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Sample records for refineries status dos

  1. Current status of vegetation of six PETROBRAS refineries; Status dos fragmentos de vegetacao em seis refinarias da PETROBRAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basbaum, Marcos Andre; Bonafini, Fabio Loureiro; Porciano, Patricia Pereira [SEEBLA, Servicos de Engenharia Emilio Baumgart Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Torggler, Bianca Felippe; Fernandes, Renato [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Engenharia; Vieira, Elisa Diniz Reis [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Most of refineries from PETROBRAS have significant vegetation areas within their limits. The purpose of this study was to develop a preliminary assessment study of the vegetation fragments on six refineries, including the quantification of permanent preservation areas (Brazilian environmental law requirement). Besides that, the authors propose potential recovery areas and some reforestation techniques. The methodology was based on Rapid Ecological Assessment, that consists on the selection of target areas by image analysis (satellite or aerial photos) and expedite fieldwork - three days on each refinery. The main features of vegetation, like phytophysiognomy and successional stage were obtained, and registered on a specific form developed to be used at fieldwork. The results achieved show that 44,7% of the areas from these six refineries were occupied by vegetation. The most representative categories of vegetation were Atlantic forest fragments and mangroves, as well as to permanent preservation areas. (author)

  2. Perfil dos acidentes de trabalho em refinaria de petróleo Occupational accidents in an oil refinery in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Vaz de Souza

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O trabalho em refinarias de petróleo envolve o risco de acidentes triviais e ampliados. Os dados nacionais apontam para a relevância dos acidentes nesse setor. Assim, realizou-se pesquisa com o objetivo de identificar o perfil e avaliar a adequação dos instrumentos de registro dos acidentes de trabalho em refinaria. MÉTODOS: Foram padronizadas e analisadas informações referentes aos acidentes de trabalho nas atividades de produção e manutenção registradas em uma refinaria de petróleo do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, no ano de 1997. A população estudada constituiu-se de 153 pessoas, sendo 83 trabalhadores próprios lesionados e 69 trabalhadores terceirizados lesionados. As variáveis analisadas foram: tipo de acidente, modo de operação e função do trabalhador lesionado. RESULTADOS: Em relação aos trabalhadores próprios, houve predominância dos chamados acidentes triviais (54,2% e quanto ao modo de operação, houve concentração dos acidentes nas atividades em operação normal (62,9%. Quanto aos trabalhadores terceirizados, os acidentes triviais (75,5% tiveram predominância mais acentuada; e quanto ao modo de operação, houve um domínio quase total dos acidentes na atividade de manutenção (96,8%. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados mostraram um perfil de acidentes que afeta principalmente os níveis hierárquicos mais baixos, concentrando-se de modo geral nas atividades de manutenção, além da necessidade de modificações no sistema de registro e investigação de acidentes por parte da empresa.OBJECTIVE: Work in oil refineries involves the risk of minor to major accidents. National data show the impact of accidents on this industry. A study was carried out to describe accident profile and evaluate the adequacy of accident reporting system. METHODS: Data on all accidents reported in an oil refinery in the state of Rio de Janeiro for the year 1997 were organized and analyzed. The study population consisted of 153

  3. Refinery scheduling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, Marcus V.; Fraga, Eder T. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Shah, Nilay [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    This work addresses the refinery scheduling problem using mathematical programming techniques. The solution adopted was to decompose the entire refinery model into a crude oil scheduling and a product scheduling problem. The envelope for the crude oil scheduling problem is composed of a terminal, a pipeline and the crude area of a refinery, including the crude distillation units. The solution method adopted includes a decomposition technique based on the topology of the system. The envelope for the product scheduling comprises all tanks, process units and products found in a refinery. Once crude scheduling decisions are Also available the product scheduling is solved using a rolling horizon algorithm. All models were tested with real data from PETROBRAS' REFAP refinery, located in Canoas, Southern Brazil. (author)

  4. Refinery profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobin, G.

    1998-01-01

    Recently there has been considerable shutting down of oil refinery capacity in response to the increasing pressures on profitability. This article examines the situation and the industry's response to it, including the drive for mergers, disposal of fuel oil, downsizing of workforces and strategic alliances. Future trends and their implications are also discussed. (UK)

  5. Increasing the complexity of a refinery: a analysis of the economic impacts of the introduction of new process in refineries; O aumento da complexidade de uma refinaria: uma analise dos impactos economicos da introducao de novos processos em refinarias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontes, Cristiane M; Seidl, Peter R [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    The importance of the refining segment in the oil productive chain turns decision making on production and investment to be made at refineries dependent upon general context of the oil industry. Several technical and economic factors limit the possibilities to be foreseen by the managers. The ultimate goal of a refinery is to meet market demand in a region. Moreover, the type of processed oil and refining techniques will shape the profile of the production of derivatives. In a segment dynamic and full of uncertainties, such as refining, where the type of oil supplied to processing, specifications of products, and their demands, changes in the course of time, how to keep refining margins acceptable? This paper presents the relationship between the characteristics and the use of different kinds of oil, the characteristics of the national market of derivatives, and some characteristics of the refining processes considered in the study. The possible economic impacts that the introduction of different processes can bring to a refinery are analysed and alternatives for expansion are evaluated. To achieve these goals, a methodology for analysis considering the yield of Marlin oil refining for different schemes has been developed. (author)

  6. Oil refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehmer, S.; Winter, B.

    2001-01-01

    In refineries in particular attention is paid to the minimization of the generation of waste. Therefor catalysts in many processes are regenerated, absorbents are recycled and oily by-products are re-refined or used as fuels. This study discusses the origin and utilization of by-products from the oil industry. The processing of crude oils causes by-products and waste resulting from the crude oil itself or from cleaning measures for water pre-treatment, effluent treatment and flue gas treatment. (author)

  7. DOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traven, Bill

    1988-01-01

    Discusses using the DOS PATH command (for MS-DOS) to enable the microcomputer user to move from directory to directory on a hard drive. Lists the commands to be programed, gives examples, and explains the use of each. (MVL)

  8. Current situation of oil refinery in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vershkova, Elena; Petkova, Petinka; Grinkevich, Anastasia

    2016-09-01

    This article deals with the classification approach for oil refineries in international practices. Criteria of refinery estimation group, including its financial status estimation, have been investigated. The analysis object is “Lukoil Neftochim Bourgas” AD (LNCHB) activity. This company is a leading enterprise in Bulgaria. The analysis of LNCHB operating: energy intensity index; index of operating costs and return on investment index have been performed.

  9. Two refineries running crude; third to restart by September

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tippee, B.

    1993-01-01

    Kuwait's downstream oil and gas industry, which sustained less damage than the country's oil field infrastructure during the Iraqi occupation of the 1990-91, has nearly completed reconstruction. Two of three refineries have resumed operations, one of them at reduced crude distillation rates. And state-owned Kuwait National Petroleum Co. hopes to put the other refinery, Shuaiba, back on stream in September, although not at preinvasion throughput rates. Major reconstruction will be complete by year end, with crude oil distillation capacity at 650,000 b/sd. Preinvasion crude capacities of Kuwait's refineries totaled 840,000 b/d. The article describes an overview of the recovery; the status of the Mina Abdulla processing plant, the Mina Al-Ahmadi refinery, and the Shuaiba refinery; modernization plans, and plans for petrochemicals

  10. The miraculously saved refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosnard, D.

    2005-01-01

    During 20 years, refining has been the weak link of the petroleum industry. This sector has always suffered from a chronical overcapacity. Today, on the contrary, there is a lack of facilities and shortage is threatening. The Reichstett refinery (Alsace, France) is the smallest French refinery. It has been several times threatened with closure but today, thanks to the increasing demand, it works at full capacity. This short paper summarizes the history of this facility and its social and environmental impact in the region. (J.S.)

  11. Calculation and analysis of environmental costs of the atmospheric pollution from brazilian oil refinery; Calculo e analise dos custos ambientais da poluicao atmosferica emitida por uma refinaria de petroleo brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariano, Jacqueline [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2004-07-01

    The present study presents a calculation of the environmental costs associated with the atmospheric pollution from a brazilian oil refinery and its analysis (the name of this oil refinery is confidential, for this reason it will not be mentioned). The calculation of the costs was based on a study of north-american researchers, about the environmental costs of five main atmospheric pollutants: particulate matter, sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds (VOC's) and carbon monoxide. The original American study offers an statistical analysis of several other American studies about environmental costs of atmospheric pollution, that present maximum, medium and minimum costs. Based on these values, the total environmental costs of the atmospheric pollution from the brazilian oil refinery were calculated, considering a fifty year operational time for the facility. The internalization of the atmospheric pollution environmental costs by the refiners is aligned with the world tendency of enforcement of the environmental limitations faced by the oil refining sector, and therefore, the adoption of a pro-active attitude is recommended by the present study. (author)

  12. Maximizing petrochemicals from refineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glover, B.; Foley, T.; Frey, S. [UOP, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2007-07-01

    New fuel quality requirements and high growth rates for petrochemicals are providing both challenges and opportunities for refineries. A key challenge in refineries today is to improve of the value of the products from the FCC unit. In particular, light FCC naphtha and LCO are prime candidates for improved utilization. Processing options have been developed focusing on new opportunities for these traditional fuel components. The Total Petrochemicals/UOP Olefin Cracking Process cracks C4-C8 olefins to produce propylene and ethylene. This process can be integrated into FCC units running at all severity levels to produce valuable light olefins while reducing the olefin content of the light FCC naphtha. Integration of the Olefin Cracking Process with an FCC unit can be accomplished to allow a range of operating modes which can accommodate changing demand for propylene, cracked naphtha and alkylate. Other processes developed by UOP allow for upgrading LCO into a range of products including petrochemical grade xylenes, benzene, high cetane diesel and low sulfur high octane gasoline. Various processing options are available which allow the products from LCO conversion to be adjusted based on the needs and opportunities of an individual refinery, as well as the external petrochemical demand cycles. This presentation will examine recent refining and petrochemical trends and highlight new process technologies that can be used to generate additional revenue from petrochemical production while addressing evolving clean fuel demands. (orig.)

  13. Yugoslavian Petroleum Refinery development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocic, Ozren

    1999-01-01

    This paper shows the analysis of the world petroleum industry development, being an important factor in planning the development of the Yugoslav petroleum industry and Pancevo Petroleum Refinery, as well. Then Yugoslav petroleum industry development is analysed, including the appropriate balances of crude oil production and crude oil products consumption. The way of realizing the basic targets are also proposed. Likewise, the analysis of the condition within West European refineries has been conducted, from the aspects of technology, energy consumption and environmental protection and the same analysis for Pancevo Petroleum Refinery has been presented, too. The analysis of the condition within the refineries in the European Union countries and comparing it with the condition within Pancevo Petroleum Refinery, makes it mainly possible to recognize the development programmes which should be realized in order that Pancevo Petroleum Refinery could reach the refining level of the EU countries. (Original)

  14. Panorama do estado antropométrico dos escolares brasileiros Anthropometric status of Brazilian schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Eduardo G. Reis

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisar, na literatura, pesquisas que abordem o perfil antropométrico dos escolares brasileiros. FONTES DE DADOS: Buscaram-se artigos originais nas bases de dados SciELO, LILACS e MedLine, compreendidos no período entre 1985 e 2009, que avaliaram o estado antropométrico de escolares brasileiros (sete a dez anos. Foram utilizadas as palavras-chave: "escolar", "escolares", "avaliação nutricional", "antropometria", "criança", "estatura", "saúde escolar", em português e inglês. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Foram encontrados 28 trabalhos realizados em escolas públicas e privadas de âmbito municipal, estadual e regional, com amostra variando de 86 a 50.114 indivíduos, com estudos do tipo transversal, inquérito, casos-controle e prospectivo, utilizando seis tipos diferentes de protocolo para classificar o estado antropométrico dos escolares. Os resultados mostram que, nas regiões Norte, Nordeste e nas áreas carentes há maior prevalência de desnutrição, enquanto nas regiões Sudeste, Sul e zonas mais favorecidas há maior prevalência de sobrepeso e obesidade, mas coexistem as duas condições nas mesmas localidades. CONCLUSÕES: Apesar do aumento ao acesso aos alimentos, das políticas públicas contra a fome e ações governamentais e não-governamentais, ainda há a coexistência da dupla carga de doenças, desnutrição e excesso de peso que aflige a população escolar brasileira. Ações simples como medidas de peso e altura são de suma importância para classificar o estado nutricional e definir rumos de políticas públicas.OBJECTIVE: To review studies that address the anthropometric profile of Brazilian schoolchildren. DATA SOURCES: Original articles published in SciELO, LILACS and MedLine databases from 1985 to 2009, which assessed the anthropometric status in Brazilian schoolchildren (seven to ten years old. Key-words used: "school", "schoolchild", "nutritional assessment", "anthropometry", "child", "stature", "school

  15. Integrated refinery waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shieh, Y -S [ETG Environmental, Inc., Blue Bell, PA (US); Sheehan, W J [Separation and Recovery Systems, Inc., Irvine, CA (US)

    1992-01-01

    In response to the RCRA land ban regulations and TC rule promulgated by the U.S. Federal Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1988-1990, an Integrated Refinery Waste Management (IRWM) program has been developed to provide cost-effective solutions to petroleum industry customers. The goal of IRWM is to provide technology based remediation treatment services to manage sludges and wastewaters generated from the oil refining processes, soils contaminated with petroleum distillates and groundwater contaminated with fuels. Resource recovery, volume reduction and waste minimization are the primary choices to mitigate environmental problems. Oil recovery has been performed through phase separation (such as centrifugation and filtration) and heating of heavy oils. Volume reduction is achieved by dewatering systems such as centrifuges and filter presses, and low temperature thermal treatment. Waste minimization can be accomplished by bioremediation and resource recovery through a cement kiln. (Author).

  16. The Rio dos Sinos watershed: an economic and social space and its interface with environmental status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAS. Figueiredo

    Full Text Available The Rio dos Sinos watershed is located in the eastern region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul and includes 32municipalities. These municipalities develop several different economic activities such as farming and livestock along the 190 km length of the Rio dos Sinos, one of the rivers with the worst quality of water in Brazil. The region is also characterised by growing urbanisation and heavy industrialisation. The main economic activity is the leather and footwear industry. This diversified land use puts the Rio dos Sinos watershed at risk of a wide range of potential environmental impacts. The aim of the present article is to discuss the socioeconomic process currently implemented in the Rio dos Sinos watershed and the effect of these human actions on the environmental quality described throughout this special issue of the Brazilian Journal of Biology.

  17. Occupational health experience with a contractor uranium refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heatherton, R.C.

    1975-01-01

    This paper presents information related to the occupational exposure of workers in uranium refinery operations at the Feed Materials Production Center since 1958. Included are: a brief history of the FMPC; a description of the operations and the principal sources of exposure; airborne uranium, urinary excretion, in vivo monitoring and tissue analysis data; and some observations regarding the exposure and health status of employees

  18. Benchmarking of refinery emissions performance : Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-07-01

    This study was undertaken to collect emissions performance data for Canadian and comparable American refineries. The objective was to examine parameters that affect refinery air emissions performance and develop methods or correlations to normalize emissions performance. Another objective was to correlate and compare the performance of Canadian refineries to comparable American refineries. For the purpose of this study, benchmarking involved the determination of levels of emission performance that are being achieved for generic groups of facilities. A total of 20 facilities were included in the benchmarking analysis, and 74 American refinery emission correlations were developed. The recommended benchmarks, and the application of those correlations for comparison between Canadian and American refinery performance, were discussed. The benchmarks were: sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, particulate, volatile organic compounds, ammonia and benzene. For each refinery in Canada, benchmark emissions were developed. Several factors can explain differences in Canadian and American refinery emission performance. 4 tabs., 7 figs

  19. Energy use in petroleum refineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, V.O.

    1976-09-01

    Refining petroleum accounts for about 4 percent of the total energy consumed in the United States and about 15 percent of all industrial consumption. The kinds of energy used and the manner in which energy is used are discussed on a process-by-process basis. Emphasis is placed on existing processes to identify and quantify process and equipment substitutions which might significantly conserve energy. General industry and process information is given and estimates of potential savings are made. A few research and development opportunities are identified and nontechnical factors are discussed. Nearly one-half the energy consumed by refineries is obtained from by-product refinery gas and coke, and about one-third is supplied by natural gas. On a regional basis, refineries were found to vary by a factor of two in the amount of energy used to refine a unit of crude oil. Refineries in regions traditionally abundant in inexpensive natural gas were found to use relatively more natural gas and energy. About 36 percent of the energy used by petroleum refineries is consumed in the distillation units to separate the refinery streams into their basic components. Including energy for manufacturing hydrogen, about 24 percent of the total is used for cracking of the heavier components. Most of the remainder is used for reforming, hydrogen treating, and alkylation, distributed about 11, 17, and 6 percent respectively. Potential energy savings discussed in this report total 61 x 10/sup 13/ Btu/yr based on 1974 capacities, a figure which represents about 20 percent of the energy consumed to refine petroleum.

  20. Diferenciais de gênero no impacto do arranjo familiar no status de saúde dos idosos brasileiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero Dalia E.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Analisam-se os diferenciais por gênero na relação do arranjo familiar com o status de saúde de pessoas com 65 anos ou mais, incorporando também fatores socioeconômicos e sociodemográficos. Utilizam-se dados da PNAD de 1998. Foram desenvolvidos diversos modelos de regressão logística para duas variáveis dependentes: auto-avaliação da saúde e declaração de doenças. Os fatores explicativos (área rural/urbana, idade, renda per capita, analfabetismo, arranjo familiar e condição no domicílio foram incorporados seqüencialmente para avaliar as mudanças da inter-relação. Encontrou-se que, embora as mulheres tenham mais desvantagem quanto à declaração de doenças, a auto-avaliação da condição de sua saúde é relativamente similar à dos homens. Os diferenciais de gênero no padrão de arranjo familiar dos idosos são em parte responsáveis pela desvantagem no status de saúde das mulheres. Conclui-se que a formulação de políticas para o melhoramento do status de saúde do idoso deve considerar a existência de importantes diferenças de gênero no padrão da estrutura e arranjo de suas famílias. Existe necessidade de maior disponibilidade de inquéritos para idosos, que permitam aprofundamento na relação entre saúde do idoso, gênero e família.

  1. Diferenciais de gênero no impacto do arranjo familiar no status de saúde dos idosos brasileiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia E. Romero

    Full Text Available Analisam-se os diferenciais por gênero na relação do arranjo familiar com o status de saúde de pessoas com 65 anos ou mais, incorporando também fatores socioeconômicos e sociodemográficos. Utilizam-se dados da PNAD de 1998. Foram desenvolvidos diversos modelos de regressão logística para duas variáveis dependentes: auto-avaliação da saúde e declaração de doenças. Os fatores explicativos (área rural/urbana, idade, renda per capita, analfabetismo, arranjo familiar e condição no domicílio foram incorporados seqüencialmente para avaliar as mudanças da inter-relação. Encontrou-se que, embora as mulheres tenham mais desvantagem quanto à declaração de doenças, a auto-avaliação da condição de sua saúde é relativamente similar à dos homens. Os diferenciais de gênero no padrão de arranjo familiar dos idosos são em parte responsáveis pela desvantagem no status de saúde das mulheres. Conclui-se que a formulação de políticas para o melhoramento do status de saúde do idoso deve considerar a existência de importantes diferenças de gênero no padrão da estrutura e arranjo de suas famílias. Existe necessidade de maior disponibilidade de inquéritos para idosos, que permitam aprofundamento na relação entre saúde do idoso, gênero e família.

  2. Refineries in Europe under pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widdershoven, C.

    2008-01-01

    Current oil price developments and the economic and financial crisis are leading to a negative situation for the European refining sector. Analysts expect that a number of European oil refineries will lower their production in the coming months as a result of decreased petrol demand. [mk] [nl

  3. Retrofitting refinery and petrochemical plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesler, M.G.

    1988-06-01

    This article focuses on process improvements as the best way to reduce plant energy use. The emphasis on process revamp is well justified, as an energy profile for a typical refinery shows. The diagram shows that 60% of the total heat losses are in water and air cooling. Most of this heat loss results from condensing and cooling in fractionators and recycle systems, intermediate product cooling, and condensing of turbine steam. These losses, of mostly low-level heat, are tied to the basic approach previously used for the process design of existing refineries. Despite the progress to date, there is growing evidence that these heat losses can be further reduced economically by about 20-30% in most refineries and petrochemical plants. One way to reduce the losses is to increase recovery of low-level heat by improved heat exchange, which has been the subject of most publications on plant energy conservation. A better way, presented here, is to develop new process schemes that require less air/water cooling. One useful concept in developing new schemes is to concentrate on heat losses, rather than heat input, as an easier measure of proposed improvements. By an overall heat balance, eliminating a unit of energy loss is equivalent to saving a unit of heat input somewhere in the plant.

  4. Joint refinery selenium treatability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, C.L.; Folwarkow, S.

    1993-01-01

    The San Francisco Regional Water Quality Control Board recently established mass limits on discharges of selenium to the San Francisco Bay from several petroleum refineries. The refineries had been working independently to develop control strategies, including both source control and treatment options, for removal of selenium from their discharges. By January 1992, over fifty different combinations of treatment technologies, wastewater streams, and pretreatment steps had been investigated to determine their effectiveness and feasibility as selenium removal processes. No treatment process studied could achieve the required mass limits without serious negative environmental consequences, such as generation of large amounts of hazardous sludge. To better facilitate the development of a feasible selenium treatment process, the six Bay Area refineries shared results of their studies and identified several technologies that, with further work, could be developed further. This additional work is currently being carried out as part of a joint selenium treatability study sponsored by the Western States Petroleum Association. A review of the previous source control and treatment studies, along with a description of the current treatability studies will be discussed

  5. Epidemiologia dos transtornos alimentares: estado atual e desenvolvimentos futuros Epidemiology of eating disorders: current status and future developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillipa J Hay

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos do presente trabalho foram: fornecer uma avaliação do progresso da epidemiologia na área de transtornos alimentares, desde estudos sobre incidência e prevalência até os estudos comunitários prospectivos, bem como estudos caso-controle; sintetizar o atual estado da incidência e prevalência dos transtornos alimentares; discutir os estudos epidemiológicos analíticos sobre os transtornos alimentares, enfocando estudos comunitários sobre fatores de risco e nosologia; e apontar as áreas de estudos futuros, especialmente sobre a carga social e econômica e o grau de "conhecimento sobre saúde mental" da população em geral a respeito das pessoas com transtornos alimentares. Apesar dos problemas para identificar e recrutar um número suficiente de pessoas com anorexia nervosa e os métodos variáveis de recrutamento de casos, os estudos sobre incidência e prevalência dos transtornos alimentares atingiram um consenso e em geral não corroboram uma incidência ascendente atual, exceto, possivelmente, por um pequeno aumento na anorexia nervosa em mulheres jovens. A aplicação de métodos epidemiológicos analíticos permitiu uma compreensão melhor dos fatores ambientais e genéticos, em comparação com os sociais e econômicos, quanto ao risco de desenvolvimento de transtornos alimentares, bem como ajudaram no refinamento da nosologia desses transtornos. Futuramente, a epidemiologia analítica terá potencial para responder a questões-chave sobre a natureza e os determinantes dos transtornos alimentares e para ajudar a decidir como auxiliar os que mais necessitem.The present paper aims were: to provide an overview of development of epidemiology in the area of eating disorders, from studies of incidence and prevalence, through to community based prospective as well as case controlled studies; to summarise the current status of incidence and prevalence of eating disorders; to discuss analytic epidemiological studies of eating

  6. Níveis dos neurotransmissores estriatais durante o estado epiléptico Striatal monoamines levels during status epilepticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivelilson Mendes de Freitas

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse estudo foi verificar os níveis dos neurotransmissores estriatais de ratas adultas durante o estado epiléptico induzido pela pilocarpina. Ratas wistar foram tratadas com uma única dose de pilocarpina (400 mg/kg por via subcutânea (S.C.; P400 e os controles receberam salina. A concentração dos neurotransmissores foi determinada através do HPLC eletroquímico, no corpo estriado de ratas que no período de observação de 1 hora desencadearam estado epiléptico e que sobreviveram à fase aguda do quadro convulsivo. Foi observada redução nos níveis de dopamina, serotonina, ácido diidroxifenilacético e aumento na concentração do ácido 5-hidroxiindolacético. Nenhuma alteração foi observada no 4-hidroxi-3-metoxi-fenilacético. Os resultados sugerem que a ativação do sistema colinérgico pode interagir com os sistemas dopaminérgico e serotonérgico nos mecanismos referentes à fase aguda do processo convulsivo no corpo estriado de ratos desenvolvidos.The purpose of the present work to investigate the striatal neurotransmissors level in adult rats after status epilepticus induced by pilocarpine. Wistar rats were treated with a single dose of pilocarpine (400 mg/kg; s.c.; P400 and the controls received saline. Adult animals were closed observed for behavioural changes during 1h. In this period, the animals that developed status epilepticus and survive this acute phase of seizures had the brains removed and striatal neurotransmissors level determiden by HPLC. The concentration of dopamine, serotonine, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid was reduced and an concentration increase in 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid. Didn't observed alteration in 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenylacetic acid. These results suggest that cholinergic activation can interage with dopaminergic and serotonergic systems in acute phase of the convulsive process in rat mature striatum.

  7. The prospects for refinery profitability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weale, G. [European Energy Services, London (United Kingdom)

    1997-05-01

    The outlook for the European refining industry is assessed. The conclusion reached is that the industry is struggling for its existence. Over time, an unsatisfactory balance has grown between refinery capacity and market volumes. High exit barriers have prevented capacity being considerably lower than it is. In the future, a typical integrated oil company might be content to confine itself to retailing oil products without having to refine them. Given the reduction in gasoline demand in particular, it can be expected that 20-25% of capacity will be sold off in the next 15 years and much of it will be closed. (Author)

  8. Bioremediation of petroleum refinery effluent by Planococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present investigation, Planococcus halophilus was screened for hydrocarbon degradation and bioremediation of refinery effluent. The test organism, P. halophilus, showed the capability to utilize kerosene as carbon source in minimal medium. Biological treatment of the refinery effluent with P. halophilus reduced the ...

  9. Aspects of petrochemistry in a fuels refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esser, J.; Mielicke, C.J.; Maier, T. [MIRO - Mineraloelraffinerie Oberrhein GmbH und Co. KG, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Classical links between refinery and petrochemical downstream operations are light naphtha, C2-C4-Olefins and various aromatic compounds. Additionally long chain paraffines from dewaxing or even heavy residues can be interesting starting materials for petrochemistry. Some aspects of these links between refining and petrochemistry as well as their impact on refinery operation and product pools are discussed. (orig.)

  10. Regulation of the re utilization of water in refineries - analysis of the european and american models, and perspectives for the Brazilian scenery; Regulamentacao do reuso da agua em refinarias - analise dos modelos europeu e americano e perspectivas para o cenario nacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Fernanda Leite; Szklo, Alexandre

    2006-07-01

    The present work analyses the european and american experiences in the re utilization of water in refineries and to point out perspectives for the regulation of water re utilization in Brazil, by using the present management instruments of the hydraulic resources.

  11. Former Soviet refineries face modernization, restructuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    A massive modernization and restructuring program is under way in the refining sector of Russia and other former Soviet republics. Economic reforms and resulting economic dislocation following the collapse of the Soviet Union has left refineries in the region grappling with a steep decline and changes in product demand. At the same time, rising oil prices and an aging, dilapidated infrastructure promise a massive shakeout. Even as many refineries in the former Soviet Union (FSU) face possible closure because they are running at a fraction of capacity, a host of revamps, expansions, and grass roots refineries are planned or under way. The paper discusses plans

  12. Kvanefjeld refinery pilot plant operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krebs, Damien; Furfaro, Domenic

    2016-01-01

    Greenland Minerals and Energy is a junior project development company which is listed on the Australian Stock Exchange (asx:GGG). It is developing the Kvanefjeld rare earth and uranium project located in the southern tip of Greenland. The project has completed a Feasibility Study and is currently in the permitting phase. Last year was a busy time for the company as it completed a Feasibility Study, a mining licence application (draft submitted in December 2015) and pilot plant operations. Beneficiation pilot plant operations were completed at GTK in Finland in April 2015. This pilot plant treated approximately 30 tonnes of ore to producing almost 2 tonnes of rare earth mineral concentrate. Later in the year a hydrometallurgical pilot plant was performed which mimicked the Refinery process. This pilot plant was performed at Outotec’s Pori Research laboratories in Finland from September till October 2015. The pilot plant treated approximately 200 kilograms of concentrate over 4 split operating campaigns. Each campaign was performed to focus on the performance of a specific part of the refinery flowsheet. This allowed for full operating focus on a single unit operation to ensure that it was operating correctly. The pilot plant operations were quite successful with no major issues with the flowsheet identified through continuous operation. Some fine tuning of conditions was required to ensure adequate removal of impurities was performed with recycle streams incorporated. Overall the leach extractions observed in the pilot plant exceeded the design assumptions in the Feasibility Study. These programs were partially funded by the EURARE program. The EURARE program aims to encourage the sustainable development of European based rare earth projects. This has the goal of allowing Europe to become less reliant on importation of these key raw materials. The professionalism and performance of both GTK and Outotec contributed significantly to the success of the pilot plant

  13. Programming of a refinery from the perspective of the decision makers: trade-offs analysis for corporate and technical guidelines; A programacao de uma refinaria sob a otica do decisor: uma analise dos trade-offs diante das orientacoes tecnicas e corporativas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiegel, Thais; Caulliraux, Heitor Mansur; Proenca, Adriano [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Refineries usually gather a set of activities that shape how complex and dynamic it is. Adding to the complexity of the refining process, there is also a great freedom in the refinery operations, multiple arrangements possible to convert certain oil in derivatives. In this context, this article focuses on decision-making processes that lead refineries of an integrated oil company in their day to day. As decision-making, the text refers to a process that always brings a kind of conflict resolution, in which contradictory goals have to be negotiated and reconciled. The object of analysis is inserted in hierarchical decision-making processes, ie a process of disintegration, which begins with a comprehensive assessment, and then divides the decision in elements smaller and more defined, so that they are interdependent. The output at an aggregate level shall be the input in the next detailed level. In each level of the hierarchical, decision-making is the result of a problem, presented in a given context to a decision maker. Decision maker will be the responsible for the direction of the refinery production to which it is allocated. The programmer of each refinery is general guidelines that should be considered, albeit non-explicit or non-configurable, in some cases these take the form of technical criteria and in other situations derived from the business. From these, this article presents a critical and analytical in the face of dilemmas that emerge in front of decision makers search for converging a production schedule that meets both the criteria set. (author)

  14. Mazeikiai refinery woes deepen on all fronts

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Leedu rahandusminister teatas, et riigieelarvet mõjutavad probleemid Mazeikiai tehasega, mis on Leedu suurim maksumaksja. Lisa: Russian oil company to build refinery. Surgutneftegaz teatas plaanist ehitada naftatöötlustehas Peterburi lähedale

  15. Refinery siting workbook: appendices A and B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-01

    The objective of this effort is to develop and provide basic refinery-related information for use by state and local government officials as a basis for establishing responsible refinery siting requirements and policies consistent with the federal clean air and water standards and socio-economic concerns. The report will be organized into two volumes. The main text comprises the basic topics of physical concerns, regulatory requirements, and permitting activities, while the second volume includes the detailed appendix materials such as the applicable laws, and the necessary permits, as available and a glossary of pertinent terms. As a means to this objective, three refinery sizes, 200,000, 100,000 and 30,000 barrels per day crude charge will be discussed in technical terms. Process unit configuration will be presented which will maximize either gasoline or heating oil production with either sweet or sour crude oil feedstocks. The major issues affecting the socio-economic impact of siting the refinery in a given locale will be presented. These data will review the factors affecting the human environment and the issues that must be addressed to assess the impact that a refinery will have on a community. The key federal registrations which impact upon a refinery siting decision shall be reviewed. Summaries of these regulations and a simplified decision diagram for the air and water acts shall be presented to assist both government and refinery officials in understanding the scope of regulatory impact. All pertinent procedures required for refinery permitting shall be reviewed under the generalized headings of air, water, health and safety, land use, and miscellaneous permits. This categorization at the federal, state and local levels of government shall be used as a basis for establishing degrees of emphasis.

  16. The refinery industry within the Mediterranean area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    During the period 1997-1998 Ome (Observatorie Mediterraneen de l'Energie) within a working group which was formed by the experts among the associated companies, has carried on an analysis on the prospects of refinery industry in the Mediterranean area in view of 2010. The aim of this study was to make clear, to the different operators, the consequences of the political choices in investments on refinery industry in the context of the progressive liberalization of the sector [it

  17. Improving profitability in a grassroots refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, T. [Star Petroleum Refining Co. Ltd. (Thailand); Kennedy, P.; Bhargava, S. [KBC Process Technology Ltd. (United Kingdom)

    1999-05-01

    Actions taken to maximise profit at the Star Refinery in Thailand are described. The company made good use of the Profit Improvement Programme (PIP) (which specialises in refinery economics) and the way in which PIP addressed the problem and the benefits derived therefrom is the nub of this paper. The efforts appear to have been more than satisfactory from the aspect of increasing profit margins. (UK)

  18. Complexity index indicates refinery capability, value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, D.

    1996-01-01

    Refinery size usually is measured in terms of distillation capacity. Relative size, however, can be measured using refinery complexity--a concept developed by W.L. Nelson in the 1960s. Nelson developed the complexity index to quantify the relative cost of components that make up a refinery. It is a pure cost index that provides a relative measure of the construction costs of a particular refinery based on its crude and upgrading capacity. The Nelson index compares the costs of various upgrading units--such as a fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) unit or a catalytic reformer--to the cost of a crude distillation unit. Computation of the index is an attempt to quantify the relative cost of a refinery based on the added cost of various upgrading units and the relative upgrading capacity. A review of complexity calculations, and an explanation of how indices have changed, provide a simple means of determining the complexity of single refineries or refining regions. The impact of complexity on product slate is also examined in this paper

  19. The rise and fall of refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chretien, D.

    2002-01-01

    This paper described the rise and fall of refineries in Montreal. Well before Calgary, Montreal was the hub of activity for oil refineries because Montreal was the principle consuming market for petroleum products in Canada. The location was good, particularly since the soil was clay which helped prevent soil infiltration of petroleum. The first refinery in Montreal was constructed in 1916 by Esso, followed by Texaco in 1921 and Gulf in 1931. Initially oil was shipped by boat to the Port of Montreal from Saudi Arabia. Later, the petroleum came mostly from Venezuela. At the beginning of the 1980s many refineries were closed because they became obsolete and upgrading them would have been too costly. Only 3 refineries remain in Quebec, of which 2 are in Montreal. They are owned by Shell and PetroCanada. The third refinery in Quebec is in St-Romuald and is owned by UltraMar. One of the major contributing factors to the decline of the refining industry in Montreal was the decision in 1984 by former Prime Minister Trudeau to force Canadian provinces to purchase their petroleum from Alberta. This caused the petrochemical industry to locate in Sarnia in Ontario, leaving the Montreal refining centre to become obsolete. 3 figs

  20. Assessment and planning of the electrical systems in Mexican refineries by 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Flores, Luis Ivan; Rodriguez Martinez, Jose Hugo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Dario Taboada; Guillermo; Pano Jimenez, Javier [PEMEX, (Mexico)

    2012-07-01

    Nowadays the refining sector in Mexico needs to increase the quantity and quality of produced fuels by installing new process plants for gasoline and ultra-low sulphur diesel. These plants require the provision of electricity and steam, among other services to function properly, which can be supplied by the power plants currently installed in each refinery through an expansion of their generation capacity. These power plants need to increase its production of electricity and steam at levels above their installed capacity, which involves the addition of new power generating equipment (gas or steam turbo-generators) as well as the raise of the electrical loads. Currently, the Mexican Petroleum Company (PEMEX) is planning to restructure their electrical and steam systems in order to optimally supply the required services for the production of high quality fuels. In this paper the present status of the original electrical power systems of the refineries is assessed and the electrical integration of new process plants in the typical schemes is analyzed. Also this paper shows the conceptual schemes proposed to restructure the electrical power system for two refineries and the strategic planning focused on implement the modifications required for the integration of new process plants that will demand about 20 MW for each refinery by 2014. The results of the analysis allowed to identify the current conditions of the electrical power systems in the oil refining industry or National Refining Industry (NRI), and thereby to offer technical solutions that could be useful to engineers facing similar projects. [Spanish] Hoy en dia, el sector de refinacion en Mexico necesita aumentar la cantidad y calidad de los combustibles producidos, mediante la instalacion de nuevas plantas de proceso para la gasolina y el diesel ultra bajo en azufre. Estas plantas requieren el suministro de electricidad y vapor de agua, entre otros servicios, para que funcione correctamente, los cuales pueden

  1. Evaluation of O{sub 3}UV e H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV processes combined with biological activated carbon for reuse refinery waste water; Avaliacao dos processos O{sub 3}UV e H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV combinados com carvao ativado granulado com biofilme para reuso de efluentes de refinaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Bianca Miguel de; Dezotti, Marcia [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Cerqueira, Ana Claudia Figueiras Pereira de [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (CENPES/PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas e Desenvolvimento

    2012-07-01

    The treatment of refinery wastewater by advanced oxidation processes (AOP) coupled with biological activated carbon (BAC) was investigated aiming to generate water for reuse. The Gabriel Passos Refinery wastewater was previously treated in a membrane bioreactor, but still presented a high TOC content (30 mg/L) which may cause biofouling in the subsequent process of reverse osmosis. O3/UV and H2O2/UV processes were employed to oxidize the organic matter and BAC process to remove the residual organic matter from the AOP effluent. AOP promoted oxidation of recalcitrant organic matter as observed by drops on the treated wastewater absorbance and TOC values. BAC filters reached a TOC removal of 65% after 84 days of operation, while GAC filters were saturated after 28 days. Inoculated sand filters were also tested at different flow rates to compare with BAC filters. Low TOC values were achieved by the combined treatment, reaching values around 5 mg/L and allowing water reuse. BAC filters showed to be quite efficient for removal of organic compounds found in biologically treated oil refinery wastewater. (author)

  2. Catalytic hydrotreatment of refinery waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The object of the project is to produce liquid hydrocarbons by the catalytic hydroprocessing of solid refinery wastes (hard pitches) in order to improve the profitability of deep conversion processes and reduce the excess production of heavy fuels. The project was mostly carried out on the ASVAHL demonstration platform site, at Solaize, and hard pitches were produced primarily by deasphalting of atmospheric or vacuum distillation residues. The project includes two experimental phases and an economic evaluation study phase. In phase 1, two granular catalysts were used to transform pitch into standard low sulphur fuel oil: a continuously moving bed, with demetallation and conversion catalyst; a fixed bed, with hydrorefining catalyst. In phase 2 of the project, it was proven that a hydrotreatment process using a finely dispersed catalyst in the feedstock, can, under realistic operating conditions, transform with goods yields hard pitch into distillates that can be refined through standard methods. In phase 3 of the project, it was shown that the economics of such processes are tightly linked to the price differential between white and black oil products, which is expected to increase in the future. Furthermore, the evolution of environmental constraints will impel the use of such methods, thus avoiding the coproduction of polluting solid residues.

  3. Bioremediation at a petroleum refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, A.W.; Jarvis, J.; Richardson, K.E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of three projects at the Mobil Refinery in Torrance, California where bioremediation technologies were successfully employed for the remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil. The three projects represent variations of implementation of bioremediation, both in-situ and ex-situ. Soil from all of the projects was considered non-hazardous designated waste under the California Code of Regulations, Title 23, section 2522. The projects were permitted and cleanup requirements were defined with the Los Angeles Regional Water Quality Control Board. In all of the projects, different methods were used for supplying water, oxygen, and nutrients to the hydrocarbon degrading bacteria to stimulate growth. The Stormwater Retention Basin Project utilized in-situ mechanical mixing of soils to supply solid nutrients and oxygen, and a self-propelled irrigation system to supply water. The Tank Farm Lake project used an in-situ active bioventing technology to introduce oxygen, moisture, and vapor phase nutrients. The Tank 1340X247 project was an ex-situ bioventing remediation project using a drip irrigation system to supply water and dissolved nutrients, and a vapor extraction system to provide oxygen

  4. Refinery boom in Southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruson, J.F.; Virondaud, C.

    1996-01-01

    The Asia demand for oil is increasing dramatically, particularly in the non OECD countries, which represent, today more than 15 % of the world oil market. The expected economic growth in these areas should contribute to a rise in oil demand by about 5.4 per year and hence to a significant increase of this share to 25 % in 2010; virtually a large part of this evolution will come from the transportation sector. The proceeding investments of the regional, refining industry are very high (some evaluations come to around 140 billion of dollars), all the more the protection of the environment takes an increasing significant place. Accordingly the most important challenge to be taken up by these countries will be to mobilize long term fundings to develop and adapt the capabilities of the refineries to meet the growth of gasoline and gas oil demand. The contribution of private operators or capital will be necessary, but will depend strongly on refining margin improvement and on progress of free market areas announced by several countries. (authors)

  5. Benzene exposure in a Japanese petroleum refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, T; Yamaoka, K; Uchida, Y; Ikeda, M

    1990-07-01

    Time-weighted average (TWA) intensity of exposure of workers to benzene vapor during a shift was monitored by diffusive sampling technique in a Japanese petroleum refinery. The subjects monitored (83 in total) included refinery operators, laboratory personnel and tanker-loading workers. The results showed that the time-weighted average exposures are well below 1 ppm in most cases. The highest exposure was recorded in 1 case involved in bulk loading of tanker ships, in which exposure of over 1 ppm might take place depending on operational conditions. The observation was generally in agreement with levels previously reported.

  6. Integrated pollution control for oil refinery complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiperstok, A. [Bahia Univ., Salvador, BA (Brazil); Sharratt, P.N. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. of Science and Technology

    1993-12-31

    Improving environmental performance of oil refineries is a complex task. Emission limits, operating constraints, available technologies, operating techniques, and local environment sensitivity must all be considered. This work describes efforts to build an interactive software to deal with this problem. 8 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Integrated pollution control for oil refinery complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiperstok, A [Bahia Univ., Salvador, BA (Brazil); Sharratt, P N [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. of Science and Technology

    1994-12-31

    Improving environmental performance of oil refineries is a complex task. Emission limits, operating constraints, available technologies, operating techniques, and local environment sensitivity must all be considered. This work describes efforts to build an interactive software to deal with this problem. 8 refs., 5 figs.

  8. Refinery siting workbook: appendices C to O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-01

    Applicable laws and permits available for the selection and building of petroleum refineries are enclosed. A glossary of pertinent terms is also included. References related to the National Environmental Policy Act, the Clean Air Act, the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Toxic Substance Control Act, and Wetlands and Coastal Zone are included. Permit information is also presented. (DC)

  9. Refinery Upgrading of Hydropyrolysis Oil From Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Michael [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Marker, Terry [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Ortiz-Toral, Pedro [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Linck, Martin [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Felix, Larry [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Wangerow, Jim [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Swanson, Dan [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); McLeod, Celeste [CRI Catalyst, Houston, TX (United States); Del Paggio, Alan [CRI Catalyst, Houston, TX (United States); Urade, Vikrant [CRI Catalyst, Houston, TX (United States); Rao, Madhusudhan [CRI Catalyst, Houston, TX (United States); Narasimhan, Laxmi [CRI Catalyst, Houston, TX (United States); Gephart, John [Johnson Timber, Hayward, WI (United States); Starr, Jack [Cargill, Wayzata, MN (United States); Hahn, John [Cargill, Wayzata, MN (United States); Stover, Daniel [Cargill, Wayzata, MN (United States); Parrish, Martin [Valero, San Antonio, TX (United States); Maxey, Carl [Valero, San Antonio, TX (United States); Shonnard, David [MTU, Friedrichshafen (Germany); Handler, Robert [MTU, Friedrichshafen (Germany); Fan, Jiquig [MTU, Friedrichshafen (Germany)

    2015-08-31

    Cellulosic and woody biomass can be converted to bio-oils containing less than 10% oxygen by a hydropyrolysis process. Hydropyrolysis is the first step in Gas Technology Institute’s (GTI) integrated Hydropyrolysis and Hydroconversion IH2®. These intermediate bio-oils can then be converted to drop-in hydrocarbon fuels using existing refinery hydrotreating equipment to make hydrocarbon blending components, which are fully compatible with existing fuels. Alternatively, cellulosic or woody biomass can directly be converted into drop-in hydrocarbon fuels containing less than 0.4% oxygen using the IH2 process located adjacent to a refinery or ethanol production facility. Many US oil refineries are actually located near biomass resources and are a logical location for a biomass to transportation fuel conversion process. The goal of this project was to work directly with an oil refinery partner, to determine the most attractive route and location for conversion of biorenewables to drop in fuels in their refinery and ethanol production network. Valero Energy Company, through its subsidiaries, has 12 US oil refineries and 11 ethanol production facilities, making them an ideal partner for this analysis. Valero is also part of a 50- 50 joint venture with Darling Ingredients called Diamond Green Diesel. Diamond Green Diesel’s production capacity is approximately 11,000 barrels per day of renewable diesel. The plant is located adjacent to Valero’s St Charles, Louisiana Refinery and converts recycled animal fats, used cooking oil, and waste corn oil into renewable diesel. This is the largest renewable diesel plant in the U.S. and has successfully operated for over 2 years For this project, 25 liters of hydropyrolysis oil from wood and 25 liters of hydropyrolysis oils from corn stover were produced. The hydropyrolysis oil produced had 4-10% oxygen. Metallurgical testing of hydropyrolysis liquids was completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratories (Oak Ridge) and showed the

  10. The life and times of a western refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, W.

    1998-01-01

    An historical account is given of the discovery of oil by Imperial Oil Ltd., at Leduc in 1947, and the opening of a refinery in Edmonton in 1948. The discovery at Leduc was the first major strike to be made in western Canada, but Imperial Oil did not have a refinery at the site to process the new found crude. Given the economic constraints of the postwar era, Imperial Oil decided to dismantle and move an idle and virtually brand-new refinery located at Whitehorse, Yukon. It took 10 months to reassemble the refinery at its newly prepared site at Edmonton. Regular expansions and improvements helped to ensure that the refinery kept up with the advances in technology and market demand. By the early 1970s, small refineries were becoming uneconomical as distribution of products by pipelines became possible. In 1976 Imperial Oil spent more than $300 million to consolidate its four Prairie refineries, those in Calgary, Winnipeg, Regina and Edmonton, into one large facility at the Edmonton site. The role that the refinery plays in today's community and the effort that Imperial Oil makes to comply with stringent environmental regulations were described. Today, the refinery is producing 165,000 barrels a day of fuels and lubricants and another 20,000 barrels of asphalt. The refinery supplies more than 200 different products to customers across Canada, with unit costs which are amongst the lowest of North American refineries. figs

  11. Production planning and scheduling in refinery industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Jan.

    1999-01-01

    In this thesis we consider production planning and scheduling in refinery industry, in particular we study the planning and scheduling at the Nynaes AB refinery and at the Scanraff AB refinery. The purpose is to contribute to the development and the use of optimization models to support efficient decision making. We identify various decision problems concerning the aggregated production planning, the shipment planning, the scheduling of operation modes, and the utilization of pipes and tanks; and we discuss the potential to successfully apply optimization models on these problems. We formulate a mixed integer linear programming model for the scheduling of operation modes at Nynaes. The model concerns decisions about which mode of operation to use at a particular point in time in order to minimize costs of changing modes and costs of keeping inventories, given demands for products. We derive several types of valid inequalities for this mathematical problem and show how these inequalities can improve the lower bound obtained from the linear programming relaxation of the problem. We also show how the valid inequalities can be used to improve the performance of a branch and bound solution approach. Further, a tabu search heuristic is developed for the scheduling problem. The solution methods are tested on data provided by the Nynaes refinery, and the performance of the methods are discussed. We present several extensions of the proposed model, and illustrate how the model can be used to support both operational and strategic decision making at the refinery. 66 refs, 6 figs, 32 tabs. Also published as: Dissertation from the International Graduate School of Management and Industrial Engineering, No 25, Licenciate Thesis

  12. Production planning and scheduling in refinery industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Jan

    1999-07-01

    In this thesis we consider production planning and scheduling in refinery industry, in particular we study the planning and scheduling at the Nynaes AB refinery and at the Scanraff AB refinery. The purpose is to contribute to the development and the use of optimization models to support efficient decision making. We identify various decision problems concerning the aggregated production planning, the shipment planning, the scheduling of operation modes, and the utilization of pipes and tanks; and we discuss the potential to successfully apply optimization models on these problems. We formulate a mixed integer linear programming model for the scheduling of operation modes at Nynaes. The model concerns decisions about which mode of operation to use at a particular point in time in order to minimize costs of changing modes and costs of keeping inventories, given demands for products. We derive several types of valid inequalities for this mathematical problem and show how these inequalities can improve the lower bound obtained from the linear programming relaxation of the problem. We also show how the valid inequalities can be used to improve the performance of a branch and bound solution approach. Further, a tabu search heuristic is developed for the scheduling problem. The solution methods are tested on data provided by the Nynaes refinery, and the performance of the methods are discussed. We present several extensions of the proposed model, and illustrate how the model can be used to support both operational and strategic decision making at the refinery. 66 refs, 6 figs, 32 tabs. Also published as: Dissertation from the International Graduate School of Management and Industrial Engineering, No 25, Licenciate Thesis.

  13. Production planning and scheduling in refinery industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Jan

    1999-06-01

    In this thesis we consider production planning and scheduling in refinery industry, in particular we study the planning and scheduling at the Nynaes AB refinery and at the Scanraff AB refinery. The purpose is to contribute to the development and the use of optimization models to support efficient decision making. We identify various decision problems concerning the aggregated production planning, the shipment planning, the scheduling of operation modes, and the utilization of pipes and tanks; and we discuss the potential to successfully apply optimization models on these problems. We formulate a mixed integer linear programming model for the scheduling of operation modes at Nynaes. The model concerns decisions about which mode of operation to use at a particular point in time in order to minimize costs of changing modes and costs of keeping inventories, given demands for products. We derive several types of valid inequalities for this mathematical problem and show how these inequalities can improve the lower bound obtained from the linear programming relaxation of the problem. We also show how the valid inequalities can be used to improve the performance of a branch and bound solution approach. Further, a tabu search heuristic is developed for the scheduling problem. The solution methods are tested on data provided by the Nynaes refinery, and the performance of the methods are discussed. We present several extensions of the proposed model, and illustrate how the model can be used to support both operational and strategic decision making at the refinery. 66 refs, 6 figs, 32 tabs. Also published as: Dissertation from the International Graduate School of Management and Industrial Engineering, No 25, Licenciate Thesis

  14. Occupational exposure to benzene at the ExxonMobil refinery in Baytown, TX (1978-2006).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, Shannon H; Panko, Julie M; Unice, Ken M; Burns, Amanda M; Kreider, Marisa L; Gelatt, Richard H; Booher, Lindsay E; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2011-01-01

    Although occupational benzene exposure of refinery workers has been studied for decades, no extensive analysis of historical industrial hygiene data has been performed focusing on airborne concentrations at specific refineries and tasks. This study characterizes benzene exposures at the ExxonMobil Baytown, TX, refinery from 1978 to 2006 to understand the variability in workers' exposures over time and during different job tasks. Exposures were grouped by operational status, job title, and tasks. More than 9000 industrial hygiene air samples were evaluated; approximately 4000 non-task (> 3 h) and 1000 task-related (work areas, and 16 task bins (when applicable). Process technicians were sampled most frequently, resulting in the following mean benzene concentrations by area: hydrofiner (n=245, mean=1.3 p.p.m.), oil movements (n=286, mean=0.23 p.p.m.), reformer (n=575, mean=0.10 p.p.m.), tank farm (n=9, mean=0.65 p.p.m.), waste treatment (n=446, mean=0.13 p.p.m.), and other areas (n=460, mean=0.062 p.p.m.). The most frequently sampled task was sample collection (n=218, mean=0.40 p.p.m.). Job title and area did not significantly impact task-related exposures. Airborne concentrations were significantly lower after 1990 than before 1990. Results of this task-focused study may be useful when analyzing benzene exposures at other refineries.

  15. 40 CFR 80.94 - Requirements for gasoline produced at foreign refineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... inspection or audit if a baseline petition has not been approved, and any work papers related to refinery... foreign refineries. 80.94 Section 80.94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... for gasoline produced at foreign refineries. (a) Definitions. (1) A foreign refinery is a refinery...

  16. The acid refinery wastes in environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samesova, D.; Ladomersky, J.; Hroncova, E.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of our paper is to assign ways and means of the pollution extension from the old landfills of the petrochemical sludges. In the past the sludges were deposited in sludge landfills. Nowadays remediation of the landfills is a key problem. We analyse condition of the refinery sludges latching. We found out the meaning influences of leachate time, temperature, concentration and liquid kind. (authors)

  17. Opportunities for Biorenewables in Oil Refineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marker, T.L.

    2005-12-19

    Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential for using biorenewable feedstocks in oil refineries. Economic analyses were conducted, with support from process modeling and proof of principle experiments, to assess a variety of potential processes and configurations. The study considered two primary alternatives: the production of biodiesel and green diesel from vegetable oils and greases and opportunities for utilization of pyrolysis oil. The study identified a number of promising opportunities for biorenewables in existing or new refining operations.

  18. Metal leaching from refinery waste hydroprocessing catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marafi, Meena; Rana, Mohan S

    2018-05-18

    The present study aims to develop an eco-friendly methodology for the recovery of nickel (Ni), molybdenum (Mo), and vanadium (V) from the refinery waste spent hydroprocessing catalyst. The proposed process has two stages: the first stage is to separate alumina, while the second stage involves the separation of metal compounds. The effectiveness of leaching agents, such as NH 4 OH, (NH 4 ) 2 CO 3 , and (NH 4 ) 2 S 2 O 8 , for the extraction of Mo, V, Ni, and Al from the refinery spent catalyst has been reported as a function of reagent concentration (0.5 to 2.0 molar), leaching time (1 to 6 h), and temperature (35 to 60°C). The optimal leaching conditions were achieved to obtain the maximum recovery of Mo, Ni, and V metals. The effect of the mixture of multi-ammonium salts on the metal extraction was also studied, which showed an adverse effect for Ni and V, while marginal improvement was observed for Mo leaching. The ammonium salts can form soluble metal complexes, in which stability or solubility depends on the nature of ammonium salt and the reaction conditions. The extracted metals and support can be reused to synthesize a fresh hydroprocessing catalyst. The process will reduce the refinery waste and recover the expensive metals. Therefore, the process is not only important from an environmental point of view but also vital from an economic perspective.

  19. First refinery opened in Kyrgyz Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The first oil refinery in the Kyrgyz Republic was opened on 5 October 1996 in Jalalabad in a ceremony attended by the President of the Central Asian country, Askar Akaev. The 10,000 barrels of oil per day (bopd) modular refinery has been financed by the Canadian oil junior, Kyrgoil Corporation, which has also formed a joint venture with the national oil company, Kyrgyzneft, to redevelop where viable the 628 underperforming oil wells in the Kyrgyz Republic sector of the Fergana Basin. The opening is the first significant milestone in a programme initiated by Akaev to develop the oil production industry in the Kyrgyz Republic. Currently the country imports more than 50,000 barrels of oil equivalent per day, mostly from Kazakhstan. In the year ending March 1996, 110 million was spent on imports of fuel products, an amount that exceeds the trade deficit over the same period. Built in only eight months, the Pound 12 million refinery will gradually be brought to full capacity. By January, it is expected that more than 5,000 barrels of gasoline, diesel and fuel oil will be produced every day. Although there is some crude oil in storage, the ramping of production is tied into the programme of workovers of the existing wells. There are no current plans to import crude, although most of the infrastructure is in place should it become necessary. (author)

  20. Ranking environmental liabilities at a petroleum refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupo, M.

    1995-01-01

    A new computer model is available to allow the management of a petroleum refinery to prioritize environmental action and construct a holistic approach to remediation. A large refinery may have numerous solid waste management units regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), as well as process units that emit hazardous chemicals into the environment. These sources can impact several environmental media, potentially including the air, the soil, the groundwater, the unsaturated zone water, and surface water. The number of chemicals of concern may be large. The new model is able to rank the sources by considering the impact of each chemical in each medium from each source in terms of concentration, release rate, and a weighted index based on toxicity. In addition to environmental impact, the sources can be ranked in three other ways: (1) by cost to remediate, (2) by environmental risk reduction caused by the remediation in terms of the decreases in release rate, concentration, and weighted index, and (3) by cost-benefit, which is the environmental risk reduction for each source divided by the cost of the remedy. Ranking each unit in the refinery allows management to use its limited environmental resources in a pro-active strategic manner that produces long-term results, rather than in reactive, narrowly focused, costly, regulatory-driven campaigns that produce only short-term results

  1. Amoco/Environmental Protection Agency Pollution Prevention Project, Yorktown refinery. Refinery release inventory. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klee, H.; Kizier, G.J.; Baloo, S.; Hockman, E.L.; Couzens-Roberts, C.

    1992-07-01

    The report volume summarizes physical data obtained during a 2-year pollution prevention study of Amoco Oil Company's Yorktown Virginia Refinery. The study was jointly sponsored as a cooperative effort of Amoco Corporation and the United States Environmental Protection Agency. A multi-media sampling program was used to identify potential pollution sources within the Refinery. Sampling and analysis included air, surface water, groundwater, and solid waste data. Public perceptions about environmental issues of concern in the vicinity of the Refinery were also surveyed. The inventory showed that nearly 99 percent of the releases were airborne at the facility. Most of the remainder involved land disposal of solid wastes. Specific sources of major pollutants are identified

  2. Evaluation of treatment efficiency of processes for petroleum refinery`s wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kee, Kean Chin [National Univ. of Singapore, Kent Ridge (Singapore). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1993-12-31

    Processes used in the treatment of a petroleum refinery wastewater included initial API oil separator to be followed by dissolved air flotation and extended aeration system. The use of extended aeration biological system proved to be an improvement but not a solution yet in such kind of treatment. 2 refs., 2 tabs.

  3. Evaluation of treatment efficiency of processes for petroleum refinery`s wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kee, Kean Chin [National Univ. of Singapore, Kent Ridge (Singapore). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1994-12-31

    Processes used in the treatment of a petroleum refinery wastewater included initial API oil separator to be followed by dissolved air flotation and extended aeration system. The use of extended aeration biological system proved to be an improvement but not a solution yet in such kind of treatment. 2 refs., 2 tabs.

  4. Poland petroleum refinery sludge lagoon demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altman, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    The US Department of Energy and the Institute for Ecology of Industrial Area have been working together to develop mutually beneficial, cost-effective environmental remediation technologies such as the demonstration of bioremediation techniques for the clean up of acidic petroleum sludge impacted soils at an oil refinery in southern Poland. After an expedited site characterization, treatability study, and a risk assessment study, a remediation strategy was devised. The waste material was composed primarily of high molecular weight paraffinic and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. A biopile design which employed a combination of passive and active aeration in conjunction with nutrient and surfactant application as used to increase the biodegradation of the contaminants of concern

  5. 40 CFR 80.1141 - Small refinery exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (a)(1) Gasoline produced at a refinery by a refiner, or foreign refiner (as defined at § 80.1165(a... effective beginning on January 1 of the following calendar year, at which point the gasoline produced at... from the calculation of its Renewable Volume Obligation (under § 80.1107(a)) gasoline from any refinery...

  6. environmental impact of illegal refineries on the vegetation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. O. M. Adesope

    impact of illegal oil refineries in the Niger Delta, Nigeria, the floristic composition of the fresh water swamp forest at refining sites in two river systems and a brackish ... ecosystem of Rivers State, five species of Mangroves and two species of ... Visual observation was made along the Rivers to identify illegal refinery stations.

  7. Petroleum Refinery Effluents Treatment by Advanced Oxidation Process with Methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoucheng, Wen [Yangtze Univ., HuBei Jingzhou (China)

    2014-02-15

    Petroleum refinery effluents are waste originating from industries primarily engaged in refining crude oil. It is a very complex compound of various oily wastes, water, heavy metals and so on. Conventional processes are unable to effectively remove the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of petroleum refinery effluents. Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) was proposed to treat petroleum refinery effluents. In this paper, methanol was used to investigate co-oxidative effect of methanol on petroleum refinery effluents treatment. The results indicated that supercritical water oxidation is an effective process for petroleum refinery effluents treatment. Adding methanol caused an increase in COD removal. When reaction temperature is 440 .deg. C, residence time is 20 min, OE is 0.5 and initial COD is 40000 mg/L, and COD removal increases 8.5%.

