zinc powder, whereby in this purification a rectification can be added for the purpose of recovering definite fractions.

  6. Refining margins: recent trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudoin, C.; Favennec, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Despite a business environment that was globally mediocre due primarily to the Asian crisis and to a mild winter in the northern hemisphere, the signs of improvement noted in the refining activity in 1996 were borne out in 1997. But the situation is not yet satisfactory in this sector: the low return on invested capital and the financing of environmental protection expenditure are giving cause for concern. In 1998, the drop in crude oil prices and the concomitant fall in petroleum product prices was ultimately rather favorable to margins. Two elements tended to put a damper on this relative optimism. First of all, margins continue to be extremely volatile and, secondly, the worsening of the economic and financial crisis observed during the summer made for a sharp decline in margins in all geographic regions, especially Asia. Since the beginning of 1999, refining margins are weak and utilization rates of refining capacities have decreased. (authors)

  7. Oil refining in South Asia and Australasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.

    2000-01-01

    An overview of the oil markets of Southeast Asia and Australasia is presented focussing on oil refining. Key statistics of both areas are tabulated, and figures providing information on GDP/capita, crude production, comparison of demand barrels, and product demand are provided. Crude oil production and supply, oil product demand, and the refining industries are examined with details given of evolution of capacity and cracking to distillation ratios

  8. Southeast Asian oil markets and refining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, N.D. [FACTS, Inc., Honolulu, Hawaii (United States)

    1999-09-01

    An overview of the Southeast Asian oil markets and refining is presented concentrating on Brunei, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand refiners. Key statistics of the refiners in this region are tabulated. The demand and the quality of Indonesian, Malaysian, Philippine, Singapore and Thai petroleum products are analysed. Crude distillation unit capacity trends in the Southeastern Asian refining industry are discussed along with cracking to distillation ratios, refining in these countries, and the impact of changes in demand and refining on the product trade.

  9. Southeast Asian oil markets and refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of the Southeast Asian oil markets and refining is presented concentrating on Brunei, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand refiners. Key statistics of the refiners in this region are tabulated. The demand and the quality of Indonesian, Malaysian, Philippine, Singapore and Thai petroleum products are analysed. Crude distillation unit capacity trends in the Southeastern Asian refining industry are discussed along with cracking to distillation ratios, refining in these countries, and the impact of changes in demand and refining on the product trade

  10. Refining revolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesharaki, F.; Isaak, D.

    1984-01-01

    A review of changes in the oil refining industry since 1973 examines the drop in capacity use and its effect on profits of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries compared to world refining. OPEC countries used their new oil revenues to expand Gulf refineries, which put additional pressure on OECD refiners. OPEC involvement in global marketing, however, could help to secure supplies. Scrapping some older OECD refineries could improve the percentage of capacity in use if new construction is kept to a minimum. Other issues facing refiners are the changes in oil demand patterns and government responses to the market. 2 tables.

  11. Record prices [crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2006-01-01

    Crude oil prices climbed to new record levels on fears of a future loss of supplies from Iran as Washington stepped up its efforts to persuade Tehran to abandon its programme to produce nuclear fuel. IPE's December Brent contract set a new record for the exchange by trading at $75.80/bbl on 21st April. On the same day October WTI reached an all-time high of $77.30/bbl on Nymex. US product prices gained as refiners struggled to produce sufficient middle distillate. Alarmed by the rising retail price of gasoline, the US Senate debated a reduction in the already low US tax rate on motor spirit. The House of Representatives passed a measure to prohibit overcharging for petrol, diesel and heating oil, but Democrats rejected a Republican proposal to speed-up the process for approving new refineries. President George W Bush announced a temporary easing of new gasoline and diesel specifications (see 'Focus', March 2006) to allow more fuel to be produced. He also agreed to delay the repayment of some 2.1 mn bbl of crude oil lent to companies after last year's hurricanes from the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. California announced an inquiry into alleged overcharging for fuel by oil companies operating in the state. (author)

  12. Clean Slate transportation and human health risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    Public concern regarding activities involving radioactive material generally focuses on the human health risk associated with exposure to ionizing radiation. This report describes the results of a risk analysis conducted to evaluate risk for excavation, handling, and transport of soil contaminated with transuranics at the Clean Slate sites. Transportation risks were estimated for public transport routes from the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) to the Envirocore disposal facility or to the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for both radiological risk and risk due to traffic accidents. Human health risks were evaluated for occupational and radiation-related health effects to workers. This report was generated to respond to this public concern, to provide an evaluation of the risk, and to assess feasibility of transport of the contaminated soil for disposal

  13. Electra-Slate proposal to develop an amorphous PV roofslate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouverat, P.R.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this project has been to create a photovoltaic roofing product, the Electra-Slate, that appears physically and dimensionally to conform with a standard pattern, but is designed in a way that any roofer could install the device with total safety on an existing truss, rafter, felt and batten construction roof without additional training and supervision. This has been achieved by developing new concepts in high voltage Amorphous Silicon plate, with in built series connections, and by making an inboard parallel bus connection system, which is self connecting during normal roofing placement. The remaining barriers to be overcome are further reductions in cost and increased output. These two effects combine to form the barrier of installed cost/kilowatt. However it is clear that cost/m 2 is already more competitive for this type of product than for a 'PV' module type of product. (author)

  14. Refining and petrochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benazzi, E.; Alario, F.

    2004-01-01

    In 2003, refining margins showed a clear improvement that continued throughout the first three quarters of 2004. Oil companies posted significantly higher earnings in 2003 compared to 2002, with the results of first quarter 2004 confirming this trend. Due to higher feedstock prices, the implementation of new capacity and more intense competition, the petrochemicals industry was not able to boost margins in 2003. In such difficult business conditions, aggravated by soaring crude prices, the petrochemicals industry is not likely to see any improvement in profitability before the second half of 2004. (author)

  15. Lyondell plans to hike heavy crude runs at Houston

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Land, R.

    1992-01-01

    Lyondell Petrochemical Co. has outlined a venture that would allow increased runs of heavy crude oil at its 265,000 b/cd Houston refiner. Preliminary plans call for Lyondell, Houston, to ally with subsidiaries of Venezuela's Petroleos de Venezuela SA to upgrade heavy crude processing capabilities of the refiner and obtain supplies of heavy crude feedstock. Lyondell proposes to form a jointly owned company with Pdvsa's Citgo Petroleum Corp. subsidiary to take over ownership of the Houston plant. This paper reports that upgrades would not significantly change the plant's crude capacity but would allow the refiner to process as much as 200,000 b/d of heavy crude feedstock, up from 120,000 b/d at present. Following completion of the upgrade, Citgo could increase its interest to 50% with Lyondell retaining remaining venture interest. Upgrade design and engineering are to begin immediately, with regulatory permitting and construction expected to be complete in 3-4 years

  16. Mercury in Canadian crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollebone, B.P.

    2005-01-01

    Estimates for average mercury concentrations in crude oil range widely from 10 ng/g of oil to 3,500 ng/g of oil. With such a broad range of estimates, it is difficult to determine the contributions of the petroleum sector to the total budget of mercury emissions. In response to concerns that the combustion of petroleum products may be a major source of air-borne mercury pollution, Environment Canada and the Canadian Petroleum Products Institute has undertaken a survey of the average total mercury concentration in crude oil processed in Canadian refineries. In order to calculate the potential upper limit of total mercury in all refined products, samples of more than 30 different types of crude oil collected from refineries were measured for their concentration of mercury as it enters into a refinery before processing. High temperature combustion, cold vapour atomic absorption and cold vapour atomic fluorescence were the techniques used to quantify mercury in the samples. The results of the study provide information on the total mass of mercury present in crude oil processed in Canada each year. Results can be used to determine the impact of vehicle exhaust emissions to the overall Canadian mercury emission budget. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  17. Variable effects of plant colonization on black slate uptake into microbial PLFAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Anne-Gret; Trumbore, Susan; Xu, Xiaomei; Zhang, Dachung; Gleixner, Gerd

    2013-04-01

    Microbial degradation of carbon derived from black shale and slate has been shown in vitro. However, in natural settings where other labile carbon sources are likely to exist, this has not been previously demonstrated. We investigated the uptake of ancient carbon derived from slate weathering and from recently photosynthesised organic matter by different groups of microorganisms. Therefore we isolated microbial biomarkers (phospholipid fatty acids, PLFAs) from black slates collected at a chronosequence of waste piles which differed in age and vegetation cover. We quantified the amount of PLFAs and performed stable isotope and radiocarbon measurements on individual or grouped PLFAs to quantify the fraction of slate derived carbon. We used black slate from a pile heaped in the 1950s with either uncovered black slate material (bare site) or material slightly colonized by small plants (greened site) and from a forested leaching pile (forested site) used for alum-mining in the 19th century. Colonization by plants influenced the amount and composition of the microbial community. Greater amounts of PLFAs (5410 ng PLFA/g dw) were extracted from slate sampled at the forested site as opposed to the bare site (960 ng PLFAs/g dw) or the greened (annual grasses and mosses) rock waste pile (1050 ng PLFAs/g dw). We found the highest proportion of PLFAs representing Gram-negative bacteria on the forested site and the highest proportion of PLFAs representing Gram-positive bacteria on the bare site. The fungal PLFA was most abundant at the greened site. Sites with less plant colonization (bare and greened site) tended to have more depleted δ13C values compared to the forested site. Radiocarbon measurements on PLFAs indicated that fungi and Gram-positive bacteria were best adapted to black slate carbon uptake. In the fungal PLFA (combined bare and greened waste pile sample) and in PLFAs of Gram-positive bacteria (greened site) we measured 39.7% and 28.9% ancient carbon uptake

  18. View from the market : the refiners' perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earnest, N.K.

    2003-01-01

    The western Canadian crude market area is vast, ranging from Puget Sound to Oklahoma to western Pennsylvania. The three main challenges facing western Canadian crude oil producers are high crude production volumes of heavy sour grades, strong competition for market share from the United States and offshore crudes, and the inability to access offshore global crude markets in meaningful volumes. The paper includes a map depicting core markets which have historically processed most of the crude produced in western Canada. The map also includes extended market areas where western Canadian crude sales are expected to increase as production increases. These regions will become the price setting areas for Canadian crude. Currently more than 40 per cent of the total crude produced in western Canada flows into the upper Midwest market. This paper summarized Canadian crude pricing mechanisms, noting that more than half of the oil consumed in North America is imported, linking North America with the pricing dynamics and supply/demand considerations of the global crude markets. The two key points that have to be considered in the Canadian crude pricing mechanisms is the economics of refining and parity point location. Crude grades such as light sweet or medium sour, are priced relative to one another depending on their differing values as a feedstock. The greatest determinant of relative crude grade value is the proportion produced of high value, light transportation fuels compared to low value, heavy products such as asphalt and heavy fuel oil. The value of crude oil is also influenced by the level of sulphur and metal content. A section of the paper was devoted to the pricing of heavy sour conventional and bitumen blend crudes, which is different than for lighter crude grades because of the near lack of competition from similar imported crude grades. A market optimization model used to analyze the future price relationships for Canadian crudes showed that the Canadian crude

  19. Implications of globalization on pricing for Canadian crudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, R. [Canadian Occidental Petroleum Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1998-05-01

    The effects of globalization on Canadian crude oil prices was discussed. Since deregulation in October 1985, Canadian crude oil has competed directly against international crude oil through the use of the NYMEX contract price for light sweet crude oil as the base for establishing the price for Canadian crudes. Prior to that date, Alberta crude was marketed by the Alberta Petroleum Marketing Commission using the old block matrix which was loosely tied to the world market price. In addition to world crude oil prices other factors that affect the price of Canadian crude oil include technology impacts and global integration. Also, when the Sarnia to Montreal pipeline (Line 9) is reversed to bring offshore crude oil into the Ontario refining community, Canadian producers can expect some adverse effects on the price they are paid for their products leading up to the reversal as refiners start to swing over to their alternate suppliers. The offshore supply is expected to be about 140,000 barrels/day of light sweet crude oil, but all grades of Canadian crude oil will be affected.

  20. Impact of Expanded North Slope of Alaska Crude Oil Production on Crude Oil Flows in the Contiguous United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRosa, Sean E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Flanagan, Tatiana Paz [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The National Transportation Fuels Model was used to simulate a hypothetical increase in North Slope of Alaska crude oil production. The results show that the magnitude of production utilized depends in part on the ability of crude oil and refined products infrastructure in the contiguous United States to absorb and adjust to the additional supply. Decisions about expanding North Slope production can use the National Transportation Fuels Model take into account the effects on crude oil flows in the contiguous United States.

  1. Action Refinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorrieri, R.; Rensink, Arend; Bergstra, J.A.; Ponse, A.; Smolka, S.A.

    2001-01-01

    In this chapter, we give a comprehensive overview of the research results in the field of action refinement during the past 12 years. The different approaches that have been followed are outlined in detail and contrasted to each other in a uniform framework. We use two running examples to discuss

  2. Clean Slate Environmental Remediation DSA for 10 CFR 830 Compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James L. Traynor, Stephen L. Nicolosi, Michael L. Space, Louis F. Restrepo

    2006-01-01

    Clean Slate Sites II and III are scheduled for environmental remediation (ER) to remove elevated levels of radionuclides in soil. These sites are contaminated with legacy remains of non-nuclear yield nuclear weapons experiments at the Nevada Test Site, that involved high explosive, fissile, and related materials. The sites may also hold unexploded ordnance (UXO) from military training activities in the area over the intervening years. Regulation 10 CFR 830 (Ref. 1) identifies DOE-STD-1120-98 (Ref. 2) and 29 CFR 1910.120 (Ref. 3) as the safe harbor methodologies for performing these remediation operations. Of these methodologies, DOE-STD-1120-98 has been superseded by DOE-STD-1120-2005 (Ref. 4). The project adopted DOE-STD-1120-2005, which includes an approach for ER projects, in combination with 29 CFR 1910.120, as the basis documents for preparing the documented safety analysis (DSA). To securely implement the safe harbor methodologies, we applied DOE-STD-1027-92 (Ref. 5) and DOE-STD-3009-94 (Ref. 6), as needed, to develop a robust hazard classification and hazards analysis that addresses non-standard hazards such as radionuclides and UXO. The hazard analyses provided the basis for identifying Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) level controls. The DOE-STD-1186-2004 (Ref. 7) methodology showed that some controls warranted elevation to Specific Administrative Control (SAC) status. In addition to the Evaluation Guideline (EG) of DOE-STD-3009-94, we also applied the DOE G 420.1 (Ref. 8) annual, radiological dose, siting criterion to define a controlled area around the operation to protect the maximally exposed offsite individual (MOI)

  3. Radon exhalation rates from slate stone samples in Aravali Range in Haryana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyay, S.B.; Kant, K.; Chakarvarti, S.K.

    2012-01-01

    The slate stone tiles are very popular in covering the walls of the rooms. Radon is released into ambient air from slate stones due to ubiquitous uranium and radium in them, thus increasing the airborne radon concentration. The radioactivity in slates stones is related to radioactivity in the rocks from which the slate stone tiles are formed. In the present investigation, the radon emanated from slate stone samples collected from different slate mines in Aravali range of hills in the Haryana state of Northern India has been estimated. For the measurement of radon concentration emanated from these samples, alpha-sensitive LR-115 type II plastic track detectors have been used. The alpha particles emitted from the radon form tracks in these detectors. After chemical etching the track density of registered tracks is used to calculate radon concentration and exhalation rates of radon using required formulae. The measurements indicate normal to some higher levels of radon concentration emanated from the slat stone samples collected from Aravali range of hills in north India. The results will be discussed in full paper. (author)

  4. Chinese refining capacity for Canadian heavy oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce, G.W.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discussed China's refining capacity in relation to exports of Canadian heavy oil. Demand for oil is increasing throughout the world, and China is expected to consume 25 per cent of the projected yearly oil supplies. Alberta currently has an estimated 174 billion barrels of recoverable bitumen, and produces 1.06 million barrels per day. Production is expected to increase to 4.5 million barrels per day by the year 2020. Currently bitumen blends are refined and diluted with naphtha and sweet synthetic crude oil. Bitumen is a challenging feedstock for refineries, and requires thermal production methods or gasification processes. Primary conversion into sour synthetic crude is typically followed by hydrocracking and further refining into finished petroleum products. There are currently 50 refineries in China with a 7.4 million barrel per day capacity. Coastal refineries using imported crude oil have a 4 million barrel per day capacity. New facilities are being constructed and existing plants are being upgraded in order to process heavier and more sour crude oils. However, current refining capabilities in Chinese refineries have a limited ability for resid conversion. It was concluded that while China has a refining infrastructure, only refineries on the coast will use oil sands-derived feedstocks. However, there are currently opportunities to design refineries to match future feedstocks. tabs., figs

  5. Romanian refining industry assesses restructuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanasescu, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    The Romanian crude oil refining industry, as all the other economic sectors, faces the problems accompanying the transition from a centrally planned economy to a market economy. At present, all refineries have registered as joint-stock companies and all are coordinated and assisted by Rafirom S.A., from both a legal and a production point of view. Rafirom S.A. is a joint-stock company that holds shares in refineries and other stock companies with activities related to oil refining. Such activities include technological research, development, design, transportation, storage, and domestic and foreign marketing. This article outlines the market forces that are expected to: drive rationalization and restructuring of refining operations and define the targets toward which the reconfigured refineries should strive

  6. Crude oil pricing report, issue 89, December 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report is prepared by the Canadian Oil Markets and Emergency Planning Division (COMEP), Energy, Mines and Resources Canada. It provides a reference for domestic and imported crude oil prices in Canadian markets and illustrates the competitive position of Canadian crude in the U.S. market. The information in this report is in part based on the Crude Oil Pricing Survey (COPS), conducted by COMEP, of Canadian refiners' domestic crude oil purchases, refinery receipts, imports and data from trade publications as well as industry pricing bulletins. 8 tabs

  7. Significance of Kaduna River to Kaduna Refining and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    River through the Kaduna Refining and Petrochemicals Company (KRPC) plants and .... Other less-common process involves filtering heated crude using diatomaceous earth ..... Water is polluted by the fallout from air pollution and by refinery.

  8. 40 CFR 80.1142 - What are the provisions for small refiners under the RFS program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... all of the following criteria: (i) The refiner produced gasoline at its refineries by processing crude... Standard § 80.1142 What are the provisions for small refiners under the RFS program? (a)(1) Gasoline produced by a refiner, or foreign refiner (as defined at § 80.1165(a)), is exempt from the renewable fuel...

  9. Characterization of slate ornaments from Teotihuacan by nuclear and conventional techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villa-Cordoba, T.; Lopez-Palacios, J.A.; Jimenez-Reyes, M.; Tenorio, D.

    2012-01-01

    Several ornaments named tezcacuitlapilli (coccyx-mirrors) are described and chemical analyses of raw materials (slate and pigments) were carried out by neutron activation, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and radiography. Elemental and statistical analyses revealed that three different kinds of slate were used in their manufacture. The white pigment contains gypsum while ochre, yellow and red pigments contain iron oxide. These ornaments were identified as coming from the Cave of the Sun Pyramid of Teotihuacan. An attempt was undertaken to reconstruct the contexts of their manufacture and symbolic interpretation. (author)

  10. China's oil market and refining sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.; Fridley, D.G.

    2000-01-01

    The article assesses the future for China's oil industry as the country makes the transition from a command economy to an international market. China has one of the world's biggest oil industries and recent years have seen much growth in exploration and development, refining capacity and trade. China is more and more dependent on oil imports and is now a major international player; it has attracted much outside investment. Diagrams show (i) how coal dominates other sources of energy in China; (ii) crude production 1977-1998; (iii) how Middle East crudes now dominate Chinese crude imports; (iv) the growth of petroleum demand in China; (v) the Chinese demand for petroleum products; (vi) the growth in transport fuels; (vii) Chinese product imports: import ban targeted diesel; (viii) crude imports favoured over product imports and (ix) refinery capacity and throughput. The changes are expected to result in further integration into international markets, increased transparency and a healthier oil business

  11. Utilization of X-ray computed micro-tomography to evaluate iron sulphide distribution in roofing slates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vavro, Martin; Souček, Kamil; Daněk, T.; Matýsek, D.; Georgiovská, Lucie; Zajícová, Vendula

    (2018) ISSN 1470-9236 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : roofing slate * iron sulphides * X-ray CT * slate pathologies * dimension stone Subject RIV: JN - Civil Engineering Impact factor: 1.102, year: 2016 http://qjegh.lyellcollection.org/

  12. High temperature corrosion control and monitoring for processing acidic crudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, C. [Betz/GE Water and Process Technologies, Woodlands, TX (United States)

    2009-07-01

    The challenge of processing heavy crudes and bitumen in a reliable and economical way was discussed. Many refiners use a conservative approach regarding the rate at which they use discounted crudes or depend upon capital-intensive upgrades to equipment. New strategies based on data-driven decisions are needed in order to obtain the greatest benefit from heavy feedstock. The feasibility of successfully processing more challenging feed can be estimated more accurately by better understanding the interactions between a particular feed and a particular crude unit. This presentation reviewed newly developed techniques that refiners can use to determine the feeds corrosion potential and the probability for this potential to manifest itself in a given crude unit. tabs., figs.

  13. 76 FR 29227 - Funding Down Slate; Indian Education Professional Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... Development Program AGENCY: Office of Elementary and Secondary Education, Department of Education. ACTION... use the existing slate of applications from the FY 2010 competition for the Professional Development... you use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD), call the Federal Relay Service (FRS), toll...

  14. European refining: evolution or revolution?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuthbert, N.

    1999-01-01

    A recent detailed analysis of the refining business in Europe (by Purvin and Gurtz) was used to highlight some key issues facing the industry. The article was written under five sub-sections: (i) economic environment (assessment of the economic prospects for Europe), (ii) energy efficiency and global warming (lists the four points of the EU car makers' voluntary agreement), (iii) fuel quality and refinery investment (iv) refinery capacity and utilisation and (v) industry structure and development. Diagrams show GDP per capita for East and West, European road fuel demand to 2015 and European net trade and European refinery ownership by crude capacity. It was concluded that the future of refining in Europe is 'exciting and challenging' and there are likely to be more large joint venture refineries. (UK)

  15. Unilever food safety assurance system for refined vegetable oils and fats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Duijn Gerrit

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Unilever Food Safety Assurance system for refined oils and fats is based on risk assessments for the presence of contaminants or pesticide residues in crude oils, and refining process studies to validate the removal of these components. Crude oil risk assessments were carried out by combining supply chain visits, and analyses of the contaminant and pesticide residue levels in a large number of crude oil samples. Contaminants like poly-aromatic hydrocarbons and hydrocarbons of mineral origin, and pesticide residues can largely be removed by refining. For many years, this Food Safety Assurance System has proven to be effective in controlling contaminant levels in refined vegetable oils and fats.

  16. Kurdistan crude oils as feedstock for production of aromatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulsalam R. Karim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Crude oils from various locations in Iraqi Kurdistan were fully evaluated, so that enables refiners to improve their operation by selecting the best crude oil that yields high naphtha content to be used as a catalytic reforming feedstock after determination of total sulfur content and then de sulfurizing them, then cyclizing or reforming these sweet naphtha cuts to produce aromatic fractions which can be split into benzene, toluene, and xylenes.

  17. Tangible Asset Management In Real Sector Companies: A Parallel Between Industry Of Crude Oil Refining And Industry Of Refining Of Non Metallic Mineral In Colombia Gerenciamiento de activos tangibles en empresas del sector real: un paralelo entre industria de refinación de crudos e industria de refinación de minerales no metálicos en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Jairo Forero Romero

    2012-08-01

    sus elementos tomando como referencia dos casos específicos: laRefinería de Barrancabermeja de Ecopetrol S.A. y Sumicol S.A.

  18. Oil refining in U.S. foreign-trade zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, S.J.; Potter, T.J.

    1991-01-01

    With the crude-oil import supply being as inexpensive as it is today, relative to domestic supply, many independents have been sourcing their crude-oil needs from abroad and have found it an opportune time to step up their level of refining activity. To further enhance their competitive position with respect to foreign refineries, certain domestic refiners have discovered the operational benefits and savings that result from having a refinery designated as a foreign-trade zone (FTZ) under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of 1934, as amended. This paper examines the history and use of foreign-trade subzones for refining activities

  19. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, L.M.V.; Jomaas, Grunde

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... height, mass loss rate and residues of three hydrocarbon liquids (n-octane, dodecane and hexadecane), two crude oils (DUC and REBCO) and one hydrocarbon liquid mixture of the aforementioned hydrocarbon liquids were studied using the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus. The experimental results were compared...... on the highest achievable oil slick temperature. Based on this mechanism, predictions can then be made depending on the hydrocarbon composition of the fuel and the measured surface temperature....

  20. The heavy oil refiners needs in the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    In the 1970s oil crisis, the high price differential that developed between heavy and light crude led to an expansion in heavy crude processing geared to producing light oil products. The subsequent collapse in prices meant that heavy crudes with low netbacks were shut in, heavy crude refining capacity exceeded the restrained production of heavy crudes, and refineries were operating at losses. However, the low prices for oil rekindled demand and spare production capacity has been absorbed. The crude oil price is forecast to rise to ca $27/bbl by the late 1990s, which is favorable for heavy crude oil production. Nevertheless, investments in heavy crude production are exposed to a high degree of risk. A strategy for dealing with this risk is to integrate into downstream, which makes more sense for heavy crude producers than for conventional producers. On the other hand, such integration is capital-intensive, and light oils will likely be favored in crude oil production developments for the next several years. Low prices for natural gas will make it hard to find markets for residual fuel made from heavy crudes. 8 figs

  1. A Low Temperature Detoxification Method for Treatment of Chrysotile-Containing Waste Roofing Slate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwanju Jo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated a two-step process for detoxification of waste roofing slate, involving cement hydrate removal and low temperature detoxification using oxalic acid. These treatments were conducted on raw material and intermediate product, respectively. Cement hydrate removal effectively eliminated most Ca-containing cement hydrate components from the raw material under the following conditions: HCl to solid ratio: 0.456 g/g, reaction time: 2 h, and solid to liquid ratio: 0.124 g/mL. Following low temperature (~100 °C detoxification of intermediate product obtained after cement hydrate removal, chrysotile in waste roofing slate was effectively transformed to Mg-oxalate under conditions of oxalic acid to solid ratio of >0.67 g/g.

  2. Process of producing fuels from slates or bituminous shales. [distillation at incandescent heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huppenbauer, M

    1902-07-31

    A process of producing a fuel from slates or bituminous shales by saturating or impregnating them after preliminary distillation with the vapors of tars, resins, oils, etc., is given. The process is characterized by the bituminous shale being submitted in the form of fragments to distillation at incandescent heat to make the shale porous and able to absorb the vapors of the substances already mentioned.

  3. Clean Slate 1 corrective action decision document, Corrective Action Unit No. 412. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    A Corrective Action Investigation has been completed at the Clean Slate 1 (CS-1) Site, located in the central portion of the Tonopah Test Range. The purpose of this CADD is to identify and evaluate potential correct action alternatives at the CS-1 Site and to evaluate these alternatives with respect to their technical, human health, and environmental benefits and to their cost. Base on this evaluation a corrective action will be recommended for implementation at the CS-1 Site

  4. The Canadian refining Industry : The circle of influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, W.R.

    1998-01-01

    Examples of how the downstream petroleum industry is influenced by events in the upstream petroleum sector were presented. In order to survive, Canadian refiners (downstream petroleum) must remain competitive with their domestic counterparts, with the U.S. and with offshore refiners who can import products into key Eastern markets. The downstream sector has little choice but to focus on crude costs and flexibility to try to improve the profitability of its operations. In Canada, the supply of both conventional and bitumen crude oil has increased significantly. This change in the supply and demand balance has had a definite impact on prices. Ample Canadian heavy crude supply has caused refiners to adjust their operations to take advantage of lower-cost crude oil. The result has been the announcement of several large-scale projects, such as for example Shell Oil's construction of an upgrader at their Scotsford plant. The North American pipeline system is the link between the upstream supply and the downstream demand. New pipeline projects have allowed increased supplies of Canadian heavy crude to gain access to new markets. It was emphasized that the downstream sector provides feedback to the upstream sector that influences producers when they plan their exploration, development and production activities. The picture in light crude production is the reverse of heavy crude oil production, i.e. Canadian light crude supply declined 4 per cent in 1996 from the average of the previous three years. This decline has given synthetic crude oil facilities like Syncrude and GCOS the chance to expand their production to offset a portion of the inland crude supply shortfall. 5 figs

  5. Reduction of Sulphur Content of Urals Crude Oil Prior to Processing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The presence of sulphur in crude oil poses enormous challenges as regards its negative environmental and economic impacts. As such, the safety of the personnel and the equipment is at high risk during the processing of Urals crude oil in Kaduna Refining and Petrochemical Company (KRPC) because of its sour nature.

  6. Methods of analyzing crude oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooks, Robert Graham; Jjunju, Fred Paul Mark; Li, Anyin; Rogan, Iman S.

    2017-08-15

    The invention generally relates to methods of analyzing crude oil. In certain embodiments, methods of the invention involve obtaining a crude oil sample, and subjecting the crude oil sample to mass spectrometry analysis. In certain embodiments, the method is performed without any sample pre-purification steps.

  7. On the refinement calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Vickers, Trevor

    1992-01-01

    On the Refinement Calculus gives one view of the development of the refinement calculus and its attempt to bring together - among other things - Z specifications and Dijkstra's programming language. It is an excellent source of reference material for all those seeking the background and mathematical underpinnings of the refinement calculus.

  8. Fracture propagation in sandstone and slate – Laboratory experiments, acoustic emissions and fracture mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinand Stoeckhert

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fracturing of highly anisotropic rocks is a problem often encountered in the stimulation of unconventional hydrocarbon or geothermal reservoirs by hydraulic fracturing. Fracture propagation in isotropic material is well understood but strictly isotropic rocks are rarely found in nature. This study aims at the examination of fracture initiation and propagation processes in a highly anisotropic rock, specifically slate. We performed a series of tensile fracturing laboratory experiments under uniaxial as well as triaxial loading. Cubic specimens with edge lengths of 150 mm and a central borehole with a diameter of 13 mm were prepared from Fredeburg slate. An experiment using the rather isotropic Bebertal sandstone as a rather isotropic rock was also performed for comparison. Tensile fractures were generated using the sleeve fracturing technique, in which a polymer tube placed inside the borehole is pressurized to generate tensile fractures emanating from the borehole. In the uniaxial test series, the loading was varied in order to observe the transition from strength-dominated fracture propagation at low loading magnitudes to stress-dominated fracture propagation at high loading magnitudes.

  9. Breeding biology and natural history of the Slate-throated Whitestart in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggera, R.A.; Martin, T.E.

    2010-01-01

    We provide details on the breeding biology of the Slate-throated Whitestart (Myioborus miniatus) from 126 nests found during seven breeding seasons, 2002-2008, at Yacamb?? National Park, Venezuela. Nesting activity peaked in late April and May. Only the female built the nest and incubated the eggs. Males rarely visited the nest during these stages. Mean clutch size (2.1 ?? 0.04 eggs, n = 93) was the smallest recorded for the Slate-throated Whitestart. Incubation and nestling period lengths were 15.3 ?? 0.31 (n = 21) and 10.8 ?? 0.24 (n = 7) days, respectively. Attentiveness (% of time on the nest) during incubation (59 ?? 1.6%, n = 52) was similar to other tropical warblers and much lower than northern relatives. This caused a relatively low egg temperature (34.40 ?? 0.33u C, n = ?? nests, 20 days) compared with north temperate birds. Both parents fed nestlings and increased their provisioning rates with nestling age. Growth rate based on nestling mass (k = 0.521 ?? 0.015) was faster than for other tropical passerines but slower than northern relatives. Predation was the main cause of nesting failure and rate of predation increased with age of the nest. An estimated 15% of nests were successful based on an overall Mayfield daily predation rate of 0.053 ?? 0.007. This study confirms a strong latitudinal variation in life history traits of warblers. ?? 2010 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.

  10. Remedial actions of nuclear safety shot sites: Double Tracks and Clean Slates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, M.; Shotton, M.; Lyons, C.

    1998-03-01

    Remedial actions of plutonium (Pu)-contaminated soils are in the preliminary stages of development at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Interim clean-up actions were completed at the Double Tracks and Clean Slate 1 safety shot sites in 1996 and 1997, respectively. Soil at both sites, with a total transuranic activity greater than 20 picoCuries per gram (pCi/g), was excavated and shipped to the NTS for disposal. Characterization and assessment efforts were initiated at the Double Tracks site in 1995, and the clean-up of this site as an interim action was completed in 1996. Clean-up of this site consisted of taking site-specific data and applying rationale for dose and risk calculations in selecting parameter values for the interim corrective action level. The remediation process included excavating and stockpiling the contaminated soil and loading the soil into supersacks with approximately 1,513 cubic meters (53,500 cubic feet) being shipped to the NTS for disposal. In 1997, remediation began on the Clean Slate 1 site on which characterization had already been completed using a very similar approach; however, the site incorporated lessons learned, cost efficiencies, and significant improvements to the process. This paper focuses on those factors and the progress that has been made in cleaning up the sites. The application of a technically reasonable remediation method, as well as the cost factors that supported transport and disposal of the low-level waste in bulk are discussed

  11. Properties of slate mining wastes incubated with grape marc compost under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradelo, Remigio; Moldes, Ana Belén; Barral, María Teresa

    2009-02-01

    The effect of the addition of spent grape marc compost (GMC) and vermicompost (GMV) as amendments to slate mining wastes was evaluated in a laboratory incubation experiment. Mixtures of slate processing fines (SPF), with three doses of each amendment (4%, 8% and 16% compost, dry weight), plus a control were incubated at 25 degrees C in the laboratory for 90 days. The changes in the chemical and biological properties of the mixtures (pH, total C, total N, inorganic N, available nutrients, microbial biomass carbon and dehydrogenase activity) were investigated during the incubation period, and once it was finished, the phytotoxicity of the mixtures was determined by the germination of Lolium multiflorum Lam. seeds. The addition of the amendments significantly increased the nutrient concentrations of the SPF and enhanced biological activity by increasing microbial biomass and enzymatic activity. Results improved with higher doses; within the composts, GMV showed a better performance than GMC. These results prove the suitability of grape marc-derived amendments for the biochemical amelioration of mining wastes, and highlight the benefits of organic amendment in restoration projects.

  12. Structural and textural characteristics of slate and its response to the point load test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mladenovič

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available From the geomechanical point of view slate is considered to be one of more trying rock varieties. The results of research have shown close relationship between structural, textural and mineralogical characteristics on the one hand, and its strength and resistance to point loads on the other hand. Its weakened zones are the result of anisotropy. They develop mainly due to dynamo-metamorphosis of the primary mudstone, resulting in the formation of the secondary slaty cleavage, with a pronounced preferred orientation of the hyllosilicates. Low strength is the consequence of the weak Van der Waals chemical bond between individual packets of the internal crystal structure of the sheet minerals, particularly sericite. Bedding and microfolds with a crenulated structure and partial preferred orientation of sheet minerals, as well as directions that are weakened with sigmoidal shear deformations as the predecessors of microfaults, also result in significant but less problematicanisotropy. Thin lepidoblastic lamina, in apparently massive sandy metasiltstone beds in the slate represent discontinuities, which have a decisive influence on the reduction of their strength.

  13. Boom times : Canada's crude petroleum industry : analysis in brief

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowat, M.R.

    2006-01-01

    This document examined the trends in crude oil prices, the production and exports of Canada's crude petroleum industry, and Canada's imports of crude petroleum. As an exporter and importer of crude oil, Canada's petroleum industry is currently experiencing economic prosperity as a result of high oil prices combined with high global demand for oil. This document reviewed industry activity for 2005 and addressed the reasons for the first decline in Canadian crude oil production in 6 years. A quick review of soaring crude oil prices, supply and shortages was also presented. A review of exports revealed that since 1995, the United States has received 99 per cent of Canadian exports. Although production activity is occurring in 7 provinces, the biggest participant is Alberta, followed by Saskatchewan. In 2005, Canada produced 136.4 million cubic metres of crude petroleum, of which two-thirds came from Alberta. Saskatchewan contributed 18 per cent of total Canadian crude oil production, while offshore oil rigs in Newfoundland and Labrador contributed 13 per cent. The vast oil sands resource accounted for 42 per cent of the province's total production. Alberta oil export is piped entirely into the United States. In 2005, even with a slight drop in exports, Canadian oil exporters received $30 billion for their products, up from $25 billion the year before. Canada also supplied nearly 10 per cent of the American crude oil needs. According to the National Energy Board, Canadian refineries are approaching capacity. Canada's 19 refineries, which have a capacity of 320,000 cubic metres per day, operated at 92 per cent of capacity in 2005 to meet the needs of the domestic market. More imported petroleum was refined than Canadian sourced petroleum. In 2005, the gas and oil industry saw historically high profits, taxes paid and investments. 6 refs., 5 figs

  14. California demand and supply of crude oil: An econometric analysis with projections to 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibegbulam, B.N.

    1991-01-01

    Forecast of California domestic crude oil supply requires the forecasts of California crude oil production and supply from Alaska. Future California crude oil production is forecast with an econometric model that postulates production as a function of reserves and reserves as a function of crude oil prices and exploration and development costs. Future supplies from Alaska are obtained by subtracting forecasts of Alaskan crude oil demand and shipments to the States of Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington from Alaskan North Slope crude oil production forecasts. A two-stage process was used to forecast future California crude oil demand. In the first stage, the demand for refined crude oil products was predicted with a single-equation double logarithmic rational-expectations dynamic model. In the second stage, the total demands obtained in the first stage were converted into a crude oil equivalent. It was found that the current surplus of domestic crude oil in California will end in 1994. Thereafter, California crude oil imports will sharply increase

  15. Oil price scenarios and refining profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, B.

    1993-01-01

    Currently refining profitability is low because there has been an overbuilding of conversion capacity in Western Europe in the last round. Oil marketing, the chemicals business and the fundamental economy itself are at low points in their cycles which have not coincided, at least in the UK, since 1975. Against that gloomy background, it is predicted that downstream profitability will recover in the mid-1990s. Crude oil prices will remain low until the call on OPEC crude increases again and takes up the capacity which has been brought on stream in response to the Gulf War. When this happens, it is likely to trigger another price spike and another round of investment in production capacity. Environmentally driven investments in desulphurisation or emissions reduction will be poorly remunerated all the way through the value chain. Refining margins will recover when white oil demand growth tightens up the need for conversion capacity. Marketing will need to reduce the retail network overcapacity in the mature markets if it is to improve its profitability. In this period of low profitability, even with the light at the end of the tunnel for refiners in the middle of the decade, the industry structure is under threat. There is a strong argument for new modes of competitive behaviour which are backed by strong elements of cooperation. (author)

  16. China expands refining sector to handle booming oil demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    China's refining sector is in the midst of a major expansion and reorganization in response to booming domestic demand for petroleum products. Plans call for hiking crude processing capacity to 3.9 million b/d in 1995 from the current 3.085 million b/d. Much of that 26% increase will come where the products demand growth is the strongest: China's coastal provinces, notably those in the southeast. Despite the demand surge, China's refineries operated at only 74% of capacity in 1991, and projections for 1992 weren't much better. Domestic crude supply is limited because of Beijing's insistence on maintaining crude export levels, a major source of hard currency foreign exchange. The paper discusses the superheated demand; exports and imports; the refining infrastructure; the Shenzhen refinery; Hong Kong demand; southeast coast demand; 1993 plans; and foreign investment

  17. The evolution of oil refining in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, A. [CONCAWE, Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-04-01

    Back in 1963 when CONCAWE was founded, the world looked very different from what it is today, and so did the global and European refining industry. Oil product markets were expanding fast and new refineries were being built at a steady rate. The oil crisis of the 1970s brought an abrupt end to this, heralding a long era of consolidation and stepwise adaptation. At the same time the nature of the global oil business shifted from fully integrated companies producing, transporting and refining their own oil to a much more diversified situation where oil production ('upstream') and refining/distribution ('downstream') gradually became two essentially separate businesses. From being purely a 'cost centre' in an integrated chain, refining has become a separate activity in its own right, operating as a 'profit centre' between two global markets - crude oil and products - which, although not entirely independent, have their own dynamics and influences. In addition demand gradually shifted towards lighter products while the quality requirements on all products were considerably tightened. This article explores the new challenges that these changes have imposed on EU refiners, and describes CONCAWE's contributions to understanding their impact on refinery production and investments.

  18. Pacific Basin Heavy Oil Refining Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hackett

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The United States today is Canada’s largest customer for oil and refined oil products. However, this relationship may be strained due to physical, economic and political influences. Pipeline capacity is approaching its limits; Canadian oil is selling at substantive discounts to world market prices; and U.S. demand for crude oil and finished products (such as gasoline, has begun to flatten significantly relative to historical rates. Lower demand, combined with increased shale oil production, means U.S. demand for Canadian oil is expected to continue to decline. Under these circumstances, gaining access to new markets such as those in the Asia-Pacific region is becoming more and more important for the Canadian economy. However, expanding pipeline capacity to the Pacific via the proposed Northern Gateway pipeline and the planned Trans Mountain pipeline expansion is only feasible when there is sufficient demand and processing capacity to support Canadian crude blends. Canadian heavy oil requires more refining and produces less valuable end products than other lighter and sweeter blends. Canadian producers must compete with lighter, sweeter oils from the Middle East, and elsewhere, for a place in the Pacific Basin refineries built to handle heavy crude blends. Canadian oil sands producers are currently expanding production capacity. Once complete, the Northern Gateway pipeline and the Trans Mountain expansion are expected to deliver an additional 500,000 to 1.1 million barrels a day to tankers on the Pacific coast. Through this survey of the capacity of Pacific Basin refineries, including existing and proposed facilities, we have concluded that there is sufficient technical capacity in the Pacific Basin to refine the additional Canadian volume; however, there may be some modifications required to certain refineries to allow them to process Western Canadian crude. Any additional capacity for Canadian oil would require refinery modifications or

  19. Creating value in refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, C.B.

    2001-01-01

    This article focuses on recent developments in the US refining industry and presents a model for improving the performance of refineries based on the analysis of the refining industry by Cap Gemini Ernst and Young. The identification of refineries in risk of failing, the construction of pipelines for refinery products from Gulf State refineries, mergers and acquisitions, and poor financial performance are discussed. Current challenges concerning the stagnant demand for refinery products, environmental regulations, and shareholder value are highlighted. The structure of the industry, the creation of value in refining, and the search for business models are examined. The top 25 US companies and US refining business groups are listed

  20. PV/T slates - Laboratory measurements; PV/T-Schiefer. Labormessungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kropf, S.

    2003-07-01

    This comprehensive, illustrated report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) is one a series of five reports dealing with increasing the overall efficiency of photovoltaic (PV) installations by also using the heat collected by the dark-coloured PV panels. The work reported on addresses open questions on the use of the heat and its optimal use. This report deals with an experimental outdoor set-up and reviews in-situ measurements made on a prototype of a ventilated PV-tile system (PV/T-Slates). The report describes the configuration and construction of the experimental PV-tiled roof and the measurement system used to measure its electrical and thermal performance. The results of the measurements made are presented in detail in graphical form. The influence of various factors such as air-slit width and mounting angle are discussed.

  1. PV/T slates - Pilot project in Steinhausen; PV/T-Schiefer. Pilotprojekt Steinhausen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kropf, S.

    2003-07-01

    This comprehensive, illustrated report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) is one a series of five reports dealing with increasing the overall efficiency of photovoltaic (PV) installations by also using the heat collected by the dark-coloured PV panels. The work reported on addresses open questions on the use of the heat and its optimal use. This report deals with a ventilated PV-tile system (PV/T-Slates) mounted on a garden shed in Steinhausen, Switzerland. The installation provides power and heat to the main house. The report describes the construction and operation of this pilot project and the results of measurements made on its electrical and thermal performance. The results of measurements made are presented in detail in graphical form and compared with the results of simulation. Suggestions are made for the optimisation of the system. Figures are presented on energy production and energy flows in graphical form.

  2. Maglev crude oil pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knolle, Ernst G.

    1994-01-01

    This maglev crude oil pipeline consists of two conduits guiding an endless stream of long containers. One conduit carries loaded containers and the other empty returns. The containers are levitated by permanent magnets in repulsion and propelled by stationary linear induction motors. The containers are linked to each other in a manner that allows them, while in continuous motion, to be folded into side by side position at loading and unloading points. This folding causes a speed reduction in proportion to the ratio of container diameter to container length. While in side by side position, containers are opened at their ends to be filled or emptied. Container size and speed are elected to produce a desired carrying capacity.

  3. Pinite-cordierite from spotted slate of the Brajkovac contact metamorphic aureole (Dudovica locality, central Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasković Nada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Paleozoic very low to low-grade metamorphic rocks of the Bukulja-Lazarevac Unit designated as Drina, Golija and Birač formations are contact metamorphosed by the intrusion of the Tertiary Brajkovac granodiorite into spotted slates and hornfelses. In some parts, they are slightly migmatized at the contact. In addition to their outcrops found at the western, eastern and northern parts of the formation, these rocks are also found in boreholes near Dudovica at about 8 km south-west from the pluton. There, at a depth of 110 m, the spotted slates comprise oval to ellipsoid pinite-rich spots which can be regarded as incipient cordierite porphyroblasts (up to 5 mm in diameter overgrowing the existing regional foliation. They are composed of cryptocrystalline mixture of a very fine sericitic material ± light glassy orange „film“ (some kind of an amorphous gel-like material often mixed with limonite matter and are abundant in inclusions: minute quartz and dusty ore minerals (magnetite prevail. In addition, within some spots an increased number of xenotime and monazite inclusions are noted. Minute flakes of neobiotite are formed at the expense of quartz-sericite-chlorite matrix. The secondary chlorite occurring as overgrowths on pinite-cordierite spots shows variable composition (brunsvigite to diabandite. The Mg/Fe+Mg ratio of cryptocrystalline pinitic mixture ranges from 0.14-0.67. The Si vs AlIV+AlVI relations deviate from the ideal muscovite-phengite join due to Tschermak substitution towards chloritic composition or a more complex mixture, including clay minerals (which reflected a decrease of Altot and Si with increase of Fe2+. Obtained data indicates that the cordierite-pinite spots can be related to contact metamorphic processes that occurred within the temperature range 300-450°C. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176019 i br. 176016

  4. North Dakota Refining Capacity Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis Hill; Kurt Swenson; Carl Tuura; Jim Simon; Robert Vermette; Gilberto Marcha; Steve Kelly; David Wells; Ed Palmer; Kuo Yu; Tram Nguyen; Juliam Migliavacca

    2011-01-05

    According to a 2008 report issued by the United States Geological Survey, North Dakota and Montana have an estimated 3.0 to 4.3 billion barrels of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil in an area known as the Bakken Formation. With the size and remoteness of the discovery, the question became 'can a business case be made for increasing refining capacity in North Dakota?' And, if so what is the impact to existing players in the region. To answer the question, a study committee comprised of leaders in the region's petroleum industry were brought together to define the scope of the study, hire a consulting firm and oversee the study. The study committee met frequently to provide input on the findings and modify the course of the study, as needed. The study concluded that the Petroleum Area Defense District II (PADD II) has an oversupply of gasoline. With that in mind, a niche market, naphtha, was identified. Naphtha is used as a diluent used for pipelining the bitumen (heavy crude) from Canada to crude markets. The study predicted there will continue to be an increase in the demand for naphtha through 2030. The study estimated the optimal configuration for the refinery at 34,000 barrels per day (BPD) producing 15,000 BPD of naphtha and a 52 percent refinery charge for jet and diesel yield. The financial modeling assumed the sponsor of a refinery would invest its own capital to pay for construction costs. With this assumption, the internal rate of return is 9.2 percent which is not sufficient to attract traditional investment given the risk factor of the project. With that in mind, those interested in pursuing this niche market will need to identify incentives to improve the rate of return.