  8. Petroleum Refinery Effluents Treatment by Advanced Oxidation Process with Methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoucheng, Wen

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum refinery effluents are waste originating from industries primarily engaged in refining crude oil. It is a very complex compound of various oily wastes, water, heavy metals and so on. Conventional processes are unable to effectively remove the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of petroleum refinery effluents. Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) was proposed to treat petroleum refinery effluents. In this paper, methanol was used to investigate co-oxidative effect of methanol on petroleum refinery effluents treatment. The results indicated that supercritical water oxidation is an effective process for petroleum refinery effluents treatment. Adding methanol caused an increase in COD removal. When reaction temperature is 440 .deg. C, residence time is 20 min, OE is 0.5 and initial COD is 40000 mg/L, and COD removal increases 8.5%

  9. Reformulated gasoline: Costs and refinery impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadder, G.R.

    1994-02-01

    Studies of reformulated gasoline (RFG) costs and refinery impacts have been performed with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Refinery Yield Model (ORNL-RYM), a linear program which has been updated to blend gasolines to satisfy emissions constraints defined by preliminary complex emissions models. Policy makers may use the reformulation cost knee (the point at which costs start to rise sharply for incremental emissions control) to set emissions reduction targets, giving due consideration to the differences between model representations and actual refining operations. ORNL-RYM estimates that the reformulation cost knee for the US East Coast (PADD I) is about 15.2 cents per gallon with a 30 percent reduction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The estimated cost knee for the US Gulf Coast (PADD III) is about 5.5 cents per gallon with a VOC reduction of 35 percent. Reid vapor pressure (RVP) reduction is the dominant VOC reduction mechanism. Even with anti-dumping constraints, conventional gasoline appears to be an important sink which permits RFG to be blended with lower aromatics and sulfur contents in PADD III. In addition to the potentially large sensitivity of RFG production to different emissions models, RFG production is sensitive to the non-exhaust VOC share assumption for a particular VOC model. ORNL-RYM has also been used to estimate the sensitivity of RFG production to the cost of capital; to the RVP requirements for conventional gasoline; and to the percentage of RFG produced in a refining region

  10. Treatment of Tehran refinery wastewater using rotating biological contactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghazi, Masoud; Mirsajadi, Hassan; Ganjidoust, Hossien [Tarbeyat Modarres Univ., Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Environmental Engineering Dept.

    1993-12-31

    Tehran Refinery is a large plant which produces several petroleum products. The wastewaters are generated from several different refinery processes and units. Because of the wastewaters uniqueness they need to be treated in each specific plant. Currently, an activated sludge system is the main biological wastewater treatment process in Tehran refinery plant. A study was initiated in order to find a more suitable and reliable process which can produce a better treated effluent which might, in case the process be successful, be reused for irrigation lands. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Api Energia IGCC plant is fully integrated with refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Bravo, R. [api Energia, Rome (Italy); Trifilo, R. [ABB Sadelmi, Milan (Italy); Chiantore, P.V. [api anonima petroli Italiania Spa, Rome (Italy); Starace, F. [ABB Power Generation, Baden (Switzerland); O`Keefe, L.F. [Texico, White Plains (United States)

    1998-06-01

    The api Energia integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant being built at Falconara Marittima, on Italy`s Adriatic coast, is one of the three IGCC plants under construction in Italy following the liberalization of the electricity production sector. The plant will take 59.2 t/h of high sulphur heavy oil produced by the Falconara refinery, convert it to syngas and use the gas to generate 280 MW of electricity, plus steam and other gases for use in the refinery. The IGCC plant will be highly integrated into the refining process, with a large number of interchanges between the IGCC unit and the rest of the refinery. (author)

  12. Treatment of Tehran refinery wastewater using rotating biological contactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghazi, Masoud; Mirsajadi, Hassan; Ganjidoust, Hossien [Tarbeyat Modarres Univ., Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Environmental Engineering Dept.

    1994-12-31

    Tehran Refinery is a large plant which produces several petroleum products. The wastewaters are generated from several different refinery processes and units. Because of the wastewaters uniqueness they need to be treated in each specific plant. Currently, an activated sludge system is the main biological wastewater treatment process in Tehran refinery plant. A study was initiated in order to find a more suitable and reliable process which can produce a better treated effluent which might, in case the process be successful, be reused for irrigation lands. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  13. Refinery expansion and upgrading: Trends and needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sloan, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    Much of the world's reserves of heavy, high sulfur crude oil are located in the western hemisphere. One may look from north to south and find these types of crudes. in Canada, there are the vast deposits of tar sands and other heavy oils. In the United States we find heavy, high sulfur crude in California's San joaquin Valley, the Rockies' shale oil deposits and in other areas. Moving south, Mexico's Maya crude is well known to refiners, as are the heavy crudes of Venezuela's Orinoco Belt. On the other hand, many refineries outside the United States are limited in their ability to handle heavy, high sulfur crudes either because of metallurgy or processing configurations

  14. Energy saving in refineries and petrochemical complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verde, L

    1975-01-01

    Possible measures applicable in the design of refineries and petrochemical complexes, to effect energy savings were investigated. This was not limited to the single process unit problems, on the contrary the attention is mainly addressed to the identification of the interrelations between different units, emphasizing possible integrations. Particularly, the optimization of the pressure levels and number of the utility networks for steam distribution inside plant facilities, is considered, in order to maximize heat recovery in the process units, and electric power production in the central steampower generation plant. A computer program of general application, based on profitability evaluation at various fuel oil prices and different project configurations, has been developed for these purposes. The general measures applicable within certain limits are then briefly examined. The task of the process engineer is discussed in the perspective of the ''energy saving'' goal.

  15. Electrometallurgy of copper refinery anode slimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, J. D.

    1990-08-01

    High-selenium copper refinery anode slimes form two separate and dynamically evolving series of compounds with increasing electrolysis time. In one, silver is progressively added to non-stoichiometric copper selenides, both those originally present in the anode and those formed subsequently in the slime layer, and in the other, silver-poor copper selenides undergo a dis-continuous crystallographic sequence of anodic-oxidative transformations. The silver-to-selenium molar ratio in the as-cast anode and the current density of electrorefining can be used to construct predominance diagrams for both series and, thus, to predict the final bulk “mineralogy” of the slimes. Although totally incorrect in detail, these bulk data are sufficiently accurate to provide explanations for several processing problems which have been experienced by Kidd Creek Division, Falconbridge Ltd., in its commercial tankhouse. They form the basis for a computer model which predicts final cathode quality from chemical analyses of smelter feed.

  16. Integration : OPEC is now in 35 foreign refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terzian, P.

    1994-01-01

    Seven countries from OPEC own now share holdings in 35 foreign refineries. By this process of downstream reintegration, these countries hope to reach a better stability of crude oil prices. (Author). 3 tabs

  17. Influence of ownership capital structure of Refinery's operation and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadzhi-Mishev, Dimitar

    1999-01-01

    Refineries are part of the energetic infrastructure of one country. Their significance is dependent on the geographic country position (whether it has sea exit or not), and on structure of primary energy spends in the country. According these facts, country's attitude to the refineries on its territory could be different. The possibility of ownership structure transformation in refineries and necessary legislation in the energetic sector of the state, needed for transformation realization are analyzed in this paper. Essential conditions for transformation fulfilling are protection 'mechanisms for domestic production in crude oil economy, manners of crude oil products price defining, and manners of excise determination and payment. As a function of these conditions, the conditions under which transformation of ownership structure in refineries is possible, as well as their influence on the operation and development of this part of energetic structure in transition country are defined in this paper. (Original)

  18. Assessment of the effect of effluent discharge from coffee refineries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    2Department of Environmental Health, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia. ... cherries, transport them hydraulically through the pulping ..... Table 2. Interaction effects of effluent discharges by coffee refineries on physical characteristics between.

  19. Valve automation in Indian refinery; Armaturenautomatisierung in indischer Raffinerie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbstritt, M. [AUMA Riester GmbH und Co. KG, Muellheim (Germany)

    2006-12-15

    The Mahul refinery near Mumbai is the third largest site of its kind in India. It is operated by BPCL, Bharat Petroleum Corporation Ltd. During the last few months, the refinery was extended. A plant for manufacturing motor lubricants was built, together with a tank farm for the products (LOBS = lube oil base stock). In April 2006 the new plant sections were put into operation. This article deals with the valve automation for this project. (orig.)

  20. Taking inventory on VOC releases from Amoco's Yorktown refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klee, H.H. Jr.; Schmitt, R.E.; Harrass, M.C.; Podar, M.K.

    1996-01-01

    Amoco's Yorktown, Virginia, refinery is a 35-year-old, 53,000 bbl/day facility that manufacturers gasoline, heating oil, liquid petroleum gas, sulfur, and coke. In a cooperative and voluntary effort, Amoco Corporation and the US Environmental Protection Agency conducted a joint project to study pollution prevention opportunities at an operating industrial facility. Source reduction efforts--key to pollution prevention strategies--require knowledge of specific sources of releases. However, data on releases from individual process units are limited in favor of data to monitor existing end-of-pipe pollution control requirements. The study's sampling program sought to portray the distribution of releases within the refinery, their management within the refinery, and ultimate releases leaving the refinery. Subsequent tests of blowdown stack and fugitive emissions further improved total release estimates. The initial study estimated that the refinery generates about 25,000 metric tons (t)/year of potential pollutants. Of these, about half are released from the refinery as airborne, waterborne, or land-disposed releases. Airborne releases comprise the majority of releases by mass, about 12,000 t/year. Most of the airborne releases are volatile organic compound hydrocarbons. The inventory sampling project and subsequent work identified differences with Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) values and standard emission factors (AP-42). The inventory and other data provided an opportunity to consider options for, and limitations of, specific pollution prevention or source reduction strategies

  1. Assessment of Petroleum Leakage in Groundwater of the Abadan Refinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Reza Shadizadeh

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of petroleum leakage at oil refineries is vital for environmental study of water and soil pollution. Abadan Refinery is located between the Arvandrud and Bahmanshir rivers in the highly populated area of Abadan city. These rivers supply domestic, industrial, and agricultural water toAbadancity. During the war betweenIranandIraq, enormous volumes of oil and petroleum products leaked from storage tanks and pipelines at Abadan Refinery into the surrounding environment. The resulting pollution is a serious threat and a growing environmental concern for the region. In this work, twenty boreholes were dug to investigate petroleum leaks into the surrounding area both during and after the war. The thickness of petroleum floating on underground waters at the refinery was measured by sampling underground water over a period of one year along with measuring the piezometric heads of groundwater monitoring wells. Also, groundwater movement pattern at Abadan Refinery was determined by measuring the water table in each well over the same period. The results of sampling indicate that oil leaks were observed in just two wells; namely, wells No.3 and No.11. The results also show that the greatest portion of the oil spill in underground layers at Abadan Refinery was absorbed into clay soil.

  2. South Africa's refineries: waiting for Maduna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    A definitive energy policy from the new Energy Minister, Penuell Maduna, is awaited by the petroleum industry in South Africa. Some of the complexities of the South African oil market and past legacies which make the task of producing a policy difficult, are examined here. They include the allegations made initially in 1994 that oil refineries are illegally repatriating profits by paying too much for imported products. Accusations of this transfer pricing have resurfaced in the light of recent figures published by the South African Petroleum Industry Association (SAPIA) which show that the oil industry's profitability is not as high as some had presumed. However, compelling evidence for the allegations has not appeared and it is unlikely that the foreign investors in SAPIA would endanger their operations in this way. SAPIA members are key investors in the national infrastructure and make large tax contributions much needed by the treasury. In its turn, SAPIA is unhappy about the continuation of the payment of large taxpayer funded subsidies to the privatised Sasol, the South African synthetic fuel company, seeing as anti-competitive and having negative implications for the national economy. For its part Sasol argues its entitlement to the same tariff protection enjoyed by 80% of local manufacturing industries in South Africa. Some government action has been taken to reduce the subsidies though. The oil companies in SAPIA require clarity on future energy policy and deregulation before committing themselves to further heavy capital investment and Sasol also requires an end to the present uncertainties. (UK)

  3. Catalytic hydrotreatment of refinery waste: Demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The object of this project and report is to produce liquid hydrocarbons by the catalytic hydroprocessing of solid refinery wastes (hard pitches) in order to improve the profitability of deep conversion processes and reduce the excess production of heavy fuels. The project was mostly carried out on the ASVAHL demonstration platform site, at Solaize, and hard pitches were produced primarily by deasphalting of atmospheric or vacuum distillation residues. The project includes two experimental phases and an economic evaluation study phase. In Phase 1, two granular catalysts were used to transform pitch into standard low sulfur fuel oil: a continuously moving bed, with demetallation and conversion catalyst; a fixed bed, with hydrorefining catalyst. In Phase 2 of the project, it was proven that a hydrotreatment process using a finely dispersed catalyst in the feedstock, can, under realistic operating conditions, transform with good yields hard pitch into distillates that can be refined through standard methods. In Phase 3 of the project, it was shown that the economics of such processes are tightly linked to the price differential between white'' and black'' oil products, which is expected to increase in the future. Furthermore, the evolution of environmental constraints will impel the use of such methods, thus avoiding the coproduction of polluting solid residues. 11 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Planning and scheduling for petroleum refineries using mathematical programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joly M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is the development and solution of nonlinear and mixed-integer (MIP optimization models for real-world planning and scheduling problems in petroleum refineries. Firstly, we present a nonlinear planning model that represents a general refinery topology and allows implementation of nonlinear process models as well as blending relations. The optimization model is able to define new operating points, thus increasing the production of the more valuable products and simultaneously satisfying all specification constraints. The second part addresses scheduling problems in oil refineries, which are formulated as MIP optimization models and rely on both continuous and discrete time representations. Three practical applications closely related to the current refinery scenario are presented. The first one addresses the problem of crude oil inventory management of a refinery that receives several types of crude oil delivered exclusively by a single oil pipeline. Subsequently, two optimization models intended to define the optimal production policy, inventory control and distribution are proposed and solved for the fuel oil and asphalt plant. Finally, the planning model of Moro et al. (1998 is extended in order to sequence decisions at the scheduling level in the liquefied petroleum gas (LPG area for maximization of the production of petrochemical-grade propane and product delivery.

  5. Transformation of the Czech refinery and petrochemical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junek, V.

    1995-01-01

    The petrochemical and chemical industries in former Czechoslovakia in the period after World War II was built up with a purpose to create a complex whose individual subjects would be closely interlinked from the point of view of their production programmes. The separation of Slovakia as an independent state has disrupted some of these links. In spite of that the petrochemical and chemical industries are nowadays the most prosperous branches of economy of the Czech Republic. The governmental proposal for the reorganizing of the refinery and petrochemical complex elaborated in connection with the resolution of the Governmental Privatization Commission of November 6 1994 proposed the formation of a holding company Unipetrol in the way of merging Chemopetrol and Kaucuk with a new joint stock company Unipetrol established for this purpose by the National Property Fund. The updated proposal offers formation of the holding organization Unipetrol in a substantially simpler, from the point of view of time, organization and financing less demanding manner. This proposal is based on the following principles: respecting the approved privatization projects, the solution must not have influence on the rights and position of natural and juristic persons who became shareholders in accordance with the privatization projects already approved, the influence of the state on decisions of the holding and its daughter companies will be maintained with regard to the security of the state and supplying the strategically important subjects with fuels in situation of a crisis, the share of the business subjects in the shares of the holding will be such that it would enable them from the very beginning to participate effectively and not only formally in the decisions. 2 figs

  6. Enterprise Integration of Management and Automation in a Refinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengen

    Traditionally, problems in a petroleum refinery were separately modeled and solved with respect to disciplines. The segregated implementations of various disciplinary technologies resulted in considerable barriers impeding the pursuit of global optimal performance. It is recognized that enterprise-wide integration of the managerial and automation systems is of fundamental significance for refineries to promptly respond to global market requirements. In this paper, the technical implementations are disciplinarily categorized into managerial and automatic systems. Then, typical managerial and automatic implementations in a refinery are depicted to give an insight perception of the heterogeneous data sources manipulated by these systems. Finally, an integration approach based on data reconciliation techniques is proposed to link up the heterogeneous data sources.

  7. Operational planning of refineries; Planejamento operacional de refinarias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinay, Maria Cristina Fogliatti de [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Bueno, Catia [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The activities integration that compose the petroleum logistic chain makes more complex its planning which is normally done in a joined level, using operation research models in order to find optimized solutions. When this integrated planning is repassed to the companies and its constitutes parts (mainly refinery) uncertainness are generated about the solution that will be adopted in case of new restrictions appear. Then, the purpose of this work is propose a procedure that is capable to adequate and specifies optimized solutions presented by corporative model to refinery operations, using 'What-if' and deterministic simulation technique with optimization. To achieve this objective will be analysed typical activities in refineries and basic principles to their operational planning. (author)

  8. Fitting partially upgraded oils into pipelines and refinery markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flaherty, G.

    2000-01-01

    The logistics of transporting partially upgraded crudes in feeder and trunk pipeline systems is discussed. Logistic alternatives are evaluated against economic drivers for partial upgrading, and the impact of crude transportation logistics on the quality of crude that reaches refinery gates is assessed. The potential advantages of partial upgrading in the field are reviewed (including reduction of diluent required to meet pipeline density and viscosity specifications, cost and availability of diluent, limitations in diluent transportation infrastructure, increased chemical stability, increased attractiveness to refineries, shortage of refinery coking capacity, higher market value). The pros and cons of various upgrading processes, and the implications of each for producers and refiners are explained. The advantages of moving to large common streams, as opposed to the concept of 'boutique' crudes, are stressed as the surest way for producers to realize the maximum value of partially upgraded crudes

  9. Ashland outlines $261 million in refinery unit construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Ashland Petroleum Co. has spelled out $261 million in projects completed, under way, or planned to produce cleaner fuel and further reduce emissions at two U.S. refineries. The company: Started up at $13 million pollution control system at its 213,400 b/cd Catlettsburg, Ky., plant. Started construction on six projects at its 67,100 b/cd St. Paul Park, Minn., refinery that will cost about $114 million and enable the plant to produce cleaner burning diesel fuel and further reduce emissions

  10. 40 CFR 80.1238 - How is a refinery's or importer's average benzene concentration determined?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... concentration determined? (a) The average benzene concentration of gasoline produced at a refinery or imported... percent benzene). i = Individual batch of gasoline produced at the refinery or imported during the applicable averaging period. n = Total number of batches of gasoline produced at the refinery or imported...

  11. 40 CFR 80.596 - How is a refinery motor vehicle diesel fuel volume baseline calculated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How is a refinery motor vehicle diesel... Requirements § 80.596 How is a refinery motor vehicle diesel fuel volume baseline calculated? (a) For purposes of this subpart, a refinery's motor vehicle diesel fuel volume baseline is calculated using the...

  12. 77 FR 56421 - Standards of Performance for Petroleum Refineries; Standards of Performance for Petroleum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... Parts 9 and 60 Standards of Performance for Petroleum Refineries; Standards of Performance for Petroleum...-9672-3] RIN 2060-AN72 Standards of Performance for Petroleum Refineries; Standards of Performance for Petroleum Refineries for Which Construction, Reconstruction, or Modification Commenced After May 14, 2007...

  13. HERA an HTR for use in a refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaubernard, P.

    1977-01-01

    It is shown that it was technically possible to use a High Temperature Reactor to provide a large part of the energy (process heat, steam, electricity) consumed in a refinery. Nevertheless, economic calculations have lead to a prime cost of spared crude oil twice the existing price

  14. Study theorizes use of geothermal sources for energy in refineries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golombok, M.; Beintema, K.

    2008-01-01

    Geothermal sources for direct heating can theoretically serve as an alternative source of high-temperature heat in processing plants. Cutting CO2 emissions from a refinery requires reducing the amount of fuel burned. Heat obtained from geothermal energy is more efficiently used for directly powering

  15. A strategic review of the petroleum refinery industry sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-10-01

    The report studies the environmental performance of the U.K. petroleum refinery industry sector with reference to world-wide best practice and describes the five most practical strategic options for emission reduction in the context of projected technology, cost, demand, capacity and legislation. (author)

  16. Treatment and disposal of refinery sludges: Indian scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, J K; Shekdar, A V

    2003-06-01

    Crude oil is a major source of energy and feedstock for petrochemicals. Oily sludge, bio-sludge and chemical sludge are the major sludges generated from the processes and effluent treatment plants of the refineries engaged in crude oil refining operations. Refineries in India generate about 28,220 tons of sludge per annum. Various types of pollutants like phenols, heavy metals, etc. are present in the sludges and they are treated as hazardous waste. Oily sludge, which is generated in much higher amount compared to other sludges, contains phenol (90-100 mg/kg), nickel (17-25 mg/kg), chromium (27-80 mg/kg), zinc (7-80 mg/kg), manganese (19-24 mg/kg), cadmium (0.8-2 mg/kg), copper (32-120 mg/kg) and lead (0.001-0.12 mg/ kg). Uncontrolled disposal practices of sludges in India cause degradation of environmental and depreciation of aesthetic quality. Environmental impact due to improper sludge management has also been identified. Salient features of various treatment and disposal practices have been discussed. Findings of a case study undertaken by the authors for Numaligarh Refinery in India have been presented. Various system alternatives have been identified for waste management in Numaligarh Refinery. A ranking exercise has been carried out to evaluate the alternatives and select the appropriate one. A detailed design of the selected waste management system has been presented.

  17. Assessment of the effect of effluent discharge from coffee refineries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ecohydrological quality of water resource of Ethiopia is declining at an alarming rate, resulting in severe environmental degradation. This study finds out the effects of effluent discharge from intensive coffee refineries on river water quality based on physicochemical parameters and benthos assemblages as biological ...

  18. Environmental impact of illegal refineries on the vegetation of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... aesthetic scenery of the forest, regeneration of plant species and destruction of wildlife habitat, disruption of water cycle and loss of medicinal plant species. Youth empowerment, through vocational training and environmental education can ameliorate the situation. Keywords: Environmental degradation, Illegal Refineries, ...

  19. Energy efficiency improvement and cost saving opportunities forpetroleum refineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

    2005-02-15

    The petroleum refining industry in the United States is the largest in the world, providing inputs to virtually any economic sector,including the transport sector and the chemical industry. The industry operates 146 refineries (as of January 2004) around the country,employing over 65,000 employees. The refining industry produces a mix of products with a total value exceeding $151 billion. Refineries spend typically 50 percent of cash operating costs (i.e., excluding capital costs and depreciation) on energy, making energy a major cost factor and also an important opportunity for cost reduction. Energy use is also a major source of emissions in the refinery industry making energy efficiency improvement an attractive opportunity to reduce emissions and operating costs. Voluntary government programs aim to assist industry to improve competitiveness through increased energy efficiency and reduced environmental impact. ENERGY STAR (R), a voluntary program managed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, stresses the need for strong and strategic corporate energy management programs. ENERGY STAR provides energy management tools and strategies for successful corporate energy management programs. This Energy Guide describes research conducted to support ENERGY STAR and its work with the petroleum refining industry.This research provides information on potential energy efficiency opportunities for petroleum refineries. This Energy Guide introduces energy efficiency opportunities available for petroleum refineries. It begins with descriptions of the trends, structure, and production of the refining industry and the energy used in the refining and conversion processes. Specific energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies of plants and references to technical literature are provided. If available, typical payback periods are also listed. The Energy Guide draws upon the experiences with energy efficiency measures of petroleum refineries worldwide

  20. Market survey on products from the Tema Oil Refinery carried out as part of the feasibility study on the Tema Oil Refinery expansion project. Export trade information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-10-01

    The Tema Oil Refinery (TOR), which was commissioned in 1963, is a simple hydroskimming plant which processes crude oil into LPG, gasoline, kerosene, gasoil, and fuel oil. It is the only petroleum refinery in Ghana. Over the years some of the equipment in the refinery has deteriorated or become obsolete necessitating major rehabilitation. A feasibility study is investigating the modernization and expansion of the refinery to meet projected market demands until the year 2005. The report presents the results of a market survey done on products from TOR

  1. Oil refinery dusts: morphological and size analysis by TEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sielicki, Przemysław; Janik, Helena; Guzman, Agnieszka; Broniszewski, Mieczysław; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2011-03-01

    The objectives of this work were to develop a means of sampling atmospheric dusts on the premises of an oil refinery for electron microscopic study to carry out preliminary morphological analyses and to compare these dusts with those collected at sites beyond the refinery limits. Carbon and collodion membranes were used as a support for collection of dust particles straight on transmission electron microscopy (TEM) grids. Micrographs of the dust particles were taken at magnifications from ×4,000 to ×80,000 with a Tesla BS500 transmission electron microscope. Four parameters were defined on the basis of the micrographs: surface area, Feret diameter, circumference, and shape coefficient. The micrographs and literature data were used to classify the atmospheric dusts into six groups: particles with an irregular shape and rounded edges; particles with an irregular shape and sharp edges; soot and its aggregates; spherical particles; singly occurring, ultrafine dust particles; and particles not allocated to any of the previous five groups. The types of dusts found in all the samples were similar, although differences did exist between the various morphological parameters. Dust particles with the largest Feret diameter were present in sample 3 (mean, 0.739 μm)-these were collected near the refinery's effluent treatment plant. The particles with the smallest diameter were found in the sample that had been intended to be a reference sample for the remaining results (mean, 0.326 μm). The dust particles collected in the refinery had larger mean Feret diameters, even 100% larger, than those collected beyond it. Particles with diameters from 0.1 to 0.2 μm made up the most numerous group in all the samples collected in the refinery.

  2. Oil refinery dusts: morphological and size analysis by TEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sielicki, Przemyslaw; Janik, Helena; Guzman, Agnieszka [Gdansk University of Technology, Department of Polymer Technology, Chemical Faculty, Gdansk (Poland); Broniszewski, Mieczyslaw [Environmental Protection Office, Lotos Group, Gdansk (Poland); Namiesnik, Jacek [Gdansk University of Technology, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Chemical Faculty, Gdansk (Poland)

    2011-03-15

    The objectives of this work were to develop a means of sampling atmospheric dusts on the premises of an oil refinery for electron microscopic study to carry out preliminary morphological analyses and to compare these dusts with those collected at sites beyond the refinery limits. Carbon and collodion membranes were used as a support for collection of dust particles straight on transmission electron microscopy (TEM) grids. Micrographs of the dust particles were taken at magnifications from x 4,000 to x 80,000 with a Tesla BS500 transmission electron microscope. Four parameters were defined on the basis of the micrographs: surface area, Feret diameter, circumference, and shape coefficient. The micrographs and literature data were used to classify the atmospheric dusts into six groups: particles with an irregular shape and rounded edges; particles with an irregular shape and sharp edges; soot and its aggregates; spherical particles; singly occurring, ultrafine dust particles; and particles not allocated to any of the previous five groups. The types of dusts found in all the samples were similar, although differences did exist between the various morphological parameters. Dust particles with the largest Feret diameter were present in sample 3 (mean, 0.739 {mu}m) - these were collected near the refinery's effluent treatment plant. The particles with the smallest diameter were found in the sample that had been intended to be a reference sample for the remaining results (mean, 0.326 {mu}m). The dust particles collected in the refinery had larger mean Feret diameters, even 100% larger, than those collected beyond it. Particles with diameters from 0.1 to 0.2 {mu}m made up the most numerous group in all the samples collected in the refinery. (orig.)

  3. Oil refining in a CO2 constrained world: Effects of carbon pricing on refineries globally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul-Manan, Amir F.N.; Arfaj, Abdullah; Babiker, Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Six aggregated refinery linear programming (LP) models were developed to represent actual refineries in North America, Latin America, Europe (including the CIS), Middle East, Asia (excluding China) and China. The models were used to conduct regional comparative assessments and to evaluate the effects of carbon pricing on refinery operations globally. We found that the average refinery energy efficiencies for the regions were estimated to range from 92.2% to 95.2%. The well-to-refinery gate carbon intensities for gasoline, diesel and jet fuels were estimated to be 17.1 (16.4–19.4), 13.3 (12.5–14.2) and 10.1 (9.6–10.8) gCO2eq/MJ, respectively. If refineries are forced to at least meet the 2014 regional volume demands for oil products, pricing CO 2 would not have an impact on either refinery productions, efficiency or emissions. If refineries are allowed to re-optimize production slates to reduce CO 2 emissions, refineries would opt to increase gasoline yield at the expense of diesel. This is counter intuitive since gasoline has a higher carbon intensity than diesel. The refinery bias against dieselization creates a supply preference toward a less efficient transportation end use. Here, we argue that if carbon pricing is not administered properly, this can lead to emissions leakage from refineries to the road transport sector. - Highlights: • Investigate actual refinery productions in 6 regions globally. • Refineries already operate at the most efficient levels. • Complex refineries tolerate higher CO 2 prices better. • Carbon pricing induces bias against dieselization. • Identify potential emissions leakage.

  4. Bio-refinery approach for spent coffee grounds valorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Teresa M; Martins, António A; Caetano, Nídia S

    2018-01-01

    Although normally seen as a problem, current policies and strategic plans concur that if adequately managed, waste can be a source of the most interesting and valuable products, among which metals, oils and fats, lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses, tannins, antioxidants, caffeine, polyphenols, pigments, flavonoids, through recycling, compound recovery or energy valorization, following the waste hierarchy. Besides contributing to more sustainable and circular economies, those products also have high commercial value when compared to the ones obtained by currently used waste treatment methods. In this paper, it is shown how the bio-refinery framework can be used to obtain high value products from organic waste. With spent coffee grounds as a case study, a sequential process is used to obtain first the most valuable, and then other products, allowing proper valorization of residues and increased sustainability of the whole process. Challenges facing full development and implementation of waste based bio-refineries are highlighted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Pemex to acquire interest in Shell Texas refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Petroleos Mexicanos and Shell Oil Co. have signed a memorandum of understanding to form a joint refining venture involving Shell's 225,000 b/d Deer Park, Tex., refinery. Under the agreement, Mexico's state owned oil company is to purchase a 50% interest in the refinery, and Shell is to sell Pemex unleaded gasoline on a long term basis. Under the venture, Shell and Pemex plan to add undisclosed conversion and upgrading units tailored to process heavy Mexican crude. The revamp will allow Pemex to place more than 100,000 b/d of Mayan heavy crude on the U.S. market. Mayan accounts for 70% of Mexico's crude oil exports. In turn, Shell will sell Pemex as much as 45,000 b/d of unleaded gasoline to help meet Mexico's rapidly growing demand

  6. Refinery production planning and scheduling: the refining core business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Joly

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent production planning and scheduling are of paramount importance to ensure refinery profitability, logistic reliability and safety at the local and corporate levels. In Brazil, such activities play a particularly critical role, since the Brazilian downstream model is moving towards a demand-driven model rather than a supply-driven one. Moreover, new and specialized non-linear constraints are continuously being incorporated into these large-scale problems: increases in oil prices implying the need for processing poor quality crudes, increasing demand and new demand patterns for petroleum products, new stringent environmental regulations related to clean fuels and start-up of new production technologies embedded into more complex refining schemes. This paper aims at clarifying the central role of refinery planning and scheduling activities in the Petrobras refining business. Major past and present results are outlined and corporate long-term strategies to deal with present and future challenges are presented.

  7. Application of PIMS Software in Monthly Planning of Refinery Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the application of the PIMS software in formulating monthly refining production plan. Application of the PIMS software can help to solve a series of problems related with monthly plan of refining production such as optimized selection of crude and feedstocks, optimized selection of production scale and processing scheme, identification of bottlenecks and their mitigation,optimized selection of turnaround time and optimized selection of operating regime, which have increased the economic benefits of refining enterprises. With the further development and improvement of models the PIMS software will play an increasingly important role in formulating monthly plans of refining operations and production management at refineries. This article also explores the problems existing in refinery monthly planning, and has made recommendations on developing and improving models and reporting system, enhancement of basic data acquisition, model maintenance personnel and staff training.

  8. Radioisotope techniques for problem-solving on refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, J.S.; Webb, M.

    1994-01-01

    Increasingly, refineries worldwide are recognizing the value of radioisotope technology in studying the operation of on-line plant. Using case studies, this paper illustrates the versatility of radioisotope techniques in a wide range of investigations: the density-profiling of distillation columns; the investigation of leaks on feed/effluent exchangers; on-line flowrate measurement; underground leakage detection. The economic benefits deriving from radioisotope applications are indicated

  9. Legitimacy in Green: Pollution vs. Profit in Canadian Oil Refineries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Magness

    2007-06-01

    light of changing societal expectations have created an external environment that encourages the development of new technologies that promote cost efficiencies and good environmental performance simultaneously.  Russo and Fouts (1997 argued that industries subject to rapid technological advance are well suited to respond to these changes in the external environment. The findings of this paper suggest that the petroleum refinery sector of the oil and gas industry may be meeting the challenge of the environmental movement.

  10. SPARO - A system for process analysis of refinery operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesler, M.G.; Graham, J.; Weissbrod, J.

    1987-01-01

    SPARO is a customized process simulator for the PC, designed to review as well as to guide operations of hydrocarbon processing units. It can be applied to: gas plants or refinery gas recovery units; crude/vacuum towers with associated heat exchange; light ends units, such as reforming, alkylation and isomerization; fractionation and heat exchange units of Ethylene plants; aromatics and styrene units, and others. The main uses of SPARO are discussed in this paper.

  11. POSSIBILITIES OF CARBON DIOXIDE FIXATION BY MICROALGAE IN REFINERY

    OpenAIRE

    Šingliar, Michal; Mikulec, Jozef; Kušnir, Patrik; Polakovičova, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    Capture and sequestration of carbon dioxide is one of the most critical challenges today for businesses and governments worldwide. Thousands of emitting power plants and industries worldwide face this costly challenge – reduce the CO2 emissions or pay penalties. One possibility for carbon dioxide sequestration is its fixation in microalgae. Microalgae can sequester CO2 from flue gases emitted from fossil fuel-fired refinery plants and units, thereby reducing emissions of a major greenhouse ga...

  12. A Novel Transporting System Model for Oil Refinery

    OpenAIRE

    Razman M. Tahar; Waleed K. Abduljabbar

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Oil refineries are widely used to store various liquids and gases. Petroleum products are in high demand. Oil companies have abundant resources of petroleum products in pipelines and storage tanks. Approach: Included are storage tanks at retail gasoline station, home heating oil tanks, lubricant storage at automotive service facilities, propane tanks in all sorts of application, and oil company terminals across the world. The aim of this study is to present a model by which...

  13. Hydrogen management in the MiRO refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, G. [Mineraloelraffinerie Oberrhein GmbH und Co. KG, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2010-12-30

    The importance of hydrogen in refineries has increased over the last 20 years as new regulations affecting gasoline and diesel composition have been implemented throughout Europe and in an environment of increasingly stringent clean fuel regulations, decreasing heavy fuel oil demand and increasing heavy more sour crude supply. In Germany, the introduction of sulphur free gasoline and diesel with less than 10ppm sulphur(Auto Oil Program) and light home fuel oil with less than 50ppm this year were the last link in a long chain of environmental regulations, which had a considerable effect on the hydrogen demand in refineries. In the complex MiRO-refinery with a large FCC- and Coker-Unit for atmospheric residue conversion and a total throughput of more than 15 Mio.T/ a and more than 14 Mio.T/a crude oils of different origin from high sulphur, bituminous crudes to medium, low sulphur crudes for calcinate-production from green coke the only source of hydrogen for a long time was catalytic reforming. The only chance of balancing the hydrogen production and consumption was to improve the existing catalytic reforming and the optimisation of hydrogen recovery from waste or purge streams and the hydrogen network of the refinery. In 2007 a new hydrogen plant via steam reforming of natural gas went on stream. The main reason for this step was the shrinking market for gasoline in the last ten years and the blending of bio-ethanol into the gasoline pool, which released reforming capacities and the demand for octane. Another important issue is the production planning taking into account the potentials of hydrogen production via catalytic and steam reforming and the hydrogen consumption via desulphurisation and the saturation of olefins and (poly-)aromatics of the main product streams, gasoline, diesel and light home fuel oil. (orig.)

  14. Global Warming Potential Of A Waste Refinery Using Enzymatic Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Astrup, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    and fossil resources. This is especially important with respect to the residual waste (i.e. the remains after source-separation and separate collection) which is typically incinerated or landfilled. In this paper the energy and Global Warming performance of a pilot-scale waste refinery for the enzymatic...... plants and utilization of the liquid fraction for biogas production turned out to be the best options with respect to energy and Global Warming performance....

  15. US refineries lament lack of final CAA rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Bush administration spokesman appeared unconvinced about the extent of the U.S. refining industry's problems at a Senate energy committee hearing. This paper reports that the oversight hearing examined various challenges facing refiners. Roger Beach, president of Unocal Refining and Marketing Division, testified for the National Petroleum Refiners Association, of which he is chairman. Beach the refineries still do not know what final Clean Air Act (CAA) amendments regulations will be, and state rules are changing, too

  16. Advanced purification of petroleum refinery wastewater by catalytic vacuum distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Long; Ma, Hongzhu; Wang, Bo; Mao, Wei; Chen, Yashao

    2010-06-15

    In our work, a new process, catalytic vacuum distillation (CVD) was utilized for purification of petroleum refinery wastewater that was characteristic of high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and salinity. Moreover, various common promoters, like FeCl(3), kaolin, H(2)SO(4) and NaOH were investigated to improve the purification efficiency of CVD. Here, the purification efficiency was estimated by COD testing, electrolytic conductivity, UV-vis spectrum, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and pH value. The results showed that NaOH promoted CVD displayed higher efficiency in purification of refinery wastewater than other systems, where the pellucid effluents with low salinity and high COD removal efficiency (99%) were obtained after treatment, and the corresponding pH values of effluents varied from 7 to 9. Furthermore, environment estimation was also tested and the results showed that the effluent had no influence on plant growth. Thus, based on satisfied removal efficiency of COD and salinity achieved simultaneously, NaOH promoted CVD process is an effective approach to purify petroleum refinery wastewater. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Economics and the refinery's CO2 emissions allocation problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierru, A.

    2007-01-01

    The establishment of a market for CO 2 emission rights in Europe leads oil-refining companies to add a cost associated with carbon emissions to the objective function of linear programming models used to manage refineries. These models may be used to compute the marginal contribution of each finished product to the CO 2 emissions of the refinery. Babusiaux (Oil. Gas Sci. Technol., 58, 2003, 685-692) has shown that, under some conditions, this marginal contribution is a relevant means of allocating the carbon emissions of the refinery. Thus, it can be used in a well-to-wheel Life Cycle Assessment. In fact, this result holds if the demand equations are the only binding constraints with a non-zero right-hand side coefficient. This is not the case for short-run models with fixed capacity. Then, allocating CO 2 emissions on a marginal basis tends to over-value (or undervalue) the total volume of emissions. In order to extend the existing methodology, we discuss two distinct solutions to this problem, inspired by economic theory: adapting either the Aumann-Shapley cost sharing method (Values of non-atomic games, 1974, Princeton University Press) or the Ramsey pricing formula (Econ. J., 37, 1927, 47-61; J. Econ. Theory, 3, 1971, 219-240). We compare these two solutions, with a strong argument in favour of Ramsey prices, based on the determination of the optimal environmental tax rate to which imported finished products should be subject. (author)

  18. Analysis and control of odors from petroleum refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, M.A.; Duffee, R.A.; Ostojic, N.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a proven approach used to effectively solve odor problems associated with atmospheric emissions from petroleum refineries. A systematic evaluation is first conducted to identify all emissions with the potential for off-site odor impacts. Sampling is then conducted and dynamic dilution olfactometry is used to quantify the odor emission rates of each source. Community odor surveys are performed simultaneously with the source sampling to quantitatively document the downwind odor impacts. Atmospheric dispersion modeling specifically designed for odor is then used to predict instantaneous odor occurrences at various receptor sites under meteorological conditions not actually encountered during the field study. The findings make it possible to rank sources by their odor emission rates and potential for odor impacts in the community. It is then possible to determine how much odor reduction is required to bring the present odor impacts of the individual sources to an acceptable level under worst-case meteorological conditions. Once the degree of control required is determined, control alternatives are selected and evaluated. Case histories have been selected to illustrate the application of this approach at petroleum refineries. They provide descriptions of odor assessment and abatement studies conducted specifically for refinery effluent treatment plant sources as well as process unit emission sources. The sources identified as needing control and the odor abatement measures taken are discussed

  19. Continues treatment of oily sludge at Colombian refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echeverria, Victor; Monsalve, Gladys; Vidales, Humberto

    2002-01-01

    The Colombian Petroleum institute - ICP, the research and development branch of Ecopetrol has developed a unique technological package used to treat oily sludge in a continuous way. The sludge comes from a refinery with 220000 barrels of crude per day load, located in the Middle Madgalena River Valley in Colombia. The technological package allows for a) the recovery of the hydrocarbon contained in oily wastes (up to 50%) b) the elimination of the oil contained in solid using a biodegradation process and, c) the availability economically and technically feasible solution to handle oily sludge generated in the refinery. The oily treated in this process come from maintenance of refinery's equipment and also from the physical chemical separation process at the industrial wastewater treatment plant. Oily sludge is a complex system where light and heavy oils, contaminated water and contaminated solids coexist in the form of direct, inverse and multiple emulsions. The comprehensive technological package allows the treatment of oily sludge in a cost effective way. ICP technological package developed includes technologies combining mechanical, thermal, chemical and electrostatic dehydration techniques and stimulated and intensive bioremediation to decontamination of solids saturated with residual oil. This technological package brings a solution to old environmental problem caused by the inappropriate final disposal of oily wastes such as storage in ponds, marshes and open pits: Nowadays wastes generated are treated in a continuous process that is environmentally friendly and economically profitable

  20. University of Maine Integrated Forest Product Refinery (IFPR) Technology Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pendse, Hemant P.

    2010-11-23

    This project supported research on science and technology that forms a basis for integrated forest product refinery for co-production of chemicals, fuels and materials using existing forest products industry infrastructure. Clear systems view of an Integrated Forest Product Refinery (IFPR) allowed development of a compelling business case for a small scale technology demonstration in Old Town ME for co-production of biofuels using cellulosic sugars along with pulp for the new owners of the facility resulting in an active project on Integrated Bio-Refinery (IBR) at the Old Town Fuel & Fiber. Work on production of advanced materials from woody biomass has led to active projects in bioplastics and carbon nanofibers. A lease for 40,000 sq. ft. high-bay space has been obtained to establish a Technology Research Center for IFPR technology validation on industrially relevant scale. UMaine forest bioproducts research initiative that began in April 2006 has led to establishment of a formal research institute beginning in March 2010.

  1. Treatment of Refinery Waste Water Using Environmental Friendly Adsorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, M. Geetha; Al-Moshrafi, Samira Mohammed Khamis; Al Hudaifi, Alaa; Al Aisari, Buthaina Hamood

    2017-12-01

    This research evaluates the effectiveness of activated carbon prepared from walnut shell in the removal of pollutants from refinery waste water by adsorption technique. A series of batch experiments were carried out by varying the effluent solution pH, stirring time, stirring speed and adsorbent dosage in the reduction of pollutants from refinery effluent. Characterization of the adsorbent was performed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Brunauer Emmett and Teller (BET) isotherm and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy. The best quality activated carbon was obtained with a particle size of 0.75 µm, activation temperature of 800 °C and activation time 24 h. The maximum BET surface area obtained was 165.2653 m2/g. The experimental results demonstrates that the highest percentage reduction in COD was 79%, using 0.6 g walnut shell powder at an optimum stirring speed of 100 rpm, at pH 6 and 120 min of contact time. The outcome of the result shows that walnut shell carbon is a potentially useful adsorbent for the removal of pollutants from refinery waste water.

  2. Assessment of accidental refinery wastewater discharge: a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandyopadhyay, Amitava [University of Calcutta, Department of Chemical Engineering, Kolkata (India)

    2011-04-15

    The physicochemical qualities of an accidental discharge of refinery liquid waste, water, and soil sediment of that effluent-receiving water body (canal) were investigated. Analyses of the discharge, qualities of water, and sediment of the canal showed high parametric concentrations. Investigations revealed that the discharge took place form the spent caustic that was generated from the caustic wash tower of Fluidized Catalytic Cracker of the refinery. A simple but realistic model was suggested for the remediation of sediments of the canal with an estimated cost of about US $1.86 million. Recommendations were made to prevent such discharges and to revise thoroughly the Indian effluent discharge standards in force for petroleum oil refinery. Subsequently, revised standards were notified under Indian guidelines. Interestingly, cyanide besides many other parameters was introduced into these standards. Furthermore, Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) was also stipulated as an emission parameter from the waste water treatment plants. Concentration- and mass-based standards thus promulgated were stricter than the existing standards. (orig.)

  3. An estimation of cogeneration potential by using refinery residuals in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin-Sanchez, J.E.; Rodriguez-Toral, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Electric power generation in Mexico is mainly based on fossil fuels, specifically heavy fuel oil, although the use of natural gas combined cycles (NGCC) is becoming increasingly important. This is the main destination that has promoted growing imports of natural gas, currently accounting for about 20% of the total national annual consumption. Available crude oil is becoming heavier; thus refineries should be able to process it, and to handle greater quantities of refinery residuals. If all refinery residuals are used in cogeneration plants serving petroleum refineries, the high heat/power ratio of refinery needs, leads to the availability of appreciable quantities of electricity that can be exported to the public utility. Thus, in a global perspective, Mexican imports of natural gas may be reduced by cogeneration using refinery residuals. This is not the authors' idea; in fact, PEMEX, the national oil company, has been entitled by the Mexican congress to sell its power leftovers to The Federal Electricity Commission (CFE) in order to use cogeneration in the way described for the years to come. A systematic way of determining the cogeneration potential by using refinery residuals from Mexican refineries is presented here, taking into account residual quantities and composition, from a national perspective, considering expected scenarios for Maya crude content going to local refineries in the years to come. Among different available technologies for cogeneration using refinery residuals, it is believed that the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) would be the best option. Thus, considering IGCC plants supplying heat and power to refineries where it is projected to have refinery residuals for cogeneration, the expected electric power that can be sent to the public utility is quantified, along with the natural gas imports mitigation that may be attained. This in turn would contribute to a necessary fuel diversification policy balancing energy, economy and

  4. Eldorado Port Hope refinery - uranium production (1933-1951)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenault, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    Since the discovery of pitchblende in 1930 by Gilbert LaBine at Great Bear Lake (GBL), North West Territories, uranium has played a central role in the growth of the Canadian mining sector and it in turn has propelled the country into it's present position as the world's top uranium producer. The rich ore mined there was used originally by Eldorado Gold Mines Limited to build a business based on the extraction of radium, which was selling at $70,000 a gram at the time, and silver which was present in the ore in commercial amounts. The mine site on GBL became known as Port Radium. In 1933 Eldorado brought a refinery on-line at Port Hope, Ontario nearly 4,000 miles away from the mine, and began to produce radium, silver and uranium products. Initially uranium played a minor role in the business and the products were sold into the ceramics industry to manufacture a variety of crockery with long-lasting colours. In addition, there were sales and loans of uranium products to research laboratories that were exploring nuclear energy for possible use in weapons and power generation, as the potential for this was clearly understood from 1939 onwards. These laboratories included the National Research Council (George Laurence), Columbia University (Enrico Fermi) and International Chemical Industries (J.P. Baxter). With the beginning of World War II the radium business suffered from poor sales and by 1940 the mine was closed but the refinery continued operation, using accumulated stockpiles. By 1942 uranium had become a strategic material, the mine was reopened, and the refinery began to produce large quantities of uranium oxide destined for The Manhattan Project. As events unfolded Eldorado was unable to produce sufficient ore from GBL so that a large quantity of ore from the Belgian Congo was also processed at Port Hope. Ultimately, as a result of the efforts of this enterprise, World War II was finally ended by use of atomic weapons. After World War II the refinery

  5. Eldorado Port Hope refinery - uranium production (1933-1951)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arsenault, J.E

    2008-03-15

    Since the discovery of pitchblende in 1930 by Gilbert LaBine at Great Bear Lake (GBL), North West Territories, uranium has played a central role in the growth of the Canadian mining sector and it in turn has propelled the country into it's present position as the world's top uranium producer. The rich ore mined there was used originally by Eldorado Gold Mines Limited to build a business based on the extraction of radium, which was selling at $70,000 a gram at the time, and silver which was present in the ore in commercial amounts. The mine site on GBL became known as Port Radium. In 1933 Eldorado brought a refinery on-line at Port Hope, Ontario nearly 4,000 miles away from the mine, and began to produce radium, silver and uranium products. Initially uranium played a minor role in the business and the products were sold into the ceramics industry to manufacture a variety of crockery with long-lasting colours. In addition, there were sales and loans of uranium products to research laboratories that were exploring nuclear energy for possible use in weapons and power generation, as the potential for this was clearly understood from 1939 onwards. These laboratories included the National Research Council (George Laurence), Columbia University (Enrico Fermi) and International Chemical Industries (J.P. Baxter). With the beginning of World War II the radium business suffered from poor sales and by 1940 the mine was closed but the refinery continued operation, using accumulated stockpiles. By 1942 uranium had become a strategic material, the mine was reopened, and the refinery began to produce large quantities of uranium oxide destined for The Manhattan Project. As events unfolded Eldorado was unable to produce sufficient ore from GBL so that a large quantity of ore from the Belgian Congo was also processed at Port Hope. Ultimately, as a result of the efforts of this enterprise, World War II was finally ended by use of atomic weapons. After World War II the

  6. Economic forces push down selling prices of U.S. refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Recent data on US refinery sales reveal that selling prices have continued to decline in the 1990s. Reasons for this decrease include increased plant investments to meet regulatory requirements, excess refining capacity, increased imports of refined products, and reduced margins. While these expenditures enable a refinery to continue operating, they do not make the refinery more profitable or valuable. Other factors contributing to reduced selling prices of US refineries are: declining local crude production; unstable crude costs; increased energy conservation; growing competition from alternative fuels

  7. Thermodynamic simulation and evaluation of sugar refinery evaporators using a steady state modelling approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, A.E.; Khodabocus, F.; Dhokun, V.; Khalife, M.

    2010-01-01

    In a sugar refinery, the juice is concentrated through evaporation, with the objective of concentrating the juice to syrup as rapidly as possible. Because the heat of vaporization of water is relatively high, the evaporation process can be highly energy intensive, and therefore the economical use of steam is important in the refinery. This paper reports on the development of a simulation model for the evaporation sections of two Mauritian sugar refineries. The first objective was to use the simulation model to carry out an energy balance over the evaporators in order to assess the economy of steam usage over the refinery. The second objective was to examine to what extent a fundamental steady state model, based on thermodynamics (not kinetics) was capable of predicting the material and energy flows in two operating sugar refineries and thereby to evaluate the applicability of the modelling framework. The simulation model was validated using historical data as well as data from the plant DCS system. The simulation results generally correlated well with the measured values, except for one of the evaporators on one refinery. Some suggestions were made as to the cause of the discrepancy. On balance, it was found that both refineries are extremely efficient in terms of steam and equipment usage and that there is not much scope for energy optimisation within the present configuration - nor for much spare steam capacity for an additional refinery. It was also shown that steady state process simulation, using thermodynamic models, can generate a very useful representation of a working refinery. Besides being able to use the model to 'benchmark' the operation and thus evaluate its performance as a whole as well as across individual units, it could also be used to evaluate refinery performance across refineries, nationally as well as globally.

  8. Nickel, vanadium, and lead as indicators of sediment contamination of marina, refinery, and shipyard areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Thayane Lúcia; Wallner-Kersanach, Mônica; Costa, Luiza Dy Fonseca; Costa, Daniel Pereira; Baisch, Paulo Roberto Martins

    2018-01-01

    Metallic elements found in the aquatic environment may originate in areas where petroleum is refined and vessels are maintained and repaired. This study aims to assess contamination caused by nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and vanadium (V) in sediment of the Lagoa dos Patos estuary (RS, Brazil) and to evaluate them as indicators of areas under the influence of petroleum products and antifouling paints. Surface sediments were collected in summer and in winter in areas of marinas, shipyards, refinery, and a control station. High Pb and V concentrations in shipyards and at the Yacht Club showed that some organisms may be affected by toxicity. High Pb results of the index of geoaccumulation (Igeo) were found at the Yacht Club and shipyards. Al, Ni, and V had similar distribution in the sediment in both seasons. Ni and V had high relation in winter at the Yacht Club and at the Santos Shipyard, thus suggesting that these elements come mainly from petroleum products. The same happened to the relations between Pb and V, as well as Pb and Ni at the Santos Shipyard. These elements are employed as useful tools as indicators to identify places with moderate to high localized anthropogenic inputs of petroleum derivatives and antifouling paints.

  9. Refinery evaluation of optical imaging to locate fugitive emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Donald R; Luke-Boone, Ronke; Aggarwal, Vineet; Harris, Buzz; Anderson, Eric; Ranum, David; Kulp, Thomas J; Armstrong, Karla; Sommers, Ricky; McRae, Thomas G; Ritter, Karin; Siegell, Jeffrey H; Van Pelt, Doug; Smylie, Mike

    2007-07-01

    Fugitive emissions account for approximately 50% of total hydrocarbon emissions from process plants. Federal and state regulations aiming at controlling these emissions require refineries and petrochemical plants in the United States to implement a Leak Detection and Repair Program (LDAR). The current regulatory work practice, U.S. Environment Protection Agency Method 21, requires designated components to be monitored individually at regular intervals. The annual costs of these LDAR programs in a typical refinery can exceed US$1,000,000. Previous studies have shown that a majority of controllable fugitive emissions come from a very small fraction of components. The Smart LDAR program aims to find cost-effective methods to monitor and reduce emissions from these large leakers. Optical gas imaging has been identified as one such technology that can help achieve this objective. This paper discusses a refinery evaluation of an instrument based on backscatter absorption gas imaging technology. This portable camera allows an operator to scan components more quickly and image gas leaks in real time. During the evaluation, the instrument was able to identify leaking components that were the source of 97% of the total mass emissions from leaks detected. More than 27,000 components were monitored. This was achieved in far less time than it would have taken using Method 21. In addition, the instrument was able to find leaks from components that are not required to be monitored by the current LDAR regulations. The technology principles and the parameters that affect instrument performance are also discussed in the paper.

  10. High temperature degradation in power plants and refineries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furtado Heloisa Cunha

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal power plants and refineries around the world share many of the same problems, namely aging equipment, high costs of replacement, and the need to produce more efficiently while being increasingly concerned with issues of safety and reliability. For equipment operating at high temperature, there are many different mechanisms of degradation, some of which interact, and the rate of accumulation of damage is not simple to predict. The paper discusses the mechanisms of degradation at high temperature and methods of assessment of such damage and of the remaining safe life for operation.

  11. Yearly refinery construction indexes listed for 68 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, G.

    1996-01-01

    Yearly values are presented for the Nelson-Farrar refinery inflation cost index since 1926. They are based on 1946 as 100, since that was the date of index inception. Values from 1926 to 1945 were back calculated. Data are presented on indexed cost of materials, labor, and miscellaneous equipment for 1926 through 1994. A second table of itemized refining cost indexes for the years 1954, 1972, 1992--1994, and the first eight months of 1995 is also presented. This table subdivides materials, labor, and equipment into component costs

  12. Capital vs. service contract at Conoco Humber Refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Threlfall, Peter; Sperring, Simon

    1999-01-01

    The value of outsourcing for water treatment is illustrated through experience at the Conoco Humber refinery. A point was reached where the quality of water at the plant was so poor that demineralized water was brought to the site by tanker. The paper describes how and why it was decided to design, build, operate and maintain an outsourced system. It points out how the newer technologies can be environmentally friendly and, at the same time, reduce operating and maintenance costs, optimise manpower and cut management costs. (UK)

  13. Microbial enhanced separation of oil from a petroleum refinery sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, P J; Joseph, Ammini

    2009-01-15

    Petroleum refineries around the world have adopted different technological options to manage the solid wastes generated during the refining process and stocking of crude oil. These include physical, chemical and biological treatment methods. In this investigation bacterial mediated oil separation is effected. Two strains of Bacillus were isolated from petroleum-contaminated soils, and inoculated into slurry of sludge, and sludge-sand combinations. The bacteria could effect the separation of oil so as to form a floating scum within 48h with an efficiency of 97% at < or =5% level of sludge in the sludge-sand mixture. The activity was traced to the production of biosurfactants by bacteria.

  14. 40 CFR 80.1280 - How are refinery benzene baselines calculated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... benzene). i = Individual batch of gasoline produced at the refinery from January 1, 2004 through December 31, 2005. n = Total number of batches of gasoline produced at the refinery from January 1, 2004... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Averaging, Banking and Trading...

  15. Sounding pollution and the refinery environmental risks; A poluicao sonora e os riscos ambientais das refinarias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This chapter gives a general overview on the effects of the sound pollution, the principal pollutants emitted by the oil refineries, control actions for the sound waves emissions, the minimization actions, the risk concepts and evaluation, the risk perception and the accidents in refineries.

  16. Environmental nickel exposure from oil refinery emissions: a case study in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harari, Raúl; Harari, Florencia; Forastiere, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Nickel is a strong skin and respiratory sensitizer and a recognized carcinogen. Oil refineries are important sources of atmospheric emissions of toxic pollutants, including nickel. Populations residing close to oil refineries are at potential risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the exposure to nickel in a population living close to the largest oil refinery in Ecuador, located in the city of Esmeraldas. We recruited 47 workers from the oil refinery as well as 195 students from 4 different schools close to the plant and 94 students from another school 25 km far from the industry. Urinary nickel concentrations were used to assess the exposure to nickel. Students from the school next to the oil refinery showed the highest urinary nickel concentrations while workers from the refinery showed the lowest concentrations. Median nickel concentrations were > 2µg/L in all study groups. The populations living close to the oil refineries are potentially exposed to nickel from atmospheric emissions. Further studies investigating nickel-related health effects in the population residing close to the refinery of Esmeralda are needed.

  17. 76 FR 64943 - Proposed Cercla Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; ACM Smelter and Refinery Site, Located...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ... Settlement; ACM Smelter and Refinery Site, Located in Cascade County, MT AGENCY: Environmental Protection... projected future response costs concerning the ACM Smelter and Refinery NPL Site (Site), Operable Unit 1..., Helena, MT 59626. Mr. Sturn can be reached at (406) 457-5027. Comments should reference the ACM Smelter...

  18. Risk analysis of the sea desalination plant at the 5th refinery of south ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, hazards in the desalination unit of a gas refinery in Asaluyeh, south of Iran was evaluated, using the PHA-PRO6 software, for which recommendations were made to avoid potential risks involved. Based on 8-years history of the refinery operation, maintenance records, accidents, safety vulnerabilities of the plant ...

  19. 40 CFR 73.90 - Allowance allocations for small diesel refineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... refineries. 73.90 Section 73.90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Small Diesel Refineries § 73.90 Allowance allocations... application for certification, submitted to the address in § 73.13 of this chapter, shall include the...

  20. The Implementation and Maintenance of a Behavioral Safety Process in a Petroleum Refinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Wanda V.; McSween, Terry E.; Medina, Rixio E.; Rost, Kristen; Alvero, Alicia M.

    2010-01-01

    A values-centered and team-based behavioral safety process was implemented in a petroleum oil refinery. Employee teams defined the refinery's safety values and related practices, which were used to guide the process design and implementation. The process included (a) a safety assessment; (b) the clarification of safety-related values and related…

  1. 76 FR 42052 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ...-AO55 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries AGENCY... the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries. EPA is now... signed a final rule amending the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum...

  2. Feasibility study report for the Imperial Valley Ethanol Refinery: a 14. 9-million-gallon-per-year ethanol synfuel refinery utilizing geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    The construction and operation of a 14,980,000 gallon per year fuel ethanol from grain refinery in the Imperial Valley of California is proposed. The Imperial Valley Ethanol Refinery (refinery) will use hot geothermal fluid from geothermal resources at the East Mesa area as the source of process energy. In order to evaluate the economic viability of the proposed Project, exhaustive engineering, cost analysis, and financial studies have been undertaken. This report presents the results of feasibility studies undertaken in geothermal resource, engineering, marketing financing, management, environment, and permits and approvals. The conclusion of these studies is that the Project is economically viable. US Alcohol Fuels is proceeding with its plans to construct and operate the Refinery.

  3. Conservation and reuse of water in Brazilian petroleum refineries; Conservacao e reuso de agua em refinarias de petroleo no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pombo, Felipe Ramalho; Magrini, Alessandra; Szklo, Alexandre Salem [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PPE/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Planejamento Energetico], Emails: frpombo@ppe.ufrj.br, ale@ppe.ufrj.br, szklo@ppe.ufrj.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper views to present the main technologies for effluent treatment of petroleum refineries having as target the reuse. An analysis of international and Brazilian experiences of water reuse in petroleum refineries is performed viewing to support the proposition of recommendations for Brazilian refineries.

  4. Autonomia profissional dos professores

    OpenAIRE

    Guerra, Teresa P.; Veiga, Feliciano

    2007-01-01

    Este estudo pretendeu analisar as representações dos professores acerca da sua autonomia em contexto escolar, com recurso a uma amostra de 203 professores de ambos os sexos, pertencentes a escolas dos distritos de Lisboa, Setúbal, Leiria e Aveiro. Utilizou-se a Escala de Autonomia Profissional dos Professores (EAPP).