  5. Relational Demonic Fuzzy Refinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fairouz Tchier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We use relational algebra to define a refinement fuzzy order called demonic fuzzy refinement and also the associated fuzzy operators which are fuzzy demonic join (⊔fuz, fuzzy demonic meet (⊓fuz, and fuzzy demonic composition (□fuz. Our definitions and properties are illustrated by some examples using mathematica software (fuzzy logic.

  6. Liquid ultrasonic flow meters for crude oil measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalivoda, Raymond J.; Lunde, Per

    2005-07-01

    Liquid ultrasonic flow meters (LUFMs) are gaining popularity for the accurate measurement of petroleum products. In North America the first edition of the API standard ''Measurement of liquid hydrocarbons by ultrasonic flow meters using transit time technology'' was issued in February 2005. It addresses both refined petroleum products and crude oil applications. Its field of application is mainly custody transfer applications but it does provide general guidelines for the installation and operation of LUFM's other applications such as allocation, check meters and leak detection. As with all new technologies performance claims are at times exaggerated or misunderstood and application knowledge is limited. Since ultrasonic meters have no moving parts they appear to have fewer limitations than other liquid flow meters. Liquids ultrasonic flow meters, like turbine meters, are sensitive to fluid properties. It is increasingly more difficult to apply on high viscosity products then on lighter hydrocarbon products. Therefore application data or experience on the measurement of refined or light crude oil may not necessarily be transferred to measuring medium to heavy crude oils. Before better and more quantitative knowledge is available on how LUFMs react on different fluids, the arguments advocating reduced need for in-situ proving and increased dependency on laboratory flow calibration (e.g. using water instead of hydrocarbons) may be questionable. The present paper explores the accurate measurement of crude oil with liquid ultrasonic meters. It defines the unique characteristics of the different API grades of crude oils and how they can affect the accuracy of the liquid ultrasonic measurement. Flow testing results using a new LUFM design are discussed. The paper is intended to provide increased insight into the potentials and limitations of crude oil measurement using ultrasonic flow meters. (author) (tk)

  7. Refining margins and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudouin, C.; Favennec, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    Refining margins throughout the world have remained low in 1996. In Europe, in spite of an improvement, particularly during the last few weeks, they are still not high enough to finance new investments. Although the demand for petroleum products is increasing, experts are still sceptical about any rapid recovery due to prevailing overcapacity and to continuing capacity growth. After a historical review of margins and an analysis of margins by regions, we analyse refining over-capacities in Europe and the unbalances between production and demand. Then we discuss the current situation concerning barriers to the rationalization, agreements between oil companies, and the consequences on the future of refining capacities and margins. (author)

  8. Determination of iron sulphides in roofing slates from the north west of Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Guinea, J.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The most important production of roofing slates in the world is quarried from the Ordovician formations of the Truchas Syncline, which have the largest amount of working quarries. Roofing slates, sometimes, have crystallized iron sulphides such as pyrite, pyrrhotite and other minerals. These iron sulphides oxidise and stain the tiles when are exposed to atmospheric conditions, so much oxidized how much more inclined is the roof. Galician quarrymen distinguish between harmless pyrite (i.e., resistant cubes of pyrite and damaging pyrite (i.e., other alterable metallic minerals such as pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, marcasite and arsenopyirite. An improved identification method is proposed using both methods (a chemical element ratios of samples under electron microprobes and (b quantitative determination of the iron sulphides in the slate measuring the oxidized areas by digital camera. The analysed Fe/S ratios, in an XY plot, of seventy metallic samples, define three separated zones: pyrite, pyrrhotite and iron oxi-hydroxides. Quantitative determination of iron sulphides in the slate tile were performed by sinking the tile horizontally for six hours in oxygen peroxide (3% diluted and capturing the oxidation areas with a magnetic camera and analysing the bitmap images with Sigma-Scan 5 software. The proposed method is faster than the Spanish UNE norm (UNE-EN- 12326-2 Sept.2000, which requires thermal strike cycles for a month. The necessary use of heavy analytical equipment such as electron microprobes can be facilitated by installing it in the Slate Technological Centre of Sobradelo de Valdeorras (Orense or by using a simple optical stereoscopic zoom microscope to classify the iron minerals.

    Las formaciones ordovícicas del Sinclinal de Duchas concentran la mayor producción mundial de pizarra para cubiertas y el mayor número de canteras en producción. Las pizarras para cubiertas muchas veces contienen sulfuros de hierro cristalizados en forma

  9. Potential impact of environmental requirements on petroleum products derived from synthetic crude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Fuel quality proposals regarding gasoline and diesel fuels were discussed. Strict regulations on air emissions will mean changes in transportation fuel specifications which will ultimately impact on the refining industry. As fuel quality requirements become more stringent, refiners will need to look more closely at increasing the use of Canadian synthetic crude as a refinery feed. The fuel quality specifications with the potentially highest impact for the continued use of synthetic crude are those relating to sulphur, aromatics (including benzene), and olefins in gasoline and sulphur, aromatics and cetane in diesel fuel. Synthetic crude has an advantage in terms of gasoline sulphur content. The FCC feed is at a low enough sulphur level to result in gasoline components that would allow refiners to meet final gasoline sulphur levels of less than 100 ppm. In either case, synthetic middle distillate must be upgraded. Options that face the synthetic crude and refining industries are: (1) synthetic crude producers may install the process equipment needed to upgrade the middle distillate portion of their synthetic crude stream, (2) refiners may install equipment to upgrade just the diesel fuel portion of the middle distillate pool and jet fuel, and (3) a joint effort may be made by the two industries. The National Centre for Upgrading Technology (NCUT) and the Western Research Centre of Natural Resources Canada will continue to assist with research into improved catalysts for hydrotreating of middle distillates, and new lower cost processes for upgrading middle distillates from synthetic and conventional crude oils to meet future product requirements. 5 refs., 1 tab

  10. Mineralogy and microstructure of roofing slate: thermo-optical behaviour and fissility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Guinea, J.

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The mineralogy and microstructure, which affect the slaty cleavage, are linked with the strong preferred orientation of phyllosilicates and this enables the rock to be split into large, thin, flat sheets. Roofing slate samples with different commercial fissilities have been analyzed by radioluminescence (RL, thermoluminescence (3DTL, by X-ray diffraction (XRD, by scanning electron microscopy (SEM using the back-scattered mode (BSEI and by electron microprobe (EMP. They are made up of white micas, chlorite, quartz, detrital feldspars, ilmenite, pyrite, rutile apatite and tourmaline. Texturally, all consist of silt-sized clasts of detrital quartz, feldspars, chlorite-mica stacks, muscovite and ilmenite in a recrystalline, lepidoblastic matrix of white micas and chlorite with quartz lenses, all showing a very strong preferred orientation. The luminescence emission centers are a low broad blue band around the 400 nm spectra positions linked with alkali losses and formation of [AlO4]º defects; a peak at 473 nm interpreted as a the first thermal step (150-300ºC of a non-isothermal dehydroxylation of the slate phyllosilicates; and a 568 nm peak which agrees with Mn2+ point defects in aluminosilicate lattices. The studies on the slaty cleavage could be significant because Spain is the largest producer of roofing slate tiles in the world (87% of world production.

    La exfoliación de las pizarras depende fundamentalmente de su mineralogía y microestructura, especialmente de la fuerte orientación de los filosilicatos. Esta propiedad permite hendir o abrir las pizarras de techar en láminas muy grandes, delgadas y planas. Se han analizado varias pizarras de techar con diferentes calidades comerciales, correspondientes a diferentes grados de físibilidad, por radioluminiscencia (RL, termoluminiscencia espectral (TL3D, difracción de rayos X (DRX, microscopía electrónica de barrido (MEB utilizando el modo backscattered (BSEI

  11. Linearly Refined Session Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Baltazar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Session types capture precise protocol structure in concurrent programming, but do not specify properties of the exchanged values beyond their basic type. Refinement types are a form of dependent types that can address this limitation, combining types with logical formulae that may refer to program values and can constrain types using arbitrary predicates. We present a pi calculus with assume and assert operations, typed using a session discipline that incorporates refinement formulae written in a fragment of Multiplicative Linear Logic. Our original combination of session and refinement types, together with the well established benefits of linearity, allows very fine-grained specifications of communication protocols in which refinement formulae are treated as logical resources rather than persistent truths.

  12. Assessing refinery capacity and readiness to take Canadian product : is Canadian crude pushing or pulling?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friesner, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    This presentation addressed some of the challenges facing oil sands production in Canada. Refinery products and refining investments were discussed, as was the impact of alternative crude supply on the markets and pricing of oil sands. The oils sands products discussed include various qualities of sweet synthetic crude oil produced via upgraders; virgin and cracked intermediate products from oil sands upgraders; mined or Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) produced bitumen blended products; and synthetic heavy crude produced via hydrocracking. Products were listed in terms of ease of production, and a rationale for generic ranking was provided. A chart of 2003 characteristics of non-Canadian imports to the mid-west United States was provided. Various marketing strategies for different oil sands products were discussed, as well as issues concerning logistics. Strategies for the development of a bigger market include producer investment in refining capability; the acquisition of refining assets; investment in refiners' upgrading capability; and securing a long term supply deal. Core and extended markets for Western Canadian oil sands products were reviewed. A chart of North American refining capacity was presented. Details of a refinery with both coking and cracking capacity were examined. An increase in hydro processing capacity and expanded coking capacity, as well as an upgrade of metallurgy were suggested as possible upgrading options. Various refinery configurations were discussed in relation to lower cost feedstocks and clean fuels specifications. Issues concerning crude supply were examined with reference to pricing parity points and declines in traditional crude production. Specific supply issues concerning oil sands production were discussed, including transportation costs; adequate refining capacity; and availability of supply. Various logistic investments were considered. A map of BP's 5 U.S. refineries was presented. A forecast of expected changes in

  13. Refinement by interface instantiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallerstede, Stefan; Hoang, Thai Son

    2012-01-01

    be easily refined. Our first contribution hence is a proposal for a new construct called interface that encapsulates the external variables, along with a mechanism for interface instantiation. Using the new construct and mechanism, external variables can be refined consistently. Our second contribution...... is an approach for verifying the correctness of Event-B extensions using the supporting Rodin tool. We illustrate our approach by proving the correctness of interface instantiation....

  14. Relational Demonic Fuzzy Refinement

    OpenAIRE

    Tchier, Fairouz

    2014-01-01

    We use relational algebra to define a refinement fuzzy order called demonic fuzzy refinement and also the associated fuzzy operators which are fuzzy demonic join $({\\bigsqcup }_{\\mathrm{\\text{f}}\\mathrm{\\text{u}}\\mathrm{\\text{z}}})$ , fuzzy demonic meet $({\\sqcap }_{\\mathrm{\\text{f}}\\mathrm{\\text{u}}\\mathrm{\\text{z}}})$ , and fuzzy demonic composition $({\\square }_{\\mathrm{\\text{f}}\\mathrm{\\text{u}}\\mathrm{\\text{z}}})$ . Our definitions and properties are illustrated by some examples using ma...

  15. Crude incompatibility problems at heavy crude unit desalter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirmani, Z.; Khurshid, A.; Alam, N.; Gul, S.; Ahmed, N.

    2009-01-01

    Attock Refinery Limited (ARL) is based at Rawalpindi, Pakistan and operates a 40,000 Barrels per Stream Day (BPSD) refinery. The Heavy Crude Unit (HCU) of ARL is a fully integrated two-stage 10,000 BPSD Atmospheric and 5,700 BPSD Vacuum Distillation Unit. A 3-stage desalter designed to reduce salt and BS and W content from 2,000 parts per thousand barrels (PTB) and 2% to less than 5 PTB and 0.1% respectively, is part of HCU. The feedstock is a composite blend of 14 local Heavy Crudes received at the Refinery. Although in the past this desalter had been giving good performance, over the last one year, period since August 2005, at least nine shutdowns of the unit took place due to salt slippage and consequential tube leakages at the overhead Crude-Naphtha vapor Heat Exchanger where partial condensation of naphtha takes place. Final condensation is achieved in trim condenser. High salted water carry-over with the crude caused increased hydrolysis, formation of Hydrochloric acid and increase of tail water chlorides. Salt contents at the outlet of third desalter at times increased up to 400 PTB with 3.2% BS and W during the above mentioned upsets, as compared to normal 5-10 PTB. Fallout from this loss of desalter control was the creation of large quantities of slop due to draining of strong water oil emulsion from the desalters. Individual crudes of the blend were analyzed for affinity of water and emulsion stability. It was observed that 3 of the 14 crudes formed very strong while the remaining crudes formed weak oil water emulsion, which easily separated water from oil in desalter without any operational problem. Study was further narrowed down to one crude evaluation. Alkaline earth metallic naphthenate surfactants were detected and isolated as responsible for the strong water oil and sediments emulsion. The isolated crude was next withdrawn from the Heavy Crude blend. As soon as it was isolated and its ratio in heavy crude tank came down to 0.7 %, the problem began

  16. Structural analysis of sheath folds in the Sylacauga Marble Group, Talladega slate belt, southern Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mies, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    Remnant blocks of marble from the Moretti-Harrah dimension-stone quarry provide excellent exposure of meter-scale sheath folds. Tubular structures with elliptical cross-sections (4 ???Ryz ??? 5) are the most common expression of the folds. The tubes are elongate subparallel to stretching lineation and are defined by centimeter-scale layers of schist. Eccentrically nested elliptical patterns and opposing asymmetry of folds ('S' and 'Z') are consistent with the sheath-fold interpretation. Sheath folds are locally numerous in the Moretti-Harrah quarry but are not widely distributed in the Sylacauga Marble Group; reconnaissance in neighboring quarries provided no additional observations. The presence of sheath folds in part of the Talladega slate belt indicates a local history of plastic, non-coaxial deformation. Such a history of deformation is substantiated by petrographic study of an extracted hinge from the Moretti-Harrah quarry. The sheath folds are modeled as due to passive amplification of initial structures during simple shear, using both analytic geometry and graphic simulation. As indicated by these models, relatively large shear strains (y ??? 9) and longitudinal initial structures are required. The shear strain presumably relates to NW-directed displacement of overlying crystalline rocks during late Paleozoic orogeny. ?? 1993.

  17. Geology of Reskajeage Farm Quarry (Nirex research site on Cornish slate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancock, P.L.; North, C.P.

    1989-08-01

    Convection with any water flow is the most likely way in which any radionuclides escaping from deep disposal of radioactive waste in hard fractured rock could return to the surface. Hence the interest in water flow and mass transport through fractures for establishing the safety of such disposal. Earlier work on this subject was carried out in granite at Troon in Cornwall. This work provided statistical data about individual fractures and helped with the development of realistic modelling of flow and transport (Bourke 1985 and 1988). Validation of this modelling was however impractical. Access was obtained to another site with a much smaller separation between fractures in slate to allow measurement of flow and transport through representative volumes of 10m dimensions. Individual fracture statistics are being determined so that modelling predictions can be theoretically made for experimental proving. The programme at the site was begun with a geological investigation. The main findings are that the somewhat heterogeneous hard rock consists mostly of siltstone with some sandstone layers, that it is not untypically broken by many fractures and that a comparatively major (3m wide) fault with slip of about a metre between its faces crossing part of the site. These findings are described in detail in the report. (author)

  18. Optimization of Refining Craft for Vegetable Insulating Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhu-Jun; Hu, Ting; Cheng, Lin; Tian, Kai; Wang, Xuan; Yang, Jun; Kong, Hai-Yang; Fang, Fu-Xin; Qian, Hang; Fu, Guang-Pan

    2016-05-01

    Vegetable insulating oil because of its environmental friendliness are considered as ideal material instead of mineral oil used for the insulation and the cooling of the transformer. The main steps of traditional refining process included alkali refining, bleaching and distillation. This kind of refining process used in small doses of insulating oil refining can get satisfactory effect, but can't be applied to the large capacity reaction kettle. This paper using rapeseed oil as crude oil, and the refining process has been optimized for large capacity reaction kettle. The optimized refining process increases the acid degumming process. The alkali compound adds the sodium silicate composition in the alkali refining process, and the ratio of each component is optimized. Add the amount of activated clay and activated carbon according to 10:1 proportion in the de-colorization process, which can effectively reduce the oil acid value and dielectric loss. Using vacuum pumping gas instead of distillation process can further reduce the acid value. Compared some part of the performance parameters of refined oil products with mineral insulating oil, the dielectric loss of vegetable insulating oil is still high and some measures are needed to take to further optimize in the future.

  19. Exports of crude oil, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    Effective June 1, 1985, licensing and charging of oil exports ended. The Board now issues export orders specifying neither volumes nor prices and covering an exportation period of up to 1 year for light crude oil and up to 2 years for heavy crude oil, available on request to both Canadian and foreign companies. The Board has assumed a monitoring role, and export prices and volumes are reported monthly by exporters. This annual report provides a review of the volumes and prices associated with the supply and disposition of Canadian crude oil during 1988. Highlights are given with detailed information on prices, both internationally, in Canada, and the Chicago posted price by light or heavy crude, and on volumes including capacity and disposition in both domestic and export markets. A short description of the import market is included. Comparisons are made with the previous year. Export volumes of light crude oil in 1988 increased by 13% to average 50,200 m 3 /d. Export volumes of heavy crude also increased by ca 13% to 62,600 m 3 /d. 15 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Efficiency of the refining processes in removing 14C-dichlorvos residues in soybean oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    Crude soybean oil extracted from grains treated with 14 C-dichlorvos at a dose 24 mg insecticide / kg seeds and stored for 30 weeks was subjected to different refining processes such as alkali treatment, bleaching, winterization and deodorization. The effect of the refining processes on the nature and magnitude of the originally present residues was investigated. The insecticide residues in crude oil and cake amounted to 9.5% and 55% , respectively, of original residues inside the seeds. Extraction of the seeds with hexane gave crude oil with 9.5 % of original residues in seeds. The l4 C-activity in the crude stored Soya beans oil could be reduced by about 82% of radioactivity originally present in crude oil eliminated by simulated commercial processes locally used for oil refining. A high percentage of the residues (50-55%) were eliminated during alkali treatment and bleaching. Refining of soybeans oil fortified with '1 4 C-dichlorovos. The final refined oil had only 13% of the radioactivity originally present, mainly in the form of dichlorvos, dimethyl and monomethyl phosphate in addition to desmethyl dichlorvos in oil with aged residues

  1. Lifting the US crude oil export ban: A numerical partial equilibrium analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langer, Lissy; Huppmann, Daniel; Holz, Franziska

    2016-01-01

    The upheaval in global crude oil markets and the boom in shale oil production in North America brought scrutiny on the US export ban for crude oil from 1975. The ban was eventually lifted in early 2016. This paper examines the shifts of global trade flows and strategic refinery investments in a spatial, game-theoretic partial equilibrium model. We consider detailed oil supply chain infrastructure with multiple crude oil types, distinct oil products, as well as specific refinery configurations and modes of transport. Prices, quantities produced and consumed, as well as infrastructure and refining capacity investments are endogenous to the model. We compare two scenarios: an insulated US crude oil market, and a counter-factual with lifted export restrictions. We find a significant expansion of US sweet crude exports with the lift of the export ban. In the US refinery sector, more (imported) heavy sour crude is transformed. Countries importing US sweet crude gain from higher product output, while avoiding costly refinery investments. Producers of heavy sour crude (e.g. the Middle East) are incentivised to climb up the value chain to defend their market share and maintain their dominant position. - Highlights: • We study the impacts of lifting the US crude ban on global oil flows and investments. • We find massive expansion of US sweet crude oil exports. • We analyze the resulting welfare effects for US producers, refiners and consumers. • We indicate the changes on global trade patterns. • We conclude that lifting the ban is the right policy for the US and the global economy.

  2. Refining and petrochemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constancio, Silva

    2006-07-01

    In 2004, refining margins showed a clear improvement that persisted throughout the first three quarters of 2005. This enabled oil companies to post significantly higher earnings for their refining activity in 2004 compared to 2003, with the results of the first half of 2005 confirming this trend. As for petrochemicals, despite a steady rise in the naphtha price, higher cash margins enabled a turnaround in 2004 as well as a clear improvement in oil company financial performance that should continue in 2005, judging by the net income figures reported for the first half-year. Despite this favorable business environment, capital expenditure in refining and petrochemicals remained at a low level, especially investment in new capacity, but a number of projects are being planned for the next five years. (author)

  3. Refining and petrochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constancio, Silva

    2006-01-01

    In 2004, refining margins showed a clear improvement that persisted throughout the first three quarters of 2005. This enabled oil companies to post significantly higher earnings for their refining activity in 2004 compared to 2003, with the results of the first half of 2005 confirming this trend. As for petrochemicals, despite a steady rise in the naphtha price, higher cash margins enabled a turnaround in 2004 as well as a clear improvement in oil company financial performance that should continue in 2005, judging by the net income figures reported for the first half-year. Despite this favorable business environment, capital expenditure in refining and petrochemicals remained at a low level, especially investment in new capacity, but a number of projects are being planned for the next five years. (author)

  4. Indian refining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, I.J.

    2002-01-01

    The author discusses the history of the Indian refining industry and ongoing developments under the headings: the present state; refinery configuration; Indian capabilities for refinery projects; and reforms in the refining industry. Tables lists India's petroleum refineries giving location and capacity; new refinery projects together with location and capacity; and expansion projects of Indian petroleum refineries. The Indian refinery industry has undergone substantial expansion as well as technological changes over the past years. There has been progressive technology upgrading, energy efficiency, better environmental control and improved capacity utilisation. Major reform processes have been set in motion by the government of India: converting the refining industry from a centrally controlled public sector dominated industry to a delicensed regime in a competitive market economy with the introduction of a liberal exploration policy; dismantling the administered price mechanism; and a 25 year hydrocarbon vision. (UK)

  5. Refining - Panorama 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Investment rallied in 2007, and many distillation and conversion projects likely to reach the industrial stage were announced. With economic growth sustained in 2006 and still pronounced in 2007, oil demand remained strong - especially in emerging countries - and refining margins stayed high. Despite these favorable business conditions, tensions persisted in the refining sector, which has fallen far behind in terms of investing in refinery capacity. It will take renewed efforts over a long period to catch up. Looking at recent events that have affected the economy in many countries (e.g. the sub-prime crisis), prudence remains advisable

  6. Bitumen to refined products and petrochemicals : a preliminary assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, G.

    2004-01-01

    Purvin and Gertz is an energy consulting firm that provides advise to the energy sector. A review of western Canadian crude oil supply suggests that oil sands production will surpass declining conventional production. Oil sands supply includes synthetic crude oil (SCO), bitumen and diluent. It is expected that oil sands will increase from 42 per cent of western supply in 2002 to 78 per cent in 2015. This presentation reviewed the potential of Alberta's oil sands and presented a recent study of refined products and petrochemicals from bitumen. Upgrading, refining and petrochemical case studies were presented. In particular, the author examined if a Canadian oil sands upgrading project with high capital costs can be competitive with competing projects in the United States and internationally. In addition to supply and demand issues, the presentation examined infrastructure capability and market potential in the United States. The economic potential and risks of preferred business cases compared to upgrading to SCO were also evaluated. tabs., figs

  7. 15 CFR 754.2 - Crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... processed through a crude oil distillation tower. Included are reconstituted crude petroleum, and lease... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crude oil. 754.2 Section 754.2....2 Crude oil. (a) License requirement. As indicated by the SS notation in the “License Requirements...

  8. Refining of biodiesel by ceramic membrane separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yong; Ou, Shiyi; Tan, Yanlai; Tang, Shuze [Department of Food Science and Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Wang, Xingguo; Liu, Yuanfa [School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214112 (China)

    2009-03-15

    A ceramic membrane separation process for biodiesel refining was developed to reduce the considerable usage of water needed in the conventional water washing process. Crude biodiesel produced by refined palm oil was micro-filtered by ceramic membranes of the pore size of 0.6, 0.2 and 0.1 {mu}m to remove the residual soap and free glycerol, at the transmembrane pressure of 0.15 MPa and temperature of 60 C. The flux through membrane maintained at 300 L m{sup -} {sup 2} h{sup -} {sup 1} when the volumetric concentrated ratio reached 4. The content of potassium, sodium, calcium and magnesium in the whole permeate was 1.40, 1.78, 0.81 and 0.20 mg/kg respectively, as determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy. These values are lower than the EN 14538 specifications. The residual free glycerol in the permeate was estimated by water extraction, its value was 0.0108 wt.%. This ceramic membrane technology was a potential environmental process for the refining of biodiesel. (author)

  9. Panorama 2012 - Refining 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marion, Pierre; Saint-Antonin, Valerie

    2011-11-01

    The major uncertainty characterizing the global energy landscape impacts particularly on transport, which remains the virtually-exclusive bastion of the oil industry. The industry must therefore respond to increasing demand for mobility against a background marked by the emergence of alternatives to oil-based fuels and the need to reduce emissions of pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHG). It is in this context that the 'Refining 2030' study conducted by IFP Energies Nouvelles (IFPEN) forecasts what the global supply and demand balance for oil products could be, and highlights the type and geographical location of the refinery investment required. Our study shows that the bulk of the refining investment will be concentrated in the emerging countries (mainly those in Asia), whilst the areas historically strong in refining (Europe and North America) face reductions in capacity. In this context, the drastic reduction in the sulphur specification of bunker oil emerges as a structural issue for European refining, in the same way as increasingly restrictive regulation of refinery CO 2 emissions (quotas/taxation) and the persistent imbalance between gasoline and diesel fuels. (authors)

  10. Directions in refining and upgrading of heavy oil and bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, B.; Parker, R. J.; Flint, L.

    1997-01-01

    The expansion of heavy oil transportation, marketing and refining facilities over the past two decades have been reviewed to show the strides that several Canadian refiners have taken to build up the facilities required to process synthetic crude oil (SCO). Key points made at a conference, convened by the National Centre for Upgrading Technology (NCUT), held in Edmonton during September 1997 to discuss current and future directions in the refining and marketing of heavy oil, bitumen and SCO, were summarized. Among the key points mentioned were: (1) the high entry barriers faced by centralized upgraders, (2) the advantages of integrating SCO or heavy oil production with downstream refining, (3) the stiff competition from Venezuela and Mexico that both SCO and heavy oil will face in the U.S. PADD II market, (4) the differences between Canadian refiners who have profited from hydrocracking and are better able to handle coker-based SCO, and American refiners who rely chiefly on catalytic cracking and are less able to process the highly aromatic SCO, and (5) the disproportionate cost in the upgrading process represented by the conversion of asphaltenes. Challenges and opportunities for key stakeholders, i.e. producers, refiners, marketers and technology licensors also received much attention at the Edmonton conference

  11. Maximising profitability through the use of simulation for new market crudes evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez, Maryro P. [KBC Advanced Technologies, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    There is nothing that contributes more to the cost of production for a refinery than the cost of crude oil and other feedstocks. The efficient and effective evaluation and selection of crude oil to a refinery will have a very significant impact on its profitability. The crude oil selected will impact the utilization and output from different process units, has the potential to impact maintenance and energy costs, and will impact product properties from the refinery. The tools and knowledge necessary for a good new crude evaluation program are addressed as part of this paper. The work process is outlined in detail. Finally, we address some of the risk management issues inherent in processing high margin crudes. Innovative simulation tools like Petro-SIM offer the platform to evaluate opportunities to capture the value that the sour/sweet crude differential and that the new crudes coming in to the market have to offer for a given refinery configuration. The paper provides comments on how KBC's methodology has helped refiners to check their ability to run new challenging crudes. (author)

  12. The US gasoline situation and crude oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    Before and during the United States' summer driving season, concern over the country's gasoline supply can potentially influence the direction of the petroleum market. There are three causes of concern: a persistent lack of gasoline-producing capacity; a patchwork of as many as 18 different kinds of gasoline specifications; and the introduction of stringent new specifications for reformulated gasoline. However, gasoline stocks should be able to meet the needs of this year's driving season, at a time of ample crude oil availability, with strong imports. But, unplanned outages in the US logistics system and refining centres, or major disruptions in external gasoline supplies, could trigger price spikes that would, in turn, lead to frequently stronger crude oil prices, especially with the observed robust oil demand growth in China. (Author)

  13. Efficient utilization of crude glycerol as fermentation substrate in the synthesis of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) biopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    One refined and 2 crude glycerol samples were utilized to produce poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) by Pseudomonas oleovorans NRRL B-14682. Fermentation conditions were determined to efficiently utilize glycerol while maintaining PHB yields. A batch culture protocol including 1% glycerol and an aerati...

  14. Characteristics of bicyclic sesquiterpanes in crude oils and petroleum products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun; Wang, Zhendi; Hollebone, Bruce P; Brown, Carl E; Landriault, Mike

    2009-05-15

    This study presents a quantitative gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of bicyclic sesquiterpanes (BSs) in numerous crude oils and refined petroleum products including light and mid-range distillate fuels, residual fuels, and lubricating oils collected from various sources. Ten commonly recognized bicyclic sesquiterpanes were determined in all the studied crude oils and diesel range fuels with principal dominance of BS3 (C(15)H(28)), BS5 (C(15)H(28)) and BS10 (C(16)H(30)), while they were generally not detected or in trace in light fuel oils like gasoline and kerosene and most lubricating oils. Laboratory distillation of crude oils demonstrated that sesquiterpanes were highly enriched in the medium distillation fractions of approximately 180 to 481 degrees C and were generally absent or very low in the light distillation fraction (boiling point to approximately 180 degrees C) and the heavy residual fraction (>481 degrees C). The effect of evaporative weathering on a series of diagnostic ratios of sesquiterpanes, n-alkanes, and biomarkers was evaluated with two suites of weathered oil samples. The change of abundance of sesquiterpanes was used to determine the extent of weathering of artificially evaporated crude oils and diesel. In addition to the pentacyclic biomarker C(29) and C(30) alphabeta-hopane, C(15) and C(16) sesquiterpanes might be alternative internal marker compounds to provide a direct way to estimate the depletion of oils, particularly diesels, in oil spill investigations. These findings may offer potential applications for both oil identification and oil-source correlation in cases where the tri- to pentacyclic biomarkers are absent due to refining or environmental weathering of oils.

  15. Bitumen still seen as potential anchor on crude prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaremko, G.

    2001-01-01

    Researchers at the Canadian Energy Research Institute have released a 225-page technical report on downstream oil-refining markets entitled 'Markets for Canadian bitumen-based feedstock'. The report claims that 22 of 27 refineries that buy western Canadian production are not planning to improve their ability to process heavy grades of oil any time soon. Instead, investments will focus on complying with environmental requirements for reformulated refined products, particularly to eliminate sulphur impurities in gasoline and diesel fuel. Another focus will be to upgrade raw bitumen output into synthetic crude. It was shown that over the next 7 years, Canadian and U.S. oil markets have the potential to increase growth in bitumen production from 244,000 barrels per day (bpd) to 555,000 bpd. The potential for additional, upgraded synthetic crude oil is even greater, from 450,000 bpd to 806,000 bpd. Increasing the output of synthetic crude oil is considered to be an effective way to reduce North America's reliance on imported oil. Untreated, discount-priced bitumen can replace diminishing Canadian and U.S. production of refinery-ready light oil. The report projects that a US$1-per-barrel discount for Canadian heavy oil would generate sales of 140,000 barrels daily. The effect of a $1 discount would be almost twice as great for synthetic crude oil. Heavy oil sales rely greatly on maintaining a discount off prices for light grades. A $1-per-barrel premium could destroy demand for bitumen-based blends. Moody's Investors Service claims that deep discounting reflects global market conditions, risking Canadian production of heavy oil grades and seasonal lows in demand for bitumen as a raw material for asphalt

  16. US refining capacity for Canadian heavy oil : current overview and future potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paget, S.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation provided an overview of the Canadian oil sands industry and investigated the potential heavy oil refining capacity of the United States. An outline of the first commercial developments of steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) in Alberta's oil sands was provided. Canada's reserves were compared with oil shale and heavy oil reserves in the United States and Venezuela. Influences of Canadian developments from western Canadian conventional crude oil were reviewed, and an oil sands production forecast was provided. Recent refining developments in the United States include delayed coking; catalytic cracking; fluid coking; flexicoking; and LC-fining. However, many oil sand producers are now choosing to upgrade oil, and producers are currently saturating United States markets with heavy crude oil. Canadian crude prices reached $90 per barrel in 2006. Heavy oil pipelines are now being constructed and existing heavy oil pipelines are being expanded. ConocoPhillips is planning to invest $1 billion for a new heavy oil coker, while BP is investing $3 billion for a heavy oil refinery in Indiana which plans to refine Canadian crude oil supplies. However, bitumens from Alberta are volatile in price, and excess Canadian production must be exported. Less than 10 per cent of western Canadian crude has tidewater access, and capital providers are concerned about cost over-runs. In order for the Canadian oil sands industry to succeed, refining capacity in the United States must be expanded, and open access must be provided to the Gulf coast as well as to the Pacific Ocean. tabs., figs

  17. Outlook for Canadian refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boje, G.

    1998-01-01

    The petroleum supply and demand balance was discussed and a comparison between Canadian and U.S. refineries was provided. The impact of changing product specifications on the petroleum industry was also discussed. The major changes include sulphur reductions in gasoline, benzene and MMT additives. These changes have been made in an effort to satisfy environmental needs. Geographic margin variations in refineries between east and west were reviewed. An overview of findings from the Solomon Refining Study of Canadian and American refineries, which has been very complimentary of the Canadian refining industry, was provided. From this writer's point of view refinery utilization has improved but there is a threat from increasing efficiency of US competitors. Environmental issues will continue to impact upon the industry and while the chances for making economic returns on investment are good for the years ahead, it will be a challenge to maintain profitability

  18. Future of French refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvet, B.

    1993-01-01

    Over recent years, the refining industry has had to grapple with a growing burden of environmental and safety regulations concerning not only its plants and other facilities, but also its end products. At the same time, it has had to bear the effects of the reduction of the special status that used to apply to petroleum, and the consequences of economic freedom, to which we should add, as specifically concerns the French market, the impact of energy policy and the pro-nuclear option. The result is a drop in heavy fuel oil from 36 million tonnes per year in 1973 to 6.3 million in 1992, and in home-heating fuel from 37 to 18 million per year. This fast-moving market is highly competitive. The French market in particular is wide open to imports, but the refining companies are still heavy exporters for those products with high added-value, like lubricants, jet fuel, and lead-free gasolines. The competition has led the refining companies to commit themselves to quality, and to publicize their efforts in this direction. This is why the long-term perspectives for petroleum fuels are still wide open. This is supported by the probable expectation that the goal of economic efficiency is likely to soften the effects of the energy policy, which penalizes petroleum products, in that they have now become competitive again. In the European context, with the challenge of environmental protection and the decline in heavy fuel outlets, French refining has to keep on improving the quality of its products and plants, which means major investments. The industry absolutely must return to a more normal level of profitability, in order to sustain this financial effort, and generate the prosperity of its high-performance plants and equipment. 1 fig., 5 tabs

  19. Process for refining hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risenfeld, E H

    1924-11-26

    A process is disclosed for the refining of hydrocarbons or other mixtures through treatment in vapor form with metal catalysts, characterized by such metals being used as catalysts, which are obtained by reduction of the oxide of minerals containing the iron group, and by the vapors of the hydrocarbons, in the presence of the water vapor, being led over these catalysts at temperatures from 200 to 300/sup 0/C.

  20. Panorama 2009 - refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    For oil companies to invest in new refining and conversion capacity, favorable conditions over time are required. In other words, refining margins must remain high and demand sustained over a long period. That was the situation prevailing before the onset of the financial crisis in the second half of 2008. The economic conjuncture has taken a substantial turn for the worse since then and the forecasts for 2009 do not look bright. Oil demand is expected to decrease in the OECD countries and to grow much more slowly in the emerging countries. It is anticipated that refining margins will fall in 2009 - in 2008, they slipped significantly in the United States - as a result of increasingly sluggish demand, especially for light products. The next few months will probably be unfavorable to investment. In addition to a gloomy business outlook, there may also be a problem of access to sources of financing. As for investment projects, a mainstream trend has emerged in the last few years: a shift away from the regions that have historically been most active (the OECD countries) towards certain emerging countries, mostly in Asia or the Middle East. The new conjuncture will probably not change this trend

  1. Refining discordant gene trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górecki, Pawel; Eulenstein, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary studies are complicated by discordance between gene trees and the species tree in which they evolved. Dealing with discordant trees often relies on comparison costs between gene and species trees, including the well-established Robinson-Foulds, gene duplication, and deep coalescence costs. While these costs have provided credible results for binary rooted gene trees, corresponding cost definitions for non-binary unrooted gene trees, which are frequently occurring in practice, are challenged by biological realism. We propose a natural extension of the well-established costs for comparing unrooted and non-binary gene trees with rooted binary species trees using a binary refinement model. For the duplication cost we describe an efficient algorithm that is based on a linear time reduction and also computes an optimal rooted binary refinement of the given gene tree. Finally, we show that similar reductions lead to solutions for computing the deep coalescence and the Robinson-Foulds costs. Our binary refinement of Robinson-Foulds, gene duplication, and deep coalescence costs for unrooted and non-binary gene trees together with the linear time reductions provided here for computing these costs significantly extends the range of trees that can be incorporated into approaches dealing with discordance.

  2. Crude oil pipeline expansion summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-02-01

    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers has been working with producers to address issues associated with the development of new pipeline capacity from western Canada. This document presents an assessment of the need for additional oil pipeline capacity given the changing mix of crude oil types and forecasted supply growth. It is of particular interest to crude oil producers and contributes to current available information for market participants. While detailed, the underlying analysis does not account for all the factors that may come into play when individual market participants make choices about which expansions they may support. The key focus is on the importance of timely expansion. It was emphasized that if pipeline expansions lags the crude supply growth, then the consequences would be both significant and unacceptable. Obstacles to timely expansion are also discussed. The report reviews the production and supply forecasts, the existing crude oil pipeline infrastructure, opportunities for new market development, requirements for new pipeline capacity and tolling options for pipeline development. tabs., figs., 1 appendix

  3. Japan's oil market and refining sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.

    2002-01-01

    The present economic situation in Japan is discussed. In particular, the focus is on fluctuations in oil product demand, imports of crude oil, and the refining industry. Throughout the 1990s, Japan was plagued by a volatile economy and the new millennium has shown no improvement. A prolonged recession means that the country now has little confidence in its leaders and its institutions, consumer confidence is low and asset values have deflated. Due to a low birth rate and long life expectancy, the population is aging and this means lower savings rates. The contrast between the present situation and the so-called economic miracle once enjoyed by the Japanese is hard to accept, but despite all this, the Japanese lifestyle and economy are to be envied

  4. Refining prices and margins in 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favennec, J.P.; Baudoin, C.

    1999-01-01

    Despite a business environment that was globally mediocre due primarily to the Asian crisis and to a mild winter in the northern hemisphere, the signs of improvement noted in the refining activity in 1996 were borne out in 1997. But the situation is not yet satisfactory in this sector: the low return on invested capital and the financing of environmental protection expenditure are giving cause for concern. In 1998, the drop in crude oil prices and the concomitant fall in petroleum product prices was ultimately rather favorable to margins. Two elements tended to put a damper on this relative optimism. First of all, margins continue to be extremely volatile and, secondly, the worsening of the economic and financial crisis observed during the summer made for a sharp decline in margins in all geographic regions, especially Asia

  5. Serious Gaming for Test & Evaluation of Clean-Slate (Ab Initio) National Airspace System (NAS) Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, B. Danette; Alexandrov, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Incremental approaches to air transportation system development inherit current architectural constraints, which, in turn, place hard bounds on system capacity, efficiency of performance, and complexity. To enable airspace operations of the future, a clean-slate (ab initio) airspace design(s) must be considered. This ab initio National Airspace System (NAS) must be capable of accommodating increased traffic density, a broader diversity of aircraft, and on-demand mobility. System and subsystem designs should scale to accommodate the inevitable demand for airspace services that include large numbers of autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and a paradigm shift in general aviation (e.g., personal air vehicles) in addition to more traditional aerial vehicles such as commercial jetliners and weather balloons. The complex and adaptive nature of ab initio designs for the future NAS requires new approaches to validation, adding a significant physical experimentation component to analytical and simulation tools. In addition to software modeling and simulation, the ability to exercise system solutions in a flight environment will be an essential aspect of validation. The NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) Autonomy Incubator seeks to develop a flight simulation infrastructure for ab initio modeling and simulation that assumes no specific NAS architecture and models vehicle-to-vehicle behavior to examine interactions and emergent behaviors among hundreds of intelligent aerial agents exhibiting collaborative, cooperative, coordinative, selfish, and malicious behaviors. The air transportation system of the future will be a complex adaptive system (CAS) characterized by complex and sometimes unpredictable (or unpredicted) behaviors that result from temporal and spatial interactions among large numbers of participants. A CAS not only evolves with a changing environment and adapts to it, it is closely coupled to all systems that constitute the environment. Thus, the ecosystem that

  6. Towards automated crystallographic structure refinement with phenix.refine

    OpenAIRE

    Afonine, Pavel V.; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; Echols, Nathaniel; Headd, Jeffrey J.; Moriarty, Nigel W.; Mustyakimov, Marat; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Urzhumtsev, Alexandre; Zwart, Peter H.; Adams, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    phenix.refine is a program within the PHENIX package that supports crystallographic structure refinement against experimental data with a wide range of upper resolution limits using a large repertoire of model parameterizations. It has several automation features and is also highly flexible. Several hundred parameters enable extensive customizations for complex use cases. Multiple user-defined refinement strategies can be applied to specific parts of the model in a single refinement run. An i...

  7. Towards automated crystallographic structure refinement with phenix.refine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afonine, Pavel V., E-mail: pafonine@lbl.gov; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; Echols, Nathaniel; Headd, Jeffrey J.; Moriarty, Nigel W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, MS64R0121, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Mustyakimov, Marat; Terwilliger, Thomas C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, M888, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Urzhumtsev, Alexandre [CNRS–INSERM–UdS, 1 Rue Laurent Fries, BP 10142, 67404 Illkirch (France); Université Henri Poincaré, Nancy 1, BP 239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Zwart, Peter H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, MS64R0121, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Adams, Paul D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, MS64R0121, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2012-04-01

    phenix.refine is a program within the PHENIX package that supports crystallographic structure refinement against experimental data with a wide range of upper resolution limits using a large repertoire of model parameterizations. This paper presents an overview of the major phenix.refine features, with extensive literature references for readers interested in more detailed discussions of the methods. phenix.refine is a program within the PHENIX package that supports crystallographic structure refinement against experimental data with a wide range of upper resolution limits using a large repertoire of model parameterizations. It has several automation features and is also highly flexible. Several hundred parameters enable extensive customizations for complex use cases. Multiple user-defined refinement strategies can be applied to specific parts of the model in a single refinement run. An intuitive graphical user interface is available to guide novice users and to assist advanced users in managing refinement projects. X-ray or neutron diffraction data can be used separately or jointly in refinement. phenix.refine is tightly integrated into the PHENIX suite, where it serves as a critical component in automated model building, final structure refinement, structure validation and deposition to the wwPDB. This paper presents an overview of the major phenix.refine features, with extensive literature references for readers interested in more detailed discussions of the methods.

  8. Integration with U.S. refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boslett, T.

    2007-01-01

    The production of crude in western Canada is expected to increase significantly in the next 10 to 15 years as the development of oil sands leases continues. In particular, large-scale investments by major oil sands producers have focused on upgrading bitumen to light synthetic crude oil. Major refinery projects in the United States will take advantage of substantially lower capital costs to increase bitumen processing capabilities. In addition, by 2008, new pipeline projects will provide western Canada with more export capacity. The BP Energy Company is investing US$3 billion to increase the refining capacity of Canadian heavy crude at its refinery in Whiting, Indiana, which already has pipeline connectivity and long-term product placement capabilities. The project, which is scheduled to begin in 2011, will increase heavy blend processing capability to 260 thousand barrels per day and produce more than 1.7 million gallons of motor fuel per day. BP's investment has focused on the hydrogen unit, gas oil hydrotreater, hydrotreater revamps, a coker, a modular sulfur recovery unit, a sour water stripper complex, and 62 miles of piping. The refinery in Indiana has an experienced workforce and a greater availability of labor than in western Canada. Production forecasts indicate varying levels of heavy and light production, depending on the amount of condensate imports available. The project team will ensure that the refinery can handle the various levels of total acid number (TAN), sulfur and solids contained in Canadian heavy oils. The project risks are associated with uncertainties regarding production growth and quality; inflation risk as developments costs continue to rise for projects in Alberta; and regulatory risk that can impact bitumen cost. tabs., figs

  9. Alberta oil sands crudes : upgrading and marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashar, M.

    2008-01-01

    Open pit mining and in situ techniques, such as steam stimulation, are used to recover Alberta's bitumen and heavy oil resources, which have higher viscosities than conventional hydrocarbons. The bitumen is typically upgraded to synthetic crude oil (SCO). In the simplest processing scheme, the bitumen is blended with diluent for ease in pipeline transport and then processed at refineries with upgrading facilities. The bitumen is also upgraded to light SCO at world-scale upgraders in Alberta. The SCO is then processed at refineries in downstream markets. The 2 categories of upgrading, notably primary and secondary upgrading, were described in this article along with technology options for both categories. Slurry hydrocracking is regarded as the most interesting emerging residual fuel upgrading technology. It combines special catalyst mixes with the latest slurry reactor designs as well as innovative catalyst capture and recycle schemes to produce very high conversions and potentially superior upgrading economics. The increase in volume and rate of SCO from Alberta provides refiners in the oil sands marketing sector an unprecedented choice of opportunities to improve profitability. Key trends indicate that production will increase substantially from 2008 to 2030. 5 figs

  10. Recovery of uranium from crude uranium tetrafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, S.K.; Bellary, M.P.; Keni, V.S.