  5. Toward effective ecological risk-management of refinery corrective action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metzger, B.H.; Rury, P.M.; Turton, D.; Archibald, B.; Clark, J.; Cura, J.

    1995-01-01

    Cleanup of complex industrial sites, such as refineries, requires risk-based decision tools to ensure that environmentally protective remediation is consistent with current and future land use. However, conventional ecological risk assessment approaches are not well suited for complex industrial sites. Site risk assessments focus on hypothetical chemical risk assuming diverse and undisturbed ecosystems, rather than industrial and disturbed area conditions. In addition, they offer little guidance as to how to make timely and effective risk management decisions. An innovative methodology is proposed to assist industry and regulatory risk managers with rapid EcoRisk reconnaissance and cost-effective remedial decision-making at complex industrial sites. Phase 1 comprises a three-step risk screening of areas of ecological concern at the site, which integrates habitat quality characteristics and potential chemical hazards. It yields an ordering of areas as follows: areas of no significant risk; areas of potentially significant risk; and areas of likely significant risk. A decision rule is then applied to determine appropriate risk management action, including: no action; additional study; and remedial or management action. In Phase 2, additional study is conducted for areas that exhibit potentially significant risk so as to facilitate risk management. This methodology is currently being applied at the 1,300 acre, former Exxon Bayway Refinery in New Jersey

  6. Oil-refinery and automotive emissions of rare earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitto, M.E.; Gordon, G.E.; Anderson, D.L.; Olmez, I.

    1991-01-01

    The concentration pattern of rare-earth elements (REEs) in emissions from oil refineries and newer-model automobiles shows a distortion from the crustal abundance pattern. The REEs arise from the zeolite cracking catalysts used in petroleum refining and emission-control substrates used in automobile catalytic converters, respectively. Ten petroleum cracking catalysts from four countries and 12 catalytic converters from five automobile manufacturers were characterized for their REE content. The cracking catalysts are highly enriched in light REEs, whereas the automobile catalysts are enriched primarily in Ce. Incorporation of zeolite catalysts into refined oil provides new atmospheric elemental signatures for tracing emissions from refineries and oil-fired power plants on a regional scale. Though both have enhanced La/REE ratios, emissions from these two sources can be distinguished by their La/V ratios. Although REE demand by the petroleum industry has dropped considerably in recent years, automobile catalytic converters containing REEs are expected to increase dramatically as more stringent emission regulations are adopted in Europe, Japan and the US

  7. Effect of adoption of gas turbine in oil refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamai, Hiroto

    1988-08-01

    With progress in energy saving, and increase in automation in facilities, the dependence on electric power increases relative steam power. Further in order to reduce the production cost, the adoption of gas turbine combined cycle system, mainly aimed at power generation, is considered to be most suitable. This adoption, accompanied with the utilization of refinery offgas, dresults in a reduction in unit power generation cost, by increasing the ratio of domestic power generation. The gas turbine using deethanizing tower offgas as main fuel and butane as auxillary fuel, the combined cycle system, where steam produced from the turbine waste heat boiler drives the existing back pressure turbine, was constituted. The generator is 118 kVA in capacity. Against the maximum power demand being 16,500 kWh in the oil refinery, the obtainment of 11,000 kWh by the gas turbine and 2,500 kWh by the back pressure turbine was assured, with a considerable lowering in power to be purchased. (7 figs, 1 tab, 1 ref)

  8. Biodegradation of oil refinery wastes under OPA and CERCLA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banipal, B.S.; Myers, J.M.; Fisher, C.W.

    1995-01-01

    Land treatment of oil refinery wastes has been used as a disposal method for decades. More recently, numerous laboratory studies have been performed attempting to quantify degradation rates of more toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds (PAHs). This paper discusses the results of the full-scale aerobic biodegradation operations using land treatment at the Macmillan Ring-Free Oil refining facility. The tiered feasibility approach in the evaluation of using biodegradation as a treatment method to achieve site-specific clean-up including pilot scale biodegradation operations is included in an earlier paper. Analytical results of biodegradation indicate that degradation rates observed in the laboratory can be met and exceeded under field conditions and that the site-specific cleanup criteria can be attained within a proposed project time. Also presented are degradation rates and half-lives for PAHs for which cleanup criteria has been established. PAH degradation rates and half-life values are determined and compared with the laboratory degradation rates and half-life values which used similar oil refinery wastes by other investigators (API 1987)

  9. Application of Ozone MBBR Process in Refinery Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wang

    2018-01-01

    Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) is a kind of sewage treatment technology based on fluidized bed. At the same time, it can also be regarded as an efficient new reactor between active sludge method and the biological membrane method. The application of ozone MBBR process in refinery wastewater treatment is mainly studied. The key point is to design the ozone +MBBR combined process based on MBBR process. The ozone +MBBR process is used to analyze the treatment of concentrated water COD discharged from the refinery wastewater treatment plant. The experimental results show that the average removal rate of COD is 46.0%~67.3% in the treatment of reverse osmosis concentrated water by ozone MBBR process, and the effluent can meet the relevant standard requirements. Compared with the traditional process, the ozone MBBR process is more flexible. The investment of this process is mainly ozone generator, blower and so on. The prices of these items are relatively inexpensive, and these costs can be offset by the excess investment in traditional activated sludge processes. At the same time, ozone MBBR process has obvious advantages in water quality, stability and other aspects.

  10. The regulation of uranium refineries and conversion facilities in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didyk, J.P.

    1986-04-01

    The nuclear regulatory process as it applies to uranium refineries and conversion facilities in Canada is reviewed. In the early 1980s, Eldorado Resources Limited proposed to construct and operate new facilities for refining yellowcake and for the production of uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ). These projects were subject to regulation by the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB). A description of the AECB's comprehensive licensing process covering all stages of siting, construction, operation and eventual decommissioning of nuclear facilities is traced as it was applied to the Eldorado projects. The AECB's concern with occupational health and safety, with public health and safety and with the protection of the environment in so far as it affects public health and safety is emphasized. Some regulatory difficulties encountered during the project's development which led to opening up the licensing process to public input and closer coordination of regulatory activities with other provincial and federal regulatory agencies are described. The Board's regulatory operational compliance program for uranium refineries and conversion facilities is summarized

  11. Improving secondary clarifier performance at the Oakville Oil Refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, S.M.; Bagley, D.M.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was threefold: to investigate the relationship between settleability and the physical properties of activated sludge, to correlate settleability and key operational parameters such as chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration at the aeration basin inlet and to determine potential operational improvements to the Oakville Oil Refinery Wastewater Treatment Plant. Nine separate sets of stirred sludge-settling tests were conducted over a six-month period to measure settleability. The stirred sludge volume index (SSVI), the zone settling constants, and the Zheng-Bagley compression constants were determined. State point analyses were conducted to determine the maximum solids flux of the clarifiers. The concentrations of Al, Mn, Mg, Fe, Ca, Na, and K were determined to identify potential correlations to settling characteristics. Extracellular polymeric substances were extracted from the sludge and analyzed for the same reason. The performance of the clarifiers was highly variable during the period examined. As the refinery process flows and effluent streams changed, influent COD increased, from an average of 180mg/L to 600mg/L. Concurrently the settleability of the sludge decreased from excellent (SSVI = 68mL/g) to very poor (150mL/g), perhaps as the result of under aeration. State point analyses indicated that the clarifiers are under-sized for process upsets of this magnitude. (author)

  12. Improving secondary clarifier performance at the Oakville Oil Refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, S.M.; Bagley, D.M. [Univ. of Toronto, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2002-06-15

    The purpose of this study was threefold: to investigate the relationship between settleability and the physical properties of activated sludge, to correlate settleability and key operational parameters such as chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration at the aeration basin inlet and to determine potential operational improvements to the Oakville Oil Refinery Wastewater Treatment Plant. Nine separate sets of stirred sludge-settling tests were conducted over a six-month period to measure settleability. The stirred sludge volume index (SSVI), the zone settling constants, and the Zheng-Bagley compression constants were determined. State point analyses were conducted to determine the maximum solids flux of the clarifiers. The concentrations of Al, Mn, Mg, Fe, Ca, Na, and K were determined to identify potential correlations to settling characteristics. Extracellular polymeric substances were extracted from the sludge and analyzed for the same reason. The performance of the clarifiers was highly variable during the period examined. As the refinery process flows and effluent streams changed, influent COD increased, from an average of 180mg/L to 600mg/L. Concurrently the settleability of the sludge decreased from excellent (SSVI = 68mL/g) to very poor (150mL/g), perhaps as the result of under aeration. State point analyses indicated that the clarifiers are under-sized for process upsets of this magnitude. (author)

  13. Electrochemical removal of phenol from oil refinery wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelwahab, O; Amin, N K; El-Ashtoukhy, E-S Z

    2009-04-30

    This study explores the possibility of using electrocoagulation to remove phenol from oil refinery waste effluent using a cell with horizontally oriented aluminum cathode and a horizontal aluminum screen anode. The removal of phenol was investigated in terms of various parameters namely: pH, operating time, current density, initial phenol concentration and addition of NaCl. Removal of phenol during electrocoagulation was due to combined effect of sweep coagulation and adsorption. The results showed that, at high current density and solution pH 7, remarkable removal of 97% of phenol after 2h can be achieved. The rate of electrocoagulation was observed to increase as the phenol concentration decreases; the maximum removal rate was attained at 30 mg L(-1) phenol concentration. For a given current density using an array of closely packed Al screens as anode was found to be more effective than single screen anode, the percentage phenol removal was found to increase with increasing the number of screens per array. After 2h of electrocoagulation, 94.5% of initial phenol concentration was removed from the petroleum refinery wastewater. Energy consumption and aluminum Electrode consumption were calculated per gram of phenol removed. The present study shows that, electrocoagulation of phenol using aluminum electrodes is a promising process.

  14. Cathodic Protection Design Algorithms for Refineries Aboveground Storage Tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosay Abdul sattar Majbor

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Storage tanks condition and integrity is maintained by joint application of coating and cathodic protection. Iraq southern region rich in oil and petroleum product refineries need and use plenty of aboveground storage tanks. Iraq went through conflicts over the past thirty five years resulting in holding the oil industry infrastructure behind regarding maintenance and modernization. The primary concern in this work is the design and implementation of cathodic protection systems for the aboveground storage tanks farm in the oil industry. Storage tank external base area and tank internal surface area are to be protected against corrosion using impressed current and sacrificial anode cathodic protection systems. Interactive versatile computer programs are developed to provide the necessary system parameters data including the anode requirements, composition, rating, configuration, etc. Microsoft-Excel datasheet and Visual Basic.Net developed software were used throughout the study in the design of both cathodic protection systems. The case study considered in this work is the eleven aboveground storage tanks farm situated in al-Shauiba refinery in southern IRAQ. The designed cathodic protection systems are to be installed and monitored realistically in the near future. Both systems were designed for a life span of (15-30 years, and all their parameters were within the internationally accepted standards.

  15. [Occupational accidents in an oil refinery in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Carlos Augusto Vaz de; Freitas, Carlos Machado de

    2002-10-01

    Work in oil refineries involves the risk of minor to major accidents. National data show the impact of accidents on this industry. A study was carried out to describe accident profile and evaluate the adequacy of accident reporting system. Data on all accidents reported in an oil refinery in the state of Rio de Janeiro for the year 1997 were organized and analyzed. The study population consisted of 153 injury cases, 83 hired and 69 contracted workers. The variables were: type of accident, operation mode and position of the worker injured. Among hired workers, minor accidents predominated (54.2%) and they occurred during regular operation activities (62.9%). Among contracted workers, there also predominated minor accidents (75.5%) in a higher percentage, but they occurred mainly during maintenance activities (96.8%). The study results showed that there is a predominance of accidents in lower hierarchy workers, and these accidents occur mainly during maintenance activities. There is a need to improve the company's accident reporting system and accident investigation procedures.

  16. Biodegradation of oil refinery wastes under OPA and CERCLA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamblin, W.W.; Banipal, B.S.; Myers, J.M. [Ecology and Environment, Inc., Dallas, TX (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Land treatment of oil refinery wastes has been used as a disposal method for decades. More recently, numerous laboratory studies have been performed attempting to quantify degradation rates of more toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds (PAHs). This paper discusses the results of the fullscale aerobic biodegradation operations using land treatment at the Macmillan Ring-Free Oil refining facility. The tiered feasibility approach of evaluating biodegradation as a treatment method to achieve site-specific cleanup criteria, including pilot biodegradation operations, is discussed in an earlier paper. Analytical results of biodegradation indicate that degradation rates observed in the laboratory can be met and exceeded under field conditions and that site-specific cleanup criteria can be attained within a proposed project time. Also prevented are degradation rates and half-lives for PAHs for which cleanup criteria have been established. PAH degradation rates and half-life values are determined and compared with the laboratory degradation rates and half-life values which used similar oil refinery wastes by other in investigators (API 1987).

  17. A geoprocessing model for the selection of populations most affected by diffuse industrial contamination: the case of oil refinery plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Pasetto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. A method to select populations living in areas affected by diffuse environmental contamination is presented, with particular regard to oil refineries, in the Italian context. The reasons to use municipality instead of census tract populations for environment and health small-area studies of contaminated sites are discussed. METHODS. Populations most affected by diffuse environmental contamination are identified through a geoprocessing model. Data from the national census 2001 were used to estimate census tract level populations. A geodatabase was developed using the municipality and census tract layers provided by the Italian National Bureau of Statistics (ISTAT. The orthophotos of the Italian territory - year 2006 - available on the geographic information systems (GIS of the National Cartographic Portal, were considered. The area within 2 km from the plant border was used as an operational definition to identify the area at major contamination. RESULTS. The geoprocessing model architecture is presented. The results of its application to the selection of municipality populations in a case study are shown. CONCLUSIONS. The application of the proposed geoprocessing model, the availability of long time series of mortality and morbidity data, and a quali-quantitative estimate of contamination over time, could allow an appraisal of the health status of populations affected by oil refinery emissions.

  18. Techno-Economic Evaluation of Technologies to Mitigate Greenhouse Gas Emissions at North American Refineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motazedi, Kavan; Abella, Jessica P; Bergerson, Joule A

    2017-02-07

    A petroleum refinery model, Petroleum Refinery Life-cycle Inventory Model (PRELIM), that estimates energy use and CO 2 emissions was modified to evaluate the environmental and economic performance of a set of technologies to reduce CO 2 emissions at refineries. Cogeneration of heat and power (CHP), carbon capture at fluid catalytic cracker (FCC) and steam methane reformer (SMR) units, and alternative hydrogen production technologies were considered in the analysis. The results indicate that a 3-44% reduction in total annual refinery CO 2 emissions (2-24% reductions in the CO 2 emissions on a per barrel of crude oil processed) can be achieved in a medium conversion refinery that processes a typical U.S. crude slate obtained by using the technologies considered. A sensitivity analysis of the quality of input crude to a refinery, refinery configuration, and prices of natural gas and electricity revealed how the magnitude of possible CO 2 emissions reductions and the economic performance of the mitigation technologies can vary under different conditions. The analysis can help inform decision making related to investment decisions and CO 2 emissions policy in the refining sector.

  19. Combined analysis of job and task benzene air exposures among workers at four US refinery operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Amanda; Shin, Jennifer Mi; Unice, Ken M; Gaffney, Shannon H; Kreider, Marisa L; Gelatt, Richard H; Panko, Julie M

    2017-03-01

    Workplace air samples analyzed for benzene at four US refineries from 1976 to 2007 were pooled into a single dataset to characterize similarities and differences between job titles, tasks and refineries, and to provide a robust dataset for exposure reconstruction. Approximately 12,000 non-task (>180 min) personal samples associated with 50 job titles and 4000 task (job titles and task codes across all four refineries, and (5) our analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the distribution of benzene air concentrations for select jobs/tasks across all four refineries. The jobs and tasks most frequently sampled included those with highest potential contact with refinery product streams containing benzene, which reflected the targeted sampling approach utilized by the facility industrial hygienists. Task and non-task data were analyzed to identify and account for significant differences within job-area, task-job, and task-area categories. This analysis demonstrated that in general, areas with benzene containing process streams were associated with greater benzene air concentrations compared to areas with process streams containing little to no benzene. For several job titles and tasks analyzed, there was a statistically significant decrease in benzene air concentration after 1990. This study provides a job and task-focused analysis of occupational exposure to benzene during refinery operations, and it should be useful for reconstructing refinery workers' exposures to benzene over the past 30 years.

  20. Allowance Allocation and CO2 intensity of the EU15 and Norwegian refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Kristina; Zetterberg, Lars; Aahman, Markus

    2005-02-01

    On 1 January 2005, the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) was launched. The launch has been preceded by an allocation process in each of the Member States. The main objective of this study was to analyse the allocation in relation to CO 2 efficiency for the mineral oil refining sector. A CO 2 intensity index for mineral oil refineries has been defined and calculated for the refineries within the EU15 and Norway. The IVL CO 2 intensity index is based both on the Solomon Energy Intensity Index (EII), an assumed fuel mix, and process-specific emissions. Due to uncertainties in input data, the determined values for the individual refineries are quite uncertain. However, the regional values can be used to identify trends. It was concluded that there are substantial differences in the CO 2 intensity between refineries within different regions/countries in the EU and these differences have not been considered in the allocation process. Only a few countries have mentioned energy efficiency or reduction potential due to CO 2 intensity of fuels used. Only one country (Denmark) has explicitly given a benchmark that will be used for allocation to new mineral oil refineries. The allocation has generally been based on historic emissions, which will result in refineries with historically higher emissions being allocated larger amounts than refineries with historically lower emissions. This might be favourable for refineries that recently have performed emission-reducing measures but might be less favourable for refineries that during a long time period have implemented emission-reducing measures

  1. Allowance Allocation and CO{sub 2} intensity of the EU15 and Norwegian refineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Kristina; Zetterberg, Lars; Aahman, Markus

    2005-02-01

    On 1 January 2005, the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) was launched. The launch has been preceded by an allocation process in each of the Member States. The main objective of this study was to analyse the allocation in relation to CO{sub 2} efficiency for the mineral oil refining sector. A CO{sub 2} intensity index for mineral oil refineries has been defined and calculated for the refineries within the EU15 and Norway. The IVL CO{sub 2} intensity index is based both on the Solomon Energy Intensity Index (EII), an assumed fuel mix, and process-specific emissions. Due to uncertainties in input data, the determined values for the individual refineries are quite uncertain. However, the regional values can be used to identify trends. It was concluded that there are substantial differences in the CO{sub 2} intensity between refineries within different regions/countries in the EU and these differences have not been considered in the allocation process. Only a few countries have mentioned energy efficiency or reduction potential due to CO{sub 2} intensity of fuels used. Only one country (Denmark) has explicitly given a benchmark that will be used for allocation to new mineral oil refineries. The allocation has generally been based on historic emissions, which will result in refineries with historically higher emissions being allocated larger amounts than refineries with historically lower emissions. This might be favourable for refineries that recently have performed emission-reducing measures but might be less favourable for refineries that during a long time period have implemented emission-reducing measures.

  2. Corrosion resistance of high performance stainless steels in cooling water and other refinery environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovach, C.W.; Redmerski, L.S.

    1984-01-01

    The recent successful introduction of high performance stainless steels as tubing for seawater cooled electric utility condensers suggests that these alloys can also provide useful service in refinery heat exchanger applications. Since many of these applications involve higher temperature exposure than steam condensers, a study was conducted to evaluate crevice corrsion resistance over a range of cooling water temperature and chloride concentrations, and also to evaluate general corrosion resistance in some strong chemical and refinery environments. These stainless steels display excellent crevice corrosion resistance as well as good resistance to a variety of chemical environments that may be encountered in refinery, petrochemical and chemical plant service

  3. Multi objective multi refinery optimization with environmental and catastrophic failure effects objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khogeer, Ahmed Sirag

    2005-11-01

    Petroleum refining is a capital-intensive business. With stringent environmental regulations on the processing industry and declining refining margins, political instability, increased risk of war and terrorist attacks in which refineries and fuel transportation grids may be targeted, higher pressures are exerted on refiners to optimize performance and find the best combination of feed and processes to produce salable products that meet stricter product specifications, while at the same time meeting refinery supply commitments and of course making profit. This is done through multi objective optimization. For corporate refining companies and at the national level, Intea-Refinery and Inter-Refinery optimization is the second step in optimizing the operation of the whole refining chain as a single system. Most refinery-wide optimization methods do not cover multiple objectives such as minimizing environmental impact, avoiding catastrophic failures, or enhancing product spec upgrade effects. This work starts by carrying out a refinery-wide, single objective optimization, and then moves to multi objective-single refinery optimization. The last step is multi objective-multi refinery optimization, the objectives of which are analysis of the effects of economic, environmental, product spec, strategic, and catastrophic failure. Simulation runs were carried out using both MATLAB and ASPEN PIMS utilizing nonlinear techniques to solve the optimization problem. The results addressed the need to debottleneck some refineries or transportation media in order to meet the demand for essential products under partial or total failure scenarios. They also addressed how importing some high spec products can help recover some of the losses and what is needed in order to accomplish this. In addition, the results showed nonlinear relations among local and global objectives for some refineries. The results demonstrate that refineries can have a local multi objective optimum that does not

  4. Aerobic degradation of petroleum refinery wastewater in sequential batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Chandrakant; Srivastava, Vimal C; Mall, Indra D

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the effect of various parameters affecting the treatment of raw petroleum refinery wastewater (PRW) having chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 350 mg L(-1) and total organic carbon (TOC) of 70 mg L(-1) in sequential batch reactor (SBR). Effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) was studied in instantaneous fill condition. Maximum COD and TOC removal efficiencies were found to be 80% and 84%, respectively, for fill phase of 2 h and react phase of 2 h with fraction of SBR being filled with raw PRW in each cycle being 0.4. Effect of parameters was studied in terms of settling characteristic of treated slurry. Kinetics of treatment process has been studied. FTIR and UV-visible analysis of PRW before and after treatment have been performed so as to understand the degradation mechanism.

  5. Phenol oxidation of petrol refinery wastewater catalyzed by Laccase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, Maria Carolina; Ramirez, Nubia E.

    2002-01-01

    Laccase has been obtained through two different production systems, the first using Pleurotus ostreatus in solid-state fermentation, the second one using Trametes versicolor in submerged culture. Different substrates (by products from yeast, flour and beverage industries) have been evaluated in both systems. Maximum laccase yield with Pleurotus ostreatus (25 u/ml) was obtained in a wheat bran medium. The maximum enzyme concentration level using Trametes versicolor (25 u/ml) was achieved in a submerged system, containing 10% vinasse, 4,5% wheat bran and 0,2% molasses per liter of waste. Culture filtrate extracted from Pleurotus ostreatus was used to remove phenol from wastewater. The enzymatic treatment is effective over a wide pH and temperature range. The Laccase treatment has been successfully used to dephenolize industrial petrol refinery wastewater. The advantage of Laccase dephenolization is that this enzyme uses molecular oxygen as an oxidant

  6. Cleaning up gasoline will increase refinery hydrogen demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pretorius, E.B.; Muan, A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that hydrogen needs will increase two to five times as the world turns its attention to cleaning up engine exhaust. The subject of fuel trends and hydrogen needs at Foster Wheeler USA Corp.'s Hydrogen Plant Conference, June 2--4, in Orlando was addressed. The conference was attended by more than 100 people from 12 different countries. Drawing on knowledge from over 1 billion scfd of total installed hydrogen plant capacity, Foster Wheeler experts presented papers in the fields of steam reforming, partial oxidation (with all feedstocks, from natural gas to resids and coal), and steam reformer design. Other industry specialists gave papers on refinery balances, markets, coal feedstocks, utility systems, and components for hydrogen plants

  7. BTEX biodegradation by bacteria from effluents of petroleum refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzeo, Dânia Elisa Christofoletti; Levy, Carlos Emílio; de Angelis, Dejanira de Franceschi; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida

    2010-09-15

    Groundwater contamination with benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) has been increasing, thus requiring an urgent development of methodologies that are able to remove or minimize the damages these compounds can cause to the environment. The biodegradation process using microorganisms has been regarded as an efficient technology to treat places contaminated with hydrocarbons, since they are able to biotransform and/or biodegrade target pollutants. To prove the efficiency of this process, besides chemical analysis, the use of biological assessments has been indicated. This work identified and selected BTEX-biodegrading microorganisms present in effluents from petroleum refinery, and evaluated the efficiency of microorganism biodegradation process for reducing genotoxic and mutagenic BTEX damage through two test-systems: Allium cepa and hepatoma tissue culture (HTC) cells. Five different non-biodegraded BTEX concentrations were evaluated in relation to biodegraded concentrations. The biodegradation process was performed in a BOD Trak Apparatus (HACH) for 20 days, using microorganisms pre-selected through enrichment. Although the biodegradation usually occurs by a consortium of different microorganisms, the consortium in this study was composed exclusively of five bacteria species and the bacteria Pseudomonas putida was held responsible for the BTEX biodegradation. The chemical analyses showed that BTEX was reduced in the biodegraded concentrations. The results obtained with genotoxicity assays, carried out with both A. cepa and HTC cells, showed that the biodegradation process was able to decrease the genotoxic damages of BTEX. By mutagenic tests, we observed a decrease in damage only to the A. cepa organism. Although no decrease in mutagenicity was observed for HTC cells, no increase of this effect after the biodegradation process was observed either. The application of pre-selected bacteria in biodegradation processes can represent a reliable and

  8. Solid waste management : a case study of National Refinery Limited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syed, A.H.; Syed, Z.R. [National Refinery Ltd., Karachi (Pakistan); NED Univ. of Engineering and Technology, Karachi (Pakistan)

    2000-07-01

    A study was conducted to quantify and classify the waste generated at the National Refinery Limited (NRL). This refinery, located in Karachi, Pakistan, produces naphtha, motor gasoline, diesel, kerosene and lubricating oils and much more. Various units such as crude oil storage, thermal cracking, catalytic cracking and others were surveyed to assess the source and nature of the pollution. It was found that the major contributor to air pollution was the sulfur released through the burning of fuel oil during day-to-day operations. It was determined that approximately 2000 metric tons of solid waste were produced each day, along with 0.55 million gallons of waste water. In addition, sulfur, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide were also released in the atmosphere. The solid waste was composed of municipal waste, sludges from the API and other discarded materials. The authors then proceeded to determine the heavy metals contents in samples obtained from combined sludge dumping areas on the premises. The sludges contained sulfur (0-1.26 wt per cent), lead (0-0.156 wt per cent), iron (0.01-3.4 wt per cent), chromium (0-0.159 per cent), copper (0-0.05 wt per cent), cadmium (0-0.0034 wt per cent), nickel (0-0.168 wt per cent), and manganese (0.0015-0.0776 wt per cent). It was recommended that hazardous and non-hazardous wastes be segregated, that a separate feasibility study be undertaken to determine the best possible course of action to dispose of solid waste, and that government guidelines be established on the same topic. 5 refs., 4 tabs.

  9. Análise comparativa dos efeitos da base socioeconômica, dos tipos de crime e das condições de prisão na reincidência criminal Comparative analysis of the effects of socioeconomic status, crime type and prison conditions on criminal recidivism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Mario Fandiño Mariño

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo central do trabalho é identificar e mensurar o poder explicativo relativo das seguintes três dimensões causais hipotéticas da reincidência criminal: a variáveis biográficas ou socioeconômicas, a saber: estado civil, filhos, naturalidade, idade, religião, raça, instrução formal e nível de qualificação da ocupação; b tipo de delito, segundo os seguintes oito tipos simplificados: homicídios, lesões corporais, roubos, furtos, estelionatos, posse e uso de entorpecentes e estupros; e c condições de prisão, incluindo a disponibilidade e qualificação dos funcionários - tanto de segurança quanto administrativos -, trabalho prisional dos apenados, treinamento profissionalizante e instrução em geral, espaços disponíveis e superlotação, e programas de assistência social ao apenado. O trabalho resume e avalia a literatura internacional relativa à reincidência criminal, tanto em termos metodológicos quanto teóricos, e apresenta um panorama histórico recente da criminalidade no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, como pano de fundo da análise da reincidência propriamente dita. Utilizando dados longitudinais oficiais das prisões para os anos de 1989 a 1997, e o cadastro geral oficial de apenados do estado, uma série de regressões é calculada pelo método step-wise, relacionando as três dimensões em questão com a variável reincidência, dicotomizada. A dimensão biográfica explica 32% da reincidência, o tipo de crime explica outros 9%, e as condições de prisão explicam ainda 16%, sugerindo uma ampla influência da política prisional na redução da reincidência.This work is primarily aimed at identifying and measuring the relative explicatory ability of the following three hypothetical causal dimensions of criminal recidivism: a socioeconomic variables, namely: marital status, children, place of birth, age, religion, race, educational level and qualification level of the occupation; b type of offense

  10. Environmental performance of an innovative waste refinery based on enzymatic treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Astrup, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    for virgin material and saving fossil resources. In this paper a life-cycle assessment of a pilot-scale waste refinery for the enzymatic treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW) is presented. The refinery produced a liquid (liquefied organic materials and paper) and a solid fraction (non-degradable materials......Decrease of fossil fuel dependence and global warming mitigation has become increasingly important issues during the last decades. With respect to waste management higher recycling rates for valuable materials as well as energy recovery from waste streams could play a significant role substituting......) from the waste. The waste refinery was compared to alternative treatments such as incineration, bioreactor landfill and mechanical-biological treatment followed by utilization of the RDF (refuse-derived fuel) for energy. The performance of the waste refinery turned out to be comparable...

  11. More evidence of unpublished industry studies of lead smelter/refinery workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Background Lead smelter/refinery workers in the US have had significant exposure to lead and are an important occupational group to study to understand the health effects of chronic lead exposure in adults. Recent research found evidence that studies of lead smelter/refinery workers have been conducted but not published. This paper presents further evidence for this contention. Objectives To present further evidence of industry conducted, unpublished epidemiologic studies of lead smelter/refinery workers and health outcomes. Methods Historical research relying on primary sources such as internal industry documents and published studies. Results ASARCO smelter/refinery workers were studied in the early 1980s and found to have increased risk of lung cancer and stroke in one study, but not in another. Conclusions Because occupational lead exposure is an on-going concern for US and overseas workers, all epidemiologic studies should be made available to evaluate and update occupational health and safety standards. PMID:26070220

  12. Inefficiency of Malaysian palm oil refineries and the impact of different factors on its inefficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Shahverdi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze changes in the inefficiency of Malaysian palm oil refineries using DEA window analysis method over the period 1996 to 2009. We investigated the effects of different factors on inefficiency of Malaysian palm oil refineries. Based on empirical results, the effect of all factors such as vertical integration, types of ownership, foreign investment, location, experience, and liberalization on inefficiency of refineries was significant. Experience, liberalization, and joint venture between private and public sectors showed an increase in efficiency, while joint venture between local and foreign investment and vertical integration increased refineries’ inefficiency. However, palm oil refineries which were located in the states of Sabah and Sarawak were less technically inefficient than those located in peninsular Malaysia.

  13. Implication of coastal refineries to the ecology of the Gulf of Kachchh

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.; Anand, N.M.

    bank of the Gulf of Kachchh. An assessment of probable impact of establishment of these refineries to the rich biodiversity of the Gulf and suggestions to minimise these impacts have been made in this paper....

  14. Detection of impurities in fluid flowing in refinery pipeline or oil production operations using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Chlorine (from salt water) and sulphur are determined in crude oil in a well head conduit or refined product in a petroleum refinery by bombardment with neutrons and measuring the gamma rays emitted by neutron capture reactions. (U.K.)

  15. Treating refinery wastewaters in microbial fuel cells using separator electrode assembly or spaced electrode configurations

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Fang; Ahn, Yongtae; Logan, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of refinery wastewater (RW) treatment using air-cathode, microbial fuel cells (MFCs) was examined relative to previous tests based on completely anaerobic microbial electrolysis cells (MECs). MFCs were configured with separator

  16. Chemical composition of individual aerosol particles from working areas in a nickel refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höflich, B L; Wentzel, M; Ortner, H M; Weinbruch, S; Skogstad, A; Hetland, S; Thomassen, Y; Chaschin, V P; Nieboer, E

    2000-06-01

    Individual aerosol particles (n = 1170) collected at work stations in a nickel refinery were analyzed by wavelength-dispersive electron-probe microanalysis. By placing arbitrary restrictions on the contents of sulfur and silicon, the particles could be divided into four main groups. Scanning electron images indicated that most of the particles examined were relatively small (refinery intermediates. The implications of the findings for aerosol speciation measurements, toxicological studies and interpretation of adverse health effects are explored.

  17. Analysis of standard and innovative methods for allocating upstream and refinery GHG emissions to oil products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretti, Christian; Moro, Alberto; Edwards, Robert; Rocco, Matteo Vincenzo; Colombo, Emanuela

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Traditional and innovative methods for allocating emissions at refinery level are reviewed. •Added value has been introduced as a novel allocation method. •Hydrogen-based consistency test has been introduced to validate the allocation methods. •Consistent allocation methods assign negative refinery emissions to heavy products. -- Abstract: Alternative fuel policies need accurate and transparent methods to find the embedded carbon intensity of individual refinery products. This study investigates different ways of allocating greenhouse gases emissions deriving from refining and upstream crude oil supply. Allocation methods based on mass, energy content, economic value and, innovatively, added-value, are compared with the marginal refining emissions calculated by CONCAWE’s linear-programming model to the average EU refinery, which has been adopted as reference in EU legislation. Beside the most important transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, kerosene/jet fuel and heavy fuel oil), the analysis extends to petroleum coke and refinery hydrogen. Moreover, novel criteria, based on the implications due to hydrogen usage by each fuel pathway, have been introduced to test the consistency of the analyzed approaches. It is found that only two economic-based allocation methods are consistent with the introduced criteria. These two methods also give negative refinery emissions for heavy products, which is coherent with the marginal emissions calculated through the CONCAWE refinery model. The recommended allocation methods are transparent and use only publicly available statistical data, so they may be useful not only for future EU legislation, but also in jurisdictions where a representative refinery model is not available.

  18. Material resources, energy, and nutrient recovery from waste: are waste refineries the solution for the future?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2013-01-01

    Waste refineries focusing on multiple outputs of material resources, energy carriers, and nutrients may potentially provide more sustainable utilization of waste resources than traditional waste technologies. This consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) evaluated the environmental performance....... Overall, the waste refinery provided global warming (GW) savings comparable with efficient incineration, MBT, and bioreactor landfilling technologies. The main environmental benefits from waste refining were a potential for improved phosphorus recovery (about 85%) and increased electricity production (by...

  19. Mild Biomass Liquefaction Process for Economic Production of Stabilized Refinery-Ready Bio-oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangwal, Santosh [Southern Research, Durham, NC (United States); Meng, Jiajia [Southern Research, Durham, NC (United States); McCabe, Kevin [Southern Research, Durham, NC (United States); Larson, Eric [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Princeton Environmental Inst.; Mastro, Kelly [Southern Research, Durham, NC (United States)

    2016-04-25

    Southern Research (SR) in cooperation with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Bioenergy Technology Office (BETO), investigated a biomass liquefaction process for economic production of stabilized refinery-ready bio-oil. The project was awarded by DOE under a Funding Opportunity Announcement (DE-FOA-0000686) for Bio-oil Stabilization and Commoditization that intended to evaluate the feasibility of using bio-oil as a potential feedstock in an existing petroleum refinery. SR investigated Topic Area 1 of the FOA at Technology Readiness Level 2-3 to develop thermochemical liquefaction technologies for producing a bio-oil feedstock from high-impact biomass that can be utilized within a petroleum refinery. Bio-oil obtained from fast pyrolysis of biomass is a green intermediate that can be further upgraded into a biofuel for blending in a petroleum refinery using a hydro-deoxygenation (HDO) route. Co-processing pyrolysis bio-oil in a petroleum refinery is an attractive approach to leverage the refinery’s existing capital. However, the petroleum industry is reluctant to accept pyrolysis bio-oil because of a lack of a standard definition for an acceptable bio-oil feedstock in existing refinery processes. Also per BETO’s multiyear program plan, fast pyrolysis-based bio-fuel is presently not cost competitive with petroleum-based transportation fuels. SR aims to develop and demonstrate a cost-effective low-severity thermal liquefaction and hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) process to convert woody biomass to stabilized bio-oils that can be directly blended with hydrotreater input streams in a petroleum refinery for production of gasoline and/or diesel range hydrocarbons. The specific project objectives are to demonstrate the processes at laboratory scale, characterize the bio-oil product and develop a plan in partnership with a refinery company to move the technology towards commercialization.

  20. The energy efficiency of crude oil refining in Brazil: A Brazilian refinery plant case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Romulo S. de; Schaeffer, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    This article evaluates energy efficiency in Brazilian crude oil refining in comparison with the crude oil refining in the United States between 1930 and 2008. It aims to show that increased refinery complexity reduces the energy consumption of products of high value added. Moreover, the article shows that improvements in energy efficiency result in higher quality products and increased processing of oil. A Brazilian refinery with a capacity of 157,000 barrels per day (kbpd) was modernized in 2008 at a cost of US $1.3 billion. As a result, its capacity increased by 17%, from 157 to 189 kbpd. Its complexity index also rose from 3.2 to 6.8, allowing an improvement in the EII (energy intensity index) from 110% to 93%. In relation to the crude oil processed before being modernized, energy consumption fell from 0.75 to 0.52 MBtu (million British thermal units) per barrel processed. These proceedings show that increases in complexity reduce the energy consumed in the production of final products with high value added, such as gasoline, diesel and jet fuel. -- Highlights: → Increased refinery complexity reduces the energy consumption of products of high value added. → Improvements in refinery energy efficiency result in higher quality products and increased processing of oil. → Brazilian refineries were not affected significantly in the 2008 crisis, such as the US refineries, due to many factors. → The EII of Brazilian refining presents real opportunities for gains through changes in the profile of energy consumed.

  1. Petroleum Refinery Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model User Reference Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, Marshall [MRG and Associates, Nevada City, CA (United States)

    2013-12-31

    The Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) models, developed through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), are user-friendly tools utilized to estimate the economic impacts at the local level of constructing and operating fuel and power generation projects for a range of conventional and renewable energy technologies. The JEDI Petroleum Refinery Model User Reference Guide was developed to assist users in employing and understanding the model. This guide provides information on the model's underlying methodology, as well as the parameters and references used to develop the cost data utilized in the model. This guide also provides basic instruction on model add-in features, operation of the model, and a discussion of how the results should be interpreted. Based on project-specific inputs from the user, the model estimates job creation, earning and output (total economic activity) for a given petroleum refinery. This includes the direct, indirect and induced economic impacts to the local economy associated with the refinery's construction and operation phases. Project cost and job data used in the model are derived from the most current cost estimations available. Local direct and indirect economic impacts are estimated using economic multipliers derived from IMPLAN software. By determining the regional economic impacts and job creation for a proposed refinery, the JEDI Petroleum Refinery model can be used to field questions about the added value refineries may bring to the local community.

  2. Opportunities and challenges at the interface between petrochemistry and refinery. The BASF perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blankertz, H.J. [BASF AG, Ludwigshafen (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The author of the contribution under consideration reports on the BASF perspective according to opportunities and challenges at the interface between petrochemistry and refinery. This contribution is divided into the following chapters: (a) Overview BASF-Group; (b) Overview BASF Petrochemicals; (c) The refinery-chemistry interface; (d) Main focus refineries; (e) Interface challenges and opportunities; (f) What can BASF do for refineries. BASF employs the Verbund concept, a system that combines production with energy needs in an intelligent way. The idea is to reduce of primary energy carriers both in terms of raw materials and for power and steam generation. The authors describes the petrochemicals of BASF AG (Ludwigshafen, Federal Republic of Germany), the raw material development, evolution of thermal steamcracking and crackerproducts. Major feedstock source of the European petrochemical industry are streams out of refineries which can't be used for transportation fuels. The gap between propylene demand and production out of steam crackers has to be closed by propylene out for FCC's. Demand for aromatics (xylenes and benzene, and to a lesser extent toluene) needs to be filled in by aromatics out of refineries. Market drivers for the refining industry are lowering crude costs, growing clean products, increasing capacity and enhancing E and P integration. BASF has various business with the oil und refining industry and provides solutions for oil field chemicals, process chemicals and performance additives. The author explains which kind of products and services BASF provides for refiners.

  3. Yields from pyrolysis of refinery residue using a batch process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Prithiraj

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Batch pyrolysis was a valuable process of assessing the potential of recovering and characterising products from hazardous waste materials. This research explored the pyrolysis of hydrocarbon-rich refinery residue, from crude oil processes, in a 1200 L electrically-heated batch retort. Furthermore, the off-gases produced were easily processed in compliance with existing regulatory emission standards. The methodology offers a novel, cost-effective and environmentally compliant method of assessing recovery potential of valuable products. The pyrolysis experiments yielded significant oil (70% with high calorific value (40 MJ/kg, char (14% with carbon content over 80% and non-condensable gas (6% with significant calorific value (240 kJ/mol. The final gas stream was subjected to an oxidative clean-up process with continuous on-line monitoring demonstrating compliance with South African emission standards. The gas treatment was overall economically optimal as only a smaller portion of the original residue was subjected to emission-controlling steps. Keywords: Batch pyrolysis, Volatiles, Oil yields, Char, Emissions, Oil recovery

  4. Optimization of refinery product blending by using linear programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ristikj, Julija; Tripcheva-Trajkovska, Loreta; Rikaloski, Ice; Markovska, Liljana

    1999-01-01

    The product slate of a simple refinery consists mainly of liquefied petroleum gas, leaded and unleaded gasoline, jet fuel, diesel fuel, extra light heating oil and fuel oil. The quality of the oil products (fuels) for sale has to comply with the adopted standards for liquid fuels, and the produced quantities have to be comply with the market needs. The oil products are manufactured by blending two or more different fractions which quantities and physical-chemical properties depend on the crude oil type, the way and conditions of processing, and at the same time the fractions are used to blend one or more products. It is in producer's interest to do the blending in an optimal way, namely, to satisfy the requirements for the oil products quality and quantity with a maximal usage of the available fractions and, of course, with a maximal profit out of the sold products. This could be accomplished by applying linear programming, that is by using a linear model for oil products blending optimization. (Author)

  5. Purification and detoxification of petroleum refinery wastewater by electrocoagulation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gousmi, N; Sahmi, A; Li, H Z; Poncin, S; Djebbar, R; Bensadok, K

    2016-09-01

    The treatment of synthetic oily wastewater having the characteristics of a typical petroleum refinery wastewater (PRW) by electrocoagulation (EC) using iron and aluminum electrodes was conducted in an electrolytic reactor equipped with fluid recirculation. During the treatment, the emulsion stability was followed by the measurement of Zeta potential and particle sizes. Effects of some operating conditions such as electrodes material, current density and electrolysis time on removal efficiencies of turbidity, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were investigated in detail. The PRW purification by the EC process was found to be the most effective using aluminum as the anode and cathode, current density of 60 A/m(2) and 30 min of electrolysis time. Under these conditions, the process efficiencies were 83.52% and 99.94%, respectively, for COD and turbidity removals which correspond to final values of 96 mg O2/L and 0.5 NTU. A moderate energy consumption (0.341 kWh) was needed to treat 1 m(3) of PRW. Besides, the ecotoxicity test proved that toxic substances presented in the PRW, and those inhibiting the germination growth of whet, were eliminated by the EC technique.

  6. Commissioning and startup of the Blind River uranium refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schisler, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    In the last five years Eldorado Resources Ltd. (ERL) has undergone a major expansion and modernization of its uranium refining and conversion plants. A new refinery for processing yellow cake to UO/sub 3/ was constructed at Blind River in northern Ontario and started up in 1983. Its rated capacity is 18,000 t/a uranium as UO/sub 3/. At Port Hope, Ontario, ERL's new UF/sub 6/ conversion plant has been constructed. This plant started up in 1984. It utilizes the novel, wet-way process to produce UF/sub 4/ and gives the company a UF/sub 6/ production capacity of 14,500 t/a U. Also at Port Hope is Eldorado's ceramic UO/sub 2/ powder production facility, commissioned in late 1980. It has a capacity of 1700 t/a uranium as UO/sub 2/. With the completion of these capital projects, Eldorado has the largest and most up-to-date refining and conversion facilities in the western world. This paper reviews the refining process and process design. The methodology used to start up the Blind River plant is described as are some startup difficulties, solutions that were developed, and the resultant current operation

  7. Evaluation of wastewater treatment plant at Khartoum refinery company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alnour, Y. A. M.

    2010-03-01

    A wastewater treatment plant has been established in Khartoum Refinery Company in order to treat 1800 meters cubic per day, and to meet the increase in the number of employees and the continued expansion of the company. The study aims to evaluate the performance of the station after a three years period of work, and calculate the efficiency of the station through the following variables: average removal of the biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, suspended solids and oils, by taking water samples before and after treatment, every week for two month, analysis of samples were conducted in the central laboratory at KRC. The determination of the station efficiency revealed that the station is working well. Treated water characteristics are in conformity with the specifications set by the world Organization Health. It is also proved to be suitable for use in irrigation the amount of water entering to treatment is very large (1500 cubic meters), which lead to dilution of the BOD, COD, SS and oils concentrations. The reason being misuse of water by employees in addition to the large number of damage in the water pipes. The station must be re-evaluated after a certain (5 years) period to determine the impact of future increases of employees, and it is effect on the efficiency of the station. It is recommended to improve the behaviour of employees regarding the use of water, so as to reduce the dilution. (Author)

  8. Regeneration and reuse waste from an edible oil refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukerroui, Abdelhamid; Belhocine, Lydia; Ferroudj, Sonia

    2017-08-21

    A spent bleaching earth (SBE) from an edible oil refinery has been regenerated by thermal processing in oven, followed by washing with a cold solution of hydrochloric acid (1M). Optimal regeneration conditions have been controlled by decolorization tests of degummed and neutralized soybean oil. Optimal values of treatment (temperature 350°C, carbonization time 01 h, and HCl concentration 1M) gave a very efficient material. After bleaching oil by regenerated spent bleaching earth (RSBE), the chlorophyll-a and β-carotenes contained in crude edible oil and observed respectively at 430, 454, and 483 nm, value of λ max , are very much decreased. The results obtained after decolorization of edible oil by RSBE material indicate, that, during the process, the bleaching oil did not undergo any changes in the free fatty acid content. The peroxide value (PV) was reduced from 4.2 to 1.8 meq O 2 /kg, and the color has been improved (Lovibond color yellow/red: from 50/0.5 to 2.7/0.3, respectively). The RSBE material obtained was characterized by several techniques (FTIR, SEM). The results show that the heat treatment did not affect the mineral structure of RSBE, and the regenerated material recovered its porous structure.

  9. Treatment of petroleum refinery sourwater by advanced oxidation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, Alessandra; Castro, Antonio V.; Dezotti, Marcia; Sant'Anna, G.L.

    2006-01-01

    The performance of several oxidation processes to remove organic pollutants from sourwater was investigated. Sourwater is a specific stream of petroleum refineries, which contains slowly biodegradable compounds and toxic substances that impair the industrial biological wastewater treatment system. Preliminary experiments were conducted, using the following processes: H 2 O 2 , H 2 O 2 /UV, UV, photocatalysis, ozonation, Fenton and photo-Fenton. All processes, except Fenton and photo-Fenton, did not lead to satisfactory results, reducing at most 35% of the sourwater dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Thus, further experiments were performed with these two techniques to evaluate process conditions and organic matter removal kinetics. Batch experiments revealed that the Fenton reaction is very fast and reaches, in a few minutes, an ultimate DOC removal of 13-27%, due to the formation of iron complexes. Radiation for an additional period of 60 min can increase DOC removal up to 87%. Experiments were also conducted in a continuous mode, operating one 0.4 L Fenton stirred reactor and one 1.6 L photo-Fenton reactor in series. DOC removals above 75% were reached, when the reaction system was operated with hydraulic retention times (HRT) higher than 85 min. An empirical mathematical model was proposed to represent the DOC removal kinetics, allowing predicting process performance quite satisfactorily

  10. Towards effective waste management. Knowledge centre Waste Refinery Activity Report 2007-2009; Mot effektivare avfallshantering. Kunskapscentrum Waste Refinery Verksamhetsrapport 2007-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-01

    This report aims to provide a comprehensive picture of the areas that have been discussed and developed during the knowledge centre Waste Refinery first three years. Details and depth analyzes of each area are contained in project reports, which can be downloaded free of charge through our website www.wasterefinery.se

  11. Evaluation of Coordination of Emergency Response Team through the Social Network Analysis. Case Study: Oil and Gas Refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadfam, Iraj; Bastani, Susan; Esaghi, Mahbobeh; Golmohamadi, Rostam; Saee, Ali

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the cohesions status of the coordination within response teams in the emergency response team (ERT) in a refinery. For this study, cohesion indicators of social network analysis (SNA; density, degree centrality, reciprocity, and transitivity) were utilized to examine the coordination of the response teams as a whole network. The ERT of this research, which was a case study, included seven teams consisting of 152 members. The required data were collected through structured interviews and were analyzed using the UCINET 6.0 Social Network Analysis Program. The results reported a relatively low number of triple connections, poor coordination with key members, and a high level of mutual relations in the network with low density, all implying that there were low cohesions of coordination in the ERT. The results showed that SNA provided a quantitative and logical approach for the examination of the coordination status among response teams and it also provided a main opportunity for managers and planners to have a clear understanding of the presented status. The research concluded that fundamental efforts were needed to improve the presented situations.

  12. Assessment of refinery effluents and receiving waters using biologically-based effect methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Within the EU it is apparent that the regulatory focus on the use of biologically-based effects methods in the assessment of refinery effluents and receiving waters has increased in the past decade. This has been reflected in a recent refinery survey which revealed an increased use of such methods for assessing the quality of refinery effluents and their receiving waters. This report provides an overview of recent techniques used for this purpose. Several case studies provided by CONCAWE member companies describe the application of biological methods to effluent discharge assessment and surface water monitoring. The case studies show that when biological methods are applied to refinery effluents and receiving waters they raise different questions compared with those obtained using physical and chemical methods. Although direct measurement of the toxicity of effluent and receiving to aquatic organisms is the most cited technique, more recent efforts include tests that also address the persistence of effluent toxicity once discharged into the receiving water. Similarly, ecological monitoring of receiving waters can identify effects of effluent inputs arising from species interactions and other secondary effects that would not always be apparent from the results of biological tests conducted on single aquatic organisms. In light of recent and proposed regulatory developments the objectives of this report are therefore to: Discuss the application of biologically-based effects methods (including ecological monitoring) to refinery discharges and receiving waters; Assess the implications of such methods for future regulation of refinery discharges; and Provide guidance on good practice that can be used by refineries and the downstream oil industry to carry out and interpret data obtained using biologically-based effects methods. While the emphasis is on the toxic effects of effluents, other properties will also be covered because of their interdependency in determining

  13. Pursuing the pre-combustion CCS route in oil refineries – The impact on fired heaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weydahl, Torleif; Jamaluddin, Jamal; Seljeskog, Morten; Anantharaman, Rahul

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The aim is to approach Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) to refinery fired heaters. ► An identical simplified burner configuration is applied where refinery fuel is replaced with hydrogen. ► Initial simulations indicate that hydrogen replacement do not alter heater operation in a negative way. ► Despite the higher flame temperature in the hydrogen case, the NO x emissions are not higher. ► The prompt-NO mechanism contributes significantly in the refinery fuel case. -- Abstract: The work presented in this paper investigates the effect of replacing refinery fuel gas in the radiant section burners of a fired heater with hydrogen. The aim is to approach pre-combustion CCS to refinery fired heaters by identifying the impact on heat-, flow- and radiation distribution in the lower radiant section of the fired heater when simply switching refinery gas with hydrogen at equivalent power using the same burner geometrics. Additionally the formation of NO x is considered. The investigations are performed using a conventional Reynolds Average Navier Stokes (RANS), Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach using detailed reaction kinetics consisting of 325 elementary reactions and 53 species. Simplified and generalized furnace and burner geometries are used in the present work. The results show that approximately the same average wall heat flux density is achieved when the refinery fuel is replaced by hydrogen. However, the distribution of heat on the inner surfaces changes. The hydrogen case has, as expected, a higher flame temperature than the base case, nevertheless, the nitric oxide (NO x ) emissions are comparable to base case emissions. Several indications point in the direction of a significant contribution to the base case emissions from the less temperature dependent prompt-NO mechanism, which obviously is not contributing to the hydrogen case emissions.

  14. Urinary excretion of platinum from South African precious metals refinery workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Stephanus J L; Franken, Anja; du Plessis, Johannes L

    2018-03-30

    Urinary platinum (Pt) excretion is a reliable biomarker for occupational Pt exposure and has been previously reported for precious metals refinery workers in Europe but not for South Africa, the world's largest producer of Pt. This study aimed to quantify the urinary Pt excretion of South African precious metals refinery workers. Spot urine samples were collected from 40 workers (directly and indirectly exposed to Pt) at two South African precious metals refineries on three consecutive mornings prior to their shifts. Urine samples were analysed for Pt using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and were corrected for creatinine content. The urinary Pt excretion of workers did not differ significantly between sampling days. Urinary Pt excretions ranged from work area (P=0.0006; η 2 =0.567) and the number of years workers were employed at the refineries (P=0.003; η 2 =0.261) influenced their urinary Pt excretion according to effect size analyses. Directly exposed workers had significantly higher urinary Pt excretion compared with indirectly exposed workers (P=0.007). The urinary Pt excretion of South African precious metals refinery workers reported in this study is comparable with that of seven other studies conducted in precious metals refineries and automotive catalyst plants in Europe. The Pt body burden of workers is predominantly determined by their work area, years of employment in the refineries and whether they are directly or indirectly exposed to Pt. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Assessment of refinery effluents and receiving waters using biologically-based effect methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-01-15

    Within the EU it is apparent that the regulatory focus on the use of biologically-based effects methods in the assessment of refinery effluents and receiving waters has increased in the past decade. This has been reflected in a recent refinery survey which revealed an increased use of such methods for assessing the quality of refinery effluents and their receiving waters. This report provides an overview of recent techniques used for this purpose. Several case studies provided by CONCAWE member companies describe the application of biological methods to effluent discharge assessment and surface water monitoring. The case studies show that when biological methods are applied to refinery effluents and receiving waters they raise different questions compared with those obtained using physical and chemical methods. Although direct measurement of the toxicity of effluent and receiving to aquatic organisms is the most cited technique, more recent efforts include tests that also address the persistence of effluent toxicity once discharged into the receiving water. Similarly, ecological monitoring of receiving waters can identify effects of effluent inputs arising from species interactions and other secondary effects that would not always be apparent from the results of biological tests conducted on single aquatic organisms. In light of recent and proposed regulatory developments the objectives of this report are therefore to: Discuss the application of biologically-based effects methods (including ecological monitoring) to refinery discharges and receiving waters; Assess the implications of such methods for future regulation of refinery discharges; and Provide guidance on good practice that can be used by refineries and the downstream oil industry to carry out and interpret data obtained using biologically-based effects methods. While the emphasis is on the toxic effects of effluents, other properties will also be covered because of their interdependency in determining

  16. Fuel specification, energy consumption and CO2 emission in oil refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szklo, Alexandre; Schaeffer, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    The more stringent environmental quality specifications for oil products worldwide are tending to step up energy use and, consequently, CO 2 emissions at refineries. In Brazil, for example, the stipulated reduction in the sulfur content of diesel and gasoline between 2002 and 2009 should increase the energy use of Brazil's refining industry by around 30%, with effects on its CO 2 emissions. Thus, the world refining industry must deal with trade-offs between emissions of pollutants with local impacts (due to fuel specifications) and emissions of pollutants with global impacts (due to the increased energy use at refineries to remove contaminants from oil products). Two promising technology options for refineries could ease this clash in the near-to-mid term: the reduction per se of the energy use at the refinery; and the development of treatment processes using non-hydrogen consuming techniques. For instance, in Brazilian refineries, the expanded energy use resulting from severe hydrotreatment to comply with the more stringent specifications of oil products may be almost completely offset by energy saving options and alternative desulfurization techniques, if barriers to invest in technological innovations are overcome. (author)

  17. Feasibility of flare gas reformation to practical energy in Farashband gas refinery: no gas flaring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimpour, Mohammad Reaza; Jokar, Seyyed Mohammad

    2012-03-30

    A suggested method for controlling the level of hazardous materials in the atmosphere is prevention of combustion in flare. In this work, three methods are proposed to recover flare gas instead of conventional gas-burning in flare at the Farashband gas refinery. These methods aim to minimize environmental and economical disadvantages of burning flare gas. The proposed methods are: (1) gas to liquid (GTL) production, (2) electricity generation with a gas turbine and, (3) compression and injection into the refinery pipelines. To find the most suitable method, the refinery units that send gas to the flare as well as the required equipment for the three aforementioned methods are simulated. These simulations determine the amount of flare gas, the number of GTL barrels, the power generated by the gas turbine and the required compression horsepower. The results of simulation show that 563 barrels/day of valuable GTL products is produced by the first method. The second method provides 25 MW electricity and the third method provides a compressed natural gas with 129 bar pressure for injection to the refinery pipelines. In addition, the economics of flare gas recovery methods are studied and compared. The results show that for the 4.176MMSCFD of gas flared from the Farashband gas refinery, the electricity production gives the highest rate of return (ROR), the lowest payback period, the highest annual profit and mild capital investment. Therefore, the electricity production is the superior method economically. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. U.S. Refinery compliance costs - the elements of and estimate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musgrove, J.G.; Swain, E.J.

    1993-01-01

    A recent National Petroleum Council study identified the environmental costs facing the refining industry from 1995 through 2010. Four broad areas were identified: air pollution control, wastewater treatment, solid and hazardous waste treatment, and occupational health and safety. This paper will present the technical issues and engineering information required to produce an estimate of cost impact. For each of the four areas of impact, the kinds of information required of the refinery manager in order to build an estimate will be tabulated and discussed. For air pollution control, issues will include size and type of unit, product mix of output, and the impact of facility location relative to non-attainment issues. For wastewater, issues will include stormwater segregation, benzene NESHAP, and other treatment system requirements. For hazardous waste treatment, issues will include groundwater protection and leak detection and contaminated soil segregation. For occupational health and safety, issues will include process changes required and worker training required. For all issues, the major dollar factors will be identified as a function of the technical data available. The refinery costs in each areas were estimated for seven groups of refinery sizes. The presentation will conclude with tabulation of cost estimates for each area of investigation and each refinery group. The total costs for each refinery group over the fifteen-year period will also be presented

  19. Reducing refinery CO2 emissions through amine solvent upgrade and optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, Thiago V.; Valenzuela, Michelle [The Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Regional initiatives are underway to reduce and limit the emissions of greenhouse gases. With CO2 emissions making up over 80% of the greenhouse gases, cap-and-trade programs will focus on those industries that consume the most energy. Refineries are among the top energy consumers and are seeking opportunities to reduce usage. With tightening margins, energy management programs will not only help refineries meet CO{sub 2} emission regulations, but can also provide a competitive advantage. With the trend towards heavier and higher sulfur containing crudes, refineries are increasing processing capabilities, which can include capital-intensive projects and additional energy consumption. Energy conservation plans should include optimization of these processes. One area to consider includes the acid gas removal systems in refineries. Through the selection and use of optimal solvents and implementation of energy efficiency techniques, which require minimal capital investment and expenditures, refineries can reduce energy usage, overall CO{sub 2} emissions, and total cost in acid gas systems. This paper will discuss these approaches and share case studies detailing the implementation and results. (author)

  20. Predicting refinery effluent toxicity on the basis of hydrocarbon composition determined by GCxGC analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whale, G. [and others

    2013-04-15

    A high resolution analytical method for determining hydrocarbon blocks in petroleum products by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC) was used for the analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons extracted from refinery effluents. From 105 CONCAWE refineries in Europe 111 refinery effluents were collected in the period June 2008 to March 2009 (CONCAWE, 2010). The effluents were analysed for metals, standard effluent parameters (including Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), oil in water (OiW), GCxGC speciated hydrocarbons, BTEX (Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Xylenes) and volatile organic compounds. This report describes the subsequent analysis of the GCxGC data, as described in hydrocarbon blocks, and uses the PETROTOX model, to predict the environmental toxicity (i.e. ecotoxicity) of the discharged effluents. A further analysis was undertaken to address the potential environmental impact of these predicted effects initially using default dilution factors and then,when necessary site specific factors. The report describes all the methods used to arrive at the predictions, and shows that for the majority of refinery effluents direct toxicity effects in the effluents are not anticipated. Furthermore, when applying either the EU Risk Assessment Technical Guidance Document (TGD) default dilution factors or site specific dilution factors, none of the refineries are predicted to exerting either acute or chronic toxicity to organisms in the receiving aquatic environment, based on their hydrocarbon composition present in the effluent samples.

  1. Energy demand analysis of Port-Harcourt refinery, Nigeria and its policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesuleye, O.A.; Siyanbola, W.O.; Sanni, S.A.; Ilori, M.O.