    1994-01-01

    An innovative process has been developed for recovery of uranium from crude uranium tetrafluoride cake. The process is based on direct dissolution of uranium tetrafluoride in nitric acid in presence of aluminium hydroxide and use of solvent extraction for removal of fluorides and other bulk impurities to make uranium amenable for refining. It is a simple process requiring minimum process step and has advantage of lesser plant corrosion. This process can be applied for processing of uranium tetrafluoride generated from various sources like uranium by-product during thorium recovery from thorium concentrate, first stage product of uranium recovery from phosphoric acid by OPPA process and off grade uranium tetrafluoride material. The paper describes the details of the process developed and demonstrated on bench and pilot scale and its subsequent modification arising out of bulky solid waste generation. The modified process uses a lower quantity of aluminium hydroxide by allowing a lower dissolution of uranium per cycle and recycles the undissolved material to the next cycle, maintaining the overall recovery at high level. This innovation has reduced the solid waste generated by a factor of four at the cost of a slightly larger dissolution vessel and its increased corrosion rate. (author)

  11. Alberta oil sands crudes : upgrading and marketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashar, M. [Suncor Energy, Fort McMurray, AB (Canada)

    2008-05-15

    Open pit mining and in situ techniques, such as steam stimulation, are used to recover Alberta's bitumen and heavy oil resources, which have higher viscosities than conventional hydrocarbons. The bitumen is typically upgraded to synthetic crude oil (SCO). In the simplest processing scheme, the bitumen is blended with diluent for ease in pipeline transport and then processed at refineries with upgrading facilities. The bitumen is also upgraded to light SCO at world-scale upgraders in Alberta. The SCO is then processed at refineries in downstream markets. The 2 categories of upgrading, notably primary and secondary upgrading, were described in this article along with technology options for both categories. Slurry hydrocracking is regarded as the most interesting emerging residual fuel upgrading technology. It combines special catalyst mixes with the latest slurry reactor designs as well as innovative catalyst capture and recycle schemes to produce very high conversions and potentially superior upgrading economics. The increase in volume and rate of SCO from Alberta provides refiners in the oil sands marketing sector an unprecedented choice of opportunities to improve profitability. Key trends indicate that production will increase substantially from 2008 to 2030. 5 figs.

  12. Recovery of uranium from crude uranium tetrafluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, S K; Bellary, M P; Keni, V S [Chemical Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    1994-06-01

    An innovative process has been developed for recovery of uranium from crude uranium tetrafluoride cake. The process is based on direct dissolution of uranium tetrafluoride in nitric acid in presence of aluminium hydroxide and use of solvent extraction for removal of fluorides and other bulk impurities to make uranium amenable for refining. It is a simple process requiring minimum process step and has advantage of lesser plant corrosion. This process can be applied for processing of uranium tetrafluoride generated from various sources like uranium by-product during thorium recovery from thorium concentrate, first stage product of uranium recovery from phosphoric acid by OPPA process and off grade uranium tetrafluoride material. The paper describes the details of the process developed and demonstrated on bench and pilot scale and its subsequent modification arising out of bulky solid waste generation. The modified process uses a lower quantity of aluminium hydroxide by allowing a lower dissolution of uranium per cycle and recycles the undissolved material to the next cycle, maintaining the overall recovery at high level. This innovation has reduced the solid waste generated by a factor of four at the cost of a slightly larger dissolution vessel and its increased corrosion rate. (author). 4 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  13. European oil refining: strategies for a competitive future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, James.

    1997-07-01

    European Oil Refining investigates how the industry came to be in crisis and what the future holds. As well as an extensive analysis of past and present market shifts, the report predicts likely future developments and their consequences for investors. The report reviews the European oil sector in a global context, calculates the cost to refiners of key environmental legislation, assesses the problems caused by changing product demand and crude supply, examines possible solutions to the problems of low margins and overcapacity, evaluates the key players' main strategies to increase their competitiveness, analyses the western European oil refining industry by country, details the refinery operations of the major countries of central and eastern Europe, profiles 15 of the major oil companies and estimates the increase in investment required as a result of legislative and demand changes. (author)

  14. Future prospects for palm oil refining and modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibon Véronique

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil is rich in minor components that impart unique nutritional properties and need to be preserved. In this context, refining technologies have been improved, with the dual temperature deodorizer, the double condensing unit and the ice condensing system. The DOBI is a good tool to assess quality of the crude palm oil and its ability to be properly refined. Specially refined oils open a market for new high quality products (golden palm oil, red palm oil, white soaps, etc.. Palm oil is a good candidate for the multi-step dry fractionation process, aiming to the production of commodity oils and specialty fats (cocoa butter replacers. New technological developments allow quality and yield improvements. Palm oil and fractions are also valuable feedstock for enzymatic interesterification in which applications are for commodity oil (low-trans margarines and shortenings and for special products (cocoa butter equivalents, infant formulation, ….

  15. Hirshfeld atom refinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelli, Silvia C; Bürgi, Hans-Beat; Dittrich, Birger; Grabowsky, Simon; Jayatilaka, Dylan

    2014-09-01

    Hirshfeld atom refinement (HAR) is a method which determines structural parameters from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data by using an aspherical atom partitioning of tailor-made ab initio quantum mechanical molecular electron densities without any further approximation. Here the original HAR method is extended by implementing an iterative procedure of successive cycles of electron density calculations, Hirshfeld atom scattering factor calculations and structural least-squares refinements, repeated until convergence. The importance of this iterative procedure is illustrated via the example of crystalline ammonia. The new HAR method is then applied to X-ray diffraction data of the dipeptide Gly-l-Ala measured at 12, 50, 100, 150, 220 and 295 K, using Hartree-Fock and BLYP density functional theory electron densities and three different basis sets. All positions and anisotropic displacement parameters (ADPs) are freely refined without constraints or restraints - even those for hydrogen atoms. The results are systematically compared with those from neutron diffraction experiments at the temperatures 12, 50, 150 and 295 K. Although non-hydrogen-atom ADPs differ by up to three combined standard uncertainties (csu's), all other structural parameters agree within less than 2 csu's. Using our best calculations (BLYP/cc-pVTZ, recommended for organic molecules), the accuracy of determining bond lengths involving hydrogen atoms from HAR is better than 0.009 Å for temperatures of 150 K or below; for hydrogen-atom ADPs it is better than 0.006 Å(2) as judged from the mean absolute X-ray minus neutron differences. These results are among the best ever obtained. Remarkably, the precision of determining bond lengths and ADPs for the hydrogen atoms from the HAR procedure is comparable with that from the neutron measurements - an outcome which is obtained with a routinely achievable resolution of the X-ray data of 0.65 Å.

  16. Biodegradation of chlorobenzene using immobilized crude extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-10-04

    Oct 4, 2007 ... immobilized crude extracts were reused for all other experiments and found that immobilization .... India which are of analytical reagent grade. .... 9. 60. 3. 1. Figure 3. Degradation of chlorobenzene by immobilized crude.

  17. Refining and petrochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benazzi, E.

    2003-01-01

    Down sharply in 2002, refining margins showed a clear improvement in the first half-year of 2003. As a result, the earnings reported by oil companies for financial year 2002 were significantly lower than in 2001, but the prospects are brighter for 2003. In the petrochemicals sector, slow demand and higher feedstock prices eroded margins in 2002, especially in Europe and the United States. The financial results for the first part of 2003 seem to indicate that sector profitability will not improve before 2004. (author)

  18. Refining mineral oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1946-07-05

    A process is described refining raw oils such as mineral oils, shale oils, tar, their fractions and derivatives, by extraction with a selected solvent or a mixture of solvents containing water, forming a solvent more favorable for the hydrocarbons poor in hydrogen than for hydrocarbons rich in hydrogen, this process is characterized by the addition of an aiding solvent for the water which can be mixed or dissolved in the water and the solvent or in the dissolving mixture and increasing in this way the solubility of the water in the solvent or the dissolving mixture.

  19. Should upgrading and refining be enhanced in Alberta?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asgarpour, S.

    2006-01-01

    Although world oil prices are rising, the price of bitumen remains stable. It was noted that surplus refinery capacity is disappearing and that skilled labour, infrastructure, transportation systems, environmental management and technology development are among some of the challenges facing heavy hydrocarbon development. Pie charts indicating global reserves of crude oil and heavy crude oil showed that although the Middle East leads in world proven oil reserves, nearly half of the heavy crude oil and natural bitumen deposits are in Canada. As a global energy leader, Alberta is using its' world class expertise to develop the vast energy resources of the province and to market these resources and abilities to the world. This presentation summarized processing activities in Alberta and outlined the markets for petrochemicals. A graph representing North American petroleum supply and demand from 2001 to 2019 was also presented along with a review of Alberta's upgrading and refining capacity and infrastructure opportunities for crude oil, natural gas, petrochemicals and electricity. Alberta's crude oil markets by 2020 are likely to be the Far East, California, Heredity's, Wyoming, Chicago, Cushing, United States Gulf Coast, and the East Coast. The benefits of upgrading in Alberta include inexpensive feedstock, existing upgrader and petrochemical sites and low transportation costs. In addition, more refining capacity in the province would provide market diversification for bitumen products; higher investment and value-added in Alberta; opportunity to provide feedstock to petrochemicals; production of synthetic diluent in the province; and, smaller environmental footprint and greater energy efficiency. The cumulative impact of oil sands development on government revenues was discussed along with the challenge of addressing the issue of a skilled labour shortage, infrastructure needs, and developing a business case for a carbon dioxide pipeline. tabs., figs

  20. Eastern Canadian crude oil supply and its implications for regional energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, Larry

    2010-01-01

    Canada has been blessed with immense energy resources; however, their distribution is not uniform. One such example is crude oil, which is found primarily in western Canada. Eastern Canada, consisting of the six eastern-most provinces (Newfoundland and Labrador, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, and Quebec), produce limited quantities of crude oil, most of which is exported to the United States. Ideally, western Canadian crude oil would meet the demands of eastern Canada; however, the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the absence of oil pipelines means that eastern Canada increasingly relies on supplies of crude oil from a small number of oil exporting countries, many with declining production. This paper examines crude oil production, supply, and its refining in eastern Canada. It shows that crude production in the region has reached its peak and that increasing global competition for crude oil will affect energy security in eastern Canada, either through price increases or supply shortages, or both. (author)

  1. Radiological dose assessment for residual radioactive material in soil at the clean slate sites 1, 2, and 3, Tonopah Test Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    A radiological dose assessment has been performed for Clean Slate Sites 1, 2, and 3 at the Tonopah Test Range, approximately 390 kilometers (240 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The assessment demonstrated that the calculated dose to hypothetical individuals who may reside or work on the Clean Slate sites, subsequent to remediation, does not exceed the limits established by the US Department of Energy for protection of members of the public and the environment. The sites became contaminated as a result of Project Roller Coaster experiments conducted in 1963 in support of the US Atomic Energy Commission (Shreve, 1964). Remediation of Clean Slate Sites 1, 2, and 3 is being performed to ensure that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works on a Clean Slate site should not exceed 100 millirems per year. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline (RESRAD) computer code was used to assess the dose. RESRAD implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines (Yu et al., 1993a). In May and June of 1963, experiments were conducted at Clean Slate Sites 1, 2, and 3 to study the effectiveness of earth-covered structures for reducing the dispersion of nuclear weapons material as a result of nonnuclear explosions. The experiments required the detonation of various simulated weapons using conventional chemical explosives (Shreve, 1964). The residual radioactive contamination in the surface soil consists of weapons grade plutonium, depleted uranium, and their radioactive decay products.

  2. Radiological dose assessment for residual radioactive material in soil at the clean slate sites 1, 2, and 3, Tonopah Test Range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    A radiological dose assessment has been performed for Clean Slate Sites 1, 2, and 3 at the Tonopah Test Range, approximately 390 kilometers (240 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The assessment demonstrated that the calculated dose to hypothetical individuals who may reside or work on the Clean Slate sites, subsequent to remediation, does not exceed the limits established by the US Department of Energy for protection of members of the public and the environment. The sites became contaminated as a result of Project Roller Coaster experiments conducted in 1963 in support of the US Atomic Energy Commission (Shreve, 1964). Remediation of Clean Slate Sites 1, 2, and 3 is being performed to ensure that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works on a Clean Slate site should not exceed 100 millirems per year. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline (RESRAD) computer code was used to assess the dose. RESRAD implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines (Yu et al., 1993a). In May and June of 1963, experiments were conducted at Clean Slate Sites 1, 2, and 3 to study the effectiveness of earth-covered structures for reducing the dispersion of nuclear weapons material as a result of nonnuclear explosions. The experiments required the detonation of various simulated weapons using conventional chemical explosives (Shreve, 1964). The residual radioactive contamination in the surface soil consists of weapons grade plutonium, depleted uranium, and their radioactive decay products

  3. First crude oil from Chukotka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arenbrister, L.P.; Demidenko, K.A.; Zhmykhova, N.M.

    1986-01-01

    The physicochemical properties of the crude taken from Neogene deposits at a depth of 1486-1443 m are analyzed. The oil is distinguished by low contents of sulfur and resinous-asphaltenic substances, a high content of wax, and a high yield of light cuts distilling below 350 degrees C. The naptha cuts have high contents of naphthenes, and the diesel fuel cuts have high cetane numbers, low sulfur contents, and high contents of straight chain paraffins. The vacuum gasoil has a low density, a low viscosity, a low carbon residue and low contents of sulfur and nitrogen. This gasoil is a good feedstock for catalytic cracking and hydrocracking. The Verkhne-Echin crude is classified as light, low-sulfur, lowresin and high-wax. It can be used to produce jet fuels and summer-grade diesel fuels with low sulfur contents, as well as high-V.I. lube base stocks and liquid and solid paraffins.

  4. The price of crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhtiari, A.M.S.

    1999-01-01

    The price of crude oil is among the most important prices quoted daily across the world - which is not surprising, since crude oil is the most widely used source of energy worldwide, as well as being a unique commodity. When petroleum burst onto the world stage in 1859, its price first went through some initial gyrations (1860-70), before settling in the $1.00 - 2.00 per barrel range (barring a few exceptions) for a full century. Then, the price underwent two 'shocks' (1973 and 1980), followed by the 'counter-shock' of 1986. Thereafter, the price entered the relative stability of the $15 - 20 /b consensus, where it lingered until recently. Some day, there is bound to be a fresh paradigm of 'insufficient oil reserves', thus ushering in a new era for oil prices. Taking into consideration available data on reserves and expert analysis, it would seem that that day may be years rather than decades away

  5. 7 CFR 29.3015 - Crude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Crude. A subdegree of maturity. Crude leaves are usually hard and slick as a result of extreme immaturity. A similar condition may result from sunburn or sunscald. Any leaf which is crude to the extent of...

  6. Atlantic Basin refining profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    A review of the profitability margins of oil refining in the Atlantic Basin was presented. Petroleum refiners face the continuous challenge of balancing supply with demand. It would appear that the profitability margins in the Atlantic Basin will increase significantly in the near future because of shrinking supply surpluses. Refinery capacity utilization has reached higher levels than ever before. The American Petroleum Institute reported that in August 1997, U.S. refineries used 99 per cent of their capacity for several weeks in a row. U.S. gasoline inventories have also declined as the industry has focused on reducing capital costs. This is further evidence that supply and demand are tightly balanced. Some of the reasons for tightening supplies were reviewed. It was predicted that U.S. gasoline demand will continue to grow in the near future. Gasoline demand has not declined as expected because new vehicles are not any more fuel efficient today than they were a decade ago. Although federally-mandated fuel efficiency standards were designed to lower gasoline consumption, they may actually have prevented consumption from falling. Atlantic margins were predicted to continue moving up because of the supply and demand evidence: high capacity utilization rates, low operating inventories, limited capacity addition resulting from lower capital spending, continued U.S. gasoline demand growth, and steady total oil demand growth. 11 figs

  7. Radiation treatment of crude drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stock, A.; Gebhardt, G.; Helle, N.; Schuettler, C.; Boegl, K.W.

    1992-01-01

    It may be necessary to reduce microbiological contamination of crude drugs (medicinal plants or their parts like roots, leaves, flowers). This can be done by treating the drugs with ionizing radiation. Meethods for detection of such an irradiation were developed. It could be pointed out that measurements of luminescence, viscosity and electron spin resonance were suitable for specific drugs, but not for all drugs. (orig.) [de

  8. Chromatographic and spectroscopic analysis of heavy crude oil mixtures with emphasis in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Sandra L.; Silva, Artur M.S.; Ribeiro, Jorge C.; Martins, Fernando G.; Da Silva, Francisco A.; Silva, Carlos M.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques used to characterize heavy crude oils, although more focused in the nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as the technique of choice, due to its capability to provide great information on the chemical nature of individual types of proton and carbon atoms in different and complex mixtures of crude oils are described. This review is based on 65 references and describes in a critical and interpretative ways the advantages of the NMR spectroscopy as a main technique to be used in crude oil refining industries that want to characterize crude oil fractions and the obtained refined products. Highlights: ► Chromatogrfaphic and spectroscopic techniques used to characterize heavy crude oils have been reviewed. ► This review describes in a critical and interpretative ways the advantages of the NMR spectroscopy as a main technique to be used in crude oil refining industries. ► The progress in the interpretation of the NMR spectra and of different multivariate data analyses and their potential in the identification and characterization of hydrocarbons and their physical and chemical properties have also been reviewed. - Abstract: The state of the art in the characterization of heavy crude oil mixtures is presented. This characterization can be done by different techniques, such as gas chromatography (GC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), thin layer chromatography (TLC), infrared spectroscopy (IR), Raman spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (MS). Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is the technique of choice due to its capability to provide information on the chemical nature of individual types of hydrogen and carbon atoms in different and complex mixtures of crude oils. The progress made in the interpretation of the NMR spectra with the development of new NMR techniques and different multivariate data analyses could give relevant

  9. Price dynamics of crude oil and the regional ethylene markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masih, Mansur; Algahtani, Ibrahim; De Mello, Lurion

    2010-01-01

    This paper is the first attempt to investigate: (1) is the crude oil (WTI) price significantly related to the regional ethylene prices in the Naphtha intensive ethylene markets of the Far East, North West Europe, and the Mediterranean? (2) What drives the regional ethylene prices? The paper is motivated by the recent and growing debate on the lead-lag relationship between crude oil and ethylene prices. Our findings, based on the long-run structural modelling approach of Pesaran and Shin, and subject to the limitations of the study, tend to suggest: (1) crude oil (WTI) price is cointegrated with the regional ethylene prices (2) our within-sample error-correction model results tend to indicate that although the ethylene prices in North West Europe and the Mediterranean were weakly endogenous, the Far East ethylene price was weakly exogenous both in the short and long term. These results are consistent, during most of the period under review (2000.1-2006.4) with the surge in demand for ethylene throughout the Far East, particularly in China and South Korea. However, during the post-sample forecast period as evidenced in our variance decompositions analysis, the emergence of WTI as a leading player as well, is consistent with the recent surge in WTI price (fuelled mainly, among others, by the strong hedging activities in the WTI futures/options and refining tightness) reflecting the growing importance of input cost in determining the dynamic interactions of input and product prices. (author)

  10. Asian oil refining. Demand growth and deregulation - an uncertain future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sameer Nawaz.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the report is to identify the most important features of the oil refining industry in Asia. Major developments in consumption patterns changes in regional importance of countries are discussed, highlighting potential future developments. The first chapter introduces the various refining processes and presents a simple model for the analysis of complex refineries. Chapter 2 examines the development of the Asian refining industry against a background of economic growth and analyses trends in consumption of all products in Asian countries. In Chapter 3, the key issues concerning the refining industry are examined, among them the forces driving consumption, including the importance of economic development, and electricity and transport demand. The importance of product imports and international trade is discussed, and the extent of government involvement and the effects of changing retail and market prices are analysed. Chapter 4 looks at the strategies that oil and gas companies are following in the Asian refining industry. Particular significance is attached to the vertical integration of the oil majors, Japanese and Middle Eastern oil companies. A brief overview of the importance of the petrochemical industry is presented. The countries of Asia that are involved in the refining industry are profiled in Chapter 5. The future trend in oil consumption is examined in Chapter 6. There follows a brief discussion of the plans to expand crude refining capacity in the various countries and a forecast of the state of overcapacity which will result. In the final chapter, brief profiles of some of the most important companies in the Asian refining industry are presented, discussing their major activities and future plans. (Author)

  11. Law proposal aiming at imposing the domestic consumption tax to the natural gas used for hydrogen generation for petroleum refining purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-04-01

    In France, natural gas benefits from tax exemptions in several situations and in particular when used as raw material for hydrogen generation, which in turn, is used for crude oil refining and fuels generation. However, crude oil is cheaper when it is heavier but more hydrogen, and thus more natural gas, is needed to refine it and more CO 2 is released in the atmosphere. Therefore, refining cheap crude oil increases the refining margins of oil companies but their environmental impact as well. The aim of this law proposal is to impose the domestic consumption tax to natural gas when used in oil refining processes in order to finance the development of the renewable hydrogen industry through the creation of a High Council of Hydrogen Industry. This High Council would be in charge of promoting the development of renewable hydrogen production facilities and distribution circuits, of hydrogen-fueled vehicles, and of fuel cells. (J.S.)

  12. Production of jet fuel using heavy crude oil; Producao de combustiveis de aviacao a partir de petroleos pesados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Om, Neyda [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica; Cavado, Alberto; Reyes, Yordanka [Centro de Pesquisas do Petroleo, Cidade de Havana (Cuba); Dominguez, Zulema [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE)

    2004-07-01

    The production of heavy crude oils increased in the last years in the world. Crude oils with high density, viscosity, acidity and sulfur, nitrogen, metals and asphaltenes contents, by the others hand, low stability and low product quality. The challenger of many refiners is find solutions to refine the heavy crude oils, and produce fuels with certify quality, such as Jet Fuel. The principal aviation technique on the world work with gas turbines engines feted for jet fuel (JET A1). The quality specifications of this fuel are establish by International Norms: ASTM-1655, DEF STAN 91-91-3 (DERD 2494) and joint Fuelling System Check List. The world technologies to obtain jet fuel from mixtures of heavy crude oil with middle crude oils are: Atmospheric distillation, with a posterior hydrogenation and finally the additivation. Studies carried out have demonstrates that the Cubans heavy crude oils is characterized for having API less than 10, raised viscosity, high sulfur content (>6%) and asphaltenes content (more than 15%). These properties provide to its derivatives of low quality. This paper define the characteristic of Cuban heavy crude oil, the technology and operational conditions to produce jet fuel (Jet A1) and the quality of fuel produced. (author)

  13. Benchmark West Texas Intermediate crude assayed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1994-01-01

    The paper gives an assay of West Texas Intermediate, one of the world's market crudes. The price of this crude, known as WTI, is followed by market analysts, investors, traders, and industry managers around the world. WTI price is used as a benchmark for pricing all other US crude oils. The 41 degree API < 0.34 wt % sulfur crude is gathered in West Texas and moved to Cushing, Okla., for distribution. The WTI posted prices is the price paid for the crude at the wellhead in West Texas and is the true benchmark on which other US crudes are priced. The spot price is the negotiated price for short-term trades of the crude. And the New York Mercantile Exchange, or Nymex, price is a futures price for barrels delivered at Cushing

  14. Review on the processes of reduction and refining of metallic vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourao, M.B.; Capocchi, J.D.T.

    1982-01-01

    A literature survey on the processes of vanadium reduction and refining is presented. The results achieved by several research workers are comented. Enphasis is given to the aluminothermic reduction of V 2 O 5 followed by purification of the crude metal in an electron beam melting furnace or by high temperature molten salts electrolitic processes. (Author) [pt

  15. Types of Refined Petroleum Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    These are derived from crude oils through processes such as catalytic cracking and fractional distillation. Examples described here are gasoline, kerosene, no. 2 fuel oil, no. 4 fuel oil, no. 5 fuel oil, no. 6 fuel oil, and lubricating oil.

  16. An in situ survey of Clean Slate 1, 2, and 3, Tonopah Test Range, Central Nevada. Date of survey: September--November 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    A ground-based in situ radiological survey was conducted downwind of the Clean Slate 1, 2, and 3 nuclear safety test sites at the Tonopah Test Range in central Nevada from September through November 1993. The purpose of the study was to corroborate the americium-241 ( 241 Am) soil concentrations that were derived from the aerial radiological survey of the Clean Slate areas, which was conducted from August through October 1993. The presence of 241 Am was detected at 140 of the 190 locations, with unrecoverable or lost data accounting for fifteen (15) of the sampling points. Good agreement was obtained between the aerial and in situ results

  17. Life cycle water demand coefficients for crude oil production from five North American locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Babkir; Kumar, Amit

    2017-10-15

    The production of liquid fuels from crude oil requires water. There has been limited focus on the assessment of life cycle water demand footprints for crude oil production and refining. The overall aim of this paper is address this gap. The objective of this research is to develop water demand coefficients over the life cycle of fuels produced from crude oil pathways. Five crude oil fields were selected in the three North American countries to reflect the impact of different spatial locations and technologies on water demand. These include the Alaska North Slope, California's Kern County heavy oil, and Mars in the U.S.; Maya in Mexico; and Bow River heavy oil in Alberta, Canada. A boundary for an assessment of the life cycle water footprint was set to cover the unit operations related to exploration, drilling, extraction, and refining. The recovery technology used to extract crude oil is one of the key determining factors for water demand. The amount of produced water that is re-injected to recover the oil is essential in determining the amount of fresh water that will be required. During the complete life cycle of one barrel of conventional crude oil, 1.71-8.25 barrels of fresh water are consumed and 2.4-9.51 barrels of fresh water are withdrawn. The lowest coefficients are for Bow River heavy oil and the highest coefficients are for Maya crude oil. Of all the unit operations, exploration and drilling require the least fresh water (less than 0.015 barrel of water per barrel of oil produced). A sensitivity analysis was conducted and uncertainty in the estimates was determined. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparing Refinements for Failure and Bisimulation Semantics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eshuis, H.; Fokkinga, M.M.

    2002-01-01

    Refinement in bisimulation semantics is defined differently from refinement in failure semantics: in bisimulation semantics refinement is based on simulations between labelled transition systems, whereas in failure semantics refinement is based on inclusions between failure systems. There exist

  19. A clean slate. For a future of possibilities; Schonelei. Voor een toekomst van mogelijkheden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luttik, P.; Boosten, G. [Stichting DoTank, Bussum (Netherlands); Smit, H.; Tersteeg, J. [WING Proces Consultancy, Wageningen UR, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2006-12-15

    a situation must be created that is aimed at renewal and innovation. A stimulating environment with guarantees for result driven investments, instead of a system of subsidies that is incomprehensible. We also have to look for new co-operation partners, not based on contracts and demands for specific results, but based on transparency, trust and shared ambitions. Everything has to be directed at the creation of new values. At this moment in time a number of results of the Clean Slate project are being elaborated. [Dutch] De landbouw staat in Nederland onder druk. Ondanks de inspanningen van velen om de agrarische sector in Nederland te laten floreren, is het niet ondenkbaar dat op een termijn van 30-50 jaar (delen van de) landbouw uit (delen van) Nederland zijn verdwenen. Het nadenken over de consequenties van deze ontwikkeling is zeker in agrarische kringen nog taboe. Dit belemmert niet alleen het zicht op nieuwe kansen die door het verdwijnen van landbouw ontstaan, het blokkeert ook de bewustwording ten aanzien van het kostbare dat dan verloren gaat. Het project 'Schonelei' concentreert zich op de kansenkant. Uitgangspunt is een viertal extreme scenario's voor het verdwijnen van de grondgebonden landbouw uit ons land. Die scenario's dienden als inspiratie voor de ontwikkeling van nieuwe concepten of aanzetten daartoe. Dat heeft een rijke oogst opgeleverd. Een negental concepten wordt in het rapport verder uitgewerkt, namelijk: Zeelandbouw (landbouw in zee); Bioport (Nederland niet meer als draaischijf voor fossiele energie, maar voor biomassa); Vraaggestuurde microketens (in tegenstelling tot aanbodgerichte bulkketens); Lokale autonomie (in plaats van centrale voorzieningen); Overbruggend eten (eten als manier om mensen nader tot elkaar te brengen); Nature at your fingertips (natuur aantrekkelijker maken door haar deels te virtualiseren); Waardevol sterven (over een nieuwe beleving van de laatste levensfase); Waardegedreven financiele

  20. Commercial refining in the Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packer, P.

    1999-01-01

    About 9% of the world's oil refining capacity is on the Mediterranean: some of the world's biggest and most advanced refineries are on Sicily and Sardinia. The Mediterranean refineries are important suppliers to southern Europe and N. Africa. The article discusses commercial refining in the Mediterranean under the headings of (i) historic development, (ii) product demand, (iii) refinery configurations, (iv) refined product trade, (v) financial performance and (vi) future outlook. Although some difficulties are foreseen, refining in the Mediterranean is likely to continue to be important well into the 21st century. (UK)

  1. Well-to-wheel life cycle assessment of transportation fuels derived from different North American conventional crudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Md. Mustafizur; Canter, Christina; Kumar, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Development of data-intensive bottom-up life cycle assessment model. • Quantification of well-to-wheel GHG emissions for five North American crudes. • Allocation of emissions to transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel). • California’s Kern County heavy oil is the most GHG intensive of the crudes. - Abstract: A life cycle assessment (LCA) is an extremely useful tool to assess the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with all the stages of a crude oil’s life from well-to-wheel (WTW). All of the WTW life cycle stages of crude oil consume energy and produce significant amounts of GHG emissions. The present study attempts to quantify the WTW life cycle GHG emissions for transportation fuels derived from five North American conventional crudes through the development of an LCA model called FUNNEL-GHG-CCO (FUNdamental Engineering PrinciplEs-based ModeL for Estimation of GreenHouse Gases in Conventional Crude Oils). This model estimates GHG emissions from all the life cycle stages from recovery of crude to the combustion of transportation fuels in vehicle engines. The contribution of recovery emissions in the total WTW GHG emissions ranges from 3.12% for Mars crude to 24.25% for California’s Kern County heavy oil. The transportation of crude oil and refined fuel contributes only 0.44–1.73% of the total WTW life cycle GHG emissions, depending on the transportation methods and total distance transported. The GHG emissions for refining were calculated from the amount of energy use in the refining of crude oil to produce transportation fuels. All the upstream GHG emissions were allocated to gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel. Refining GHG emissions vary from 13.66–18.70 g-CO 2 eq/MJ-gasoline, 9.71–15.33 g-CO 2 eq/MJ-diesel, and 6.38–9.92 g-CO 2 eq/MJ-jet fuel derived from Alaska North Slope and California’s Kern County heavy oil, respectively. The total WTW life cycle GHG emissions range from 97.55 g-CO 2 eq

  2. OPEC's optimal crude oil price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, Manfred

    2004-01-01

    OPEC decided to stabilise oil prices within a range of 22-28 US Dollar/barrel of crude oil. Such an oil-price-level is far beyond the short and long run marginal costs of oil production, beyond even that in regions with particularly high costs. Nevertheless, OPEC may achieve its goal if world demand for oil increases substantially in the future and oil resources outside the OPEC are not big enough to accordingly increase production. In this case OPEC, which controls about 78% of world oil reserves, has to supply a large share of that demand increase. If we assume OPEC will behave as a partial monopolist on the oil market, which takes into consideration the reaction of the other producers to its own sales strategy, it can reach its price target. Lower prices before 2020 are probable only if the OPEC cartel breaks up. Higher prices are possible if production outside OPEC is inelastic as assumed by some geologists, but they would probably stimulate the production of unconventional oil based on oil sand or coal. Crude oil prices above 30 US Dollar/barrel are therefore probably not sustainable for a long period. (Author)

  3. Western Canadian crude oil supply and markets 2002-2010 : Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-08-01

    The forecast of crude supply developed by the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) indicates that additional pipeline capacity from western Canada to existing new markets will be required. A crude market study was undertaken to investigate and assess the potential development of the North American crude markets along with expected western Canadian crude supply growth. The results revealed that additional crude export capacity from Alberta will be required by 2006 or 2007. An analysis of three export pipeline scenarios was carried out: (1) Hardisty to Chicago, with a further extension to Cushing, Oklahoma, (2) Edmonton to the west coast of British Columbia, Prince Rupert, and (3) Hardisty to California. The most attractive aggregate benefits to heavy crude producers would result from a western export pipeline to British Columbia or California. A superior alternative is a pipeline to a deepwater tanker terminal on the coast of British Columbia. The Chicago pipeline option would become more attractive if Midwestern refiners were to expand their capacity to process heavy oil. Declining netbacks associated with sustained growth that is introduced into the market place are reflected in all scenarios over the forecast period until 2010. 1 tab., 23 figs

  4. Naphthenic acid characterization and distribution in crude oils; Caracterizacao e distribuicao de acidos naftenicos em petroleos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Regina C.L.; Gomes, Alexandre de O. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Naphthenic acid corrosion was observed for the first time during the distillation process of some kind of crude oils in 1920. Recent reports about naphthenic acid corrosion have been found in China, India, Venezuela, Eastern Europe, Russia and the USA. In Brazil, heavy and acid crude oil processing is rising. Some brazilian crude oils have TAN around 3,0 mg KOH/g. The presence of relatively high levels of naphthenic acids in crude oils is a bane of petroleum refiners; and more recently, of producers as well, who have reported problems during production with calcium and sodium naphthenate . Essentially, these acids which are found to greater or lesser extent in virtually all crude oils are corrosive and tend to cause equipment failures, lead to high maintenance costs and may pose environmental disposal problems. In order to give these information to PETROBRAS, The Research and Development Center of PETROBRAS (CENPES) has been working in house and with brazilian universities developing analytical technicians to know better molecular structures and distribution of these acids compounds in crude oils. This work presents the actual methods and some results from these developments. (author)

  5. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 412: Clean Slate I Plutonium Dispersion (TTR) Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting the clean closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 412: Clean Slate I Plutonium Dispersion (TTR), located on the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada. CAU 412 consists of a release of radionuclides to the surrounding soil from a storage-transportation test conducted on May 25, 1963. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed in April and May 2015, as set forth in the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 412: Clean Slate I Plutonium Dispersion (TTR), Tonopah Test Range, Nevada; and in accordance with the Soils Activity Quality Assurance Plan. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill data needs as defined during the data quality objectives process. The CAU 412 dataset of investigation results was evaluated based on a data quality assessment. This assessment demonstrated the dataset is complete and acceptable for use in fulfilling the data needs identified by the data quality objectives process. This CR provides documentation and justification for the clean closure of CAU 412 under the FFACO without further corrective action. This justification is based on historical knowledge of the site, previous site investigations, implementation of the 1997 interim corrective action, and the results of the CAI. The corrective action of clean closure was confirmed as appropriate for closure of CAU 412 based on achievement of the following closure objectives: Radiological contamination at the site is less than the final action level using the ground troops exposure scenario (i.e., the radiological dose is less than the final action level): Removable alpha contamination is less than the high contamination area criterion: No potential source material is present at the site, and any impacted soil associated with potential source material has been removed so that remaining soil contains contaminants at concentrations less than the final action levels: and There is

  6. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 412: Clean Slate I Plutonium Dispersion (TTR) Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick [Navarro, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2016-08-22

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting the clean closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 412: Clean Slate I Plutonium Dispersion (TTR), located on the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada. CAU 412 consists of a release of radionuclides to the surrounding soil from a storage–transportation test conducted on May 25, 1963. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed in April and May 2015, as set forth in the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 412: Clean Slate I Plutonium Dispersion (TTR), Tonopah Test Range, Nevada; and in accordance with the Soils Activity Quality Assurance Plan. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill data needs as defined during the data quality objectives process. The CAU 412 dataset of investigation results was evaluated based on a data quality assessment. This assessment demonstrated the dataset is complete and acceptable for use in fulfilling the data needs identified by the data quality objectives process. This CR provides documentation and justification for the clean closure of CAU 412 under the FFACO without further corrective action. This justification is based on historical knowledge of the site, previous site investigations, implementation of the 1997 interim corrective action, and the results of the CAI. The corrective action of clean closure was confirmed as appropriate for closure of CAU 412 based on achievement of the following closure objectives: Radiological contamination at the site is less than the final action level using the ground troops exposure scenario (i.e., the radiological dose is less than the final action level): Removable alpha contamination is less than the high contamination area criterion: No potential source material is present at the site, and any impacted soil associated with potential source material has been removed so that remaining soil contains contaminants at concentrations less than the final action levels: and There is

  7. On Modal Refinement and Consistency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyman, Ulrik; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Wasowski, Andrzej

    2007-01-01

    Almost 20 years after the original conception, we revisit several fundamental question about modal transition systems. First, we demonstrate the incompleteness of the standard modal refinement using a counterexample due to Hüttel. Deciding any refinement, complete with respect to the standard...

  8. Crystal structure refinement with SHELXL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheldrick, George M., E-mail: gsheldr@shelx.uni-ac.gwdg.de [Department of Structural Chemistry, Georg-August Universität Göttingen, Tammannstraße 4, Göttingen 37077 (Germany)

    2015-01-01

    New features added to the refinement program SHELXL since 2008 are described and explained. The improvements in the crystal structure refinement program SHELXL have been closely coupled with the development and increasing importance of the CIF (Crystallographic Information Framework) format for validating and archiving crystal structures. An important simplification is that now only one file in CIF format (for convenience, referred to simply as ‘a CIF’) containing embedded reflection data and SHELXL instructions is needed for a complete structure archive; the program SHREDCIF can be used to extract the .hkl and .ins files required for further refinement with SHELXL. Recent developments in SHELXL facilitate refinement against neutron diffraction data, the treatment of H atoms, the determination of absolute structure, the input of partial structure factors and the refinement of twinned and disordered structures. SHELXL is available free to academics for the Windows, Linux and Mac OS X operating systems, and is particularly suitable for multiple-core processors.

  9. Comparison of crude oil interfacial behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beetge, J.H.; Panchev, N. [Champion Technologies Inc., Fresno, TX (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The bulk properties of crude oil are used to predict its behaviour with regards to treatment, transport and processing. Surface active components, such as asphaltenes, are often used to study or explain critical interfacial behaviour of crude oil. This study investigated the differences and similarities in the interfacial behaviour of the collective surface active component in various crude oils from different sources. The properties of interfaces between crude oil and water were compared using a Teclis drop shape tensiometer. A portion of a crude oil sample was diluted in toluene and contacted with water in a rising drop configuration. Dynamic surface tension and interfacial rheology was examined as a function of time from the early stages of interface formation. Sinusoidal oscillation of the drop volume allowed for the evaluation of visco-elastic behaviour of the crude oil/water interface as it developed with time. The Gibbs elastic modulus, as well as its elastic and viscose components were calculated from the drop shape. The interfacial behaviour was expressed in terms of concentration, oscillation frequency and interface age. It was concluded that knowledge of crude oil interfacial character could be of value in the treatment, transport and processing of crude oils because the its behaviour may play a significant role in crude oil production and processing.

  10. Production and refining. Increase of Chinese petroleum imports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    China produced 156.5 Mt of petroleum in 1996, from which 56 Mt were extracted from the Daqing oil field, exploited since 1960. About 10% of the crude oil comes from offshore fields. Over the 100 Mt refined in 1996, 20 Mt were imported. The Chinese petroleum products demand should increase to 200 Mt/y by the end of the century with respect to 150 Mt/y in 1997. The Dalian refinery, the first Chinese-foreign joint venture, started to work in November 1996 and should reached its full capacity of 100000 b/day in the first quarter of 1997. The Chinese refining activity has now an excess capacity of 206 Mt/y. Several other joint venture projects in petrochemistry are planned in China. Short paper. (J.S.)

  11. Refinery production planning and scheduling: the refining core business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Joly

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent production planning and scheduling are of paramount importance to ensure refinery profitability, logistic reliability and safety at the local and corporate levels. In Brazil, such activities play a particularly critical role, since the Brazilian downstream model is moving towards a demand-driven model rather than a supply-driven one. Moreover, new and specialized non-linear constraints are continuously being incorporated into these large-scale problems: increases in oil prices implying the need for processing poor quality crudes, increasing demand and new demand patterns for petroleum products, new stringent environmental regulations related to clean fuels and start-up of new production technologies embedded into more complex refining schemes. This paper aims at clarifying the central role of refinery planning and scheduling activities in the Petrobras refining business. Major past and present results are outlined and corporate long-term strategies to deal with present and future challenges are presented.

  12. Financial optimisation and risk management in refining activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorenzani, S.

    2006-01-01

    The real options approach has become a benchmark in real assets evaluation and optimal management problems, especially in liberalised and competitive markets such as the oil and hydrocarbon markets. This paper describes how the same approach can be a useful tool for both risk management decisions and the financial optimisation problem. Refineries are black boxes, which can be used for the transformation of crude oil into more refined hydrocarbon products. These black boxes are characterised by operational flexibilities and constraints, which should be optimally managed in order to maximise the refiner's economic goals. Stochastic dynamic programming represents the right mathematical instrument employed to solve the decision-making problem in such an economic environment. (author)

  13. Pushing the dinosaurs[Competition in the refining industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, C B [Ernst and Young/Wright Killen (United States)

    1999-03-01

    The need for change in the business of oil refining is expressed. Since 1981, only three years have yielded high profit margins. The future is said to be in maximising performance from existing assets. In the past, the industry focused on the asset-based strategy of refining crude and getting it into the pipelines as early as possible but apparently the future lies in identifying customer needs and satisfying those needs as quickly as possible. In other words, selling the most product at the highest price. The strategy and tactics for achieving these goals are itemised and discussed. In short, it is essential that oil and gas companies make the transformation from asset focus to customer focus. (UK)

  14. Toxicopathology and immunotoxicology of multiple exposures to diesel and crude oils in cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dziwenka, M.M.; Coppock, R.W.; Khan, A.A.; Hiltz, M.N.; Nation, P.N.; Field, C.J.

    2002-01-01

    The subchronic toxicology of crude and refined petroleum in cattle was examined during the course of a large study in which 40 cattle were gavaged with potable water, winter diesel fuel and crude oil for a period of up to 48 days. Blood samples for clinicopathologic parameters were collected weekly. The cattle were necropsied 22 days following the last dose. Representative tissues were taken from all organ systems for histopathology. It was shown that repeated oral exposure to petroleum products resulted in significant changes in the clinicopathologic and immunopathologic parameters of the cattle without producing significant macro- or microscopic tissue lesions. The liver was a target organ for subchronic crude and diesel toxicity. 5 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs

  15. Prediction of physical-chemical properties of crude oils by 1H NMR analysis of neat samples and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masili, Alice; Puligheddu, Sonia; Sassu, Lorenzo; Scano, Paola; Lai, Adolfo

    2012-11-01

    In this work, we report the feasibility study to predict the properties of neat crude oil samples from 300-MHz NMR spectral data and partial least squares (PLS) regression models. The study was carried out on 64 crude oil samples obtained from 28 different extraction fields and aims at developing a rapid and reliable method for characterizing the crude oil in a fast and cost-effective way. The main properties generally employed for evaluating crudes' quality and behavior during refining were measured and used for calibration and testing of the PLS models. Among these, the UOP characterization factor K (K(UOP)) used to classify crude oils in terms of composition, density (D), total acidity number (TAN), sulfur content (S), and true boiling point (TBP) distillation yields were investigated. Test set validation with an independent set of data was used to evaluate model performance on the basis of standard error of prediction (SEP) statistics. Model performances are particularly good for K(UOP) factor, TAN, and TPB distillation yields, whose standard error of calibration and SEP values match the analytical method precision, while the results obtained for D and S are less accurate but still useful for predictions. Furthermore, a strategy that reduces spectral data preprocessing and sample preparation procedures has been adopted. The models developed with such an ample crude oil set demonstrate that this methodology can be applied with success to modern refining process requirements. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Effect of crude oil and refined petroleum product imports on the national security. Critical technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The report contains the results of an investigation requested under Section 232 of the Trade Expansion Act to study the effect of oil imports on the domestic petroleum industry and on United States energy security. It reviews previous energy security assessments and resulting initiatives, assesses current US energy security, and studies emergency petroleum requirements. The report finds that there have been substantial improvements in US energy security since the last Section 232 Petroleum finding in 1979. However, declining domestic oil production, rising oil imports, and growing dependence on potentially insecure sources of supply raise concerns of vulnerability to a major supply disruption

  17. 7 CFR 29.1010 - Crude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1010 Crude. A subdegree of maturity. Crude leaves are usually hard and slick as a result of extreme immaturity. A similar condition may result from fire-kill, sunburn, or sunscald. Any leaf...

  18. 7 CFR 29.3512 - Crude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3512 Crude. A subdegree of maturity. Crude leaves are usually hard and slick as a result of extreme immaturity. A similar condition may result from firekill, sunburn, or sunscald. Any leaf...

  19. 7 CFR 29.2261 - Crude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing.... A subdegree of maturity. Crude leaves are usually hard and slick as a result of extreme immaturity. A similar condition may result from fire-kill, sunburn, or sunscald. Any leaf which is crude to the...

  20. 7 CFR 30.20 - Crude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crude. 30.20 Section 30.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... unfinished as a result of extreme immaturity. Crude tobacco ordinarily has a characteristic green color. ...

  1. Crude oil growth impact on pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devries, O.

    2005-01-01

    This paper provided an outline of crude oil production and supply in Canada. Details of oil sands projects in Athabasca, Cold Lake and Peace River were presented. A chart of oil sands growth by major project was provided. A list of new emerging oil sands crude types was also presented along with details of a synthetic bitumen blending synergy. Maps of Western Canadian crude oil markets were provided, along with details of refinery and market demand by crude type. Various pipeline alternatives to new markets were examined, with reference to Enbridge Pipeline's supply and capacity. Details of the Hardisty to U.S Gulf Coast Pipeline and the Edmonton to Prince Rupert Pipeline and its terminal and dock facilities were presented. It was concluded that pipeline capacity and seasonal factors will influence market demand, while linefill, crude types and the quality of the product will influence operational strategies. tabs., figs

  2. Refining fast pyrolysis of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, Roel Johannes Maria

    2011-01-01

    Pyrolysis oil produced from biomass is a promising renewable alternative to crude oil. Such pyrolysis oil has transportation, storage, and processing benefits, none of which are offered by the bulky, inhomogeneous solid biomass from which it originates. However, pyrolysis oil has both a different

  3. South Korea - oil refining overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.

    1999-01-01

    Following the economic problems of the 1990s, the petroleum refining industry of South Korea underwent much involuntary restructuring in 1999 with respect to takeovers and mergers and these are discussed. The demand for petroleum has now pretty well recovered. The reasons for fluctuating prices in the 1990s, how the new structure should be cushioned against changes in the future, and the potential for South Korea to export refined petroleum, are all discussed

  4. Adaptive Mesh Refinement in CTH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, David

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports progress on implementing a new capability of adaptive mesh refinement into the Eulerian multimaterial shock- physics code CTH. The adaptivity is block-based with refinement and unrefinement occurring in an isotropic 2:1 manner. The code is designed to run on serial, multiprocessor and massive parallel platforms. An approximate factor of three in memory and performance improvements over comparable resolution non-adaptive calculations has-been demonstrated for a number of problems

  5. Steel refining possibilities in LF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitru, M. G.; Ioana, A.; Constantin, N.; Ciobanu, F.; Pollifroni, M.