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses energy demand of Port-Harcourt refinery, Nigeria, based on information obtained from its annual publications, backed-up by spot interviews. The analytical approach adopted for the study involves the calculation of energy intensities to determine the refinery's annual energy demand for various energy types considered from 1989 to 2004. The results showed that the actual energy demand per year for processing crude oil into refined products, exceeded, in varying degrees the stipulated refinery standard of 4 barrels of oil equivalent (BOE) per 100 BOE. It varied from 4.28-8.58 BOE per 100 BOE. In terms of energy demand efficiency, this implies very poor performance of the refinery during the 16-year period under investigation. The excess demand which translates to an average daily wastage of about 2005 BOE is estimated to be $56,196 (US Dollars) based on the 2003 OPEC basket price of $28.0213 per barrel. Lack of optimal fuel utilization-mix and non-compliance with the Turn-Around-Maintenance schedules were attributed to the refinery's inefficient energy demand pattern

  2. FEASIBILITY STUDY FOR A PETROLEUM REFINERY FOR THE JICARILLA APACHE TRIBE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, John D.

    2004-01-01

    A feasibility study for a proposed petroleum refinery for the Jicarilla Apache Indian Reservation was performed. The available crude oil production was identified and characterized. There is 6,000 barrels per day of crude oil production available for processing in the proposed refinery. The proposed refinery will utilize a lower temperature, smaller crude fractionation unit. It will have a Naphtha Hydrodesulfurizer and Reformer to produce high octane gasoline. The surplus hydrogen from the reformer will be used in a specialized hydrocracker to convert the heavier crude oil fractions to ultra low sulfur gasoline and diesel fuel products. The proposed refinery will produce gasoline, jet fuel, diesel fuel, and a minimal amount of lube oil. The refinery will require about $86,700,000 to construct. It will have net annual pre-tax profit of about $17,000,000. The estimated return on investment is 20%. The feasibility is positive subject to confirmation of long term crude supply. The study also identified procedures for evaluating processing options as a means for American Indian Tribes and Native American Corporations to maximize the value of their crude oil production

  3. Biorefineries: Relocating Biomass Refineries to the Rural Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franka Papendiek

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The field for application of biomass is rising. The demand for food and feeding stuff rises while at the same time energy, chemicals and other materials also need to be produced from biomass because of decreasing fossil resources. However, the biorefinery ideas and concepts can help to use the limited renewable raw materials more efficiently than today. With biorefineries, valuable products, such as platform chemicals, can be produced from agricultural feedstock, which can subsequently be further processed into a variety of substances by the chemical industry. Due to the role they play as producers of biomass, rural areas will grow in importance in the decades to come. Parts of the biorefinery process can be relocated to the rural areas to bring a high added value to these regions. By refining biomass at the place of production, new economic opportunities may arise for agriculturists, and the industry gets high-grade pre-products. Additionally, an on-farm refining can increase the quality of the products because of the instant processing. To reduce competition with the food production and to find new possibilities of utilisation for these habitats, the focus for new agricultural biomass should be on grasslands. But also croplands can provide more renewable raw materials without endangering a sustainable agriculture, e.g. by implementing legumes in the crop rotation. To decide if a region can provide adequate amounts of raw material for a biorefinery, new raw material assessment procedures have to be developed. In doing so, involvement of farmers is inevitable to generate a reliable study of the biomass refinery potentials.

  4. Characterization of oily sludge from a Tehran oil refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidarzadeh, Nima; Gitipour, Saeid; Abdoli, Mohammad Ali

    2010-10-01

    In this study, oily sludge samples generated from a Tehran oil refinery (Pond I) were evaluated for their contamination levels and to propose an adequate remediation technique for the wastes. A simple, random, sampling method was used to collect the samples. The samples were analyzed to measure Total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and heavy metal concentrations in the sludge. Statistical analysis showed that seven samples were adequate to assess the sludge with respect to TPH analyses. The mean concentration of TPHs in the samples was 265,600 mg kg⁻¹. A composite sample prepared from a mix of the seven samples was used to determine the sludge's additional characteristics. Composite sample analysis showed that there were no detectable amounts of PAHs in the sludge. In addition, mean concentrations of the selected heavy metals Ni, Pb, Cd and Zn were 2700, 850, 100, 6100 mg kg⁻¹, respectively. To assess the sludge contamination level, the results from the analysis above were compared with soil clean-up levels. Due to a lack of national standards for soil clean-up levels in Iran, sludge pollutant concentrations were compared with standards set in developed countries. According to these standards, the sludge was highly polluted with petroleum hydrocarbons. The results indicated that incineration, biological treatment and solidification/stabilization treatments would be the most appropriate methods for treatment of the sludges. In the case of solidification/stabilization, due to the high organic content of the sludge, it is recommended to use organophilic clays prior to treatment of the wastes.

  5. Meteorologically estimated exposure but not distance predicts asthma symptoms in schoolchildren in the environs of a petrochemical refinery: a cross-sectional study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    White, N

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Community concern about asthma prompted an epidemiological study of children living near a petrochemical refinery in Cape Town, South Africa. Because of resource constraints and the complexity of refinery emissions, neither direct environmental...

  6. Air Pollution Dispersion Modeling of Abadan oil Refinery Using SCREEN3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedayati Rad, F.; Salman-Mahini, A.; Mirkarimi, H.

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is a major problem that has been recognized throughout the world. Refineriers normally create environmental pollution through emissions of pollutants gaseous from a variety of sources. Analysing air pollution distribution and dispersion can help in reducing the negative effects. In this study NO_X and SO_2 emissions and distributions were investigated for Abadan oil refinery using SCREEN3 software. In this softweare, wind speed and direction, air temperature, location and physical characteristics of chimnies and atmospheric stability were taken into consideration.The concentration of pollutants in different distances from the stacks in the range 25 km were predicted and mapped in Idrisi software. The output from software SCREEN3 for emissions from stacks were also examined and compared with the standard output of the refineries. According to our results, the concentration of pollutants in summer and autumn seasons exceeds of the environmental standards.

  7. Emergency Response Program Designing Based On Case Study ERP Regulations In Ilam Gas Refinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Tahmasbi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study of Emergency response plan designing is one of the most important prevention approaches in crisis management. This study aims to design emergency response plan based on case study ERP regulations in Ilam gas refinery. On the basis of risk assessment and identification techniques such as HAZOP and FMEA in Ilam gas refinery the risks have been prioritized and then according to this prioritization the design of possible scenarios which have the highest rate of occurrence and the highest level of damage has been separated. Possible scenarios were simulated with PHAST software. Then emergency response program has been designed for the special mode or similar cases. According to the internal emergency response plan for Ilam gas refinery and predictable conditions of the process special instructions should be considered at the time of the incident to suffer the least damage on people and environment in the shortest time possible.

  8. Treatability studies on different refinery wastewater samples using high-throughput microbial electrolysis cells (MECs)

    KAUST Repository

    Ren, Lijiao; Siegert, Michael; Ivanov, Ivan; Pisciotta, John M.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2013-01-01

    High-throughput microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) were used to perform treatability studies on many different refinery wastewater samples all having appreciably different characteristics, which resulted in large differences in current generation. A de-oiled refinery wastewater sample from one site (DOW1) produced the best results, with 2.1±0.2A/m2 (maximum current density), 79% chemical oxygen demand removal, and 82% headspace biological oxygen demand removal. These results were similar to those obtained using domestic wastewater. Two other de-oiled refinery wastewater samples also showed good performance, with a de-oiled oily sewer sample producing less current. A stabilization lagoon sample and a stripped sour wastewater sample failed to produce appreciable current. Electricity production, organics removal, and startup time were improved when the anode was first acclimated to domestic wastewater. These results show mini-MECs are an effective method for evaluating treatability of different wastewaters. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs for Refinery Wastewater Treatment Contains High Phenol Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizah Alif Nurul

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum Refinery wastewater is characterized by a high phenol content. Phenol is toxic and resistant to biological processes for treatment of the petroleum refinery wastewater. The combination of an AOP and a biological process can be used for treatment of the refinery wastewater. It is necessary to conduct a study to determine the appropriate condition of AOP to meet the phenol removal level. Two AOP configurations were investigated: H2O2 / UV and H2O2 / UV / O3. From each process samples, COD, phenol and pH were measured. The oxidation was carried out until the targeted phenol concentration of treated effluent were obtained. The better result obtained by using process H2O2 / UV / O3 with the H2O2 concentration 1000 ppm. After 120 minutes, the final target has been achieved in which phenol concentration of 37.5 mg/L or phenol degradation of 93.75%.

  10. Challenges and technological opportunities for the oil refining industry: A Brazilian refinery case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castelo Branco, David A.; Gomes, Gabriel L.; Szklo, Alexandre S.

    2010-01-01

    The worldwide oil refining industry currently faces strong challenges related to uncertainties about future feedstock and characteristics of oil products. These challenges favor two main strategies for the sector: the first strategy is increasing refinery complexity and versatility; the second is integrating the refining and petrochemical industries, adding value to the crude oil while guaranteeing market share to premium oil products. Both strategies aim at increasing production of highly specified oil products, simultaneously reducing the environmental impacts of the refining industry. This paper analyses the case of a Brazilian refinery, Gabriel Passos Refinery (REGAP), by proposing additional investments to alter and/or expand its current production scheme. All the proposed options present relatively low investment rates of return. However, investments in a hydrocracking based configuration with a gasification unit providing hydrogen and power can further improve the operational profitability, due to reduced natural gas consumption.

  11. Environmental monitoring near urban lead refineries by photon and neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paciga, J.J.; Chattopadhyay, A.; Jervis, R.E.

    1974-01-01

    Photon activation has been used in conjunction with neutron activation for multielement determinations in airborne particulates, soil, and hair samples collected near two secondary lead refineries in Metropolitan Toronto. Particle size distributions of suspended particulates collected with a high volume Andersen sampler are reported for Al, Sb, As, Br, Cl, Mn, Na, Pb, Ti and V. Increases in the concentrations of Pb, As and Sb associated with particles >3.3 μm diameter on certain days near the refineries has resulted in localized contamination as reflected in higher concentrations of these elements in soil. To assess Pb accumulation in local residents compared with control groups, approximately 250 hair samples were analyzed for Pb by photon activation analysis. Children living close to the refineries, especially boys, exhibit the most elevated levels: up to 20 times urban control values in some cases

  12. Assessment of the estrogenic potency of effluents from petrochemical facilities and a petroleum refinery in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherry, J.P.; Trepanier, T.; Tinson, C.; Munro, S.

    2002-01-01

    Studies have shown that wastewater from refineries could induce vitellogenin (Vg) in juvenile rainbow trout. Vg is a biomarker of exposure to estrogenic chemicals. This study reassessed the estrogenic potency of the wastewater from an Ontario refinery and assessed the estrogenicity of wastewater from 3 petrochemical facilities. A 21 day static renewal test was conducted to test the effluents and in which a competitive binding ELISA detected induced Vg. Statistical testing for tank effects was performed in a replicated tank design and the St. Clair River water from upstream industrial facilities was used as a negative reference. The positive control treatment was waterborne 17β-estradiol. Wastewater from the petroleum refinery induced Vg in the treated fish, but wastewater from the petrochemical effluents did not induce detectable levels of Vg in treated trout. The information obtained through this study will be used to determine the potential for responses in feral fish

  13. Allocating the CO2 emissions of an oil refinery with Aumann-Shapley prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierru, A.

    2005-06-01

    Linear programming is widely used by multi-product oil-refining firms, which minimize a refinery's variable cost under a set of constraints. In addition to operating costs, this variable cost can include the cost associated with the refinery's CO 2 emissions. We suggest a quite general approach combining use of Aumann-Shapley cost-sharing method and breakdown of the objective function of the linear program. This approach determines an appropriate rule for the allocation of the refinery's CO 2 emissions (or, in general, variable costs) among the various finished products, which can be used for purposes of Life Cycle Assessment. A numerical application to a simplified refining model is presented. (author)

  14. Treatability studies on different refinery wastewater samples using high-throughput microbial electrolysis cells (MECs)

    KAUST Repository

    Ren, Lijiao

    2013-05-01

    High-throughput microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) were used to perform treatability studies on many different refinery wastewater samples all having appreciably different characteristics, which resulted in large differences in current generation. A de-oiled refinery wastewater sample from one site (DOW1) produced the best results, with 2.1±0.2A/m2 (maximum current density), 79% chemical oxygen demand removal, and 82% headspace biological oxygen demand removal. These results were similar to those obtained using domestic wastewater. Two other de-oiled refinery wastewater samples also showed good performance, with a de-oiled oily sewer sample producing less current. A stabilization lagoon sample and a stripped sour wastewater sample failed to produce appreciable current. Electricity production, organics removal, and startup time were improved when the anode was first acclimated to domestic wastewater. These results show mini-MECs are an effective method for evaluating treatability of different wastewaters. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Impact of Energy Production on Respiratory Outcomes: Evidence from the Flandres Refinery in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavaine, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the impact of sulphur dioxide (SO_2) concentration on respiratory admissions in the north of France at municipal level from 2007 to 2011. The Flandres refinery closure in the north of France, in September 2009, is used as a natural experiment. First, this study shows that the halt in the refinery's operations, followed by its closure in 2010, reduces SO_2 concentration. We then use this exogenous shock to analyse the health impact of the high SO_2 concentration generated by energy production. Our estimates highlight that the reduction in SO_2 concentration has significantly reduced the severity of respiratory outcomes. Additionally, the refinery closure has had statistically significant effects on the revenue of municipalities in the area

  16. Health implications of petroleum refinery air emissions: Part I main report : Final : Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-03-01

    This report provides a review of recent public health risk assessments performed in the field of petroleum refineries, and epidemiological or community health studies of populations residing close to petroleum refineries. The objective was to identify and access information concerning possible health impacts specific to this industry. The small number of studies performed on the topic as well as shortcomings in study design, concomitant exposure to other industrial sources and somewhat inconsistent findings make the data difficult to interpret. Potential concerns include short-term respiratory effects from exposure to sulphur dioxide and other substances, and cancer risks from benzene and other substances. There was very limited support for these findings in epidemiology studies of populations in the vicinity of petroleum refineries. This review provides additional support concerning cardiac and respiratory effects of air pollution including particulate matter (PM) and ground level ozone

  17. 40 CFR 80.410 - What are the additional requirements for gasoline produced at foreign refineries having...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... inspections and audits of the foreign refinery. (i) Inspections and audits may be either announced in advance... prohibitions in this section and § 80.385; and (vi) The independent audit requirements under § 80.415... of the refinery at which the gasoline was produced, assurance that the gasoline remained segregated...

  18. 77 FR 44685 - ConocoPhillips Company, Trainer Refinery, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Shrack, Young...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ..., Trainer Refinery, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Shrack, Young, and Associates, Inc., and Project Control Associates, Trainer, PA; Notice of Revised Determination on Reconsideration On April 30, 2012, the... applicable to workers and former workers of ConocoPhillips Company, Trainer Refinery, Trainer, Pennsylvania...

  19. Cleaner shipping. Trade off between air pollution, costs and refinery CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Wilde, H.P.J.; Kroon, P.

    2008-05-01

    Still subject to final approval in October 2008, the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) agreed on a maximum sulphur content of 0.5% for shipping fuels in 2020. This target will induce major changes in the global refinery industry. We have estimated the impact on the Dutch refinery industry, which annually produces about 8 million tons of heavy fuel oil for sea shipping, with refinery residues as main component. It is technically possible to convert all residues, although this process will cause an additional energy use of about one million tons of crude oil and a related CO2 emission of about 4 million tons. The investment costs for these major changes in the Dutch refinery industry are estimated at about 1.5 tot 2 billion euros. The recent IMO agreement enables a gradual introduction of cleaner shipping fuels, which will reduce market disruptions and peak prices. Nevertheless, Rotterdam may not necessarily be able to develop a similar position in import, export and bunkering of future low sulphur fuels, compared to its present strong position in the market of heavy marine bunkers. Extrapolation of our national study to the global scale suggests that the deep conversion of 350 million tons of heavy fuel oil for shipping would require refinery investments in the order of 70-100 billion euros. The associated CO2 emissions would amount up to 175 Mton. The net additional CO2 emission, however, would be smaller since lighter shipping fuels result in less CO2 emissions at sea. On balance, we expect that the improvements in fuel economy, driven by the expensive low-carbon shipping fuels, will decrease CO2 emissions more than the increase in CO2 emissions from additional desulphurization in the refineries. Nevertheless CO2 emissions from sea shipping will continue to increase since marine transport is rapidly growing

  20. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 2): Sinclair Refinery, Allegany County, Wellsville, NY. (Second remedial action), September 1991. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Sinclair Refinery site is a former refinery in Wellsville, Allegany County, New York. The site is composed of a 90-acre refinery area, 10-acre landfill area, and 14-acre offsite tank farm. From 1901 to 1958, the site was used to process Pennsylvania grade crude oil until a fire in 1958 halted operations. Currently, some private companies and the State University of New York occupy the site. A 1981 site inspection revealed that debris from the eroding landfill area has washed into and contaminated the Genesee River. The ROD addresses OU2, remediation of the remaining contaminated areas at the site located within the 90-acre refinery area and the offsite tank farm including the contaminated ground water beneath the refinery. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the soil and ground water are VOCs including benzene and xylenes, semi-volatile compounds including naphthalene and nitrobenzene, and metals including arsenic and lead. The selected remedial action for the site is included

  1. O ecologismo dos pobres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Martinez ALIER

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available O ecologísmo tem colocado em cheque as leis capitalistas de mercado, principalmente na sua fase globalizada, devido à apropriação e exploração inconsequente dos recursos naturais. Ao mesmo tempo tem apontado que o meio ambiente não se reduz ao tratamento somente cientifico da natureza. O presente artigo ressalta aspectos importantes do ecologísmo como a participação das mulheres, o marxismo, o neo-narodnismo, etc. e é rico em exemplos de problemas ambientais decorrentes das relações de produção. O ecologísmo dos pobres é apontado como uma perspectiva necessária às lutas ambientais no Terceiro Mundo.

  2. O Jardim dos Sonhos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAUL CÂNOVAS

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O jardim dos sonhos sempre foi um ideal dos homens. No Antigo Egito, já se falava em um jardim sempre verde para onde as pessoas de bom coração iam após a morte. E na mitologia grega, um lindo jardim era palco das festas bucólicas dos deuses. As grandes religiões também citavam jardins como paraísos, como o Jardim do Éden. Neste artigo, Raul Cânovas nos leva a refletir sobre o sentido de um “jardim perfeito”, sem tratar a perfeição como apenas plástica e estruturada com exatidão, mas referindo-se a um jardim que nos inspire e emocione, emancipado de modismos passageiros. O paisagista também nos alerta sobre as condições mutáveis de um jardim, que nunca está finalizado. O paisagismo não é apenas técnica; é também sensibilidade, utilidade, sustentabilidade e equilíbrio das forças da natureza.

  3. Operation : motor city : Michigan's only refinery to handle an increased slate of heavy Canadian crude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaremko, D.

    2008-01-01

    A planned $1.9 billion upgrade and expansion will see a Detroit, Michigan refinery producing nearly 100 per cent Canadian crude oil. The upgrade will have important social, economic, and environmental implications for the oil sands industry, and is being seen as an important step for the future of the entire energy industry. The site was selected after a consultation of pipeline routes in North America. The refinery's coking capacity will help to ease the market constraints that Canadian crude is currently facing in the United States. The Midwest downstream oil and gas industry is well-positioned to help maximize the value of Canada's bitumen resources. In addition to expanding processing facilities, the refinery will also add capacity of approximately 15,000 barrels per day, as well as a delayed coker, sulphur recovery complex, ultra-low nitrogen oxide (NO x ) burners, a 33,000 barrel-per-day distillate hydrotreater, and a hydrogen plant. It was concluded that construction of the refinery will be completed by 2010. 2 figs

  4. 40 CFR 80.295 - How is a refinery sulfur baseline determined?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of gasoline batch i. n = Total number of batches of gasoline produced during January 1, 1997 through... refinery, the total number of batches of gasoline produced and imported into the U.S. during January 1, 1997 through December 31, 1998, or, the total number of batches of gasoline produced and imported into...

  5. Production of advanced biofuels: co-processing of upgraded pyrolysis oil in standard refinery units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Miguel Mercader, F.; de Miguel Mercader, F.; Groeneveld, M.J.; Hogendoorn, Kees; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Way, N.W.J.; Schaverien, C.J.

    2010-01-01

    One of the possible process options for the production of advanced biofuels is the co-processing of upgraded pyrolysis oil in standard refineries. The applicability of hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) was studied as a pyrolysis oil upgrading step to allow FCC co-processing. Different HDO reaction end

  6. Prospective techno-economic and environmental assessment of carbon capture at a refinery and CO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez Dacosta, C.; Van Der Spek, Mijndert; Hung, Christine Roxanne; Oregionni, Gabriel David; Skagestad, Ragnhild; Parihar, Prashant; Gokak, D. T.; Strømman, Anders Hammer; Ramirez Ramirez, C.A.

    2017-01-01

    CO2 utilisation is gaining interest as a potential element towards a sustainable economy. CO2 can be used as feedstock in the synthesis of fuels, chemicals and polymers. This study presents a prospective assessment of carbon capture from a hydrogen unit at a refinery, where

  7. Semipermeable membrane devices concentrate mixed function oxygenase inducers from oil sands and refinery wastewaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrott, J.L.; Hewitt, L.M.

    2002-01-01

    The health of fish in the Athabasca River was examined to determine the effects of both natural and anthropogenic oil sands exposure on liver mixed function oxygenase (MFO) enzymes. Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMD) were used to concentrate bioavailable compounds that may result in MFO induction. The SPMDs were used for a period of 2 weeks in the Steepbank River as well as in oil refinery wastewater and intake ponds. They were then tested to see if they induced ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in hepatoma cells, a cell line derived from a liver cancer of a small fish. SPMDs from the wastewater pond contained potent EROD inducers in fish liver cells. SPMDs from the Athabasca River exhibited some EROD inducers, but they were 1/100 as potent as those of the refinery wastewater. The characteristics of MFO inducers from refinery wastewater were different from natural inducers from the oil sands in the Athabasca and Steepbank Rivers. For instance, log Kow was less than 5 for refinery wastewater, but it was greater than 5 for Athabasca River wastewater and from natural oil sands exposure. In the case of the Steepbank River, the pattern of MFO induction was similar to the MFO induction seen in wild fish.The highest MFO inducers were found to be in the area of the mine, suggesting and anthropogenic pollution source. The less potent inducers were in the area of the natural and undisturbed oil sands. Very few inducers were found outside of the oil sands formation

  8. U.S. petroleum refining: Meeting requirements for cleaner fuels and refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warden, R.B.

    1993-01-01

    A review is presented of a study carried out by the National Petroleum Council that assessed the ability of the U.S. oil industry to manufacture and supply the quantity and quality of products required in the 1990s and beyond. The competitiveness of domestic supply vs product imports was analyzed and the investment requirements and other costs associated with meeting new environmental legislation and regulations on petroleum products and refineries were addressed. In particular, the requirements of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments and other environmental, health, and safety initiatives, both current and prospective, were evaluated. Refineries and the logistics system were studied but not crude oil supply or service stations. The costs of stationary source health, safety and environmental regulations and requirements were evaluated for the years 1995, 2000 and 2010, and sources of U.S. light products and U.S. refinery utilization were modelled for these years. Three demand scenarios were considered: growth, no-growth, and decline. Annual expenditures for health, safety and environment programs inside refineries are expected to double in the 1990s. Expenditures of $106 billion are projected over the period 1990-2010 for new facilities and programs necessary for current and anticipated stationary source regulations. Refining and logistics costs will increase substantially. Other conclusions related to capital expenditures, refining capability, product compatibility, oxygenates and foreign product supply cost are drawn. 26 figs

  9. Integrating planning and scheduling in an oil refinery with a rolling horizon approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zondervan, E.; Kaland, M.; van Elzakker, M.A.H.; Fransoo, J.C.; Meuldijk, J.; Klemes, J.J.; Varbanov, P.S.; Liew, P.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Decisions in an oil refinery are made at three levels: planning, scheduling and control. Existing facilities have to be operated close to their maximum capacity, while continuously responding to cost fluctuations. In many of the currently reported planning models each decision level has its own

  10. Environmental and economic sustainability of integrated production in bio-refineries : The thistle case in Sardinia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yazan, Devrim; Mandras, Giovanni; Garau, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims at evaluating the environmental and economic sustainability of bio-refineries that produce multiple products through their supply chains (SCs). A physical enterprise input-output (EIO) model is used to quantify the material/energy/waste flows and integrated to the monetary EIO model

  11. Evaluation of the impact of Kaduna refinery effluent on river Romi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The continuous global quest for management of the scarce water resources to make available to the human populace, portable water for drinking has necessitated this study. River Romi is the effluent discharge point of Kaduna Refining and Petrochemical Company Limited where the refinery waste water is disposed after ...

  12. The impact of CO2 taxation on the configuration of new refineries: An application to Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Gabriel Lourenco; Szklo, Alexandre; Schaeffer, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    This article evaluates the impact of pricing CO 2 emissions over the configuration of new refinery complexes in their conceptual phase. Two refineries' schemes were simulated through a linear programming optimization model in order to compare the optimum configuration obtained before and after the input of different CO 2 prices. The cases analyzed represent refining projects to be located in Brazil, a growing market for fuels and petrochemical feedstocks, as well as an oil producing country with rising crude exports. After 2012, emerging countries, such as Brazil, may adopt carbon emission reduction targets. Therefore, it is worth analyzing the impact of pricing CO 2 emissions in these countries, where the majority of new refining projects will be located. Our findings indicate that the initial refinery configurations proposed are quite rigid technologically for CO 2 prices up to US$ 100/t CO 2 . For CO 2 prices higher than US$ 100/t CO 2 , refineries reduced their emissions by increasing the consumption of natural gas used to produce hydrogen, and through changes in the original configurations towards less-energy consuming process units. Promising technological advances, such as carbon capture and storage (CCS), can also diminish the rigidity of the model and facilitate actions to curb carbon emissions.

  13. Carbon flow analysis and Carbon emission reduction of FCC in Chinese oil refineries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Fengrui; Wei, Na; Ma, Danzhu; Liu, Guangxin; Wu, Ming; Yue, Qiang

    2017-08-01

    The major problem of the energy production in oil refineries is the high emission of CO2 in China. The fluid catalytic cracking unit (FCC) is the key source of carbon emission in the oil refineries. According to the statistical data, the carbon emission of FCC unit accounts for more than 31% for the typical oil refineries. The carbon flow of FCC in the typical Chinese oil refineries were evaluated and analysed, which aimed at the solution of CO2 emission reduction. The method of substances flow analysis (SFA) and the mathematical programming were used to evaluate the carbon metabolism and optimize the carbon emission. The results indicated that the combustion emission of the reaction-regeneration subsystem (RRS) was the major source of FCC. The quantity of CO2 emission of RSS was more than 90%. The combustion efficiency and the amount of residual oil affected the carbon emission of RRS most according to the optimized analysis of carbon emission reduction. Moreover, the fractionation subsystem (TFS) had the highest environmental efficiency and the absorption-stabilization subsystem (ASS) had the highest resource efficiency (approximately to 1) of carbon.

  14. Implications of environmental regulations on refinery product specification, operation and investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, M.M.

    1992-01-01

    During the 1980s, refiners mainly in OECD countries were occupied with improving their refinery configurations for producing high-value light products which would not only satisfy the product demand slate but also meet the increasingly restrictive environmental regulations. In the 1990s refiners will continue to be challenged to improve the world's air quality not only by producing products that minimize emissions of toxic and hazardous hydrocarbons, but also through the refinery operation itself by investment in upgrading the industry and products to cope with the constant flow of new regulations. These investments will not only be limited to consuming centres but will also be extended to cover exporting refineries as well due to competition of acquiring market shares for product exports. The additional cost will be directly related to product quality and site regulations and will vary from one country to the other. This paper deals mainly with the air pollution and the impact of related environmental issues on the refining industry. Environmental regulations for refinery products in the USA and Europe are examined and international regulations for the tanker industry are noted. (author)

  15. Profitability diagnosis of refinery and improvement proposal; Seiyusho no shueki shindan to kaizen teian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoyama, H.

    2000-07-01

    Based on consulting service RPS-J under joint operation of Nikki, UOP LLC of U.S.A. and Nikki Universal, approaching ways applied for profitability improvement and improvement proposal for refineries and analyzing techniques used for resolution of process bottlenecks were described. In RPS-J, themes of (1) energy saving, (2) quality upgrading, (3) improvement of disintegrating ratio, (4) reduction of give-away, (5) improvement of equipment operation ratio, (6) reduction of maintenance cost, (7) effective utilization of catalysts, are considered for profitability improvement fields. Procedures from idea excavation for profitability improvement to realization of profitability improvement are carried out in the order of, (1) Grasping of the present state, (2) Excavation of improving items and selection, (3) Quantitative evaluation of draft profitability improvement plan and focusing, (4) Profitability improvement by operation improvement, (5) Profitability improvement by minor improvement, (6) Profitability improvement in middle- and long-term vision, (7) Final focusing by feasibility study. Afterwards, examination to economically solve bottlenecks of critical facilities, examination on bottlenecks of distillation tower and refining tower and utility analysis are carried out. RPS-J was already applied to 4 refineries including Muroran Refinery and Negishi Refinery of Nisseki Mitsubishi, and profitability improvement themes were found to improve profitability of 50 to 150 cents per barrel. (NEDO)

  16. REMOTE SENSING DAMAGE ASSESSMENT OF CHEMICAL PLANTS AND REFINERIES FOLLOWING HURRICANES KATRINA AND RITA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The massive destruction brought by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita also impacted the many chemical plants and refineries in the region. The achievement of this rapid analysis capability highlights the advancement of this technology for air quality assessment and monitoring. Case st...

  17. Development of optimum conditions for modification of Kpautagi clay for application in petroleum refinery wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A. ONU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Kautagi clay is a kaolin type deposit that is abundantly available in Niger State, Nigeria with potential for application in pollution control such as wastewater treatment. This study investigates the optimum conditions for modification of Kpautagi clay for application in refinery wastewater treatment. Sulphuric acid was used in the modification of the clay and the modification variables considered were acid concentration, activation time and temperature. To develop the optimum conditions for the modification variables, the sulphuric acid modified Kpautagi clay was applied in the treatment of refinery wastewater in column mode at a fixed flow rate and mass of adsorbent. The results obtained indicate that the optimum conditions for modification of Kpautagi clay for application in the treatment of petroleum refinery wastewater are: acid concentration of 4M; activation time of 120min and activation temperature of 100°C. Therefore, the optimum conditions developed in this study for modification of Kpautagi clay could be applied for improved performance in the treatment of petroleum refinery wastewater.

  18. Monitoring coastal pollution associated with the largest oil refinery complex of Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Croquer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated pollution levels in water and sediments of Península de Paraguaná and related these levels with benthic macrofauna along a coastal area where the largest Venezuelan oil refineries have operated over the past 60 years. For this, the concentration of heavy metals, of hydrocarbon compounds and the community structure of the macrobenthos were examined at 20 sites distributed along 40 km of coastline for six consecutive years, which included windy and calm seasons. The spatial variability of organic and inorganic compounds showed considerably high coastal pollution along the study area, across both years and seasons. The southern sites, closest to the refineries, had consistently higher concentrations of heavy metals and organic compounds in water and sediments when compared to those in the north. The benthic community was dominated by polychaetes at all sites, seasons and years, and their abundance and distribution were significantly correlated with physical and chemical characteristics of the sediments. Sites close to the oil refineries were consistently dominated by families known to tolerate xenobiotics, such as Capitellidae and Spionidae. The results from this study highlight the importance of continuing long-term environmental monitoring programs to assess the impact of effluent discharge and spill events from the oil refineries that operate in the western coast of Paraguaná, Venezuela.

  19. Allocating the CO2 emissions of an oil refinery with Aumann-Shapley prices. Comment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tehrani Nejad Moghaddam, Alireza

    2010-01-01

    The allocation of CO 2 emissions of petroleum refineries to their oil products is a necessary step in the retrospective Well-to-Tank (WTT) analysis. These allocated emissions are used to evaluate the environmental impacts of automotive fuels' production within the refinery. Oil refining is a complex joint production system and there exists no simple and unique answer to this allocation question. Recently, Pierru proposed adapting the Aumann-Shapley cost sharing method to deal with this issue. Our paper aims at describing the conceptual and technical difficulties of this adaptation to the WTT context. Moreover, we show that this approach, as proposed by Pierru, is not applicable to any real-type refinery model. Different suggestions are provided to improve its applicability (when it is possible) in real situations. A simple numerical example as well as a real-type refinery case study is provided for illustrations. Finally, we discuss an alternative allocation approach which we believe more adapted to the WTT context. (author)

  20. Lymphohematopoietic Cancer Mortality and Morbidity of Workers in a Refinery/Petrochemical Complex in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hee Koh

    2011-03-01

    Conclusion: The results showed a potential relationship between leukemia and lymphohematopoietic cancers and exposure to benzene in refinery/petrochemical complex workers. This study yielded limited results due to a short observational period; therefore, a follow-up study must be performed to elucidate the relationship between petrochemical exposure and cancer rates.

  1. Pyrolysis oil upgrading for Co-processing in standard refinery units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Miguel Mercader, F.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis considers the route that comprises the upgrading of pyrolysis oil (produced from lingo-cellulosic biomass) and its further co-processing in standard refineries to produce transportation fuels. In the present concept, pyrolysis oil is produced where biomass is available and then

  2. Co-processing potential of HTL bio-crude at petroleum refineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Claus Uhrenholt; Hoffmann, Jessica; Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup

    2016-01-01

    An experimental study on hydrotreatment of ligno-cellulosic hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) bio-crude to achieve a bio-feed compatible for co-processing at a refinery was made to investigate the effect of operating temperature, pressure and hydrogen to oil ratio. Using a conventional NiMo/Al2O3 h...

  3. Utilization of the BR-SIPP systems (Integrated Refinery Scheduling System) at the PETROBRAS Capuava refinery; Utilizacao do sistema BR-SIPP - Sistema Integrado de Programacao de Producao PETROBRAS na refinaria de Capuava

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joly, Marcel [PETROBRAS, Maua, SP (Brazil). Refinaria de Capuava (RECAP). Gerencia de Otimizacao]. E-mail: joly@petrobras.com.br; Hassimotto, Marcelo Kenji [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Gerencia de Solucoes de Negocios de Logistica e Planejamento]. E-mail: kenji@petrobras.com.br; Magalhaes, Marcus Vinicius de Oliveira [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Gerencia de Otimizacao]. E-mail: vinicius@petrobras.com.br

    2007-04-15

    The BR-SIPP is a production scheduling decision support tool for refineries. It is integrated into the Corporate Inventory, Movements and Quality Data Base and is based on events simulation technology for the elaboration and analysis of scheduling scenarios. Its utilization at the Capuava Refinery allows the production programming team to analyze and anticipate difficulties and opportunities, thereby being able to make viable a potential integration of management and people directly involved with the refinery scheduling information, such as planning, logistics and commercial areas. (author)

  4. Feasibility study on the modernization and expansion of the Tema Oil Refinery. Executive Summary. Export trade information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-04-01

    The Tema Oil Refinery (TOR), which was commissioned in 1963, is a simple hydro-skimming plant which processes crude oil into LPG, gasoline, kerosene, gasoil, and fuel oil. It is the only petroleum refinery in Ghana. Over the years some of the equipment in the refinery has deteriorated or become obsolete necessitating major rehabilitation. A study of the refinery expansion project takes into consideration earlier studies and, equally important, recognizes the extensive work done by TOR in rehabilitating the refinery. The program, carried out in phases because of funding limitations, has addressed the critical repairs and replacements in the process units and utilities necessary to prolong the life of the refinery and assure reliability and safe operation. It undertook the task of investigating the feasibility of modernizing and expanding the refinery at Tema, Ghana to meet projected market demands until the year 2005. A process planning study was conducted to select the optimal process and utility configuration which would result in economic benefits to Ghana

  5. Contribution of Tula Refinery flaring emissions to the Mexico megacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almanza, Victor; Molina, Luisa; Sosa, Gustavo

    2013-04-01

    Flaring is an important source of greenhouse gases, particulate matter and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in both upstream and downstream operations in the oil and gas industry. In 2010 Mexico was the eleventh emitting country with 2.5 billion cubic meters of gas flared (World Bank, 2012). Black carbon (a component of soot) emissions from flaring facilities are of particular interest because soot is considered a short-lived climate forcer (SLCF) (UNEP, 2011). In 2011 there were 23 megacities of at least 10 million inhabitants. It is expected that this number increase to 37 by 2025, which will include one more in Northern America (NA) and two more in Latin America (UN, 2012). International collaborative projects like MILAGRO in NA and MEGAPOLI/CityZen in Europe, have been conducted to assess the impact of megacities air pollution at several scales. The former focused on the air pollution plume of Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA), the largest megacity in NA. This work studies the contribution of flaring emissions from Tula Refinery to regional air quality. This is accomplished in two steps. First, the flame of a representative sour gas flare is modeled with a CFD combustion code in order to estimate emission rates of combustion by-products of interest for air quality. Mass flow rates of acetylene, ethylene, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, soot and sulfur dioxide are obtained. The emission rates of NO2 and SO2 are compared with measurements obtained at Tula as part of MILAGRO field campaign. The rates of soot, VOCs and CO emissions are compared with estimates obtained by Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo (IMP). The second stage takes the flaring emission rates of the aforementioned species as inputs to WRF-Chem in order to simulate the chemical transport of the plume from 22 March to 27 March of 2006. The air quality model presented reliable performance of the resolved meteorology, with respect to the Mean Absolute Error (MAE), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE

  6. Removal of hydrocarbon from refinery tank bottom sludge employing microbial culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, Rashmi Rekha; Deka, Suresh

    2013-12-01

    Accumulation of oily sludge is becoming a serious environmental threat, and there has not been much work reported for the removal of hydrocarbon from refinery tank bottom sludge. Effort has been made in this study to investigate the removal of hydrocarbon from refinery sludge by isolated biosurfactant-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa RS29 strain and explore the biosurfactant for its composition and stability. Laboratory investigation was carried out with this strain to observe its efficacy of removing hydrocarbon from refinery sludge employing whole bacterial culture and culture supernatant to various concentrations of sand-sludge mixture. Removal of hydrocarbon was recorded after 20 days. Analysis of the produced biosurfactant was carried out to get the idea about its stability and composition. The strain could remove up to 85 ± 3 and 55 ± 4.5 % of hydrocarbon from refinery sludge when whole bacterial culture and culture supernatant were used, respectively. Maximum surface tension reduction (26.3 mN m(-1)) was achieved with the strain in just 24 h of time. Emulsification index (E24) was recorded as 100 and 80 % with crude oil and n-hexadecane, respectively. The biosurfactant was confirmed as rhamnolipid containing C8 and C10 fatty acid components and having more mono-rhamnolipid congeners than the di-rhamnolipid ones. The biosurfactant was stable up to 121 °C, pH 2-10, and up to a salinity value of 2-10 % w/v. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing the potentiality of a native strain from the northeast region of India for the efficient removal of hydrocarbon from refinery sludge.

  7. Atmospheric BTEX concentrations in the vicinity of the crude oil refinery of the Baltic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltrėnas, Pranas; Baltrėnaitė, Edita; Serevičienė, Vaida; Pereira, Paulo

    2011-11-01

    Among chemical industries, petroleum refineries have been identified as large emitters of a wide variety of pollutants. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) form an important group of aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) because of their role in the troposphere chemistry and the risk posed to human health. A very large crude oil refinery of the Baltic States (200,000 bbl/day) is situated in the northern, rural part of Lithuania, 10 km from the town of Mažeikiai (Lithuania). The objectives of this study were: (1) to determine of atmospheric levels of BTEX in the region rural and urban parts at the vicinity of the crude oil refinery; and (2) to investigate the effect of meteorological parameters (wind speed, wind direction, temperature, pressure, humidity) on the concentrations measured. The averaged concentration of benzene varied from 2.12 ppbv in the rural areas to 2.75 ppbv in the urban areas where the traffic was determined to be a dominant source of BTEX emissions. Our study showed that concentration of benzene, as strictly regulated air pollutant by EU Directive 2008/50/EC, did not exceed the limit of 5 ppbv in the region in the vicinity of the crude oil refinery during the investigated period. No significant change in air quality in the vicinity of the oil refinery was discovered, however, an impact of the industry on the background air quality was detected. The T/B ratio (0.50-0.81) that was much lower than 2.0, identified other sources of pollution than traffic.

  8. Test plan, the Czechowice Oil Refinery bioremediation demonstration of a process waste lagoon. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altman, D.J.; Hazen, T.C.; Tien, A.J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Technology Center; Worsztynowicz, A.; Ulfig, K. [Inst. for Ecology of Industrial Areas, Katowice (Poland)

    1997-05-10

    The overall objective of the bioremediation project is to provide a cost effective bioremediation demonstration of petroleum contaminated soil at the Czechowice Oil Refinery. Additional objectives include training of personnel, and transfer of this technology by example to Poland, and the Risk Abatement Center for Central and Eastern Europe (RACE). The goal of the remediation is to reduce the risk of PAH compounds in soil and provide a green zone (grassy area) adjacent to the site boundary. Initial project discussions with the Czechowice Oil Refinery resulted in helping the refinery find an immediate cost effective solution for the dense organic sludge in the lagoons. They found that when mixed with other waste materials, the sludge could be sold as a fuel source to local cement kilns. Thus the waste was incinerated and provided a revenue stream for the refinery to cleanup the lagoon. This allowed the bioremediation project to focus on remediation of contaminated soil that unusable as fuel, less recalcitrant and easier to handle and remediate. The assessment identified 19 compounds at the refinery that represented significant risk and would require remediation. These compounds consisted of metals, PAH`s, and BTEX. The contaminated soil to be remediated in the bioremediation demonstration contains only PAH (BTEX and metals are not significantly above background concentrations). The final biopile design consists of (1) dewatering and clearing lagoon A to clean clay, (2) adding a 20 cm layer of dolomite with pipes for drainage, leachate collection, air injection, and pH adjustment, (3) adding a 1.1 m layer of contaminated soil mixed with wood chips to improve permeability, and (4) completing the surface with 20 cm of top soil planted with grass.

  9. Test plan, the Czechowice Oil Refinery bioremediation demonstration of a process waste lagoon. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altman, D.J.; Hazen, T.C.; Tien, A.J.

    1997-01-01

    The overall objective of the bioremediation project is to provide a cost effective bioremediation demonstration of petroleum contaminated soil at the Czechowice Oil Refinery. Additional objectives include training of personnel, and transfer of this technology by example to Poland, and the Risk Abatement Center for Central and Eastern Europe (RACE). The goal of the remediation is to reduce the risk of PAH compounds in soil and provide a green zone (grassy area) adjacent to the site boundary. Initial project discussions with the Czechowice Oil Refinery resulted in helping the refinery find an immediate cost effective solution for the dense organic sludge in the lagoons. They found that when mixed with other waste materials, the sludge could be sold as a fuel source to local cement kilns. Thus the waste was incinerated and provided a revenue stream for the refinery to cleanup the lagoon. This allowed the bioremediation project to focus on remediation of contaminated soil that unusable as fuel, less recalcitrant and easier to handle and remediate. The assessment identified 19 compounds at the refinery that represented significant risk and would require remediation. These compounds consisted of metals, PAH's, and BTEX. The contaminated soil to be remediated in the bioremediation demonstration contains only PAH (BTEX and metals are not significantly above background concentrations). The final biopile design consists of (1) dewatering and clearing lagoon A to clean clay, (2) adding a 20 cm layer of dolomite with pipes for drainage, leachate collection, air injection, and pH adjustment, (3) adding a 1.1 m layer of contaminated soil mixed with wood chips to improve permeability, and (4) completing the surface with 20 cm of top soil planted with grass

  10. Becoming a refinery leader by changing operations to match new product quality regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez, Maryro P. [KBC Advanced Technologies, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    Global environmental concerns have forced the automotive and oil industries to increase efficiency and reduce emissions, which has led to the tightening of fuels specifications around the world. The implementation of ultra-low sulphur transport fuels has become a worldwide trend with growing momentum. Compliance with these standards requires the refiner to make decisions in advance of the implementation date. Therefore, in order to make changes on time, refiners are currently assessing options and changes required to comply with regulations by 2016. Similar regulations have been implemented in Europe already and KBC has the methodology and experience to assess the existing refinery configuration, unit capability and facility infrastructure to provide the basis for decision making. This paper focus on KBC's methodology which looks at the molecular management needed to produce the low levels of sulfur and toxic required in today's refined products. A key element to the study is the use of Petro-SIM for development of a representative detailed non-linear model, of the refinery which has been used to test ideas and configurations and help confirm the Refinery LP development activities. Using a Petro-SIM representation, KBC is able to make an assessment of the impact of imposing Tier 3 gasoline (sulphur to < 10 ppm) on the refinery, examining critical blending constraints, unused stream qualities and quantities and likely type and scale of capital investment that would be required while optimising unit operations and maximising margins. This paper illustrates KBC's current thinking based on studies done to date to review clean fuels and Tier 3 specifications options for specific refinery configurations. (author)

  11. O ecologismo dos pobres

    OpenAIRE

    ALIER, Juan Martinez

    1997-01-01

    O ecologísmo tem colocado em cheque as leis capitalistas de mercado, principalmente na sua fase globalizada, devido à apropriação e exploração inconsequente dos recursos naturais. Ao mesmo tempo tem apontado que o meio ambiente não se reduz ao tratamento somente cientifico da natureza. O presente artigo ressalta aspectos importantes do ecologísmo como a participação das mulheres, o marxismo, o neo-narodnismo, etc. e é rico em exemplos de problemas ambientais decorrentes das relações de produç...

  12. Dos novelas colombianas olvidadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo García Piedrahita

    1980-06-01

    Full Text Available Estas dos novelas olvidadas llevan por títulos Pax de don Lorenzo Marroquín (pr. edi. 1907, y Diana Cazadora de don Clímaco Soto Borda(pr. edi. 1917, ambos bogotanos aunque de disímiles estirpes literarias; y como tales en sus obras fluyen física y verbalmente, el ambiente de su ciudad natal; espíritu hecho de zumbona crítica, individualismo cáustico y solapada parodia de usos y costumbres. Y sobre tales bases sentimentales y estilísticas debe considerárselas.

  13. Geoeconomia dos emergentes

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    Mercados decisivos para a recuperação da economia global, até porque muito mais imunes às consequências da crise fi nanceira, os países emergentes apresentam taxas de crescimento mais altas face aos principais países desenvolvidos e têm desempenhado um papel fundamental na consolidação dos volumes de comércio internacional e de crescimento da economia mundial ao longo desta última década.

  14. Dos cupas complutenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stylow, Armin U.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Publication of two cupae from the ancient territory of Complutum. One was found in excavations in Alcalá de Henares (Madrid and is unpublished; of the other one, which came to light in the church of Alovera (Guadalajara, a new reading is given.Se publican dos cupas del antiguo territorio de Complutum, una, inédita, encontrada en excavación en Alcalá de Henares (Madrid, y la segunda, procedente de la iglesia de Alovera (Guadalajara, con una nueva lectura.

  15. CAPITAL HUMANO: DOS ENFOQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Pueyo Roy

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo presenta un resumen de la teoría existente sobre capital humano, considerando dos proposiciones que se complementan: la Teoría Neoclásica -educación como formación laboral o señalización al mercado de trabajo- y la Teoría Institucional o de mercados internos de trabajo. Se presenta el desarrollo de ambas teorías, los problemas que presentan y la complementariedad entre las mismas.

  16. dos estudios de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kersffeld

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La UNASUR se ha destacado desde sus inicios en la compleja labor de mediación y resolución de conflictos internacionales. Para ello, esta entidad multilateral ha apelado a distintas fórmulas políticas tendientes al encausamiento de problemáticas y conflictos apartados del camino de la institucionalidad y de los medios tradicionales de resolución. Con todo, y pese a la búsqueda de caminos alternativos, han sido las cumbres presidenciales la principal herramienta destinada a encontrar soluciones innovadoras y respetuosas del orden democrático y constitucional de los países sudamericanos. En este artículo se analiza de manera específica la actuación de la unasur en dos casos de profunda gravedad institucional: el intento de golpe de Estado ocurrido en Ecuador el 30 de septiembre de 2010 y el derrocamiento del ex presidente Fernando Lugo en Paraguay en junio de 2012. Luego de analizar estos dos casos extremos, y las implicancias políticas generadas, se avanza en una visión comprensiva acerca del éxito o el fracaso del papel político de la unasur como instancia de resolución de conflictos a nivel internacional.

  17. Energy markets : refinery outages can have varying gasoline price impacts, but gaps in federal data limit understanding of impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    In 2008, GAO reported that, with : the exception of the period : following Hurricanes Katrina and : Rita, refinery outages in the United : States did not show discernible : trends in reduced production : capacity, frequency, and location : from 2002 ...

  18. A Steam Utility Network Model for the Evaluation of Heat Integration Retrofits – A Case Study of an Oil Refinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofie Marton

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a real industrial example in which the steam utility network of a refinery is modelled in order to evaluate potential Heat Integration retrofits proposed for the site. A refinery, typically, has flexibility to optimize the operating strategy for the steam system depending on the operation of the main processes. This paper presents a few examples of Heat Integration retrofit measures from a case study of a large oil refinery. In order to evaluate expected changes in fuel and electricity imports to the refinery after implementation of the proposed retrofits, a steam system model has been developed. The steam system model has been tested and validated with steady state data from three different operating scenarios and can be used to evaluate how changes to steam balances at different pressure levels would affect overall steam balances, generation of shaft power in turbines, and the consumption of fuel gas.

  19. Petroleum Refineries (Catalytic Cracking, Catalytic Reforming and Sulfur Recovery Units): National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    learn more about the NESHAP for catalytic cracking and reforming units, as well as sulfur recovery units in petroleum refineries by reading the rule history, rule summary, background information documents, and compliance information

  20. "Tradução para a língua portuguesa e validação do questionário da saúde dos pés FHSQ (Foot Health Status Questionnaire)"

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Francisca Barros Ferreira

    2005-01-01

    O objetivo deste estudo foi adaptar e validar o Foot Health Status Questionnaire (FHSQ) avaliando suas propriedades de medida. Este instrumento foi traduzido, traduzido de volta para o inglês, avaliado por comitê multidisciplinar e submetido a pré-teste, gerando o FHSQ-Br. O FHSQ-Br foi submetido a teste de campo em um grupo de estudo composto por 65 pacientes com Artrite Reumatóide (AR) para avaliar a confiabilidade teste-reteste, a consistência interna e a validade do construto. A validade ...

  1. Dos estudios de casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Guillermo Salazar Morales

    1989-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN A continuación se presenta dos casos de estudio en donde se puede apreciar a la forma  como se establecen  las relaciones en una organización y lo que una DECISION  puede llegar a incidir en el desarrollo de las operaciones de una empresa. Decisiones basadas en la intuición, o en corazonadas, frecuentemente conducen en dirección equivocada, ocasionando pérdidas en tiempo, personal y dinero. El proceso de toma de decisiones deben ser TAREAS ESTRUCTURADAS que se sustenten con hechos. Su ejecución debe hacerse secuencialmente y cumplir con cada uno de sus pasos. El diseño de los  casos está orientado para que  sirvan como material de aplicación en la asignatura de  taller de planeación.

  2. A sociedade dos vivos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leis Héctor Ricardo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A pergunta: qual é o significado da experiência da morte na sociedade contemporânea? A hipótese: que existe uma faceta sombria e degradante da condição humana, associada à privatização institucional ou "pacificação" da morte que estamos assistindo em nossa época. Muitos teóricos sociais contemporâneos apostam em estratégias como a reflexividade para reconstruir a fragmentação do ser humano, porém essa reconstrução mal poderia vir sem procurar apoio em aspectos chaves da condição humana. Apontar alguns dos déficits da teoria social contemporânea e assinalar alguns caminhos para superar impasses da sociedade contemporânea resume a tentativa deste trabalho.

  3. The changing refinery/vendor relationship: One tool for increased competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borowski, C.J.; Swett, G.H.

    1996-01-01

    The historic relationship between many petroleum refineries and vendors was adversarial. However, during the past 10 years, many industrial firms have found that working together with vendors is critical to reducing costs and improving quality--the two key elements required to maintain a competitive position. As refiners have begun working with their vendors more like partners, numerous benefits have accrued to the refining industry. This paper analyzes how the refiner-vendor relationship has changed. Specifically, the authors address the following issues: the competitive threat that has forced a different approach to contracting services and goods; how right-sizing and capacity creep have contributed to the need to re-examine historic practices; key elements in a successful refinery/vendor relationship; how does it work in real life; and implementing a partnering program

  4. Genotoxic evaluation of an industrial effluent from an oil refinery using plant and animal bioassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Postalli Rodrigues

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are genotoxic chemicals commonly found in effluents from oil refineries. Bioassays using plants and cells cultures can be employed for assessing environmental safety and potential genotoxicity. In this study, the genotoxic potential of an oil refinery effluent was analyzed by means of micronucleus (MN testing of Alium cepa, which revealed no effect after 24 h of treatment. On the other hand, primary lesions in the DNA of rat (Rattus norvegicus hepatoma cells (HTC were observed through comet assaying after only 2 h of exposure. On considering the capacity to detect DNA damage of a different nature and of these cells to metabolize xenobiotics, we suggest the association of the two bioassays with these cell types, plant (Allium cepa and mammal (HTC cells, for more accurately assessing genotoxicity in environmental samples.

  5. Genotoxic evaluation of an industrial effluent from an oil refinery using plant and animal bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Fernando Postalli; Angeli, José Pedro Friedmann; Mantovani, Mário Sérgio; Guedes, Carmen Luisa Barbosa; Jordão, Berenice Quinzani

    2010-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are genotoxic chemicals commonly found in effluents from oil refineries. Bioassays using plants and cells cultures can be employed for assessing environmental safety and potential genotoxicity. In this study, the genotoxic potential of an oil refinery effluent was analyzed by means of micronucleus (MN) testing of Alium cepa, which revealed no effect after 24 h of treatment. On the other hand, primary lesions in the DNA of rat (Rattus norvegicus) hepatoma cells (HTC) were observed through comet assaying after only 2 h of exposure. On considering the capacity to detect DNA damage of a different nature and of these cells to metabolize xenobiotics, we suggest the association of the two bioassays with these cell types, plant (Allium cepa) and mammal (HTC) cells, for more accurately assessing genotoxicity in environmental samples.

  6. Effect of oil spills on coastal power plants, refineries, and desalination plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiefer, C.; Mussali, Y.

    1992-01-01

    Major oil spills such as those experienced in the Gulf War, in Alaska, and in the Gulf of Mexico have raised concern for the protection of coastal facilities which use seawater for cooling or process purposes such as power stations, refineries, and desalination plants. Because of the availability of large quantities of cooling water, many power stations and refineries are located along the coastline in the United States and throughout the world. In addition, many countries in the Middle East, the Caribbean, and other areas of the world depend on desalination plants located along the coast for the vital supply of drinking water. The objective of this paper is to determine the levels of oil contamination which will adversely affect plant performance or result in damage to specific plant equipment such as condensers, heat exchangers, pumps, screens, water treatment equipment, and other vital water handling mechanisms

  7. Radiation doses and hazards from processing of crude oil at the Tema oil refinery in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darko, E. O.; Kpeglo, D. O.; Akaho, E. H. K.; Schandorf, C.; Adu, P. A. S.; Faanu, A.; Abankwah, E.; Lawluvi, H.; Awudu, A. R.

    2012-01-01

    Processing of crude oil has been carried out in Ghana for more than four decades without measures to assess the hazards associated with the naturally occurring radionuclides in the raw and processed materials. This study investigates the exposure of the public to 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in crude oil, petroleum products and wastes at the Tema oil refinery in Ghana using gamma-ray spectrometry. The study shows higher activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides in the wastes than the crude oil and the products with estimated hazard indices less than unity. The values obtained in the study are within recommended limits for public exposure indicating that radiation exposure from processing of the crude oil at the refinery does not pose any significant radiological hazard but may require monitoring to establish long-term effect on both public and workers. (authors)

  8. Radiation doses and hazards from processing of crude oil at the Tema oil refinery in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darko, E O; Kpeglo, D O; Akaho, E H K; Schandorf, C; Adu, P A S; Faanu, A; Abankwah, E; Lawluvi, H; Awudu, A R

    2012-02-01

    Processing of crude oil has been carried out in Ghana for more than four decades without measures to assess the hazards associated with the naturally occurring radionuclides in the raw and processed materials. This study investigates the exposure of the public to (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in crude oil, petroleum products and wastes at the Tema oil refinery in Ghana using gamma-ray spectrometry. The study shows higher activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides in the wastes than the crude oil and the products with estimated hazard indices less than unity. The values obtained in the study are within recommended limits for public exposure indicating that radiation exposure from processing of the crude oil at the refinery does not pose any significant radiological hazard but may require monitoring to establish long-term effect on both public and workers.

  9. Upgrading refineries performance: a necessity at the time of lean kine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The increasing problem of petroleum refining in Europe and France has been debated during a seminar organized by the ENSPM (Ecole Nationale Superieure des Petroles et Moteurs) Formation Industrie at Rueil-Malmaison (France) on June 15, 1995. For a new modern refinery, the processing cost for one ton of crude oil can reach 40 US $ and exceeds the refining gross profit. Introduction of unleaded gasoline and the forthcoming 0.05% sulfur gas oil represent additional investments of about 20 US $/t. The increasing production of lighter crude oils, which represent 2/3 of worldwide supplies, has increased the gas oil and fuel price difference. A better equilibrium between supply and demand and significant improvements of refineries performances are required to reduce processing costs. New methods and computerized systems have been developed in this way and presented during this seminar. (J.S.). 1 fig

  10. Implementation of NOx control technologies in petroleum refining applications, Mobil Torrance Refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younis, M.P.

    1994-01-01

    Existing NO x technologies implemented by the Mobil Torrance refinery have been reviewed. Technologies utilized are Lo-NO x burners, Ultra-Lo-NO x burners and selective catalytic reduction in boilers and process heaters, as well as selective non-catalytic reduction in fluid catalytic cracker/CO boiler applications. With the implementation of the Regional Clean Air Incentives Market (RECLAIM), research at Mobil is directed towards reducing operational costs and improving efficiency in selective catalytic reduction with high and low temperature catalysts. Research is also directed at improved selective non-catalytic reduction efficiency in CO boiler applications and at further NO x reduction in fluid catalytic cracker regenerator offgases. The implementation of proven and enhanced technology is expected to reduce refinery NO x emissions from 1734 metric tons per yr to 487 metric tons per yr by the year 2003. 4 refs., 7 figs

  11. Psidium guajava as a bioaccumulator of nickel around an oil refinery, southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade Perry, Carolina; Divan, Armando Molina; Raya Rodriguez, Maria Teresa; Lúcia Atz, Vera

    2010-05-01

    To evaluate the potential of Psidium guajava as a biological accumulator of air pollutants, saplings were exposed at nine sites receiving atmospheric emissions from an oil refinery (five within, four outside the industrial area) and another reference site located at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, 27 km from the refinery. Exposures lasted about 3 months each, coincided with the seasons, and totaled five exposures between 2005 and 2006. The following parameters were evaluated: dry weight of leaves, stems, and roots, leaf area, rate of relative height increase, Ni and S contents, maximum assimilation rate, and carboxylation efficiency invivo. P. guajava was found to be an efficient accumulator of Ni, since highly significant differences were observed (Pguajava is a good bioaccumulator for Ni. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Life-cycle assessment of a waste refinery process for enzymatic treatment of municipal solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Astrup, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    for the enzymatic treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW) is presented. The refinery produced a liquid (liquefied organic materials and paper) and a solid fraction (non-degradable materials) from the initial waste. A number of scenarios for the energy utilization of the two outputs were assessed. Co......Decrease of fossil fuel dependence and resource saving has become increasingly important in recent years. From this perspective, higher recycling rates for valuable materials (e.g. metals) as well as energy recovery from waste streams could play a significant role substituting for virgin material...... production and saving fossil resources. This is especially important with respect to residual waste (i.e. the remains after source-separation and separate collection) which in Denmark is typically incinerated. In this paper, a life-cycle assessment and energy balance of a pilot-scale waste refinery...

  13. Reconstruction of refinery industry in Chechen Republic on the resource- and energy-saving basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geieva, L.A.; Meshalkin, V.P.; Sarkissov, P.D. [Mendeleev Univ. of Chemical Technology of Russia, Moscow (Russian Federation); Hadzhiev, S.N. [Inst. of Petrochemical Synthesis of Russian Academy of Sciences after A.V. Topchiev (Russian Federation)

    2003-07-01

    In 2000, the Russian Federation implemented measures to increase oil production in the Chechen Republic from 73 thousand metric tons to 1.5 million metric tons by 2002. As a result, the oil refining industry in the Chechen Republic is currently in a state of crisis. More advanced and effective refining processes are required along with a reduction in production costs. The reconstruction program for refineries in Grozny requires new process system designs that can handle the appropriate petroleum products in the correct quantities and required qualities. There is also a need to balance the use of natural resources with fixed facilities and operating costs. The challenge to design optimal process systems for refineries in Grozny is both multicriterial and complex. The design will have to consider the use of various crudes and petroleum products. Advances in refining capability and resource conservation technologies would lead to greater energy consumption resulting from additional petroleum production.

  14. REFINERY INTEGRATION OF BY-PRODUCTS FROM COAL-DERIVED JET FUELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2005-05-18

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the second year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  15. Materials And Carbon Flow In A Waste Refinery Process Using Enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Woods, M.; Astrup, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Recovery of resources from mixed Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is a crucial aspect of waste management practices. In this paper the materials and carbon flows of an innovative waste refinery process using enzymes are presented. Through enzymatic treatment the process produces two main streams from...... the initial mixed MSW: a bioslurry (liquefied paper and organics) and a solid fraction (non-degradable materials). The discussion is based on the performance of the process in separating recyclables and recovery Cbiogenic as well as nutrients from the input MSW. The results of MFA and SFA illustrate...... that the waste refinery has great potential for resource recovery: about 100% of the Cbiogenic and up to 90% of N and P can potentially be recovered in the bioslurry and returned to land after anaerobic digestion. Recovery of ferrous and non-ferrous material is estimated double compared to recovering the same...

  16. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2005-11-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the second year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil are reported. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  17. Amoco-US Environmental Protection Agency, pollution prevention project, Yorktown, Virginia: Yorktown refinery project workplan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curran, L.; Grieves, C.; Browning, R.; Hanlon, D.; Crane, C.

    1990-09-01

    The report provides a detailed workplan for obtaining data and analyzing results for a 2-year pollution prevention study of Amoco Oil Company's Yorktown Virginia Refinery. The study was jointly sponsored as a cooperative effort of Amoco Corporation and the United States Environmental Protection Agency. The goals of the study include (1) a multi-media inventory of all releases entering the environment from the Refinery, (2) development of possible engineering options to reduce the releases, (3) analysis of each option in terms of release reduction potential, impact on human health risk, ecological impact, changes in future liability, etc. and (4) identification of obstacles and incentives for implementation of any of the options considered

  18. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; John Andresen

    2004-09-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first twelve months of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  19. Electroacoustic isoelectric point determinations of bauxite refinery residues: different neutralization techniques and minor mineral effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Tiago S S; Clark, Malcolm W; Comarmond, M Josick; Payne, Timothy E; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda J; Thorogood, Gordon J

    2012-08-14

    Bauxite refinery residue (BRR) is a highly caustic, iron hydroxide-rich byproduct from alumina production. Some chemical treatments of BRR reduce soluble alkalinity and lower residue pH (to values work shows that minor mineral components in complex mineral systems may have a disproportionate effect on the observable bulk IEP. Furthermore, this work shows the appropriateness of electroacoustic techniques in investigating samples with significant soluble mineral components (e.g., ANC).

  20. An Approximation Solution to Refinery Crude Oil Scheduling Problem with Demand Uncertainty Using Joint Constrained Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Duan, Qianqian; Yang, Genke; Xu, Guanglin; Pan, Changchun

    2014-01-01

    This paper is devoted to develop an approximation method for scheduling refinery crude oil operations by taking into consideration the demand uncertainty. In the stochastic model the demand uncertainty is modeled as random variables which follow a joint multivariate distribution with a specific correlation structure. Compared to deterministic models in existing works, the stochastic model can be more practical for optimizing crude oil operations. Using joint chance constraints, the demand unc...

  1. Lymphohematopoietic cancer mortality and morbidity of workers in a refinery/petrochemical complex in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Dong-Hee; Kim, Tae-Woo; Yoon, Yong-Hoon; Shin, Kyung-Seok; Yoo, Seung-Won

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to investigate the relationship between exposure of Korean workers to petrochemicals in the refinery/petrochemical industry and lymphohematopoietic cancers. The cohort consisted of 8,866 male workers who had worked from the 1960s to 2007 at one refinery and six petrochemical companies located in a refinery/petrochemical complex in Korea that produce benzene or use benzene as a raw material. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated for 1992-2007 and 1997-2005 based on the death rate and cancer incidence rate of the Korean male population according to job title (production, maintenance, laboratory, and office workers). The overall mortality and most cause-specific mortalities were lower among these workers than those of the general Korean population. Increased SMRs were observed for leukemia (4/1.45; SMR 2.77, 95% CI: 0.75-7.09) and lymphohematopoietic cancers (5/2.51; SMR 2, 95% CI: 0.65-4.66) in production workers, and increased SIRs were also observed in leukemia (3/1.34; SIR 2.24, 95% CI: 0.46-6.54) and lymphohematopoietic cancers (5/3.39; SIR 1.47, 95% CI: 0.48-3.44) in production workers, but the results were not statistically significant. The results showed a potential relationship between leukemia and lymphohematopoietic cancers and exposure to benzene in refinery/petrochemical complex workers. This study yielded limited results due to a short observational period; therefore, a follow-up study must be performed to elucidate the relationship between petrochemical exposure and cancer rates.

  2. Management of waste generation in the oil refining industry. The PETROBRAS - Henrique Lage Refinery experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, J.I.; Machado, J.B.; Linhares, C.A.; Mazarino, P.R. [PETROBRAS, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). REVAP. Refinaria Henrique Lage

    1993-12-31

    The PETROBRAS - Henrique Lages Refinery - located in Sao Paulo State (Southeast Brazil), has been developing for many years a systematic program for solid, liquid and gaseous wastes generation reduction. The waste minimization management program success has been built due to the structure behavioural modifications due to the new environment protection and quality politics; the training and equipment investments, and operational procedures changes. (author). 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Inhibition of dehydrogenase activity in petroleum refinery wastewater bacteria by phenolic compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Gideon C. Okpokwasili; Christian Okechukwu Nweke

    2010-01-01

    The toxicity of phenol, 2-nitrophenol, 4-nitrophenol, 2,4-dinitrophenol, 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol, 4-bromophenol and 3,5-dimethylphenol on Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Escherichia species isolated from petroleum refinery wastewater was assessed via inhibition of dehydrogenase enzyme activity. At low concentrations, 2-nitrophenol, 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol, 4-bromophenol and 3,5-dimethylphenol stimulated dehydrogenase activity and at sufficient concentrations, phenolic compounds inhibi...

  4. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2006-05-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of fuel oil indicates that the fuel is somewhere in between a No. 4 and a No. 6 fuel oil. Emission testing indicates the fuel burns similarly to these two fuels, but trace metals for the coal-based material are different than petroleum-based fuel oils. Co-coking studies using cleaned coal are highly reproducible in the pilot-scale delayed coker. Evaluation of the coke by Alcoa, Inc. indicated that while the coke produced is of very good quality, the metals content of the carbon is still high in iron and silica. Coke is being evaluated for other possible uses

  5. Assessing refinery capacity and readiness to take Canadian product : is Canadian crude pushing or pulling?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friesner, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    This presentation addressed some of the challenges facing oil sands production in Canada. Refinery products and refining investments were discussed, as was the impact of alternative crude supply on the markets and pricing of oil sands. The oils sands products discussed include various qualities of sweet synthetic crude oil produced via upgraders; virgin and cracked intermediate products from oil sands upgraders; mined or Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) produced bitumen blended products; and synthetic heavy crude produced via hydrocracking. Products were listed in terms of ease of production, and a rationale for generic ranking was provided. A chart of 2003 characteristics of non-Canadian imports to the mid-west United States was provided. Various marketing strategies for different oil sands products were discussed, as well as issues concerning logistics. Strategies for the development of a bigger market include producer investment in refining capability; the acquisition of refining assets; investment in refiners' upgrading capability; and securing a long term supply deal. Core and extended markets for Western Canadian oil sands products were reviewed. A chart of North American refining capacity was presented. Details of a refinery with both coking and cracking capacity were examined. An increase in hydro processing capacity and expanded coking capacity, as well as an upgrade of metallurgy were suggested as possible upgrading options. Various refinery configurations were discussed in relation to lower cost feedstocks and clean fuels specifications. Issues concerning crude supply were examined with reference to pricing parity points and declines in traditional crude production. Specific supply issues concerning oil sands production were discussed, including transportation costs; adequate refining capacity; and availability of supply. Various logistic investments were considered. A map of BP's 5 U.S. refineries was presented. A forecast of expected changes in

  6. Optimal Renewable Energy Integration into Refinery with CO2 Emissions Consideration: An Economic Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnifro, M.; Taqvi, S. T.; Ahmad, M. S.; Bensaida, K.; Elkamel, A.

    2017-08-01

    With increasing global energy demand and declining energy return on energy invested (EROEI) of crude oil, global energy consumption by the O&G industry has increased drastically over the past few years. In addition, this energy increase has led to an increase GHG emissions, resulting in adverse environmental effects. On the other hand, electricity generation through renewable resources have become relatively cost competitive to fossil based energy sources in a much ‘cleaner’ way. In this study, renewable energy is integrated optimally into a refinery considering costs and CO2 emissions. Using Aspen HYSYS, a refinery in the Middle East was simulated to estimate the energy demand by different processing units. An LP problem was formulated based on existing solar energy systems and wind potential in the region. The multi-objective function, minimizing cost as well as CO2 emissions, was solved using GAMS to determine optimal energy distribution from each energy source to units within the refinery. Additionally, an economic feasibility study was carried out to determine the viability of renewable energy technology project implementation to overcome energy requirement of the refinery. Electricity generation through all renewable energy sources considered (i.e. solar PV, solar CSP and wind) were found feasible based on their low levelized cost of electricity (LCOE). The payback period for a Solar CSP project, with an annual capacity of about 411 GWh and a lifetime of 30 years, was found to be 10 years. In contrast, the payback period for Solar PV and Wind were calculated to be 7 and 6 years, respectively. This opens up possibilities for integrating renewables into the refining sector as well as optimizing multiple energy carrier systems within the crude oil industry

  7. Separation and Molecular Identification of Resistant Bacteria to Lead from Behbahan Bidboland Gas Refinery Wastewater (Iran)

    OpenAIRE

    Azam Mehrbakhsh; Monir Doudi; Hossein Motamedi

    2016-01-01

    Heavy metals are one of the pollution sources in environment. The pollution due to these metals is the problem that could have negative impact on water. Human is faced with these poisons effects due to occupational reasons. The lead is regarded as heavy metal whose industrial applications cause environmental pollution in high rate.The aim of this project was Separation and Molecular Identification of Resistant Bacteria to Lead from Behbahan Bidboland Gas Refinery Wastewater (Iran). For thi...

  8. Management of waste generation in the oil refining industry. The PETROBRAS - Henrique Lage Refinery experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, J I; Machado, J B; Linhares, C A; Mazarino, P R [PETROBRAS, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). REVAP. Refinaria Henrique Lage

    1994-12-31

    The PETROBRAS - Henrique Lages Refinery - located in Sao Paulo State (Southeast Brazil), has been developing for many years a systematic program for solid, liquid and gaseous wastes generation reduction. The waste minimization management program success has been built due to the structure behavioural modifications due to the new environment protection and quality politics; the training and equipment investments, and operational procedures changes. (author). 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Toxicity identification evaluation methods for identification of toxicants in refinery effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barten, K.A.; Mount, D.R.; Hackett, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    During the last five years, the authors have used Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) methods to characterize and identify the source(s) of toxicity in effluents from dozens of municipal and industrial facilities. In most cases, specific chemicals responsible for toxicity have been identified. Although generally successful, the initial experience was that for several refinery effluents, they were able only to qualitatively characterize the presence of organic toxicants; standard toxicant identification procedures were not able to isolate specific organic chemicals. They believe that organic toxicity in these refinery effluents is caused by multiple organic compounds rather than by just a few; evidence for this includes an inability to isolate toxicity in a small number of fractions using liquid chromatography and the presence of very large numbers of compounds in isolated fractions. There is also evidence that the toxicant(s) may be ionic, in that the toxicity of whole effluent and isolated fractions often show increasing toxicity with decreasing pH. Finally, positive-pressure filtration has also reduced toxicity in some samples. In this presentation the authors summarize their experiences with refinery effluents, focusing on typical patterns they have observed and alternative procedures they have used to better understand the nature of these toxicants

  10. Effect of Novi Sad oil refinery bombardment and fires on soil properties in Vojvodina province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekulic, P.; Ralev, J.; Zeremski-Skoric, T.

    2002-01-01

    The bombing of the Novi Sad Oil Refinery in 1999 has lead to soil pollution by the products of burning oil and oil derivatives. These products were first carried by winds to the Rimski Sancevi Experiment Field of the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops (located in the vicinity of the Novi Sad Oil Refinery), where they entered the soil via precipitation. Later, they spread to the city of Novi Sad, its vicinity, and the whole of the Vojvodina province, contaminating the soil. In the present study, we examined the extent to which this soil had been polluted. In 1999, we began to study the level of soil contamination at the Institute's Experiment Field at Rimski Sancevi. In 2000, we carried out the same kind of study in and around the city of Novi Sad, while in 2001 we expanded the study to the whole of Vojvodina. The studies' findings show that the soil reaction has not changed and that the levels of heavy metals in the soil have not exceeded the maximum tolerable concentration (MTC). The presence of PAHs at various concentrations was detected, however. This presence is a result of the fires at the Novi Sad Oil Refinery. (author)

  11. Exergy and exergoeconomic analysis of a petroleum refinery utilities plant using the condensing to power method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes da Silva, Julio Augusto; Pellegrini, Luiz Felipe; Oliveira Junior, Silvio [Polytechnic School of the University of Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mails: jams@usp.br, luiz.pellegrini@usp.br, soj@usp.br; Plaza, Claudio; Rucker, Claudio [Petrobras - Petroleo Brasileiro S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mails: claudioplaza@petrobras.com.br, rucker@petrobras.com.br

    2010-07-01

    In this paper a brief description of the main processes present in a modern high capacity refinery is done. The methodology used to evaluate, through exergy analysis, the performance of the refinery's utilities plant since it is responsible for a very considerable amount of the total exergy destruction in a refinery is presented. The utilities plant products: steam, electricity, shaft power and high pressure water had their exergy unit cost determined using exergoeconomic approach. A simple and effective method called condensing to power was used to define the product of the condensers in exergy basis. Using this method it is possible to define the product of the condenser without the use of negentropy concept nor the aggregation of condensers to the steam turbines. By using this new approach, the costs obtained for the plant's products are exactly the same costs obtained when the condenser is aggregated to the steam turbine but with the advantage that the information about the stream between condenser and the steam turbine is not lost and the condenser can be evaluated singly. The analysis shows that the equipment where attention and resources should be focused are the boilers followed by the gas turbine, that together, are responsible for 80% of total exergy destruction in the utilities plant. The total exergy efficiency found for the utilities plant studied is 35% while more than 280 MW of exergy is destroyed in the utilities processes. (author)

  12. Optimization of operating conditions of distillation columns: an energy saving option in refinery industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Fazlali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available While energy prices continue to climb, it conservation remains the prime concern for process industries. The daily growth of energy consumption throughout the world and the real necessity of providing it, shows that optimization of energy generation and consumption units is an economical and sometimes vital case. Hence, the optimization of a petroleum refinery is aimed towards great production and an increase in quality. In this research, the atmospheric distillation unit of the Iran-Arak-Shazand petroleum refinery was subject to optimization efforts. It was performed by the means of using a simulator with the aim to earn more overhead products. In the next step the optimization results from the simulators were carried out in the real world, at the above mentioned unit. Results demonstrate that the changes in the real operating conditions increase the overhead products with desirable quality. Finally, a net economical balance between the increments of the overhead products and the energy consumption shows an energy saving in this refinery.

  13. Production of ethanol from refinery waste gases. Phase 2, technology development, annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, D.; Basu, R.; Phillips, J.R.; Wikstrom, C.V.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1995-07-01

    Oil refineries discharge large volumes of H{sub 2}, CO, and CO{sub 2} from cracking, coking, and hydrotreating operations. This program seeks to develop a biological process for converting these waste gases into ethanol, which can be blended with gasoline to reduce emissions. Production of ethanol from all 194 US refineries would save 450 billion BTU annually, would reduce crude oil imports by 110 million barrels/year and emissions by 19 million tons/year. Phase II efforts has yielded at least 3 cultures (Clostridium ljungdahlii, Isolate O-52, Isolate C-01) which are able to produce commercially viable concentrations of ethanol from CO, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2} in petroleum waste gas. Single continuous stirred tank reactor studies have shown that 15-20 g/L of ethanol can be produced, with less than 5 g/L acetic acid byproduct. Culture and reactor optimization in Phase III should yield even higher ethanol concentrations and minimal acetic acid. Product recovery studies showed that ethanol is best recovered in a multi-step process involving solvent extraction/distillation to azeotrope/azeotropic distillation or pervaporation, or direct distillation to the azeotrope/azeotropic distillation or pervaporation. Projections show that the ethanol facility for a typical refinery would require an investment of about $30 million, which would be returned in less than 2 years.

  14. Identifying ideology: media representations of the Irving Oil Refinery strike, 1994-1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steuter, E.C.

    1998-07-01

    Media coverage of a strike at the Irving Oil Refinery in Saint John, New Brunswick which began in 1994 and lasted until 1996 is used as a background for the examination of ideology, used here in the more inclusive sense, one in which the term suggests a frame of mind without the coherence and easily recognized label usually associated with political ideology. Central issues such as monopoly ownership of the New Brunswick media by the Irving Group of Companies (also owners of the refinery) , the ideological presentation of strikes in general, and the representation of changing labour relations in a post-industrial, globally-oriented society are analyzed to show how these issues influenced media coverage. Four New Brunswick dailies as well as selected English-language dailies from other parts of Canada have been scrutinized in an effort to determine their ideological stand. It was found that restrictive ideologies such as liberalism or conservatism are on the decline; instead, more inclusive ideologies like defeatism and individualism were prominently featured especially by the St. John Telegraph-Journal in New Brunswick and other papers outside the province. The most striking finding was that if the media coverage of the Irving Refinery strike is representative of public opinion, the current organization of the provincial political economy is accepted as 'natural' by a majority of New Brunswickers.

  15. Industrial application of gasoline aromatization and desulfurization technology in Hohhot refinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zixia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gasoline aromatization and desulfurization (GARDES technology is extensively used in refineries of Petrochina, aiming to produce high quality ultraclean fluid catalytic cracking (FCC gasoline. This article introduces the industrial application results on the hydrodesulfurization unit of the Hohhot refinery, which plays an important role in guiding next round gasoline upgrading. The characteristics and the principle of GARDES technology were elaborated by analyzing the distribution of sulfur and hydrocarbon compounds in the feed and product. The analysis results proved that the presence of broad ranged sulfur types in the feed can be removed at different stages. Olefin can be decreased by saturation and conversion into i-paraffins and aromatics. The sulfur content of the blend product can be limited under 10 mg/kg, showing GARDES technology has excellent sulfur removal ability. The olefin reduction can also satisfy the ever-increasing severe requirement about the olefin limitation, while the loss of research octane number (RON can be minimized to an acceptable level. Furthermore, according to the demand of gasoline upgrading, GARDES technology has great flexibility by adjusting operation condition without any further investment, which brings more economic benefits for refinery.

  16. Preliminary life-cycle assessment of biomass-derived refinery feedstocks for reducing CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marano, J.J.; Rogers, S.; Spath, P.L.; Mann, M.K.

    1995-01-01

    The US by ratification of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change has pledged to emit no higher levels of greenhouse gases in the year 2000 than it did in 1990. Biomass-derived products have been touted as a possible solution to the potential problem of global warming. However, past studies related to the production of liquid fuels, chemicals, gaseous products, or electricity from biomass, have only considered the economics of producing these commodities. The environmental benefits have not been fully quantified and factored into these estimates until recently. Evaluating the environmental impact of various biomass systems has begun using life-cycle assessment. A refinery Linear Programming model previously developed has been modified to examine the effects of CO 2 -capping on the US refining industry and the transportation sector as a whole. By incorporating the results of a CO 2 emissions inventory into the model, the economic impact of emissions reduction strategies can be estimated. Thus, the degree to which global warming can be solved by supplementing fossil fuels with biomass-derived products can be measured, allowing research and development to be concentrated on the most environmentally and economically attractive technology mix. Biomass gasification to produce four different refinery feedstocks was considered in this analysis. These biomass-derived products include power, fuel gas, hydrogen for refinery processing, and Fischer-Tropsch liquids for upgrading and blending into finished transportation fuels

  17. WATER PINCH TECHNOLOGY APPLICATION TO MINIMIZE SULPHUROUS WASTEWATER IN AN OIL REFINERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Orlando Lobelles Sardiñas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In oil refining industries there is a high water consumption, which influences the high production costs and impacts the environment due to the discharge of their wastes. It is known that there are no technological conditions for the reuse of industrial water at the oil refineries, based on hydroskimming processes. The objective of this study is to implement the process integration methodology, Water Pinch, to a sour water stripper unit, as a unitary process of an oil refinery, to minimize the amount of sulphurous waste water and reduce contamination of the bay that receives these wastes. The technology is applied to evaluate the volume of sulphurous wastewater generated in the Cienfuegos oil refinery. This technology allows identifying opportunities for recovery and reuse of water, based on concentration ranges of contaminants. To achieve this purpose, a sour water stripper tower was assessed with the help of Water Pinch software, which provided an optimized distribution network, as a proposed technological improvement. This facilitated to recover and reuse 667 757, 28 m3 of water per year, and 1 035 023, 78 CUC were saved, at the same time the amount of polluting effluents decreased in approximately 2 % of non-reusable treated water.

  18. Oil refinery wastewater treatment using physicochemical, Fenton and Photo-Fenton oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tony, Maha A; Purcell, Patrick J; Zhao, Yaqian

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the application of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) to the treatment of wastewaters contaminated with hydrocarbon oil. Three different oil-contaminated wastewaters were examined and compared: (i) a 'real' hydrocarbon wastewater collected from an oil refinery (Conoco-Phillips Whitegate refinery, County Cork, Ireland); (ii) a 'real' hydrocarbon wastewater collected from a car-wash facility located at a petroleum filling station; and (iii) a 'synthetic' hydrocarbon wastewater generated by emulsifying diesel oil and water. The AOPs investigated were Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2) (Fenton's reagent), Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2)/UV (Photo-Fenton's reagent) which may be used as an alternative to, or in conjunction with, conventional treatment techniques. Laboratory-scale batch and continuous-flow experiments were undertaken. The photo-Fenton parametric concentrations to maximize COD removal were optimized: pH = 3, H(2)O(2) = 400 mg/L, and Fe(2+) = 40 mg/L. In the case of the oil-refinery wastewater, photo-Fenton treatment achieved approximately 50% COD removal and, when preceded by physicochemical treatment, the percentage removal increased to approximately 75%.

  19. Multi-media pollution prevention: A case study of a refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, R.E.; Podar, M.K.

    1994-01-01

    In late 1989, Amoco Corporation and the United States Environmental Protection Agency began a voluntary, joint project to study pollution prevention opportunities at an industrial facility. Amoco proposed use of its refinery at Yorktown, Virginia, to conduct a multi-media assessment of releases to the environment, then to develop and evaluate options to reduce these releases. A Workgroup composed of state, federal, and Amoco representatives provided oversight to the Project. Monthly Workgroup meetings provided Project oversight, a forum for presentations on different Project components, and an opportunity for informal discussion of different viewpoints about environmental management. The Workgroup identified four objectives for this study: (1) Inventory refinery releases to the environment to define their chemical type, quantity, source, and medium of release; (2) develop options to reduce selected releases identified, as well as rank and prioritize the options based on a variety of criteria and perspectives; (3) identify and evaluate factors as technical, legislative, regulatory, institutional, permitting, and economic, that impede or encourage pollution prevention; and (4) enhance participates' knowledge of refinery and regulatory systems

  20. Alterações agudas dos níveis de neurotransmissores em corpo estriado de ratos jovens após estado epiléptico induzido por pilocarpina Acute alterations of neurotransmitters levels in striatum of young rat after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivelilson Mendes de Freitas

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Altas doses de agonista colinérgico muscarínico, pilocarpina, produzem alterações comportamentais, convulsões e estado epiléptico em ratos. O objetivo desse estudo foi verificar as alterações nas concentrações dos neurotransmissores em corpo estriado de ratos em desenvolvimento após estado epiléptico induzido pela pilocarpina. Ratas Wistar foram tratadas com uma única dose de pilocarpina (400mg/Kg; s.c.. Controles receberam salina. A concentração dos neurotransmissores foi determinada através do HPLC, no corpo estriado de ratos que no período de observação de 1 e 24h desencadearam estado epiléptico e não sobreviveram à fase aguda do quadro convulsivo. Foi observada redução nos níveis de dopamina, serotonina, ácido dihidroxifenilacético, ácido 5-hidroxiindolacético, e aumento no ácido 4-hidroxi-3-metoxi-fenilacético. Os resultados mostraram que a ativação do sistema colinérgico pode interagir com os sistemas dopaminérgico e serotonérgico nos mecanismos referentes à fase aguda do processo convulsivo.High doses of the muscarinic cholinergic agonist, pilocarpine, result in behavioural changes, seizures and status epilepticus in rats. The purpose of the present work is to invetigate the striatal neurotransmissors level in young rats after status epilepticus induced by pilocarpine. Wistar rats were treated with a single dose of pilocarpine (400mg/Kg; s.c.. Controls received saline. Young animals were closed observed for behavioural changes during 1 and 24h. In these periods, the animals that developed status epilepticus and didn't survive this acute phase of seizures had the brains removed and striatal neurotransmissors level determined by HPLC. The concentration of dopamine, serotonine, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid was reduced and an increase in 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenylacetic acid was observed. These results suggest that cholinergic activation can interage with dopaminergic and

  1. Opportunities and challenges at the interface between petrochemistry and refinery. Preprints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, S.; Leitner, W.; Lercher, J.A.; Nees, F.; Perego, C.; Rupp, M.; Santacesaria. E. (eds.)

    2007-07-01

    Within the DGMK/SCI-Conference 'Opportunities and Challenges at the Interface between Petrochemistry and refinery' between 10th and 12th October, 2007, in Hamburg (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (a) Maximizing petrochemicals from refineries (B. Glover, T. Foley, S. Frey); (b) Opportunities and challenges at the interface between petrochemistry and refinery - the OMV view (J. Lichtscheidl); (c) Aspects of petrochemistry in a fuels refinery (J. Essler, J. Mielicke, T. Maier); (d) Enhanced propylene production in FCC by novel catalytic materials (C.P. Kelkar, D. Harris, M. Xu, J. Fu); (e) Retrofit of an MTBE-unit to ETBE (A. Rix, U. Peters); (f) Opportunities and challenges at the interface between petrochemistry and refinery - The BASF perspectives (H.-J. Blankertz); (g) Light olefins - challenges from new production routes? (H. Zimmermann); (h) Conversion of heavy aromatic hydrocarbons to valuable synthetic feed for steamcrackers (A. Cesana, L. Dalloro, F. Rivetti, R. Buzzoni, R. Bignazzi); (i) C{sub 4} olefin/paraffin separation over the metal organic framework material Cu{sub 3}BTC{sub 2} (S. Kunz, O. Tangermann, M. Hartmann); (j) Glycerol tertiary butyl ethers via etherification of glycerol with isobutene (A. Behr); (k) Biorefineries: From concepts to reality? (K. Wagemann); (l) Modern concepts in reactor and separation technologies (D. Agar); (m) Innovative reactive distillation process for the production of the MTBE substitute isooctane from isobutene (M. Chalakova, R. Kaur, H. Freund, S. Mahajani, K. Sundmacher); (n) Supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) systems - novel fixed bed reactor concepts for homogeneous catalysis (A. Riisager, R. Fehrmann, M. Haumann, M. Jakuttis, J. Joni, P. Wasserscheid); (o) Selective oxidations to industrial intermediates (S. Schunck); (p) Perspectives of industrial realization for propane oxidative dehydrogenation over chromium oxide catalysts (A.L. Lapidus, N.A. Gaidai, Yu. A. Agafonov, M

  2. Smart microgrids in refineries, Mexico case; Microrredes inteligentes en refinerias, caso Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrada Garcia, Javier Alejandro; Linan Garcia, Roberto; Picasso Blanquel, Cuitlahuac; Silva Farias, Jose Luis [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2013-03-01

    In this paper we present the technological trends on smart microgrids for refineries, case Mexico. Distributed generation on refineries is a model of microgrid with great challenges to solve, considering renewable energy. Also it discusses the scenario in bidirectional connection from refineries to the utility supergrid Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE by its acronym in Spanish) and how to reach the development of a smart microgrid. We look different scenarios in power systems refineries, and the feasibility to achieve and develop the technology concepts in smart grid, such as: demand response in real time, exchange of energy between microgrid with supergrid-CFE and viceversa, energy efficiency, microgrid automation, selfhealing/real time autorecovery fault in power systems, storage energy and its application on power systems blackout in refineries. Finally we discussed the concepts that represent the greatest challenges to be solved on the smart microgrids and consider obtaining alternatives solution in medium or long term. [Spanish] En este documento se presentan las tendencias tecnologicas en micro redes inteligentes para refinerias, en el caso de Mexico. La generacion distribuida en refinerias es un modelo de micro red con grandes desafios por resolver, considerando la energia renovable. Se analiza tambien el escenario en conexion bidireccional de refinerias a la super red de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), la empresa electrica mexicana, y como lograr el desarrollo de una micro red inteligente. Se consideran diferentes escenarios en refinerias de sistemas de potencia, y la factibilidad de alcanzar y desarrollar los conceptos de tecnologia en una red inteligente, tales como: respuesta de demanda en tiempo real, intercambio de energia entre la micro red con la super red de la CFE y viceversa, eficiencia de energia, automatizacion de micro redes, autorrecuperacion de fallas en autoarreglo/tiempo real. En sistemas de potencia, almacenamiento de

  3. Particulate matters modelling: Participation to Eurodelta and application at a refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffort, Valentin

    2017-01-01

    the month of April 2013, in the vicinity of the Total refinery of Grandpuits, Seine-et-Marne. Model performance is evaluated at the regional scale, with the refinery sources treated with the Plume-in-Grid representation. The refinery contribution to local inhalable particle concentrations, in interaction with local sources, is analyzed. Next, the model is applied to two measurement campaigns of the TEMMAS project ('Tele-detection, Measure, Modeling of Atmospheric pollutants on industrial sites'), conducted in the vicinity of the Total refinery at La Mede, Bouches-du-Rhone, in September 2015 and February 2016. The performance of the Polyphemus Plume-in-Grid model is evaluated with intensive measurements of mass concentrations, number concentrations, and chemical composition of particles in the vicinity of the refinery. (author) [fr

  4. Estado nutricional de niños de Antioquia, Colombia, según dos sistemas de referencia Nutritional status of children in Antioquia, Colombia, according to two reference systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Cecilia Álvarez

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Comparar indicadores antropométricos y nutricionales en un grupo de niños de Antioquia, Colombia, según las referencias de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS y del Centro Nacional de Estadísticas de la Salud (NCHS de los Estados Unidos de América. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo trasversal en una muestra representativa y aleatoria compuesta por 2 290 niños que participaban en el programa de complementación alimentaria MANA en Antioquia, Colombia. Se comparó el percentil 50 (P50 del peso y la longitud/estatura, el estado nutricional (peso para la edad, longitud/estatura para la edad y peso para la longitud/estatura y los promedios del índice Z seg��n los valores de referencia de la OMS y el NCHS. Se utilizaron la prueba pareada de la t de Student y la prueba de la ji al cuadrado, con sus intervalos de confianza de 95% (IC95%. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de desnutrición global fue significativamente menor según las referencias de la OMS (5,3%; IC95%: 4,42 a 6,30 que con las del NCHS (7,6%; IC95%: 6,56 a 8,78; P = 0,0014. La desnutrición crónica fue mayor con los estándares de la OMS (17,6%; IC95%: 16,03 a 19,19 que con los del NCHS (12,8%; IC95%: 11,46 a 14,25; P OBJECTIVE: To compare the anthropometric and nutritional indicators of a group of children in Antioquia, Colombia, according to the reference standards of the World Health Organization and of the National Health Statistics (NCHS, United States of America. METHODS: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out on a representative, random sample of 2 290 children participating in the supplementary food program MANA in Antioquia, Colombia. A comparison was made of the 50th percentile (P50 for weight and length/height, the nutritional status (weight-for-age, length/height-for-age, and weight-for-length/height, and the mean Z scores according to the reference values established by WHO and by NCHS. Student t and χ2 tests were performed

  5. Produção, qualidade dos frutos e estado nutricional da laranja valência sob fertirrigação e adubação convencional Yield, fruit quality and nutritional status of valencia orange under fertigation and conventional fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza H. Duenhas

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar os efeitos de doses de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio aplicadas via água de irrigação em comparação à aplicação convencional de fertilizantes, com irrigação e sem irrigação. O experimento foi conduzido em um pomar de laranja 'Valência' (Citrus sinensis Osbeck localizado em Pratânia - SP, durante três anos consecutivos, e analisados os dados do último ano de observação. As diferentes formas de aplicação dos fertilizantes e a redução das doses fornecidas via água de irrigação não resultaram em diferenças significativas sobre o número médio de frutos e produtividade. Também não foram constatadas diferenças estatísticas dos tratamentos sobre a qualidade do suco e o estado nutricional das plantas, com exceção do teor de fósforo.The purpose of this study was to compare doses of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium applied through irrigation water and conventional fertilizer application, with and without irrigation. The experiment was carried out in a Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck orchard in Pratania City, São Paulo State, Brazil, during three consecutive years. The data of the last year of observation were analysed. The different fertilizer application methods and the reduction of fertigation doses did not result in significative differences on the average number of fruits and productivily. Statistical differences of treatments on juice quality and plants nutritional status were not found, except leaf phosphorus.

  6. Evolução dos comportamentos e do estado de saúde na passagem à reforma Evolución de las conductas y estado de salud en el período de jubilación Evolution of behaviour and health status during transition to retirement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Loureiro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A passagem à reforma é um acontecimento de vida de caráter transicional que exige uma inevitável adaptação à mudança (Fonseca, 2011; Meleis, 2010. A evolução dos comportamentos e do estado de saúde que os indivíduos revelam durante esse período são ilustrativos deste facto e traduzem os efeitos que a aquisição deste estatuto lhes poderá suscitar, em termos de saúde. Com a finalidade de conhecer esses efeitos, o presente estudo teve por objetivo descrever a evolução dos comportamentos e do estado de saúde dos indivíduos no período de passagem à reforma. Tratou-se de um estudo de caráter quantitativo, no qual foi aplicado um questionário a 432 indivíduos aposentados há menos de cinco anos. A amostra foi conseguida pelo método de rede e os dados foram analisados recorrendo ao SPSS17. As evidências revelaram que os inquiridos melhoraram os seus comportamentos em saúde após a reforma. Todavia essa melhoria não se expressou numa correspondente melhoria do estado de saúde (ex. Índice Massa Corporal aumentou em 94,8% dos casos e a patologia crónica em 3,7%, com destaque para o foro psiquiátrico. Concluiu-se que a passagem à reforma apresenta expressivas implicações na saúde dos indivíduos, particularmente naquelas que são as dimensões psicoemocionais desse mesmo estado.La jubilación es un acontecimiento transicional que exige la experiencia de una adaptación a los cambios (Fonseca, 2011; Meleis, 2010. La evolución de la conducta y del estado de salud, expresado por las personas durante ese período, puede ser ilustrativo de ese fenómeno y reflejar los efectos que esta condición les puede aportar a su salud. El estudio tuvo por objeto describir la evolución del comportamiento y del estado de salud de las personas durante la jubilación. Fue un estudio de carácter cuantitativo, en el cual se aplicó un cuestionario a 432 personas que se jubilaron hace menos de cinco años. La muestra se obtuvo por m

  7. DOS cones along atomic chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwapiński, Tomasz

    2017-03-01

    The electron transport properties of a linear atomic chain are studied theoretically within the tight-binding Hamiltonian and the Green’s function method. Variations of the local density of states (DOS) along the chain are investigated. They are crucial in scanning tunnelling experiments and give important insight into the electron transport mechanism and charge distribution inside chains. It is found that depending on the chain parity the local DOS at the Fermi level can form cone-like structures (DOS cones) along the chain. The general condition for the local DOS oscillations is obtained and the linear behaviour of the local density function is confirmed analytically. DOS cones are characterized by a linear decay towards the chain which is in contrast to the propagation properties of charge density waves, end states and Friedel oscillations in one-dimensional systems. We find that DOS cones can appear due to non-resonant electron transport, the spin-orbit scattering or for chains fabricated on a substrate with localized electrons. It is also shown that for imperfect chains (e.g. with a reduced coupling strength between two neighboring sites) a diamond-like structure of the local DOS along the chain appears.

  8. DOS cones along atomic chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwapiński, Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    The electron transport properties of a linear atomic chain are studied theoretically within the tight-binding Hamiltonian and the Green’s function method. Variations of the local density of states (DOS) along the chain are investigated. They are crucial in scanning tunnelling experiments and give important insight into the electron transport mechanism and charge distribution inside chains. It is found that depending on the chain parity the local DOS at the Fermi level can form cone-like structures (DOS cones) along the chain. The general condition for the local DOS oscillations is obtained and the linear behaviour of the local density function is confirmed analytically. DOS cones are characterized by a linear decay towards the chain which is in contrast to the propagation properties of charge density waves, end states and Friedel oscillations in one-dimensional systems. We find that DOS cones can appear due to non-resonant electron transport, the spin–orbit scattering or for chains fabricated on a substrate with localized electrons. It is also shown that for imperfect chains (e.g. with a reduced coupling strength between two neighboring sites) a diamond-like structure of the local DOS along the chain appears. (paper)

  9. Dos chalets, en Suecia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erskine, Ralph

    1968-04-01

    Full Text Available Villa Engström, at Sorunda This house, of semi-spheric shape, has besically only one floor level, without basement. However, the guest room and the attic are a kind of second floor within the cupula. This is an experiment, with a view to the possible mass construction of this prototype. The various rooms are grouped in two blocks, one comprising the bedrooms, which are cellular type and of minimum size, and the bathrooms; the other includes the children's room, a living room which extends into the vestibule, and guest room at a higher level. Villa Ström, near Stockholm This house is practically cube shaped, with ample terraces, which are structurally independent of the central volume. A principal aim has been to obtain fine views in all directions, and also to take advantage of the ground slope. This house, of original and competent design, includes indoor gardens which add colour and life to the rooms.Villa Engström, en Sorunda Esta vivienda, que presenta una «forma» semiesferica, es fundamentalmente un edificio de una sola planta, sin sótano; sin embargo, el cuarto de huéspedes y el «ático» forman como una especie de doble planta dentro de la cúpula. Se trata de una experiencia con vistas a una posible fabricación en serie. Las diferentes habitaciones se hallan agrupadas en dos bloques: uno de ellos ocupado por los dormitorios —que son de tipo celular y de tamaño mínimo—, y los cuartos de baño; y el otro que comprende un cuarto para los niños, la sala de estar —unida con el vestíbulo—, y la habitación de los huéspedes en la parte superior. Villa Ström, cerca de Estocolmo La casa es prácticamente un cubo, con terrazas amplias e independientes estructuralmente del volumen principal. En todo caso, ha dominado la doble preocupación de conseguir magníficas vistas hacia todos los alrededores y una adaptación total a la pendiente del terreno. La vivienda se ha resuelto con maestría y originalidad, procurando zonas

  10. CARBON ACCOUNTING INITIATIVES: CASE STUDY OF A PETROLEUM REFINERY IN MALAYSIA TO PREPARE FOR FUTURE CARBON MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMANDA H.L. CHEE

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum refining process produces a large amount of atmospheric pollutants including greenhouse gases which are attributed to global warming. The international community inevitably addressed the global warming issue by introducing a market-based mechanism known as Emission Trading Systems (ETS under the Kyoto Protocol which imposes binding limits to developed nations using three flexibility mechanisms, including the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM. This case study was carried out in a petroleum refinery in Malaysia to explore the possibility for the refinery to participate in CDM. Information was collected through observatory field survey at the refinery and documentation review. Results show that the current monitoring tool using indirect calculation of fuel consumption provides a comprehensive coverage of emission sources but the reporting frequency should be increased for data accuracy. An accounting system was then created to predict the emissions gap of the refinery with reference to the baseline-year set by the Kyoto Protocol. It was concluded that the refinery showed promising potential to participate in CDM to benefit from technology transfer by selling their ‘credits’ to Annex I countries despite the uncertainty on the impact of the carbon market in a Non-Annex I country.

  11. OS SACRAMENTAIS, SACRAMENTOS DOS POBRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Codina

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Basta ter tido um pouco de experiência pastoral com setores populares, concretamente na América Latina, para constatar a importância dos sacramentais na vida cristã do povo. Além das manifestações de piedade popular que se costuma estudar sob a rubrica de religiosidade popular (peregrinações, festas de padroeiro, procissões..., gostaria de destacar aqui outros elementos mais estreitamente ligados ao mundo dos sacramentos, ainda que não formem parte dos sete sacramentos tridentinos.

  12. The guava tree as bioindicator during the process of fuel replacement of an oil refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Simone F; Meirelles, Sérgio T; Moraes, Regina M

    2013-05-01

    This study was performed to verify whether the exchange of the fuel used in the boilers of a crude oil refinery located in Cubatão (SE Brazil) would result in alterations on gas exchange, growth and leaf injuries in saplings of Psidium guajava 'Paluma'. The purpose of the refinery was to reduce the SO2 emission, but using natural gas as fuel could increase the concentrations of O3 precursors in the atmosphere. Thus a biomonitoring was performed with a native species sensitive to O3. The plants were exposed in five areas (CM1, CM5, CEPEMA, Centro, and RP) at different distances to the refinery, both before and after the fuel exchange. We performed six exposures under environmental conditions, with length of ca. 90 days each. With the utilization of natural gas, the saplings presented reductions in carbon assimilation rate under saturating light conditions (Asat, μmolCO2m(-2)s(-1)) and the stomatal conductance (gs, molH2Om(-2)s(-1)), and increase in height, number of leaves, and dry mass of leaves and shoots. There were also reductions in root dry mass and in the root/shoot ratio. The saplings also presented O3-induced leaf injuries. The responses of P. guajava 'Paluma' were altered after the fuel exchange as a result of a new combination of pollutants in the atmosphere. The fuel exchange has not resulted in environmental benefit to the surrounding forest; it has only altered the contamination profile of the region. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessment and control design for steam vent noise in an oil refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monazzam, Mohammad Reza; Golmohammadi, Rostam; Nourollahi, Maryam; Momen Bellah Fard, Samaneh

    2011-06-13

    Noise is one of the most important harmful agents in work environment. Noise pollution in oil refinery industries is related to workers' health. This study aimed to determine the overall noise pollution of an oil refinery operation and its frequency analysis to determine the control plan for a vent noise in these industries. This experimental study performed in control unit of Tehran Oil Refinery in 2008. To determine the noise distributions, environmental noise measurements were carried out by lattice method according to basic information and technical process. The sound pressure level and frequency distribution was measured for each study sources subject separately was performed individually. According to the vent's specification, the measured steam noise characteristics reviewed and compared to the theoretical results of steam noise estimation. Eventually, a double expansion muffler was designed. Data analysis and graphical design were carried out using Excel software. The results of environmental noise measurements indicated that the level of sound pressure was above the national permitted level (85 dB (A)). The Mean level of sound pressure of the studied steam jet was 90.3 dB (L). The results of noise frequency analysis for the steam vents showed that the dominant frequency was 4000 Hz. To obtain 17 dB noise reductions, a double chamber aluminum muffler with 500 mm length and 200 mm diameter consisting pipe drilled was designed. The characteristics of steam vent noise were separated from other sources, a double expansion muffler was designed using a new method based on the level of steam noise, and principle sound frequency, a double expansion muffler was designed.

  14. Evaluation the Phytoremediation of Oil-contaminated Soils Around Isfahan Oil Refinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Iraji-Asiabadi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum compounds are pollutants that most commonly occur in soils around oil refineries and that often find their ways into groundwater resources. Phytoremediation is a cost-effective alternative to physicochemical methods for oil-contaminated soil remediation, where feasible. In this study, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the phytoremediation of oil-contaminated soils around Isfahan Oil Refinery. Four different plants (namely, sorghum, barley, agropyron, and festuca were initially evaluated in terms of their germinability in both contaminated and control (non-contaminated soils. Sorghum and barley (recording the highest germinability values were chosen as the species for use in the phytoremediation experiments. Shoot and root dry weights, total and oil-degrading bacteria counts, microbial activity, and total concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs were determined at harvest 120 days after planting. A significant difference was observed in the bacterial counts (total and oil-degrading bacteria between the planted soils and the control. In contaminated soils, a higher microbial activity was observed in the rhizosphere of the sorghum soil than in that of barley. TPHs concentration decreased by 52%‒64% after 120 days in contaminated soil in which sorghum and barley had been cultivated. This represented an improvement of 30% compared to the contaminated soil without plants. Based on the results obtained, sorghum and barley may be recommended for the removal of petro-contaminants in areas close to Isfahan Oil Refinery. Nevertheless, caution must be taken as such cultivated lands may need to be protected against grazing animals.

  15. Control valves for critical applications in refineries; Stellventile bei kritischen Prozessbedingungen in Raffinerien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiesbauer, J. [Samson AG, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2001-09-01

    In refineries, the process media flowing through valves are primarily liquids. With liquids, critical operating conditions caused by cavitation or flashing may occur. Symptoms are, for instance, increased noise emission, erosion of valve and pipe components or low-frequency mechanical vibration in the valve and the connected pipeline. Under these conditions, in particular, neglecting details can result in negative influences on the plant performance and the costs of ownership. Unfortunately, it is a common practice nowadays to select control valves in a ''quick and dirty'' fashion, because the phases of planning, bidding and order processing are connected with significant pressures of cost and time. This article presents the basic principles underlying the above problems and shows how to eliminate them based on practical examples from refineries. Moreover, a new throttling element is introduced, which is especially suited to the reduction of noise emission produced by cavitation. This new throttling element is implemented in refineries with increasing success. (orig.) [German] In Raffinerien werden Stellgeraete oft mit Fluessigkeiten durchstroemt. Dadurch koennen sich kritische Betriebszustaende als Folge von Kavitation oder Flashing ergeben. Dies aeussert sich z. B. in erhoehter Schallemission, in Erosion an Ventil- und Rohrleitungsbauteilen oder in niederfrequenten mechanischen Vibrationen im Ventil und der angeschlossenen Rohrleitung. Werden solche Einfluesse nicht von Anfang an richtig erfasst und ernst genommen, dann kann sich dies aeusserst negativ auf die Anlagen- und Prozesszuverlaessigkeit auswirken, verbunden mit deutlich erhoehten ''costs of ownership''. Leider ist es gerade heutzutage ueblich, Stellventile ''quick and dirty'' auszulegen, weil die Phasen der Planung, des Angebots und der Bestellung einem sehr starken Zeit- und Kostendruck unterliegen. Dieser Beitrag stellt die wesentlichen

  16. Effects of work-related stress on work ability index among refinery workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Ehsanollah; Dehghan, Habibollah; Safari, Shahram; Mahaki, Behzad; Hassanzadeh, Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Work-related stress is one of the basic problems in industrial also top 10 work-related health problems and it is increasingly implicated in the development a number of problems such as cardiovascular disease, musculoskeletal diseases, early retirement to employees. On the other hand, early retirement to employees from the workplace has increased on the problems of today's industries. Hereof, improving work ability is one of the most effective ways to enhance the ability and preventing disability and early retirement. The aim of This study is determine the relationship between job stress score and work ability index (WAI) at the refinery workers. This is a cross-sectional study in which 171 workers from a refinery in isfahan in 2012 who were working in different occupational groups participated. Based on appropriate assignment sampling, 33 office workers, 69 operational workers, and 69 maintenance workers, respectively, were invited to participate in this study. Two questionnaires including work related-stress and WAI were filled in. Finally, the information was analyzed using the SPSS-20 and statistic tests namely, analysis of covariance Kruskal-Wallis test. Pearson correlation coefficient, ANOVA and t-test. Data analysis revealed that 86% and 14% of participants had moderate and severe stress respectively. Average score of stress and standard deviation was 158.7 ± 17.3 that was in extreme stress range. Average score and standard deviation of WAI questionnaire were 37.18 and 3.86 respectively. That placed in a good range. Pearson correlation coefficient showed that WAI score had significant reversed relationship with a score of stress. According to the results, mean stress score among refinery worker was high and one fator that affect work abiity was high stress, hence training on communication skills and safe working environment in order to decreses stress, enhance the work ability of workers.

  17. Economic impacts of oil spills: Spill unit costs for tankers, pipelines, refineries, and offshore facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The impacts of oil spills -- ranging from the large, widely publicized Exxon Valdez tanker incident to smaller pipeline and refinery spills -- have been costly to both the oil industry and the public. For example, the estimated costs to Exxon of the Valdez tanker spill are on the order of $4 billion, including $2.8 billion (in 1993 dollars) for direct cleanup costs and $1.125 billion (in 1992 dollars) for settlement of damages claims caused by the spill. Application of contingent valuation costs and civil lawsuits pending in the State of Alaska could raise these costs appreciably. Even the costs of the much smaller 1991 oil spill at Texaco's refinery near Anacortes, Washington led to costs of $8 to 9 million. As a result, inexpensive waming, response and remediation technologies could lower oil spin costs, helping both the oil industry, the associated marine industries, and the environment. One means for reducing the impact and costs of oil spills is to undertake research and development on key aspects of the oil spill prevention, warming, and response and remediation systems. To target these funds to their best use, it is important to have sound data on the nature and size of spills, their likely occurrence and their unit costs. This information could then allow scarce R ampersand D dollars to be spent on areas and activities having the largest impact. This report is intended to provide the ''unit cost'' portion of this crucial information. The report examines the three key components of the US oil supply system, namely, tankers and barges; pipelines and refineries; and offshore production facilities. The specific purpose of the study was to establish the unit costs of oil spills. By manipulating this key information into a larger matrix that includes the size and frequency of occurrence of oil spills, it will be possible' to estimate the likely future impacts, costs, and sources of oil spills

  18. Biostimulation of indigenous microbial community for bioremediation of petroleum refinery sludge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayeeta Sarkar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient deficiency severely impairs the catabolic activity of indigenous microorganisms in hydrocarbon rich environments (HREs and limits the rate of intrinsic bioremediation. The present study aimed to characterize the microbial community in refinery waste and evaluate the scope for biostimulation based in situ bioremediation. Samples recovered from the wastewater lagoon of Guwahati refinery revealed a hydrocarbon enriched high total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH, oxygen-, moisture-limited, reducing environment. Intrinsic biodegradation ability of the indigenous microorganisms was enhanced significantly (>80% reduction in TPH by 90 days with nitrate amendment. Preferred utilization of both higher- (>C30 and middle- chain (C20-30 length hydrocarbons were evident from GC-MS analysis. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE and community level physiological profiling (CLPP analyses indicated distinct shift in community’s composition and metabolic abilities following nitrogen (N amendment. High throughput deep sequencing of 16S rRNA gene showed that the native community was mainly composed of hydrocarbon degrading, syntrophic, methanogenic, nitrate/iron/sulfur reducing facultative anaerobic bacteria and archaebacteria, affiliated to γ- and δ-Proteobacteria and Euryarchaeota respectively. Genes for aerobic and anaerobic alkane metabolism (alkB and bssA, methanogenesis (mcrA, denitrification (nirS and narG and N2 fixation (nifH were detected. Concomitant to hydrocarbon degradation, lowering of dissolve O2 and increase in oxidation-reduction potential (ORP marked with an enrichment of N2 fixing, nitrate reducing aerobic/facultative anaerobic members e.g., Azovibrio, Pseudoxanthomonas and Commamonadaceae members was evident in N amended microcosm. This study highlighted that indigenous community of refinery sludge was intrinsically diverse, yet appreciable rate of in situ bioremediation could be achieved by supplying adequate N sources.

  19. Biostimulation of Indigenous Microbial Community for Bioremediation of Petroleum Refinery Sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Jayeeta; Kazy, Sufia K.; Gupta, Abhishek; Dutta, Avishek; Mohapatra, Balaram; Roy, Ajoy; Bera, Paramita; Mitra, Adinpunya; Sar, Pinaki

    2016-01-01

    Nutrient deficiency severely impairs the catabolic activity of indigenous microorganisms in hydrocarbon rich environments (HREs) and limits the rate of intrinsic bioremediation. The present study aimed to characterize the microbial community in refinery waste and evaluate the scope for biostimulation based in situ bioremediation. Samples recovered from the wastewater lagoon of Guwahati refinery revealed a hydrocarbon enriched [high total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH)], oxygen-, moisture-limited, reducing environment. Intrinsic biodegradation ability of the indigenous microorganisms was enhanced significantly (>80% reduction in TPH by 90 days) with nitrate amendment. Preferred utilization of both higher- (>C30) and middle- chain (C20-30) length hydrocarbons were evident from GC-MS analysis. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and community level physiological profiling analyses indicated distinct shift in community’s composition and metabolic abilities following nitrogen (N) amendment. High throughput deep sequencing of 16S rRNA gene showed that the native community was mainly composed of hydrocarbon degrading, syntrophic, methanogenic, nitrate/iron/sulfur reducing facultative anaerobic bacteria and archaebacteria, affiliated to γ- and δ-Proteobacteria and Euryarchaeota respectively. Genes for aerobic and anaerobic alkane metabolism (alkB and bssA), methanogenesis (mcrA), denitrification (nirS and narG) and N2 fixation (nifH) were detected. Concomitant to hydrocarbon degradation, lowering of dissolve O2 and increase in oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) marked with an enrichment of N2 fixing, nitrate reducing aerobic/facultative anaerobic members [e.g., Azovibrio, Pseudoxanthomonas and Comamonadaceae members] was evident in N amended microcosm. This study highlighted that indigenous community of refinery sludge was intrinsically diverse, yet appreciable rate of in situ bioremediation could be achieved by supplying adequate N sources. PMID:27708623

  20. THE STATUS OF LANGUAGE IN THE PHILOSOPHY OF YOUNG NIETZSCHE: REFLEXIONS ABOUT THE PHYSIOLOGY OF THE AESTHETICS PHENOMENA O ESTATUTO DA LINGUAGEM NO PENSAMENTO DO JOVEM NIETZSCHE: REFLEXÕES SOBRE A FISIOLOGIA DOS FENÔMENOS ESTÉTICOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luis Muniz Garcia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary conceived as part of a wider and systematic study on the thought of young Nietzsche, the present article aim to analyze the status of language in the aesthetic philosophy of Nietzsche, namely that which is presented in the preparatory and posthumous works and fragments of The Birth of Tragedy. As it should be noted, my analysis, endorsed by importants studies of secondary literature, aimed at a keen, and yet not exhaustive, gradual reconstruction of the tripartite: tonal language (Tonsprache, language-of-gesture (Geberdensprache and language-of-word (Wortsprache. This, in order to elucidate the origin, development and extinction of the Greek tragedy.

  1. Detection of impurities in fluid flowing in refinery pipeline or oil production operations using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, D.M.; Peelman, H.E.; Langford, O.M.; Paap, H.J.; Sopernaw, I.R.

    1977-01-01

    Fluid in a pipeline or container at a refinery or at any of various petroleum producing operations is bombarded with neutrons and high energy gamma rays resulting from capture of thermal neutrons are detected. The spectra of the detected gamma rays are then analyzed to determine the concentration of the element chlorine, which gives an indication of the presence and concentration of salt water in the fluid. The concentration of sulfur and the percentage gas in the fluid may be determined simultaneously with the concentration of chlorine. (Auth.)

  2. Assessment of volatile organic emissions from a petroleum refinery land treatment site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetherold, R.G.; Eklund, B.M.; Blaney, B.J.; Throneloe, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a field assessment performed to measure the emissions of volatile organics from a petroleum refinery land treatment site. As part of this study, the emissions of total volatile organics from surface-applied and subsurface-injected oily sludge were measured over a 5-week period. The effect of soil tilling on the emissions also was monitored. Volatile organics emission rates were measured using the emission isolation flex chamber method. Soil samples were collected during the test periods to determine soil properties, oil levels and microbe count. Soil surface and ambient temperatures, both inside and outside the flux chambers, were measured throughout the test periods

  3. Relation between sensitization and failures of welded joints at furnaces of Cienfuegos refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez, H.; Menendez, C.M.; Sendoya, F.A.

    1992-01-01

    This work is concerned about the possible relation between sensitization and failures of welded joints at furnaces of Cienfuegos Refinery. This failures were detected in austenitic pipes by hydraulic testing. For determined the tendency to sensitization of heat affected zones (HAZ) of welded joints and piping, have been used standardized test methods AM and AMU (GOST 6032-89). In addition, the Electrochemical Potentiokinetic Reactivation (EPR) test was employed to quantity the tendency to intergranular corrosion. It was found that degree of sensitization was higher at HAZ and as a possible explanation is proposed the overheating during welding

  4. Benchmarking of refinery CO2 emissions. The CWT methodology provides a way forward

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larive, J.F. [CONCAWE, Brussels (Belgium)

    2009-10-01

    The EU Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Scheme foresees a number of mechanisms for distributing emission allowances amongst market players. For those economic sectors exposed to international competition, a portion of the required allowances will be distributed free of charge. In order to do this in an equitable manner, the amount of free allowances will be based on a sectoral benchmark representing best practice in the sector. In cooperation with Solomon Associates, CONCAWE has developed the so-called Complexity Weighted Tonne (CWT) methodology which provides a common and balanced basis for comparing the performance of refineries.

  5. Key outcomes from risk based assessment of pressure equipment in refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firth, D.; Lichti, K.; Hill, T.; Thomas, C.; Widrig, J.; Simmonds, G.; Karstensen, A.

    2012-01-01

    Risk based assessment (RBA) has become the best industry practice for management of pressure equipment reliability. Application of RBA programs significantly reduces risk and gives opportunity to optimize inspection programs and produce long term financial benefits. Quest Integrity Group have implemented risk based inspection programs n a variety of industries including ammonia, methanol, geothermal power, :combined cycle power, gas turbines, gas production facilities and refineries. This paper outlines the semi quantitative RBA procedures that have been followed and lists some of the specific technical outcomes. Advanced inspection and life assessment methods used in support of RBI in refineries ire discussed. Piping in refineries is a key risk issue and it is not uncommon for piping failures to result in major incidents. Specific inspection programs are available to monitor differing damage processes such as flow assisted corrosion, hydrogen damage and corrosion under insulation. During assessment it s often found that numerous pipes have never been inspected especially underground smaller diameter pipes which are frequently considered to be un-piggable using conventional technologies and difficult to inspect. Advanced high accuracy flexible miniaturized ultrasonic intelligent pigging combined with fitness for service assessment such as Invista TM is recommended for inspection of critical pipelines which previously have been un-piggable. The processing of crude oil from a range of sources can result in significant variations in the levels of contaminants such as chlorides and sulfides. Major failures have occurred as a result of very rapid increases in corrosion rates in hydrotreating processes due to rapid changes in chemistry. The outcome of the assessment of plants that have potentially high and variable levels of contaminants often results in a review the process chemistry, how it is monitored and development of a detailed corrosion monitoring program. Fired

  6. Troubleshooting vacuum systems steam turbine surface condensers and refinery vacuum towers

    CERN Document Server

    Lieberman, Norman P

    2012-01-01

    Vacuum systems are in wide spread use in the petrochemical plants, petroleum refineries and power generation plants. The existing texts on this subject are theoretical in nature and only deal with how the equipment functions when in good mechanical conditions, from the viewpoint of the equipment vendor.  In this much-anticipated volume, one of the most well-respected and prolific process engineers in the world takes on troubleshooting vacuum systems, and especially steam ejectors, an extremely complex and difficult subject that greatly effects the profitability of the majority of the world'

  7. The Shell gasification technology offers clean solutions for refineries and utility companies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlaswinkel, E.E.; Posthuma, S.A.; Zuideveld, P.L. [Shell International Oil Products BV, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1997-12-31

    Shell has developed two dedicated gasification technologies, the Shell Gasification Process (SGP) for gaseous and liquid feed stocks and the Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) for coal, lignite and petroleum coke. These processes are described. One of the most recent applications of SGP is the PER+ Shell Refinery project in the Netherlands which is nearly completed. A 250 MWe coal gasification combined cycle plant based on SCGP has recently been built by Demkolec, a development partnership of the Dutch Electricity Generating Board (N.V. Sep). These two projects are discussed.

  8. Test plan: the Czechowice Oil Refinery bioremediation demonstration of a process waste lagoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altman, D.J.; Lombard, K.H.; Hazen, T.C.

    1997-03-31

    The remediation strategies that will be applied at the Czechowice Oil Refinery waste lagoon in Czechowice, Poland are designed, managed, and implemented under the direction of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) for the United States Department of Energy (DOE). WSRC will be assisted in the demonstration by The Institute for Ecology of Industrial Areas (IETU). This collaboration between IETU and DOE will provide the basis for international technology transfer of new and innovative remediation technologies that can be applied in Poland and the Eastern European Region as well.