    2018-01-01

    This article presents the main possibilities for steel refining in Ladle Furnace (LF). These, are presented: steelmaking stages, steel refining through argon bottom stirring, online control of the bottom stirring, bottom stirring diagram during LF treatment of a heat, porous plug influence over the argon stirring, bottom stirring porous plug, analysis of porous plugs disposal on ladle bottom surface, bottom stirring simulation with ANSYS, bottom stirring simulation with Autodesk CFD.

  6. Classification of weathered crude oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, N.B.; Sjoegren, C.E.; Lichtenthaler, G.

    1987-01-01

    The NORDTEST procedure (1) for oil spill identification has been applied successfully at several occasions. The NORDTEST procedure includes analyses of sulfur (XRF), vanadium and nickel (ICP/AAS), GC, HPLC and UV-fluorescence. The NORDTEST procedure does not include GC-MS as an analytical method. As part of a joint Nordic to evaluate the NORDTEST procedure for oil identification, with participants from Denmark, Sweden, Finland and Norway, thirty artificially weathered crude oils from four geographical regions have been analyzed (2). The analytical methods evaluated include sulfur analysis, vanadium and nickel analysis, infrared analysis, UV-fluorescence, gas chromatography, high pressure liquid chromatography and high resolution GC-mass spectrometry. Figure 1 shows the distribution of variables analyzed in each analytical method. The 190 variables from GC-MS were split into 7 groups according to chemical considerations. These were steranes (25 var.), triterpanes (16 var.), di(+)aromatics (63 var.), sulf. aromatics (30 var.), monoaromatics (19 var.), cycloalkanes (15 var.) and n-alkanes (22) variables. The data from these chemical analyses have been evaluated for use in oil spill identification purposes

  7. Oil refining and product marketing developments in Southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, A.M.

    1991-01-01

    It is estimated that the high growth rate in oil demand in the Asia-Pacific region (excluding Japan) will slow down slightly but still outperform the rest of the world during 1990-2000. This is expected to be true for southeast Asia as well, or more specifically the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). The region's dependence on oil imports from the Middle East will continue for the foreseeable future. Asia-Pacific crude oil production is expected to grow to 6.8 million bbl/d by 1995 and to 7.3 million bbl/d by 2000, meaning that the region will import nearly 50% of its crude oil requirements at both 1995 and 2000. The participation of ASEAN in the production of indigenous crudes in the Asia-Pacific region will increase from 31% in the mid-1980s to 41% by 2000. The Asia-Pacific imbalance between refinery output or supplies and demand patterns will be accentuated during the decade, providing significant opportunities for investments and/or product trading. The region will require upgrading facilities to generate an additional 3.7 million bbl/d of light products in 1995. In the ASEAN countries, surpluses in refined products are expected for 1995. Environmental concerns are following similar trends in the Asia-Pacific region as in the rest of the world, and the proportion of high aromatics gasolines produced will increase as the proportion of leaded gasoline decreases. 6 tabs

  8. Petroleum refining. 5, refinery operation and management; Le raffinage du petrole. 5. Exploitation et gestion de la raffinerie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favennec, J.P. (ed.)

    2001-07-01

    In this volume, the reader will find: an analysis of the refining industry's current environment and economics, including the importance of crude oil, the demand for petroleum products, markets and price setting mechanisms for crude oil and oil products, refining costs and margins, the evolution of the refining capacity and of constraints on the industry; a review of the tools available for optimising and controlling operations; an explanation of material balance management and a description of refinery management and organisation. Contents: I. Background to refining. 1. Oil and Energy. 2. Petroleum products applications, characteristics, markets. 3. International oil markets. 4. Refining: a technical summary investments, margins, costs probable future developments. II. Refining tools. 5. Introduction to linear programming as used in the refining industry. 6. Application of linear programming to refining. 7. Automation, process control and information technology. 8. Applications and their implementation. III. Management and organisation. 9. Management and optimisation of refinery operations. 10. Logistics: transport and dispatch. 11. Functional and organisational analysis. 12. Managerial aspects. Glossary. Index. (author)

  9. Refinement of Parallel and Reactive Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Back, R. J. R.

    1992-01-01

    We show how to apply the refinement calculus to stepwise refinement of parallel and reactive programs. We use action systems as our basic program model. Action systems are sequential programs which can be implemented in a parallel fashion. Hence refinement calculus methods, originally developed for sequential programs, carry over to the derivation of parallel programs. Refinement of reactive programs is handled by data refinement techniques originally developed for the sequential refinement c...

  10. Biodegradability of northern crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, F D; Westlake, D W.S.

    1976-01-01

    Field studies on the microbiological degradation of crude oils encompassed the placing of oil-soaked plots in two areas in the Northwest Territories and Alberta. Replicate plots received amendments of fertilizer, oil-utilizing bacteria, fertilizer plus bacteria or were untreated except for the oil. Changes in microbial numbers and chemical composition of recovered oil were determined periodically. The initial stimulatory effect on bacterial numbers brought about by the addition of fertilizers to oil-soaked plots diminished two years after the application to a point where the differences were no longer significant. Experiments carried out in the Norman Wells area to determine the effect of the amount of fertilizer applied on oil degradation have yielded inconclusive results. The data suggest that at least 2.7 kg of urea-phosphate fertilizer per kl of oil is required to maintain a reasonable oil degradation rate. Preliminary studies on the use of fertilizer coated with chemicals to increase its hydrophobic character indicate that they could be useful in treating wet-land oil spills. Soils from the McKenzie River drainage basin indicate that bacteria are present which can use oil under mesophilic conditions. However, the ability to use the same oil under psychrophilic conditions is more restricted. At least one bacterial species from each mixed population studied was capable of bringing about chemical changes in oil similar to those observed for the original mixed culture. The potential hazards and uses of the seeding of oil spills is discussed relative to the environmental conditions found in the northern part of Canada. 35 refs., 2 figs., 15 tabs.

  11. An aerial radiological survey of the Tonopah Test Range including Clean Slate 1,2,3, Roller Coaster, decontamination area, Cactus Springs Ranch target areas. Central Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proctor, A.E.; Hendricks, T.J.

    1995-08-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted of major sections of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in central Nevada from August through October 1993. The survey consisted of aerial measurements of both natural and man-made gamma radiation emanating from the terrestrial surface. The initial purpose of the survey was to locate depleted uranium (detecting 238 U) from projectiles which had impacted on the TTR. The examination of areas near Cactus Springs Ranch (located near the western boundary of the TTR) and an animal burial area near the Double Track site were secondary objectives. When more widespread than expected 241 Am contamination was found around the Clean Slates sites, the survey was expanded to cover the area surrounding the Clean Slates and also the Double Track site. Results are reported as radiation isopleths superimposed on aerial photographs of the area

  12. Bacterial consortia for crude oil spill remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chhatre, S.; Purohit, H.; Shanker, R.; Khanna, P.

    1996-01-01

    Oil spills generate enormous public concern and highlight the need for cost effective ad environmentally acceptable mitigation technologies. Physico-chemical methods are not completely effective after a spill. Hence, there is a need for improved and alternative technologies. Bioremediation is the most environmentally sound technology for clean up. This report intends to determine the potential of a bacterial consortium for degradation of Gulf and Bombay High crude oil. A four membered consortium was designed that could degrade 70% of the crude oil. A member of consortium produced a biosurfactant, rhamnolipid, that emulsified crude oil efficiently for effective degradation by the other members of consortium. The wide range of hydrocarbonoclastic capabilities of the selected members of bacterial consortium leads to the degradation of both aromatic and aliphatic fractions of crude oil in 72 hours. (Author)

  13. Degradation of crude oil by marine cyanobacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; Vipparty, V.; David, J.J.; Chandramohan, D.

    The marine cyanobacteria Oscillatoria salina Biswas, Plectonema terebrans Bornet et Flanhault and Aphanocapsa sp. degraded Bombay High crude oil when grown in artificial seawater nutrients as well as in plain natural seawater. Oil removals...

  14. Valorization of crude glycerol from biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinović Sandra S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased production of biodiesel as an alternative fuel involves the simultaneous growth in production of crude glycerol as its main by-product. Therefore, the feasibility and sustainability of biodiesel production requires the effective utilization of crude glycerol. This review describes various uses of crude glycerol as a potential green solvent for chemical reactions, a starting raw material for chemical and biochemical conversions into value-added chemicals, a substrate or co-substrate in microbial fermentations for synthesis of valuable chemicals and production of biogas and biohydrogen as well as a feedstuff for animal feed. A special attention is paid to various uses of crude glycerol in biodiesel production. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 45001

  15. Export crudes for the '90s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1992-01-01

    This paper supplies statistical data on the characteristics of Tapais blend (Malaysia), Cold Lake blend (Alta), and Arabian Light (Saudi Arabia) crude oils. Temperature range, API gravity, sulfur percentage, viscosity, nitrogen content, and other data are provided

  16. REVIEW OF PVT CORRELATIONS FOR CRUDE OILS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    win

    approaches that of the fluids used. During the last 50 years, ... applied to crude oils from other regions (Sutton and Farshad,. 1990). ... S. S. Ikiensikimama, Department of Chemistry Engineering, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria. O. Ogboja ...

  17. Data refinement for true concurrency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh Dongol

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The majority of modern systems exhibit sophisticated concurrent behaviour, where several system components modify and observe the system state with fine-grained atomicity. Many systems (e.g., multi-core processors, real-time controllers also exhibit truly concurrent behaviour, where multiple events can occur simultaneously. This paper presents data refinement defined in terms of an interval-based framework, which includes high-level operators that capture non-deterministic expression evaluation. By modifying the type of an interval, our theory may be specialised to cover data refinement of both discrete and continuous systems. We present an interval-based encoding of forward simulation, then prove that our forward simulation rule is sound with respect to our data refinement definition. A number of rules for decomposing forward simulation proofs over both sequential and parallel composition are developed.

  18. Bauxite Mining and Alumina Refining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Neale; Olney, David

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To describe bauxite mining and alumina refining processes and to outline the relevant physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic, and psychosocial health risks. Methods: Review article. Results: The most important risks relate to noise, ergonomics, trauma, and caustic soda splashes of the skin/eyes. Other risks of note relate to fatigue, heat, and solar ultraviolet and for some operations tropical diseases, venomous/dangerous animals, and remote locations. Exposures to bauxite dust, alumina dust, and caustic mist in contemporary best-practice bauxite mining and alumina refining operations have not been demonstrated to be associated with clinically significant decrements in lung function. Exposures to bauxite dust and alumina dust at such operations are also not associated with the incidence of cancer. Conclusions: A range of occupational health risks in bauxite mining and alumina refining require the maintenance of effective control measures. PMID:24806720

  19. Recycling method of rubbish glass, wasted slate and oyster shell; Gan Ca haizai wo riyosuru kenzaiyo glass kuzu oyobi senshoseki kuzu no recycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okawa, A.; Omi, M. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute for Advanced Materials Processing

    1996-03-29

    Examination was made about the method of recycling rubbish glass and Gensho-stone slate, left after the use of construction materials, and oyster shells. In the experiment, quartz powder having the highest softening temperature was used instead of rubbish glass powder, and H3PO4 was used as the additive agent. The Gensho-stone slate was ground in a ball mill into power smaller than 100 mesh. The main constituent of the oyster shell, CaCO3, was subjected to thermolysis for conversion into CaO; and calcium phosphate was used as animal bone powder. The above-said materials as the starting materials were subjected to pressure-forming, and heating was done in the air at 1173K for 7.2ks for the production of sintered pellets. The sintered bodies were left in the air for 30 days and examined for geometrical changes, and it was found that the Gensho-stone slate was the best specimen, with the oyster shell occupying the second place, and that the sintered bodies of bone powder and SiO2 absorbed moisture indicating they were short of serviceability. As for the use of sintered bodies, Gensho stone may be used as material for landscape building while CaO may be used as a Ca ion source in the sea for cultivating seashells. 5 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Effect of oil refining processes on 14 C-tetrachlorvinphos residues in soya bean oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farghaly, M.; Zayed, S.M.A.D.

    1986-01-01

    Crude soya bean oil extracted from grains treated with 14 C-tetrachlorvinphos and stored for 30 weeks was subjected to different refining processes. The effect of commercial refining processes, namely: alkali treatment, bleaching, winterization and deodorization on the nature and magnitude of the originally present residues was investigated. A high percentage (52%) of the residues was eliminated during alkali neutralization. No potentially toxic materials were detected among the identified degradation products. The obtained data showed that the ultimate degradation products were dimethyl phosphate and mono methyl phosphate.2 tab.,2 scheme

  1. The dynamics of crude oil price differentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fattouh, Bassam

    2010-01-01

    Crude oil price differentials are modelled as a two-regime threshold autoregressive (TAR) process using the method proposed by Caner and Hansen [Caner, M., Hansen, B.E. Threshold autoregression with a unit root. Econometrica 2001; 69; 1555-1596.]. While standard unit root tests suggest that the prices of crude oil of different varieties move closely together such that their price differential is stationary, the TAR results indicate strong evidence of threshold effects in the adjustment process to the long-run equilibrium. These findings suggest that crude oil prices are linked and thus at the very general level, the oil market is 'one great pool' (Adelman, M.A. International oil agreements. The Energy Journal 1984; 5; 1-9.). However, differences in the dynamics of adjustment suggest that within this one pool, oil markets are not necessarily integrated in every time period and hence the dynamics of crude oil price differentials may not follow a stationary process at all times. Although the development of a liquid futures market around the crude oil benchmarks has helped make some distant markets more unified, arbitrage is not costless or risk-free and temporary breakdowns in the benchmarks can lead to decoupling of crude oil prices. (author)

  2. The petroleum refining industry and the implications for the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraiva, Gerardo Jose de Pontes

    2000-01-01

    The petroleum refining industry is basically concerned with the production of oil, lubricants and intermediate petrochemical products, utilizing crude oil as its main raw material. Petroleum refining, a distillation process that breaks hydrocarbons into fractions, eliminating undesired impurities, generates irreducible residues. Until the industrial revolution, the residues were essentially organic, susceptible to the attack of agents of destruction and transformation (bacterium, fungi, etc). Suddenly, due to the intensification of human activities of modern man, nature scattered across the planet more resistant products, many of them with long life times, that produce a deeper impact in the environment. Almost entirely marine is the pollution that results from increasing quantity of hydrocarbons dumped into the sea, a problem that is aggravated by the development of manufacturing and transportation of petroleum products. The expansion of the petroleum commerce, using essentially maritime transportation, has increased considerably the probability of accidents increasing the risks of environment pollution. This work presents suggestions and possible solutions to minimize the problem of environment pollution, caused by refining and transportation of this combustible, essential to present time industry. (author)

  3. Refining Nodes and Edges of State Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallerstede, Stefan; Snook, Colin

    2011-01-01

    State machines are hierarchical automata that are widely used to structure complex behavioural specifications. We develop two notions of refinement of state machines, node refinement and edge refinement. We compare the two notions by means of examples and argue that, by adopting simple conventions...... refinement theory and UML-B state machine refinement influences the style of node refinement. Hence we propose a method with direct proof of state machine refinement avoiding the detour via Event-B that is needed by UML-B....

  4. Hillslope response to sprinkling and natural rainfall using velocity and celerity estimates in a slate-bedrock catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaini, Anna; Hissler, Christophe; Fenicia, Fabrizio; Juilleret, Jérôme; Iffly, Jean François; Pfister, Laurent; Beven, Keith

    2018-03-01

    Subsurface flow is often recognized as a dominant runoff generation process. However, observing subsurface properties, and understanding how they control flow pathways, remains challenging. This paper investigates how surface slope and bedrock cleavage control subsurface flow pathways in a slate bedrock headwater catchment in Luxembourg, characterised by a double-peak streamflow response. We use a range of experimental techniques, including field observations of soil and bedrock characteristics, and a sprinkling experiment at a site located 40 m upslope from the stream channel. The sprinkling experiment uses Br- as a tracer, which is measured at a well downslope from the plot and at various locations along the stream, together with well and stream hydrometric responses. The sprinkling experiment is used to estimate velocities and celerities, which in turn are used to infer flow pathways. Our results indicate that the single or first peak of double-peak events is rainfall-driven (controlled by rainfall) while the second peak is storage-driven (controlled by storage). The comparison between velocity and celerity estimates suggests a fast flowpath component connecting the hillslope to the stream, but velocity information was too scarce to fully support such a hypothesis. In addition, different estimates of celerities suggest a seasonal influence of both rainfall intensity rate and residual water storage on the celerity responses at the hillslope scale. At the catchment outlet, the estimated of the total mass of Br- recovered in the stream was about 2.5% of the application. Further downstream, the estimate mass of Br- was about 4.0% of the application. This demonstrates that flowpaths do not appear to align with the slope gradient. In contrast, they appear to follow the strike of the bedrock cleavage. Our results have expanded our understanding of the importance of the subsurface, in particular the underlying bedrock systems, and the importance of cleavage orientation

  5. Process for refining shale bitumen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plauson, H

    1920-09-19

    A process is disclosed for refining shale bitumen for use as heavy mineral oil, characterized by mixtures of blown hard shale pitch and heavy mineral oil being blown with hot air at temperatures of 120 to 150/sup 0/ with 1 to 3 percent sulfur, and if necessary with 0.5 to 3 percent of an aldehyde.

  6. Panorama 2007: Refining and Petrochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, C.

    2007-01-01

    The year 2005 saw a new improvement in refining margins that continued during the first three quarters of 2006. The restoration of margins in the last three years has allowed the refining sector to regain its profitability. In this context, the oil companies reported earnings for fiscal year 2005 that were up significantly compared to 2004, and the figures for the first half-year 2006 confirm this trend. Despite this favorable business environment, investments only saw a minimal increase in 2005 and the improvement expected for 2006 should remain fairly limited. Looking to 2010-2015, it would appear that the planned investment projects with the highest probability of reaching completion will be barely adequate to cover the increase in demand. Refining sector should continue to find itself under pressure. As for petrochemicals, despite a steady up-trend in the naphtha price, the restoration of margins consolidated a comeback that started in 2005. All in all, capital expenditure remained fairly low in both the refining and petrochemicals sectors, but many projects are planned for the next ten years. (author)

  7. Multigrid for refined triangle meshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapira, Yair

    1997-02-01

    A two-level preconditioning method for the solution of (locally) refined finite element schemes using triangle meshes is introduced. In the isotropic SPD case, it is shown that the condition number of the preconditioned stiffness matrix is bounded uniformly for all sufficiently regular triangulations. This is also verified numerically for an isotropic diffusion problem with highly discontinuous coefficients.

  8. Tapping into new markets for heavy crude : sustaining oil sands development in the long term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrage, W.

    2003-01-01

    In 2002, 65 per cent of supply from the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) was shipped by Enbridge to North American markets. A survey of refineries is used by Enbridge to establish expected market demand for oil from the WCSB. An Oil Sands Markets Study was undertaken to provide answers to the following: (1) what volumes to which markets will maximize the value of WCSB production? (2) what mix of raw bitumen, synthetic and fully saturated synthetic best fits the available markets? and (3) what infrastructure expansions, extensions, conversions and new development will be required? Enbridge elected to use the North American petroleum model using Alto's MarketPoint system. It was adapted to evaluate crude oil and refined products. It is expected that by the end of the first quarter of 2003, the preliminary results will be available for review with industry. There are currently 20 crude types identified as available to refineries. All imported crude types will be included. Eight distinct classes of refined products were used: liquid propane gas (LPG), low and high sulphur gasoline, jet fuel, low and high sulphur distillate, asphalt and coke. All major conversion units were modeled for all 150 refineries in Canada and the United States. figs

  9. The Necessity of a Graded Tariff System between Crude Oil and Oil Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, B.R. [SK Corporation, Seoul (Korea)

    2002-06-01

    Even though the graded tariff system between crude oil and oil products has been continuously insisted by oil refining companies since the export and import liberalization of 1997, and its necessity has been admitted by the government, press, and academia, the expanded implementation of the graded tariff system has not been yet realized. Some people says that the graded tariff system between crude oil and oil products is a kind of desperate plans, which oil refining companies suggests to stop the importing companies' rapid growth, so it will eventually restrict the competition of the domestic oil market due to the withering of importing companies. However, the graded tariff system between crude oil and oil products should have been enforced in 1997 as a complementary measure of the import liberalization like other industries or the advanced countries' cases. It is the basic tariff principle that the low tariff is levied on raw materials and the high tariff on final products in order to protect domestic industry. The remaining things are just to form the sympathy and to agree socially for the reorganization of tariff structure in the reasonable way. It is not desirable to make a fool mistake such as a proverb; t is too late to shut the stable door after the horse has bolted. owing to the unreasonable tariff system.

  10. Pengaruh Penambahan Kosubstrat pada Biodegradasi Crude Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Any Juliani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Kegiatan penambangan minyak bumi tidak hanya dilakukan oleh perusahaan-perusahaan besar, tetapi juga oleh masyarakat secara tradisional. Potensi pencemaran lingkungan yang ditimbulkan oleh kegiatan penambangan rakyat ini menjadi lebih tinggi karena pengelolaannya yang tradisional. Salah satu jenis pencemaran yang ditimbulkannya misalnya adalah tanah atau perairan yang tercemar oleh minyak bumi (crude oil pada saat berlangsungnya kegiatan penambangan. Salah satu upaya untuk dapat mengatasinya adalah dengan bioremediasi. Bioremediasi merupakan teknologi pengolahan pencemar dengan memanfaatkan aktivitas mikroba, terutama dari golongan bakteri. Bioremediasi tersebut harus melibatkan bakteri yang memiliki kapasitas metabolic untuk melakukan biodegradasi terhadap crude oil tersebut. Crude oil sendiri pada dasarnya merupakan senyawa hidrokarbon yang merupakan sumber karbon yang kaya bagi mikroba. Namun demikian, biodegradasi crude oil relative lebih sulit dilakukan karena karakteristiknya yang merupakan senyawa dengan berat molekul dan ukuran yang besar. Oleh karena itu penambahan kosubstrat yang lebih sederhana dapat dilakukan untuk membantu biodegradasi terutama pada tahap awal proses. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh penambahan kosubstrat dalam hal ini glukosa terhadap biodegradasi crude oil. Penelitian dilakukan dalam media cair dengan bioaugmentasi melalui penambahan inoculum bakteri yang diisolasi dari tanah yang dikondisikan terhadap crude oil dalam beberapa variasi reactor. Indikasi terjadinya biodegradasi diperiksa melalui pengukuran terhadap parameter Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH dan Total Plate Count (TPC. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penambahan kosubstrat glukosa memberikan pengaruh positif terhadap penurunan TPH. Penurunan TPH tertinggi setelah 28 hari adalah sebesar 25,3 % yang diberikan oleh reactor dengan penambahan kosubstrat serta konsentrasi crude oil awal sebesar 8.1 %. Sementara itu reactor tanpa

  11. Rate of biodegradation of crude oil by microorganisms isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rate of biodegradation of crude oil by micro-organisms isolated from crude oil sludge environment in Eket, Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria was studied. Mineral salt medium supplemented with crude oil was used and three most abundant species isolated from a crude oil sludged soil - Micrococcus varians, Bacillus subtilis ...

  12. Assessment of energy security in China based on ecological network analysis: A perspective from the security of crude oil supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Weiwei; Su, Meirong; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Zhifeng; Chen, Bin; Liu, Gengyuan

    2014-01-01

    Energy security usually considers both the stability of energy supply and security of energy use and it is receiving increasing attention globally. Considering the strategic importance and sensitivity to international change of the crude oil supply, we decided to examine China’s energy security. An original network model was established based on ecological network analysis to holistically evaluate the security of the crude oil supply in China. Using this model, we found that the security of the crude oil supply in China generally increased from 2001 to 2010. The contribution of different compartments in the network to the overall energy security resembled a pyramid structure, with supply sources at the bottom, the consumption sector at the top, and the refining and transfer sectors in the middle. North and South America made the largest contribution to the security of the crude oil supply in China. We provide suggestions to improve the security of the crude oil supply in China based on our results and further scenario analysis. The original network model provides a new perspective for energy security assessment, which can be used as a baseline to develop other models and policy. - Highlights: • Ecological network analysis (ENA) is introduced into energy security assessment. • A model of crude oil supply network in China is established based on ENA. • A pyramid structure of the contributions of different compartments to energy security was found. • Suggestions for forming a stable network are given to improve energy security

  13. Crude oil spot market pricing: Pearsonian analysis of crude oil spot market prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akinnusi, Ayo

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of crude oil pricing before describing a study of sets of 1991 spot market prices, and examining Pearson's model. Empirical distribution characteristics for 14 crude oils are tabulated, and skewness-kurtosis relationship and implication are considered. (UK)

  14. When Will Occur the Crude Oil Bubbles?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Chi-Wei; Li, Zheng-Zheng; Chang, Hsu-Ling; Lobonţ, Oana-Ramona

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we apply a recursive unit root test to investigate whether there exist multiple bubbles in crude oil price. The method is best suited for a practical implementation of a time series and delivers a consistent date-stamping strategy for the origination and termination of multiple bubbles. The empirical result indicates that there exist six bubbles during 1986–2016 when the oil price deviate from its intrinsic value based on market fundamentals. Specifically, oil price contains the fundamentals and bubble components. The dates of the bubbles correspond to specific events in the politics and financial markets. The authorities should actively fight speculative bubbles or just observe their evolutions and speculation activities may decrease, which is favour of the stabilisation of the staple commodities including crude oil price. These findings have important economic and policy implications to recognise the cause of bubbles and take corresponding measures to reduce the impact on the real economy cause of the fluctuation of crude oil price. - Highlights: • Investigate multiple bubbles in crude oil price. • Indicate six bubbles deviate from its intrinsic value based on market fundamentals. • The bubbles correspond to specific events in the politics and financial markets. • Reduce the impact on the real economy cause of the fluctuation of crude oil price.

  15. Comparative toxicology of four crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, L.M.; Hodson, P.V. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology; Brown, R.S. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry

    2003-07-01

    Fish that are chronically exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exhibit dioxin-like toxicity characterized by blue sac disease and the induction of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A). This study compared the relative toxicity of four crude oils (Scotian Shelf, MESA, the synthetic Alberta Sweet Mixed Blend, and Alaskan North Slope Crude Oil), in causing the disease in rainbow trout embryos living in simulated spawning beds with hydrocarbon-contaminated gravel. Each oil had different chemical characteristics and PAH concentrations. The study confirmed the assumption that the Alberta Sweet Mixed Blend would be the most toxic due to its high PAH concentration. The results suggest that the main cause of toxicity in crude oil is due to the presence, concentration, and conformation of specific PAHs.

  16. Forecasting volatility of crude oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Sang Hoon; Kang, Sang-Mok; Yoon, Seong-Min

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the efficacy of a volatility model for three crude oil markets - Brent, Dubai, and West Texas Intermediate (WTI) - with regard to its ability to forecast and identify volatility stylized facts, in particular volatility persistence or long memory. In this context, we assess persistence in the volatility of the three crude oil prices using conditional volatility models. The CGARCH and FIGARCH models are better equipped to capture persistence than are the GARCH and IGARCH models. The CGARCH and FIGARCH models also provide superior performance in out-of-sample volatility forecasts. We conclude that the CGARCH and FIGARCH models are useful for modeling and forecasting persistence in the volatility of crude oil prices. (author)

  17. Forecasting volatility of crude oil markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Sang Hoon [Department of Business Administration, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, 660-701 (Korea); Kang, Sang-Mok; Yoon, Seong-Min [Department of Economics, Pusan National University, Busan, 609-735 (Korea)

    2009-01-15

    This article investigates the efficacy of a volatility model for three crude oil markets - Brent, Dubai, and West Texas Intermediate (WTI) - with regard to its ability to forecast and identify volatility stylized facts, in particular volatility persistence or long memory. In this context, we assess persistence in the volatility of the three crude oil prices using conditional volatility models. The CGARCH and FIGARCH models are better equipped to capture persistence than are the GARCH and IGARCH models. The CGARCH and FIGARCH models also provide superior performance in out-of-sample volatility forecasts. We conclude that the CGARCH and FIGARCH models are useful for modeling and forecasting persistence in the volatility of crude oil prices. (author)

  18. Uranium refining by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraikaew, J.

    1996-01-01

    The yellow cake refining was studied in both laboratory and semi-pilot scales. The process units mainly consist of dissolution and filtration, solvent extraction, and precipitation and filtration. Effect of flow ratio (organic flow rate/ aqueous flow rate) on working efficiencies of solvent extraction process was studied. Detailed studies were carried out on extraction, scrubbing and stripping processes. Purity of yellow cake product obtained is high as 90.32% U 3 O 8

  19. Process for refining naphthalene, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petroff, G

    1922-05-13

    A process is described for the refining of naphthalene, its distillates, and mineral oils by the use of dilute sulfuric acid, characterized in that the oils are oxidized with oxygen of the air and thereafter are treated with 65 to 75 percent sulfuric acid to separate the unsaturated hydrocarbons in the form of polymerized products whereby, if necessary, heating and application of usual or higher pressure can take place.

  20. Bauxite Mining and Alumina Refining

    OpenAIRE

    Donoghue, A. Michael; Frisch, Neale; Olney, David

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To describe bauxite mining and alumina refining processes and to outline the relevant physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic, and psychosocial health risks. Methods: Review article. Results: The most important risks relate to noise, ergonomics, trauma, and caustic soda splashes of the skin/eyes. Other risks of note relate to fatigue, heat, and solar ultraviolet and for some operations tropical diseases, venomous/dangerous animals, and remote locations. Exposures to bauxite dust,...

  1. A Macdonald refined topological vertex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Omar; Wu, Jian-Feng

    2017-07-01

    We consider the refined topological vertex of Iqbal et al (2009 J. High Energy Phys. JHEP10(2009)069), as a function of two parameters ≤ft\\lgroup x, y \\right\\rgroup , and deform it by introducing the Macdonald parameters ≤ft\\lgroup q, t \\right\\rgroup , as in the work of Vuletić on plane partitions (Vuletić M 2009 Trans. Am. Math. Soc. 361 2789-804), to obtain ‘a Macdonald refined topological vertex’. In the limit q → t , we recover the refined topological vertex of Iqbal et al and in the limit x → y , we obtain a qt-deformation of the original topological vertex of Aganagic et al (2005 Commun. Math. Phys. 25 425-78). Copies of the vertex can be glued to obtain qt-deformed 5D instanton partition functions that have well-defined 4D limits and, for generic values of ≤ft\\lgroup q, t\\right\\rgroup , contain infinite-towers of poles for every pole present in the limit q → t .

  2. Refining's-clean new jingle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that at a time when profit margins are slim and gasoline demand is down, the U.S. petroleum-refining industry is facing one of its greatest challenges; How to meet new federal and state laws for reformulated gasoline, oxygenated fuels, low-sulfur diesel and other measures to improve the environment. The American Petroleum Institute (API) estimates that industry will spend between $15 and $23 billion by the end of the decade to meet the U.S. Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990, and other legislation. ENSR Consulting and Engineering's capital-spending figure runs to between $70 and 100 billion this decade, including $24 billion to produce reformulated fuels and $10-12 billion to reduce refinery emissions. M.W. Kellogg Co. estimates that refiners may have to spend up to $30 billion this decade to meet the demand for reformulated gasoline. The estimates are wide-ranging because refiners are still studying their options and delaying final decisions as long as they can, to try to ensure they are the best and least-costly decisions. Oxygenated fuels will be required next winter, but federal regulations for reformulated gasoline won't go into effect until 1995, while California's tougher reformulated-fuels law will kick in the following year

  3. Morphological classification of coke formed from the Castilla and Jazmin crude oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picon Hernandez, Hector Julio; Centeno Hurtado, Aristobulo; Pantoja Agreda, Edgar Francisco

    2008-01-01

    A morphological classification of cokes from the Castilla and Jazmin Colombian crude oils was completed. These heavy-nature crude oils, after being fractioned during the refining stages, were physicochemical characterized and submitted to the coking process. The conclusions of this work are based on the characterization of the feedstock chemical composition according to the type of aromatic carbon. UV visible spectrophotometry and the corresponding micrographs obtained by a Scan Electron Microscope (SEM), in amplification intervals from 100X to 5000X for the samples of formed cokes, were analyzed. Results of this work allowed the determination of the morphological classification intervals in function of the polyaromatic compound concentration ratio (tetraromatic/triaromatic, and diaromatic/triaromatic) of the different coked feedstock. Furthermore, high content of calcium and sulfur in the feedstock promotes morphologies of the associated - shot type

  4. A Combined Remote Sensing-Numerical Modelling Approach to the Stability Analysis of Delabole Slate Quarry, Cornwall, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havaej, Mohsen; Coggan, John; Stead, Doug; Elmo, Davide

    2016-04-01

    Rock slope geometry and discontinuity properties are among the most important factors in realistic rock slope analysis yet they are often oversimplified in numerical simulations. This is primarily due to the difficulties in obtaining accurate structural and geometrical data as well as the stochastic representation of discontinuities. Recent improvements in both digital data acquisition and incorporation of discrete fracture network data into numerical modelling software have provided better tools to capture rock mass characteristics, slope geometries and digital terrain models allowing more effective modelling of rock slopes. Advantages of using improved data acquisition technology include safer and faster data collection, greater areal coverage, and accurate data geo-referencing far exceed limitations due to orientation bias and occlusion. A key benefit of a detailed point cloud dataset is the ability to measure and evaluate discontinuity characteristics such as orientation, spacing/intensity and persistence. This data can be used to develop a discrete fracture network which can be imported into the numerical simulations to study the influence of the stochastic nature of the discontinuities on the failure mechanism. We demonstrate the application of digital terrestrial photogrammetry in discontinuity characterization and distinct element simulations within a slate quarry. An accurately geo-referenced photogrammetry model is used to derive the slope geometry and to characterize geological structures. We first show how a discontinuity dataset, obtained from a photogrammetry model can be used to characterize discontinuities and to develop discrete fracture networks. A deterministic three-dimensional distinct element model is then used to investigate the effect of some key input parameters (friction angle, spacing and persistence) on the stability of the quarry slope model. Finally, adopting a stochastic approach, discrete fracture networks are used as input for 3D

  5. Recent developments, new trends in seed crushing and oil refining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kővári Katalin

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Oil processing was considered as slowly changing “traditional” industry but the recent decades’ developments and trends resulted in a lot of changes initiated by market, industry, environment protection and consumer needs. Driving force of the developments were centralization of the industry, more and more concerns on environmental impact, increased importance of food-feed safety, and last but not least research and development activity together with improved analytical capabilities. The presentation gives an overview on the results achieved on the field of the following areas: the criteria of applicability of physical refining of seed oils, solutions for proper degumming, the effect of seed pretreatment and crushing conditions on the crude oil quality, the importance and role of bleaching and active carbon treatment, the proper practice of deacidification/deodorization.

  6. Crude oil hedging: benchmarking price protection strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krapels, Edward N.; Pratt, Michael

    1998-01-01

    This report presents a review of hedging (protection against a loss) strategies in the crude oil futures and options markets. The introductory section of the report gives details of hedging instruments, and the purposes of hedging crude oil. Hedging strategies including pure futures strategies, pure options strategies, options combination strategies, exotic (Asian) options strategies, and insurance instruments are described. The West Texas intermediate (WTI) market depth, liquidity and hedging effectiveness are examined, and winners and losers, and energy consumers are considered. The appendix gives tables and charts summarising the outcomes of futures and options strategies under different market conditions and expectations. (UK)

  7. Refining economics of U.S. gasoline: octane ratings and ethanol content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshfeld, David S; Kolb, Jeffrey A; Anderson, James E; Studzinski, William; Frusti, James

    2014-10-07

    Increasing the octane rating of the U.S. gasoline pool (currently ∼ 93 Research Octane Number (RON)) would enable higher engine efficiency for light-duty vehicles (e.g., through higher compression ratio), facilitating compliance with federal fuel economy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions standards. The federal Renewable Fuels Standard calls for increased renewable fuel use in U.S. gasoline, primarily ethanol, a high-octane gasoline component. Linear programming modeling of the U.S. refining sector was used to assess the effects on refining economics, CO2 emissions, and crude oil use of increasing average octane rating by increasing (i) the octane rating of refinery-produced hydrocarbon blendstocks for oxygenate blending (BOBs) and (ii) the volume fraction (Exx) of ethanol in finished gasoline. The analysis indicated the refining sector could produce BOBs yielding finished E20 and E30 gasolines with higher octane ratings at modest additional refining cost, for example, ∼ 1¢/gal for 95-RON E20 or 97-RON E30, and 3-5¢/gal for 95-RON E10, 98-RON E20, or 100-RON E30. Reduced BOB volume (from displacement by ethanol) and lower BOB octane could (i) lower refinery CO2 emissions (e.g., ∼ 3% for 98-RON E20, ∼ 10% for 100-RON E30) and (ii) reduce crude oil use (e.g., ∼ 3% for 98-RON E20, ∼ 8% for 100-RON E30).

  8. Design and implementation of a control structure for quality products in a crude oil atmospheric distillation column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo, David; Favela-Contreras, Antonio; Sotelo, Carlos; Jiménez, Guillermo; Gallegos-Canales, Luis

    2017-11-01

    In recent years, interest for petrochemical processes has been increasing, especially in refinement area. However, the high variability in the dynamic characteristics present in the atmospheric distillation column poses a challenge to obtain quality products. To improve distillates quality in spite of the changes in the input crude oil composition, this paper details a new design of a control strategy in a conventional crude oil distillation plant defined using formal interaction analysis tools. The process dynamic and its control are simulated on Aspen HYSYS ® dynamic environment under real operating conditions. The simulation results are compared against a typical control strategy commonly used in crude oil atmospheric distillation columns. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Reducing the cadmium content of crude phosphates and mineral fertilizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plessen, H von; Schimmel, G

    1987-10-01

    Crude sedimentary phosphates generally contain cadmium together with traces of other heavy metals. These Cd traces generally end up in fertilizers produced from the crude phosphates. Processes have therefore been developed to separate the Cd from the crude phosphate or from the crude phosphoric acids arising therefrom as intermediates. In this way, the Cd content of the crude phosphate can be reduced to less the 10% of its original value, and to 50% thereof by extractive treatment with acidic calcium nitrate solution. Older calcination processes for crude phosphate have been improved to give residual Cd contents of 10 to 50% at temperatures of 800 to 1000/sup 0/C. Cadmium can be removed almost quantitatively from crude phosphate by means of dialkyl dithiophosphoric acid esters by extraction, binding to adsorbents, or ion flotation. Cadmium can be extracted from crude acids in high yield by long-chained amines. After partial neutralization of the crude acids, precipitation as cadmium sulphide is also possible.

  10. RESEARCH OF PROCESSES OF FORMATION OF STRUCTURE AND THE PENO-SILIKAT-NATRIEVYH MAIN PROPERTIES OF COMPOSITIONS WITH USE OF THE DEHYDRATED SLATE CLAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Akaev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we review the results of theoretical and experimental researches for revealing the possibility of using local dehydrated slate clay as a temperature- resistant component in the process of making of foam-silicate-sodium compositions. The influence of silicate-block’s module, dispersion and the heating temperatures of the mixture on its solubility have been studied for this purpose. Besides here there were brought the results of research work concerning the influence of the heat treatment temperature and anhydrous silicate of sodium content on shrinking processes of foam compositions with the addition of small porous filler or without it.

  11. Challenges and technological opportunities for the oil refining industry: A Brazilian refinery case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castelo Branco, David A.; Gomes, Gabriel L.; Szklo, Alexandre S.

    2010-01-01

    The worldwide oil refining industry currently faces strong challenges related to uncertainties about future feedstock and characteristics of oil products. These challenges favor two main strategies for the sector: the first strategy is increasing refinery complexity and versatility; the second is integrating the refining and petrochemical industries, adding value to the crude oil while guaranteeing market share to premium oil products. Both strategies aim at increasing production of highly specified oil products, simultaneously reducing the environmental impacts of the refining industry. This paper analyses the case of a Brazilian refinery, Gabriel Passos Refinery (REGAP), by proposing additional investments to alter and/or expand its current production scheme. All the proposed options present relatively low investment rates of return. However, investments in a hydrocracking based configuration with a gasification unit providing hydrogen and power can further improve the operational profitability, due to reduced natural gas consumption.

  12. Phytochemical and antimicrobial screening of crude extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bark and wood parts of the root of Terminalia mollis was investigated for its phytochemical and antimicrobial properties. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of tannins and resins as the major secondary metabolites. Test for antimicrobial activity of the plant crude extracts using the agar diffusion method ...

  13. Biogeochemistry of anaerobic crude oil biodegradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Ian; Gray, Neil; Aitken, Caroline; Sherry, Angela; Jones, Martin; Larter, Stephen

    2010-05-01

    Anaerobic degradation of crude oil and petroleum hydrocarbons is widely recognized as a globally significant process both in the formation of the world's vast heavy oil deposits and for the dissipation of hydrocarbon pollution in anoxic contaminated environments. Comparative analysis of crude oil biodegradation under methanogenic and sulfate-reducing conditions has revealed differences not only in the patterns of compound class removal but also in the microbial communities responsible. Under methanogenic conditions syntrophic associations dominated by bacteria from the Syntropheaceae are prevalent and these are likely key players in the initial anaerobic degradation of crude oil alkanes to intermediates such as hydrogen and acetate. Syntrophic acetate oxidation plays an important role in these systems and often results in methanogenesis dominated by CO2 reduction by members of the Methanomicrobiales. By contrast the bacterial communities from sulfate-reducing crude oil-degrading systems were more diverse and no single taxon dominated the oil-degrading sulfate-reducing systems. All five proteobacterial subdivisions were represented with Delta- and Gammaproteobacteria being detected most consistently. In sediments which were pasteurized hydrocarbon degradation continued at a relatively low rate. Nevertheless, alkylsuccinates characteristic of anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation accumulated to high concentrations. This suggested that the sediments harbour heat resistant, possibly spore-forming alkane degrading sulfate-reducers. This is particularly interesting since it has been proposed recently, that spore-forming sulfate-reducing bacteria found in cold arctic sediments may have originated from seepage of geofluids from deep subsurface hydrocarbon reservoirs.

  14. ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METALS AND CRUDE PROTEIN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UNICORN

    to quantify heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd) and crude protein content of these species that are sold in ... in protein, omega 3 and low fat content. Furthermore ... high levels of cadmium can cause kidney and liver damage in man [6]. Motivation .... analysis. Determination of heavy metals in the edible tissues of the organisms.

  15. 7 CFR 29.2511 - Crude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crude. 29.2511 Section 29.2511 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... leaves are usually hard and slick as a result of extreme immaturity. A similar condition may result from...

  16. Heavy oils processing materials requirements crude processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloley, Andrew W. [CH2M Hill, Englewood, CO (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Over time, recommended best practices for crude unit materials selection have evolved to accommodate new operating requirements, feed qualities, and product qualities. The shift to heavier oil processing is one of the major changes in crude feed quality occurring over the last 20 years. The three major types of crude unit corrosion include sulfidation attack, naphthenic acid attack, and corrosion resulting from hydrolyzable chlorides. Heavy oils processing makes all three areas worse. Heavy oils have higher sulfur content; higher naphthenic acid content; and are more difficult to desalt, leading to higher chloride corrosion rates. Materials selection involves two major criteria, meeting required safety standards, and optimizing economics of the overall plant. Proper materials selection is only one component of a plant integrity approach. Materials selection cannot eliminate all corrosion. Proper materials selection requires appropriate support from other elements of an integrity protection program. The elements of integrity preservation include: materials selection (type and corrosion allowance); management limits on operating conditions allowed; feed quality control; chemical additives for corrosion reduction; and preventive maintenance and inspection (PMI). The following discussion must be taken in the context of the application of required supporting work in all the other areas. Within that context, specific materials recommendations are made to minimize corrosion due to the most common causes in the crude unit. (author)

  17. Waxy crude oil flow restart ability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra, Andre Gaona; Varges, Priscilla Ribeiro; Mendes, Paulo Roberto de Souza [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering. Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mails: prvarges@puc-rio.br, pmendes@puc-rio.br; Ziglio, Claudio [PETROBRAS S.A, R.J., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: ziglio@petrobras.com.br

    2010-07-01

    Under the hot reservoir conditions, waxy crudes behave like Newtonian fluids but once they experience very cold temperatures on the sea floor, the heavy paraffin's begin to precipitate from the solution impacting non- Newtonian flow behavior to the crude (Chang 2000, Lee 2009, Davidson 2004) and begin to deposit on the pipe wall leave blocked of pipeline. This gel cannot be broken with the original steady state flow operating pressure applied before gelation (Chang 1998). Restarting waxy crude oil flows in pipelines is a difficult issue because of the complex rheological behavior of the gelled oil. Indeed, below the WAT, the gelled oil exhibits viscoplastic, thixotropic, temperature-dependent, and compressible properties due to the interlocking gel-like structure formed by the crystallized paraffin compounds and the thermal shrinkage of the oil. The main objective of this work is to determine the minimal pressure to restart the flow, and the relationship between the fluid rheology , pipe geometry and the restart pressure of the flow. Experiments will be performed to investigate the displacement of carbopol aqueous solutions (viscoplastic fluid without thixotropic effects) by Newtonian oil flowing through a strait pipe to validate the experimental apparatus. Therefore, tests will be made with different fluids, like Laponite and waxy crude oils. (author)

  18. Phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial screening of crude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The leaves, stem bark and root bark of Ekebergia senegalensis, which has some traditional medicinal applications were investigated. Phytochemical analysis gave positive results for carbohydrates, glycosides, saponins, tannins and alkaloids. The crude methanol extracts showed growth inhibitory effects on Salmonella ...

  19. Grain refinement of aluminum and its alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaid, A.I.O.

    2001-01-01

    Grain refinement of aluminum and its alloys by the binary Al-Ti and Ternary Al-Ti-B master alloys is reviewed and discussed. The importance of grain refining to the cast industry and the parameters affecting it are presented and discussed. These include parameters related to the cast, parameters related to the grain refining alloy and parameters related to the process. The different mechanisms, suggested in the literature for the process of grain refining are presented and discussed, from which it is found that although the mechanism of refining by the binary Al-Ti is well established the mechanism of grain refining by the ternary Al-Ti-B is still a controversial matter and some research work is still needed in this area. The effect of the addition of other alloying elements in the presence of the grain refiner on the grain refining efficiency is also reviewed and discussed. It is found that some elements e.g. V, Mo, C improves the grain refining efficiency, whereas other elements e.g. Cr, Zr, Ta poisons the grain refinement. Based on the parameters affecting the grain refinement and its mechanism, a criterion for selection of the optimum grain refiner is forwarded and discussed. (author)

  20. Neutron Powder Diffraction and Constrained Refinement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawley, G. S.; Mackenzie, Gordon A.; Dietrich, O. W.