  9. [Factors of work environment and employment of workers in production of fuels and solvents at the oil refinery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebotarev, P A; Kharlashova, N V

    2012-01-01

    Factors of the industrial environment and labor activity of workers of manufacture propellants and solvents at the oil refining enterprise. Working conditions of workers at all installations of manufacture No 1 JSC "Naftan" of Novopolotsk of Byelorussia (production of fuels and solvents). Hygienic evaluation of working conditions of persons working in the production of fuels and solvents at the oil refinery. Sanitary description of the production with hygienic analysis of project design and technological documentation, qualitative and quantitative characteristics of conventional methods in the work environment and working process of employees in the workplace for the main modes of operation of the equipment. The working environment of refineries is influenced by a number of simultaneously acting factors, which have different material nature and characteristics of the action on the human body, the workers in production of fuels and solvents at the refinery, are exposed to a variety of hazardous and dangerous factors of production, a chemical factor is prevalent, of course.

  10. Personal exposure to benzene and 1,3-butadiene during petroleum refinery turnarounds and work in the oil harbour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerstrom, M; Almerud, P; Andersson, E M; Strandberg, B; Sallsten, G

    2016-11-01

    Petroleum refinery workers' exposure to the carcinogens benzene and 1,3-butadiene has decreased during normal operations. However, certain occupational groups or events at the refineries still involve a risk of higher exposures. The aim of this study was to examine the personal exposure to benzene and 1,3-butadiene at refinery turnarounds and during work in the oil harbour. Personal exposure measurements of benzene and 1,3-butadiene were taken during work shifts, with a priori assumed higher benzene exposure, using PerkinElmer diffusive samplers filled with Carbopack X. Mean exposure levels were calculated, and repeated exposure measurements, when available, were assessed using mixed effect models. Group and individual compliance with the Swedish occupational exposure limit (OEL) was tested for the different exposure groups. Mean benzene exposure levels for refinery workers during the three measured turnarounds were 150, 610 and 960 µg/m 3 , and mean exposures for oil harbour workers and sewage tanker drivers were 310 and 360 µg/m 3 , respectively. Higher exposures were associated with handling benzene-rich products. Most occupational groups did not comply with the Swedish OEL for benzene nor did the individuals within the groups. The exposure to 1,3-butadiene was very low, between Work within the petroleum refinery industry, with potential exposure to open product streams containing higher fractions of benzene, pose a risk of personal benzene exposures exceeding the OEL. Refinery workers performing these work tasks frequently, such as contractors, sewage tanker drivers and oil harbour workers, need to be identified and protected.

  11. Refinery plugging by residual oil gellant chemicals in crude : understanding and preventing the problem through new oil gellant chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R.S.; Cheng, A.; Tamayo, C.; Funkhouser, G.P. [Halliburton, Calgary, AB (Canada); Stemler, P. [Petro-Canada Oil and Gas, Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Lemieux, A. [Omnicon Consultants Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Phosphate ester oil gellants are the most prevalent oil gellant technology in use by service companies. However, in 1995, they were found to be responsible for plugging distillation trays at 3 refineries across Canada including Imperial Oil's Strathcona refinery in Edmonton, Petro-Canada's refinery in Oakville, Ontario and Chevron's refinery in Burnaby, British Columbia. Since 1998, additional fouling has occurred in Canada, and in 2002, fouling was detected at a refinery in Pennsylvania while processing Canadian sweet, light crude. Since refiners pay a high cost for unscheduled refinery shutdowns, much effort has gone into solving this problem and to maintain the value of Canadian sweet, light crude. Studies by the Canadian Crude Quality Technical Association (CCQTA) have shown that phosphate esters begin to decompose through hydrolysis of the ester linkage at approximately 240 degrees. Gases cool as they move up the tower through distillation trays. Trays in the temperature range of 230 to 290 degrees C produce most of the volatile phosphorous compounds that condense out of the gas phase and cause plugging, thereby reducing the efficiency of distillation. Phosphate esters are often used with a metal crosslinker such as ferric iron or aluminium to gel hydrocarbons for use as a fracturing fluid. This paper described the advantages of existing ferric iron-crosslinked phosphate ester oil gels over the older, alternative oil gellant chemistries. Carbon dioxide-miscible, gelled hydrocarbon fracturing fluids provide better well stimulation by avoiding capillary pressure effects associated with water-based fluids. The fluid properties of the new phosphonate ester system were compared to those of a conventional phosphate ester system. Field tests from two fracturing treatments were also presented. Plugging did not occur with the new phosphonate ester treatment. 6 refs., 1 tab., 12 figs.

  12. Data on evolutionary relationships between hearing reduction with history of disease and injuries among workers in Abadan Petroleum Refinery, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Mohammad Javad; Ghazlavi, Ebtesam; Gamizji, Samira Rashidi; Sharifi, Hajar; Gamizji, Fereshteh Rashidi; Zahedi, Atefeh; Geravandi, Sahar; Tahery, Noorollah; Yari, Ahmad Reza; Momtazan, Mahboobeh

    2018-02-01

    The present work examined data obtained during the analysis of Hearing Reduction (HR) of Abadan Petroleum Refinery (Abadan PR) workers of Iran with a history of disease and injuries. To this end, all workers in the refinery were chosen. In this research, the effects of history of disease and injury including trauma, electric shock, meningitis-typhoid disease and genetic illness as well as contact with lead, mercury, CO 2 and alcohol consumption were evaluated (Lie, et al., 2016) [1]. After the completion of the questionnaires by workers, the coded data were fed into EXCELL. Statistical analysis of data was carried out, using SPSS 16.

  13. Treatment of Mineral Oil Refinery Wastewater in Microbial Fuel Cells Using Ionic Liquid Based Separators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasna Addi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbial fuel cells (MFCs are an environmentally friendly technology that can recover electricity directly from several wastes at ambient temperatures. This work explores the use of mineral oil refinery wastewater as feedstock in single-chamber air-cathode MFC devices. A polymer inclusion membrane based on the ionic liquid methyltrioctylammonium chloride, [MTOA+][Cl−], at a concentration of 70% w/w, was used as separator, showing a good efficiency in power production and chemical oxygen demand (COD removal. The power and the chemical oxygen demand removal reached values of 45 mW/m3 and over 80%, respectively. The evolution of other parameters of the wastewater including nitrites, phosphates and sulphates were also studied. Kjeldahl nitrogen and sulphates were significantly reduced during MFC operation. The results show that mineral oil refinery wastewater can be used as feedstock in air breathing cathode-microbial fuel cells based on polymer ionic liquid inclusion membranes. This configuration could represent a good alternative for wastewater depuration while producing energy during the process.

  14. Reduction of heavy metals in refinery waste sludge using em treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, J.; Ahmad, F.; Saleemi, A.R.; Ahmad, I.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the efforts of National Cleaner Production Center (NCPC) and Attock Refinery Limited (ARL) Rawalpindi, to address the problem of refinery solid waste. A trial project was designed to treat and convert 1.7 m ton to oil sludge into environmental friendly residue (compost) under anaerobic conditions. The residue can be treated as bio fertilizer for agricultural purpose. The trial on bio remediation (anaerobic) of oily sludge of ARL, Rawalpindi within its premises using EM technology was successfully completed with the collaboration of effective microorganism research organization (EMRO), NCPC and ARL between 29th October to 10th December, 2002. The effective microorganisms transformed the undiluted oily sludge from ARL into bioactive sludge; which may be called as bio sludge. For heavy metal breakdown the trial data shows that Ba has been reduced by 85% in the EM. Treated oily sludge as compared to original ARL sludge, and Pb, Fe, Zn and Ni have been reduced by about 50% in the treated bio sludge. The contents of As, Cr, Cu and Mn showed no change. The residue obtained can be used as a bio fertilizer. (author)

  15. Stabilization of Bio-Oil Fractions for Insertion into Petroleum Refineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Robert C. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Smith, Ryan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Wright, Mark [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Elliott, Douglas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Resasco, Daniel [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Crossley, Steven [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    2014-09-28

    This project is part of a collaboration effort between Iowa State University (ISU), University of Oklahoma (OK) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The purpose of this project is to stabilize bio-oil fractions and improve their suitability for insertion into petroleum refineries. Bio-oil from fast pyrolysis of biomass is a complex mixture of unstable organic compounds. These organic compounds react under standard room conditions resulting in increases in bio-oil viscosity and water content – both detrimental for bio-oil storage and transportation. This study employed fractionation and upgrading systems to improve the stability of bio-oil. The fractionation system consists of a series of condensers, and electrostatic precipitators designed to separate bio-oil into five fractions: soluble carbohydrates (SF1&2), clean phenolic oligomers (CPO) and middle fraction (SF3&4), light oxygenates (SF5). A two-stage upgrading process was designed to process bio-oil stage fractions into stable products that can be inserted into a refinery. In the upgrading system, heavy and middle bio-oil fractions were upgraded into stable oil via cracking and subsequent hydrodeoxygenation. The light oxygenate fraction was steam reformed to provide a portion of requisite hydrogen for hydroprocessing. Hydrotreating and hydrocracking employed hydrogen from natural gas, fuel gas and light oxygenates reforming. The finished products from this study consist of gasoline- and diesel-blend stock fuels.

  16. Optimization of water network in petroleum refinery; Otimizacao de redes de agua em refinarias de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, Debora C.; Souza, Selene M.A. Guelli Ulson de; Souza, Antonio A. Ulson de [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The petroleum refineries have shown high water's consuming that creates high costs and damages the hydric resources. However, the industrial sector, especially the petroleum industry, has been looking for alternatives that minimizing the impact caused by to use these natural resources. Currently, methodologies of controlling the pollution on the source have been appearing how a strong tendency and the reuse and/or recycle of wastewater can be emphasized. The optimization by mathematical programming, together with engineering know-how, is one of the great tendency in process integration technology developed. The present work presents one optimization mathematical model that objectifies to reduce the water's consuming and/or operational costs. The model is based in chemical species and mass conservation equation. This work presents the solution of one case found in literature that broach one petroleum refinery's network of water. This network is composed of six operations and three regenerative processes, and there are four keys contaminants. The water's consuming was minimized first and next the minimum cost in the minimum consume was broached. The results found were enough satisfactory and presented reductions up to 76% in the water consume and approximately 65% in the operational costs. (author)

  17. MBBR evaluation for oil refinery wastewater treatment, with post-ozonation and BAC, for wastewater reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, E E; Cerqueira, A C F P; Dezotti, M

    2011-01-01

    This work evaluated the performance of a Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) in the treatment of an oil refinery wastewater. Also, it investigated the possibility of reuse of the MBBR effluent, after ozonation in series with a biological activated carbon (BAC) column. The best performance of the MBBR was achieved with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 6 hours, employing a bed to bioreactor volume ratio (V(B)/V(R)) of 0.6. COD and N-NH₄(+) MBBR effluent concentrations ranged from 40 to 75 mg L⁻¹ (removal efficiency of 69-89%) and 2 to 6 mg L⁻¹ (removal efficiency of 45-86%), respectively. Ozonation carried out for 15 min with an ozone concentration of 5 mg L⁻¹ was able to improve the treated wastewater biodegradability. The treatment performance of the BAC columns was practically the same for ozonated and non ozonated MBBR effluents. The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content of the columns of the activated carbon columns (CAG) was in the range of 2.1-3.8 mg L⁻¹, and the corresponding DOC removal efficiencies were comprised between 52 and 75%. The effluent obtained at the end of the proposed treatment presented a quality, which meet the requirements for water reuse in the oil refinery.

  18. Refinery water (intake and effluent) quality: Update of 1970s with 1990s toxicity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, P.M.; Paine, M.D.; Moran, T.; Kierstead, T.

    1994-01-01

    The quality of two separate refinery intake waters and effluents was investigated: Petro-Canada (Oakville) and Novacor (Corunna Operations). This study comprised eight different test organized and 22 different toxicity end points, was built on and complemented pioneering 1970s work at the Petro-Canada refinery, and was designed to (a) determine any changes in effluent quality, (b) determine any previously unsuspected effluent toxicity, and (c) determine any potential for chronic toxicity in the effluent. Although Petro-Canada has steadily reduced contaminants in its effluent since the earlier study, toxicity has not changed and no new toxic effects were identified. Effect thresholds for the most sensitive animal species (Daphnia pulex) were 1 to 10% effluent in both studies. The Novacor effluent had lesser effects on biota than the Petro-Canada effluent. Intake waters demonstrated toxicity in some tests. Chronic effects on invertebrates and fish in receiving waters are predicted not to occur in the Novacor effluent is diluted 10- to 20-fold and the Petro-Canada effluent is diluted 50- to 100-fold

  19. Determination of levels nd interfaces in oil refinery fractioning towers, with neutron retrodispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, F; Henriquez, P; Vega, P

    2003-01-01

    In the petrochemical industry and, especially, in oil refineries measurement and the control of levels and interfaces in tanks, fractioning towers and processing equipment, in general, are extremely important for managing and knowing about the different fluids that are processed in the plants. Usually there is on-line instrumentation at the plant's critical points, like floaters, external glass columns and, even, gamma radiation sources through the transmission system. A problem arises with the need for a system that can rapidly and non destructively measure levels and interfaces, outside the system to be inspected and verify the functioning of the on-line instrumentation and in places where there is no instrumentation. This work presents a methodology based on the retrodispersion of neutrons that have been used in 3 breakdown towers at the Petrox Oil Refinery, Region VIII in Chile, to identify levels and interfaces in different points in order to verify the functioning of a gamma level meter, glass column meters and to observe on site and in real time the variations in level and interfaces when carrying out different operations that will modify the values in the towers. The set of instruments used include a 1010 GBq Americium-Beryllium source and a measuring system consisting of a BF 3 (boron trifluoride) detector and its electronically related Model 2241 from Ludlum Instruments. The set is placed in a geometry that permits precise measurements (Cw)

  20. Influence of operating conditions on the air gasification of dry refinery sludge in updraft gasifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, R; Sinnathambi, C M

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, details of the equilibrium modeling of dry refinery sludge (DRS) are presented using ASPEN PLUS Simulator in updraft gasifier. Due to lack of available information in the open journal on refinery sludge gasification using updraft gasifier, an evaluate for its optimum conditions on gasification is presented in this paper. For this purpose a Taguchi Orthogonal array design, statistical software is applied to find optimum conditions for DRS gasification. The goal is to identify the most significant process variable in DRS gasification conditions. The process variables include; oxidation zone temperature, equivalent ratio, operating pressure will be simulated and examined. Attention was focused on the effect of optimum operating conditions on the gas composition of H 2 and CO (desirable) and CO 2 (undesirable) in terms of mass fraction. From our results and finding it can be concluded that the syngas (H 2 and CO) yield in term of mass fraction favors high oxidation zone temperature and at atmospheric pressure while CO 2 acid gas favor at a high level of equivalent ratio as well as air flow rate favoring towards complete combustion.

  1. Assessment of cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of refinery waste effluent using plant, animal and bacterial systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Amit Kumar; Ahmad, Masood

    2012-01-30

    The work described here presents the toxic effect of Mathura refinery wastewater (MRWW) in plant (Allium cepa), bacterial (E. coli K12) and human (blood) system. The samples were collected from adjoining area of Mathura refinery, Dist. Mathura, U.P. (India). Chromosomal aberration test and micronucleus assay in (A. cepa) system, E. coli K12 survival assay as well as hemolysis assay in human blood were employed to assess the toxicity of MRWW. MRWW exposure resulted in the formation of micronuclei and bridges in chromosomes of A. cepa cells. A significant decline occurred in survival of DNA repair defective mutants of E. coli K12 exposed to MRWW. On incubation with MRWW, calf thymus DNA-EtBr fluorescence intensity decreased and percent hemolysis of human blood cells increased. An induction in the MDA levels of MRWW treated A. cepa roots indicated lipid peroxidation also. Collectively, the results demonstrate a significant genotoxic and cytotoxic potential of MRWW. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Hydroprocessing and premium II refinery: a new refining philosophy for an era of clean fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgaudio, Caio Veiga Penna; Pinotti, Rafael [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This paper discusses a brief history of Brazilian's emission and fuel specifications, since the appearance of PROCONVE until the late stages of the program for vehicles powered by gasoline and diesel. The development of the Brazilian refining is analyzed taking into account the emission and specification evolutions, and it can be perceived that the system's complexity increases while new constraints are imposed by the regulator. This aspect is even more apparent when the detailed scheme of the Premium II refinery and its main unit, the catalytic hydrocracker (HCC, which has not yet been part of PETROBRAS' refining park and will appear in three of the four new refineries of the company) is described. The new projects represent the culmination of the intensive use of energy and raw material for obtaining the products with the new specifications. There is a price for this development, both in investments and increased operating costs due to greater complexity of the system. To adapt to the era of clean fuels, refiners will present a series of challenges that will lead them to seek for more efficient processes and operational excellence (and ongoing efforts to reduce their emissions) in order to ensure positive refining margins. (author)

  3. Extra heavy oil and refinery residues upgrading through Eni Slurry Technology : first EST commercial unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rispoli, G.; Sanfilippo, D.; Amoroso, A [Eni S.p.A., Rome (Italy)

    2009-07-01

    The production of heavy crude oils is projected to continue to grow in the upstream oil industry given that large reserves of unconventional extra heavy crude and bitumen exist in several geographic areas including Canada and Venezuela. As reserves of conventional crude oil continue to decline, these unconventional feedstocks are becoming an opportunity to pursue, but they require effective technologies for upgrading and meeting the growing demand for light and middle distillate fuels. This paper described the proprietary technology that offers a solution to upstream and downstream oil producers for bottom-of-the-barrel upgrading. En i Slurry Technology (EST) is constructing an industrial plant in its Sannazzaro refinery in Italy. The plant is designed to convert 23,000 BPSD of vacuum residue into high quality diesel and other valuable refinery streams such as liquefied petroleum gas, naphtha and jet fuel. EST is an H-addition process characterized by the use of a special homogeneous isothermal intrinsically safe reactor, and of a nano-dispersed non-ageing catalyst. EST converts more than 98 per cent of any type of residues to about 110 per cent volume of light products and distillates or extra heavy oils to high quality bottomless SCO. In typical performance, HDS is greater than 85 per cent, HDM greater than 99 per cent and HDCCR greater than 97 per cent. EST also achieves the target of zero fuel oil - zero coke. 12 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs.

  4. Nuclear refinery - advanced energy complex for electricity generation, clean fuel production, and heat supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, C.F.

    1992-01-01

    In planning for increased U.S. energy users' demand after the year 2000 there are essentially four salient vectors: (1) reduced reliance on imported crude oil; (2) provide a secure supply with stable economics; (3) supply system must be in concert with improved environment goals; and (4) maximum use to be made of indigenous resources. For the last decade of this century the aforementioned will likely be met by increasing utilization of natural gas. Early in the next century, however, in the U.S. and the newly industrializing nations, the ever increasing energy demand will only be met by the combined use of uranium and coal. The proposed nuclear refinery concept is an advanced energy complex that has at its focal point an advanced modular helium reactor (MHR). This nuclear facility, together with a coal feedstock, could contribute towards meeting the needs of the four major energy sectors in the U.S., namely electricity, transportation, industrial heating and chemical feedstock, and space and water heating. Such a nuclear/coal synergistic system would be in concert with improved air quality goals. This paper discusses the major features and multifaceted operation of a nuclear refinery concept, and identifies the enabling technologies needed for such an energy complex to become a reality early in the 21st century. (Author)

  5. CO{sub 2} capture from oil refinery process heaters through oxyfuel combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.B. Wilkinson; J.C. Boden; T. Gilmartin; C. Ward; D.A. Cross; R.J. Allam; N.W.Ivens [BP, Sunbury-on-Thames (United Kingdom)

    2003-07-01

    BP has a programme to develop technologies that could reduce greenhouse gas emissions, by the capture and storage of CO{sub 2} from existing industrial boilers and process heaters. One generic technology under development is oxyfuel combustion, with flue gas recycle. Previous studies, by three of the authors, have concluded that refinery steam boilers could be successfully converted to oxyfuel firing. Fired heaters, however, differ from boilers in several respects and so it was decided to study the feasibility of converting process heaters. Three heaters, located on BP s Grangemouth refinery, were chosen as examples, as they are typical of large numbers of heaters worldwide. In establishing the parameters of the study, it was decided that the heat fluxes to the process tubes should not be increased, compared to conventional air firing. For two of the heaters this was achieved by proposing a slightly higher recycle rate than for the boiler conversion studied earlier - the heater duty would be retained with no changes to the tubes. For the third heater, where the process duty uses only the radiant section, the CO{sub 2} capture cost and the firing rate could be reduced by lowering the recycle rate. Some air in leakage to these heaters was considered inevitable, despite measures to control it, and therefore plant to remove residual inerts from the CO{sub 2} product was designed. Cryogenic oxygen production was selected for two heaters, but for the smallest heater vacuum swing adsorption was more economic. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. ENHANCEMENT OF PHENOL REMOVAL EFFICIENCY IN DORA REFINERY WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah F. Sharif

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Because the sanctions imposed on Iraq by the United Nations, programmed maintenance and wearing parts replacement has not been performed according to schedules in DORA Refinery Wastewater Unit, which resulted in higher phenol content and BOD5 in effluents disposed to river. The investigations showed that two main reasons were behind this problem: Firstly, increased emissions of hydrocarbons in the complexity of refinery equipment and Secondly, the decreased efficiency of the aerators in the biological. During the last few months, phenol average concentration in the effluent, after biological treatment was found to be between 0.06-0.13 mg/L, while COD was exceeding 110 mg/L after treatment in the same period. Considerable enhancement, has been indicated recently, after the following performances: First: Recycling wastewater from some heat exchangers, and the segregation of low and high strength of wastewaters, Second: Minimizing emissions of hydrocarbons from fluid catalytic cracking and steam cracking, Third: Replacement of driving motors of the aerators in the biological treatment unit. After replacement of these units, a significant decrease in phenol concentration was obtained in purified water (0.03-0.05 mg/L and COD of 60 mg/L before the tertiary treatment. It is concluded that a better quality of effluents has been obtained after a series of emissions control and wastewater treatment unit equipment maintenance performances.

  7. Scheduling of Crude Oil Operations in Refinery without Sufficient Charging Tanks Using Petri Nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan An

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A short-term schedule for crude oil operations in a refinery should define and sequence the activities in detail. Each activity involves both discrete-event and continuous variables. The combinatorial nature of the scheduling problem makes it difficult to solve. For such a scheduling problem, charging tanks are a type of critical resources. If the number of charging tanks is not sufficient, the scheduling problem is further complicated. This work conducts a study on the scheduling problem of crude oil operations without sufficient charging tanks. In this case, to make a refinery able to operate, a charging tank has to be in simultaneous charging and feeding to a distiller for some time, called simultaneously-charging-and-feeding (SCF mode, leading to disturbance to the oil distillation in distillers. A hybrid Petri net model is developed to describe the behavior of the system. Then, a scheduling method is proposed to find a schedule such that the SCF mode is minimally used. It is computationally efficient. An industrial case study is given to demonstrate the obtained results.

  8. Optimization of petroleum refinery effluent treatment in a UASB reactor using response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastegar, S.O.; Mousavi, S.M.; Shojaosadati, S.A.; Sheibani, S.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► A UASB was successfully used for treatment of petroleum refinery effluent. ► Response surface methodology was applied to design and analysis of experiments. ► System was modeled between efficient factors include HRT, influent COD and V up . ► UASB was able to remove about 76.3% influent COD at optimum conditions. - Abstract: An upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) bioreactor was successfully used for the treatment of petroleum refinery effluent. Before optimization, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was 81% at a constant organic loading rate (OLR) of 0.4 kg/m 3 d and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 48 h. The rate of biogas production was 559 mL/h at an HRT of 40 h and an influent COD of 1000 mg/L. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to predict the behaviors of influent COD, upflow velocity (V up ) and HRT in the bioreactor. RSM showed that the best models for COD removal and biogas production rate were the reduced quadratic and cubic models, respectively. The optimum region, identified based on two critical responses, was an influent COD of 630 mg/L, a V up of 0.27 m/h, and an HRT of 21.4 h. This resulted in a 76.3% COD removal efficiency and a 0.25 L biogas/L feed d biogas production rate.

  9. Fiscal 1999 feasibility study on energy conservation at Novo-oil refinery in Ufa City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-31

    An energy conservation plan was examined for Novo oil refinery of Bashneftechim Company in Ufa City, Bashkortstan, Russia for the purpose of making the plan tied to the COP3 joint implementation. The objective units in the study include an atmospheric and vacuum distillation unit with throughput of 7.8 million tons/year, a visbreaker and a vacuum gas oil hydrodesulfurization unit (for feedstock of FCC in Lenin Refinery), and a catalytic cracking unit, for example. Energy conservation measures are improvement and revamping of heating furnace to control excess air ratio in furnace, installation of air pre-heater or heat recovery boiler to recover heat from exhaust gas of heating furnace, additional installation of heat exchangers to recover heat from product oils, and efficiency improvement of overall operation by modernization of instrumentation and controlling equipment. The policy is not complete rebuilding of the facilities but utilizing the existing facilities by improving energy efficiency as far as possible. The study shows that investment for energy saving will be recovered within 3-6 years in many cases while total investment is estimated to be 1.5-3.0 billion yen. Total reduction of fuel consumption will be 500-800 million yen. Yearly reduction of CO2 emission will amount to 0.29 million tons (23%). (NEDO)

  10. Reconstruction of historical exposures at a Welsh nickel refinery (1953-2000).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivulka, Donna J; Seilkop, Steven K; Lascelles, Keith; Conard, Bruce R; Jones, Sian F; Collinson, Eric C

    2014-07-01

    Past epidemiological studies of workers in a nickel refinery in Clydach, Wales, have shown evidence of large excess respiratory cancer mortality risks [lung cancer relative risk (RR) ≈ 3; nasal cancer RR ≈ 140] in those employed prior to 1930, with risks dropping dramatically in workers hired subsequently. The pre-1930 risks have generally been attributed to high exposures to mixtures of nickel compounds. More recent studies of this refinery's workers have focused on those first hired in 1953, when many of the operations that presumably gave rise to the high exposures were no longer in operation. While these studies have shown greatly decreased lung cancer risks overall (RR ≈ 1.4), and no substantive evidence of increased nasal cancer risk, the absence of reliable exposure estimates have made it difficult to ascertain whether the increased lung cancer risks are nickel related or due to other factors. This study uses nickel measurements from the 1970s to the present, documentation of process changes, and dust measurements taken around the 1950s to construct an exposure matrix for the recent cohort. It provides evidence of at least 30-fold decreases in levels of nickel exposure from the 1950s to the present, with estimated inhalable nickel concentrations in the 1950s in excess of 5mg Ni m(-3). © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  11. Large scale and long term application of bioslurping: the case of a Greek petroleum refinery site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidarakos, E; Aivalioti, M

    2007-11-19

    This paper presents the course and the remediation results of a 4-year application of bioslurping technology on the subsurface of a Greek petroleum refinery, which is still under full operation and has important and complicated subsurface contamination problems, mainly due to the presence of light non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPL). About 55 wells are connected to the central bioslurping unit, while a mobile bioslurping unit is also used whenever and wherever is necessary. Moreover, there are about 120 additional wells for the monitoring of the subsurface of the facilities that cover a total area of 1,000,000 m(2). An integrated monitoring program has also been developed and applied on the site, including frequent LNAPL layer depth and thickness measurements, conduction of bail-down and recovery tests, sampling and chemical analysis of the free oil phase, etc., so as to evaluate the remediation technique's efficiency and ensure a prompt tracing of any new potential leak. Despite the occurrence of new leaks within the last 4 years and the observed entrapment of LNAPL in the vadoze zone, bioslurping has managed to greatly restrict the original plume within certain and relatively small parts of the refinery facilities.

  12. Hydroisomerization of different refinery naphtha streams by using a beta zeolite catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Maria Jesus; de Lucas, Antonio; Jimenez, Vicente; Sanchez, Paula; Valverde, Jose Luis [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Avd. Camilo Jose Cela s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2008-08-15

    In this work, the evaluation of a catalyst based on beta zeolite agglomerated with bentonite in the hydroisomerization of three feeds obtained by distillation of refinery naphtha streams provided by the petroleum company REPSOL-YPF was considered. These refinery naphthas were different in composition, being constituted mostly by different proportions of paraffin, aromatic and naphthenic compounds. The highest overall paraffin conversion value was obtained with that naphtha with the highest content in linear paraffins. As the classical hydroisomerization mechanism predicts, linear alkanes were transformed into branched isomers. Thus, the relation between branched isomers and linear paraffins (iC6/nC6, iC7/nC7 and iC8/nC8) was higher in the products than in the feed. The presence of the aromatic compounds (benzene and toluene) was detected in the three feeds. In all cases, a complete benzene conversion, leading to naphthenic compounds formation, was reached. Long-term tests showed that, regardless of the type of naphtha fed to the reactor, the research octane number of the products remained practically constant. (author)

  13. Enhanced treatment of refinery soils with open-system slurry reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackburn, J.W.; Lee, M.K.; Horn, W.C.

    1995-01-01

    Refinery site cleanups of residual hydrocarbons arising from long-term operations have become a concern. Because contaminated soil has been generated over many years from spills of many types of materials, it is often difficult to identify the actual spilled material. Because many of these materials are weathered, the less degradable fractions can predominate, creating a challenge for bioremedial process solutions. Open-system slurry reactors were run with an aged refinery soil after a 6-month period of field bioremediation in which 23% TPH removal resulted. The open system (a system where the liquid medium was replaced daily and the solids were retained in the reactor for 2 weeks) achieved 60 to 80% total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) removal based on the initial, prefield bioremediation soil concentration. A process concept twice as effective as other bioremediation schemes has been devised that takes advantage of the formation and removal of small black particulate solids in an open or continuous slurry reactor configuration. These small black particles are chemically or biologically produced in the open system and with their small size and low density are easily elutriated from the bioreactor as the liquid medium is changed. A statistically designed experiment has determined optimal values of nutrients, temperature, and mixing

  14. Oil prices: The role of refinery utilization, futures markets and non-linearities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, Robert K.; Mann, Michael; Dees, Stephane; Gasteuil, Audrey

    2008-01-01

    We test the hypothesis that real oil prices are determined in part by refinery capacity, non-linearities in supply conditions, and/or expectations and that observed changes in these variables can account for the rise in prices between 2004 and 2006. Results indicate that the refining sector plays an important role in the recent price increase, but not in the way described by many analysts. The relationship is negative such that higher refinery utilization rates reduce crude oil prices. This effect is associated with shifts in the production of heavy and light grades of crude oil and price spreads between them. Non-linear relationships between OPEC capacity and oil prices as well as conditions on the futures markets also account for changes in real oil prices. Together, these factors allow the model to generate a one-step ahead out-of-sample forecast that performs as well as forecasts implied by far-month contracts on the New York Mercantile Exchange and is able to account for much of the $27 rise in crude oil prices between 2004 and 2006. (author)

  15. Auxiliary units for refining of high nitrogen content oils: Premium II refinery case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolato, Paolo Contim; Pinotti, Rafael [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    PETROBRAS is constantly investing on its refining park in order to increase the production of clean and stable fuels and to be capable to process heavier oils with high contaminants content. Sulfur and nitrogen are the main heteroatoms present in petroleum. They are responsible for some undesirable fuels properties like corrosivity and instability, and also emit pollutants when burnt. Hydrotreating and hydrocracking processes are designed to remove these contaminants and adjust other fuel properties, generating, as byproduct, sour gases and sour water streams rich in H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3}, which are usually sent to Sour Water Treatment Units and Sulfur Recovery Units. The regeneration of the amine used for the light streams treatment, as fuel gas and LPG, also generates sour gas streams that must be also sent to Sulfur Recovery Units. As the ammonia content in the sour streams increases, some design parameters must be adjusted to avoid increasing the Refinery emissions. Sulfur Recovery Units must provide proper NH3 destruction. Sour Water Treatment must have a proper segregation between H{sub 2}S and ammonia streams, whenever desirable. Amine Regeneration Systems must have an efficient procedure to avoid the ammonia concentration in the amine solution. This paper presents some solutions usually applied to the Petroleum Industry and analyses some aspects related to Premium II Refinery Project and how its design will help the Brazilian refining park to meet future environmental regulation and market demands. (author)

  16. ASSESSMENT OF CO2 EMISSION MITIGATION FOR A BRAZILIAN OIL REFINERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. N. Chan

    Full Text Available Abstract Currently the oil refining sector is responsible for approximately 5% of the total Brazilian energy related CO2 emissions. Possibilities to reduce CO2 emissions and related costs at the largest Brazilian refinery have been estimated. The abatement costs related to energy saving options are negative, meaning that feasibility exists without specific income due to emission reductions. The assessment shows that short-term mitigation options, i.e., fuel substitution and energy efficiency measures, could reduce CO2 emissions by 6% of the total current refinery emissions. It is further shown that carbon capture and storage offers the greatest potential for more significant emission reductions in the longer term (up to 43%, but costs in the range of 64 to162 US$/t CO2, depending on the CO2 emission source (regenerators of FCC units or hydrogen production units and the CO2 capture technology considered (oxyfuel combustion or post-combustion. Effects of uncertainties in key parameters on abatement costs are also evaluated via sensitivity analysis.

  17. Discrete event simulation for petroleum transfers involving harbors, refineries and pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Marcella S.R.; Lueders, Ricardo; Delgado, Myriam R.B.S. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Nowadays a great effort has been spent by companies to improve their logistics in terms of programming of events that affect production and distribution of products. In this case, simulation can be a valuable tool for evaluating different behaviors. The objective of this work is to build a discrete event simulation model for scheduling of operational activities in complexes containing one harbor and two refineries interconnected by a pipeline infrastructure. The model was developed in Arena package, based on three sub-models that control pier allocation, loading of tanks, and transfers to refineries through pipelines. Preliminary results obtained for a given control policy, show that profit can be calculated by taking into account many parameters such as oil costs on ships, pier using, over-stay of ships and interface costs. Such problem has already been considered in the literature but using different strategies. All these factors should be considered in a real-world operation where decision making tools are necessary to obtain high returns. (author)

  18. Management and analysis of data from petroleum refinery wastewater treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, D T [Wastewater, Technology Centre, Burlington, ON (Canada); Grammas, J [SOHO, Lima, OH (USA)

    1989-01-01

    Current efforts to monitor trace contaminants in treated oil refinery wastewaters increase the need to implement systematic, clear, and consistent procedures for reporting and presenting all monitoring data. The ability to interpret trace contaminant data which is to be collected by the governments of the U.S. and Canada for regulations development will rely on information about operating procedures and the efficiency of removal of conventional pollutants. An overview is provided of the main issues which must be addressed in managing and analyzing data from wastewater treatment facilities. The objectives of enviromental data management and analysis are discussed from the point of view of both the plant operator or owner and the regulatory authority. Based on the examination of the 1985 records of flow and phenol concentrations from seven Canadian petroleum refineries, recommendations are made for improving existing databases. In analyzing environmental data to transform raw data into information, exploratory data analysis techniques should be used by engineers or operators who do not have formal statistical training. These methods employ simple statistical summaries and graphical data displays. The paper concludes with a brief discussion about future trends in environmental data management and analysis. 15 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Hazard evaluation of soil contaminants from an abandoned oil refinery site with chemical and biological assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanathan, A.; Yates, C.W.; Burks, S.L.

    1993-01-01

    The phytotoxic characteristics of soil and leachates of soil from an abandoned oil refinery site were evaluated with rice (Oryza sativa L.) seed germinations and root elongation assays. Toxicity of soil leachates to aquatic animals was determined with acute and martial chronic toxicity tests with Ceriodaphnia dubia, fathead minnows, and Microtox reg-sign. Soil samples from uncontaminated (control) and selected contaminated areas within the old refinery were extracted with Toxic Characteristics Leachate Procedure (TCLP), an aqueous procedure and a supercritical carbon dioxide method. Aqueous extracts of soil from the oil leaded gasoline storage area exhibited greatest effects in all tests. Aqueous extracts from this site also caused a significant reduction in rice root development. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction proved to be a quick and non-toxic procedure for isolating non-polar organics for assay with aquatic toxicity tests. Subsequent supercritical extracts collected in solvent can help characterize the class of toxicants through HPLC and Gas Chromatography. The toxic constituents were characterized with a Toxicity Identification/Toxicity Reduction Evaluation protocol to fractionate the contaminants into conventional non-polar organics, weak acids, base-neutrals, or heavy metals for subsequent analysis

  20. Physical growth and nutritional status of Mexican infants from newborn to two years of age Crecimiento físico y estado de nutrición de los niños mexicanos, del nacimiento a los dos años de edad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Flores-Huerta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the nutritional status of Mexican infants under two years of age. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five nutritional surveys, three being representative of the nation, were assessed using several anthropometric indicators, with reference to the WHO 2006 growth standard. RESULTS: From national surveys, the incidence of low birth weight ranged from 8.9 to 8.1% and was higher in rural areas. At two years of age, the prevalences of stunted growth, wasting and being overweight ranged from 25.6 to 16.1%, 4.5 to 1.9% and 6.3 to 10.8%, respectively, between 1988 and 2006. The combination of being overweight with stunted growth increased with age, particularly in rural areas. Figures presented in non-national surveys compared with national surveys demonstrate a lower incidence of low birth weight, similar levels of stunted growth, being overweight and obesity, and a little higher for wasting. CONCLUSION: Policies are required to be implemented to prevent nutritional diseases associated with stunted growth, being overweight and obesity.OBJETIVO: Conocer el estado nutricio de niños mexicanos menores de dos años. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: De cinco encuestas, tres de ellas nacionales, se evaluaron varios indicadores antropométricos, usando como referente el estándar de crecimiento de OMS, 2006. RESULTADOS: En las encuestas nacionales la incidencia de peso bajo al nacer va de 8.9 a 8.1%, siendo mayor en las áreas rurales. A los dos años de edad la prevalencia de desmedro va de 25.6 a 16.1%; de emaciación de 4.5 a 1.9% y la de sobrepeso y obesidad va de 6.3 a 10.8%, en 1988 y 2006 respectivamente. El sobrepeso concurrente con desmedro aumenta conforme aumenta la edad, especialmente en áreas rurales. Las cifras en las encuestas no nacionales, comparadas con las nacionales, muestran menor incidencia de peso bajo al nacer, valores similares para desmedro y sobrepeso y ligeramente mayores para emaciación. CONCLUSIÓN: Se requieren políticas de

  1. 40 CFR 80.205 - How is the annual refinery or importer average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... volume of gasoline produced or imported in batch i. Si=The sulfur content of batch i determined under § 80.330. n=The number of batches of gasoline produced or imported during the averaging period. i=Individual batch of gasoline produced or imported during the averaging period. (b) All annual refinery or...

  2. 40 CFR 80.524 - What sulfur content standard applies to motor vehicle diesel fuel downstream of the refinery or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to motor vehicle diesel fuel downstream of the refinery or importer? 80.524 Section 80.524 Protection... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel Standards and Requirements § 80.524 What sulfur content standard...

  3. Airborne concentrations of metals and total dust during solid catalyst loading and unloading operations at a petroleum refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ryan C; Gaffney, Shannon H; Le, Matthew H; Unice, Ken M; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2012-09-01

    Workers handle catalysts extensively at petroleum refineries throughout the world each year; however, little information is available regarding the airborne concentrations and plausible exposures during this type of work. In this paper, we evaluated the airborne concentrations of 15 metals and total dust generated during solid catalyst loading and unloading operations at one of the largest petroleum refineries in the world using historical industrial hygiene samples collected between 1989 and 2006. The total dust and metals, which included aluminum, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, platinum, silicon, silver, vanadium, and zinc, were evaluated in relation to the handling of four different types of solid catalysts associated with three major types of catalytic processes. Consideration was given to the known components of the solid catalysts and any metals that were likely deposited onto them during use. A total of 180 analytical results were included in this analysis, representing 13 personal and 54 area samples. Of the long-term personal samples, airborne concentrations of metals ranged from refinery and perhaps other modern refineries during the timeframe examined. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Prospective techno-economic and environmental assessment of carbon capture at a refinery and CO2 utilisation in polyol synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernández-Dacosta, Cora; Van Der Spek, Mijndert; Hung, Christine Roxanne; Oregionni, Gabriel David; Skagestad, Ragnhild; Parihar, Prashant; Gokak, D. T.; Strømman, Anders Hammer; Ramirez, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    CO2 utilisation is gaining interest as a potential element towards a sustainable economy. CO2 can be used as feedstock in the synthesis of fuels, chemicals and polymers. This study presents a prospective assessment of carbon capture from a hydrogen unit at a refinery, where the CO2 is either stored,

  5. Gasification in petroleum refinery of 21. century; La gazeification dans la raffinerie du petrole du 21. siecle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E. [IMAF Group, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    The worldwide trends in the crude oil supply indicate a continuous increase of the heavy crudes. The increase in the yield of distillation residues is complemented by an increase in their sulfur content. Additional distillates are produced by upgrading the residues. The upgrading step generates final residues, such as visbreaking tar, coke and asphalt which are produced by visbreaking, coking and de-asphalting, respectively. The final residues can be converted to usable products such as hydrogen, steam, electricity, ammonia and chemicals. For this purpose, gasification has emerged as the technology of choice because of its superior environmental performance when compared with the competing means for residue utilization. Also, refinery sludges can be co-gasified with the final residues and as such, be converted to usable products. If integrated with the petroleum refinery, gasification can diminish any environmental problems associated with residue and sludge disposal. The economic indicators of the refinery can improve as well. The trends in deregulation of the power market enable petroleum refineries to enter this lucrative market either alone or in a partnership with the utilities. The potential of co-production of chemicals and steam with electricity offers the flexibility to respond to market demands. Gasification technology is commercially proven. Among several types, entrained bed gasifiers are the gasifiers of choice. A number of commercial projects in Europe, Asia and United States use a gasifier employing either a slurry feeding system or a dry feeding system. (author)

  6. Ground based measurements of SO2 and NO2 emissions from the oil refinery 'la Teja' in Montevideo city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frins, Erna; Casaballe, Nicolas; Osorio, Matias; Arismendi, Federico; Ibrahim, Ossama; Wagner, Thomas; Platt, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    We present preliminary results of ground based measurements of SO 2 and NO 2 emissions from 'La Teja' oil refinery located in the northern part of Montevideo Bay. Our study is part of a long term effort to localize and monitor relevant emission sources in the city area of Montevideo. These measurements were performed with a Miniature Multi AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectrometry (MiniMAX-DOAS) instrument, which is basically a temperature controlled medium-resolution spectrometer (∼ 0.5 nm) equipped with a small telescope and a stepper motor allowing automatic scans in one dimension. We present a discussion about the evolution and transformation of both above species in the atmosphere. Our observation site was approximately 1.9 km away from the oil refinery and we were able to perform vertical and horizontal scans of the plume emitted (during our measurements) almost horizontally from its stacks. The maximum value of the SO 2 slant column density (SCD) was found to be ∼ 4x10 17 molec cm -2 directly over the oil refinery, decreasing as the plume disperses. In contrast, the NO 2 SCD peaks at ∼ 1x10 16 molec cm -2 directly over the source and increases continuously as the plume disperses. The SO 2 flux measured immediately downwind of the refinery was found to be about 1200 kg h -1 (±40% uncertainty).

  7. 40 CFR 80.1363 - What are the additional requirements under this subpart for gasoline produced at foreign refineries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... audits of the foreign refinery. (i) Inspections and audits may be either announced in advance by EPA, or... (vi) The independent audit requirements in this section and in § 80.1356. (3)(i) Any foreign refiner..., assurance that the gasoline remained segregated as specified in paragraph (n)(1) of this section, and a...

  8. Allocating the CO{sub 2} emissions of an oil refinery with Aumann-Shapley prices. Comment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tehrani Nejad Moghaddam, Alireza [Department of Economic Studies, Institut Francais du Petrole (I.F.P.), 92852, Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    2010-01-15

    The allocation of CO{sub 2} emissions of petroleum refineries to their oil products is a necessary step in the retrospective Well-to-Tank (WTT) analysis. These allocated emissions are used to evaluate the environmental impacts of automotive fuels' production within the refinery. Oil refining is a complex joint production system and there exists no simple and unique answer to this allocation question. Recently, Pierru proposed adapting the Aumann-Shapley cost sharing method to deal with this issue. Our paper aims at describing the conceptual and technical difficulties of this adaptation to the WTT context. Moreover, we show that this approach, as proposed by Pierru, is not applicable to any real-type refinery model. Different suggestions are provided to improve its applicability (when it is possible) in real situations. A simple numerical example as well as a real-type refinery case study is provided for illustrations. Finally, we discuss an alternative allocation approach which we believe more adapted to the WTT context. (author)

  9. Use of various acute, sublethal and early life-stage tests to evaluate the toxicity of refinery effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherry, J.; Scott, B.; Dutka, B.

    1997-01-01

    The toxicities of effluents from three Ontario, Canada, refineries were assessed with microbes, plants, invertebrates, and fish. Acute toxicity was assessed by the Microtox test, an assay based on electron transport activity in submitochondrial particles, and Daphnia magna (water flea); growth of Selenastrum capricornutum (alga); growth of Lemna minor (aquatic plant); germination of Lactuca sativa (nonaquatic plant); survival, growth, and maturation of Panagrellus redivivus (nematode); and genotoxicity in the SOS-Chromotest. Only the Microtox test and the submitochondrial particle test detected acute toxicity in the effluent samples. Reduced survival and sublethal responses were caused by some effluents, but not all effluents were toxic, and none caused a response in all of the tests applied. The results suggest that the effluent treatment systems used at Ontario refineries have largely eliminated acute toxicity to the organisms in their test battery. Although reduced survival and sublethal effects were detected in some of the effluents, the effects were minor. Some of the tests provided evidence, albeit weak, of variations in the responses of the test organisms to a temporal series of effluent samples. Not unexpectedly, there were also minor differences in the responses of the tests to effluents from the three refineries. The fathead minnow test seems to be a sensitive indicator of the sublethal toxicity of Ontario refinery effluents

  10. Analysis of snow-cap pollution for air quality assessment in the vicinity of an oil refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krastinyte, Viktorija; Baltrenaite, Edita; Lietuvninkas, Arvydas

    2013-01-01

    Snow-cap can be used as a simple and effective indicator of industrial air pollution. In this study snow-cap samples were collected from 11 sites located in the vicinity of an oil refinery in Mazeikiai, a region in the north-west of Lithuania, in the winter of 2011. Analysis of snowmelt water and snow-dust was used to determine anthropogenic pollutants such as: sulphates and chlorides, nitrites, nitrates, ammonium nitrogen, total carbon, total nitrogen; heavy metals: lead (Pb), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd). Concentrations of heavy metals in snow-dust were detected thousands of times higher than those in the snowmelt water. In this study, analysis of heavy metal concentration was conducted considering different distances and the wind direction within the impact zone of the oil refinery. The sequence of heavy metals according to their mean concentrations in the snow-dust samples was the following: Pb > Cr > Cu > Cd. Heavy metals highly correlated among each other. The load of snow-dust was evaluated to determine the pollution level in the study area. The highest daily load of snow-dust was 45.81 +/- 12.35 mg/m2 in the north-western direction from the oil refinery. According to classification of the daily load of snow-dust a lower than medium-risk level of pollution was determined in the vicinity of the oil refinery.

  11. Managing Exposure to Benzene and Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons at Two Oil Refineries 1977-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomi, Tapani; Veijalainen, Henna; Santonen, Tiina

    2018-01-24

    Air concentrations of and inhalation exposure to total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and benzene was monitored separately at two oil refineries from 1977 to 2014. Prevention policies and control measures that may explain changes were surveyed. The aim was to evaluate how the application of of Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series OHSAS 18001.04 principles as well as Environmental protection Agency EPA and European Oil Company Organisation for Environment, Health and Safety CONCAWE practices have influenced air concentrations. Benzene air concentrations declined in 11 of 17 units, six of which were associated with declining exposures. Benzene air concentrations declined across all units on average by 46%. This amounts to an average yearly decline of 1.7%. TPH air concentrations declined in 10 of 17 units, seven of which were associated with declining exposures. The average decline in TPH air concentrations was 49%, corresponding to 1.3% per year. As a result, average working day exposure in 10 of 17 units have declined significantly and today, benzene and TPH exposure in most units are well below 10% of the current Occupational Exposure Limit (OEL 8h :s). A decline in air concentrations have coincided with consistent implementation of control measures. Such measures include on-line monitoring of leaks; benzene recovery; floating container roofs; improved valves and seals; hermetic pumps; recovery of loading gases and instalment of torches in terminals; cutback in coke combustion; a new production line spanning directly from the dock to aromatics production; and recovery of loading gases in the doc. Other tools in exposure management include personal leak monitors, on-line measurements, monitoring campaigns, risk assessment, and availability and user training of protective equipment. However, improvements are still needed. Hydrocarbon or benzene air concentrations have not declined in 8 of 17 units, in some of which concentrations exceed 10% of the relevant

  12. Managing Exposure to Benzene and Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons at Two Oil Refineries 1977–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomi, Tapani; Veijalainen, Henna; Santonen, Tiina

    2018-01-01

    Air concentrations of and inhalation exposure to total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and benzene was monitored separately at two oil refineries from 1977 to 2014. Prevention policies and control measures that may explain changes were surveyed. The aim was to evaluate how the application of of Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series OHSAS 18001.04 principles as well as Environmental protection Agency EPA and European Oil Company Organisation for Environment, Health and Safety CONCAWE practices have influenced air concentrations. Benzene air concentrations declined in 11 of 17 units, six of which were associated with declining exposures. Benzene air concentrations declined across all units on average by 46%. This amounts to an average yearly decline of 1.7%. TPH air concentrations declined in 10 of 17 units, seven of which were associated with declining exposures. The average decline in TPH air concentrations was 49%, corresponding to 1.3% per year. As a result, average working day exposure in 10 of 17 units have declined significantly and today, benzene and TPH exposure in most units are well below 10% of the current Occupational Exposure Limit (OEL8h:s). A decline in air concentrations have coincided with consistent implementation of control measures. Such measures include on-line monitoring of leaks; benzene recovery; floating container roofs; improved valves and seals; hermetic pumps; recovery of loading gases and instalment of torches in terminals; cutback in coke combustion; a new production line spanning directly from the dock to aromatics production; and recovery of loading gases in the doc. Other tools in exposure management include personal leak monitors, on-line measurements, monitoring campaigns, risk assessment, and availability and user training of protective equipment. However, improvements are still needed. Hydrocarbon or benzene air concentrations have not declined in 8 of 17 units, in some of which concentrations exceed 10% of the relevant

  13. Conceptual design and techno-economic evaluation of efficient oil shale refinery processes ingratiated with oil and gas products upgradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Qingchun; Qian, Yu; Zhou, Huairong; Yang, Siyu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Three integrated oil shale refinery processes are proposed. • Techno-economic performance of three proposed processes is conducted and compared. • Competitiveness of the three proposed processes is investigated at different scenarios. • A development direction for oil shale refinery industry is suggested. - Abstract: Compared with the petrochemical industry, oil shale refinery industry is still relatively backward and has many shortcomings, such as poor quality of shale oil, inefficient utilization of retorting gas, and the unsatisfactory economic performance. In the situation of the low oil price, many oil shale refinery plants are forced to stop or cut production. Thus, oil shale industry is facing a severe problem. How to relieve monetary loss or turn it into profits? This paper proposes three integrated oil shale refinery processes: an integrated with hydrogen production from retorting gas, an integrated with hydrogenation of shale oil, and an integrated with hydrogen production and oil hydrogenation. The techno-economic performance of the three different processes is conducted and compared with that of a conventional oil shale process. Results show the exergy destruction ratio of the oil shale process integrated with hydrogen production from retorting gas is the least, 41.6%, followed by the oil shale process integrated with hydrogen production and oil hydrogenation, 45.9%. Furthermore, these two proposed processes have the best economic performance. Especially they can turn losses of the conventional oil shale process into profits at the situation of low oil price. The oil shale process integrated with hydrogen production from retorting gas is recommended to the oil shale plants which use the oil shale with oil content lower than 12.9%, while the plants using oil shale with oil content higher than 12.9% are better to select the oil shale process integrated with hydrogen production and oil hydrogenation.

  14. Analysis of the sector petroleum refineries in energy scenarios for The Netherlands. Analyse van de sector raffinaderijen voor de Nationale Energie Verkenningen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Oostvoorn, F

    1926-07-01

    The calculations with regard to the oil sector in general and the petroleum refineries in particular of the energy scenarios for The Netherlands are described. Calculations have been made with the help of the energy models SELPE and SERUM, developed for the total energy scene of The Netherlands and the petroleum refineries respectively. The results of the calculations with respect to the petroleum refineries are compared. This resulted in adjustment of the parameters for the oil sector in the SELPE energy model and the consequences of these adjustments for the energy scenarios for The Netherlands. 3 figs., 15 tabs., 10 refs.

  15. Dunkerque`s refinery. Mobil-BP-Elf: matrimonial triangle with background anxiety; Raffinerie de Dunkerque. Mobil-BP-Elf: menage a trois sur fond d`inquietude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogue, A. de

    1997-08-01

    The annual production of the Dunkerque`s refinery (France) represents 330000 t of lubricants, 16000 t of paraffins, 17000 t of wax, 34000 t of extracts, 304000 t of diesel fuel and 300000 t of bitumens. From the legal aspect, Mobil is operator of the unit which belongs to an independent company held by BP (60%) and Elf (40%). After the BP-Mobil agreement was signed, the Dunkerque`s refinery entered into new Mobil`s network of 6 lubricants refineries which represent an overall over-capacity of 400000 t/year. This over-capacity is a consequence of export limitations due to profits reduction. (J.S.)

  16. Gasoline from biomass through refinery-friendly carbohydrate-based bio-oil produced by ketalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalha, Nuno; da Silva, Alessandra V; de Souza, Matheus O; da Costa, Bruna M C; Gomes, Elisa S; Silva, Thiago C; Barros, Thalita G; Gonçalves, Maria L A; Caramão, Elina B; dos Santos, Luciana R M; Almeida, Marlon B B; de Souza, Rodrigo O M A; Lam, Yiu L; Carvalho, Nakédia M F; Miranda, Leandro S M; Pereira, Marcelo M

    2014-06-01

    The introduction of biomass-derived compounds as an alternative feed into the refinery structure that already exists can potentially converge energy uses with ecological sustainability. Herein, we present an approach to produce a bio-oil based on carbohydrate-derived isopropylidene ketals obtained by reaction with acetone under acidic conditions directly from second-generation biomass. The obtained bio-oil showed a greater chemical inertness and miscibility with gasoil than typical bio-oil from fast pyrolysis. Catalytic upgrading of the bio-oil over zeolites (USY and Beta) yielded gasoline with a high octane number. Moreover, the co-processing of gasoil and bio-oil improved the gasoline yield and quality compared to pure gasoil and also reduced the amount of oxygenated compounds and coke compared with pure bio-oil, which demonstrates a synergistic effect. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Case study of energy conservation at national refinery limited, Karachi (Pakistan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, F.A.; Shaikh, M.B.; Mahesar, G.H.

    2000-01-01

    Petroleum refining is one of the four top most industries in Pakistan in energy consumption and to save energy is the concern of every one. In this research, authors have calculated the designed and actual efficiency of the industrial furnaces at ''Two stage distillation unit'' of National Refinery Limited, Karachi. Observations were made for energy (Oil) consumption, heat (radiation) losses, through the furnace wall, tubing and stacks flue gases. The study shows difference in the data given at the time of design and at present working data. The furnace (01-F1) is 60% efficient and recorded 9% pounds of oil more per hour, giving 18% more heat loss. The reasons behind the fuel and energy losses are discussed with the suggestions. (authors)

  18. [Analisys of work-related accidents and incidents in an oil refinery in Rio de Janeiro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Carlos Augusto Vaz; de Freitas, Carlos Machado

    2003-01-01

    Accidents in the chemical industry can have serious consequences for workers, communities, and the environment and are thus highly relevant to public health. This article is the result of an occupational surveillance project involving several public institutions. We analyze 800 work-related accidents that resulted in injuries, environmental damage, or loss of production in 1997 in an oil refinery located in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The methodology was based on managerial and organizational approaches to accident investigation, with the European Union reporting system as the reference. The results highlight various limitations in the process of reporting and investigating accidents, as well as a certain hierarchy of accidents, with more attention given to accidents involving loss of production and less to those resulting in injuries, particularly among outsourced workers.

  19. Process-optimization in Europe's largest refinery; Prozessoptimierung in Europas groesster Raffinerie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbstritt, M. [AUMA Riester GmbH und Co. KG, Muellheim (Germany)

    2007-06-15

    More than 1000 valves are to be replaced, with new actuator systems, in the context of the PROMS (''Profitable Oil Movement Systems'') project at the Nerefco refinery in Rotterdam. The requirements for this project include redundant data transmission, facilities for scanning of all actuator parameters and states from the control room, and the ability to record torque curves for the valves, in order to permit deductions concerning valve condition. Explosion-safety and high resistance to corrosion are, of course, basic preconditions. Finally, conversion to the new valve and actuator systems is to be accomplished without interruption to plant operation. A single manufacturer, who thus simultaneously plays the role of a system integrator, has been able to meet all these demands. (orig.)

  20. Industrial waste management - a case study at Attock oil refinery Ltd., Rawalpindi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramay, M.I.; Hussain, S.; Tanveer, A.; Jabeen, Z.; Ehsann, S.

    2009-01-01

    As far as waste is concerned, industry has a two fold position: on the one hand industry produces waste during the production processes and on the other hand most of the industrial products become waste after being used. From environment perspective waste management and minimization at the source has become important issue all over the world. Waste minimization leading to cleaner production is the process and the policy of reducing the amount of waste produced by Industry at the source and remaining should be managed.The core objective of this research paper is to examine the impact of waste minimization, waste management and the planning of effective waste utilization that increases organizations profitability and green image. The case study will present the Recycle, Reuse, Reduce strategy that waste management is not only necessary to keep the environment healthy but it also brings the financial savings to the organization. It is obvious that there is significant relationship between waste management and profitability. Attock Refinery Limited (ARL) has done significant work in the field of industrial waste management. The stratified sampling has also used during a survey to gather primary data i.e. congregated by administering questionnaires to employees of different departments that shows positive attitude towards waste minimization and management. The interventions regarding industrial waste management are in full practice at ARL to meet the National Environmental Quality Standards. In 1993, prominent step has been taken to address the environmental issues and waste management. After carrying out the detailed survey of effluent waste water system during 1995-1996, Effluent Treatment Plants were installed to meet the NEQS. Keeping the continuity of efforts 'Zero Discharge' of effluent waste from the refinery was targeted. This project is recycling the waste water resulting environment conservation and saving money that was being spent for water pumping from

  1. New Sustainable Model of Biorefineries: Biofactories and Challenges of Integrating Bio- and Solar Refineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abate, Salvatore; Lanzafame, Paola; Perathoner, Siglinda; Centi, Gabriele

    2015-09-07

    The new scenario for sustainable (low-carbon) chemical and energy production drives the development of new biorefinery concepts (indicated as biofactories) with chemical production at the core, but flexible and small-scale production. An important element is also the integration of solar energy and CO2 use within biobased production. This concept paper, after shortly introducing the motivation and recent trends in this area, particularly at the industrial scale, and some of the possible models (olefin and intermediate/high-added-value chemicals production), discusses the opportunities and needs for research to address the challenge of integrating bio- and solar refineries. Aspects discussed regard the use of microalgae and CO2 valorization in biorefineries/biofactories by chemo- or biocatalysis, including possibilities for their synergetic cooperation and symbiosis, as well as integration within the agroenergy value chain. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Gamma ray scanning as troubleshooting tool for unusual and large diameter refinery vacuum columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, T.K.; Chawla, R.; Banik, S.; Chopra, S.J.; Singh, G.; Pant, H.J.; Sreeramakrishnan, P.; Dhar, D.C.; Pushpangathan, P.N.; Sharma, V.K.

    1997-01-01

    Gamma scanning of trayed and packed columns is widely used to obtain density profiles and identify on-line problems such as: damaged tray or packing, foaming, flooding, maldistribution, weeping and entrainment, etc. However, scanning of large diameter tray or packed columns requires expertise in handling high intensity gamma sources along with thorough understanding of distillation engineering. Engineers India Limited and the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre undertook scanning of two such large diameter (8.4 m and 7.4 m) trayed and packed refinery vacuum distillation columns and successfully diagnosed the problems and suggested remedial actions. Radiography testing of small diameter columns can be used to confirm gamma scanning results. One such example for ammonia separator column is given

  3. Integration of RTO and MPC in the Hydrogen Network of a Petrol Refinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar de Prada

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the problems associated with the implementation of Real Time Optimization/Model Predictive Control (RTO/MPC systems, taking as reference the hydrogen distribution network of an oil refinery involving eighteen plants. This paper addresses the main problems related to the operation of the network, combining data reconciliation and a RTO system, designed for the optimal generation and redistribution of hydrogen, with a predictive controller for the on-line implementation of the optimal policies. This paper describes the architecture of the implementation, showing how RTO and MPC can be integrated, as well as the benefits obtained in terms of improved information about the process, increased hydrocarbon load to the treatment plants and reduction of the hydrogen required for performing the operations.