    1977-01-01

    The first use of a new program, EDINP, is reported. This program allows the constrained refinement of molecules in a crystal structure with neutron diffraction powder data. The structures of p-C6F4Br2 and p-C6F4I2 are determined by packing considerations and then refined with EDINP. Refinement is...

  1. Volatility persistence in crude oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, Amélie; Darné, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Financial market participants and policy-makers can benefit from a better understanding of how shocks can affect volatility over time. This study assesses the impact of structural changes and outliers on volatility persistence of three crude oil markets – Brent, West Texas Intermediate (WTI) and Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) – between January 2, 1985 and June 17, 2011. We identify outliers using a new semi-parametric test based on conditional heteroscedasticity models. These large shocks can be associated with particular event patterns, such as the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq, the Operation Desert Storm, the Operation Desert Fox, and the Global Financial Crisis as well as OPEC announcements on production reduction or US announcements on crude inventories. We show that outliers can bias (i) the estimates of the parameters of the equation governing volatility dynamics; (ii) the regularity and non-negativity conditions of GARCH-type models (GARCH, IGARCH, FIGARCH and HYGARCH); and (iii) the detection of structural breaks in volatility, and thus the estimation of the persistence of the volatility. Therefore, taking into account the outliers on the volatility modelling process may improve the understanding of volatility in crude oil markets. - Highlights: • We study the impact of outliers on volatility persistence of crude oil markets. • We identify outliers and patches of outliers due to specific events. • We show that outliers can bias (i) the estimates of the parameters of GARCH models, (ii) the regularity and non-negativity conditions of GARCH-type models, (iii) the detection of structural breaks in volatility of crude oil markets

  2. Systemic toxicity of dermally applied crude oils in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feuston, M.H.; Mackerer, C.R.; Schreiner, C.A.; Hamilton, C.E. [Stonybrook Labs., Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Two crude oils, differing in viscosity (V) and nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) content, were evaluated for systemic toxicity, In the Crude I (low V, low N, low S) study, the material was applied to the clipped backs of rats at dose levels of 0, 30, 125, and 500 mg/kg. In the Crude II (high V, high N, moderate S) study, the oil was applied similarly at the same dose levels. The crude oils were applied for 13 wk, 5 d/wk. Exposure sites were not occluded. Mean body weight gain (wk 1-14) was significantly reduced in male rats exposed to Crude II; body weight gain of all other animals was not adversely affected by treatment. An increase in absolute (A) and relative (R) liver weights and a decrease in A and R thymus weights were observed in male and female rats exposed to Crude II at 500 mg/kg; only liver weights (A and R) were adversely affected in male and female rats exposed to Crude I. In general, there was no consistent pattern of toxicity for serum chemistry endpoints; however, more parameters were adversely affected in Crude II-exposed female rats than in the other exposed groups. A consistent pattern of toxicity for hematology endpoints was observed among male rats exposed to Crude I and male and female rats exposed to Crude II. Parameters affected included: Crudes I and II, red blood cell count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit, Crude II, platelet count. Microscopic evaluation of tissues revealed the following treatment-related findings: Crude I, treated skin, thymus, and thyroid; Crude II, bone marrow, treated skin, thymus, and thyroid. The LOEL (lowest observable effect level) for skin irritation and systemic toxicity (based on marginal effects on the thyroid) for both crude oils was 30 mg/kg; effects were more numerous and more pronounced in animals exposed to Crude II. Systemic effects are probably related to concentrations of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC) found in crude oil.

  3. The hydrogen market in refining and petrochemicals in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, P.; Borel, P.

    1991-11-01

    The french hydrogen market on industrial sites can be divided into three main parts. Captive hydrogen is produced by thermofor catalytic reforming, catalytic cracking and hydrotreating of vacuum distillates, and is consumed in hydrotreating of petrol, hydrodesulfurization of gasoil and domestic fuel oil, hydrocracking and hydrofining of lubricants. By-product hydrogen is burnt in boilers and flare stacks. Merchant hydrogen is sold to users on the open market. Currently, thirteen refineries belonging to six companies produce 73 million tonnes of petroleum products each year in France and release annually a surplus of some 100,000 tonnes of hydrogen. The future of refining industry in France depends on the quality of the crude oil, the specific characteristics of the end products, and the developments in user markets. The refining process is likely to become more complex by 2005 with an increase in hydrogen requirements. Refineries could then undergo an annual deficit between 140,000 and 230,000 tonnes of hydrogen. The choice of the appropriate process to cover this shortfall depends mostly on oil companies strategy. (author). 1 fig., 3 tabs., 3 diagrams

  4. Zone-refining of beryllium(II) acetylacetonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Isao; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Ueno, Keihei

    1975-01-01

    Zone melting was applied to bis (acetylacetonato) beryllium(II), Be(AA) 2 , to remove trace metal constiutents. The effective distribution coefficient, k, of a minor component measured in a binary mixture with the majority of Be(AA) 2 , fell in the range of 0.4 to 0.8, while the value obtained in a multiple component mixture fell in the range of 0.8 to 0.9 except Zn(II)- and Ni(II) chelates. Cr(AA) 3 was concentrated upward in the direction of the zone travelling, and similar results were obtained with Cu(II)-, Co(III)- Fe(III)- and Al(III) acetylacetonates, while Zn(II)-, Ni(II)- and Mn(III) chelates were fractionated in the both ends of the column. On the other hand, when the zone was moved downward, the minor components were concentrated in the lower end of a column. Efficiency in zone refining was compared to each other between the upward- and downward zone travelling modes on the crude beryllium acetylacetonates obtained from a commercial reagent of beryllium nitrate, and the latter mode was found more effective in the concentration of trace components. Discussion was given on possible mechanisms resulting in the difference in the refining efficiency. (author)

  5. Niobium-base grain refiner for aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Pontes, P. da; Robert, M.H.; Cupini, N.L.

    1980-01-01

    A new chemical grain refiner for aluminium has been developed, using inoculation of a niobium-base compound. When a bath of molten aluminium is inoculated whith this refiner, an intermetallic aluminium-niobium compound is formed which acts as a powerful nucleant, producing extremely fine structure comparable to those obtained by means of the traditional grain refiner based on titanium and boron. It was found that the refinement of the structure depends upon the weight percentage of the new refiner inoculated as well as the time of holding the bath after inoculation and before pouring, but mainly on the inoculating temperature. (Author) [pt

  6. Nomograms to calculate stability in slate and granite spoil heaps; Abacos para el calculo de estabilidad en escombreras de pizarra y granito

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paz Freire, M.; Taboada Castro, J.; Rivas Brea, T.; Giraldez Perez, E.; Araujo Fernandez, M.

    2011-07-01

    One of the main problems involved in the mining of slate and ornamental granite is the unavoidable generation of waste rock, which must be stored in spoil heaps under suitably integrated, secure and stable conditions. Our work here focuses on this last point. To study the risk of instability within spoil heaps we have analysed the performance of a wide number of models with regard to circular slope failure, taking into account the different degrees of compactness of the material, the characteristics of the material itself, the effect of water pressure and the geometry of the heap. From this analysis we obtained more than 300 safety criteria, which were then used to draw up a series of nomograms to allow us to determine the risk of sliding in any granite or slate spoil heap. Thus, nomograms prove themselves to be suitable, quick, easy-to-use tools for preliminary studies of new structures, for periodic analyses of existing structures and to investigate structures that are due to be modified. (Author) 24 refs.

  7. Radiological and Environmental Monitoring at the Clean Slate I and III Sites, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, With Emphasis on the Implications for Off-site Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizell, Steve A [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Etyemezian, Vic [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); McCurdy, Greg [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Nikolich, George [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Shadel, Craig [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Miller, Julianne J [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2014-09-01

    In 1963, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly the Atomic Energy Commission [AEC]) implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range [NAFR]). Operation Roller Coaster consisted of four tests in which chemical explosions were detonated in the presence of nuclear devices to assess the dispersal of radionuclides and evaluate the effectiveness of storage structures to contain the ejected radionuclides. These tests resulted in the dispersal of plutonium over the ground surface downwind of the test ground zero (GZ). Three tests—Clean Slate I, II, and III—were conducted on the TTR in Cactus Flat. The fourth, Double Tracks, was conducted in Stonewall Flat on the NTTR. The Desert Research Institute (DRI) installed two monitoring stations in 2008, Station 400 at the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Range Operations Center (ROC) and Station 401 at Clean Slate III. Station 402 was installed at Clean Slate I in 2011 to measure radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions. The monitoring activity was implemented to determine if radionuclide contamination in the soil at the Clean Slate sites was being transported beyond the contamination area boundaries. Some of the data collected also permits comparison of radiological exposure at the TTR monitoring stations to conditions observed at Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) stations around the NTTR. Annual average gross alpha values from the TTR monitoring stations are higher than values from the surrounding CEMP stations. Annual average gross beta values from the TTR monitoring stations are generally lower than values observed for the surrounding CEMP stations. This may be due to use of sample filters with larger pore space because when glass-fiber filters began to be used at TTR Station 400, gross beta values increased. Gamma spectroscopy typically identified only naturally

  8. Application of Markov Model in Crude Oil Price Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuhu Isah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Crude oil is an important energy commodity to mankind. Several causes have made crude oil prices to be volatile. The fluctuation of crude oil prices has affected many related sectors and stock market indices. Hence, forecasting the crude oil prices is essential to avoid the future prices of the non-renewable natural resources to rise. In this study, daily crude oil prices data was obtained from WTI dated 2 January to 29 May 2015. We used Markov Model (MM approach in forecasting the crude oil prices. In this study, the analyses were done using EViews and Maple software where the potential of this software in forecasting daily crude oil prices time series data was explored. Based on the study, we concluded that MM model is able to produce accurate forecast based on a description of history patterns in crude oil prices.

  9. Assessment of Antioxidant Indices after incorporating Crude Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Exposure to crude oil pollution leads to the formation ... vitamin/mineral mixture (5 %). The food ..... hepatic antioxidant enzymes against cadmium induced liver ... Interaction of crude oil with alpha-tocopherol: ... Essential oil from Monodora.

  10. A MODEL FOR DIFFUSION CONTROLLED BIOAVAILABILITY OF CRUDE OIL COMPONENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crude oil is a complex mixture of several different structural classes of compounds including alkanes, aromatics, heterocyclic polar compounds, and asphaltenes. The rate and extent of microbial degradation of crude oil depends on the interaction between the physical and biochemi...

  11. Characterization of CRUDE OILS and petroleum products: (i) elution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of CRUDE OILS and petroleum products: (i) elution liquid chromatographic separation and gas chromatographic analysis of crude oils and petroleum products. E.O. Odebunmi, E.A. Ogunsakin, P.E.P. Ilukhor ...

  12. Asymmetry in retail gasoline and crude oil price movements in the United States. An application of hidden cointegration technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honarvar, Afshin

    2009-01-01

    There is a common belief that gasoline prices respond more quickly to crude oil price increases than decreases. Some economists and politicians believe that asymmetry in oil and gasoline price movements is the outcome of a non-competitive gasoline market requiring that governments take policy action to address 'unfair pricing'. There is no consensus as to the existence, or nature, of the asymmetric relationship between prices of gasoline and crude oil. Much of this literature specifies asymmetry in the speed of adjustment and short-run adjustment coefficients. In contrast, Granger and Yoon's [Granger, C.W. and Yoon, G. 'Hidden Cointegration', University of California, San Diego, Department of Economics Working Paper, (2002).] Crouching Error Correction Model (CECM) identifies asymmetry of the cointegrating vectors between components (cumulative positive and negative changes) of the series. Applying the CECM to retail gasoline and crude oil prices for the U.S., we find that there is only evidence of cointegration between positive components of crude oil prices and negative components of gasoline prices. In contrast to the literature which attributes asymmetric price movements to market power of refiners, these findings suggest that gasoline prices -in the long run- are more influenced by the technological changes on the demand side than crude oil price movements on the supply side. (author)

  13. Molluscicidal activity of crude water leaf extracts of Alternanthera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mortality figures by the use of probit gave LC50 of 40.42 (35.15 – 46.47) for the unevaporated crude water while the evaporated crude water extract had LC50 of 48.07 (42.81 – 54.28) for the dried leaf extract. For the fresh leaves the unevaporated crude water extract had LC50 of 32.57 (27.15 – 39.08) and evaporated crude ...

  14. γ-Oryzanol and tocopherol contents in residues of rice bran oil refining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestana-Bauer, Vanessa Ribeiro; Zambiazi, Rui C; Mendonça, Carla R B; Beneito-Cambra, Miriam; Ramis-Ramos, Guillermo

    2012-10-01

    Rice bran oil (RBO) contains significant amounts of the natural antioxidants γ-oryzanol and tocopherols, which are lost to a large degree during oil refining. This results in a number of industrial residues with high contents of these phytochemicals. With the aim of supporting the development of profitable industrial procedures for γ-oryzanol and tocopherol recovery, the contents of these phytochemicals in all the residues produced during RBO refining were evaluated. The samples included residues from the degumming, soap precipitation, bleaching earth filtering, dewaxing and deodorisation distillation steps. The highest phytochemical concentrations were found in the precipitated soap for γ-oryzanol (14.2 mg g(-1), representing 95.3% of total γ-oryzanol in crude RBO), and in the deodorisation distillate for tocopherols (576 mg 100 g(-1), representing 6.7% of total tocopherols in crude RBO). Therefore, among the residues of RBO processing, the deodorisation distillate was the best source of tocopherols. As the soap is further processed for the recovery of fatty acids, samples taken from every step of this secondary process, including hydrosoluble fraction, hydrolysed soap, distillation residue and purified fatty acid fraction, were also analyzed. The distillation residue left after fatty acid recovery from soap was found to be the best source of γ-oryzanol (43.1 mg g(-1), representing 11.5% of total γ-oryzanol in crude RBO). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A study of the effects of enhanced oil recovery agents on the quality of Strategic Petroleum Reserves crude oil. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabadi, V.N.

    1992-10-01

    The project was initiated on September 1, 1990. The objective of the project was to carry out a literature search to estimate the types and extents of long time interactions of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) agents, such as surfactants, caustics and polymers, with crude oil. This information is necessary to make recommendations about mixing EOR crude oil with crude oils from primary and secondary recovery processes in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Data were sought on both adverse and beneficial effects of EOR agents that would impact handling, transportation and refining of crude oil. An extensive literature search has been completed, and the following informations has been compiled: (1) a listing of existing EOR test and field projects; (2) a listing of currently used EOR agents; and (3) evidence of short and long term physical and chemical interactions of these EOR-agents with hydrocarbons, and their effects on the quality of crude oil at long times. This information is presented in this report. Finally some conclusions are derived and recommendations are made. Although the conclusions are based mostly on extrapolations because of lack of specific data, it is recommended that the enhancement of the rates of biodegradation of oil catalyzed by the EOR agents needs to be further studied. There is no evidence of substantial long term effects on crude oil because of other interactions. Some recommendations are also made regarding the types of studies that would be necessary to determine the effect of certain EOR agents on the rates of biodegradation of crude oil.

  16. Effects of the organic solvents addition about crude oil rheological behavior from 'Reconcavo Baiano' (Brazil); Efeito da adicao de solventes organicos sobre o comportamento reologico do petroleo cru oriundo do 'Reconcavo Baiano' (Brasil)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcanti, Luis A.P. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica; Vieira, Jacyara M.A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia de Minas; Almeida, Yeda M.B.; Sarmento, Sandra M. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The crude oil rheological properties are quite important in its transport and refining processes. They can affect the head losses and, thus, the pressure within a refining unit. These properties can be affected by the temperature and the chemical composition as well as by solvents added to the crude oil. The current work studied the rheological behaviour of both a crude oil from the Reconcavo Baiano (Brazil) and mixture of this crude oil with organic solvents (toluene and xylene). The solvent type and concentration effects on the rheological parameters, were studied. The Brookfield viscometer, model LDVD-II, was used. The results brought to light that the crude oil and the crude oil-solvent mixtures behaved, discretely, as thixotropic fluids. The model of Herschel-Bulkley for viscoplastic fluid was the best in fitting the experimental data for both crude oil and crude oil - solvent mixture. The toluene was found to be more efficient in reducing both the apparent viscosity and apparent yield stress of the crude oil than the xylene for a given concentration. The solvent concentration affects indirectly the rheological properties of the crude oil. (author)

  17. Lactic acid fermentation of crude sorghum extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuel, W.A.; Lee, Y.Y.; Anthony, W.B.

    1980-04-01

    Crude extract from sweet sorghum supplemented with vetch juice was utilized as the carbohydrate source for fermentative production of lactic acid. Fermentation of media containing 7% (w/v) total sugar was completed in 60-80 hours by Lactobacillus plantarum, product yield averaging 85%. Maximum acid production rates were dependent on pH, initial substrate distribution, and concentration, the rates varying from 2 to 5 g/liter per hour. Under limited medium supplementation the lactic acid yield was lowered to 67%. The fermented ammoniated product contained over eight times as much equivalent crude protein (N x 6.25) as the original medium. Unstructured kinetic models were developed for cell growth, lactic acid formation, and substrate consumption in batch fermentation. With the provision of experimentally determined kinetic parameters, the proposed models accurately described the fermentation process. 15 references.

  18. Tanker spills Norwegian crude oil off Shetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports that crude oil was spilling last week from the U.S. owned Braer tanker after the 89,000 dwt vessel ran aground on the south end of Scotland's Shetland Islands. Workers were trying to assess the extent of damage to the tanker, shoreline, and wildlife after the January 5 accident. Braer's cargo amounted to 607,000 bbl of Norwegian oil bound for Canada. Braer loaded its cargo and sailed January 3 from Den norske stats oljeselskap AS's Mongstad, Norway, terminal with crude from Gullfaks field in the Norwegian North Sea. The $11 million shipment was destined for Ultramar Canada Inc.'s 125,000 b/d refinery at St. Romuald, Que

  19. Electrical desalting - preparing of the crude oil for further processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asadi, Nadija; Minovski, Mino; Sokolovski, Aleksandar

    1999-01-01

    Desalting as well as dewatering of the crude oil is important preparing process, which takes place in crude units on the refinery plants. One of the most efficient ways of desalting is use of high voltage electricity. In this work attention is paid on the principals of this process, illustrated with practically gained results from the OKTA Crude Oil Refinery in Macedonia. (Original)

  20. Bioremediation of crude oil contaminated tea plantation soil using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crude oil contamination of soil is a major concern for tea industry in Assam, India. Crude oil is a persistent organic contaminant which alters soil physical and biochemical characteristics and makes tea plants more susceptible against crude oil contamination. Therefore, two native bacterial strains designated as AS 03 and ...

  1. 10 CFR 212.78 - Tertiary incentive crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tertiary incentive crude oil. 212.78 Section 212.78 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL MANDATORY PETROLEUM PRICE REGULATIONS Producers of Crude Oil § 212.78 Tertiary incentive crude oil. Annual prepaid expenses report. By January 31 of each year after 1980, the project...

  2. Materials refining on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2007-05-01

    Oxygen, metals, silicon, and glass are raw materials that will be required for long-term habitation and production of structural materials and solar arrays on the Moon. A process sequence is proposed for refining these materials from lunar regolith, consisting of separating the required materials from lunar rock with fluorine. The fluorine is brought to the Moon in the form of potassium fluoride, and is liberated from the salt by electrolysis in a eutectic salt melt. Tetrafluorosilane produced by this process is reduced to silicon by a plasma reduction stage; the fluorine salts are reduced to metals by reaction with metallic potassium. Fluorine is recovered from residual MgF and CaF2 by reaction with K2O.

  3. Adaptive mesh refinement in titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colella, Phillip; Wen, Tong

    2005-01-21

    In this paper, we evaluate Titanium's usability as a high-level parallel programming language through a case study, where we implement a subset of Chombo's functionality in Titanium. Chombo is a software package applying the Adaptive Mesh Refinement methodology to numerical Partial Differential Equations at the production level. In Chombo, the library approach is used to parallel programming (C++ and Fortran, with MPI), whereas Titanium is a Java dialect designed for high-performance scientific computing. The performance of our implementation is studied and compared with that of Chombo in solving Poisson's equation based on two grid configurations from a real application. Also provided are the counts of lines of code from both sides.

  4. Refining shale-oil distillates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altpeter, J

    1952-03-17

    A process is described for refining distillates from shale oil, brown coal, tar, and other tar products by extraction with selective solvents, such as lower alcohols, halogen-hydrins, dichlorodiethyl ether, liquid sulfur dioxide, and so forth, as well as treating with alkali solution, characterized in that the distillate is first treated with completely or almost completely recovered phenol or cresotate solution, the oil is separated from the phenolate with solvent, for example concentrated or adjusted to a determined water content of lower alcohol, furfural, halogen-hydrin, dichlorodiethyl ether, liquid sulfur dioxide, or the like, extracted, and the raffinate separated from the extract layer, if necessary after distillation or washing out of solvent, and freeing with alkali solution from residual phenol or creosol.

  5. Law proposal aiming at imposing the domestic consumption tax to the natural gas used for hydrogen generation for petroleum refining purposes; Proposition de loi visant a soumettre a la taxe interieure de consommation le gaz naturel utilise pour la production d'hydrogene a des fins de raffinage petrolier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-04-15

    In France, natural gas benefits from tax exemptions in several situations and in particular when used as raw material for hydrogen generation, which in turn, is used for crude oil refining and fuels generation. However, crude oil is cheaper when it is heavier but more hydrogen, and thus more natural gas, is needed to refine it and more CO{sub 2} is released in the atmosphere. Therefore, refining cheap crude oil increases the refining margins of oil companies but their environmental impact as well. The aim of this law proposal is to impose the domestic consumption tax to natural gas when used in oil refining processes in order to finance the development of the renewable hydrogen industry through the creation of a High Council of Hydrogen Industry. This High Council would be in charge of promoting the development of renewable hydrogen production facilities and distribution circuits, of hydrogen-fueled vehicles, and of fuel cells. (J.S.)

  6. Experimental and modelling studies on continuous synthesis and refining of biodiesel in a dedicated bench scale unit using centrifugal contactor separator technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abduh, Muhammad Yusuf; Martinez, Alberto Fernandez; Kloekhorst, Arjan; Manurung, Robert; Heeres, Hero J.

    Continuous synthesis and refining of biodiesel (FAME) using a laboratory scale bench scale unit was explored. The unit consists of three major parts: (i) a continuous centrifugal contactor separator (CCCS) to perform the reaction between sunflower oil and methanol; (ii) a washing unit for the crude

  7. Wax deposition in crude oil pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assuncao, Pablo Morelato; Rodrigues, Lorennzo Marrochi Nolding [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Sao Mateus, ES (Brazil). Centro Universitario Norte do Espirito Santo. Engenharia de Petroleo; Romero, Mao Ilich [University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Enhanced Oil Recovery Institute], e-mail: mromerov@uwyo.edu

    2010-07-01

    Crude oil is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons which consists of aromatics, paraffins, naphthenics, resins asphaltenes, etc. When the temperature of crude oil is reduced, the heavy components, like paraffin, will precipitate and deposit on the pipe internal wall in the form of a wax-oil gel. The gel deposit consists of wax crystals that trap some amount of oil. As the temperature gets cooler, more wax will precipitate and the thickness of the wax gel will increase, causing gradual solidification of the crude and eventually the oil stop moving inside the offshore pipeline. Crude oil may not be able to be re-mobilized during re-startup. The effective diameter will be reduced with wax deposition, resulting in several problems, for example, higher pressure drop which means additional pumping energy costs, poor oil quality, use of chemical components like precipitation inhibitors or flowing facilitators, equipment failure, risk of leakage, clogging of the ducts and process equipment. Wax deposition problems can become so sever that the whole pipeline can be completely blocked. It would cost millions of dollars to remediate an offshore pipeline that is blocked by wax. Wax solubility decreases drastically with decreasing temperature. At low temperatures, as encountered in deep water production, is easy to wax precipitate. The highest temperature below which the paraffins begins to precipitate as wax crystals is defined as wax appearance temperature (WAT). Deposition process is a complex free surface problem involving thermodynamics, fluid dynamics, mass and heat transfer. In this work, a numerical analysis of wax deposition by molecular diffusion and shear dispersion mechanisms in crude oil pipeline is studied. Diffusion flux of wax toward the wall is estimated by Fick's law of diffusion, in similar way the shear dispersion; wax concentration gradient at the solid-liquid interface is obtained by the volume fraction conservation equation; and since the wax deposition

  8. DOE/DOT Crude Oil Characterization Research Study, Task 2 Test Report on Evaluating Crude Oil Sampling and Analysis Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lord, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Allen, Ray [Allen Energy Services, Inc., Longview, TX (United States); Rudeen, David [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-11-01

    The Crude Oil Characterization Research Study is designed to evaluate whether crude oils currently transported in North America, including those produced from "tight" formations, exhibit physical or chemical properties that are distinct from conventional crudes, and how these properties associate with combustion hazards with may be realized during transportation and handling.

  9. How much crude oil can zooplankton ingest? Estimating the quantity of dispersed crude oil defecated by planktonic copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Connelly, Tara L.; Buskey, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    % of the analyzed fecal pellets from three species of copepods and a natural copepod assemblage exposed for 48 h to physically or chemically dispersed light crude oil contained crude oil droplets. Crude oil droplets inside fecal pellets were smaller (median diameter: 2.4-3.5 mu m) than droplets in the physically...

  10. Ultrasound Assisted Synthesis of Hydroxylated Soybean Lecithin from Crude Soybean Lecithin as an Emulsifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiplunkar, Pranali P; Pratap, Amit P

    2017-10-01

    Soybean lecithin is a by-product obtained during degumming step of crude soybean oil refining. Crude soybean lecithin (CSL) contains major amount of phospholipids (PLs) along with minor amount of acylglycerols, bioactive components, etc. Due to presence of PLs, CSL can be used as an emulsifier. Crude soybean lecithin (CSL) was utilized to synthesize hydroxylated soybean lecithin (HSL) by hydroxylation using hydrogen peroxide and catalytic amount of lactic acid to enhance the hydrophilicity and emulsifying properties of CSL. To reduce the reaction time and to increase rate of reaction, HSL was synthesized under ultrasound irradiation. The effect of different operating parameters such as lactic acid, hydrogen peroxide, temperature, ultrasonic power and duty cycle in synthesis of HSL were studied and optimized. The surface tension (SFT), interfacial tension (IFT) and the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of the HSL (26.11 mN/m, 2.67 mN/m, 112 mg/L) were compared to CSL (37.53 mN/m, 6.22 mN/m, 291 mg/L) respectively. The HSL has better emulsion stability and low foaming characteristics as compared to CSL. Therefore, the product as an effective emulsifier can be used in food, pharmacy, lubricant, cosmetics, etc.

  11. Workshop Papers: Directions and Marketing of Synthetic Crude Oil and Heavy Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This workshop was organized by the National Centre for Upgrading Technology in an effort to bring together experts from the various sectors of the petroleum industry to outline their views of the directions that the synthetic crude oil market will pursue over the next decade and into the 21. century. The motivation for the Workshop came from the many announcements during 1996 and 1997 by several Canadian oil companies about plans to initiate or expand their heavy oil and synthetic crude production. During the same period, at least one US refiner also announced plans to revamp an existing refinery to allow it to process Canadian heavy oil and synthetic crude. The workshop was organized to review these plans and to discuss such questions as (1) Would the selected technologies be the familiar carbon rejection or hydrogen addition methods, or would there be radical advanced technologies? (2) Would the products be fully or partially upgraded? (3) How would they be processed in the refinery? (4) Would there be a market? This collection of papers or viewgraphs comprise all the formal presentations given at the workshop. The final section also contains the edited notes recorded during the question and answer periods. refs., tabs., figs

  12. GC/MS determination of bicyclic sesquiterpanes in crude oils and petroleum products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.; Wang, Z.; Hollebone, B.; Brown, C.E.; Landriault, M.

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted in which sesquiterpanes, a component of crude oils and petroleum products, were identified and characterized in an effort to determine the feasibility of using them as biomarkers for fingerprinting and identifying unknown lighter petroleum product spills. The study compared the distributions of sesquiterpanes in different oils, oil distillation fractions and refined products, including light and mid-range distillate fuels, residual fuels and lubricating oils. Evaporative weathering effects on sesquiterpane distribution and concentration were quantitatively studied and several diagnostic indices of sesquiterpane were developed for oil correlation and differentiation. Bicyclic sesquiterpanes in crude oils and oil products have much different abundances and distributions. Therefore, the relevant sesquiterpane ratios are different. Bicyclic sesquiterpanes are mostly partitioned into the medium distillation fractions. The study showed that concentrations of sesquiterpanes in crude oil and diesel fuel increase in proportion with the increase of weathering percentages. Relevant diagnostic ratios therefore remained stable. It was concluded that C 15 and C 16 sesquiterpanes may be alternative internal tracers to provide a direct way to estimate the depletion of oils, particularly diesels, in oil spill investigations. 13 refs., 6 tabs., 4 figs

  13. Need for refining capacity creates opportunities for producers in Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.S.S.

    1994-01-01

    Oil industry interest in refining has revived in the past few years in response to rising oil consumption. The trend creates opportunities, for countries in the Middle East, which do not own refining assets nearly in proportion to their crude oil reserved. By closing this gap between reserves and refining capacity, the countries can ease some of the instability now characteristic of the oil market. Some major oil producing countries have begun to move downstream. During the 1980s, Venezuela, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Libya, and other members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries acquired refining assets through direct total purchase or joint ventures. Nevertheless, the oil industry remains largely unintegrated, with the Middle East holding two thirds of worldwide oil reserves but only a small share downstream. As worldwide refining capacity swings from a period of surplus toward one in which the need for new capacity will be built. The paper discusses background of the situation, shrinking surplus, investment requirements, sources of capital, and shipping concerns

  14. Formation and reduction of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol esters in peanut oil during physical refining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chang; Li, Linyan; Jia, Hanbing; Wang, Yuting; Shen, Mingyue; Nie, Shaoping; Xie, Mingyong

    2016-05-15

    In the present study, lab-scale physical refining processes were investigated for their effects on the formation of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) esters. The potential precursors, partial acylglycerols and chlorines were determined before each refining step. 3-MCPD esters were not detected in degummed and bleached oil when the crude oils were extracted by solvent. While in the hot squeezed crude oils, 3-MCPD esters were detected with low amounts. 3-MCPD esters were generated with maximum values in 1-1.5h at a certain deodorizing temperature (220-260°C). Chlorine seemed to be more effective precursor than partial acylglycerol. By washing bleached oil before deodorization with ethanol solution, the precursors were removed partially and the content of 3-MCPD esters decreased to some extent accordingly. Diacetin was found to reduce 3-MCPD esters effectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Simplified clinical algorithm for identifying patients eligible for immediate initiation of antiretroviral therapy for HIV (SLATE): protocol for a randomised evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Sydney; Fox, Matthew P; Larson, Bruce A; Brennan, Alana T; Maskew, Mhairi; Tsikhutsu, Isaac; Bii, Margaret; Ehrenkranz, Peter D; Venter, Wd Francois

    2017-05-28

    African countries are rapidly adopting guidelines to offer antiretroviral therapy (ART) to all HIV-infected individuals, regardless of CD4 count. For this policy of 'treat all' to succeed, millions of new patients must be initiated on ART as efficiently as possible. Studies have documented high losses of treatment-eligible patients from care before they receive their first dose of antiretrovirals (ARVs), due in part to a cumbersome, resource-intensive process for treatment initiation, requiring multiple clinic visits over a several-week period. The Simplified Algorithm for Treatment Eligibility (SLATE) study is an individually randomised evaluation of a simplified clinical algorithm for clinicians to reliably determine a patient's eligibility for immediate ART initiation without waiting for laboratory results or additional clinic visits. SLATE will enrol and randomise (1:1) 960 adult, HIV-positive patients who present for HIV testing or care and are not yet on ART in South Africa and Kenya. Patients randomised to the standard arm will receive routine, standard of care ART initiation from clinic staff. Patients randomised to the intervention arm will be administered a symptom report, medical history, brief physical exam and readiness assessment. Patients who have positive (satisfactory) results for all four components of SLATE will be dispensed ARVs immediately, at the same clinic visit. Patients who have any negative results will be referred for further clinical investigation, counselling, tests or other services prior to being dispensed ARVs. After the initial visit, follow-up will be by passive medical record review. The primary outcomes will be ART initiation ≤28 days and retention in care 8 months after study enrolment. Ethics approval has been provided by the Boston University Institutional Review Board, the University of the Witwatersrand Human Research Ethics Committee (Medical) and the KEMRI Scientific and Ethics Review Unit. Results will be published in

  16. The transformation sequence of cement-asbestos slates up to 1200 deg. C and safe recycling of the reaction product in stoneware tile mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gualtieri, A.F.; Cavenati, C.; Zanatto, I.; Meloni, M.; Elmi, G.; Gualtieri, M. Lassinantti

    2008-01-01

    Cement-asbestos is the main asbestos containing material still found in most of the European countries such as Italy. Man- and weathering-induced degradation of the cement-asbestos slates makes them a source of dispersion of asbestos fibres and represents a priority cause of concern. This concern is the main prompt for the actual policy of abatement and disposal of asbestos containing materials in controlled wastes. An alternative solution to the disposal in dumping sites is the direct temperature-induced transformation of the cement-asbestos slates into non-hazardous mineral phases. This patented process avoids the stage of mechanical milling of the material before the treatment, which improves the reactivity of the materials but may be critical for the dispersion of asbestos fibres in working and life environment. For the first time, this paper reports the description of the reaction path taking place during the firing of cement-asbestos slates up to the complete transformation temperature, 1200 deg. C. The reaction sequence was investigated using different experimental techniques such as optical and electron microscopy, in situ and ex situ quali-quantitative X-ray powder diffraction. The understanding of the complex reaction path is of basic importance for the optimization of industrial heating processes leading to a safe recycling of the transformed product. For the recycling of asbestos containing materials, the Italian laws require that the product of the crystal chemical transformation of asbestos containing materials must be entirely asbestos-free, and should not contain more than 0.1 wt% fraction of the carcinogenic substances such as cristobalite. Moreover, if fibrous phases other than asbestos (with length to diameter ratio >3) are found, they must have a geometrical diameter larger than 3 μm. We have demonstrated that using an interplay of different experimental techniques, it is possible to safely verify the complete transformation of asbestos

  17. Refined geometric transition and qq-characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Taro; Mori, Hironori; Sugimoto, Yuji

    2018-01-01

    We show the refinement of the prescription for the geometric transition in the refined topological string theory and, as its application, discuss a possibility to describe qq-characters from the string theory point of view. Though the suggested way to operate the refined geometric transition has passed through several checks, it is additionally found in this paper that the presence of the preferred direction brings a nontrivial effect. We provide the modified formula involving this point. We then apply our prescription of the refined geometric transition to proposing the stringy description of doubly quantized Seiberg-Witten curves called qq-characters in certain cases.

  18. Lipase pre-hydrolysis enhance anaerobic biodigestion of soap stock from an oil refining industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherif, Slim; Aloui, Fathi; Carrière, Frédéric; Sayadi, Sami

    2014-01-01

    A novel alcalophilic Staphylococcus haemolyticus strain with the lipolytic activity was used to perform enzymatic hydrolysis pretreatment of soap stock: a lipid rich solid waste from an oil refining industry. The culture liquid of the selected bacteria and an enzymatic preparation obtained by precipitation with ammonium sulphate from a filtrate of the same culture liquid were used for enzymatic pretreatment. The hydrolysis was carried with different incubation concentrations (10, 20 and 30%) of soap stock and the pretreatment efficiency was verified by running comparative biodegradability tests (crude and treated lipid waste). All pretreated assays showed higher reaction rate compared to crude lipid waste, which was confirmed by the increased levels of biogas production. The pretreatment of solutions containing 10% emulsified soap stock was optimized for 24 h hydrolysis time, enabling high-biogaz formation (800 ml). The use of enzymatic pre-treatment seemed to be a very promising alternative for treating soap stock having high fat contents.

  19. Dispersed catalysts for transforming extra heavy crude oil into transportable upgraded crude: phase identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, S.; Canizales, E.; Machin, I. [Gerencia Depttal de Investigacion Estrategica en Refinacion PDVSA Intevep (Venezuela); Segovia, X.; Rivas, A.; Lopez, E.; Pena, J.P.; Rojas, J.D.; Sardella, R. [Gerencia Depttal de Infraestructura y Mejoramiento en Faja Petrolifera PDVSA Intevep (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    A new technology to convert extra heavy crude oil into transportable upgraded crude has been developed. A water/oil emulsion composed of steam and catalyst precursors is introduced in the feed which then generates unsupported dispersed catalyst in situ under thermal decomposition. The aim of this paper is to characterize the particles. The study was conducted in a laboratory and on a pilot scale on three different vacuum residues using high resolution transmission electron microscopy and a transmission electron microscope. Results showed that the particles were formed by oxides and inorganic sulphur based in transition metals and their sizes ranged between 5 and 120 nm; in addition, good dispersion was observed. This study demonstrated that the process involved in the generation of dispersed catalyst is extremely complex and showed that further work with heavy crude oils and its residua is required to understand the mechanisms involved.

  20. Projections of the impact of expansion of domestic heavy oil production on the U.S. refining industry from 1990 to 2010. Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, D.K.; Ramzel, E.B.; Strycker, A.R. [National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research, Bartlesville, OK (United States). ITT Research Institute; Guariguata, G.; Salmen, F.G. [Bonner and Moore Management Science, Houston, TX (United States)

    1994-12-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil (10{degrees} to 20{degrees} API gravity) production. This report provides a compendium of the United States refining industry and analyzes the industry by Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PADD) and by ten smaller refining areas. The refining capacity, oil source and oil quality are analyzed, and projections are made for the U.S. refining industry for the years 1990 to 2010. The study used publicly available data as background. A linear program model of the U.S. refining industry was constructed and validated using 1990 U.S. refinery performance. Projections of domestic oil production (decline) and import of crude oil (increases) were balanced to meet anticipated demand to establish a base case for years 1990 through 2010. The impact of additional domestic heavy oil production, (300 MB/D to 900 MB/D, originating in select areas of the U.S.) on the U.S. refining complex was evaluated. This heavy oil could reduce the import rate and the balance of payments by displacing some imported, principally Mid-east, medium crude. The construction cost for refining units to accommodate this additional domestic heavy oil production in both the low and high volume scenarios is about 7 billion dollars for bottoms conversion capacity (delayed coking) with about 50% of the cost attributed to compliance with the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990.

  1. Automated knowledge-base refinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Raymond J.

    1994-01-01

    Over the last several years, we have developed several systems for automatically refining incomplete and incorrect knowledge bases. These systems are given an imperfect rule base and a set of training examples and minimally modify the knowledge base to make it consistent with the examples. One of our most recent systems, FORTE, revises first-order Horn-clause knowledge bases. This system can be viewed as automatically debugging Prolog programs based on examples of correct and incorrect I/O pairs. In fact, we have already used the system to debug simple Prolog programs written by students in a programming language course. FORTE has also been used to automatically induce and revise qualitative models of several continuous dynamic devices from qualitative behavior traces. For example, it has been used to induce and revise a qualitative model of a portion of the Reaction Control System (RCS) of the NASA Space Shuttle. By fitting a correct model of this portion of the RCS to simulated qualitative data from a faulty system, FORTE was also able to correctly diagnose simple faults in this system.

  2. A method for refining oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruskin, Yu.A.; Gorokhov, V.V.; Kotler, L.D.; Kovalenko, N.F.; Spasskiy, Yu.B.; Titov, A.M.; Vlasenko, V.Ye.; Vytnov, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    In the method for refining oil through its distillation with the isolation of directly distilled gases and a benzine fraction (BS) with the use of a benzine fraction pyrolysis, in order to increase the output of the lower olefines and to reduce the energy expenditures, the distillation is conducted with the isolation of 10 to 40 percent of the benzine fraction from its potential content along with the directly distilled gases. The obtained mixture of the remaining part of the benzine fraction is absorbed at a pressure of 1.5 to 6 atmospheres with the feeding of the obtained saturated absorbent to pyrolysis and subsequent mixing of the obtained pyrolysis gas with the unabsorbed product and their joint gas division. As compared to the known method, the proposed method makes it possible to reduce the energy expenditures which is achieved through a reduction in the volume of irrigation in the tower, and to increase the output of the olefines through processing of the steam and gas mixture of the benzine and the directly distilled gases.

  3. New Insights on Degumming and Bleaching Process Parameters on The Formation of 3-Monochloropropane-1,2-Diol Esters and Glycidyl Esters in Refined, Bleached, Deodorized Palm Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Biow Ing; Muhamad, Halimah; Lai, Oi Ming; Abas, Faridah; Yeoh, Chee Beng; Nehdi, Imededdine Arbi; Khor, Yih Phing; Tan, Chin Ping

    2018-04-01

    This paper examines the interactions of degumming and bleaching processes as well as their influences on the formation of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol esters (3-MCPDE) and glycidyl esters in refined, bleached and deodorized palm oil by using D-optimal design. Water degumming effectively reduced the 3-MCPDE content up to 50%. Acid activated bleaching earth had a greater effect on 3-MCPDE reduction compared to natural bleaching earth and acid activated bleaching earth with neutral pH, indicating that performance and adsorption capacities of bleaching earth are the predominant factors in the removal of esters, rather than its acidity profile. The combination of high dosage phosphoric acid during degumming with the use of acid activated bleaching earth eliminated almost all glycidyl esters during refining. Besides, the effects of crude palm oil quality was assessed and it was found that the quality of crude palm oil determines the level of formation of 3-MCPDE and glycidyl esters in palm oil during the high temperature deodorization step of physical refining process. Poor quality crude palm oil has strong impact towards 3-MCPDE and glycidyl esters formation due to the intrinsic components present within. The findings are useful to palm oil refining industry in choosing raw materials as an input during the refining process.

  4. Transient leak detection in crude oil pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beushausen, R.; Tornow, S.; Borchers, H. [Nord-West Oelleitung, Wilhelmshaven (Germany); Murphy, K.; Zhang, J. [Atmos International Ltd., Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    Nord-West Oelleitung (NWO) operates 2 crude oil pipelines from Wilhemshaven to Koln and Hamburg respectively. German regulations for transporting flammable substances stipulate that 2 independent continuously working procedures be used to detect leaks. Leak detection pigs are used routinely to complement the surveillance system. This paper described the specific issues of transient leak detection in crude oil pipelines. It was noted that traditional methods have failed to detect leaks that occur immediately after pumps are turned on or off because the pressure wave generated by the transient dominates the pressure wave that results from the leak. Frequent operational changes in a pipeline are often accompanied by an increased number of false alarms and failure to detect leaks due to unsteady operations. NWO therefore decided to have the Atmos statistical pipeline leak detection (SPLD) system installed on their pipelines. The key to the SPLD system is the sequential probability ratio test. Comprehensive data validation is performed following reception of pipeline data from the supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system. The validated data is then used to calculate the corrected flow imbalance, which is fed into the SPRT to determine if there is an increase in the flow imbalance. Pattern recognition is then used to distinguish a leak from operational changes. The SPLD is unique because it uses 3 computational pipeline monitoring methods simultaneously, namely modified volume balance, statistical analysis, and pressure and flow monitoring. The successful installation and testing of the SPLD in 2 crude oil pipelines was described along with the main difficulties associated with transient leaks. Field results were presented for both steady-state and transient conditions. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 16 figs.

  5. A crude scaling law for lasertrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, J.

    1987-11-01

    The lasertron is under consideration in several laboratories as a promising new source of high-power microwaves that is competitive with conventional klystrons in its properties - particularly in efficiency. In this note, a crude scaling law for high-power lasertrons is derived based on the observation that the main limiting phenomenon, the phenomenon that curtails the tube's efficiency, is debunching due to longitudinal space-charge forces acting in the electron gun. The scaling law indicates that lasertrons are quite restricted in the power they can generate at high frequencies

  6. Vulnerability maps for Druzba crude oil pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hladik, P.; Hosnedl, P.; Buresova, H.; Corbet, J.

    2012-01-01

    Maps of risk for individual environmental aspects within the protection zone of the Czech part of the Druzba crude oil pipeline (505.7 km) were developed based on a modified 'H and V index' method. Risk data were added into a GIS of the Druzba pipeline so that the system could be used as conceptual material in the field of environmental protection (a base for the new SCADA system). Considered environmental aspects were assessed in terms of their vulnerability. The criteria were defined as the vulnerability of the aquatic environment (surface waters and ground waters), the vulnerability of soil environment and the vulnerability of biotic components of the environment. (authors)

  7. Refinement Checking on Parametric Modal Transition Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benes, Nikola; Kretínsky, Jan; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2015-01-01

    Modal transition systems (MTS) is a well-studied specification formalism of reactive systems supporting a step-wise refinement methodology. Despite its many advantages, the formalism as well as its currently known extensions are incapable of expressing some practically needed aspects in the refin...

  8. Comparing Syntactic and Semantics Action Refinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goltz, Ursula; Gorrieri, Roberto; Rensink, Arend

    The semantic definition of action refinement on labelled configuration structures is compared with the notion of syntactic substitution, which can be used as another notion of action refinement in a process algebraic setting. The comparison is done by studying a process algebra equipped with

  9. On Syntactic and Semantic Action Refinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagiya, M.; Goltz, U.; Mitchell, J.C.; Gorrieri, R.; Rensink, Arend

    1994-01-01

    The semantic definition of action refinement on labelled event structures is compared with the notion of syntactic substitution, which can be used as another notion of action refinement in a process algebraic setting. This is done by studying a process algebra equipped with the ACP sequential

  10. Anomalies in the refinement of isoleucine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berntsen, Karen R. M.; Vriend, Gert, E-mail: gerrit.vriend@radboudumc.nl [Radboud University Medical Center, Geert Grooteplein 26-28, 6525 GA Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2014-04-01

    The side-chain torsion angles of isoleucines in X-ray protein structures are a function of resolution, secondary structure and refinement software. Detailing the standard torsion angles used in refinement software can improve protein structure refinement. A study of isoleucines in protein structures solved using X-ray crystallography revealed a series of systematic trends for the two side-chain torsion angles χ{sub 1} and χ{sub 2} dependent on the resolution, secondary structure and refinement software used. The average torsion angles for the nine rotamers were similar in high-resolution structures solved using either the REFMAC, CNS or PHENIX software. However, at low resolution these programs often refine towards somewhat different χ{sub 1} and χ{sub 2} values. Small systematic differences can be observed between refinement software that uses molecular dynamics-type energy terms (for example CNS) and software that does not use these terms (for example REFMAC). Detailing the standard torsion angles used in refinement software can improve the refinement of protein structures. The target values in the molecular dynamics-type energy functions can also be improved.

  11. Refined large N duality for knots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kameyama, Masaya; Nawata, Satoshi

    We formulate large N duality of U(N) refined Chern-Simons theory with a torus knot/link in S³. By studying refined BPS states in M-theory, we provide the explicit form of low-energy effective actions of Type IIA string theory with D4-branes on the Ω-background. This form enables us to relate...

  12. Anomalies in the refinement of isoleucine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berntsen, Karen R. M.; Vriend, Gert

    2014-01-01

    The side-chain torsion angles of isoleucines in X-ray protein structures are a function of resolution, secondary structure and refinement software. Detailing the standard torsion angles used in refinement software can improve protein structure refinement. A study of isoleucines in protein structures solved using X-ray crystallography revealed a series of systematic trends for the two side-chain torsion angles χ 1 and χ 2 dependent on the resolution, secondary structure and refinement software used. The average torsion angles for the nine rotamers were similar in high-resolution structures solved using either the REFMAC, CNS or PHENIX software. However, at low resolution these programs often refine towards somewhat different χ 1 and χ 2 values. Small systematic differences can be observed between refinement software that uses molecular dynamics-type energy terms (for example CNS) and software that does not use these terms (for example REFMAC). Detailing the standard torsion angles used in refinement software can improve the refinement of protein structures. The target values in the molecular dynamics-type energy functions can also be improved

  13. Grain refinement of zinc-aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaid, A.I.O.

    2006-01-01

    It is now well-established that the structure of the zinc-aluminum die casting alloys can be modified by the binary Al-Ti or the ternary Al-Ti-B master alloys. in this paper, grain refinement of zinc-aluminum alloys by rare earth materials is reviewed and discussed. The importance of grain refining of these alloys and parameters affecting it are presented and discussed. These include parameters related to the Zn-Al alloys cast, parameters related to the grain refining elements or alloys and parameters related to the process. The effect of addition of other alloying elements e.g. Zr either alone or in the presence of the main grain refiners Ti or Ti + B on the grain refining efficiency is also reviewed and discussed. Furthermore, based on the grain refinement and the parameters affecting it, a criterion for selection of the optimum grain refiner is suggested. Finally, the recent research work on the effect of grain refiners on the mechanical behaviour, impact strength, wear resistance, and fatigue life of these alloys are presented and discussed. (author)

  14. Refined Phenotyping of Modic Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Määttä, Juhani H.; Karppinen, Jaro; Paananen, Markus; Bow, Cora; Luk, Keith D.K.; Cheung, Kenneth M.C.; Samartzis, Dino

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Low back pain (LBP) is the world's most disabling condition. Modic changes (MC) are vertebral bone marrow changes adjacent to the endplates as noted on magnetic resonance imaging. The associations of specific MC types and patterns with prolonged, severe LBP and disability remain speculative. This study assessed the relationship of prolonged, severe LBP and back-related disability, with the presence and morphology of lumbar MC in a large cross-sectional population-based study of Southern Chinese. We addressed the topographical and morphological dimensions of MC along with other magnetic resonance imaging phenotypes (eg, disc degeneration and displacement) on the basis of axial T1 and sagittal T2-weighted imaging of L1-S1. Prolonged severe LBP was defined as LBP lasting ≥30 days during the past year, and a visual analog scale severest pain intensity of at least 6/10. An Oswestry Disability Index score of 15% was regarded as significant disability. We also assessed subject demographics, occupation, and lifestyle factors. In total, 1142 subjects (63% females, mean age 53 years) were assessed. Of these, 282 (24.7%) had MC (7.1% type I, 17.6% type II). MC subjects were older (P = 0.003), had more frequent disc displacements (P disability. The strength of the associations increased with the number of MC. This large-scale study is the first to definitively note MC types and specific morphologies to be independently associated with prolonged severe LBP and back-related disability. This proposed refined MC phenotype may have direct implications in clinical decision-making as to the development and management of LBP. Understanding of these imaging biomarkers can lead to new preventative and personalized therapeutics related to LBP. PMID:27258491

  15. Refinement of boards' role required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbdenstock, R J

    1987-01-01

    The governing board's role in health care is not changing, but new competitive forces necessitate a refinement of the board's approach to fulfilling its role. In a free-standing, community, not-for-profit hospital, the board functions as though it were the "owner." Although it does not truly own the facility in the legal sense, the board does have legal, fiduciary, and financial responsibilities conferred on it by the state. In a religious-sponsored facility, the board fulfills these same obligations on behalf of the sponsoring institute, subject to the institute's reserved powers. In multi-institutional systems, the hospital board's power and authority depend on the role granted it by the system. Boards in all types of facilities are currently faced with the following challenges: Fulfilling their basic responsibilities, such as legal requirements, financial duties, and obligations for the quality of care. Encouraging management and the board itself to "think strategically" in attacking new competitive market forces while protecting the organization's traditional mission and values. Assessing recommended strategies in light of consequences if constituencies think the organization is abandoning its commitments. Boards can take several steps to match their mode of operation with the challenges of the new environment. Boards must rededicate themselves to the hospital's mission. Trustees must expand their understanding of health care trends and issues and their effect on the organization. Boards must evaluate and help strengthen management's performance, rather than acting as a "watchdog" in an adversarial position. Boards must think strategically, rather than focusing solely on operational details. Boards must evaluate the methods they use for conducting business.

  16. Uranium refining by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraikaew, J.; Srinuttrakul, W.

    2014-01-01

    The solvent extraction process to produce higher purity uranium from yellowcake was studied in laboratory scale. Yellowcake, which the uranium purity is around 70% and the main impurity is thorium, was obtained from monazite processing pilot plant of Rare Earth Research and Development Center in Thailand. For uranium re-extraction process, the extractant chosen was Tributylphosphate (TBP) in kerosene. It was found that the optimum concentration of TBP was 10% in kerosene and the optimum nitric acid concentration in uranyl nitrate feed solution was 4 N. An increase in concentrations of uranium and thorium in feed solution resulted in a decrease in the distribution of both components in the extractant. However, the distribution of uranium into the extractant was found to be more than that of thorium. The equilibration study of the extraction system, UO_2(NO_3)/4N HNO_3 – 10%TBP/Kerosene, was also investigated. Two extraction stages were calculated graphically from 100,000 ppm uranium concentration in feed solution input with 90% extraction efficiency and the flow ratio of aqueous phase to organic phase was adjusted to 1.0. For thorium impurity scrubbing process, 10% TBP in kerosene was loaded with uranium and minor thorium from uranyl nitrate solution prepared from yellowcake and was scrubbed with different low concentration nitric acid. The results showed that at nitric acid normality was lower than 1 N, uranium distributed well to aqueous phase. As conclusion, optimum nitric acid concentration for scrubbing process should not less than 1 N and diluted nitric acid or de-ionized water should be applied to strip uranium from organic phase in the final refining process. (author)

  17. Influence of crude oil treatment to the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mammadov, F.F.; Rzayev, P.F.

    2005-01-01

    Full text : Environmental menace is linking with the unprecedented man-caused explosion and perspective global warming at the result of atmosphere pollution. If similar tendency is continued radical changing's will not happen in future which catastrophically reflects in ecology, climate of the planet, finally in the population health of the Earth. However, unfortunately one-sidedly economy increasing are chiefly directed to the oil-gas sector and from year to year amount increasing of means of transport causes man's impact to the environment. Further increasing of these processes obviously can lead to the dangerous ecological situation. In the economical and efficiency increasing process country population depend directly on the level of energy consumption. Application of nature-conservative measures and technology, promotional efficiency increasing of energy usage, its total usage decreasing, simultaneous reducing of hazardous substance lead to the considerable but cardinal results. That's why taking into consideration above mentioned circumstance, conclusion one is oil and gas saving, reducing of hazardous substance, we can greatly economize by the gradual way of natural energy replacement into renewable energy. In this connection, special interest for Azerbaijan creates high-grade potential solar radiation usage problem in several fields of national economy, especially in oil sector of the country. There is a real background for effective usage of high-grade potential solar radiation in Azerbaijan oil industry. As the process of primary crude oil treatment in the condition of oil fields for its further transportation to Oil Refining Plant the temperature is to be near 50-60 degrees to be very readily reached to various solar radiation engineering systems. On the base on the above mentioned for realizing this process we built and developed high-grade temperature solar plant with parabolic trough concentrator. Economy till 40% of national fuels (mazut, gas

  18. The future for heavy crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horsnell, P.

    1995-01-01

    The expectation, still held in 1993, that the light oil-heavy crude oil differential would go on increasing in favour of light oil has not been fulfilled. Current perceptions are that heavy oil will continue to be relatively strong and there is no inevitable upward trend in light-heavy crude differentials. Non-OPEC production has grown significantly lighter overall in recent years and is likely to continue so for several more years. This is due to expanded light oil production in the North Sea, Latin America and the Far East, and contractions in heavy oil production in Russia and the USA. OPEC production has also become lighter with, in particular, an expansion in light oil and contraction in heavy grades from Saudi Arabia. At the same time, the nature of the demand from refineries has changed with the introduction of new units designed to process the residium from heavy oil distillation. Thus the supply of light oil has expanded while demand for it has contracted with the reverse being true for heavy oil. (2 figures, 1 table) (UK)

  19. A case study: Residue reduction at Deer Park Refining Limited Partnership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geehan, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    With input from Shell Synthetic Fuels Inc. (SSFI), Deer Park Refining Limited Partnership (DPRLP) analyzed options for managing the bottom of the barrel to extinction, with an objective of high return on investment. DPRLP is a joint venture of PEMEX and Shell Oil Company. This Gulf Coast refiner processes 227M BBL/D of heavy, high sulfur crude. This paper discusses the process options considered, their advantages and disadvantages, and the option selected as well as the options still open. Recent modernization projects at DPRLP are now on stream with high yield of clean products.There remains one by-product, petroleum coke, which presents opportunity as a low cost feed for one or more process options yielding attractive products. The Shell Coke (or Coal) Gasification Process is one of the options now being considered

  20. The effects of air pollution regulations on the US refining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    Numerous air pollution regulations affecting petroleum refineries recently have been promulgated, have been proposed, or are under consideration at the federal, state, and local level. As shown in Figure ES-1, all of these environmental regulations are intended to take effect over the relatively short time period from 1989 through 1995. In the aggregate these regulatory activities have significant implications for the US refining industry and the Nation, including: Major investment requirements; changes in industry profitability; potential closure of some refineries; and potential changes in crude oil or product import dependence. At issue is whether the cumulative effect of these regulations could so adversely affect the US refining industry that US national security would be affected. In addition to the regulations outlined in Figure ES-1, President Bush recently presented a major new plan to improve the nation's air quality. The aspects of the President's plan that could strongly affect US refineries are summarized below

  1. DOE turns down all bids for Elk Hills crude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the U.S. Department of Energy has rejected all bids submitted in the Mar. 5 semiannual sale of crude oil from Elk Hills Naval Petroleum Reserve (NPR-1) in California. DOE the all 19 bids for the 53,740 b/d of crude were too low. The bids ranged from $11.71 to $14.06/bbl, with the top bids for the highest quality Stevens zone crude averaging $13.25/bbl. California oil companies the they bid what the market would bear, explaining a surplus of Alaskan crude on the West Coast has driven down the price of local crudes, notably heavy crudes. DOE will extend the current oil purchase contracts through April while it issues a new request for bids. It planned to issue the solicitation Mar. 23 and receive bids Apr. 15

  2. Influence of the type of crude oil to platforming effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafedzhiski, Branko; Crvenkova, Suzana; Zikovski, Toni

    1999-01-01

    Platforming in one of the most subtleties processing in refinery industry and it is permanent source for research and finding out the higher optimum degree. Optimum of the last effects of platforming directly depends on many parameters. One of more important parameters is the type of crude. The purpose of this work is presenting positive and negative effect to the platforming parameters caused by different types of crude in OCTA-Crude Oil Refinery -Skopje, Macedonia. (Original)

  3. Influence of the crude oil type to platforming effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafedzhiski, Branko; Crvenkova, Suzana; Zikovski, Toni

    1999-01-01

    Platforming is one of the most subtleties processing in refinery industry and it is permanent source for research and finding out the higher optimum degree. Optimum of the last effects of platforming directly depends on many parameters. One of the more important parameters is the type of the crude. The purpose of this work is presenting positive and negative effect to the platforming parameters caused by different types of crude in OCTA Crude Oil Refinery - Skopje (Macedonia). (Author)

  4. Crude oil options market found to be efficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the U.S. crude oil options market operates efficiently and does not overreact. The authors, with the JFK School of Government, studied the crude oil options market under a Department of Energy grant. The current market was created in November 1986 when the New York Mercantile Exchange introduced an options contract for delivery of West Texas intermediate crude futures. it has grown greatly since then

  5. Optimizing refiner operation with statistical modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broderick, G [Noranda Research Centre, Pointe Claire, PQ (Canada)

    1997-02-01

    The impact of refining conditions on the energy efficiency of the process and on the handsheet quality of a chemi-mechanical pulp was studied as part of a series of pilot scale refining trials. Statistical models of refiner performance were constructed from these results and non-linear optimization of process conditions were conducted. Optimization results indicated that increasing the ratio of specific energy applied in the first stage led to a reduction of some 15 per cent in the total energy requirement. The strategy can also be used to obtain significant increases in pulp quality for a given energy input. 20 refs., 6 tabs.

  6. Refinement Types for TypeScript

    OpenAIRE

    Vekris, Panagiotis; Cosman, Benjamin; Jhala, Ranjit

    2016-01-01

    We present Refined TypeScript (RSC), a lightweight refinement type system for TypeScript, that enables static verification of higher-order, imperative programs. We develop a formal core of RSC that delineates the interaction between refinement types and mutability. Next, we extend the core to account for the imperative and dynamic features of TypeScript. Finally, we evaluate RSC on a set of real world benchmarks, including parts of the Octane benchmarks, D3, Transducers, and the TypeScript co...

  7. Price implications for Russia's oil refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khartukov, Eugene M.

    1998-01-01

    Over the past several years, Russia's oil industry has undergone its radical transformation from a wholly state-run and generously subsidized oil distribution system toward a substantially privatized, cash-strapped, and quasi-market ''petropreneurship''. This fully applies to the industry's downstream sector. Still unlike more dynamic E and C operations, the country's refining has turned out better fenced off competitive market forces and is less capable to respond to market imperatives. Consequently, jammed between depressed product prices and persistent feedstock costs, Russian refiners were badly hit by the world oil glut - which has made a radical modernization of the obsolete refining sector clearly a must. (author)

  8. Panorama 2016 - Overview of the refining industry in the European Union Emissions Trading System (EU ETS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coussy, Paula; Jalard, Matthieu

    2015-12-01

    Since 2008, emissions from the refining sector have fallen by more than 12%, reaching 128 MtCO 2 e in 2014. Germany was the largest emitter of CO 2 e for the 2005- 2014 period. With Italy, Spain, the United Kingdom, France and the Netherlands, these six countries accounted for 71% of the industry's emissions in the EU ETS for 2014. During the 2008-2014 period, the European refining sector had a surplus of 74 MtCO 2 e, but since 2013 has had an annual deficit. Estimates show that the overall surplus of 74 MtCO 2 e should vanish by 2015. In the future, European demand for petroleum products will drop, and forecasts for crude processing are expected to decline. IFPEN estimates that, by 2035, this decline should reach 30%, leading to a 20% drop in the sector's emissions. Against this background, the amount of free allowances in the refining sector will fall, from 80% in 2014 to nearly 75% in 2020, leading to compliance costs for the European refining sector of approximately euro 600 million for 2020 alone, compared with the $6 billion needed for investment in Europe by 2035. Due to the great disparity in efficiency among European refineries (difference when compared with the benchmark), it is clear that it will be extremely costly for certain refineries to remain in operation. This will lead to the likely closure of refineries that are less efficient in terms of GHG emissions. (authors)

  9. Geotechnical properties of crude oil contaminated sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puri, V.K.; Das, B.M.; Cook, E.E.; Shin, E.C.

    1994-01-01

    Contamination of soil due to an oil spill influences its subsequent engineering behavior. An investigation was conducted to study the effect of crude oil contamination on compaction characteristics, shear strength, one-dimensional compression, and coefficient of permeability. Water permeability was also determined by using commercial grade motor oils as contaminants. The test results indicate that the compaction characteristics are influenced by oil contamination. The angle of internal friction of sand (based on total stress condition) decreases due to presence of oil within the pore spaces in sand. One dimensional compression characteristics of sand are significantly influenced by oil contamination resulting in a decrease in the value of constrained modulus with increase in the degree of oil contamination compared to the case of dry sand. Water permeability was observed to be a function of the initial viscosity and the degree of saturation due to the contaminating oil

  10. Chemical composition of Pechora Sea crude oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derkach S. R.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The physicochemical properties of the Pechora Sea shelf oil and its chemical composition have been studied using the methods of refractometry, titrimetry, viscometry, rheometry and standard methods for the analysis of oil and petroleum products. The fractionation of oil is held at atmospheric pressure, some fractions boiling at the temperature below and above 211 °C have been received. Chemical structural-group composition of oil and its components has been investigated using a Fourier infrared (IR spectroscopy method. The density of oil has been obtained, it is equal to 24.2 API. The chemical composition analysis shows that water content in the investigated oil sample is about 0.03 % (by weight. The oil sample contains hydrocarbons (including alkanes, naphthenes, arenes and asphaltenes with resins; their content is equal to 89 and 10 % (by weight respectively. Alkane content is about 66 %, including alkanes of normal structure – about 37 %. The solidification temperature of oil sample is equal to –43 °C. This low temperature testifies obliquely low content of solid alkanes (paraffin. Bearing in mind the content of asphaltenes with resins we can refer the investigated oil sample to resinous oils. On the other hand spectral coefficient values (aromaticity quotient and aliphaticity quotient show that oil sample belongs to naphthenic oils. According to the data of Fourier IR spectroscopy contents of naphthenes and arenes are 5.9 and 17.8 % respectively. Thus, the obtained data of chemical structural-group composition of crude oil and its fractions indicate that this oil belongs to the heavy resinous naphthenic oils. The rheological parameters obtained at the shear deformation conditions characterize the crude oil as a visco-plastic medium.

  11. Refining dermatology journal impact factors using PageRank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellavalle, Robert P; Schilling, Lisa M; Rodriguez, Marko A; Van de Sompel, Herbert; Bollen, Johan

    2007-07-01

    Thomson Institute for Scientific Information's journal impact factor, the most common measure of journal status, is based on crude citation counts that do not account for the quality of the journals where the citations originate. This study examines how accounting for citation origin affects the impact factor ranking of dermatology journals. The 2003 impact factors of dermatology journals were adjusted by a weighted PageRank algorithm that assigned greater weight to citations originating in more frequently cited journals. Adjusting for citation origin moved the rank of the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology higher than that of the Archives of Dermatology (third to second) but did not affect the ranking of the highest impact dermatology journal, the Journal of Investigative Dermatology. The dermatology journals most positively affected by adjusting for citation origin were Contact Dermatitis (moving from 22nd to 7th in rankings) and Burns (21st to 10th). Dermatology journals most negatively affected were Seminars in Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery (5th to 14th), the Journal of Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery (19th to 27th), and the Journal of Investigative Dermatology Symposium Proceedings (26th to 34th). Current measures of dermatology journal status do not incorporate survey data from dermatologists regarding which journals dermatologists esteem most. Adjusting for citation origin provides a more refined measure of journal status and changes relative dermatology journal rankings.

  12. Bitumen performance and chemistry in solvent refined bitumen blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleran, Glynn; Holleran, Irina; Wilson, Douglas J.

    2017-09-01

    In years gone past most oil companies in Australia and New Zealand (NZ) developed experts that bridged the divide between refining and paving. This was supported by laboratories in Australia and sometimes Asia. This is no longer the case and many refineries have ceased bitumen production or closed. With the market moving towards imports and control to supply companies disconnects on bitumen passing a national specification and performance on the road. This reduces both durability and increases costs. This has been addressed by development in NZ of a performance specification for hot mix asphalt binders (including modified) and work being done on sealing grades. This paper discusses the development of the HMA specification with respect to crude sources and the development of methodologies to assess imported binders for suitability in all applications including emulsion. The conclusion is that bitumen quality may be maintained by use of these methodologies that include, chromatographic analysis, measurement of thermodynamic internal stability (Heithaus), aging, and Dynamic Shear Rheometry testing and mix performance testing in the laboratory. This forms a regime capable of use in any context and this leads to better durability of surfaces and extended service life.

  13. Geotechnical design of underground slate mines; Diseño geotécnico de minas subterráneas de pizarra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias Comesaña, C.; Taboada Castro, J.; Arzúa Touriño, J.; Giráldez Pérez, E.; Martín Suárez, J.M.

    2017-09-01

    Slate is one of the most important natural materials in Spain, with a potent extractive and processing industry concentrated in the autonomous communities of Galicia, Castile and León. Thanks to its resistance to external agents, its impermeability and its excellent cleavability, slate is used as for roofing and tiling. Almost all the active exploitations in our country where this resource is extracted are open pit mines, where the exploitation ratios have nearly reached their economic limit, making it necessary to look for alternatives that will allow the mining works to be continued. Underground mining is a solution that offers low exploitation ratios, with low spoil generation. The room-and-pillar method with barrier pillars is usually applied for the exploitation of slate deposits. There are several factors to be taken into account when designing a mine (economic, logistical, geotechnical, technical, environmental…), especially for an underground mine. This study focuses on the geotechnical design process of a room-and-pillar underground mine, based on the tributary area theory, the analysis of the tensions in the ground with numerical methods and the choice of an appropriate reinforcement in view of the expected instabilities. This explanation is completed with an example of a design that includes the estimate exploitation rates and production. [Spanish] La pizarra es uno de los materiales naturales más importantes de España, con una potente industria extractiva y de elaboración concentrada en las comunidades autónomas de Galicia y Castilla y León. Gracias a su resistencia a los agentes externos, a su impermeabilidad y a su excelente fisilidad, la pizarra es utilizada como elemento para techar y para solados. La práctica totalidad de las explotaciones activas en nuestro país extraen este recurso en minas a cielo abierto, cuyos ratios se aproximan al ratio límite económico, haciendo necesaria la búsqueda de una alternativa que permita continuar las

  14. Impact of Waste Materials Resulting from the Refining of Crude Oil on Some Soil Physico-Chemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    pari asadi alasvand

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Soil and ground water pollution with organic matter and toxic materials is an ordinary environmental problem. In this case, oil compounds are among the most important environmental pollutants. Tehran oil refinery is one of the largest and oldest refineries in Iran located south of Tehran city. Since the beginning of its activity in 1968, its waste materials (solid, semisolid and liquid have been disposed in large lagoons next to the refinery site. During this long period, considerable changes in soil properties have occurred, which are of great research interests for soil and environmental scientists. Materials and Methods: The studied area (about 60 ha was located in the south of Tehran (latitude: 35°30.299' to 35°30.814' N and longitude: 51°25.682' to 51°26.296' E. Six pedons, including four Technosols developed on the oil refinery waste materials (pedons no. 1, 3, 4 and 6 and two reference pedons (pedons no. 2 and 5 were fully described and sampled. Particle size distribution (PSD of gypsiferous samples was determined by the specific method for gypsiferous soils (Hesse, 1976. PSD of non-gypsiferous samples were determined according to the standard hydrometer method (Gee and Bauder, 1986, but the oil-polluted samples were analyzed according to the standard ultrasound method (Sawhny, 1996. Organic carbon content was determined by Walkley and Black (1934. pH and EC were measured in soil saturation extracts using EC and pH meter (Jenway. Gypsum and CaCO3 contents were determined using acetone (Sparks, 1996, and calcimetery methods, respectively. Mineralogical analysis was done by Decarreau (1990. Micromorphological descriptions were carried out using the terminology of Stoops (2003. Diagnostic horizons were identified and finally the studied pedons were classified according to the Keys to Soil Taxonomy (Soil Survey Staff, 2014 and the World Reference Base (FAO, 2014. Results and Discussion: Horizons of both polluted and unpolluted soils were mostly gypseous and/or calcareous especially in the middle parts. Considering the surface and subsurface diagnostic horizons and the aridic-thermic soil moisture and temperature regimes, the studied soils were classified as Gypsids, Calcids or Cambids (Soil Survey Staff, 2014. However, due to the added oil waste compounds and presence of impermeable geomembrane in some of the polluted pedons, they were classified as Technosols in the WRB system (FAO, 2014. Noticeable effects of Pollutants in the soil were decreasing pH and increasing OM and EC. The surface horizons of the unpolluted soils contained less than 2 percent organic matter which regularly decreased by depth. However, In some horizons of the polluted soils, soil organic matter exceeded 12 percent. pH decreased by increasing organic matter (oil waste compounds possibly due to H+ dissociation from the oil compounds (Laurent et al., 2012. Electrical conductivity throughout the polluted soil horizons showed more limited variability than the unpolluted ones, probably due to their higher capability in water and liquid dynamics. Liquid limit and plasticity limit in polluted soils are higher than unpolluted soils . Plasticity index in polluted soils decreased with increasing the amount of pollutants. The results of mineralogical studies corroborated that dominant clay mineral in this soils is Smectite. Smectites have high swelling and shrinking capacity.So, the pollutants can intercalate between soil mineral layers and then increase d-spacing of clay minerals. The micromorphology of the polluted soils showed that low dielectric constant of petroleum caused flocculation and formation granular aggregates in soil. Studied soils are inactive in terms of activity of clay. Conclusion: As observed in the studied soils, their physico-chemical properties such as pH and electrical conductivity (EC of saturated paste extract, organic matter content, mineralogical and micro-morphological properties were severely affected by the oil wastes. These results show these soils have been limited and in use of these soils, considering these properties is required. In polluted soils, due to small differences between plasticity limit and liquid limit, it is possible to their sliding faster than unpolluted soils and then construction should be avoided.

  15. Refinement for Transition Systems with Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Carbone

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the response pattern for property specifications and applications within flexible workflow management systems, we report upon an initial study of modal and mixed transition systems in which the must transitions are interpreted as must eventually, and in which implementations can contain may behaviors that are resolved at run-time. We propose Transition Systems with Responses (TSRs as a suitable model for this study. We prove that TSRs correspond to a restricted class of mixed transition systems, which we refer to as the action-deterministic mixed transition systems. We show that TSRs allow for a natural definition of deadlocked and accepting states. We then transfer the standard definition of refinement for mixed transition systems to TSRs and prove that refinement does not preserve deadlock freedom. This leads to the proposal of safe refinements, which are those that preserve deadlock freedom. We exemplify the use of TSRs and (safe refinements on a small medication workflow.

  16. Taiwan: refined need for consuming population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, David.

    1995-01-01

    A brief discussion is given of the oil and gas industry in Taiwan. Topics covered include the possibility of privatization, refineries and refining contracts overseas, plans for a new petrochemical complex and an offshore submarine transmission pipeline. (UK)

  17. 1991 worldwide refining and gas processing directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    This book ia an authority for immediate information on the industry. You can use it to find new business, analyze market trends, and to stay in touch with existing contacts while making new ones. The possibilities for business applications are numerous. Arranged by country, all listings in the directory include address, phone, fax and telex numbers, a description of the company's activities, names of key personnel and their titles, corporate headquarters, branch offices and plant sites. This newly revised edition lists more than 2000 companies and nearly 3000 branch offices and plant locations. This east-to-use reference also includes several of the most vital and informative surveys of the industry, including the U.S. Refining Survey, the Worldwide Construction Survey in Refining, Sulfur, Gas Processing and Related Fuels, the Worldwide Refining and Gas Processing Survey, the Worldwide Catalyst Report, and the U.S. and Canadian Lube and Wax Capacities Report from the National Petroleum Refiner's Association

  18. Development of a Refined Staff Group Trainer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quensel, Susan

    1999-01-01

    .... As a follow-on effort to the previous SGT project, the goal was to refine a brigade-level staff training program to more effectively and efficiently coordinate the activities within and between the...

  19. Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 413: Clean Slate II Plutonium Dispersion (TTR) Tonopah Test Range, Nevada. Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick [Navarro, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2017-05-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan provides the rationale and supporting information for the selection and implementation of corrective actions at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 413, Clean Slate II Plutonium Dispersion (TTR). CAU 413 is located on the Tonopah Test Range and includes one corrective action site, TA-23-02CS. CAU 413 consists of the release of radionuclides to the surface and shallow subsurface from the Clean Slate II (CSII) storage–transportation test conducted on May 31, 1963. The CSII test was a non-nuclear detonation of a nuclear device located inside a concrete bunker covered with 2 feet of soil. To facilitate site investigation and the evaluation of data quality objectives decisions, the releases at CAU 413 were divided into seven study groups: 1 Undisturbed Areas 2 Disturbed Areas 3 Sedimentation Areas 4 Former Staging Area 5 Buried Debris 6 Potential Source Material 7 Soil Mounds Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities, as set forth in the CAU 413 Corrective Action Investigation Plan, were performed from June 2015 through May 2016. Radionuclides detected in samples collected during the CAI were used to estimate total effective dose using the Construction Worker exposure scenario. Corrective action was required for areas where total effective dose exceeded, or was assumed to exceed, the radiological final action level (FAL) of 25 millirem per year. The results of the CAI and the assumptions made in the data quality objectives resulted in the following conclusions: The FAL is exceeded in surface soil in SG1, Undisturbed Areas; The FAL is assumed to be exceeded in SG5, Buried Debris, where contaminated debris and soil were buried after the CSII test; The FAL is not exceeded at SG2, SG3, SG4, SG6, or SG7. Because the FAL is exceeded at CAU 413, corrective action is required and corrective action alternatives (CAAs) must be evaluated. For CAU 413, three CAAs were evaluated: no further action, clean closure, and

  20. The present state of refining in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The european refining industry suffers from a production over-capacity and closures are inevitable; the situation is even worse in France due to the imbalance between gas oil and gasoline prices and the weak margin for distributors. The French refining industry is however an important and essential link for its strategic fuel and petroleum product supply, and represent 17000 jobs. Several measures are introduced by the French Industry department towards restructuring, capacity reduction and fuel price harmonization

  1. Design of Grain Refiners for Aluminium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronche, A.; Greer, A. L.

    The efficiency of a grain refiner can be quantified as the number of grains per nucleant particle in the solidified product. Even for effective refiners in aluminium, such as Al-5Ti-1B, it is known from experiments that efficiencies are very low, at best 10-3 to 102. It is of interest to explore the reasons for such low values, and to assess the prospects for increased efficiency though design of refiners. Recently it has been shown [1] that a simple recalescence-based model can make quantitative predictions of grain size as a function of refiner addition level, cooling rate and solute content. In the model, the initiation of grains is limited by the free growth from nucleant particles, the size distribution of which is very important. The present work uses this model as the basis for discussing the effect of particle size distribution on grain refiner performance. Larger particles (of TiB2 in the case of present interest) promote greater efficiency, as do narrower size distributions. It is shown that even if the size distribution could be exactly specified, compromises would have to be made to balance efficiency (defined as above) with other desirable characteristics of a refiner.

  2. Fungitoxic properties of four crude plant extacts on fusarium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fungitoxic properties of four crude plant extacts on fusarium oxysporum schl. F. sp phaseoli. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... Crude plant extracts from Azadirachta indica, Tagetes minuta, Nicotiana tobacum and Vinca rosea were tested against Fusarium oxysporum Schl. F. sp. phaseoli.

  3. Comparative ovulation in clariidae using crude HCG from early ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper used purified crude HCG from early pregnancy urine to assay ovulation in three species of Clariidae. Purification and extraction of crude HCG was carried out by the techniques involving alcohol precipitation, ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration. Biological activity of the purified homogenate was tested ...

  4. Comparative study of biodegradation of crude oil in soil amended ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of soil samples treated with 10% (v/w) Escravos light crude oil and amended with chicken droppings and NPK fertilizer revealed that the aerobic heterotrophic bacterial counts were depressed while the proliferation of crude oil degrading bacteria (CDB) in the soil was encouraged. The counts of CDB in oil free ...

  5. Crude oil degradation by Bacillus and Micrococcus species isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microorganisms capable of degrading crude oil were isolated from soil compost in Kano, northwestern Nigeria. The work was carried out with the aim of determining crude-oil biodegradation potentials of Bacillus and Micrococcus species isolated from the soil compost as well as the assessment of the applicability of ...

  6. Expanding U.S. markets for Canadian crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, M.; Angevine, G.; Chan, K.; Renne, G.; Stariha, J.; MacKay, E.

    1993-01-01

    The quantities and types of Canadian, U.S. and competing foreign crudes flowing into U.S. market regions and the potential to retain and/or expand Canadian crude oil sales in each of those markets, was studied. The various pipeline system expansion/construction proposals were reviewed. Findings of the study with respect to prospects for crude oil sales into each of the U.S. market regions were presented. Opportunities and constraints with regard to the potential for incremental crude oil sales into each of the U.S. market regions were detailed. The study concluded that there was a substantial market in the U.S. for incremental sales of Canadian crudes. Most of the refineries in the U.S. market regions were more flexible in terms of their crude diet than they were before the rationalization and restructuring of the industry began. The market for crude oil in the U.S. was shown to be one of the most competitive in the world and the most volatile. The study also revealed that there were risks associated with large additions to the capacity to ship crude oil by pipeline from Western Canada, given the uncertainties surrounding future supply. 4 refs., figs., tabs

  7. Phytochemical and anti-fungal activity of crude extracts, fractions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) of the crude extracts, fractions and isolated compound were determined by agardilution. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the crude extracts was carried out using column chromatography. Results: The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, cardenolides, ...

  8. Remediation trials of crude oil contaminated soil using different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 3 month remediation trial of the use of detergent and sawdust in different combination forms in the restoration of a crude oil contaminated tropical soil was investigated. 8 remediation treatments labeled A – H in addition to the control (I) were used in 10 kg soil artificially polluted with 300 ml crude oil each. Remediation ...

  9. Toxicity of crude oil products and detergent on serum alkaline ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The comparative effect of exposing Clarias gariepinus juveniles (100.20 + 0.8g) to diferent concentrations of crude oil products and detergent were studied. Bonny Light Crude oil (BLCO), Premium motor spirit (PMS), Dual purpose kerosene (DPK) and Ariel Enzymax Detergent (AED) were respectively applied at three ...

  10. Biodegradability Of The Major Components Of Bonny Light Crude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of the known 92 potential hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria and fungi isolated from crude oil polluted soil and water samples, only one soil bacterial isolate (SB17), identified as Bacillus subtilis, was found to efficiently degrade 72.23% of the Bonny light crude oil sample after 25 days of incubation, and thus was used for further ...

  11. Assessment of the hydrolytic performance of locally sourced crude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    amylases increased with increase in substrate concentration up to a maximum substrate concentration of 10%. The crude alpha amylase exhibited a dextrinization time of 2.5h, 2.75h and 3.0h for maize, cassava and potato starches and produced 13%, 12% and 11.8% glucose respectively. The crude gluco-amylase had ...

  12. Manihot esculenta crantz in crude oil contaminated soil amended ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on the performance of Manihot esculenta, Crantz (TMS 30572) in a crude oil polluted soil was investigated in the Botanic Garden of University of Port Harcourt. The soil samples were polluted at four different levels (0%, 2%, 4% and 6%) with crude oil and amended with organic supplement (decomposed Centrosem ...

  13. Some Neuropharmacological Effects of the Crude Venom Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study reports some neuropharmacological effects of the crude venom extract of Conus musicus (family Conidae) in mice using various experimental models. The crude venom was found to significantly increase tail flick reaction time in mice. The effects of the venom on the central nervous system were studied by ...

  14. Effect of mushroom ( Pleurotus tuber-regium ) inoculums on crude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pollution of soils by crude oil in Niger-Delta of Nigeria has brought untold hardship to the inhabitants of the region. This study was carried out in 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 to determine the effect of Pleurotus tuber-regium (mushroom) inoculums on crude oil polluted soil on stover and grain yields and as well as cob length ...

  15. Influence of crude extract of root of Telfairia occidentalis (fluted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of crude extract of root of Telfairia occidentalis (fluted pumpkin) was investigated on the kidney of adult wistar rats. The crude extract of pumpkin root were given both intraperitoneally and orally to rats respectively. The control group received distilled water throughout the duration of experiment. The administration ...

  16. Two-tier crude pricing in flux: U.S. postings phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    In recent time, US crude oil buyers have invented a means by which the difference between their posted offered buying prices to sellers and the futures market are reduced. Purpose: reduce the bonuses paid to buyers when the futures price soars above the current market price. The problem is that the bonus amount was calculated above the posted price of just one company. Some companies, nervous about possible inferences concerning proper free competition, are dropping the practice. This issue also presents the following: (1) the ED Refining Netback Data Series for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore as of March 27, 1992; and (2) the ED Fuel Price/Tax Series for countries of the Eastern Hemisphere, March 1992 Edition

  17. Improving Aspergillus carbonarius crude enzymes for lignocellulose hydrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gustav Hammerich

    and single enzyme supplementation. Fungal strains were screened in order to determine crude enzyme extracts that could be supplemented as boosters of A. carbonarius own crude enzyme extract, when applied in lignocellulose hydrolysis. The fungi originated from different environmental niches, which all had...... for their potential in hydrolysis of wheat straw both by application of monocultures and by supplementing to crude enzymes of A. carbonarius. For the crude enzymes from solid cultivations there were eight isolates that showed synergistic interaction resulting in doubling and tripling of the glucose release in wheat...... straw hydrolysis. A completely different profile of synergy was observed for crude enzymes from liquid cultivations, as there were only three isolates that enhanced glucose release. Only one of these three isolates had shown synergistic effects when cultivated in a solid medium. The screening...

  18. A Case Study of the Activity Gravitational Deformation Slate Slope on One Newly Rebuild Highway Bridge in Taitung Longitudinal Valley of Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Pei-Chen; Weng, Cheng-Hsueh; Lu, An; Lin, Ming-Lang

    2017-04-01

    There are many landslide hazards induced by typhoon and earthquake in Taiwan because Taiwan is located in active orogen zone, where the Taitung Longitudinal Valley is the plate boundary, and also many typhoons hit Taiwan and bring much precipitation. In Japan, where also is located in orogen zone, the 2016 Kumamoto Earthquake caused a large landslide which destroyed the Great Aso Bridge. It shows that landslides might have huge influence on the safety of bridges. In Sep. 2016, Typhoon No.14 (Meranti) hit Taiwan and caused a slate slope failure which located in Taitung Longitudinal Valley. It cut the approach road of a highway bridge called Songfeng Bridge and the maximum displacement is about 2 meters. The landslide body might include the bridge, and if this landslide continued move the bridge structure might be destroyed. The attitude of cleavage and joints measured in site investigation are complex and confused, it imply that this landslide event is not only controlled by gravitational deformation, but also affected by release joint and river erosion because the site is located on confluence of two river. The target of site investigation in this research includes finding the border of failure surface and the measurement of cleavage and joints. In this research, we compare the result of site investigation and numerical model to find the mechanism of failure, and try to analysis the possible influence on the bridge structure.

  19. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 414: Clean Slate III Plutonium Dispersion (TTR) Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 414 is located on the Tonopah Test Range, which is approximately 130 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, and approximately 40 miles southeast of Tonopah, Nevada. The CAU 414 site consists of the release of radionuclides to the surface and shallow subsurface from the conduct of the Clean Slate III (CSIII) storage transportation test conducted on June 9, 1963. CAU 414 includes one corrective action site (CAS), TA-23-03CS (Pu Contaminated Soil). The known releases at CAU 414 are the result of the atmospheric dispersal of contamination from the 1963 CSIII test. The CSIII test was a nonnuclear detonation of a nuclear device located inside a reinforced concrete bunker covered with 8 feet of soil. This test dispersed radionuclides, primarily uranium and plutonium, on the ground surface. The presence and nature of contamination at CAU 414 will be evaluated based on information collected from a corrective action investigation (CAI). The investigation is based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on June 7, 2016, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; the U.S. Air Force; and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective action alternatives for CAU 414.

  20. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 414: Clean Slate III Plutonium Dispersion (TTR) Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick [Navarro, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 414 is located on the Tonopah Test Range, which is approximately 130 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, and approximately 40 miles southeast of Tonopah, Nevada. The CAU 414 site consists of the release of radionuclides to the surface and shallow subsurface from the conduct of the Clean Slate III (CSIII) storage–transportation test conducted on June 9, 1963. CAU 414 includes one corrective action site (CAS), TA-23-03CS (Pu Contaminated Soil). The known releases at CAU 414 are the result of the atmospheric dispersal of contamination from the 1963 CSIII test. The CSIII test was a nonnuclear detonation of a nuclear device located inside a reinforced concrete bunker covered with 8 feet of soil. This test dispersed radionuclides, primarily uranium and plutonium, on the ground surface. The presence and nature of contamination at CAU 414 will be evaluated based on information collected from a corrective action investigation (CAI). The investigation is based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on June 7, 2016, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; the U.S. Air Force; and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective action alternatives for CAU 414.

  1. CG/MS quantitation of diamondoid compounds in crude oils and petroleum products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.; Wang, Z.D.; Hollebone, B.P.; Fingas, M.; Peng, X.; Landriault, M.

    2006-01-01

    Diamondoids are a class of saturated hydrocarbons that consist of 3-dimensionally fused cyclohexane rings. Diamondoid compounds in petroleum are the result of carbonium ion rearrangements of cyclic precursors on clay superacids in the source rock during oil generation. They are considered to be a problem due to their deposition during production of reservoir fluids and transportation of natural gas, gas condensates and light crude oils. At high concentrations, and with changes in pressure and temperature, diamondoid compounds can segregate out of reservoir fluids during production. Environmental scientists have considered fingerprinting the diamondoid hydrocarbons as a forensic method for oil spill studies. Since diamondoid compounds are thermodynamically stable, they have potential applications in oil-source correlation and differentiation for cases where traditional biomarker terpanes and steranes are absent because of environmental weathering or refining of petroleum products. Although there is increased awareness of possible use of diamondoid compounds for source identification, there is no systematic approach for using these compounds. Quantitative surveys of the abundances of diamondoids are not available. Therefore, this study developed a reliable analytical method for quantitative diamondoid analysis. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to quantitatively determine diamondoid compounds (adamantane, diamantane and their alkylated homologues) in 14 fresh crude oils and 23 refined petroleum products, including light and mid-range distillate fuels, residual fuels and lubricating oils collected from different sources. Results were compared with 2 types of biomarker compounds in oil saturated hydrocarbon fractions. Several diagnostic ratios of diamondoids were developed based on their concentrations. Their potential use for forensic oil spill source identification was evaluated. 24 refs., 8 tabs., 4 figs

  2. Crude oil prices: Speculation versus fundamentals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziej, Marek Krzysztof

    Beginning in 2004, the price of crude oil fluctuates rapidly over a wide range. Large and rapid price increases have recessionary consequences and dampen long-term infrastructural investment. I investigate whether price changes are driven by market fundamentals or speculation. With regard to market fundamentals, I revisit econometric evidence for the importance of demand shocks, as proxied by dry maritime cargo rates, on oil prices. When I eliminate transportation costs from both sides of the equation, disaggregate OPEC and non-OPEC production, and allow for more than one cointegrating relation, I find that previous specifications are inconsistent with arguments that demand shocks play an important role. Instead, results confirm the importance of OPEC supply shocks. I investigate two channels by which speculation may affect oil prices; the direct effect of trader behavior and changes in oil from a commodity to a financial asset. With regard to trader behavior, I find evidence that trader positions are required to explain the spread between spot and futures prices of crude oil on the New York Mercantile Exchange. The inclusion of trader positions clarifies the process of equilibrium error correction, such that there is bidirectional causality between prices and trader positions. This creates the possibility of speculative bubbles. With regard to oil as a commodity and/or financial asset, I use a Kalman Filter model to estimate the time-varying partial correlation between returns to investments in equity and oil markets. This correlation changes from negative to positive at the onset of the 2008 financial crisis. The low interest rates used to rescue the economy depress convenience yields, which reduces the benefits of holding oil as a commodity. Instead, oil becomes a financial asset (on net) as the oil market changed from contango to backwardation. Contradicting simple political narratives, my research suggests that both market fundamentals and speculation drive

  3. Efficient way of importing crude oil from oil producing countries - A review on diversification policy of crude oil import

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dal Sok [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    Since the second oil crisis, the government has operated the import diversification support program to reduce the risk of crude oil import from Middle-East region and to raise the ability of dealing with the risk. This study tried to seek policy trends in future through reviewing the market environment related to the crude oil import diversification policy and the goal, instrument and effect of the policy. The supply and demand of crude oil and the price are influenced by market system in the world oil market and there are various types of crude oil trading available to both sellers and buyers. There is a probability that the suspension of supply in a certain area could be led to the price issue rather than the physical use of crude oil. In addition, the advantage of price with long-term contract of crude oil was abolished since the price of crude oil imported by term contract has been linked to spot prices. As a result, it is shown that the potential benefit from crude oil import diversification policy is reduced although political and social insecurity still exists in Middle-East region. Therefore, it is desirable to maintain the existing support program until the amount of stored oil reaches the optimum level and to help private enterprises determine the import considering economical efficiency and risk. (author). 36 refs., 5 figs., 23 tabs.

  4. Conversion of yellow crude sugar into alcohol. Conversion of yellow crude sugar in a mixture with sugar beet molasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishtul, F B; Malchenko, A L; Poluyanova, M T; Gromovich, V F; Maskimova, E A; Golodovskaya, A I; Pal' gova, L S

    1963-01-01

    Crude sugar (96.5 to 98.4% sucrose) in a mixture with molasses can be converted into alcohol by either batchwise or continuous fermentation processes with good process characteristics. Best yields are obtained when the amount of crude sugar is not more than 50% of the total weight of fermenting material. The bakers' yeast and alcohol produced are of good quality.