  4. Leak detection in a high-pressure heat exchanger system in a refinery using radiotracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samantray, J.S.; Sunil Goswami; Sharma, V.K.; Jayashree Biswal; Pant, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    A radiotracer investigation was carried out in a diesel hydrotreater (DHDT) unit in a refinery for leak detection in a breech-lock heat exchanger system. The main objectives of the study were to identify the leaking heat exchanger in a system with six heat exchangers and estimate the leak rate. Bromine-82 as dibromobiphenyl was selected and used as radiotracer for the investigation. The radiotracer was instantaneously injected into the suction end of the feed pump line to the heat exchanger of the DHDT unit. The movement of the tracer was measured at strategically selected locations using NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors. Based upon the results of the radiotracer investigation, it was found that out of six heat exchangers, exchanger E-1F was leaking. (author)

  5. Heavy metals in allotment gardens close to an oil refinery in Plock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikuta, W.; Indeka, L.

    1997-01-01

    In the period 1984-1990 the following vegetables were grown: red beet, carrot and parsley in four allotment gardens of Plock city (Central Poland), situated near the refinery and petrochemical works. Cadmium, lead, copper, chromium, zinc and manganese concentrations were determined in the leaves and roots of vegetables. The heavy metal accumulation in the soil, dustfail (measure of air pollution), and ground water was determined. The quality of the vegetable yield, notably of the leaves, was low. This was mainly due to the excessive chromium and cadmium content in the leaves. Accumulation of heavy metals was relatively low in the soil, rather high in the ground water and variable in the dust. 41 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs

  6. Heavy metals in allotment gardens close to an oil refinery in Plock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikuta, W.; Indeka, L. [Warsaw Agricultural University, Warsaw (Poland). Dept. of Environmental Protection, Faculty of Horticulture

    1997-05-01

    In the period 1984-1990 the following vegetables were grown: red beet, carrot and parsley in four allotment gardens of Plock city (Central Poland), situated near the refinery and petrochemical works. Cadmium, lead, copper, chromium, zinc and manganese concentrations were determined in the leaves and roots of vegetables. The heavy metal accumulation in the soil, dustfail (measure of air pollution), and ground water was determined. The quality of the vegetable yield, notably of the leaves, was low. This was mainly due to the excessive chromium and cadmium content in the leaves. Accumulation of heavy metals was relatively low in the soil, rather high in the ground water and variable in the dust. 41 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  7. Econometric model of the petroleum industry. [Determining crude supply and outputs/prices of refinery products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, P [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN; Smith, V K

    1977-11-01

    This paper describes a forty-two nonlinear equation model of the U.S. petroleum industry estimated over the period 1946 to 1973. The model specifies refinery outputs and prices as being simultaneously determined by market forces while the domestic output of crude oil is determined in a block-recursive segment of the model. The simultaneous behavioral equations are estimated with nonlinear two-stage least-squares adjusted to reflect the implications of autocorrelation for those equations where it appears to be a problem. A multi-period sample simulation, together with forecasts for 1974 and 1975 are used to evaluate the model's performance. Finally, it is used to forecast to 1985 under two scenarios and compared with the Federal Energy Administration's forecast for the same period. 2 figures, 8 tables, 38 references.

  8. Characterization of hydrocarbon pollutant burdens in petrochemical and refinery process streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clements, L D; Cheng, S W

    1982-01-01

    The paper describes techniques which provide for both qualitative and quantitative identification of major components in a process stream. The techniques and instrumentation have been deliberately chosen so as to be within the technical and financial reach of all but the smallest company laboratory. The sample preparation steps consist of an initial series of extractions which isolate compounds into organic acid, base, and neutral compounds and a totally water soluble phase. Each fraction is then concentrated and subjected to thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography, infrared spectroscopy or ultraviolet spectroscopy as appropriate. Results are given for laboratory samples, one a mixture of aniline, phenol, benzoic acid, m-nitrobenzaldehyde, 1-butanol, 2-hexanone, nonane, and cyclohexane, and the other a mixture of benzene, ethylbenzene, and styrene. Also, a qualitative analysis of a petroleum refinery desalter water is presented.

  9. Free-living dinitrogen-fixing bacteria isolated from petroleum refinery oily sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laguerre, G.; Bossand, B.; Bardin, R.

    1987-07-01

    Dinitrogen-fixing activity (acetylene reduction and /sup 15/N/sub 2/ fixation) was found in an oily sludge originating from a petroleum refinery. Two representative dinitrogen-fixing bacterial strains were isolated from this oily waste. Their nitrogenase activity was effective when they were cultivated on sterilized sludge or simple carbon substrates (organic acid salts, sugars). Using the classical methods, these strains could not be unambiguously related to other diazotrophic taxa. The landfarming process is widely used for oily sludge disposal; this study shows that oily sludges are more than a simple carbon input into the soil but that they must also be considered as real sources of dinitrogen-fixing and probably degradative microorganisms.

  10. Free-living dinitrogen-fixing bacteria isolated from petroleum refinery oily sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laguerre, G.; Bossand, B.; Bardin, R.

    1987-01-01

    Dinitrogen-fixing activity (acetylene reduction and 15 N 2 fixation) was found in an oily sludge originating from a petroleum refinery. Two representative dinitrogen-fixing bacterial strains were isolated from this oily waste. Their nitrogenase activity was effective when they were cultivated on sterilized sludge or simple carbon substrates (organic acid salts, sugars). Using the classical methods, these strains could not be unambiguously related to other diazotrophic taxa. The landfarming process is widely used for oily sludge disposal; this study shows that oily sludges are more than a simple carbon input into the soil but that they must also be considered as real sources of dinitrogen-fixing and probably degradative microorganisms

  11. Automatic crude oil handling through a pressurized system from the wellhead to the refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, W.B.; Truman, P.W.; Groeneman, A.R.

    1967-01-01

    Production from 51 wells completed in the 3 unitized formations of the Lost Soldier Field, Sweetwater Co., Wyoming, is brought to a central point through individual flow lines. Here the fluids are directed through separate automatic well testing and oil treating facilities, one for each formation. After separation of oil, gas and water, the oil goes to pressurized surge tanks and then to lease automatic custody transfer units. There is one surge tank and one LACT unit for each formation. The oil is automatically transferred to the Sinclair Pipe Line Co. for delivery to Sinclair's refinery at Sinclair, Wyoming, through a closed pipe line system. A central console provides: (1) supervisory control from the wellheads through the LACT units, (2) well test and production data logging, and (3) monitoring by activating alarms for abnormal conditions of flow, liquid levels, temperatures and pressures.

  12. An integrated biohydrogen refinery: synergy of photofermentation, extractive fermentation and hydrothermal hydrolysis of food wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redwood, Mark D; Orozco, Rafael L; Majewski, Artur J; Macaskie, Lynne E

    2012-09-01

    An Integrated Biohydrogen Refinery (IBHR) and experimental net energy analysis are reported. The IBHR converts biomass to electricity using hydrothermal hydrolysis, extractive biohydrogen fermentation and photobiological hydrogen fermentation for electricity generation in a fuel cell. An extractive fermentation, developed previously, is applied to waste-derived substrates following hydrothermal pre-treatment, achieving 83-99% biowaste destruction. The selective separation of organic acids from waste-fed fermentations provided suitable substrate for photofermentative hydrogen production, which enhanced the gross energy generation up to 11-fold. Therefore, electrodialysis provides the key link in an IBHR for 'waste to energy'. The IBHR compares favourably to 'renewables' (photovoltaics, on-shore wind, crop-derived biofuels) and also emerging biotechnological options (microbial electrolysis) and anaerobic digestion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2007-03-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the no cost extension period of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts for a third round of testing, the use of a research gasoline engine to test coal-based gasoline, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. At the pilot scale, the hydrotreating process was modified to separate the heavy components from the LCO and RCO fractions before hydrotreating in order to improve the performance of the catalysts in further processing. Hydrotreating and hydrogenation of the product has been completed, and due to removal of material before processing, yield of the jet fuel fraction has decreased relative to an increase in the gasoline fraction. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. Both gasoline and diesel continue to be tested for combustion performance. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Activated carbons have proven useful to remove the heavy sulfur components, and unsupported Ni/Mo and Ni/Co catalysts have been very effective for

  14. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre' Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2006-09-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the second six months of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts and examination of carbon material, the use of a research gasoline engine to test coal-based gasoline, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. At the pilot scale, the hydrotreating process was modified to separate the heavy components from the LCO and RCO fractions before hydrotreating in order to improve the performance of the catalysts in further processing. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. Both gasoline and diesel continue to be tested for combustion performance. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Activated carbons have proven useful to remove the heavy sulfur components, and unsupported Ni/Mo and Ni/Co catalysts have been very effective for hydrodesulfurization. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of the latest fuel oil (the high temperature fraction of RCO

  15. The Conversion and Sustainable Use of Alumina Refinery Residues: Global Solution Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergusson, Lee

    This paper introduces current industry best practice for the conversion of alumina refinery residues (or "red mud") from hazardous waste to benign, inert material. The paper will examine four neutralization methods and Basecon Technology, a sustainable conversion process. The paper will consider ways through which this converted material can be combined and processed for sustainable applications in the treatment of hazardous waste streams (such as industrial wastewater and sludges, biosolids, and CCA wastes), contaminated brownfield sites, and mine site wastes. Recent discoveries and applications, such as the successful treatment of high levels of radium in drinking water in the USA, will also be discussed. Examples of global solutions and their technical merits will be assessed.

  16. The association of markers of oxidative-inflammatory status with malnutrition in hemodialysis patients with serum ferritin lower than 500 ng/mL Associação dos marcadores do estado oxidativo e inflamatório com a desnutrição em pacientes hemodialisados com ferritina menor do que 500 ng/mL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Gonçalves de Almeida

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Enhanced inflammatory-oxidative status is well established in chronic kidney disease. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the oxidative- inflammatory status and iron indices in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (HD with serum ferritin lower than 500ng/mL, and to correlate them with nutritional status. METHOD: In a cross-sectional survey 35 HD patients (23 with normal nutritional status, 12 with Protein-Energy-Wasting syndrome, PEW, and healthy volunteers (n = 35 were studied. Serum concentration of iron, ferritin, transferrin saturation, malondialdehyde (MDA, protein carbonyl (PC, high-sensitive serum C -reactive protein (hs-CRP and blood counts were determined. The nutritional status was determined by anthropometric and biochemical criteria. RESULTS: HD patients showed low values of hemoglobin and higher values of ferritin, MDA and PC when compared with healthy volunteers. HD subjects with PEW had higher values of PC and hs-PCR as compared to HD patients with normal nutritional status. A multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the independent variables PC (Wald Statistic 4.25, p = 0.039 and hs-CRP (Wald Statistic 4.83, p = 0.028 where related with the patients' nutritional condition. CONCLUSION: In HD patients with serum ferritin below 500 ng/mL was observed one association of the markers of oxidative stress and inflammation with poor nutritional status independently of serum ferritin, gender and age.INTRODUÇÃO: Na doença renal crônica, a presença de um estado inflamatório-oxidativo aumentado está bem estabelecida. OBJETIVO: O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o estado oxidativo e inflamatório e o perfil do ferro em pacientes submetidos à hemodiálise crônica de manutenção, com ferritina menor do que 500 ng/mL, e correlacioná-los com o estado nutricional. MÉTODO: Em estudo transversal, em 35 pacientes sob hemodiálise (23 com estado nutricional normal, 12 com desnutri

  17. Bio-Refineries Bioprocess Technologies for Waste-Water Treatment, Energy and Product Valorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith Cowan, A.

    2010-04-01

    Increasing pressure is being exerted on communities and nations to source energy from forms other than fossil fuels. Also, potable water is becoming a scarce resource in many parts of the world, and there remains a large divide in the demand and utilization of plant products derived from genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and non-GMOs. The most extensive user and manager of terrestrial ecosystems is agriculture which is also the de facto steward of natural resources. As stated by Miller (2008) no other industry or institution comes close to the comparative advantage held for this vital responsibility while simultaneously providing food, fiber, and other biology-based products, including energy. Since modern commercial agriculture is transitioning from the production of bulk commodities to the provision of standardized products and specific-attribute raw materials for differentiated markets, we can argue that processes such as mass cultivation of microalgae and the concept of bio-refineries be seen as part of a `new' agronomy. EBRU is currently exploring the integration of bioprocess technologies using microalgae as biocatalysts to achieve waste-water treatment, water polishing and endocrine disruptor (EDC) removal, sustainable energy production, and exploitation of the resultant biomass in agriculture as foliar fertilizer and seed coatings, and for commercial extraction of bulk commodities such as bio-oils and lecithin. This presentation will address efforts to establish a fully operational solar-driven microalgae bio-refinery for use not only in waste remediation but to transform waste and biomass to energy, fuels, and other useful materials (valorisation), with particular focus on environmental quality and sustainability goals.

  18. Bioconversion of biodiesel refinery waste in the bioemulsifier by Trichosporon mycotoxinivorans CLA2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Souza Monteiro Andrea

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The microbial bioemulsifiers was surface active compounds, are more effective in stabilizing oil-in-water emulsions. The yeasts have been isolated to produce bioemulsifiers from vegetable oils and industrial wastes. Results Trichosporon mycotoxinivorans CLA2 is bioemulsifier-producing yeast strain isolated from effluents of the dairy industry, with ability to emulsify different hydrophobic substrates. Bioemulsifier production (mg/L and the emulsifying activity (E24 of this strain were optimized by response surface methodology using mineral minimal medium containing refinery waste as the carbon source, which consisted of diatomaceous earth impregnated with esters from filters used in biodiesel purification. The highest bioemulsifier production occurred in mineral minimal medium containing 75 g/L biodiesel residue and 5 g/L ammonium sulfate. The highest emulsifying activity was obtained in medium containing 58 g/L biodiesel refinery residue and 4.6 g/L ammonium sulfate, and under these conditions, the model estimated an emulsifying activity of 85%. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry analysis suggested a bioemulsifier molecule consisting of monosaccharides, predominantly xylose and mannose, and a long chain aliphatic groups composed of octadecanoic acid and hexadecanoic acid at concentrations of 48.01% and 43.16%, respectively. The carbohydrate composition as determined by GC-MS of their alditol acetate derivatives showed a larger ratio of xylose (49.27%, mannose (39.91%, and glucose (10.81%. 1 H NMR spectra confirmed by COSY suggested high molecular weight, polymeric pattern, presence of monosaccharide’s and long chain aliphatic groups in the bioemulsifier molecule. Conclusions The biodiesel residue is an economical substrate, therefore seems to be very promising for the low-cost production of active emulsifiers in the emulsification of aromatics, aliphatic hydrocarbons, and kerosene.

  19. Characterizing exposures to airborne metals and nanoparticle emissions in a refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Arthur; Drake, Pamela L; Hintz, Patrick; Habjan, Matt

    2010-07-01

    An air quality survey was conducted at a precious metals refinery in order to evaluate worker exposures to airborne metals and to provide detailed characterization of the aerosols. Two areas within the refinery were characterized: a furnace room and an electro-refining area. In line with standard survey practices, both personal and area air filter samples were collected on 37-mm filters and analyzed for metals by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy. In addition to the standard sampling, measurements were conducted using other tools, designed to provide enhanced characterization of the workplace aerosols. The number concentration and number-weighted particle size distribution of airborne particles were measured with a fast mobility particle sizer (FMPS). Custom-designed software was used to correlate particle concentration data with spatial location data to generate contour maps of particle number concentrations in the work areas. Short-term samples were collected in areas of localized high concentrations and analyzed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) to determine particle morphology and elemental chemistry. Analysis of filter samples indicated that all of the workers were exposed to levels of silver above the Occupational Safety and Health Administration permissible exposure limit of 0.01 mg m(-3) even though the localized ventilation was functioning. Measurements with the FMPS indicated that particle number concentrations near the furnace increased up to 1000-fold above the baseline during the pouring of molten metal. Spatial mapping revealed localized elevated particle concentrations near the furnaces and plumes of particles rising into the stairwells and traveling to the upper work areas. Results of TEM/EDS analyses confirmed the high number of nanoparticles measured by the FMPS and indicated the aerosols were rich in metals including silver, lead, antimony, selenium, and zinc. Results of

  20. Monitoring of Emissions From a Refinery Tank Farm Using a Combination of Optical Remote Sensing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polidori, A.; Tisopulos, L.; Pikelnaya, O.; Mellqvist, J.; Samuelsson, J.; Marianne, E.; Robinson, R. A.; Innocenti, F.; Finlayson, A.; Hashmonay, R.

    2016-12-01

    Despite great advances in reducing air pollution, the South Coast Air Basin (SCAB) still faces challenges to attain federal health standards for air quality. Refineries are large sources of ozone precursors and, hence contribute to the air quality problems of the region. Additionally, petrochemical facilities are also sources of other hazardous air pollutants (HAP) that adversely affect human health, for example aromatic hydrocarbons. In order to assure safe operation, decrease air pollution and minimize population exposure to HAP the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) has a number of regulations for petrochemical facilities. However, significant uncertainties still exist in emission estimates and traditional monitoring techniques often do not allow for real-time emission monitoring. In the fall of 2015 the SCAQMD, Fluxsense Inc., the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), and Atmosfir Optics Ltd. conducted a measurement study to characterize and quantify gaseous emissions from the tank farm of one of the largest oil refineries in the SCAB. Fluxsense used a vehicle equipped with Solar Occultation Flux (SOF), Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS), and Extractive Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy instruments. Concurrently, NPL operated their Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system. Both research groups quantified emissions from the entire tank farm and identified fugitive emission sources within the farm. At the same time, Atmosfir operated an Open Path FTIR (OP-FTIR) spectrometer along the fenceline of the tank farm. During this presentation we will discuss the results of the emission measurements from the tank farm of the petrochemical facility. Emission rates resulting from measurements by different ORS methods will be compared and discussed in detail.

  1. Opportunities and challenges at the interface between petrochemicals and refinery. The OMV view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichtscheidl, J. [OMV Refining and Marketing GmbH, Vienna (Austria)

    2007-07-01

    OMV's refineries have been integrated into petrochemicals since the first steam cracker came on line in 1970. The refineries in Schwechat, Burghausen and Romania, especially Arpechim, have significant petrochemical capacities. In 1998 PCD was merged with Borealis, a leading producer of high grade polymers. OMV's initial 25% stake in Borealis increased to 36 in 2007. The last years have seen major investments in Schwechat and Burghausen: Schwechat's cracker was expanded by approximately 150 KTA to a nominal 500 KTA of ethylene. And in Burghausen the revamp of the cracker has been combined with a metathesis unit in order to feed a new 330 KTA polypropylene plant. The polymer market is still growing. However, the bulk of investments to increase capacity are located in the Middle East and in the Asia-Pacific region, predominately in China. As more and more products from these regions find their way to Europe, the European petrochemicals industry faces fierce competition. The response is restructuring: the creation of Arkema (Total), the takeover of BP's petrochemical assets by INEOS, the disposal of Shell-BASF subsidiary Basell to Haldia Petrochemical and Accent Industries, and the transfer of Statoil's interest in Borealis to IPIC and OMV. And most recently, Basell's acquisition of Lyondell. Compared with competitors in the Middle East and the Asia-Pacific region, producers in Europe are burdened with serious disadvantages: fairly old, small units and high costs of labor, energy and raw materials. There is no single solution. OMV, however, will continue to follow the strategies that have been successful so far: - Ever closer integration of refining and petrochemicals; - Capturing market opportunities for profitable growth; -Remaining market orientated. (orig.)

  2. Optimization of petroleum refinery effluent treatment in a UASB reactor using response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rastegar, S.O. [Biotechnology Group, Chemical Engineering Department, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mousavi, S.M., E-mail: mousavi_m@modares.ac.ir [Biotechnology Group, Chemical Engineering Department, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shojaosadati, S.A. [Biotechnology Group, Chemical Engineering Department, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sheibani, S. [R and T Management Department, National Iranian Oil Refining and Distribution Company, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A UASB was successfully used for treatment of petroleum refinery effluent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Response surface methodology was applied to design and analysis of experiments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer System was modeled between efficient factors include HRT, influent COD and V{sub up}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UASB was able to remove about 76.3% influent COD at optimum conditions. - Abstract: An upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) bioreactor was successfully used for the treatment of petroleum refinery effluent. Before optimization, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was 81% at a constant organic loading rate (OLR) of 0.4 kg/m{sup 3} d and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 48 h. The rate of biogas production was 559 mL/h at an HRT of 40 h and an influent COD of 1000 mg/L. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to predict the behaviors of influent COD, upflow velocity (V{sub up}) and HRT in the bioreactor. RSM showed that the best models for COD removal and biogas production rate were the reduced quadratic and cubic models, respectively. The optimum region, identified based on two critical responses, was an influent COD of 630 mg/L, a V{sub up} of 0.27 m/h, and an HRT of 21.4 h. This resulted in a 76.3% COD removal efficiency and a 0.25 L biogas/L feed d biogas production rate.

  3. Oil refinery wastewater treatment using coupled electrocoagulation and fixed film biological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Laura S.; Rodriguez, Oscar M.; Reyna, Silvia; Sánchez-Salas, José Luis; Lozada, J. Daniel; Quiroz, Marco A.; Bandala, Erick R.

    2016-02-01

    Oil refinery wastewater was treated using a coupled treatment process including electrocoagulation (EC) and a fixed film aerobic bioreactor. Different variables were tested to identify the best conditions using this procedure. After EC, the effluent was treated in an aerobic biofilter. EC was capable to remove over 88% of the overall chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the wastewater under the best working conditions (6.5 V, 0.1 M NaCl, 4 electrodes without initial pH adjustment) with total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) removal slightly higher than 80%. Aluminum release from the electrodes to the wastewater was found an important factor for the EC efficiency and closely related with several operational factors. Application of EC allowed to increase the biodegradability of the sample from 0.015, rated as non-biodegradable, up to 0.5 widely considered as biodegradable. The effluent was further treated using an aerobic biofilter inoculated with a bacterial consortium including gram positive and gram negative strains and tested for COD and TPH removal from the EC treated effluent during 30 days. Cell count showed the typical bacteria growth starting at day three and increasing up to a maximum after eight days. After day eight, cell growth showed a plateau which agreed with the highest decrease on contaminant concentration. Final TPHs concentration was found about 600 mgL-1 after 30 days whereas COD concentration after biological treatment was as low as 933 mgL-1. The coupled EC-aerobic biofilter was capable to remove up to 98% of the total TPH amount and over 95% of the COD load in the oil refinery wastewater.

  4. Thermoeconomic and environmental assessment of a crude oil distillation unit of a Nigerian refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waheed, M.A.; Oni, A.O.; Adejuyigbe, S.B.; Adewumi, B.A.

    2014-01-01

    The renovation of refineries should be aimed at achieving the highest possible technical efficiencies at a considerable investment cost and not only at replacing damaged components to attain full capacity utilisation. This study examined a crude distillation unit (CDU) of a Nigerian refinery plant comprising the atmospheric distillation unit (ADU), vacuum distillation unit (VDU), preflash unit (PFU), splitter unit (SPU), stabiliser unit (SBU) and heat exchanger network (HEN) to determine critical areas of inefficiencies as the plant managements plan renovation. Using real plant data, the CDU was simulated with Aspen Hysys ® and the thermoeconomic and environmental analyses were carried out. The results show that the energy and exergy efficiencies of the CDU were 9.0 and 4.0% respectively. The specific CO 2 emission was 3.67 kg CO 2 /bbl. The highly inefficient subunits accounting for 77.4 and 90.0% of the overall energy and exergy losses respectively and 60.3% of the emission released were the PFU, ADU and HEN. The highly inefficient components are the furnaces which accounted for 51.6% of the overall exergy losses. The environmental and economic analysis also indicated that these components are the most potent for improvement. The columns of the PFU and ADU should be revamped to reduce their energy demands and the HEN should be modified to minimise effluent losses. - Highlights: •The assessment of a crude distillation unit (CDU) in Nigeria was carried out. •The assessment considered thermodynamic, thermoeconomic and environment analysis. •The assessment revealed areas with poor performance in the CDU. •Large thermodynamic and economic losses are responsible for the poor performance. •Areas with large losses and emission rate should be targeted for improvement

  5. Thermoeconomic and environmental assessment of a crude oil distillation unit of a Nigerian refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waheed, M. A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, P.M.B. 2240, Abeokuta, Ogun State (Nigeria); Oni, A.O., E-mail: fem2day@yahoo.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, P.M.B. 2240, Abeokuta, Ogun State (Nigeria); Adejuyigbe, S. B. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, P.M.B. 2240, Abeokuta, Ogun State (Nigeria); Adewumi, B. A. [Department of Agricultural Engineering, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, P.M.B. 2240, Abeokuta, Ogun State (Nigeria)

    2014-05-01

    The renovation of refineries should be aimed at achieving the highest possible technical efficiencies at a considerable investment cost and not only at replacing damaged components to attain full capacity utilisation. This study examined a crude distillation unit (CDU) of a Nigerian refinery plant comprising the atmospheric distillation unit (ADU), vacuum distillation unit (VDU), preflash unit (PFU), splitter unit (SPU), stabiliser unit (SBU) and heat exchanger network (HEN) to determine critical areas of inefficiencies as the plant managements plan renovation. Using real plant data, the CDU was simulated with Aspen Hysys{sup ®} and the thermoeconomic and environmental analyses were carried out. The results show that the energy and exergy efficiencies of the CDU were 9.0 and 4.0% respectively. The specific CO{sub 2} emission was 3.67 kg CO{sub 2}/bbl. The highly inefficient subunits accounting for 77.4 and 90.0% of the overall energy and exergy losses respectively and 60.3% of the emission released were the PFU, ADU and HEN. The highly inefficient components are the furnaces which accounted for 51.6% of the overall exergy losses. The environmental and economic analysis also indicated that these components are the most potent for improvement. The columns of the PFU and ADU should be revamped to reduce their energy demands and the HEN should be modified to minimise effluent losses. - Highlights: •The assessment of a crude distillation unit (CDU) in Nigeria was carried out. •The assessment considered thermodynamic, thermoeconomic and environment analysis. •The assessment revealed areas with poor performance in the CDU. •Large thermodynamic and economic losses are responsible for the poor performance. •Areas with large losses and emission rate should be targeted for improvement.

  6. Identification of genes and pathways related to phenol degradation in metagenomic libraries from petroleum refinery wastewater.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia C Silva

    Full Text Available Two fosmid libraries, totaling 13,200 clones, were obtained from bioreactor sludge of petroleum refinery wastewater treatment system. The library screening based on PCR and biological activity assays revealed more than 400 positive clones for phenol degradation. From these, 100 clones were randomly selected for pyrosequencing in order to evaluate the genetic potential of the microorganisms present in wastewater treatment plant for biodegradation, focusing mainly on novel genes and pathways of phenol and aromatic compound degradation. The sequence analysis of selected clones yielded 129,635 reads at an estimated 17-fold coverage. The phylogenetic analysis showed Burkholderiales and Rhodocyclales as the most abundant orders among the selected fosmid clones. The MG-RAST analysis revealed a broad metabolic profile with important functions for wastewater treatment, including metabolism of aromatic compounds, nitrogen, sulphur and phosphorus. The predicted 2,276 proteins included phenol hydroxylases and cathecol 2,3- dioxygenases, involved in the catabolism of aromatic compounds, such as phenol, byphenol, benzoate and phenylpropanoid. The sequencing of one fosmid insert of 33 kb unraveled the gene that permitted the host, Escherichia coli EPI300, to grow in the presence of aromatic compounds. Additionally, the comparison of the whole fosmid sequence against bacterial genomes deposited in GenBank showed that about 90% of sequence showed no identity to known sequences of Proteobacteria deposited in the NCBI database. This study surveyed the functional potential of fosmid clones for aromatic compound degradation and contributed to our knowledge of the biodegradative capacity and pathways of microbial assemblages present in refinery wastewater treatment system.

  7. Relation Between Job Stress Dimensions and Job Satisfaction in Workers of a Refinery Control Room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Behjati Ardakani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Job stress can result from an imbalance between job demands and the abilities to cope them. Stress can affect individuals and lead to job dissatisfaction. This study was conducted to assess the influence of different job stress dimensions on job satisfaction in workers of a refinery control room located at the south of Iran. Materials & Methods: In this cross sectional study all 100 workers of an oil refinery control room were studied. Job stress and job satisfaction was measured using standard questionnaires provided by national institute of mental health (NIMH and Robbins respectively. After collecting, data were analyzed using SPSS ver.16 software. A general linear model was used to estimate the effect of different job stress dimensions on the job satisfaction. Results: In this study 62.08 percent of workers were categorized as having high level of stress. In job satisfaction case, 9.2, 27.6, 28.7, 16.1 and 18.4 of workers were classified as totally dissatisfied, dissatisfied, not satisfied nor dissatisfied, satisfied and totally satisfied, respectively. A Pearson correlation test revealed a significant negative correlation between job satisfaction and all studied dimensions of job stress (p= 0.01. In the general regression model, partial Eta squared was 0.03, 0.3 and 0.23 for respectively interpersonal relationships, physical conditions of work and job interest. Conclusion: This study showed that job satisfaction is mostly influenced by physical conditions and job interest dimensions of job stress. Therefore, for improvement of job satisfaction in workers, different parameters of these two dimensions of job stress should be considered.

  8. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caroline Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2008-03-31

    The final report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during length of the project. The goal of this project was to integrate coal into a refinery in order to produce coal-based jet fuel, with the major goal to examine the products other than jet fuel. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal-based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. The main goal of Task 1 was the production of coal-based jet fuel and other products that would need to be utilized in other fuels or for non-fuel sources, using known refining technology. The gasoline, diesel fuel, and fuel oil were tested in other aspects of the project. Light cycle oil (LCO) and refined chemical oil (RCO) were blended, hydrotreated to removed sulfur, and hydrogenated, then fractionated in the original production of jet fuel. Two main approaches, taken during the project period, varied where the fractionation took place, in order to preserve the life of catalysts used, which includes (1) fractionation of the hydrotreated blend to remove sulfur and nitrogen, followed by a hydrogenation step of the lighter fraction, and (2) fractionation of the LCO and RCO before any hydrotreatment. Task 2 involved assessment of the impact of refinery integration of JP-900 production on gasoline and diesel fuel. Fuel properties, ignition characteristics and engine combustion of model fuels and fuel samples from pilot-scale production runs were characterized. The model fuels used to represent the coal-based fuel streams were blended into full-boiling range fuels to simulate the mixing of fuel streams within the refinery to create potential 'finished' fuels. The representative compounds of the coal-based gasoline were cyclohexane and methyl cyclohexane, and for the coal-base diesel fuel they were fluorine and phenanthrene. Both the octane number (ON) of the coal-based gasoline and the cetane number (CN) of the coal-based diesel were low, relative to

  9. Produtividade, qualidade dos frutos e estado nutricional do tomateiro tipo longa vida conduzido com um cacho, em cultivo hidropônico, em função das fontes de nutrientes Productivity, fruit quality and nutritional status of single truss long shelf life tomato, cultivated in hydroponic system, with different nutrient sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano A. Fernandes

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a produtividade, qualidade dos frutos e estado nutricional do tomateiro longa vida, conduzido com um cacho e cultivado em soluções nutritivas preparadas com diferentes conjuntos de fontes de nutrientes. O experimento foi conduzido de 04/05/99 a 13/09/99 em casa de vegetação da UFV. Foram avaliados dois conjuntos de fontes de nutrientes para compor as soluções de crescimento vegetativo e dois para as soluções de frutificação. As combinações desses conjuntos deram origem a quatro tratamentos que foram dispostos no delineamento de blocos ao acaso com oito repetições. As mudas de tomate, híbrido Carmen, com 36 dias de idade foram colocadas em vasos de 8,6 L, com espaçamento de 0,35 x 0,70 m. Foi feita análise foliar para determinar o estado nutricional da planta. Avaliou-se também a partição dos nutrientes Ca, Mg e K no fruto. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias dos tratamentos, comparadas pelo teste de Tukey a 5% de probabilidade. Para as características avaliadas não foram encontradas diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos. A produção média de frutos por planta foi de 920 g, com ciclo de 96 dias, o que corresponderia no espaçamento adotado à produtividade média de 142 t ha-1 ano-1. A concentração de N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S, nas folhas foram, respectivamente, 3,18; 1,25; 5,11; 4,50; 0,88; e 1,79 dag kg-1, e as concentrações de Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn e B foram, respectivamente, 209; 96; 10; 665; e 209 mg kg-1. No fruto o Ca e K apresentaram maior concentração na região proximal ao pedúnculo, ao contrário do Mg, que nessa porção apresentou menor concentração.There were evaluated the yield, fruit quality and nutritional status of single truss and long shelf life tomato, cultivated in nutritive solutions prepared with different nutrient sources. The experiment was carried out from 04/05/99 to 13/09/99 in a greenhouse of the Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Brazil. Two

  10. Zumbi dos Palmares: a afroresiliencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josué Petrônio Quirino de Oliveira

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available O artigo buscou fazer uma releitura de Zumbi dos Palmares sob o prisma da resiliência, demonstrando uma visão singular ao olhar para os escravos nos quilombos e suas histórias de superação e transformação perante as adversidades, levando não só a reconstruir o imaginário afrodescendente brasileiro com o caleidoscópio da resiliência, mas revelar que a resiliência sempre foi inerente a história dos negros no Brasil. Para tanto se caracterizou como uma pesquisa exploratória com abordagem qualitativa e procedimentos bibliográficos que foram essenciais para a construção do artigo, amadurecendo e ampliando os conhecimentos envolvidos na temática. Nesta abordagem o quilombo dos Palmares foi um conjunto complexo de condições, atitudes e ações que apesar das adversidades tiveram resultados positivos, os fatos demonstraram que os negros nos quilombos foram uma prova que a resiliência negra não foi apenas um fator individual, mas uma característica comunitária que desencadeou um processo de ruptura e recuperação social, um grito de liberdade em defesa da consciência de uma raça, e de um povo. Zumbi não foi apenas um líder de um movimento libertário que marcou a história dos negros oriundos de Pernambuco e Alagoas, mas a história de uma raça por gerações no país, que se tornou sinônimo de resiliência.

  11. Well-to-Wheels Greenhouse Gas Emission Analysis of High-Octane Fuels with Ethanol Blending: Phase II Analysis with Refinery Investment Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jeongwoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Elgowainy, Amgad [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; DiVita, Vincent [Jacobs Consultancy Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Higher-octane gasoline can enable increases in an internal combustion engine’s energy efficiency and a vehicle’s fuel economy by allowing an increase in the engine compression ratio and/or by enabling downspeeding and downsizing. Producing high-octane fuel (HOF) with the current level of ethanol blending (E10) could increase the energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions intensity of the fuel product from refinery operations. Alternatively, increasing the ethanol blending level in final gasoline products could be a promising solution to HOF production because of the high octane rating and potentially low blended Reid vapor pressure (RVP) of ethanol at 25% and higher of the ethanol blending level by volume. In our previous HOF well-to-wheels (WTW) report (the so-called phase I report of the HOF WTW analysis), we conducted WTW analysis of HOF with different ethanol blending levels (i.e., E10, E25, and E40) and a range of vehicle efficiency gains with detailed petroleum refinery linear programming (LP) modeling by Jacobs Consultancy and showed that the overall WTW GHG emission changes associated with HOFVs were dominated by the positive impact associated with vehicle efficiency gains and ethanol blending levels, while the refining operations to produce gasoline blendstock for oxygenate blending (BOB) for various HOF blend levels had a much smaller impact on WTW GHG emissions (Han et al. 2015). The scope of the previous phase I study, however, was limited to evaluating PADDs 2 and 3 operation changes with various HOF market share scenarios and ethanol blending levels. Also, the study used three typical configuration models of refineries (cracking, light coking, and heavy coking) in each PADD, which may not be representative of the aggregate response of all refineries in each PADD to various ethanol blending levels and HOF market scenarios. Lastly, the phase I study assumed no new refinery expansion in the existing refineries, which limited E10 HOF production to the

  12. Interdisciplinary study of atmospheric processes and constituents of the mid-Atlantic coastal region. Attachment 3: Data set for Craney Island oil refinery installation experiment. [air pollution monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindle, E. C.; Bandy, A.; Copeland, G.; Blais, R.; Levy, G.; Sonenshine, D.; Adams, D.; Maier, G.

    1975-01-01

    Data tables and maps are presented which include background information and experimental data on the Craney Island oil refinery installation experiment. The experiment was to investigate air pollution effects.

  13. Source identification of underground fuel spills in a petroleum refinery using fingerprinting techniques and chemo-metric analysis. A Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanellopoulou, G.; Gidarakos, E.; Pasadakis, N.

    2005-01-01

    Crude oil and its refining products are the most frequent contaminants, found in the environment due to spills. The aim of this work was the identification of spill source(s) in the subsurface of a petroleum refinery. Free phase samples were analyzed with gas chromatography and the analytical results were interpreted using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method. The chemical analysis of groundwater samples from the refinery subsurface was also employed to obtain a comprehensive picture of the spill distribution and origin. (authors)

  14. Impact of PAH [Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons] outlets from an oil refinery on the receiving water area - sediment trap fluxes and multivariate statistical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettersen, Harald; Naef, Carina; Broman, Dag

    1997-01-01

    PAH concentrations (15 compounds) in settling particulate matter (SPM) collected in the waters outside a petroleum refinery on the Swedish Baltic coast, and in samples of particulate and dissolved fractions in the wastewater from the refinery were determined. SPM concentrations varied between 550 and 4250 ng x gdw -1 and the corresponding calculated fluxes varied between 0.1 and 3.7 ng x cm -2 x day -1 . Both concentrations and fluxes did not differ significantly from background coastal or offshore locations in the Baltic. PAH profiles of the SPM samples were compared with the wastewater samples and SPM samples from background areas in the Baltic, using pattern recognition techniques. This analysis showed that the SPM samples from the petroleum refinery displayed a PAH composition similar to that found in background reference sites in the Baltic, and that the SPM samples could not be connected to the wastewater samples from the refinery. This indicates that Nynas AB is not a significant source of PAHs to the waters in its immediate surroundings, i.e. the waters in the Nynashamn area, and/or that the hydraulic residence time of the water outside the refinery is low. A budget calculation showed that the wastewater outlet from Nynas AB is only a minor contributor of the PAH load to the waters outside the refinery. (Author)

  15. Report on the degradation of the environment at the site of NIS Novi Sad oil refinery and remediation measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlovic, P.; Pavlovic, M.; Ivankovic, M.; Sokolovic, S.

    2002-01-01

    Before the NATO bombing, Refinery had available 149 tanks for the storage of crude oil, intermediate and final products, additives etc. All tanks are placed within the impermeable embankments of concrete or soil and connected to the storm and oil sewerage systems which enables the monitoring and control of of oil leakage and storm waste. During the NATO bombing practically all processing units were either destroyed or damaged. The summary of damages inflicted to the processing units is given. During the NATO bombing campaign over 51% of the available storage capacity was destroyed and over 34% of it was severely damaged. A summary of available, destroyed and damaged tank capacities in the NIS Novi Sad Oil Refinery is given. (author)

  16. The impact of the maintenance management system: a case study of the PetroSA GTL refinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahlangu, Bafana Petrus

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This research study investigated the impact of the maintenance management system (MMS on production output and profitability (PO&P at the PetroSA GTL refinery, a state-owned company. The two groups that participated were the maintenance group, consisting of 56 respondents, and the production group, with 38 respondents. The main findings of the research study suggested that the MMS impacts positively on PO&P at the PetroSA GTL refinery. The maintenance scorecard assessment tool – consisting of six perspectives – was used to assess the gap between the MMS and PO&P. The positivism paradigm, the deductive process, a cross-sectional quantitative survey, and descriptive statistics were used to conduct the research study.

  17. Enrichment and characterization of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria from petroleum refinery waste as potent bioaugmentation agent for in situ bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Poulomi; Roy, Ajoy; Pal, Siddhartha; Mohapatra, Balaram; Kazy, Sufia K; Maiti, Mrinal K; Sar, Pinaki

    2017-10-01

    Intrinsic biodegradation potential of bacteria from petroleum refinery waste was investigated through isolation of cultivable strains and their characterization. Pseudomonas and Bacillus spp. populated the normal cultivable taxa while prolonged enrichment with hydrocarbons and crude oil yielded hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria of genera Burkholderia, Enterobacter, Kocuria, Pandoraea, etc. Strains isolated through enrichment showed assemblages of superior metabolic properties: utilization of aliphatic (C6-C22) and polyaromatic compounds, anaerobic growth with multiple terminal electron acceptors and higher biosurfactant production. Biodegradation of dodecane was studied thoroughly by GC-MS along with detection of gene encoding alkane hydroxylase (alkB). Microcosms bioaugmented with Enterobacter, Pandoraea and Burkholderia strains showed efficient biodegradation (98% TPH removal) well fitted in first order kinetic model with low rate constants and decreased half-life. This study proves that catabolically efficient bacteria resides naturally in complex petroleum refinery wastes and those can be useful for bioaugmentation based bioremediation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Carbon Capture and Sequestration from a Hydrogen Production Facility in an Oil Refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engels, Cheryl; Williams, Bryan, Valluri, Kiranmal; Watwe, Ramchandra; Kumar, Ravi; Mehlman, Stewart

    2010-06-21

    The project proposed a commercial demonstration of advanced technologies that would capture and sequester CO2 emissions from an existing hydrogen production facility in an oil refinery into underground formations in combination with Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). The project is led by Praxair, Inc., with other project participants: BP Products North America Inc., Denbury Onshore, LLC (Denbury), and Gulf Coast Carbon Center (GCCC) at the Bureau of Economic Geology of The University of Texas at Austin. The project is located at the BP Refinery at Texas City, Texas. Praxair owns and operates a large hydrogen production facility within the refinery. As part of the project, Praxair would construct a CO2 capture and compression facility. The project aimed at demonstrating a novel vacuum pressure swing adsorption (VPSA) based technology to remove CO2 from the Steam Methane Reformers (SMR) process gas. The captured CO2 would be purified using refrigerated partial condensation separation (i.e., cold box). Denbury would purchase the CO2 from the project and inject the CO2 as part of its independent commercial EOR projects. The Gulf Coast Carbon Center at the Bureau of Economic Geology, a unit of University of Texas at Austin, would manage the research monitoring, verification and accounting (MVA) project for the sequestered CO2, in conjunction with Denbury. The sequestration and associated MVA activities would be carried out in the Hastings field at Brazoria County, TX. The project would exceed DOE?s target of capturing one million tons of CO2 per year (MTPY) by 2015. Phase 1 of the project (Project Definition) is being completed. The key objective of Phase 1 is to define the project in sufficient detail to enable an economic decision with regard to proceeding with Phase 2. This topical report summarizes the administrative, programmatic and technical accomplishments completed in Phase 1 of the project. It describes the work relative to project technical and design activities

  19. Kinetic study of solid phase demineralization by weak acids in one-step enzymatic bio-refinery of shrimp cuticles

    OpenAIRE

    Baron, Regis; Socol, Marius; Arhaliass, A.; Bruzac, Sandrine; Le Roux, Karine; Del Pino, J. Rodriguez; Berge, Jean-pascal; Kaas, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    We describe a one-step bio-refinery process for shrimp composites by-products. Its originality lies in a simple rapid (6 h) biotechnological cuticle fragmentation process that recovers all major compounds (chitins, peptides and minerals in particular calcium). The process consists of a controlled exogenous enzymatic proteolysis in a food-grade acidic medium allowing chitin purification (solid phase), and recovery of peptides and minerals (liquid phase). At a pH of between 3.5 and 4, protease ...

  20. Prevention of refinery tower plugging by residual oil gellant chemicals in crude-pilot plant evaluation of alternative oil gellants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R.S.; Fyten, G.C.; Cheng, A. [Halliburton Energy Services, Calgary, AB (Canada); Stemler, P.S. [Petro-Canada Oil and Gas Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Lemieux, A. [Omnicon Consultants Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Tower fouling at petroleum refineries is related to background volatile phosphorus components originating from phosphate ester oil gellants. In an attempt to reduce the cost of unplanned refinery shut downs, the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) may institute a new specification in July 2006 of 0.5 ppm maximum volatile phosphorus in crude. In concept, volatile phosphorus can be removed from phosphate esters by eliminating volatile components in the original phosphate ester gellant. However, the issue of of whether modified phosphate esters can really reduce refinery tower fouling has been questioned. For that reason, this study focused on water hydrolysis which may occur in a distillation tower, causing localized areas of acidity and causticity. Halogenation reactions could occur in the presence of acid at high temperatures if halogen ions are present. The source of halide ions could be any salts that have not been removed in the de-salters. Full-scale testing at a pilot plant facility was conducted over several days with flowback captured after actual fracturing treatments. Fouling of distillation tower trays was measured along with fouling of the packing material. The study examined how fouling was influenced by changes in operating parameters such as rate, temperature, or pressure during each test. Three full-scale pilot evaluations were conducted using actual flowback fluids from fracturing treatments conducted with 3 different oil gellants: conventional phosphate ester, modified phosphate and phosphonate ester. The comparison of actual tower fouling between these alternative gellants can be used as a guide when choosing oil gellant systems to reduce refinery tower and heat exchanger fouling. It was concluded that phosphonate gellants are hydrolytically stable at higher temperatures and should minimize volatile phosphorus created through the hydrolysis of phosphate esters. However, they are more expensive since they are more complex to create

  1. The effects of the natural coagulant Moringa oleifera and alum in wastewater treatment at the Bandar Abbas Oil Refinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Dehghani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The refining process generates large volumes of wastewater containing a variety of chemical contaminants. The use of natural substitutes in treating wastewater which have fewer harmful effects is considered an effective step towards protecting the environment and sustaining the development of these industries. This study focused on the use of Moringa oleifera and alum at the Wastewater Unit at Bandar Abbas Refinery. Methods: This study was performed in 2014 in a laboratory using jar apparatus. These experiments were conducted in batch system and effective parameters including pH, coagulant dose and contact time were investigated on the wastewater obtained from Bandar Abbas Oil Refinery. Results: The jar test experiment showed that M. oleifera at 70 mg/L, optimum temperature, pH, and mixing speed could remove 38.60% of chemical oxygen demand (COD, 63.70% of turbidity, and 62.05% of total suspended solids (TSS. Also, alum at 40 mg/L removed COD, turbidity, and TSS by 51.72%, 92.16%, and 85.26% respectively from the refinery wastewater. Moreover, when M. oleifera and alum was used together with a 2:1 dosage ratio (alum at 80 mg/L and M. oleifera at 70 mg/L, they will remove COD, turbidity, and TSS by up to 50.41%, 86.14%, and 81.52% respectively. Conclusion: The use of M. oleifera as a natural coagulant is important in treating refinery wastewater not only from an environmental but also an economic point of view.

  2. Computer model for refinery operations with emphasis on jet fuel production. Volume 3: Detailed systems and programming documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, D. N.; Tunnah, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    The FORTRAN computing program predicts flow streams and material, energy, and economic balances of a typical petroleum refinery, with particular emphasis on production of aviation turbine fuels of varying end point and hydrogen content specifications. The program has a provision for shale oil and coal oil in addition to petroleum crudes. A case study feature permits dependent cases to be run for parametric or optimization studies by input of only the variables which are changed from the base case.

  3. Oxidative Stress and Depression among Male Shift Workers in Shahid Tondgouyan Refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajehnasiri, Farahnaz; Akhondzadeh, Shahin; Mortazavi, Seyed Bagher; Allameh, Abdolamir; Khavanin, Ali; Zamanian, Zahra

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the oxidative stress; serum level of Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC)and Malondialdehyde (MDA) level and the depression score among the depressed rotational shift workers in Shahid Tondgouyan Refinery in Tehran (Iran). A cross-sectional study was conducted among all the 189 shift workers in Shahid Tondgouyan oil refinery who were eligible to participate in the study. They did not take any antidepressants for two months or any supplements for two weeks prior to the study entry. Written consent was obtained from the participants. 21- Item Beck Depression Inventory was used to measure the depression level. Furthermore, body weight, height and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were collected from all the participants. The levels of Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured by 8 ml fasting blood sample. MDA was determined by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Serum total antioxidants were measured using the spectrophotometric ABTS. In the ABTS test, 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-acid) (ABTS) is converted into its radical cation (ABTS•+) by addition of sodium persulphate. This blue-green radical cation absorbs light at 734 nm. ABTS•+ is reactive towards most antioxidants. Descriptive statistics, ANOVA, ANCOVA and regression tests and correlation were used to analyze the data using SPSS software version 16. The age of the participants ranged from 21 to 52 years. The mean age of the participants was 30.58 year (±6.97yr). Of all the participants, 28% (n= 53) had no depression symptoms (depression score between 0 and 9), 65.1% (n=123) were categorized as having mild depression (depression score between 10 and 18) and 6.9% (n=13) were categorized as having moderate depression (depression score between 19 and 29). The participants' BMI ranged from 15.9 to 34.3; the mean BMI of the participants was 24.82 kg/m(2) (+ 3.81 kg/m(2)). The mean of the serum TAC level was 2.51 (± 0.56) mg/dl, and the

  4. Analysis of accidents in nine Iranian gas refineries: 2007-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrdad, R; Bolouri, A; Shakibmanesh, A R

    2013-10-01

    Occupational accidents are one of the major health hazards in industries and associated with high mortality, morbidity, spiritual damage and economic losses in the world. To determine the incidence of occupational accidents in 9 Iranian gas refineries between March 2007 and February 2011. Data on all occupational accidents occurred between March 2007 and February 2011, as well as other possible associated variables including time of accident, whether the accident was due to a personal or systemic fault, type of accident and its outcomes, age and gender of the victim, the injured parts of the body, job experience, and type of employment, were extracted from HSE reports and notes of health care services. Based on these data, we calculated the incidence rate of accidents and assessed the associated factors. During the 5 studied years, 1129 accidents have been recorded. The incidence of fatal accidents was 1.64 per 100 000 and of nonfatal accidents was 1857 per 100 000 workers per year. 99.4% of injured workers were male. The mean±SD age of injured people was 29.6±7.3 years. Almost 70% of injured workers aged under 30 years. The mean±SD job experience was 5.3±5.3 years. Accidents occurred more commonly around 10:00. More than 60% of accidents happened between 8:00 and 15:00. July had the highest incidence rate. The most common type of accident was being struck by an object (48%). More than 94% of accidents are caused by personal rather than systemic faults. Hands and wrists were the most common injured parts and involved in more than one-third of accidents. 70% of injured workers needed medical treatment and returned to work after primary treatment. The pattern of occupational accidents in Iranian gas refineries is similar to other previous reports in many ways. The incidence did not change significantly over the study period. Establishment of an online network for precise registration, notification and meticulous data collection seems necessary.

  5. WPC (Madrid): Block Downstream and Petrochemicals - Best Practices session: novel approaches to improve energy efficiency at refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    This session: 'Novel approaches to improve energy efficiency at refineries', includes two key-note addresses. During the first one, entitled 'refinery energy efficiency today', Zoran Milosevic (KBC) has reported a survey of the current situation and of the improvements margins for the future. Hereafter, this work takes again in developing them, the main messages of the address of Jean-Bernard Sigaud, whose aim was to attract attention on the requirement of a rigorous methodological approach in order to avoid that the decisions taken to abate the energy consumption or the CO 2 releases at the local level, result in fine to the inverse result of those of the world level. This work shows particularly why the traditional perception of a refinery energy balance, which consists to assimilate the fuel consumption to an energy consumption, can lead to deep misinterpretations. It shows too in what the hydrogen transfer amounts to de-localize the energy consumption (which occurs essentially where the hydrogen is consumed) compared to the corresponding CO 2 releases which are produced where hydrogen is produced. At last, a comparison between the different channels for the electric power production and the synthesized fuels, illustrates the crucial importance to use each technology deliberately, while underlining the character sometimes under-intuitive of the good decision. (O.M.)

  6. Potential and optimization of two-phase anaerobic digestion of oil refinery waste activated sludge and microbial community study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qinghong; Liang, Ying; Zhao, Peng; Li, Qing X.; Guo, Shaohui; Chen, Chunmao

    2016-01-01

    Oil refinery waste activated sludge produced from oil wastewater biological treatment is a major industrial sludge. Two-phase anaerobic digestion of oil refinery waste activated sludge was studied for the first time. Thermal pretreatment under 170 °C is effective on sludge solubilization. At the optimum hydrolytic-acidogenic condition which was pH of 6.5, temperature of 55 °C and HRT of 2 days, 2754 mg/L volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were produced and acetic acid and butyric acid were the key components. Comparative studies of single-phase and two-phase anaerobic digestion in terms of organic removal, biogas production and methane concentration were conducted. The cumulative methane production and soluble COD (SCOD) removal efficiency in the two-phase system were 228 mL/g COD added and 77.8%, respectively, which were 1.6 and 2.1 times higher than those in single-phase anaerobic digestion. Such improved performance is attributed to intensification of dominant microbial population in separated reactors. Caloramator, Ureibacillus, Dechloromonas, Petrobacter, and T78 played important roles in hydrolytic-acidification and oil-organics degradation. Syntrophic bacteria in the family Porphyromonadaceae and the genus Anaerobranca provide acetate for methanogen. The results demonstrated the potential and operating condition of two-phase anaerobic digestion in treatment of oil refinery waste activated sludge. PMID:27905538

  7. A METHODOLOGY BASED ON AN ECOLOGICAL ECONOMY APPROACH FOR THE INTEGRATING MANAGEMENT OF THE SULPHUROUS WATER IN AN OIL REFINERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Orlando Lobelles Sardiñas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the current highly stringent international standards regulating the contaminating emissions to the environment, the Oil refinery of Cienfuegos is still generating liquid and gaseous emissions contaminating the environment. The construction of new units as part of the Refinery expansion leads to an increase of these emissions due to the lack of technologies for the reutilization of the sulphurous water. The objective of this paper is to propose a methodology for the integral management of the sulphurous residual water in the oil refining process, including the evaluation and selection of the most feasible technological variant to minimize the sulphur contamination of water and the resulting emissions during the process. The methodology is based on the ecological economy tools, allowing a comprehensible evaluation of six technological variants at the refinery of Cienfuegos. The Life Cycle Assessment was applied (ACV by its Spanish acronym, by means of the software SimaPro 7.1. It was evaluated through the Eco Speed Method, to minimize the possible uncertainty. An economic evaluation was performed, taking into account the external costs for a more comprehensive analysis, enabling, along with the ecological indicators, the selection of the best technological variant, achieving a methodology based on a comprehensive evaluation, and as a positive impact, the implementation of the chosen variant (V5, 98.27% of the process water was recovered, as well as the sulphur that recovered from 94 to 99.8 %, reducing the emissions from 12 200 to 120 mg/Nm3 as SO2.

  8. An investigation of the matrix sensitivity of refinery gas analysis using gas chromatography with flame ionisation detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferracci, Valerio; Brown, Andrew S; Harris, Peter M; Brown, Richard J C

    2015-02-27

    The response of a flame ionisation detector (FID) on a gas chromatograph to methane, ethane, propane, i-butane and n-butane in a series of multi-component refinery gas standards was investigated to assess the matrix sensitivity of the instrument. High-accuracy synthetic gas standards, traceable to the International System of Units, were used to minimise uncertainties. The instrument response exhibited a small dependence on the component amount fraction: this behaviour, consistent with that of another FID, was thoroughly characterised over a wide range of component amount fractions and was shown to introduce a negligible bias in the analysis of refinery gas samples, provided a suitable reference standard is employed. No significant effects of the molar volume, density and viscosity of the gas mixtures on the instrument response were observed, indicating that the FID is suitable for the analysis of refinery gas mixtures over a wide range of component amount fractions provided that appropriate drift-correction procedures are employed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of the dispersion of oil refinery liquid effluent; Avaliacao da dispersao de efluente liquido de refinaria de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariano, Adriano Pinto; Silva, Ariovaldo Jose da; Oliveira, Valdenilson Jose Alves de; Angelis, Dejanira de Franceschi de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica e Microbiologia. Inst. de Biociencias], e-mail: adrianomariano@yahoo.com.br

    2010-07-15

    In this paper, two techniques to evaluate the dispersion of the effluent of an oil refinery are presented. Thus, the dispersion plume was characterized by field measurements of electrical conductivity and by computational simulation (Cormix simulator). An oil refinery whose effluent is discharged on the Atibaia river (Paulinia/SP) is taken as study case. The behavior of the effluent was evaluated until 1000 m after the discharge. The results show that the measurement of electrical conductivity is a suitable technique to evaluate the dispersion of oil refinery wastewaters, since they have high conductivity and for this reason there is a strong contrast between the values of the wastewater and the ambient background. Furthermore, other water quality parameters had a dispersion behavior similar to that shown by the conductivity. The dispersion plume generated by the computational simulator showed high concordance with the field data. In this manner, computational simulation can be a useful tool to evaluate the dispersion of discharges considering hypothetical scenarios, as well as to design the discharge channel. (author)

  10. Da arquitetura dos textos a eloquência dos lugares

    OpenAIRE

    Rochelle de Quadros Loguércio; UFPEL

    2008-01-01

    Uma das questões importantes nas perspectivas pós- moderna e pós-estruturalistas em educação é a possibilidade de ler textos que estão visibilizados de outras formas que não as da fala e da escrita. Outro e evidenciar uma discussão sobre a linguagem caracterísitca de um fazer científico e de um fazer educacional tendo como  plano de fundo as falas da Educação em Bioquímica. Pretende-se mostrar que as linguagens dos campos de origem -bioquímica e educação - conformam e determinam um modo de li...

  11. Competitive strategy to provide technology and basic designs for the construction of new refineries premium of the PETROBRAS; Estrategia competitiva para prover tecnologias e projetos basicos para a construcao de novas refinarias premium da PETROBRAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claudia, Baptista M.L.A.; Adalberto, Barbalho S [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Nowadays, there are major incentives for the construction of new refineries in Brazil: the increase of the local market and the discovery of huge oil reserves in the southeastern Atlantic coast of Brazil. In this scenario, PETROBRAS decided to construct two new refineries, Premium I and II, with a total refining capacity of 900.000 BPSD. The refineries will be designed to process a mix of Brazilian national crudes. The main objects of this ambitious project are to produce high quality diesel and jet fuel from an elevated nitrogen content feedstock, minimizing capital expenditure and schedule. Both refineries will have the same flow scheme with a target to maximize Middle distillate production for the European and local markets. In order to assure that the refinery scheme and the technologies selected will provide the best Net Present Value (NPV), it was decided to perform a Design Competition process to select the company to provide the basic design for all Premium refineries. As the concepts behind a Design Competition were new for PETROBRAS a rigorous process was developed and followed, which entailed contracting three benchmark companies with outstanding knowledge and experience in hydroprocessing to provide independent conceptual studies for a 300.000 BPSD refinery called Premium II. The vision was to utilize the same refinery scheme in the construction of the Premium I refinery which will have two identical trains processing 300.000 BPD. The awarded company was selected based on technical and economic evaluations, supported by state of the art hydroprocessing technologies, block flow diagram optimization and heat integration. This strategy allowed PETROBRAS to acquire the best refinery scheme and process designs for the PREMIUM refineries. The present paper discusses the design competition process, the refinery scheme adopted and the results achieved. (author)

  12. In Situ Visualization of the Phase Behavior of Oil Samples Under Refinery Process Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborde-Boutet, Cedric; McCaffrey, William C

    2017-02-21

    To help address production issues in refineries caused by the fouling of process units and lines, we have developed a setup as well as a method to visualize the behavior of petroleum samples under process conditions. The experimental setup relies on a custom-built micro-reactor fitted with a sapphire window at the bottom, which is placed over the objective of an inverted microscope equipped with a cross-polarizer module. Using reflection microscopy enables the visualization of opaque samples, such as petroleum vacuum residues, or asphaltenes. The combination of the sapphire window from the micro-reactor with the cross-polarizer module of the microscope on the light path allows high-contrast imaging of isotropic and anisotropic media. While observations are carried out, the micro-reactor can be heated to the temperature range of cracking reactions (up to 450 °C), can be subjected to H2 pressure relevant to hydroconversion reactions (up to 16 MPa), and can stir the sample by magnetic coupling. Observations are typically carried out by taking snapshots of the sample under cross-polarized light at regular time intervals. Image analyses may not only provide information on the temperature, pressure, and reactive conditions yielding phase separation, but may also give an estimate of the evolution of the chemical (absorption/reflection spectra) and physical (refractive index) properties of the sample before the onset of phase separation.