  5. Enhanced ex situ bioremediation of crude oil contaminated beach sand by supplementation with nutrients and rhamnolipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolopoulou, M; Pasadakis, N; Norf, H; Kalogerakis, N

    2013-12-15

    Mediterranean coastal regions are particularly exposed to oil pollution due to extensive industrialization, urbanization and transport of crude and refined oil to and from refineries. Bioremediation of contaminated beach sand through landfarming is both simple and cost-effective to implement compared to other treatment technologies. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of alternative nutrients on biodegradation of crude oil contaminated beach sand in an effort to reduce the time required for bioremediation employing only indigenous hydrocarbon degraders. A natural sandy soil was collected from Agios Onoufrios beach (Chania, Greece) and was contaminated with weathered crude oil. The indigenous microbial population in the contaminated sand was tested alone (control treatment) or in combination with inorganic nutrients (KNO3 and K2HPO4) to investigate their effects on oil biodegradation rates. In addition, the ability of biosurfactants (rhamnolipids), in the presence of organic nutrients (uric acid and lecithin), to further stimulate biodegradation was investigated in laboratory microcosms over a 45-day period. Biodegradation was tracked by GC/MS analysis of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons components and the measured concentrations were corrected for abiotic removal by hopane normalizations. It was found that the saturated fraction of the residual oil is degraded more extensively than the aromatic fraction and the bacterial growth after an incubation period of approximately 3 weeks was much greater from the bacterial growth in the control. The results show that the treatments with inorganic or organic nutrients are equally effective over almost 30 days where C12-C35n-alkanes were degraded more than 97% and polyaromatic hydrocarbons with two or three rings were degraded more than 95% within 45 days. The results clearly show that the addition of nutrients to contaminated beach sand significantly enhanced the activity of

  6. Challenges of the refining and bio-refining integration: a future view; O desafio da integracao refino-bio-refino: uma visao do futuro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Claudia Alvarenga; Oliveira, Sandra Lima de [PETROBRAS S. A., Rio de de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Suely Coutinho da [Hope Consultoria Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    As the world economy growths, it is expected an increase in the fuels demand. In the other hand, there is a public denounce against the harmful of gas emissions from the mineral fuels, especial the emission of greenhouse gases. Based on this scenario, there is a growing search for renewable fuels as an alternative for the present world energetic matrix. Therefore the biofuel has conquered more and more participation in the economy as a clean grow-your-own fuel. It is not only a renewable fuel but also a way to reduces Co2 emission. The use of this kind of fuel can bring environmental, social and economic advantages. So, a feasible proposal for the near future could be the performance of a binomial and dynamic model that takes place in the integration between biorefining and conventional refining. Biorefining is similar in concept to the petroleum refining industry, except that renewable biomass materials or vegetable oil are the feedstocks rather than crude oil. An important incentive to the integration of these two concepts is the alternative to process the majority of the conventional refining residue or by products in the biorefining. It is possible to produce high quality low emission fuel from co-conversion of biomass and petroleum residue. There are important processes that can be used to carry out this object, such as gasification coupled with Fischer-Tropsch. Besides the production of PREMIUM quality fuel, the energy and the hydrogen obtained in the gasification process can be used in the conventional refining. Biomass can also be turned into alcohol fuel by enzymatic hydrolysis and can be mixed in the refinery gasoline pool for emissions reduction. Another possibility is to process vegetable oil together with middle distillate in the conventional hydrotreating unity. Although the optimized integration involves technical and economic challenges, it is known that this is an important opportunity to mitigate the environmental problems and to allow the world

  7. Crude oil prices: It's not like '86

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, M.R.

    1994-01-01

    In 1981, daily crude oil productive capacity exceeded demand by more than 25%, leading to a 4-yr price decline from near $40 per barrel levels, and a sharp drop in 1986 to near $12. But, in 1994, the fundamentals are reversed, worldwide demand is growing, conservation movements are not active, and certain geographic areas, like Asia, are set to tax the system as they modernize. Meanwhile, US and Former Soviet Union production is off, without prospects for near-term turnaround. And there is reason to believe OPEC leaders may not feel compelled to cut their output, when combined small cuts of the magnitude of 5% by the rest of the world's producers could accomplish the same objective of raising oil prices. As with any forecast, only time and hindsight will tell the real story, but 1994 could end up being one of the periodic turning points for what has always been a long-term cyclical industry. This paper summarizes the predictions and causes of predicted price changes

  8. Bioavailability of chemically-dispersed crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, B.C.; Bonner, J.S.; McDonald, T.J.; Fuller, C.B.; Page, C.A.; Dimitriou-Christidis, P.; Sterling, M.C.; Autenrieth, R.L.

    2002-01-01

    Oil spills can be treated with surfactant compounds to disperse them. This method enables the hydrophobic compounds to overcome their repulsion for water, enter the water phase and be diluted. Once in the water, the biodegradation fraction of the oil biodegrades over time and the residual fraction is deposited over a large area. One major issue which is not fully understood is whether oil compounds pass through the water phase to free floating cells or directly enter oil-attached microbial cells from the oil particle. In this study, crude oil was placed in a swirling flask with Corpus Christi Bay water and was then chemically dispersed with Corexit 9500. The biodegradation was then monitored and assessed. First order rate coefficients were determined based on the disappearance of specific compounds. The rate coefficients for total target PAHs were consistent for all tests. Napthalene, phenanthrene, dibenzothiophene and their alkylated homologs were among the target compounds. The trend was also observed for total target analytes and for total target saturates. The results indicate that the biodegradation rate coefficient was not dependent on the bulk concentration of oil in the water column. It was concluded that biodegradation rates was controlled by partitioning of the compounds between the two phases, and other factors such as particle size distribution and the capability of the microbial culture, temperature and nutrients. 13 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs

  9. Grain refinement mechanism in A3003 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Hoon; Shin, Je-Sik; Lee, Byoung-Soo; Jo, Hyung-Ho

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, in order to find out an grain refinement mechanism, 0.1wt.% Al-10wt.%Ti master alloy was added into A3003 alloy melt contained in graphite crucible and in alumina crucible, and then the melt holding time at 750 deg. C was systematically changed from 1 min up to 120 min. It is interesting to note that the grain refinement and fading phenomena remarkably depend on the crucible material. The fading effect in the specimens using alumina crucible can be explained as the result of TiAl 3 phase dissolution into molten aluminium matrix. In the specimens using graphite crucible, the grain refinement was occurred gradually with increasing holding time. It was suggest that the continuous grain refinement is due to transition of refinement mechanism from TiAl 3 phase to TiC phase. It can be mentioned that the TiC formed from titanium and carbon solute in the aluminium melt, which came from the Al-10Ti alloy and the graphite crucible.

  10. Quantification of isomerically summed hydrocarbon contributions to crude oil by carbon number, double bond equivalent, and aromaticity using gas chromatography with tunable vacuum ultraviolet ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Jeremy A; Weber, Robert J; Goldstein, Allen H

    2018-03-12

    The ability to structurally characterize and isomerically quantify crude oil hydrocarbons relevant to refined fuels such as motor oil, diesel, and gasoline represents an extreme challenge for chromatographic and mass spectrometric techniques. This work incorporates two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to a tunable vacuum ultraviolet soft photoionization source, the Chemical Dynamics Beamline 9.0.2 of the Advanced Light Source at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (GC × GC-VUV-TOF) to directly characterize and isomerically sum the contributions of aromatic and aliphatic species to hydrocarbon classes of four crude oils. When the VUV beam is tuned to 10.5 ± 0.2 eV, both aromatic and aliphatic crude oil hydrocarbons are ionized to reveal the complete chemical abundance of C 9 -C 30 hydrocarbons. When the VUV beam is tuned to 9.0 ± 0.2 eV only aromatic hydrocarbons are ionized, allowing separation of the aliphatic and aromatic fractions of the crude oil hydrocarbon chemical classes in an efficient manner while maintaining isomeric quantification. This technique provides an effective tool to determine the isomerically summed aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbon compositions of crude oil, providing information that goes beyond typical GC × GC separations of the most dominant hydrocarbon isomers.

  11. Production and characterization of refined oils obtained from Indian oil sardine (Sardinella longiceps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Kajal; Joseph, Deepu

    2015-01-28

    Crude Sardinella longiceps oil was refined in different stages such as degumming, neutralization, bleaching, and deodorization. The efficiency of these processes was evaluated on the basis of free fatty acid (FFA), peroxide (PV), p-anisidine (pAV), total oxidation (TOTOX), thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) values, Lovibond CIE-L*a*b* color analyses, and (1)H NMR or GC-MS experiments. The utilities of NMR-based proton signal characteristics as new analytical tools to understand the signature peaks and relative abundance of different fatty acids and monitoring the refining process of fish oil have been demonstrated. Phosphoric acid (1%) was found to be an effective degumming reagent to obtain oil with the lowest FFA, PV, pAV, TOTOX, and TBARS values and highest color reduction. Significant reduction in the contents of hydrocarbon functionalities as shown by the decrease in proton integral in the characteristic (1)H NMR region was demonstrated by using 1% H3PO4 during the course of the degumming process. A combination (1.25:3.75%) of activated charcoal and Fuller's earth at 3% concentration for a stirring time of 40 min was found to be effective in bleaching the sardine oil. This study demonstrated that unfavorable odor-causing components, particularly low molecular weight carbonyl compounds, could successfully be removed by the refining process. The alkane-dienals/alkanes, which cause unfavorable fishy odors, were successfully removed by distillation (100 °C) under vacuum with aqueous acetic acid solution (0.25 N) to obtain greater quality of refined sardine oil, a rich source of essential fatty acids and improved oxidative stability. The present study demonstrated that the four-stage refinement process of sardine oil resulted in a significant improvement in quality characteristics and nutritional values, particularly n-3 PUFAs, with improved fish oil characteristics for use in the pharmaceutical and functional food industries.

  12. pH-zone-refining elution-extrusion countercurrent chromatography: Separation of hydroxyanthraquinones from Cassiae semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Zhisi; Lv, Liqiong; Li, Xingnuo; Chu, Chu; Tong, Shengqiang

    2017-11-01

    Seven hydroxyanthraquinones were successfully separated from the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Cassiae semen by conventional and pH-zone-refining countercurrent chromatography with an environmentally friendly biphasic solvent system, in which elution-extrusion mode was investigated for pH-zone-refining countercurrent chromatography for the first time. A two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane/ethyl acetate/ethanol/water (5:3:4:4, v/v/v/v) was used for the conventional countercurrent chromatography while the same system with a different volume ratio n-hexane/ethyl acetate/ethanol/water (3:5:2:6, v/v/v/v) was used for pH-zone-refining countercurrent chromatography, in which 20 mmol/L of trifluoroacetic acid was added in the organic phase as a retainer and 15 mmol/L of ammonia was added to the aqueous phase as an eluter. A 400 mg crude sample could be well separated by pH-zone-refining countercurrent chromatography, yielding 53 mg of aurantio-obtusin, 40 mg of chryso-obtusin, 18 mg of obtusin, 24 mg of obtusifolin, 10 mg of emodin, and 105 mg of the mixture of chrysophanol and physcion with a purity of over 95.8, 95.7, 96.9, 93.5, 97.4, 77.1, and 19.8%, as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Furthermore, the difference in elution sequence between conventional and pH-zone-refining mode was observed and discussed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. A study of the effects of enhanced oil recovery agents on the quality of Strategic Petroleum Reserves crude oil. [Physical and chemical interactions of Enhanced Oil Recovery reagents with hydrocarbons present in petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabadi, V.N.

    1992-10-01

    The project was initiated on September 1, 1990. The objective of the project was to carry out a literature search to estimate the types and extents of long time interactions of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) agents, such as surfactants, caustics and polymers, with crude oil. This information is necessary to make recommendations about mixing EOR crude oil with crude oils from primary and secondary recovery processes in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Data were sought on both adverse and beneficial effects of EOR agents that would impact handling, transportation and refining of crude oil. An extensive literature search has been completed, and the following informations has been compiled: (1) a listing of existing EOR test and field projects; (2) a listing of currently used EOR agents; and (3) evidence of short and long term physical and chemical interactions of these EOR-agents with hydrocarbons, and their effects on the quality of crude oil at long times. This information is presented in this report. Finally some conclusions are derived and recommendations are made. Although the conclusions are based mostly on extrapolations because of lack of specific data, it is recommended that the enhancement of the rates of biodegradation of oil catalyzed by the EOR agents needs to be further studied. There is no evidence of substantial long term effects on crude oil because of other interactions. Some recommendations are also made regarding the types of studies that would be necessary to determine the effect of certain EOR agents on the rates of biodegradation of crude oil.

  14. Efficiency of crude oil markets: Evidences from informational entropy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz-Cruz, Alejandro; Rodriguez, Eduardo; Ibarra-Valdez, Carlos; Alvarez-Ramirez, Jose

    2012-01-01

    The role of crude oil as the main energy source for the global economic activity has motivated the discussion about the dynamics and causes of crude oil price changes. An accurate understanding of the issue should provide important guidelines for the design of optimal policies and government budget planning. Using daily data for WTI over the period January 1986–March 2011, we analyze the evolution of the informational complexity and efficiency for the crude oil market through multiscale entropy analysis. The results indicated that the crude oil market is informationally efficient over the scrutinized period except for two periods that correspond to the early 1990s and late 2000s US recessions. Overall, the results showed that deregulation has improved the operation of the market in the sense of making returns less predictable. On the other hand, there is some evidence that the probability of having a severe US economic recession increases as the informational efficiency decreases, which indicates that returns from crude oil markets are less uncertain during economic downturns. - Highlights: ► Entropy concepts are used to characterize crude oil prices. ► An index of market efficiency is introduced. ► Except for periods of economic recession, the crude oil market is informationally efficient.

  15. Crude glycerin in diets for feedlot Nellore cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Haydt Castello Branco van Cleef

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Two studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of crude glycerin on feed intake, performance, carcass characteristics, and total digestibility of Nellore bulls. In experiment 1, cattle (n = 30 were fed a control diet without crude glycerin and diets containing 7.5, 15, 22.5, and 30% crude glycerin, for 103 d. Animals were harvested and data of carcass characteristics were collected. In experiment 2, a digestibility trial was performed using indigestible acid detergent fiber (iADF as internal marker, and five rumen-cannulated steers. Both experiments were conducted as a randomized complete block design and data were analyzed using mixed procedures. In experiment 1 no differences were observed among treatments on dry matter intake, and performance variables. Regarding carcass characteristics, no effect was observed, except for carcass fat estimates, which were greater in treatments with crude glycerin. In experiment 2, crude glycerin promoted a decrease in digestibility of fibrous fractions NDF and HEM, and increased digestibility of crude protein by 6%. Although it caused negative effect on digestibility of fibrous fraction of diets, crude glycerin can be a good energy source for Nellore bulls, since no losses are observed on performance and carcass characteristics when animals are fed up to 30% of this by-product.

  16. Crude oil–corn–ethanol – nexus: A contextual approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natanelov, Valeri; McKenzie, Andrew M.; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido

    2013-01-01

    This paper offers a holistic study on the complex relationships between crude oil, corn and ethanol during a turbulent period between 2006 and end of 2011. Through a holistic mapping of the current market situation and a contextual analytical design we show that there exists a strong relationship between crude oil and corn markets on one side, and crude oil and ethanol on the other. However, the price relationship between corn and ethanol was revealed to be less straightforward, and is driven by the US government fuel policy. Furthermore the study indicates that corn markets have became more prone to volatility due to ethanol production, especially when the demand for corn is high and/or the crude oil prices are high enough to create a competitive market for ethanol. - Highlights: • Strong relationship between crude oil–corn and crude oil–ethanol. • Corn–ethanol connected through a by-pass of crude oil markets. • Ethanol market has no direct impact on the price levels of corn. • Corn markets became more prone to volatility due to ethanol production

  17. India's refining prospects linked to economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, E.

    1996-01-01

    International investors assess refining ventures in India the same way they do comparable projects elsewhere in the world: according to their expectations about investment returns. By that standard, India's appeal is mixed, although its need for some measure of additional refining capacity seems certain. The success of future refinery investments will depend heavily on the government's commitment to policies allowing the economy to grow faster than the population. Unless accompanied by economic growth, expected increases in the population will not automatically raise demand for petroleum products. Decisions about investments in India's refining sector, therefore, must carefully weigh market fundamentals, the business environment, and likely investment performance. This paper reviews the market for the various products and predicts new economic trends

  18. Refining processes of selected copper alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rzadkosz

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the refining effectiveness of the liquid copper and selected copper alloys by various micro additions and special refiningsubstances – was performed. Examinations of an influence of purifying, modifying and deoxidation operations performed in a metal bath on the properties of certain selected alloys based on copper matrix - were made. Refining substances, protecting-purifying slag, deoxidation and modifying substances containing micro additions of such elements as: zirconium, boron, phosphor, sodium, lithium, or their compounds introduced in order to change micro structures and properties of alloys, were applied in examinations. A special attention was directed to macro and micro structures of alloys, their tensile and elongation strength and hot-cracks sensitivity. Refining effects were estimated by comparing the effectiveness of micro structure changes with property changes of copper and its selected alloys from the group of tin bronzes.

  19. Zone refining high-purity germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, G.S.; Haller, E.E.; Hansen, W.L.

    1977-10-01

    The effects of various parameters on germanium purification by zone refining have been examined. These parameters include the germanium container and container coatings, ambient gas and other operating conditions. Four methods of refining are presented which reproducibly yield 3.5 kg germanium ingots from which high purity (vertical barN/sub A/ - N/sub D/vertical bar less than or equal to2 x 10 10 cm -3 ) single crystals can be grown. A qualitative model involving binary and ternary complexes of Si, O, B, and Al is shown to account for the behavior of impurities at these low concentrations

  20. Adaptive mesh refinement for storm surge

    KAUST Repository

    Mandli, Kyle T.; Dawson, Clint N.

    2014-01-01

    An approach to utilizing adaptive mesh refinement algorithms for storm surge modeling is proposed. Currently numerical models exist that can resolve the details of coastal regions but are often too costly to be run in an ensemble forecasting framework without significant computing resources. The application of adaptive mesh refinement algorithms substantially lowers the computational cost of a storm surge model run while retaining much of the desired coastal resolution. The approach presented is implemented in the GeoClaw framework and compared to ADCIRC for Hurricane Ike along with observed tide gauge data and the computational cost of each model run. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Refining - Panorama 2008; Raffinage - Panorama 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Investment rallied in 2007, and many distillation and conversion projects likely to reach the industrial stage were announced. With economic growth sustained in 2006 and still pronounced in 2007, oil demand remained strong - especially in emerging countries - and refining margins stayed high. Despite these favorable business conditions, tensions persisted in the refining sector, which has fallen far behind in terms of investing in refinery capacity. It will take renewed efforts over a long period to catch up. Looking at recent events that have affected the economy in many countries (e.g. the sub-prime crisis), prudence remains advisable.

  2. India beckons participants in burgeoning refining sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that India has opened its refining sector to full private investment for the first time in more than 2 decades. The government again gave a green light to construction of three 120,000 b/d grassroots refineries in East, West, and Central India. The projects had won various governmental approvals in the past few years, but never moved off high center for a variety of economic and regulatory reasons. The difference this time is that the government is offering interests in the projects to private foreign and domestic investors. It's part of India's push to boost overall refining capacity by more than 80% this century

  3. Adaptive mesh refinement for storm surge

    KAUST Repository

    Mandli, Kyle T.

    2014-03-01

    An approach to utilizing adaptive mesh refinement algorithms for storm surge modeling is proposed. Currently numerical models exist that can resolve the details of coastal regions but are often too costly to be run in an ensemble forecasting framework without significant computing resources. The application of adaptive mesh refinement algorithms substantially lowers the computational cost of a storm surge model run while retaining much of the desired coastal resolution. The approach presented is implemented in the GeoClaw framework and compared to ADCIRC for Hurricane Ike along with observed tide gauge data and the computational cost of each model run. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Contextual Distance Refining for Image Retrieval

    KAUST Repository

    Islam, Almasri

    2014-01-01

    Recently, a number of methods have been proposed to improve image retrieval accuracy by capturing context information. These methods try to compensate for the fact that a visually less similar image might be more relevant because it depicts the same object. We propose a new quick method for refining any pairwise distance metric, it works by iteratively discovering the object in the image from the most similar images, and then refine the distance metric accordingly. Test show that our technique improves over the state of art in terms of accuracy over the MPEG7 dataset.

  5. Russian refining - an industry in transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, E [CentreInvest, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1999-02-01

    In the old Soviet Union (now called the CIS), the refining industry is undergoing much modernisation, although the process is far from complete. Eventually, the CIS is expected to have a market-responsive competitive refining business. The expected transformation is discussed according to a five-stage plan. The stages are (i) the change from horizontally integrated entity to vertically integrated global concerns, (ii) the change from over-manned dinosaurs to modern efficient businesses, (iii) the move towards smaller, more advanced market-orientated processes, (iv) improving the transport and storage infrastructures and (v) improving accountability and profitability. The predictions for 2005 onwards are for sustained profitability. (UK)

  6. Contextual Distance Refining for Image Retrieval

    KAUST Repository

    Islam, Almasri

    2014-09-16

    Recently, a number of methods have been proposed to improve image retrieval accuracy by capturing context information. These methods try to compensate for the fact that a visually less similar image might be more relevant because it depicts the same object. We propose a new quick method for refining any pairwise distance metric, it works by iteratively discovering the object in the image from the most similar images, and then refine the distance metric accordingly. Test show that our technique improves over the state of art in terms of accuracy over the MPEG7 dataset.

  7. Procedures in field systems for collecting and demulsifying crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vakhitov, G G; Graifer, V I; Tronov, V P; Zakirov, I G

    1969-01-01

    This microscopic study of crude oil emulsification and demulsification showed that the sooner an emulsion is chemically treated, the less its stability. This finding led to the practice of adding demulsifiers to the crude oil in pipelines. This method of demulsification is now used in Romashkino, Bablinsk, and Elkhovs fields. By this early addition of a chemical, the tendency of the pipeline to form stable, highly viscous emulsions is reduced. This treatment also facilitates separation of water from oil in storage tanks. Repeated tests have shown that pipeline demulsification is a highly effective and economic process. This method reduces crude oil dewatering costs by several hundred percent.

  8. Tweens demulsification effects on heavy crude oil/water emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastaran Hayati Roodbari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The demulsification role of Tweens (nonionic polymers was determined in the separation of water from heavy crude oil emulsion. According to the previous researches, these nonionic polymers, having hydrophilic and lipophilic groups, are appropriate for making oil in water emulsion. In this research their effects in certain concentrations on demulsifying of water in crude oil emulsion were proved. High molecular weight, alkenes’ chains and groups of ketone and ester in these polymers can improve their performance for the demulsification of water in crude oil emulsion. Their efficiencies are improved with electronegative groups such as oxygen. They leave no corrosion effect because they are neutral and do not leave counter ions.

  9. Fuel properties of biodiesel produced from the crude fish oil from the soapstock of marine fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Cherng-Yuan; Li, Rong-Ji [Department of Marine Engineering, National Taiwan Ocean, University, Keelung 20224 (China)

    2009-01-15

    The soapstock of a mixture of marine fish was used as the raw material to produce the biodiesel in this study. The soapstock was collected from discarded fish products. Crude fish oil was squeezed from the soapstock of the fish and refined by a series of processes. The refined fish oil was transesterified to produce biodiesel. The fuel properties of the biodiesel were analyzed. The experimental results showed that oleic acid (C18:1) and palmitic acid (C16:0) were the two major components of the marine fish-oil biodiesel. The biodiesel from the mixed marine fish oil contained a significantly greater amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids than did the biodiesel from waste cooking oil. In addition, the marine fish-oil biodiesel contained as high as 37.07 wt.% saturated fatty acids and 37.3 wt.% long chain fatty acids in the range between C20 and C22. Moreover, the marine fish-oil biodiesel appeared to have a larger acid number, a greater increase in the rate of peroxidization with the increase in the time that it was stored, greater kinematic viscosity, higher heating value, higher cetane index, more carbon residue, and a lower peroxide value, flash point, and distillation temperature than those of waste cooking-oil biodiesel. (author)

  10. A Simple Refining Technique of Coconut Oil for Small Holder Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugeng Triyono

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A simple refining equipment and process for small holder industries of edible coconut oil has beeninvestigated. The equipment consisted of 20-L filtering and NaOH neutralization bottles. Filtration wasintended to remove impurities such as gums and pigment, while neutralization was to remove free fattyacids (FFA and other non-fat materials. In the experiment, the crude coconut oil was found to have impurityof 0.16%, FFA of 8.02%, saponification number of 270, and water content of 0.33%. The results showed thateither granular activated carbon (GAC or zeolite filtration can be chosen individually to remove physicalimpurity. The GAC or zeolite-filtered coconut oil contained impurity less than the SNI standard of 0.05%.In term of FFA; however, the NaOH neutralized coconut oil did not meet the SNI standard of 0.3%. AfterNaOH neutralization, the GAC filtered oil contained 1.20% FFA; while the zeolite filtered oil contained1.32%. These FFA contents were definitely higher than the SNI standard, but could satisfy APCC standardfor grade IV coconut oil which is 5%. The refined coconut oils could also satisfy the SNI standard ofsaponification number which is 196 – 206 at minimum. In term of water content, either the filtered or theneutralized oil could also satisfy the SNI standard of 0.3%. In short, the proposed technique could helpfarmers refine their raw coconut oil, and hopefully improve its marketability.

  11. Estimated probabilities, volumes, and inundation areas depths of potential postwildfire debris flows from Carbonate, Slate, Raspberry, and Milton Creeks, near Marble, Gunnison County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Michael R.; Flynn, Jennifer L.; Stephens, Verlin C.; Verdin, Kristine L.

    2011-01-01

    During 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Gunnison County, initiated a study to estimate the potential for postwildfire debris flows to occur in the drainage basins occupied by Carbonate, Slate, Raspberry, and Milton Creeks near Marble, Colorado. Currently (2010), these drainage basins are unburned but could be burned by a future wildfire. Empirical models derived from statistical evaluation of data collected from recently burned basins throughout the intermountain western United States were used to estimate the probability of postwildfire debris-flow occurrence and debris-flow volumes for drainage basins occupied by Carbonate, Slate, Raspberry, and Milton Creeks near Marble. Data for the postwildfire debris-flow models included drainage basin area; area burned and burn severity; percentage of burned area; soil properties; rainfall total and intensity for the 5- and 25-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration-rainfall; and topographic and soil property characteristics of the drainage basins occupied by the four creeks. A quasi-two-dimensional floodplain computer model (FLO-2D) was used to estimate the spatial distribution and the maximum instantaneous depth of the postwildfire debris-flow material during debris flow on the existing debris-flow fans that issue from the outlets of the four major drainage basins. The postwildfire debris-flow probabilities at the outlet of each drainage basin range from 1 to 19 percent for the 5-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, and from 3 to 35 percent for 25-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall. The largest probabilities for postwildfire debris flow are estimated for Raspberry Creek (19 and 35 percent), whereas estimated debris-flow probabilities for the three other creeks range from 1 to 6 percent. The estimated postwildfire debris-flow volumes at the outlet of each creek range from 7,500 to 101,000 cubic meters for the 5-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, and from 9,400 to 126,000 cubic meters for

  12. Changes of porosity due to weathering in quartzites and slates of a Raña profile (Montes de Toledo, Central Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molina Ballesteros, E.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rañas are alluvial fan deposits of Plio-Pleistocene age that form the piedmont platforms around the mountains in the interior of the Iberian Peninsula. They are composed of cobbles, pebbles and gravels of quartzite and some quartz, all embedded within a clayey matrix displaying striking changes in hues due to hydromorphism. Beneath these platforms, the Hercynian basement is consistently deeply weathered. In the profile of the Raña, the quartzite stones located into the clayey horizon have a weathering rind that is whitish to ochre in colour, in contrast to the dark reddish hue of those located within the leaching horizon, just below the land surface. These differences are related to changes in the physical properties (e.g., bulk density and porosity, mineralogy (presence of oxyhydroxides and weathering processes that have taken place in the profile. Such processes have led to the corrosion and replacement of the quartz grains by the iron oxyhydroxides. The main cause is the dramatic changes in the water regime occurring in the pores at the surfaces of the quartzite stones. Due to weathering the slates outcropping beneath the Raña have undergone important release of matter (ca. 30%, together with changes in the mineral association, with a progressive reduction in the component of the unweathered slates and an increase in new minerals (smectites, kaolinite and iron oxyhydroxides upwards.Las Rañas son depósitos de abanicos aluviales del Plio-Pleistoceno que forman plataformas de piedemonte alrededor de las montanas del interior de la Peninsula Iberica. Estan formadas de bloques, cantos y gravas de cuarcita dominantes y algún cuarzo engastados en una matriz arcillosa que muestra importantes contrastes de color causados por hidromorfismo. Bajo estas plataformas, el zocalo hercinico se encuentra profundamente alterado. En un perfil de Rana se distinguen dos tipos de horizontes: i el superior, de pocos decimetros de grosor, rico en cantos, gravas

  13. Carcass characteristics of feedlot lambs fed crude glycerin contaminated with high concentrations of crude fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, J F; Paulino, P V R; Pereira, L G R; Duarte, M S; Valadares Filho, S C; Oliveira, A S; Souza, N K P; Lima, J C M

    2014-01-01

    Thirty non-castrated male lambs with 20±2.3 kg average body weight (BW) were randomly assigned to five treatments consisted of different dietary concentrations of crude glycerin (CG; 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12% on DM basis) to evaluate the effects on performance, carcass and meat quality traits. A quadratic effect was observed for performance (P=0.04), final BW (P0.05) on carcass pH neither on shear-force, cooking loss and ether extract content in longissimus. The inclusion of CG tended to reduce the Zn content in meat (P=0.09). The data suggests that CG (36.2% of glycerol and 46.5% of crude fat) may be used in diets of finishing lambs with concentrations up to 3% without negative effects on performance and main carcass traits. Moreover, inclusion of CG seems to not affect quality and safety of meat for human consumption. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 413: Clean Slate II Plutonium Dispersion (TTR) Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick; Burmeister, Mark; Gallo, Patricia

    2016-04-21

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 413 is located on the Tonopah Test Range, which is approximately 130 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, and approximately 40 miles southeast of Tonopah, Nevada. The CAU 413 site consists of the release of radionuclides to the surface and shallow subsurface from the conduct of the Clean Slate II (CSII) storage–transportation test conducted on May 31, 1963. CAU 413 includes one corrective action site (CAS), TA-23-02CS (Pu Contaminated Soil). The known releases at CAU 413 are the result of the atmospheric deposition of contamination from the 1963 CSII test. The CSII test was a non-nuclear detonation of a nuclear device located inside a reinforced concrete bunker covered with 2 feet of soil. This test dispersed radionuclides, primarily plutonium, on the ground surface. The presence and nature of contamination at CAU 413 will be evaluated based on information collected from a corrective action investigation (CAI). The investigation is based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on June 17, 2015, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; the U.S. Air Force; and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 413. The CAI will include radiological surveys, geophysical surveys, collection and analyses of soil samples, and assessment of investigation results. The collection of soil samples will be accomplished using both probabilistic and judgmental sampling approaches. To facilitate site investigation and the evaluation of DQO decisions, the releases at CAU 413 have been divided into seven study groups.

  15. Radiation processing studies on residual fractions of Olowi petroleum crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarfo, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    Residual fuel oil is an inexpensive boiler fuel that can replace diesel in some industrial boilers. The viscous waxy nature of residual fuel oil makes it very difficult to use in industries where fuel storage tanks have no heating elements to keep the fuel at temperatures at which it would easily flow. Irradiation is currently being studied as a cost effective means of cracking heavy petroleum crude oil into lighter and more valuable products. Research has shown that irradiation can replace the conventional methods of cracking petroleum with economical benefits. Gamma radiation from a cobalt-60 source was applied to the residue obtained after refining crude oil in this research study, with the intention of causing a similar cracking phenomenon. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the possibility of using gamma radiation to reduce the viscosity of residual fractions of crude oil used as residual fuel oil. This was done by exposing samples of residual fuel oil in glass jars to 9 different doses of gamma radiation, at room temperature and an elevated temperature of 60 degrees Celsius to determine and quantify the effect of radiation on residual fuel oil obtained from the Tema Oil Refinery. The pour points of the irradiated samples were not affected by radiation doses up to 200 kGy while the changes in viscosity for irradiation at room temperature were not significant. Irradiation at 60 degrees Celsius induced a small but significant increase in viscosity at 1 kGy and 200 kGy absorbed doses of irradiation. Irradiation fuels were stable in relation to viscosity, density and pour point over a period of 20 days after exposure. The flash point of irradiated samples, however, decreased by 5.26, 10.53 and 11.34% for 30, 50 and 80 kGy absorbed doses of radiation respectively. Cumulative and continuous doses gave similar results for pour point, density, viscosity and flash point measurements up to 50 kGy. Comparative cost analysis of methods used in maintaining low

  16. Refining the Eye: Dermatology and Visual Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Corinne; Huang, Jennifer T.; Buzney, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    In 2014 the Museum of Fine Arts Boston and Harvard Medical School began a partnership focused on building visual literacy skills for dermatology residents in the Harvard Combined Dermatology Residency Program. "Refining the Eye: Art and Dermatology", a four session workshop, took place in the museum's galleries and utilized the Visual…

  17. Structural refinement and coarsening in deformed metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, N.; Huang, X.; Xing, Q.

    2005-01-01

    The microstructural refinement by plastic deformation is analysed in terms of key parameters, the spacing between and the misorientation angle across the boundaries subdividing the structure. Coarsening of such structures by annealing is also characterised. For both deformed and annealed structur...

  18. Structure refinement of polycrystalline orthorhombic yttrium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The perovskite ceramic phases with composition Ca1−YTiO3+ (where = 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3; hereafter CYT-10, CYT-20 and CYT-30) have been synthesized by solid state reaction at 1050°C. The structure refinement using general structure analysis system (GSAS) software converges to satisfactory profile indicators ...

  19. Oil refining expansion criteria for Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, M.E.E.; Szklo, A.S.; Machado, G.V.; Schaeffer, R.; Mariano, J.B.; Sala, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper assesses different strategies for the expansion of Brazil's oil refining segment, using criteria that range from energy security (reducing imports and vulnerability for key products) through to maximizing the profitability of this sector (boosting the output of higher value oil products) and adding value to Brazil's oil production (reducing exports of heavy acid oil). The development prospects are analyzed for conventional fuel production technology routes, sketching out three possible refining schemes for Brazilian oil and a GTL plant for producing gasoil from natural gas. Market scenario simulations indicate that investments will be required in Brazil's oil refining segment over and above those allocated to planned modifications in its current facilities, reducing the nation's vulnerability in terms of gasoil and petrochemical naphtha imports. Although not economically attractive, oil refining is a key activity that is crucial to oil company strategies. The decision to invest in this segment depends on local infrastructure conditions, environmental constraints and fuel specifications, in addition to oil company strategies, steady growth in demand and the definition of a government policy that eases institutional risks. (author)

  20. Oil refining expansion criteria for Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, Marina Elisabete Espinho; Szklo, Alexandre Salem; Machado, Giovani Vitoria; Schaeffer, Roberto; Mariano, Jacqueline Barboza; Sala, Janaina Francisco

    2006-01-01

    This paper assesses different strategies for the expansion of Brazil's oil refining segment, using criteria that range from energy security (reducing imports and vulnerability for key products) through to maximizing the profitability of this sector (boosting the output of higher value oil products) and adding value to Brazil's oil production (reducing exports of heavy acid oil). The development prospects are analyzed for conventional fuel production technology routes, sketching out three possible refining schemes for Brazilian oil and a GTL plant for producing gasoil from natural gas. Market scenario simulations indicate that investments will be required in Brazil's oil refining segment over and above those allocated to planned modifications in its current facilities, reducing the nation's vulnerability in terms of gasoil and petrochemical naphtha imports. Although not economically attractive, oil refining is a key activity that is crucial to oil company strategies. The decision to invest in this segment depends on local infrastructure conditions, environmental constraints and fuel specifications, in addition to oil company strategies, steady growth in demand and the definition of a government policy that eases institutional risks

  1. On Syntactic and Semantic Action Refinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goltz, Ursula; Gorrieri, Roberto; Rensink, Arend

    1992-01-01

    The semantic definition of action refinement on labelled event structures is compared with the notion of syntactic substitution,which can be used as another notion of action refiment in a process algebraic setting. This is done by studying a process algebra equipped with the ACP sequential

  2. Uranium refining process using ion exchange membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Akira

    1977-01-01

    As for the method of refining uranium ore being carried out in Europe and America at present, uranium ore is roughly refined at the mine sites to yellow cake, then this is transported to refineries and refined by dry method. This method has the following faults, namely the number of processes is large, it requires expensive corrosion-resistant materials because of high temperature treatment, and the impurities in uranium tend to increase. On the other hand, in case of EXCER method, treatment is carried out at low temperature, and high purity uranium can be obtained, but the efficiency of electrolytic reduction process is extremely low, and economically infeasible. In the wet refining method called PNC process, uranium tetrafluoride is produced from uranium ore without making yellow cake, therefore the process is rationalized largely, and highly economical. The electrolytic reduction process in this method was developed by Asahi Chemical Industry Co., Ltd. by constructing the pilot plant in Ningyotoge Mine. The ion exchange membrane, the electrodes, and the problems concerning the process and the engineering for commercial plants were investigated. The electrolytic reduction process, the pilot plant, the development of the elements of electrolytic cells, the establishment of analytical process, the measurement of the electrolytic characteristics, the demonstration operation, and the life time of the electrolytic diaphragm are reported. (Kako, I.)

  3. Anomalies in the refinement of isoleucine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berntsen, K.R.M.; Vriend, G.

    2014-01-01

    A study of isoleucines in protein structures solved using X-ray crystallography revealed a series of systematic trends for the two side-chain torsion angles chi1 and chi2 dependent on the resolution, secondary structure and refinement software used. The average torsion angles for the nine rotamers

  4. Refinement from a control problem to program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schenke, Michael; Ravn, Anders P.

    1996-01-01

    The distinguishing feature of the presented refinement approach is that it links formalisms from a top level requirements notation down to programs together in a mathematically coherent development trajectory. The approach uses Duration Calculus, a real-time interval logic, to specifyrequirements...

  5. Robust Refinement as Implemented in TOPAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, K.; Stephens, P

    2010-01-01

    A robust refinement procedure is implemented in the program TOPAS through an iterative reweighting of the data. Examples are given of the procedure as applied to fitting partially overlapped peaks by full and partial models and also of the structures of ibuprofen and acetaminophen in the presence of unmodeled impurity contributions

  6. Refinement of the concept of uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penrod, J

    2001-04-01

    To analyse the conceptual maturity of uncertainty; to develop an expanded theoretical definition of uncertainty; to advance the concept using methods of concept refinement; and to analyse congruency with the conceptualization of uncertainty presented in the theory of hope, enduring, and suffering. Uncertainty is of concern in nursing as people experience complex life events surrounding health. In an earlier nursing study that linked the concepts of hope, enduring, and suffering into a single theoretical scheme, a state best described as 'uncertainty' arose. This study was undertaken to explore how this conceptualization fit with the scientific literature on uncertainty and to refine the concept. Initially, a concept analysis using advanced methods described by Morse, Hupcey, Mitcham and colleagues was completed. The concept was determined to be partially mature. A theoretical definition was derived and techniques of concept refinement using the literature as data were applied. The refined concept was found to be congruent with the concept of uncertainty that had emerged in the model of hope, enduring and suffering. Further investigation is needed to explore the extent of probabilistic reasoning and the effects of confidence and control on feelings of uncertainty and certainty.

  7. Quantum Geometry of Refined Topological Strings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aganagic, M.; Cheng, M.C.N.; Dijkgraaf, R.; Kreft, D.; Vafa, C.

    2012-01-01

    We consider branes in refined topological strings. We argue that their wavefunctions satisfy a Schrödinger equation depending on multiple times and prove this in the case where the topological string has a dual matrix model description. Furthermore, in the limit where one of the equivariant

  8. Red refinements of simplices into congruent subsimplices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Korotov, S.; Křížek, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 12 (2014), s. 2199-2204 ISSN 0898-1221 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-02067S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : sommerville tetrahedron * red refinement * higher-dimensional simplex Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.697, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0898122114000662

  9. The relationship between SARA fractions and crude oil stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siavash Ashoori

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Asphaltene precipitation and deposition are drastic issues in the petroleum industry. Monitoring the asphaltene stability in crude oil is still a serious problem and has been subject of many studies. To investigate crude oil stability by saturate, aromatic, resin and asphaltene (SARA analysis seven types of crudes with different components were used. The applied methods for SARA quantification are IP-143 and ASTM D893-69 and the colloidal instability index (CII is computed from the SARA values as well. In comparison between CII results, the values of oil compositions demonstrated that the stability of asphaltenes in crude oils is a phenomenon that is related to all these components and it cannot be associated only with one of them, individually.

  10. How is the international price of a particular crude determined?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, Ronald

    1994-01-01

    If crude oil or oil products are not the final item of consumption, then oil is not bought or sold on any basis other than its contribution to the final product. The markets of oil products are thus 'derived' from more basic demands, and prices are determined by what they contribute to the costs of producing final products or commodities. Similarly, the value of a crude oil is derived from the value of the petroleum products it yields. This paper attempts to show how differences in crude oil prices seem to occur. The results should be of interest to producers of crude oil, since they will demonstrate how the marketability of their products might vary. (author)

  11. Dynamic Relationship between Crude Oil Price, Exchange Rate and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrNneka

    Second, since Hamilton (1983) documented the impact of crude oil price volatility .... Hariri,2013) sourced from the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA). .... is explained by identifying the relative importance of a variable in generating.

  12. Evaluation of Crude Oil Biodegradation Efficiency and Peroxidase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Increase in biomass enhanced degradation efficiency above 80 % after 10 days for all concentration of crude oil studied. Peroxidase ... compounds by various bacteria and fungi (Gianfreda et al, 1999) ... into a clean plastic container. Microbial.

  13. Investigating Asphaltenes Composition in Crude Oil Samples using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2015-12-22

    Dec 22, 2015 ... composition of asphaltenes by Iatroscan TLC-FID method was compared with the weight% of asphaltenes precipitated. ... SARA in the crude oil samples were determined in this work ..... Fractionation and characterization of.

  14. Toxity of Gedunin, Piperine and Crude Extracts of their Natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxity of Gedunin, Piperine and Crude Extracts of their Natural Products on Growth and Development of Ostrinia Nubilalis Hbner (Lepidoptera: Pyrarlidae). F K Ewete, J T Arnason, T Durst, S Mackinnon ...

  15. Some effects of simultaneous administration of crude aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result shows that the crude aqueous extract of mango levels has adverse effect on the morphology and some hepatic enzyme ... Keywords: Mango leaves, Tetracycline, Liver histology, Liver enzymes (AST and ALT) ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  16. Enhancement of Crude Oil Polluted Soil by Applying Single and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    bioline.org.br/ja ... 5 kg of soil each was polluted with 200 ml of crude oil ... organic matter, phosphate, nitrate, total hydrocarbon content, potassium and microbial population were analyzed before ... arise mainly from the processing and distribution of.

  17. Microwave-gamma ray water in crude monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paap, H.J.

    1984-01-01

    A microwave-gamma ray water-in-crude monitoring system measures the percent quantity of fresh water or salt water in crude oil flowing in a pipe line. The system includes a measuring cell arranged with the pipe line so that the crude oil flows through the measuring cell. A microwave transmitter subsystem and a gamma ray source are arranged with the measuring cell so that microwave energy and gamma rays are transmitted through the measuring cell. A microwave receiving subsystem and a gamma ray detector provide signals corresponding to received microwave energy and to the received gamma rays, respectively. Apparatus connected to the microwave receiver and to the gamma ray detector provides an indication of the percentage of water in the crude oil

  18. The crude petroleum and natural gas industry, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    A compilation of data regarding the crude petroleum and natural gas industry was presented. This industry includes establishments engaged in exploration for, or production of petroleum or natural gas from wells or tar sands. Data presented in this publication include: the supply and disposition of crude oil and natural gas, operating and capital expenditures of approximately 500 companies of the oil and natural gas industry, drilling completions, and crude oil and natural gas reserves. Data about the oil sands industry is reported in another volume. Much of the data was obtained from the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers. Overall, in 1995 Canadian natural gas production rose 6.7%; exports of crude oil rose 7.7%. 8 tabs., 2 figs

  19. crude methanolic extracts of ageratum conyzoides and cutaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anatomy

    wound in the experimental group was dressed with crude methanolic extract of Ageratum conyzoides at a five daily interval while the animals in the control group were dressed with normal saline at ... in Africa (Almagboul et al, 1985), Asia, and.

  20. Some Effects Of Simultaneous Administration Of Crude Aqueous

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-06-12

    Jun 12, 2017 ... This study was designed to determine the simultaneous effect of Mangifera indica crude aqueous extract and the ... reproductive system (Farombi et al, 2008). Liver is the ... leaves were obtained, then air-dried for six weeks.

  1. An isolated bacterial consortium for crude oil biodegradation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 10(81), pp. ... The removal of crude oil by bioremediation was achieved in less time as compared to natural attenuation ... Environmental pollution, especially with hydrocarbons is a major ...

  2. The crude petroleum and natural gas industry : 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Statistics regarding Canada's crude oil and natural gas industry for 1996 were presented. Data presentation was in tabular form, the topics being exploration and development, synthetic crude oil reserves, crude oil production and movements by source, natural gas production, drilling completions, net cash expenditures of the petroleum industry, and total sales of natural gas by province. Some of the noteworthy highlights for 1996 were: (1) 14,600 new wells were drilled, the highest number ever recorded, (2) capital investment was over $13 billion, (3) 148 companies were involved in mergers and acquisitions, (4) value of marketable production of oil, natural gas and natural gas by-products topped $30 billion, (5) Empress pipelines began operations of the first new major oil pipeline from Western Canada in 45 years, (6) the Hibernia offshore crude oil facility was completed, (7) Sable Island offshore energy projects applications were filed, and (8) the development of the Terra Nova, Whitehorse and Hebron fields was announced. 8 tabs

  3. Experimental study on yield behavior of Daqing crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Lei [China University of Petroleum, College of Mechanical and Transportation Engineering, Beijing (China)

    2012-07-15

    The yield behavior of Daqing crude oil was studied by means of multi-mode controlled-stress tests with a high-precision stress controlled rheometer. Two experiments of creep and constant stress loading rate were performed. The yield stress of gelled crude oil was dependent on the test conditions such as the stress loading time and the stress loading rate, but the yield strain did not change with test conditions. The yield strain did exist objectively and it can be used as the criterion for the yielding of the structure of gelled crude oil. The yield strain of gelled oil was studied through experiments of creep, constant stress loading rate, oscillatory shear stress increase, and constant shear rate. The yield strain of gelled crude oil decreased with the increasing gel strength. The experiment of constant speed increase of stress showed the strain softening phenomena for low gel strength oil. (orig.)

  4. Uptake of crude petroleum hydrocarbons by mudflat bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-08-06

    Aug 6, 2007 ... bacteria exposed to nitrogenous fertilizer plant ... accompanied by a rapid decline in the level of crude petroleum in the amended .... conductivity, turbidity, salinity, dissolved oxygen (fresh sample only) ... Nutrient uptake was.

  5. Mineral, vitamin C and crude protein contents in kale (Brassica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-10-27

    Oct 27, 2011 ... Key words: Kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala), harvesting stage, vitamin C, crude protein, mineral content. .... L-ascorbic acid (or vitamin C) in plant tissues. .... Cooking methods of Brassica rapa affect the preservation of.

  6. Influence of feeding varying crude protein and digestible energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of feeding varying crude protein and digestible energy levels on the development of individual muscles, rate of lean and fat deposition in pigs reared from 9 to 60kg liveweight in a humid tropical environment.

  7. Isolation and identification of an ester from a crude oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, H.F.; Breger, I.A.

    1958-01-01

    A dioctylphthalate has been isolated from a crude oil by means of adsorption column chromatography. The ester was identified by means of elemental analysis, refractive index, and its infra-red absorption spectrum. Saponification of the isolate and examination of the resultant alcohol by means of infrared absorption spectra led to the conclusion that the ester is a branched chain dioctylphthalate. This is the first reported occurrence of an ester in crude petroleum. ?? 1958.

  8. Feasibility Process for Remediation of the Crude Oil Contaminated Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keum, H.; Choi, H.; Heo, H.; Lee, S.; Kang, G.

    2015-12-01

    More than 600 oil wells were destroyed in Kuwait by Iraqi in 1991. During the war, over 300 oil lakes with depth of up to 2m at more than 500 different locations which has been over 49km2. Therefore, approximately 22 million m3was crude oil contaminated. As exposure of more than 20 years under atmospheric conditions of Kuwait, the crude oil has volatile hydrocarbons and covered heavy oily sludge under the crude oil lake. One of crude oil contaminated soil which located Burgan Oilfield area was collected by Kuwait Oil Company and got by H-plus Company. This contaminated soil has about 42% crude oil and could not biodegraded itself due to the extremely high toxicity. This contaminated soil was separated by 2mm sieve for removal oil sludge ball. Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was analysis by GC FID and initial TPH concentration was average 48,783 mg/kg. Ten grams of the contaminated soil replaced in two micro reactors with 20mL of bio surfactant produce microorganism. Reactor 1 was added 0.1g powder hemoglobin and other reactor was not added hemoglobin at time 0 day. Those reactors shake 120 rpm on the shaker for 7 days and CO2 produced about 150mg/L per day. After 7 days under the slurry systems, the rest days operated by hemoglobin as primary carbon source for enhanced biodegradation. The crude oil contaminated soil was degraded from 48,783mg/kg to 20,234mg/kg by slurry process and final TPH concentration degraded 11,324mg/kg for 21days. Therefore, highly contaminated soil by crude oil will be combined bio slurry process and biodegradation process with hemoglobin as bio catalytic source. Keywords: crude-oil contaminated soil, bio slurry, biodegradation, hemoglobin ACKOWLEDGEMENTS This project was supported by the Korea Ministry of Environment (MOE) GAIA Program

  9. Subordinated Levy Processes and Applications to Crude Oil Options

    OpenAIRE

    Noureddine Krichene

    2005-01-01

    One approach to oil markets is to treat oil as an asset, besides its role as a commodity. Speculative and nonspeculative activity by investors in the derivatives markets could be responsible for a sizable increase in oil prices. This paper recognizes both the consumption and investment aspects of crude oil and proposes Levy processes for modeling uncertainty and options pricing. Calibration to crude oil futures' options shows high volatility of oil futures prices, fat-tailed, and right-skewed...

  10. Crude glycerin in the supplement for beef cattle on pasture

    OpenAIRE

    San Vito, Elias [UNESP

    2015-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted during the dry and rainy season, in order to assess the increasing concentrations of crude glycerin (80% glycerol) in the supplement of young Nellore grazing tropical grass, on intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation, rumen microorganism profile, performance, methane emission, and carcass and meat quality traits. The treatment consist of supplements with increasing concentrations (0, 70, 140, 210, and 280 g/kg DM basis of supplement) of crude glycerin, fed ...

  11. Bioremediation of crude oil spills in marine and terrestrial environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prince, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    Bioremediation can be a safe and effective tool for dealing with crude oil spills, as demonstrated during the cleanup following the Exxon Valdez spill in Alaska. Crude oil has also been spilled on land, and bioremediation is a promising option for land spills too. Nevertheless, there are still areas where understanding of the phenomenon is rather incomplete. Research groups around the world are addressing these problems, and this symposium provides an excellent overview of some of this work

  12. OPEC announcements and their effects on crude oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Sharon Xiaowen; Tamvakis, Michael

    2010-01-01

    We investigate evidence on the effects of OPEC announcements on world oil prices by examining announcements from both official conferences and ministerial meetings on major international crudes, including the key benchmarks and several other heavy and light grades. With data from 1982 to 2008, we use event study methodology and find differentiation in the magnitude and significance of market responses to OPEC quota decisions under different price bands. We also find some (weak) evidence of differentiation between light and heavy crude grades. (author)

  13. Investigation of Heavy Organics Precipitation from Nigerian Crude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: The effects of mixing two n-alkane solvents on the precipitation of heavy organics in crude oil were carried out. The crude oil sample sourced from a major operative in Nigeria was distilled at 240oC and used for the precipitation experiment. The binary mixture of n-alkane solvents (C6: C10, C6: C16, C10: C14, ...

  14. Pricing and crude oil self-sufficiency. [Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-01

    How Canada should go about achieving crude oil self-sufficiency and who should develop Canada's petroleum resources are discussed. The degree of urgency and the level of commitment required by government, industry, and consumers are evaluated. What the price should be of Canadian crude oil and who should establish this price are also discussed. The economic aspects of investment, return, and taxation are also included. (DC)

  15. Process for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Chang Y.; Boysen, John E.; Branthaver, Jan F.

    1991-01-01

    A process is provided for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil by mixing the heavy crude oil with tar sand; preheating the mixture to a temperature of about 650.degree. F.; heating said mixture to up to 800.degree. F.; and separating tar sand from the light oils formed during said heating. The heavy metals removed from the heavy oils can be recovered from the spent sand for other uses.

  16. Evaluating the US government's crude oil price projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.D.

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) 1991 official long run crude oil price projections are evaluated by comparing parameter averages for the forecast period (1991-2010) to parameter averages from crude oil price history (1859-1990). The parameters used in the evaluation are average price, average annual price changes, and average cycle duration (in years). All prices used in the analysis are annual prices in constant 1990 dollars per barrel. 13 figs

  17. Beyond the crude oil and gas reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sote, K.

    1993-01-01

    Petroleum remains the greatest jewel of inestimable value in both the local and international treasure hunts for cheap energy source and viable investment options the world over. The diverse business potentials and favourable government policies in Nigeria aimed specifically at stimulating investments in the up streams, midstream and downstream industries need to be tapped by both indigenous and foreign investors alike. Beyond the crude oil and gas reserves' is therefore our modest effort to support such policies, sensitise the Nigerian petroleum industry and promote more dynamic awareness for the varied business opportunities abound in this sector of the economy. The main objective or this publication is to bring to a wider audience within and outside the oil industry a spectrum of such salient opportunities therein. The publication further presents in a lucid and consize form the hidden potentials yet to be harnessed, captures the essence of such investments, identifies the inherent problems in Nigeria peculiar circumstance and thus provides a detailed guide to address such short-coming, viz. Inadequate and poor knowledge of petroleum industry, its operation, by products and their correct applications. - Lack of understanding of the intricacies, realities and technicalities of petroleum business in general. - Poor financial resources, management style, operational and marketing strategies man power and human resources development.- Dirge of information, lack of professional advice and technical service support on the varied business opportunities for diversification. Apathy on the part of the investors themselves to seek for professional support from competent oil consultants, technocrats, institutionalised authorities on petroleum and related matters, amongst others. In summary, the book is divided into ten chapters with illustrations, graphics, drawings, sketches and incorporating figures, statistics, business reports, marketing results, feasibility studies

  18. The impact of energy derivatives on the crude oil market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, J.; Ostdiek, B. [Jones Graduate School of Management, Rice University, MS 531, P.O. Box 1892 Houston, TX (United States)

    1999-04-01

    We examine the effects of energy derivatives trading on the crude oil market. There is a common public and regulatory perception that derivative securities increase volatility and can have a destabilizing effect on the underlying market. Consistent with this view, we find an abnormal increase in volatility for three consecutive weeks following the introduction of NYMEX crude oil futures. While there is also evidence of a longer-term volatility increase, this is likely due to exogenous factors, such as the continuing deregulation of the energy markets. Subsequent introductions of crude oil options and derivatives on other energy commodities have no effect on crude oil volatility. We also examine the effects of derivatives trading on the depth and liquidity of the crude oil market. This analysis reveals a strong inverse relation between the open interest in crude oil futures and spot market volatility. Specifically, when open interest is greater, the volatility shock associated with a given unexpected increase in volume is much smaller. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  19. Microbial degradation of resins fractionated from Arabian light crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkateswaran, K.; Hoaki, T.; Kato, M.; Maruyama, T.

    1995-01-01

    Sediment samples from the Japanese coasts were screened for microorganisms able to degrade resin components of crude oil. A mixed population that could degrade 35% of 5000 ppm resin in 15 days was obtained. This population also metabolized 50% of saturates and aromatics present in crude oil (5000 ppm) in 7 days. A Pseudomonas sp., isolated from the mixed population, emulsified and degraded 30% of resins. It also degraded saturates and aromatics (30%) present in crude oil (5000 ppm). These results were obtained from Iatroscan analysis. Degradation of crude oil was also analyzed by gas chromatography (GC). The peaks corresponding to known aliphatic hydrocarbons in crude oil greatly decreased within the first two days of incubation in the cultures of the RY-mixed population and of Pseudomonas strain UN3. Aromatic compounds detected as a broad peak by GC were significantly degraded at day 7 by Pseudomonas strain UN3, and at day 15 by the RY-mixed population. Investigations are ongoing to determine the genetic basis for the ability of these organisms to grow on the resin fractions of crude oil as a sole source of carbon and energy. 28 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  20. Enbridge system : crude types, transportation and handling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anand, A. [Enbridge Corp., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    The supply of crude oil from the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin is expected to increase by approximately 2.1 million barrels per day by 2015. The crudes that Enbridge handles range from 19 API to 40 API and 0.1 per cent sulphur to 4.7 per cent sulphur. The diverse supply of crude oil that the Enbridge system handles includes conventional heavy, synthetic heavy, heavy high tan, heavy low residual, medium, light sour, heavy sour, light sweet, light sweet synthetic, condensate and olefinic crudes. This presentation discussed Enbridge's plans for infrastructure expansion, crude types and quality assurance program. The company's infrastructure plans include the expansion of regional pipelines to bring more supplies to the mainline; expansion of the mainline capacity to existing markets; and providing pipeline access to new markets. Merchant storage terminals will be provided in some locations. The quality of various crude types will be maintained through judicious sequencing and tank bottoms crossings. tabs., figs.

  1. Modeling of well drilling heating on crude oil using microwave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muntini, Melania Suweni, E-mail: melania@physics.its.ac.id; Pramono, Yono Hadi; Yustiana [Physics Department, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Surabaya Kampus ITS, Sukolilo, Surabaya 60111 (Indonesia)

    2016-03-11

    As the world’s oil reserves are dwindling, some researchers have been prompted to make a breakthrough to further improve the efficiency of exploration and production. One of the technologies used is heating the crude oil. This paper presents the modeling results of heat treatment on crude oil using microwave energy. Modeling is conducted by assuming that the diameter of the well is 11,16 cm, the heat source is applied on the surface of the well, and the cut-off frequency in the air and on crude oil are 1,56 GHz. and 0.91 GHz, respectively. The energy generated by the microwave radiation is converted into heat energy which is absorbed by the crude oil. Consequently, this energy increases the temperature of crude oil through a heat transfer mechanism. The results obtained showed that the temperature of crude oil is about 200°C at a depth of 62.5cm, and at a distance of 3 cm from the center of the well. Temperature along the well follows an exponential function, which is from the center of the well in the direction radially outward from the cylinder axis. It has been observed that the temperature decreases as measured from the well surface along the cylinder.

  2. Contents of lecithin and choline in crude drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, K; Kikuoka, M; Nishi, H; Kokusenya, Y; Miyamoto, T; Matsuo, M; Sato, T

    1994-01-01

    The determination of lecithin and choline in crude drugs was established by a combination of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrochemical detector (ECD) and enzyme reaction. Lecithin in crude drugs extracted with a mixture of chloroform-methanol (2:1) at room temperature was hydrolyzed by phospholipase D. The hydrolyzate was injected to HPLC, and choline was separated from impurities by reverse phase column. The choline was converted to betaine and hydrogen peroxide by passing through column packed with immobilized choline oxidase. This hydrogen peroxide was detected by ECD. The peak area of hydrogen peroxide derived from lecithin was proportional to the concentration of lecithin from 0.10 to 1.52 microgram/ml. Choline in crude drugs was extracted with ethanol under reflux and determined under the same HPLC conditions as lecithin. The peak area of hydrogen peroxide derived from choline was proportional to the concentration of choline from 0.01 to 0.45 microgram/ml. The contents of lecithin and choline in 31 kinds of crude drugs were determined by these established methods. The results showed that Cervi Parvum Cornu, Kokurozin, Foenigraeci Semen and Psoraleae Semen contained more lecithin than other crude drugs, while Angelicae Radix, Foenigraeci Semen, Psoraleae Semen, and especially Hippocampus were found to contain more choline than other crude drugs.

  3. The impact of energy derivatives on the crude oil market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, J.; Ostdiek, B.

    1999-01-01

    We examine the effects of energy derivatives trading on the crude oil market. There is a common public and regulatory perception that derivative securities increase volatility and can have a destabilizing effect on the underlying market. Consistent with this view, we find an abnormal increase in volatility for three consecutive weeks following the introduction of NYMEX crude oil futures. While there is also evidence of a longer-term volatility increase, this is likely due to exogenous factors, such as the continuing deregulation of the energy markets. Subsequent introductions of crude oil options and derivatives on other energy commodities have no effect on crude oil volatility. We also examine the effects of derivatives trading on the depth and liquidity of the crude oil market. This analysis reveals a strong inverse relation between the open interest in crude oil futures and spot market volatility. Specifically, when open interest is greater, the volatility shock associated with a given unexpected increase in volume is much smaller. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  4. The relationship between viscosity and refinement efficiency of pure aluminum by Al-Ti-B refiner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Lina [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, 73 Jingshi Road, Jinan 250061 (China); Liu Xiangfa [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, 73 Jingshi Road, Jinan 250061 (China)]. E-mail: xfliu@sdu.edu.cn

    2006-11-30

    The relationship between viscosity and refinement efficiency of pure aluminum with the addition of Al-Ti-B master alloy was studied in this paper. The experimental results show that when the grain size of solidified sample is finer the viscosity of the melt is higher after the addition of different Al-Ti-B master alloys. This indicates that viscosity can be used to approximately estimate the refinement efficiency of Al-Ti-B refiners in production to a certain extent. The main reason was also discussed in this paper by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) experiment.

  5. The use of the isotopic composition of individual compounds for correlating spilled oils and refined products in the environment with suspected sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philp, R.P.; Allen, J.; Kuder, T.

    2002-01-01

    Gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (CGMS) are two methods generally used to correlate crude oils and refined products found in the environment with their suspected pollution sources. In certain cases, this can be done with bulk carbon isotope compositions, but with crude condensates, or refined products, the lack of biomarkers prohibits the successful use for making unique correlations. Such products can be correlated using an alternative method which makes use of combined gas chromatography-isotope ratio and mass spectrometry (GCIRMS). This method makes it possible to determine the carbon and hydrogen isotopic composition of individual compounds in crude oil, thus producing isotopic fingerprints that could be used in correlation studies. The feasibility of using of GCIRMS to correlate various spilled products in different environments was the main focus of this study. The authors are not proposing that this method will replace GC or GCMS, but are suggesting that it is a powerful tool that could be used in conjunction with the early methods. Carbon and hydrogen isotopic fractionation has been reported for light components such as benzene and toluene. Higher carbon numbered compounds do not seem to undergo major carbon isotopic fractionation as a result of weathering. Hydrogen variations are currently undergoing investigation for compounds with a carbon number greater than C10. Also, isotopic fractionation for refined products has the potential to attenuate naturally. 33 refs., 6 figs

  6. In situ oil burning in the marshland environment : soil temperatures resulting from crude oil and diesel fuel burns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryner, N.P.; Walton, W.D.; Twilley, W.H.; Roadarmel, G.; Mendelssohn, I.A.; Lin, Q.; Mullin, J.V.

    2001-01-01

    The unique challenge associated with oil spill cleanups in sensitive marsh environments was discussed. Mechanical recovery of crude or refined hydrocarbons in wetlands may cause more damage to the marsh than the oil itself. This study evaluated whether in situ burning of oiled marshlands would provide a less damaging alternative than mechanical recovery. This was done through a series of 6 crude oil and 5 diesel fuel burns conducted in a test tank to examine the impact of intentional burning of oil spilled in a wetlands environment. There are several factors which may influence how well such an environment would recover from an in situ oil burn, such as plant species, fuel type and load, water level, soil type, and burn duration. This paper focused on soil, air and water temperatures, as well as total heat fluxes that resulted when 3 plant species were exposed to full-scale in situ burns that were created by burning diesel fuel and crude oil. The soil temperatures were monitored during the test burn at three different soil/water elevations for 700 second burn exposures. A total of 184 plant sods were harvested from marshlands in southern Louisiana and were subjected to the burning fuel. They were instrumental in characterizing the thermal and chemical stress that occur during an in-situ burn. The plants were inserted into the test tanks at various water and soil depths. The results indicated that diesel fuel and crude oil burns produced similar soil temperature profiles at each of three plant sod elevations. Although in-situ burning did not appear to remediate oil that had penetrated into the soil, it did effectively remove floating oil from the water surface, thereby preventing it from potentially contaminating adjacent habitats and penetrating the soil when the water recedes. The regrowth and recovery of the plants will be described in a separate report. 25 refs., 7 tabs., 15 figs

  7. Crude Glycerol as Cost-Effective Fuel for Combined Heat and Power to Replace Fossil Fuels, Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, William L

    2012-10-31

    The primary objectives of this work can be summed into two major categories. Firstly, the fundamentals of the combustion of glycerol (in both a refined and unrefined form) were to be investigated, with emphasis of the development of a system capable of reliably and repeatedly combusting glycerol as well as an analysis of the emissions produced during glycerol combustion. Focus was placed on quantifying common emissions in comparison to more traditional fuels and this work showed that the burner developed was able to completely combust glycerol within a relatively wide range of operating conditions. Additionally, focus was placed on examining specific emissions in more detail, namely interesting NOx emissions observed in initial trials, acrolein and other volatile organic emissions, and particulate and ash emissions. This work showed that the combustion of crude glycerol could result in significantly reduced NOx emissions as a function of the high fuel bound oxygen content within the glycerol fuel. It also showed that when burned properly, the combustion of crude glycerol did not result in excessive emissions of acrolein or any other VOC compared to the combustion from more traditional fuels. Lastly however, this work has shown that in any practical application in which glycerol is being burned, it will be necessary to explore ash mitigation techniques due to the very high particulate matter concentrations produced during glycerol combustion. These emissions are comparable to unfiltered coal combustion and are directly tied to the biodiesel production method. The second focus of this work was directed to developing a commercialization strategy for the use of glycerol as a fuel replacement. This strategy has identified a 30 month plan for the scaling up of the laboratory scale burner into a pre-pilot scale system. Additionally, financing options were explored and an assessment was made of the economics of replacing a traditional fuel (namely natural gas) with crude

  8. Petroleum refining and the national priorities list: The preemption of CERCLA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    The petroleum refining industry has preempted aspects of the implementation of CERCLA through a clause in the original legislation that makes the listing of petroleum refining sites on the NPL more difficult than it would be otherwise. The NPL, which was mandated in CERCLA, is a list of sites open-quotes where a hazardous substance has been deposited, stored, disposed of, placed, or otherwise come to be located. The petroleum exclusion clause, Section 101(14)(F) of CERCLA, states that the term hazardous substance open-quotes does not include petroleum, including crude oil or any fraction thereof which is not otherwise specifically listed or designated as a hazardous substance.close quotes This clause has been interpreted to mean that a site where petroleum products are found may not be listed on the NPL on the basis of the petroleum products; a hazardous substance that is not a normal constituent of petroleum products also must be found at the site. Regression analysis shows that the petroleum refining industry is significantly positively correlated with discovered sites (where a possibility exists that hazardous substances may be present) and significantly negatively correlated with sites that are proposed to the NPL. These, findings suggest that sites that meet the technical criteria for NPL listing are not proposed because of the petroleum exclusion clause. Although the chemical industry also produces substances that are considered hazardous, it is significantly correlated only with proposed sites, and that correlation is positive. The purpose of this paper is to present evidence suggesting that this clause was a response by Congress to an organized interest-the petroleum refining industry, which possessed a political power not available to the less-focused chemical industry

  9. Automata Learning through Counterexample Guided Abstraction Refinement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarts, Fides; Heidarian, Faranak; Kuppens, Harco

    2012-01-01

    to a small set of abstract events that can be handled by automata learning tools. In this article, we show how such abstractions can be constructed fully automatically for a restricted class of extended finite state machines in which one can test for equality of data parameters, but no operations on data...... are allowed. Our approach uses counterexample-guided abstraction refinement: whenever the current abstraction is too coarse and induces nondeterministic behavior, the abstraction is refined automatically. Using Tomte, a prototype tool implementing our algorithm, we have succeeded to learn – fully......Abstraction is the key when learning behavioral models of realistic systems. Hence, in most practical applications where automata learning is used to construct models of software components, researchers manually define abstractions which, depending on the history, map a large set of concrete events...

  10. Multivariate refined composite multiscale entropy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humeau-Heurtier, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Multiscale entropy (MSE) has become a prevailing method to quantify signals complexity. MSE relies on sample entropy. However, MSE may yield imprecise complexity estimation at large scales, because sample entropy does not give precise estimation of entropy when short signals are processed. A refined composite multiscale entropy (RCMSE) has therefore recently been proposed. Nevertheless, RCMSE is for univariate signals only. The simultaneous analysis of multi-channel (multivariate) data often over-performs studies based on univariate signals. We therefore introduce an extension of RCMSE to multivariate data. Applications of multivariate RCMSE to simulated processes reveal its better performances over the standard multivariate MSE. - Highlights: • Multiscale entropy quantifies data complexity but may be inaccurate at large scale. • A refined composite multiscale entropy (RCMSE) has therefore recently been proposed. • Nevertheless, RCMSE is adapted to univariate time series only. • We herein introduce an extension of RCMSE to multivariate data. • It shows better performances than the standard multivariate multiscale entropy.

  11. Refined reservoir description to maximize oil recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flewitt, W.E.

    1975-01-01

    To assure maximized oil recovery from older pools, reservoir description has been advanced by fully integrating original open-hole logs and the recently introduced interpretive techniques made available through cased-hole wireline saturation logs. A refined reservoir description utilizing normalized original wireline porosity logs has been completed in the Judy Creek Beaverhill Lake ''A'' Pool, a reefal carbonate pool with current potential productivity of 100,000 BOPD and 188 active wells. Continuous porosity was documented within a reef rim and cap while discontinuous porous lenses characterized an interior lagoon. With the use of pulsed neutron logs and production data a separate water front and pressure response was recognized within discrete environmental units. The refined reservoir description aided in reservoir simulation model studies and quantifying pool performance. A pattern water flood has now replaced the original peripheral bottom water drive to maximize oil recovery

  12. Cleaning Data with OpenRefine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth van Hooland

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Duplicate records, empty values and inconsistent formats are phenomena we should be prepared to deal with when using historical data sets. This lesson will teach you how to discover inconsistencies in data contained within a spreadsheet or a database. As we increasingly share, aggregate and reuse data on the web, historians will need to respond to data quality issues which inevitably pop up. Using a program called OpenRefine, you will be able to easily identify systematic errors such as blank cells, duplicates, spelling inconsistencies, etc. OpenRefine not only allows you to quickly diagnose the accuracy of your data, but also to act upon certain errors in an automated manner.

  13. Refined 3d-3d correspondence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alday, Luis F.; Genolini, Pietro Benetti; Bullimore, Mathew; Loon, Mark van [Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Andrew Wiles Building,Radcliffe Observatory Quarter, Woodstock Road, Oxford, OX2 6GG (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-28

    We explore aspects of the correspondence between Seifert 3-manifolds and 3d N=2 supersymmetric theories with a distinguished abelian flavour symmetry. We give a prescription for computing the squashed three-sphere partition functions of such 3d N=2 theories constructed from boundary conditions and interfaces in a 4d N=2{sup ∗} theory, mirroring the construction of Seifert manifold invariants via Dehn surgery. This is extended to include links in the Seifert manifold by the insertion of supersymmetric Wilson-’t Hooft loops in the 4d N=2{sup ∗} theory. In the presence of a mass parameter for the distinguished flavour symmetry, we recover aspects of refined Chern-Simons theory with complex gauge group, and in particular construct an analytic continuation of the S-matrix of refined Chern-Simons theory.

  14. Government will shape China's refining boom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H.

    1995-01-01

    China's refining system is undergoing a major overhaul. New refineries are being built as existing ones are upgraded and expanded. The success of refineries funded completely or partially by non-chinese companies will depend in part on Chinese government policy. There will be demand for products from third-party processing facilities, but hard current is necessary for the investors to repatriate profits and for china Petrochemical Corp. (Sinopec) to bid on the products from such facilities. The limited convertibility of chinese current constitutes a major central control over the country's entire economy. This control can be affected by limiting product exchange participants and the volumes to be traded. Such a limitation, however, will reduce access of non-Chinese companies to China's markets, and is not likely to occur in the next 10 years. The paper discusses the current situation in capacity and in refining, capacity, expansion, refinery planning, construction projects, third-party processing, and the prospects for change

  15. Computing Refined Buneman Trees in Cubic Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, G.S.; Fagerberg, R.; Östlin, A.

    2003-01-01

    Reconstructing the evolutionary tree for a set of n species based on pairwise distances between the species is a fundamental problem in bioinformatics. Neighbor joining is a popular distance based tree reconstruction method. It always proposes fully resolved binary trees despite missing evidence...... in the underlying distance data. Distance based methods based on the theory of Buneman trees and refined Buneman trees avoid this problem by only proposing evolutionary trees whose edges satisfy a number of constraints. These trees might not be fully resolved but there is strong combinatorial evidence for each...... proposed edge. The currently best algorithm for computing the refined Buneman tree from a given distance measure has a running time of O(n 5) and a space consumption of O(n 4). In this paper, we present an algorithm with running time O(n 3) and space consumption O(n 2). The improved complexity of our...

  16. Panorama 2016 - Refining outlook for 2035

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marion, Pierre; Saint-Antonin, Valerie

    2015-12-01

    The rising influence of objectives intended to address the energy transition in global industry helps to perpetuate a high degree of uncertainty about changes in the transportation sector, currently a bastion of the oil industry. How can the growing need for individual mobility be met while reducing Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions in a world of open international competition? The refining sector is gaining strength in Asia and the Middle East to the detriment of Europe and North America, reflecting demand and the intrinsic competitiveness of various geographic regions. The 2025 worldwide roll-out (2020 in Europe) of a bunker fuel grade below 0.5 wt% (percentage by weight) in sulphur could experience delays, given the number of installations to be completed. Finally, the reversal of the 'all diesel' trend in the European transport market is a positive change for the European refining industry. (authors)

  17. The big shedding of the European refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepetit, V.

    2007-01-01

    Everywhere in Europe the oil companies are selling their refineries. Even if they work at full capacity, the interest of the European market is far below the one of Asia where demand is in full expansion and Middle-East where the raw matter is abundant. The world refining capacity is of 86 million barrel per day and should reach 106 million barrel per day in 2020. (J.S.)

  18. Refining Automatically Extracted Knowledge Bases Using Crowdsourcing

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chunhua; Zhao, Pengpeng; Sheng, Victor S.; Xian, Xuefeng; Wu, Jian; Cui, Zhiming

    2017-01-01

    Machine-constructed knowledge bases often contain noisy and inaccurate facts. There exists significant work in developing automated algorithms for knowledge base refinement. Automated approaches improve the quality of knowledge bases but are far from perfect. In this paper, we leverage crowdsourcing to improve the quality of automatically extracted knowledge bases. As human labelling is costly, an important research challenge is how we can use limited human resources to maximize the quality i...

  19. Cleaning Data with OpenRefine

    OpenAIRE

    Seth van Hooland; Ruben Verborgh; Max De Wilde

    2013-01-01

    Duplicate records, empty values and inconsistent formats are phenomena we should be prepared to deal with when using historical data sets. This lesson will teach you how to discover inconsistencies in data contained within a spreadsheet or a database. As we increasingly share, aggregate and reuse data on the web, historians will need to respond to data quality issues which inevitably pop up. Using a program called OpenRefine, you will be able to easily identify systematic errors such as blank...

  20. Rare earths refining by vacuum sublimation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rytus, N.N.

    1983-01-01

    The process of rare earths refining by the sUblimation; method in high and superhigh oil-free vacuum, is investigated. The method is effective for rare earths obtaining and permits to prepare metal samples with a high value of electric resistance ratio γ=RsUb(298 K)/Rsub(4.2 K). The estimation of general purity is performed for Sm, Eu, Yb, Tm, Dy, Ho, Er and Se

  1. 77 FR 55817 - Delek Crude Logistics, LLC; Notice of Petition for Waiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. OR12-19-000] Delek Crude Logistics, LLC; Notice of Petition for Waiver Take notice that on June 11, 2012, Delek Crude Logistics, LLC... East Texas Crude Logistics crude oil pipeline system. Any person desiring to intervene or to protest in...

  2. Problems persist for French refining sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that France's refiners face a continuing shortfall of middle distillate capacity and a persistent surplus of heavy fuel oil. That's the main conclusion of the official Hydrocarbon Directorate's report on how France's refining sector performed in 1991. Imports up---The directorate noted that although net production of refined products in French refineries rose to 1.534 million b/d in 1991 from 1.48 million b/d in 1990, products imports jumped 9.7% to 602,000 b/d in the period. The glut of heavy fuel oil eased to some extent last year because French nuclear power capacity, heavily dependent on ample water supplies, was crimped by drought. That spawned fuel switching. The most note worthy increase in imports was for motor diesel, climbing to 176,000 b/d from 148,000 b/d in 1990. Tax credits are spurring French consumption of that fuel. For the first time, consumption of motor diesel in 1991 outstripped that of gasoline at 374,000 b/d and 356,000 b/d respectively

  3. Refining glass structure in two dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadjadi, Mahdi; Bhattarai, Bishal; Drabold, D. A.; Thorpe, M. F.; Wilson, Mark

    2017-11-01

    Recently determined atomistic scale structures of near-two dimensional bilayers of vitreous silica (using scanning probe and electron microscopy) allow us to refine the experimentally determined coordinates to incorporate the known local chemistry more precisely. Further refinement is achieved by using classical potentials of varying complexity: one using harmonic potentials and the second employing an electrostatic description incorporating polarization effects. These are benchmarked against density functional calculations. Our main findings are that (a) there is a symmetry plane between the two disordered layers, a nice example of an emergent phenomena, (b) the layers are slightly tilted so that the Si-O-Si angle between the two layers is not 180∘ as originally thought but rather 175 ±2∘ , and (c) while interior areas that are not completely imagined can be reliably reconstructed, surface areas are more problematic. It is shown that small crystallites that appear are just as expected statistically in a continuous random network. This provides a good example of the value that can be added to disordered structures imaged at the atomic level by implementing computer refinement.

  4. Formal refinement of extended state machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Fayolle

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In a traditional formal development process, e.g. using the B method, the informal user requirements are (manually translated into a global abstract formal specification. This translation is especially difficult to achieve. The Event-B method was developed to incrementally and formally construct such a specification using stepwise refinement. Each increment takes into account new properties and system aspects. In this paper, we propose to couple a graphical notation called Algebraic State-Transition Diagrams (ASTD with an Event-B specification in order to provide a better understanding of the software behaviour. The dynamic behaviour is captured by the ASTD, which is based on automata and process algebra operators, while the data model is described by means of an Event-B specification. We propose a methodology to incrementally refine such specification couplings, taking into account new refinement relations and consistency conditions between the control specification and the data specification. We compare the specifications obtained using each approach for readability and proof complexity. The advantages and drawbacks of the traditional approach and of our methodology are discussed. The whole process is illustrated by a railway CBTC-like case study. Our approach is supported by tools for translating ASTD's into B and Event-B into B.

  5. Decision support in hierarchical planning systems: The case of procurement planning in oil refining industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallestrup, Kasper Bislev; Lynge, Lasse Hadberg; Akkerman, Renzo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the development of decision support systems for hierarchically structured planning approaches, such as commercially available advanced planning systems. We develop a framework to show how such a decision support system can be designed with the existing organization in mind...... and from the perspective of the organizational aspects involved. To exemplify and develop our framework, we use a case study of crude oil procurement planning in the refining industry. The results of the case study indicate an improved organizational embedding of the DSS, leading to significant savings...... in terms of planning efforts and procurement costs. In general, our framework aims to support the continuous improvement of advanced planning systems, increasing planning quality in complex supply chain settings....

  6. Standard guide for determining corrosivity of crude oils

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This guide presents some generally accepted laboratory methodologies that are used for determining the corrosivity of crude oil. 1.2 This guide does not cover detailed calculations and methods, but rather a range of approaches that have found application in evaluating the corrosivity of crude oil. 1.3 Only those methodologies that have found wide acceptance in crude oil corrosivity evaluation are considered in this guide. 1.4 This guide does not address the change in oil/water ratio caused by accumulation of water at low points in a pipeline system. 1.5 This guide is intended to assist in the selection of methodologies that can be used for determining the corrosivity of crude oil under conditions in which water is present in the liquid state (typically up to 100°C). These conditions normally occur during oil and gas production, storage, and transportation in the pipelines. 1.6 This guide does not cover the evaluation of corrosivity of crude oil at higher temperatures (typically above 300°C) that oc...

  7. E3 analysis for crude and vacuum distillation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittal, V; Zhang, J; Yang, X; Xu, Q [Dan F. Smith Department of Chemical Engineering, Lamar University, Beaumont, Texas (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Crude oil blending is a very common practice in petroleum refineries, where the main focus is to minimize the total purchase cost of crude oils under specified blending oil properties. Crude oil blending actually has significant impacts on energy consumption from heating furnaces during crude oil processing. Conceivably, furnace energy consumption from burning fuels such as natural gas, fuel oil, or propane causes huge amounts of CO{sub 2} emissions. In this paper, a methodology framework for crude oil blending and processing with simultaneous consideration of energy, emission, and economic profit (E3) is developed. It includes four stages of work: steady-state modeling, heating energy consumption calculation, emission model development, and economic evaluation. With Aspen HYSYS simulation, the developed methodology provides a quantitative support for refinery to identify an optimal E3 operating strategy. A case study is implemented to demonstrate the efficacy of this methodology. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Effect of temperature on biodegradation of crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zekri, A.; Chaalal, O.

    2005-01-01

    An active strain of anaerobic thermophilic bacteria was isolated from the environment of the United Arab Emirates. This project studied the effect of temperature, salinity and oil concentration on biodegradation of crude oil. Oil weight loss, microbial growth and the changes of the crude oil asphaltene concentration are used to evaluate the oil degradation by this strain. A series of batch experiments was performed to study the effects of bacteria on the degradation of crude oil. The effects of oil concentration, bacteria concentration, temperature and salinity on the biodegradation were investigated. The temperatures of the studied systems were varied between 35 and 75 o C and the salt concentrations were varied between 0 and 10%. Oil concentrations were ranged from 5 to 50% by volume. Experimental work showed the bacteria employed in this project were capable of surviving the harsh environment and degrading the crude oil at various conditions. Increasing the temperature increases the rate of oil degradation by bacteria. Increasing the oil concentration in general decreases the rate of bacteria oil degradation. Salinity plays a major role on the acceleration of biodegradation process of crude oil. An optimum salinity should be determined for every studied system. The finding of this project could be used in either the treatment of oil spill or in-situ stimulation of heavy oil wells. (author)

  9. Enhanced crude oil biodegradation in soil via biostimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleh, Esmaeil; Hassan, Ali

    2016-08-02

    Research on feasible methods for the enhancement of bioremediation in soil contaminated by crude oil is vital in oil-exporting countries such as Kuwait, where crude oil is a major pollutant and the environment is hostile to biodegradation. This study investigated the possibility of enhancing crude oil bioremediation by supplementing soil with cost-effective organic materials derived from two widespread locally grown trees, Conocarpus and Tamarix. Amendments in soils increased the counts of soil microbiota by up to 98% and enhanced their activity by up to 95.5%. The increase in the biodegradation of crude oil (75%) and high levels of alkB expression substantiated the efficiency of the proposed amendment technology for the bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated sites. The identification of crude-oil-degrading bacteria revealed the dominance of the genus Microbacterium (39.6%), Sphingopyxis soli (19.3%), and Bordetella petrii (19.6%) in unamended, Conocarpus-amended, and Tamarix-amended contaminated soils, respectively. Although soil amendments favored the growth of Gram-negative bacteria and reduced bacterial diversity, the structures of bacterial communities were not significantly altered.

  10. An Improved CO2-Crude Oil Minimum Miscibility Pressure Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Minimum miscibility pressure (MMP, which plays an important role in miscible flooding, is a key parameter in determining whether crude oil and gas are completely miscible. On the basis of 210 groups of CO2-crude oil system minimum miscibility pressure data, an improved CO2-crude oil system minimum miscibility pressure correlation was built by modified conjugate gradient method and global optimizing method. The new correlation is a uniform empirical correlation to calculate the MMP for both thin oil and heavy oil and is expressed as a function of reservoir temperature, C7+ molecular weight of crude oil, and mole fractions of volatile components (CH4 and N2 and intermediate components (CO2, H2S, and C2~C6 of crude oil. Compared to the eleven most popular and relatively high-accuracy CO2-oil system MMP correlations in the previous literature by other nine groups of CO2-oil MMP experimental data, which have not been used to develop the new correlation, it is found that the new empirical correlation provides the best reproduction of the nine groups of CO2-oil MMP experimental data with a percentage average absolute relative error (%AARE of 8% and a percentage maximum absolute relative error (%MARE of 21%, respectively.

  11. Organic constituents in sour condensates from shale-oil and petroleum-crude runs at Sohio's Toledo refinery: identification and wastewater-control-technology considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wingender, R J; Harrison, W; Raphaelian, L A

    1981-02-01

    Samples of sour condensate generated from the continuous processing of both crude shale oil and petroleum crude were collected and extracted with methylene chloride. The extracts were analyzed using capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry at Argonne National Laboratory and Radian Corporation. Qualitatively, the predominant types of organic compounds present in the shale-oil sour condensate were pyridines and anilines; semiquantitatively, these compounds were present at a concentration of 5.7 ppM, or about 78% of the total concentration of components detected. In contrast, straight-chain alkanes were the predominant types of compounds found in the sour condensate produced during isocracking of conventional crude oil. The approximate concentration of straight-chain alkanes, 8.3 ppM, and of other branched and/or unsaturated hydrocarbons, 6.8 ppM, amounted to 88% of the total concentration of components detected in the sour condensate from the petroleum-crude run. Nitrogen compounds in the shale-oil sour condensate may necessitate alterations of the sour water and refinery wastewater-treatment facilities to provide for organics degradation and to accommodate the potentially greater ammonia loadings. This would include use of larger amounts of caustic to enhance ammonia removal by steam stripping. Possible problems associated with biological removal of organic-nitrogen compounds should be investigated in future experimental shale-oil refining runs.

  12. Removal of lead from crude antimony by using NaPo3 as lead elimination reagent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye L.G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the shortcomings when removing lead from crude antimony in the traditional antimony smelting, a new process was provided using NaPO3 as lead elimination reagent to yield phosphate slag, and it was removed by floating on the surface of the liquid antimony. Reaction mechanism was clarified by using the TG-DTA and XRD techniques and single factor experiments of removal lead from crude antimony were engaged. The results show that PbO and NaPO3 begin endothermic reaction at 863K (590°C, and the reaction mainly form NaPb4(PO43 and NaPbPO4 below 1123K (850°C and above 1123K (850°C, respectively. Sb2O3 and NaPO3 start the reaction at 773K (500°C and generate an antimonic salt compound. The reaction product of the mixture of PbO, Sb2O3 and NaPO3 show that NaPO3 reacted with PbO prior when NaPO3 was insufficient, amorphous antimony glass will be generated only when NaPO3 was adequate. Single factor experiments were taken with NaNO3 as oxidizing agent under argon, effect of reaction time, reaction temperature and dosage of NaPO3 and NaNO3 on smelting results. The average content of lead in refined antimony was 0.05340% and 98.85% of lead were removed under optimal conditions; the content of lead in antimony have meet the requirements of commercial antimony.

  13. Region-of-interest volumetric visual hull refinement

    KAUST Repository

    Knoblauch, Daniel; Kuester, Falko

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a region-of-interest visual hull refinement technique, based on flexible voxel grids for volumetric visual hull reconstructions. Region-of-interest refinement is based on a multipass process, beginning with a focussed visual

  14. Grain Refinement of Permanent Mold Cast Copper Base Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.Sadayappan; J.P.Thomson; M.Elboujdaini; G.Ping Gu; M. Sahoo

    2005-04-01

    Grain refinement is a well established process for many cast and wrought alloys. The mechanical properties of various alloys could be enhanced by reducing the grain size. Refinement is also known to improve casting characteristics such as fluidity and hot tearing. Grain refinement of copper-base alloys is not widely used, especially in sand casting process. However, in permanent mold casting of copper alloys it is now common to use grain refinement to counteract the problem of severe hot tearing which also improves the pressure tightness of plumbing components. The mechanism of grain refinement in copper-base alloys is not well understood. The issues to be studied include the effect of minor alloy additions on the microstructure, their interaction with the grain refiner, effect of cooling rate, and loss of grain refinement (fading). In this investigation, efforts were made to explore and understand grain refinement of copper alloys, especially in permanent mold casting conditions.

  15. How much crude oil can zooplankton ingest? Estimating the quantity of dispersed crude oil defecated by planktonic copepods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Connelly, Tara L.; Buskey, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated and quantified defecation rates of crude oil by 3 species of marine planktonic copepods (Temora turbinata, Acartia tonsa, and Parvocalanus crassirostris) and a natural copepod assemblage after exposure to mechanically or chemically dispersed crude oil. Between 88 and 100% of the analyzed fecal pellets from three species of copepods and a natural copepod assemblage exposed for 48 h to physically or chemically dispersed light crude oil contained crude oil droplets. Crude oil droplets inside fecal pellets were smaller (median diameter: 2.4–3.5 μm) than droplets in the physically and chemically dispersed oil emulsions (median diameter: 6.6 and 8.0 μm, respectively). This suggests that copepods can reject large crude oil droplets or that crude oil droplets are broken into smaller oil droplets before or during ingestion. Depending on the species and experimental treatments, crude oil defecation rates ranged from 5.3 to 245 ng-oil copepod"−"1 d"−"1, which represent a mean weight-specific defecation rate of 0.026 μg-oil μg-C_c_o_p_e_p_o_d"1 d"−"1. Considering a dispersed crude oil concentration commonly found in the water column after oil spills (1 μl L"−"1) and copepod abundances in high productive coastal areas, copepods may defecate ∼1.3–2.6 mg-oil m"−"3 d"−"1, which would represent ∼0.15%–0.30% of the total dispersed oil per day. Our results indicate that ingestion and subsequent defecation of crude oil by planktonic copepods has a small influence on the overall mass of oil spills in the short term, but may be quantitatively important in the flux of oil from surface water to sediments and in the transfer of low-solubility, toxic petroleum hydrocarbons into food webs after crude oil spills in the sea. - Highlights: • Copepods exposed to dispersed crude oil produced fecal pellets contained numerous small oil droplets (2.4 to 3.5 µm). • Copepods could reject large oil droplets or oil droplets are broken into

  16. The strategic and economic value of exploiting heavy crude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saniere, A.

    2003-01-01

    Non-conventional oil, and particularly heavy crude varieties, will play an increasingly important role in meeting growing global energy requirements by 2030 and beyond. These heavy oils currently account for high volumes in certain areas but their proportion of global oil production remains modest for the moment, This should significantly change with the completion of several projects currently underway in Canada and Venezuela. Indeed, the technological innovations occurring over recent years have allowed for a considerable reduction in exploitation costs for these crude varieties and improved economic profitability conditions for the projects. The geographical location of resources (which are independent of the Middle East) and the fact that they are not subject to OPEC quotas also make these crude varieties particularly attractive. (authors)

  17. Purification of crude biodiesel using dry washing and membrane technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Atadashi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purification of crude biodiesel is mandatory for the fuel to meet the strict international standard specifications for biodiesel. Therefore, this paper carefully analyzed recently published literatures which deal with the purification of biodiesel. As such, dry washing technologies and the most recent membrane biodiesel purification process have been thoroughly examined. Although purification of biodiesel using dry washing process involving magnesol and ion exchange resins provides high-quality biodiesel fuel, considerable amount of spent absorbents is recorded, besides the skeletal knowledge on its operating process. Further, recent findings have shown that biodiesel purification using membrane technique could offer high-quality biodiesel fuel with less wastewater discharges. Thus, both researchers and industries are expected to benefit from the development of membrane technique in purifying crude biodiesel. As well biodiesel purification via membranes has been shown to be environmentally friendly. For these reasons, it is important to explore and exploit membrane technology to purify crude biodiesel.

  18. Factors affecting future crude oil production in South East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baugh, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    In the face of booming regional demand, crude oil production in the South East Asian region will decline from a 1996 peak of 5.7 million barrels a day to 3.5 million barrels a day in 2005 unless major new exploration investments are undertaken. The current fiscal terms for such investment will not attract continued significant funds to the region given the low crude price outlook, tough competitive global environment for the upstream industry, and the emergence of more attractive fiscal terms in politically and commercially stable countries with proven prospectivity. There is evidence from the emerging trend toward fiscal terms softening and differentiation around risk in some countries, that the commercial reality is becoming accepted. It remains to be seen if the various national political, bureaucratic and industry constituencies guiding these decisions within the region can respond decisively to mitigate the growing crude import dependency. (author). 2 tabs

  19. Global economic activity and crude oil prices. A cointegration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Yanan; Wang, Shouyang; Lai, Kin Keung

    2010-01-01

    This paper empirically investigates the cointegrating relationship between crude oil prices and global economic activity. The Kilian economic index is used as an indicator of global economic activity. Based on a supply-demand framework and the cointegration theory, we find that real futures prices of crude oil are cointegrated with the Kilian economic index and a trade weighted US dollar index, and crude oil prices are influenced significantly by fluctuations in the Kilian economic index through both long-run equilibrium conditions and short-run impacts. We also develop an empirically stable, data-coherent and single-equation error-correction model (ECM) which has sensible economic properties. Empirical results based on the ECM show that the adjustment implied by a permanent change in the Kilian economic index is a relatively drawn-out process. (author)

  20. Two refineries running crude; third to restart by September

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tippee, B.

    1993-01-01

    Kuwait's downstream oil and gas industry, which sustained less damage than the country's oil field infrastructure during the Iraqi occupation of the 1990-91, has nearly completed reconstruction. Two of three refineries have resumed operations, one of them at reduced crude distillation rates. And state-owned Kuwait National Petroleum Co. hopes to put the other refinery, Shuaiba, back on stream in September, although not at preinvasion throughput rates. Major reconstruction will be complete by year end, with crude oil distillation capacity at 650,000 b/sd. Preinvasion crude capacities of Kuwait's refineries totaled 840,000 b/d. The article describes an overview of the recovery; the status of the Mina Abdulla processing plant, the Mina Al-Ahmadi refinery, and the Shuaiba refinery; modernization plans, and plans for petrochemicals