  13. A cross-cultural study of organizational factors on safety: Japanese vs. Taiwanese oil refinery plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Shang Hwa; Lee, Chun-Chia; Wu, Muh-Cherng; Takano, Kenichi

    2008-01-01

    This study attempts to identify idiosyncrasies of organizational factors on safety and their influence mechanisms in Taiwan and Japan. Data were collected from employees of Taiwanese and Japanese oil refinery plants. Results show that organizational factors on safety differ in the two countries. Organizational characteristics in Taiwanese plants are highlighted as: higher level of management commitment to safety, harmonious interpersonal relationship, more emphasis on safety activities, higher devotion to supervision, and higher safety self-efficacy, as well as high quality of safety performance. Organizational characteristics in Japanese plants are highlighted as: higher level of employee empowerment and attitude towards continuous improvement, more emphasis on systematic safety management approach, efficient reporting system and teamwork, and high quality of safety performance. The casual relationships between organizational factors and workers' safety performance were investigated using structural equation modeling (SEM). Results indicate that the influence mechanisms of organizational factors in Taiwan and Japan are different. These findings provide insights into areas of safety improvement in emerging countries and developed countries respectively.

  14. Isolation, molecular and biochemical characterization of oil degrading bacteria from contaminated soil at an oil refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AL-Deeb, T.M.; Malkawi, H.I.

    2009-01-01

    Biodegradation using microorganisms is considered to be cost-effective and environmentally friendly treatment of oil-contaminated sites. Oil-biodegrading bacterial strains were isolated, identified and characterized from oil contaminated soil samples at oil refinery in Zarqa (Jordan). Thirty four bacterial isolates were grown on mineral salt media supplemented with crude oil, but 16 showed positive biodegradation of diesel. All the 34 bacterial isolates were characterized at the molecular and bio-chemical levels, and showed positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification product size of 1500 bp when 16s rDNA bacterial universal primers were used. Eighteen bacterial isolates showed positive PCR amplification product size of 150 bp specific for the genus Pseudomonas and 3 bacterial isolates showed positive amplification product size of 1500 bp specific for the genus Acinetobacter. Biochemical and physiological characterization performed on the 34 bacterial isolates revealed the presence of oil biodegrading bacterial genera and species of Pseudomonas Acidovorans, P. aeruginosa, P. vesicularis, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Ac. lowffii, Micro-ococcus luteus, M. varians, M. lylae, M. roseus, Alcaligenes denitrificians, Bacillus megaterium, Comamonas sp., Moralxella sp., Bordetella sp., P. putida, P. stutzeri and P. mallei. (au)

  15. An investigation of the air dispersion characteristics of refinery land treatment units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, K.R.; Zaizhong Wang; Lupo, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    Numerical simulations of air emission and dispersion of volatile organic waste constituents from the land treatment units (LTU's) of four refineries were performed using the ISCST model. Particular attention was given to benzene. In order to realistically model the area pollutant source, each LTU had to be subdivided into smaller cells and the cell concentrations summed. The emission rate of the waste from the LTU's, one of the key inputs to the dispersion model, was periodically adjusted to reflect the rapid decay in rate following waste application. Meteorological conditions were found to be significant in determining boundary concentrations. The specific meteorological conditions most favorable for dispersion were investigated. The results of these simulations showed that mixing height is only minimally important in the dispersion of wastes from LTU's as currently regulated by EPA. Wind speed and variation of wind direction were both more important in atmospheric mixing of the volatile waste. It was found that care should be exercised in attempting to correlate any single meteorological parameter with favorable periods for land treatment. In comparisons of the cases, the results suggest that differences in LTU geometry may also be important in the modeling of long-term pollutant concentrations. Model simulations were performed to ascertain the impact of LTU geometry on boundary concentration

  16. Bioproducts for Sludge Reduction in Activated Sludge Systems Treating Oil Refinery Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre V.M.F.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of bioproducts that change the cellular metabolism and reduce microbial growth without affecting the organic matter removal is very promising for reducing the amount of sludge in wastewater treatment systems. In this study, two bioproducts were evaluated and compared with a well-known chemical (2,4-DiNitroPhenol – DNP in activated sludge treating petroleum refinery wastewater. In batch experiments, 10 mg/L of DNP, 0.8 mg/L of a bioproduct based on Folic Acid (FA and 10 mg/L of a bioproduct based on Stress Proteins (SP led to 30.6%, 43.2% and 29.8% lower disposal of total solids, respectively. Operating on a continuous regimen, the addition of 10 mg/L of the bioproduct based on SP led to 45.7% lower disposal for 50 days. In all cases, no loss of efficiency in the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD removal was observed.

  17. Industrial wastewater reuse in petroleum refinery using the WSD for regeneration systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lídia Yokoyama

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater reuse practices in the industry require an adequate understanding of the characteristics of the manufacture processes, to minimize the water consumption and the generation of effluent. The objective of this work was to apply the WSD method, used to defining the target of minimum process water consumption in a case study of oil refinery, by means of the reuse and recycling operations, including regeneration processes. The importance and influence of the wastewater treatment plant in the regeneration quality, including intermediate process streams, for the reuse and the recycling operations, were evaluated. Furthermore, centralized and distributed treatment flowsheet configurations were tested. Thus, this work presented the solution of a case study with three contaminants in water streams processes, different interconnections approaches, used to illustrate the application of this procedure showing the reduction of water flow rate and total costs compared to the original flowsheet. The scenarios revealed to be greatly promising, and flowsheet configurations were reached with higher than 4 % and 20 % of reduction in the water flow rate consumption and the total costs, respectively. Regarding the ecoefficiency processes, the results demonstrate that the applied technique is successful when the minimum water consumption is the main goal in the industry.

  18. Analysis of the implementation of ergonomic design at the new units of an oil refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passero, Carolina Reich Marcon; Ogasawara, Erika Lye; Baú, Lucy Mara Silva; Buso, Sandro Artur; Bianchi, Marcos Cesar

    2012-01-01

    Ergonomic design is the adaptation of working conditions to human limitations and skills in the physical design phase of a new installation, a new working system, or new products or tools. Based on this concept, the purpose of this work was to analyze the implementation of ergonomic design at the new industrial units of an oil refinery, using the method of Ergonomic Workplace Assessment. This study was conducted by a multidisciplinary team composed of operation, maintenance and industrial safety technicians, ergonomists, designers and engineers. The analysis involved 6 production units, 1 industrial wastewater treatment unit, and 3 utilities units, all in the design detailing phase, for which 455 ergonomic requirements were identified. An analysis and characterization of the requirements identified for 5 of the production units, involving a total of 246 items, indicated that 62% were related to difficult access and blockage operations, while 15% were related to difficulties in the circulation of employees inside the units. Based on these data, it was found that the ergonomic requirements identified in the design detailing phase of an industrial unit involve physical ergonomics, and that it is very difficult to identify requirements related to organizational or cognitive ergonomics.

  19. An approximation solution to refinery crude oil scheduling problem with demand uncertainty using joint constrained programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Qianqian; Yang, Genke; Xu, Guanglin; Pan, Changchun

    2014-01-01

    This paper is devoted to develop an approximation method for scheduling refinery crude oil operations by taking into consideration the demand uncertainty. In the stochastic model the demand uncertainty is modeled as random variables which follow a joint multivariate distribution with a specific correlation structure. Compared to deterministic models in existing works, the stochastic model can be more practical for optimizing crude oil operations. Using joint chance constraints, the demand uncertainty is treated by specifying proximity level on the satisfaction of product demands. However, the joint chance constraints usually hold strong nonlinearity and consequently, it is still hard to handle it directly. In this paper, an approximation method combines a relax-and-tight technique to approximately transform the joint chance constraints to a serial of parameterized linear constraints so that the complicated problem can be attacked iteratively. The basic idea behind this approach is to approximate, as much as possible, nonlinear constraints by a lot of easily handled linear constraints which will lead to a well balance between the problem complexity and tractability. Case studies are conducted to demonstrate the proposed methods. Results show that the operation cost can be reduced effectively compared with the case without considering the demand correlation.

  20. Effective Recovery of Vanadium from Oil Refinery Waste into Vanadium-Based Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Guowu; Ng, Wei Cheng; Lin, Wenlin Yvonne; Koh, Shin Nuo; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2018-03-06

    Carbon black waste, an oil refinery waste, contains a high concentration of vanadium(V) leftover from the processing of crude oil. For the sake of environmental sustainability, it is therefore of interest to recover the vanadium as useful products instead of disposing of it. In this work, V was recovered in the form of vanadium-based metal-organic frameworks (V-MOFs) via a novel pathway by using the leaching solution of carbon black waste instead of commercially available vanadium chemicals. Two different types of V-MOFs with high levels of crystallinity and phase purity were fabricated in very high yields (>98%) based on a coordination modulation method. The V-MOFs exhibited well-defined and controlled shapes such as nanofibers (length: > 10 μm) and nanorods (length: ∼270 nm). Furthermore, the V-MOFs showed high catalytic activities for the oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde, indicating the strong potential of the waste-derived V-MOFs in catalysis applications. Overall, our work offers a green synthesis pathway for the preparation of V-MOFs by using heavy metals of industrial waste as the metal source.

  1. Biological treatment of refinery spent caustics under halo-alkaline conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaff, Marco; Bijmans, Martijn F M; Abbas, Ben; Euverink, Gert-J W; Muyzer, Gerard; Janssen, Albert J H

    2011-08-01

    The present research demonstrates the biological treatment of refinery sulfidic spent caustics in a continuously fed system under halo-alkaline conditions (i.e. pH 9.5; Na(+)= 0.8M). Experiments were performed in identical gas-lift bioreactors operated under aerobic conditions (80-90% saturation) at 35°C. Sulfide loading rates up to 27 mmol L(-1)day(-1) were successfully applied at a HRT of 3.5 days. Sulfide was completely converted into sulfate by the haloalkaliphilic sulfide-oxidizing bacteria belonging to the genus Thioalkalivibrio. Influent benzene concentrations ranged from 100 to 600 μM. At steady state, benzene was removed by 93% due to high stripping efficiencies and biodegradation. Microbial community analysis revealed the presence of haloalkaliphilic heterotrophic bacteria belonging to the genera Marinobacter, Halomonas and Idiomarina which might have been involved in the observed benzene removal. The work shows the potential of halo-alkaliphilic bacteria in mitigating environmental problems caused by alkaline waste. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cancer incidence and mortality among temporary maintenance workers in a refinery/petrochemical complex in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Dong-Hee; Chung, Eun-Kyo; Jang, Jae-Kil; Lee, Hye-Eun; Ryu, Hyang-Woo; Yoo, Kye-Mook; Kim, Eun-A; Kim, Kyoo-Sang

    2014-01-01

    Background: Petrochemical plant maintenance workers are exposed to various carcinogens such as benzene and metal fumes. In Korea, maintenance operations in petrochemical plants are typically performed by temporary employees hired as contract workers. Objectives: The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate cancer risk in temporary maintenance workers in a refinery/petrochemical complex in Korea. Methods: Subjects consisted of 14 698 male workers registered in a regional petrochemical plant maintenance workers union during 2002–2007. Cancer mortality and incidence were identified by linking with the nationwide death and cancer registries during 2002–2007 and 2002–2005, respectively. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated for each cancer. Results: Increased SMR 3.61 (six cases, 95% CI: 1.32–7.87) and SIR 3.18 (five cases, 95% CI: 1.03–7.42) were observed in oral and pharyngeal cancers. Conclusion: Our findings may suggest a potential association between oral and pharyngeal cancers and temporary maintenance jobs in the petrochemical industry. Future studies should include a longer follow-up period and a quantitative exposure assessment. PMID:24999849

  3. An Approximation Solution to Refinery Crude Oil Scheduling Problem with Demand Uncertainty Using Joint Constrained Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianqian Duan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to develop an approximation method for scheduling refinery crude oil operations by taking into consideration the demand uncertainty. In the stochastic model the demand uncertainty is modeled as random variables which follow a joint multivariate distribution with a specific correlation structure. Compared to deterministic models in existing works, the stochastic model can be more practical for optimizing crude oil operations. Using joint chance constraints, the demand uncertainty is treated by specifying proximity level on the satisfaction of product demands. However, the joint chance constraints usually hold strong nonlinearity and consequently, it is still hard to handle it directly. In this paper, an approximation method combines a relax-and-tight technique to approximately transform the joint chance constraints to a serial of parameterized linear constraints so that the complicated problem can be attacked iteratively. The basic idea behind this approach is to approximate, as much as possible, nonlinear constraints by a lot of easily handled linear constraints which will lead to a well balance between the problem complexity and tractability. Case studies are conducted to demonstrate the proposed methods. Results show that the operation cost can be reduced effectively compared with the case without considering the demand correlation.

  4. Sensitivity of screening-level toxicity tests using soils from a former petroleum refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauwels, S.; Bureau, J.; Roy, Y.; Allen, B.; Robidoux, P.Y.; Soucy, M.

    1995-01-01

    The authors tested five composite soil samples from a former refinery. The samples included a reference soil (Mineral Oil and Grease, MO and G < 40 ppm), thermally-treated soil, biotreated soil, and two untreated soils. They evaluated toxicity using the earthworm E. foetida, lettuce, cress, barley, Microtox, green algae, fathead minnow, and D. magna. The endpoints measured were lethality, seed germination, root elongation, growth, and bioluminescence. Toxicity, as measured by the number of positive responses, increased as follows: biotreated soil < untreated soil No. 1 < reference soil < thermally-treated soil and untreated soil No. 2. The biotreated soil generated only one positive response, whereas the thermally-treated soil and untreated soil No. 2 generated five positive responses. The most sensitive and discriminant terrestrial endpoint was lettuce root elongation which responded to untreated soil No. 1, thermally-treated soil, and reference soil. The least sensitive was barley seed germination for which no toxicity was detected. The most sensitive and discriminant aquatic endpoint was green algae growth which responded to untreated soil No. 1, thermally-treated soil, and reference soil. The least sensitive was D. magna for which no toxicity was detected. Overall, soil and aqueous extract toxicity was spotty and no consistent patterns emerged to differentiate the five soils. Biotreatment significantly reduced the effects of the contamination. Aqueous toxicity was measured in the reference soil, probably because of the presence of unknown dissolved compounds in the aqueous extract. Finally, clear differences in sensitivity existed among the test species

  5. Optimisation of petroleum refinery water network systems retrofit incorporating reuse, regeneration and recycle strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khor, Cheng Seong; Shah, Nilay [Imperial College London (United Kingdom); Mahadzir, Shuhaimi [Universiti Teknologi Petronas (Malaysia); Elkamel, Ali [University of Waterloo (Canada)

    2012-02-15

    Increasingly strict environmental regulations have given rise to higher requirements for operating efficiency and optimization and water has become a vital resource in the refining process and allied industries. Due to this high demand for water, plants may be exposed to supply interruptions and shortages in the future. Major concerns in the petroleum refining industry are the scarcity of fresh water supply and increasingly rigid rules on wastewater discharge, which have resulted from concerns over the environmental impact. This paper presents the efforts made to develop an optimization framework for design of petroleum refinery water network systems and retrofitting that incorporates reuse, regeneration, and recycling strategies. This framework includes the complementary advantage of water pinch analysis (WPA). Water minimization strategies were incorporated as first postulates in a superstructural representation that includes all feasible flow-sheet options for taking advantage of water reuse, regeneration and recycling opportunities. Additionally, a post-optimization analysis was carried out to evaluate the repeated treatment processes required to identify the most efficient retrofit option.

  6. Gasification of refinery sludge in an updraft reactor for syngas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Reem; Eldmerdash, Usama [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Sinnathambi, Chandra M., E-mail: chandro@petronas.com.my [Fundamental and Applied Sciences Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    The study probes into the investigation on gasification of dry refinery sludge. The details of the study includes; influence of operation time, oxidation temperature and equivalence ratios on carbon gas conversion rate, gasification efficiency, heating value and fuel gas yield are presented. The results show that, the oxidation temperature increased sharply up to 858°C as the operating time increased up to 36 min then bridging occurred at 39 min which cause drop in reaction temperature up to 819 °C. This bridging was found to affect also the syngas compositions, meanwhile as the temperature decreased the CO, H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} compositions are also found to be decreases. Higher temperature catalyzed the reduction reaction (CO{sub 2}+C = 450 2CO), and accelerated the carbon conversion and gasification efficiencies, resulted in more solid fuel is converted to a high heating value gas fuel. The equivalence ratio of 0.195 was found to be the optimum value for carbon conversion and cold gas efficiencies, high heating value of gas, and fuel gas yield to reach their maximum values of 96.1 % and 53.7 %, 5.42 MJ Nm{sup −3} of, and 2.5 Nm{sup 3} kg{sup −1} respectively.

  7. A dynamic, efficient, and flexible metal HAP standard for petroleum refinery FCCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, P. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2000-07-01

    The Petroleum Refinery Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) II standards were recently announced by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. The standards are designed to control hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from fluid catalytic cracking (FCC), catalytic reforming and sulfur recovery units. The major role of feed quality in determining emissions of heavy metals, sulfur oxides (SOx) and nitrous oxides from FCC vents were discussed. The impact of FCC feed quality on carbon dioxide emissions was also examined. Some potential loopholes in the SOx new source performance standard for FCCs were also identified. This paper also outlined regulatory issues that occur when pollutant emission rates vary with raw material or fuel quantity. When input qualities vary, the format of emission standards take on special meaning. In particular, proportional control standards perform poorly resulting in environmentally damaged inputs. Precautions should be taken in profit-induced moves to avoid lower quality inputs, particularly at this time for setting new directions for a cleaner environment. 22 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  8. Inhibition of dehydrogenase activity in petroleum refinery wastewater bacteria by phenolic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon C. Okpokwasili

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The toxicity of phenol, 2-nitrophenol, 4-nitrophenol, 2,4-dinitrophenol, 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol, 4-bromophenol and 3,5-dimethylphenol on Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Escherichia species isolated from petroleum refinery wastewater was assessed via inhibition of dehydrogenase enzyme activity. At low concentrations, 2-nitrophenol, 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol, 4-bromophenol and 3,5-dimethylphenol stimulated dehydrogenase activity and at sufficient concentrations, phenolic compounds inhibited dehydrogenase activities. Generally, phenol is less toxic than substituted phenols. Estimations of the degree of inhibition/stimulation of dehydrogenase activities showed significant dose-dependent responses that are describable by logistic functions. The toxicity thresholds varied significantly (P < 0.05 among the bacterial strains and phenolic compounds. The median inhibitory concentrations (IC50s ranged from 4.118 ± 0.097 mg.L-1 for 4-nitrophenol against Pseudomonas sp. DAF1 to 1407.997 ± 7.091 mg.L-1 for phenol against Bacillus sp. DISK1. This study suggested that the organisms have moderate sensitivity to phenols and have the potential to be used as indicators for assessment of chemical toxicity. They could also be used as catalysts for degradation of phenols in effluents.

  9. Enhanced photocatalytic degradation of pollutants in petroleum refinery wastewater under mild conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saien, J.; Nejati, H.

    2007-01-01

    A circulating photocatalytic reactor was used for removing aliphatic and aromatic organic pollutants in refinery wastewater. The TiO 2 added wastewater samples, while saturating with air, were irradiated with an immersed mercury UV lamp (400 W, 200-550 nm). Optimal catalyst concentration, fluid pH and temperature were obtained at amounts of near 100 mg L -1 , 3 and 318 K, respectively. A maximum reduction in chemical oxygen demand of more than 90% was achieved after about 4 h irradiation and hence, 73% after about only 90 min; significant pollutant removal was also achievable in the other conditions. The identification of the organic pollutants, provided by means of a GC/MS and a GC analysis systems, equipped with headspace injection technique, showed that the major compounds were different fractions of petroleum aliphatic hydrocarbons (up to C 10 ) and the well-known aromatic compounds such as benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene. The results showed a high efficiency degradation of all of these pollutants

  10. Feasibility study on an energy conservation project at Tabriz Refinery in Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With an objective of saving energy and reducing greenhouse gas emission, a feasibility study has been executed to discuss applicable measures on oil refining facilities in Tabriz Oil Refinery in Islamic Republic of Iran. The discussion objects are the ten devices related to atmospheric and reduced pressure distillation, visbreaker, naphtha hydrogenating desulfurization, naphtha contact reforming, reduced pressure hydro-cracking of light oil, hydrogen manufacturing, amine rinsing, asphalt manufacturing, and boilers. Major improvement items include: modification of the excessive air ratio control facility, installation of a superheating furnace waste gas recovering device, additional installation of heat exchangers in the raw material oil preheating system, and increased heat recovery by improving distribution of distillation column reflux. As a result of the feasibility study, the investment recovery performance was anticipated to be contained within about five years, with consideration on procurement of some of the devices in Iran. The approximate investment amount would be 2 billion yen, the annual fuel saving amount would be about 660 million yen, and the energy saving ratio would be 13.5%. The carbon dioxide emission quantity would be reduced annually by about 155.8 tons, as contrasted to the annual emission of 1,158,000 tons from the existing facilities. (NEDO)

  11. Enhanced photocatalytic degradation of pollutants in petroleum refinery wastewater under mild conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saien, J. [Department of Applied Chemistry, University of Bu-Ali Sina, Hamadan 65174 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: saien@basu.ac.ir; Nejati, H. [Department of Applied Chemistry, University of Bu-Ali Sina, Hamadan 65174 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2007-09-05

    A circulating photocatalytic reactor was used for removing aliphatic and aromatic organic pollutants in refinery wastewater. The TiO{sub 2} added wastewater samples, while saturating with air, were irradiated with an immersed mercury UV lamp (400 W, 200-550 nm). Optimal catalyst concentration, fluid pH and temperature were obtained at amounts of near 100 mg L{sup -1}, 3 and 318 K, respectively. A maximum reduction in chemical oxygen demand of more than 90% was achieved after about 4 h irradiation and hence, 73% after about only 90 min; significant pollutant removal was also achievable in the other conditions. The identification of the organic pollutants, provided by means of a GC/MS and a GC analysis systems, equipped with headspace injection technique, showed that the major compounds were different fractions of petroleum aliphatic hydrocarbons (up to C{sub 10}) and the well-known aromatic compounds such as benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene. The results showed a high efficiency degradation of all of these pollutants.

  12. Rationalization of imports, refineries and distribution of petroleum in Sub-Saharan Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayorga Alba, E.

    1993-01-01

    This paper outlines policies to secure and reduce the cost of oil supplies in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), taking into account the existing forces at play: limited foreign exchange, competition for increasingly scarce funds, and the likely emergence of Africa as the fastest growing centre of energy demand over the coming decade. It identifies major inefficiencies in petroleum procurement, refining and distribution, and analyses the specific bottlenecks at each stage of the supply chain. Many of the diseconomies, estimated to yield savings of US$ 1.4 per year, are traced to an inefficient regulatory set-up in SSA countries, as well as unnecessary government interference in the downstream petroleum sector. In particular, price controls, small topping refineries, monopolistic agencies, government subsidies and opaque management structures prevent the working of efficient market mechanisms. The paper discusses the importance of policy reform, outlining what changes need to be implemented on the levels of institutional arrangements, closing of inefficient units, petroleum pricing and encouraging foreign investment in the sector. (author). 1 ref., 7 figs

  13. Material Balance And Reaction Kinetics Modeling For Penex Isomerization Process In Daura Refinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamadi Adel Sharif

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Penex Deisohexanizer isomerization of light straight run naphtha is a significant process for petroleum refining and proved to be effective technology to produce gasoline components with a high octane number. Modeling of the chemical kinetic reactions is an important tool because it is a better tool for optimization of the experimental data into parameters used for industrial reactors. The present study deals on the isomerization process in Daura refinery. Material balance calculations were done mathematically on the unit for the kinetics prediction purpose. A kinetic mathematical model was derived for the prediction rate constants K1 and K2 and activation energy Ea at operating temperatures range 120-180°C. According to the model, the results show that with increasing of temperature leads to increased K1 directly, where the K2 values proportional inversely. The activation energy results show that Ea1(nC6

  14. Multivariate approach to assessing ecotoxicity on abandoned oil refinery environments: Study site description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochmiller, R.L.; Yates, G.W.

    1993-01-01

    Ecology risk assessment requires a clear understanding of how complex mixtures of environmental contaminants impact terrestrial ecosystems. This assessment process could be more universally applied to terrestrial ecosystems with better defined assay systems for evaluating impacts of exposure on organisms, populations, and communities. The authors objective was to define and assess the efficacy of a battery of assays incorporating both standard biological toxicity test and in situ biomonitors for evaluating ecological risks on terrestrial environments contaminated with complex mixtures of petrochemicals on a 160 acre abandoned oil refinery in central Oklahoma. Three suspected contaminated and three uncontaminated reference sites were selected for intensive study. Habitat on each study site is representative of disturbed tall-grass prairie and supports dense, diverse small mammal communities. Soil samples were subjected to aqueous extraction and resulting leachates analyzed for heavy metals, selected ions, and organics. Analytical results support their initial assessment that toxic study sites were contaminated with complex mixtures including lead, zinc, arsenic, chloride, sulfate, potassium, and complex mixtures of polar and non-polar organics

  15. Population and community profiles of small mammals inhabiting an abandoned oil refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMurry, S.T.; Lochmiller, R.L.; McBee, K.; Burks, S.L.; Quails, C.W. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Mark-recapture techniques were used to assess population and community dynamics of resident small mammals on three contaminated and three reference sites located on or near an abandoned oil refinery in Oklahoma. Contaminated sites included areas adjacent to oil sludge containment and sedimentation pits and a land farm for treating oily sludges. Reference sites were selected based on their ecological similarity to contaminated sites. Small mammals were trapped from January 1991 to August 1992 at eight week intervals except during summer and winter during which traps were checked at 3 week intervals. Diversity was typically highest on toxic sites due primarily to the presence of house mice (Mus musculus). Similarity in small mammal community composition between sites differed most in summer. Cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) were the most abundant species on all sites. Reproductive activity of adult female cotton rats and survival of trappable cotton rats did not differ between sites. However, minimum number known alive and recruitment of juveniles was highest on references sites, indicating that in-utero and neonatal survival may differ between reference and contaminated sites

  16. Reuse of refinery's tertiary-treated wastewater in cooling towers: microbiological monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Vera Lúcia; Veiga, Andréa Azevedo; Mendonça, Rafael Silva; Alves, Andrea Lima; Pagnin, Sérgio; Santiago, Vânia M J

    2015-02-01

    The study was planned to quantify the distribution of bacteria between bulk water and biofilm formed on different materials in an industrial scale cooling tower system of an oil refinery operating with clarified and chlorinated freshwater (CCW) or chlorinated tertiary effluent (TRW) as makeup water. The sessile and planktonic heterotrophic bacteria and Pseudomonas aeruginosa densities were significantly higher in the cooling tower supplied with clarified and chlorinated freshwater (CTCW) (p towers, the biofilm density was higher on the surface of glass slides and stainless steel coupons than on the surface of carbon steel coupons. The average corrosion rates of carbon steel coupons (0.4-0.8 millimeters per year (mpy)) and densities of sessile (12-1.47 × 10(3) colony-forming unit (CFU) cm(-1)) and planktonic (0-2.36 × 10(3) CFU mL(-1)) microbiota remained below of the maximum values of reference used by water treatment companies as indicative of efficient microbial control. These data indicate that the strategies of the water treatment station (WTS) (free chlorine) and industrial wastewater treatment station (IWTS) followed by reverse electrodialysis system (RES) (free chlorine plus chloramine) were effective for the microbiological control of the two makeup water sources.

  17. Treatment of alumina refinery waste (red mud) through neutralization techniques: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Suchita; Wasewar, K L; Agnihotri, A

    2017-06-01

    In the Bayer process of extraction of alumina from bauxite, the insoluble product generated after bauxite digestion with sodium hydroxide at elevated temperature and pressure is known as 'red mud' or 'bauxite residue'. This alumina refinery waste is highly alkaline in nature with a pH of 10.5-12.5 and is conventionally disposed of in mostly clay-lined land-based impoundments. The alkaline constituents in the red mud impose severe and alarming environmental problems, such as soil and air pollution. Keeping in view sustainable re-vegetation and residue management, neutralization/treatment of red mud using different techniques is the only alternative to make the bauxite residue environmentally benign. Hence, neutralization techniques, such as using mineral acids, acidic waste (pickling liquor waste), coal dust, superphosphate and gypsum as amenders, CO 2 , sintering with silicate material and seawater for treatment of red mud have been studied in detail. This paper is based upon and emphasizes the experimental work carried out for all the neutralization techniques along with a comprehensive review of each of the processes. The scope, applicability, limitations and feasibility of these processes have been compared exhaustively. Merits and demerits have been discussed using flow diagrams. All the techniques described are technically feasible, wherein findings obtained with seawater neutralization can be set as a benchmark for future work. Further studies should be focused on exploring the economical viability of these processes for better waste management and disposal of red mud.

  18. Electrochemical pretreatment of heavy oil refinery wastewater using a three-dimensional electrode reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Lingyong [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249 (China); Guo Shaohui, E-mail: cupgsh@163.co [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249 (China); Yan Guangxu; Chen Chunmao [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249 (China); Jiang Xiaoyan [Liaohe Petrochemical Branch Company, PetroChina, Panjin 124022 (China)

    2010-12-01

    The pretreatment of heavy oil refinery wastewater (HORW) was experimentally investigated using a three-dimensional electrode reactor (TDER) with granular activated carbon (GAC) and porous ceramsite particle (PCP) as the combination particle electrode and DSA type anodes as the anode. The results showed that higher chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was obtained in TDER comparing with the two-dimensional electrode reactor (without particle electrodes packed), and combination particle electrode was favorable to improve the COD removal efficiency and reduce the energy consumption. The treated HORW under the optimal experimental condition (GAC percentage = 75%, current density = 30 mA/cm{sup 2}, pH not adjusted and treatment time = 100 min) presented that the removal efficiencies of COD, total organic carbon and toxicity units were 45.5%, 43.3% and 67.2%, respectively, and the ratio of 5-day biochemical oxygen demand to COD was increased from 0.10 to 0.29, which is beneficial for further biological treatment. Furthermore, the application of electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry to characterize polar compounds in HORW and their oxidation products was well demonstrated to reveal the composition variation.

  19. Electrochemical pretreatment of heavy oil refinery wastewater using a three-dimensional electrode reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Lingyong; Guo Shaohui; Yan Guangxu; Chen Chunmao; Jiang Xiaoyan

    2010-01-01

    The pretreatment of heavy oil refinery wastewater (HORW) was experimentally investigated using a three-dimensional electrode reactor (TDER) with granular activated carbon (GAC) and porous ceramsite particle (PCP) as the combination particle electrode and DSA type anodes as the anode. The results showed that higher chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was obtained in TDER comparing with the two-dimensional electrode reactor (without particle electrodes packed), and combination particle electrode was favorable to improve the COD removal efficiency and reduce the energy consumption. The treated HORW under the optimal experimental condition (GAC percentage = 75%, current density = 30 mA/cm 2 , pH not adjusted and treatment time = 100 min) presented that the removal efficiencies of COD, total organic carbon and toxicity units were 45.5%, 43.3% and 67.2%, respectively, and the ratio of 5-day biochemical oxygen demand to COD was increased from 0.10 to 0.29, which is beneficial for further biological treatment. Furthermore, the application of electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry to characterize polar compounds in HORW and their oxidation products was well demonstrated to reveal the composition variation.

  20. Rhizosphere biodegradation of xenobiotics: Microbiological study of a rice field polluted by oil refinery residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasolomanana, J.L.; Balandreau, J.

    1987-07-01

    A rice field had been studied in which the disposal of oil residues from a refinery plant seemed to improve rice growth and soil N content. To check the hypothesis that nitrogen fixation by oil-adapted bacteria could explain this observation we isolated and studied dominant diazotrophic bacteria from the rhizosphere of an actively N/sub 2/-fixing rice plant growing on the polluted soil; for this purpose we used an axenic plant as an enrichment step. The rhizosphere did not contain more than 10/sup 5/ N/sub 2/-fixing bacteria per g dry soil, essentially Bacillus polymyxa; one of the isolates, strain R3 could grow and reduce C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ on oil residues only in the presence of glucose or of exudates from an axenic plant (spermosphere model); the presence of R3 diminished the inhibition of rice growth due to the oil residues; R3 nitrogenase activity in the rhizosphere of rice was increased in the presence of these residues. This cometabolism of oil residues in the presence of exudates and their stimulating effect on N/sub 2/ fixation provide a likely explanation for observed positive effects of the disposal of oil residues on arable lands, and are conducive to the hypothesis that rhizosphere cometabolism could greatly enhance soil organic matter turn over and humification rates.

  1. Well-to-refinery emissions and net-energy analysis of China's crude-oil supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masnadi, Mohammad S.; El-Houjeiri, Hassan M.; Schunack, Dominik; Li, Yunpo; Roberts, Samori O.; Przesmitzki, Steven; Brandt, Adam R.; Wang, Michael

    2018-03-01

    Oil is China's second-largest energy source, so it is essential to understand the country's greenhouse gas emissions from crude-oil production. Chinese crude supply is sourced from numerous major global petroleum producers. Here, we use a per-barrel well-to-refinery life-cycle analysis model with data derived from hundreds of public and commercial sources to model the Chinese crude mix and the upstream carbon intensities and energetic productivity of China's crude supply. We generate a carbon-denominated supply curve representing Chinese crude-oil supply from 146 oilfields in 20 countries. The selected fields are estimated to emit between 1.5 and 46.9 g CO2eq MJ-1 of oil, with volume-weighted average emissions of 8.4 g CO2eq MJ-1. These estimates are higher than some existing databases, illustrating the importance of bottom-up models to support life-cycle analysis databases. This study provides quantitative insight into China's energy policy and the economic and environmental implications of China's oil consumption.

  2. Sperm as an indicator of reproductive risk among petroleum refinery workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, M.J.; Wyrobek, A.J.; Ratcliffe, J.; Gordon, L.A.; Watchmaker, G.; Fox, S.H.; Moore, D.H.; Hornung, R.W.

    1985-02-01

    A questionnaire study of men in a wastewater treatment plant of a petroleum refinery showed twice the rate of fetal loss in the period during employment in the plant compared with the periods before and after. Questions regarding the interpretation of that study and continuing concern about reproductive risk prompted us to perform a cross sectional evaluation of sperm concentration and morphology. After adjustment for an abstinence period, the mean sperm concentration of the 74 unexposed men did not differ significantly from that of the 34 exposed men (79.9 million/cm/sup 3/ v 68.2 million/cm/sup 3/, p(1) . 0.16). The two groups also had a similar proportion of sperm with abnormal morphology (49.1% v 44.5%, p(1) . 0.94). This lack of association remained when degree of exposure, age, use of alcohol and marijuana, past illness or fever, use of baths or sauna, and history of urological problems were considered. These results are most consistent with the absence of sperm mediated reproductive problems.

  3. Bioremediation of wastewater from edible oil refinery factory using oleaginous microalga Desmodesmus sp. S1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mar, Cho Cho; Fan, Yong; Li, Fu-Li; Hu, Guang-Rong

    2016-12-01

    Edible oil industry produced massive wastewater, which requires extensive treatment to remove pungent smell, high phosphate, carbon oxygen demand (COD), and metal ions prior to discharge. Traditional anaerobic and aerobic digestion could mainly reduce COD of the wastewater from oil refinery factories (WEORF). In this study, a robust oleaginous microalga Desmodesmus sp. S1 was adapted to grow in WEORF. The biomass and lipid content of Desmodesmus sp. S1 cultivated in the WEORF supplemented with sodium nitrate were 5.62 g·L(-1) and 14.49%, whereas those in the WEORF without adding nitrate were 2.98 g·L(-1) and 21.95%. More than 82% of the COD and 53% of total phosphorous were removed by Desmodesmus sp. S1. In addition, metal ions, including ferric, aluminum, manganese and zinc were also diminished significantly in the WEORF after microalgal growth, and pungent smell vanished as well. In comparison with the cells grown in BG-11 medium, the cilia-like bulges and wrinkles on the cell surface of Desmodesmus sp. S1 grown in WEORF became out of order, and more polyunsaturated fatty acids were detected due to stress derived from the wastewater. The study suggests that growing microalgae in WEORF can be applied for the dual roles of nutrient removal and biofuel feedstock production.

  4. Bioremediation potential of the Sava river water polluted by oil refinery wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaksic, B.; Matavulj, M.; Vukic, Lj.; Radnovic, D.

    2002-01-01

    Microbial enumeration is a screening-level tool which can be used to evaluate in-situ response of water microorganisms to petroleum hydrocarbon contamination as well as for evaluating enhanced bioremediation potential of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination. In this investigations the increase between 17- and 44-fold of number of heterotrophs in hydrocarbon contaminated the Sava River water when compared with the no contaminated river water have been recorded. The significant increase of number of facultative oligotrophs in the river Sava water downstream of wastewater discharge (between 70- and almost 100-fold higher number) direct to the conclusion that oligotrophic bacteria (adapted to the environments with low amount of easy-to-degrade nutrients, oligocarbophilic microorganisms) could be better indicator of water bioremediation potential than number of heterotrophic (THR) bacteria. Quantitative composition of heterotrophic, facultative oligotrophic, crude oil degrading, and other physiological groups of bacteria, being, as a rule, higher in samples taken downstream of the waste-water discharge, testify about high biodegradative potential of the River Sava microbial community, if the oil refinery wastewater is taken into consideration. (author)

  5. Basic survey for Joint Implementation on Jinling Petrochemical Corporation, China. Energy conservation project for Nanjing Refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of reducing greenhouse effect gas emissions, the basic survey was conducted on potential energy conservation at Nanjing Refinery, Jiangsu Nanjing city, China. Investigational studies were made on the repair of the power recovery system in line with the plan to enlarge the fluid catalytic cracker (FCC) and the power recovery using exhaust gas from the RFCC catalytic regeneration system. Moreover, the energy conservation technology to reduce power loads of the refining system was adopted to this project. As a result, it was found out that this repair plan makes recovery of the power equivalent to 10.6MW possible and produces the effect of reducing the fuel to be used. The realization of this project brings the CO2 reduction amount of approximately 70,000 t/y. It was also found out that this project not only reduces a large amount of greenhouse effect gas emissions, but contributes to profits of the plant concerned and helps improve the environment in the area concerned. For the implementation of this project, the detailed plan is expected to be further discussed. (NEDO)

  6. Feasibility study on energy saving and reduction of CO2 emissions at Pertamina's Cilacap Refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With an objective of saving energy and reducing greenhouse gas emission, a basic survey has been performed on the atmospheric crude oil distillation units and the high vacuum distillation units at Cilacap Refinery in Indonesia. The first site survey in September 2000 has carried out a survey on the situation of the facilities and operation upon obtaining the facility data and operation information from Pertamina. As a result, it was revealed that there is a room of improvement in the heat recovery, whereas a modification design was executed on the improvement proposals on the heat exchanger system. However, the second site survey in November 2000 has revealed that Pertamina had executed in 1998 through 1999 the de-bottlenecking project on the crude oil atmospheric distillation units (two units) and the high vacuum distillation units (two units), by which the capability has been expanded, and the heat recovery rate has been increased. It is not possible to look for extremely large enhancement of the heat recovery rate beyond that point, and the reduction of CO2 emission would also be small. As a result of discussions, the present project was found capable of reducing annually the CO2 emission by 36,500 tons. (NEDO)

  7. Petrochemical refinery and integrated petrochemical complexes; Refinaria petroquimica e complexos petroquimicos integrados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Patricia C. dos; Seidl, Peter R.; Borschiver, Suzana [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    Global demand for light olefins points to strong prospects for growth, stimulating investments in overall productive capacity. With propylene demand growing slightly faster than that of ethylene, rising prices and difficulties in supplies of petrochemical feedstocks (mainly naphtha and natural gas), steam crackers alone are not able to fill the light olefins gap nor do they allow extraordinary margins. As petrochemical market dynamics also influence refining activities, there has been significant progress in the development of technologies for petrochemical refining, such as Petrochemical FCC. This petrochemistry-refining integration offers great opportunities for synergism since both industries share many common challenges, like more severe environmental requirements and optimizing the use of utilities. However, in the case of valuation of non-conventional oils (which tend to increase in importance in oil markets), to take full advantage of this opportunity to add value to low cost streams, deep conversion and treatment processes are of great significance in refining scheme to have enough feedstock for cracking. In this context, a petrochemical refinery seems to be an important alternative source of petrochemicals and may be integrated or not to a petrochemical complex. (author)

  8. Challenging the immediate causes: A work accident investigation in an oil refinery using organizational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, Sandra Lorena; Vilela, Rodolfo Andrade de Gouveia; de Almeida, Ildeberto Muniz

    2018-01-01

    In many companies, investigations of accidents still blame the victims without exploring deeper causes. Those investigations are reactive and have no learning potential. This paper aims to debate the historical organizational aspects of a company whose policy was incubating an accident. The empirical data are analyzed as part of a qualitative study of an accident that occurred in an oil refinery in Brazil in 2014. To investigate and analyse this case we used one-to-one and group interviews, participant observation, Collective Analyses of Work and a documentary review. The analysis was conducted on the basis of concepts of the Organizational Analysis of the event and the Model for Analysis and Prevention of Work Accidents. The accident had its origin in the interaction of social and organizational factors, among them being: excessively standardized culture, management tools and outcome indicators that give a false sense of safety, the decision to speed up the project, the change of operator to facilitate this outcome and performance management that encourages getting around the usual barriers. The superficial accident analysis conducted by the company that ignored human and organizational factors reinforces the traditional safety culture and favors the occurrence of new accidents.

  9. Water-reuse risk assessment program (WRAP: a refinery case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dian Kurnia Sari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The key approach to manage and prevent potential hazards arising from specific contaminants in water networks is to consider water as the main product delivered. This new concept, addressed as water-reuse risk assessment program (WRAP, has been further developed from hazard analysis of critical control points (HACCP to illustrate the potential hazards which are the roots of hindering intra-facility water reuse strategies. For industrial sectors applying water reclamation and reuse schemes, it is paramount that the reclaimed water quality stays within the desired quality. The objective of WRAP is to establish a new methodology and knowledge, which will contribute to the sustainable development of industrial water management, and demonstrate its capabilities in identifying and addressing any potential hazards in the selected schemes adoption by the industries. A ‘what-if’ scenario was simulated using a refinery as a case study to show strategies on how to benefit reclaimed or reuse water based on reliable, applied and scientific research within the process integration area. In conclusion, the WRAP model will facilitate operators, consultants and decision makers to reuse water on a fit-for-use basis whilst avoiding contaminant accumulation in the overall system and production of sub-quality products from inadequate processes after several reuses.

  10. Gasification of refinery sludge in an updraft reactor for syngas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Reem; Eldmerdash, Usama; Sinnathambi, Chandra M.

    2014-01-01

    The study probes into the investigation on gasification of dry refinery sludge. The details of the study includes; influence of operation time, oxidation temperature and equivalence ratios on carbon gas conversion rate, gasification efficiency, heating value and fuel gas yield are presented. The results show that, the oxidation temperature increased sharply up to 858°C as the operating time increased up to 36 min then bridging occurred at 39 min which cause drop in reaction temperature up to 819 °C. This bridging was found to affect also the syngas compositions, meanwhile as the temperature decreased the CO, H 2 , CH 4 compositions are also found to be decreases. Higher temperature catalyzed the reduction reaction (CO 2 +C = 450 2CO), and accelerated the carbon conversion and gasification efficiencies, resulted in more solid fuel is converted to a high heating value gas fuel. The equivalence ratio of 0.195 was found to be the optimum value for carbon conversion and cold gas efficiencies, high heating value of gas, and fuel gas yield to reach their maximum values of 96.1 % and 53.7 %, 5.42 MJ Nm −3 of, and 2.5 Nm 3 kg −1 respectively

  11. Identification of the cause of weak acute toxicity to rainbow trout at a petroleum refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, W.R.; Zaleski, R.T.; Biddinger, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    The refinery in question performs flow through acute toxicity tests on its effluent four times per month using three fish species: fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus oculeatus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Several months of monitoring data indicated a transient low level acute toxicity to rainbow trout. In most cases, several days were required for mortality to occur in the flow through tests and numerous attempts to reproduce toxicity in static and static renewal tests were unsuccessful. A decision was made to manipulate the effluent in an attempt to enhance the toxic effect in the static mode so that conventional methods could be used to identify the cause. these tests indicated that toxicity was pH dependent. Additional testing, using EPA's Phase 1 Toxicity Identification Evaluation methods suggested that the cause of toxicity was probably an organic acid. Experiments were subsequently begun to identify the specific cause and source of toxicity. This paper reviews the problems confronted during the various phases of the study and the decisions that were made that eventually led to an understanding of the basis of toxicity

  12. Mineralisation of target hydrocarbons in three contaminated soils from former refinery facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towell, Marcie G; Bellarby, Jessica; Paton, Graeme I; Coulon, Frédéric; Pollard, Simon J T; Semple, Kirk T

    2011-02-01

    This study investigated the microbial degradation of (14)C-labelled hexadecane, octacosane, phenanthrene and pyrene and considered how degradation might be optimised in three genuinely hydrocarbon-contaminated soils from former petroleum refinery sites. Hydrocarbon mineralisation by the indigenous microbial community was monitored over 23 d. Hydrocarbon mineralisation enhancement by nutrient amendment (biostimulation), hydrocarbon degrader addition (bioaugmentation) and combined nutrient and degrader amendment, was also explored. The ability of indigenous soil microflora to mineralise (14)C-target hydrocarbons was appreciable; ≥ 16% mineralised in all soils. Generally, addition of nutrients or degraders increased the rates and extents of mineralisation of (14)C-hydrocarbons. However, the addition of nutrients and degraders in combination had a negative effect upon (14)C-octacosane mineralisation and resulted in lower extents of mineralisation in the three soils. In general, the rates and extents of mineralisation will be dependent upon treatment type, nature of the contamination and adaptation of the ingenious microbial community. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Result of design and test operation of a coal boiler at Hyogo Refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, Yasuhiko; Sato, Noriyuki

    1987-05-01

    This boiler is the first coal boiler for the oil refineries in Japan (Installed in Oct., 1986 at Idemitsu Petrochemical Co.) Causes for using coal as a fuel are a conversion to less expensive fuel and offering a technical service to the users of coal through the combustion of coal and learning of a handling technique. The type of boiler is Babcock single barrel radiant type and has 150 t/d capacity with single fuel combustion of coal. Auxiliary equipments are a pulverizer, a transportation and storage unit, a denitration unit, a dust collector, a desulfurization unit, and an ash disposal unit. Main considerations in the design are measures for the security of finely pulverized coal, clogging prevention for coal and ash. A test operation revealed 7 % of combustible loss and 160 - 250 ppm of NOx content at a charge inlet of denitration unit. Actual operation exhibited no clogging at the denitration unit of troubles due to scaling. Design for raw materials is to blend 4 imported coals (from Australia and Canada, etc) and 3 Japanese ones. (7 figs, 2 tabs)

  14. Lead isotopes in soils near five historic American lead smelters and refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabinowitz, Michael B.

    2005-01-01

    This survey of soil lead in the vicinity of old industrial sites examines how the stable isotope patterns vary among the sites according to the sources of the lead ore processed at each site. Lead smelters and refineries, which closed down decades ago, are the basis of this investigation. Samples were taken from near five old factory sites in Collinsville and Alton (Illinois), Ponderay (Idaho), East Chicago (Indiana) and Omaha (Nebraska). Historical records were searched for accounts of the sources of the lead. Lead concentrations were measured by atomic absorption flame spectrophotometry, and stable isotopic analysis was done by plasma ionization mass spectrometry. At every site visited, remnants of the old factories, in terms of soil lead pollution, could be found. In spite of potential complications of varying smelter feedstock sourced from mines of different geological age, it was possible to match the isotopic patterns in the soils with the documented sources of the ores. The Collinsville and Alton sites resembled Missouri lead. The Ponderay value was higher than major Bunker Hill, Idaho deposits, but closer to the minor, nearby Oreille County, Washington ores. Mostly Utah ore was used in East Chicago. The Omaha soil reflects lead from Mexico, Colorado and Montana

  15. Treating refinery wastewaters in microbial fuel cells using separator electrode assembly or spaced electrode configurations

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Fang

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of refinery wastewater (RW) treatment using air-cathode, microbial fuel cells (MFCs) was examined relative to previous tests based on completely anaerobic microbial electrolysis cells (MECs). MFCs were configured with separator electrode assembly (SEA) or spaced electrode (SPA) configurations to measure power production and relative impacts of oxygen crossover on organics removal. The SEA configuration produced a higher maximum power density (280±6mW/m2; 16.3±0.4W/m3) than the SPA arrangement (255±2mW/m2) due to lower internal resistance. Power production in both configurations was lower than that obtained with the domestic wastewater (positive control) due to less favorable (more positive) anode potentials, indicating poorer biodegradability of the RW. MFCs with RW achieved up to 84% total COD removal, 73% soluble COD removal and 92% HBOD removal. These removals were higher than those previously obtained in mini-MEC tests, as oxygen crossover from the cathode enhanced degradation in MFCs compared to MECs. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Remessas de recursos dos imigrantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Braga Martes

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available AS REMESSAS contribuem para o desenvolvimento local e para redução da pobreza? Essa é a pergunta-chave que os estudos recentes sobre migrações internacionais têm levantado. O que se está procurando compreender é de que modo as remessas poderiam afetar positiva ou negativamente a economia dos países de origem dos imigrantes. Discutir o papel e o significado das remessas implica, assim, uma discussão em torno da existência (ou não de um "campo de positividades" do fenômeno migratório internacional. O principal objetivo deste artigo é contribuir para essa discussão por meio de um estudo empírico do caso brasileiro que adota as remessas como foco. Para tanto, é identificado o perfil das remessas e dos remetentes, assim como os objetivos e os beneficiários do dinheiro enviado. A pesquisa usa uma abordagem baseada em entrevistas em profundidade e survey não-representativo (Boston e Governador Valadares.DO REMITTANCES contribute to local development and the reduction of poverty? What are the consequences of the dollars sent by the migrants to the people, families, and organizations that receive them in the cities of origin? These are the key questions that recent studies have raised. According to some authors "migration is inevitable and has the potential to be quite positive in terms of development and reduction of poverty. The policies that have their origins in this principle will be more successful than those that attempt to oppose, intransigently, both globalization and the migration of people in space". Do current international migrations produce positive local development effects? The main objective of this article is to contribute to this discussion through an empirical study of the Brazilian case, which takes remittances as its focus. Thus, we identify who the immigrants are who send remittances from the United States to Brazil, to what ends the remittances are directed, who the beneficiaries are, and how the remittances

  17. Control of occupational exposure to phenol in industrial wastewater treatment plant of a petroleum refinery in Alexandria, Egypt: An intervention application case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Gehan R; El-Marakby, Fadia A; Ramadan, Alaa El-Din K; Issa, Ahmed I; Nofal, Faten H

    2016-11-01

    Phenol exposure is one of the hazards in the industrial wastewater treatment basin of any refinery. It additively interacts with hydrogen sulfide emitted from the wastewater basin. Consequently, its concentration should be greatly lower than its threshold limit value. The present study aimed at controlling occupational exposure to phenol in the work environment of wastewater treatment plant in a refinery by reducing phenolic compounds in the industrial wastewater basin. This study was conducted on both laboratory and refinery scales. The first was completed by dividing each wastewater sample from the outlets of different refinery units into three portions; the first was analyzed for phenolic compounds. The second and third were for laboratory scale charcoal and bacterial treatments. The two methods were compared regarding their simplicities, design, and removal efficiencies. Accordingly, bacterial treatment by continuous flow of sewage water containing Pseudomonas Aeruginosa was used for refinery scale treatment. Laboratory scale treatment of phenolic compounds revealed higher removal efficiency of charcoal [100.0(0.0) %] than of bacteria [99.9(0.013) %]. The refinery scale bacterial treatment was [99.8(0.013) %] efficient. Consequently, level of phenol in the work environment after refinery-scale treatment [0.069(0.802) mg/m(3)] was much lower than that before [5.700(26.050) mg/m(3)], with removal efficiency of [99.125(2.335) %]. From the present study, we can conclude that bacterial treatment of phenolic compounds in industrial wastewater of the wastewater treatment plant using continuous flow of sewage water containing Pseudomonas Aeruginosa reduces the workers' exposure to phenol.

  18. Os Fungos no Funcionamento dos Ecossistemas Florestais

    OpenAIRE

    Santos-Silva, Celeste; Machado, Helena

    2011-01-01

    Os fungos no funcionamento dos ecossistemas Florestais: Papel dos fungos sapróbios na degradação da matériaorgânica Papel dos fungos micorrízicos na nutrição e saúde das árvores Diversidade fúngica e estabilidade das florestas Relações entre os fungos e os animais Doenças radiculares associadas ao declínio do montado de sobro e azinho

  19. Das bruxas, dos índios, dos negros e dos jovens da Febem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Leser de Mello

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo visa discutir os temas Pesquisa e Direitos Humanos, partindo da definição do que pretende a Ciência, suas limitações e momentos seus a serviço de condenações de bruxas e ateus. Trata-se de levantar a questão da 'parcialidade' da Ciência e das formas de exclusão que ela ajudou a gerar e manter face aos criminosos, aos loucos, aos negros e, sem dúvida, aos jovens das camadas populares que são institucionalizados na FEBEM. E, na tentativa de resistência a se deixar levar pelo que de nefasto existe na mercantilização da Ciência hoje, buscar radicalizar a exigência de defesa dos Direitos Humanos.

  20. Evaluating the performance of an integrated CALPUFF-MM5 modeling system for predicting SO{sub 2} emission from a refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdul-Wahab, Sabah Ahmed [Sultan Qaboos University, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, College of Engineering, Muscat (Oman); Ali, Sappurd [National Engineering and Scientific Commission (NESCOM), Islamabad (Pakistan); Sardar, Sabir; Irfan, Naseem [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), Islamabad (Pakistan); Al-Damkhi, Ali [Public Authority for Applied Education and Training (PAAET), Department of Environmental Sciences College of Health Sciences, Salmiyah (Kuwait)

    2011-12-15

    Oil refineries are one of the proven sources of environmental pollution as they emit more than 100 chemicals into the atmosphere including sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}). The dispersion patterns of SO{sub 2} from emissions of Sohar refinery was simulated by employing California Puff (CALPUFF) model integrated with state of the art meteorological Mesoscale Model (MM5). The results of this simulation were used to quantify the ground level concentrations of SO{sub 2} in and around the refinery. The evaluation of the CALPUFF and MM5 modeling system was carried out by comparing the estimated results with that of observed data of the same area. The predicted concentrations of SO{sub 2} agreed well with the observed data, with minor differences in magnitudes. In addition, the ambient air quality of the area was checked by comparing the model results with the regulatory limits for SO{sub 2} set by the Ministry of Environment and Climate Affairs (MECA) in Oman. From the analysis of results, it was found that the concentration of SO{sub 2} in the nearby communities of Sohar refinery is well within the regulatory limits specified by MECA. Based on these results, it was concluded that no health risk, due to SO{sub 2} emissions, is present in areas adjacent to the refinery. (orig.)

  1. A Study on the Preparation of Regular Multiple Micro-Electrolysis Filler and the Application in Pretreatment of Oil Refinery Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruihong Yang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Through a variety of material screening experiments, Al was selected as the added metal and constituted a multiple micro-electrolysis system of Fe/C/Al. The metal proportion of alloy-structured filler was also analyzed with the best Fe/C/Al ratio of 3:1:1. The regular Fe/C/Al multiple micro-electrolysis fillers were prepared using a high-temperature anaerobic roasting method. The optimum conditions for oil refinery wastewater treated by Fe/C/Al multiple micro-electrolysis were determined to be an initial pH value of 3, reaction time of 80 min, and 0.05 mol/L Na2SO4 additive concentration. The reaction mechanism of the treatment of oil refinery wastewater by Fe/C/Al micro-electrolysis was investigated. The process of the treatment of oil refinery wastewater with multiple micro-electrolysis conforms to the third-order reaction kinetics. The gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS used to analyze the organic compounds of the oil refinery wastewater before and after treatment and the Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (UV–VIS absorption spectrum analyzed the degradation process of organic compounds in oil refinery wastewater. The treatment effect of Fe/C/Al multiple micro-electrolysis was examined in the continuous experiment under the optimum conditions, which showed high organic compound removal and stable treatment efficiency.

  2. A Study on the Preparation of Regular Multiple Micro-Electrolysis Filler and the Application in Pretreatment of Oil Refinery Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruihong; Zhu, Jianzhong; Li, Yingliu; Zhang, Hui

    2016-04-29

    Through a variety of material screening experiments, Al was selected as the added metal and constituted a multiple micro-electrolysis system of Fe/C/Al. The metal proportion of alloy-structured filler was also analyzed with the best Fe/C/Al ratio of 3:1:1. The regular Fe/C/Al multiple micro-electrolysis fillers were prepared using a high-temperature anaerobic roasting method. The optimum conditions for oil refinery wastewater treated by Fe/C/Al multiple micro-electrolysis were determined to be an initial pH value of 3, reaction time of 80 min, and 0.05 mol/L Na₂SO₄ additive concentration. The reaction mechanism of the treatment of oil refinery wastewater by Fe/C/Al micro-electrolysis was investigated. The process of the treatment of oil refinery wastewater with multiple micro-electrolysis conforms to the third-order reaction kinetics. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) used to analyze the organic compounds of the oil refinery wastewater before and after treatment and the Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS) absorption spectrum analyzed the degradation process of organic compounds in oil refinery wastewater. The treatment effect of Fe/C/Al multiple micro-electrolysis was examined in the continuous experiment under the optimum conditions, which showed high organic compound removal and stable treatment efficiency.

  3. Concern About Petrochemical Health Risk Before and After a Refinery Explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutchin, Malcolm P.; Martin, Kathryn Remmes; Owen, Steven V.; Goodwin, James S.

    2014-01-01

    On March 23, 2005, a large explosion at an oil refinery in Texas City, Texas caused 15 deaths and approximately 170 injuries. Little is known about how such an industrial accident influences concern about environmental health risks. We used measures of environmental health concern about nearby petrochemical production with a sample of Texas City residents to understand patterns of concern and change in concern after an industrial accident, as well as individual and contextual factors associated with those patterns. Survey interviews with residents of Texas City, Texas (N =315) both pre- and postexplosion using a brief Concern About Petrochemical Health Risk Scale (CAPHRS) and other questions were used to collect pertinent predictor information. CAPHRS baseline, postexplosion, and change scores were compared and modeled using ordinary least squares (OLS) regression and a mixed model. Higher preexplosion CAPHRS scores were predicted by younger adults, foreign-born Hispanics, non-Hispanic blacks, lower- and middle-income groups, and those who live with someone who has worked at the petrochemical plants. Higher CAPHRS change scores are predicted by the same variables (except income), as well as proximity to, or perception of, the explosion, and reports of neighborhood damage. Findings suggest these groups’ concern scores could indicate a greater vulnerability to psychological and physical harm generated by concern and stress arising from local petrochemical activities. A clearer understanding of concern about actual environmental health risks in exposed populations may enhance the evolving theory of stress and coping and eventually enable public health professionals to develop appropriate mitigation strategies. PMID:18643817

  4. Investigating an effective supply chain for a refinery in a regulated petroleum sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Adendorf

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, refined petroleum products are manufactured by six refineries in South Africa. The supply of refined petroleum products is supplemented by imports of refined petroleum products. These refined petroleum products are transported by pipeline, rail, road, sea and a combination thereof to depots across the country. These products are then distributed directly to commercial customers through points of resale in the form of retail service stations. The challenge is that the storage facilities and distribution networks in South Africa are currently utilised to its full capacity. There is a need to expand current storage infrastructure or to erect new storage facilities to facilitate imports. Durban Port that currently handles 70% of the country’s crude oil and 40% of refined products is also utilised to its full capacity. The investigated problem pertains to the limited storage and transport capacity available for the distribution of petroleum products in the country. The interview protocol, which was based on the literature reviewed, was used for compiling the primary data for the case study. Selected findings revealed that the respondents perceived that storage capacity is the most significant constraint militating against adequate supply by the supply chain. The findings also indicated that the respondents were of the opinion that transport rates and routes (cost of logistics are the greatest contributor to the prices of products. As a result, there appears to be a major scope for improvement in terms of the usage of pipelines and rails for the movement of petroleum products. Keywords: Petroleum products, storage facilities, supply chain, transportation, South African energy sector. Disciplines: civil engineering, architecture, business studies, energy studies

  5. Determination of hydrogen content of petroleum products from Tema Oil Refinery using neutron backscatter technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salifu, A. S.

    2015-01-01

    The hydrogen content of hydrocarbon materials is very important in several areas of industrial process such as mining, vegetable oil extraction and crude oil exploration and refining. A fast and more universal technique based on thermal neutron reflection was employed to determine the total hydrogen contents of petroleum samples from Tema Oil Refinery (TOR) and Crude oil samples from Jubilee field and Nigeria. The experimental set-up consisted of a source-holder housing a 1Ci Am-Be neutron source and a He-3 neutron detector. Two geometrical arrangements were considered and their sensitivities were compared. The set-up was used to measure the excess neutron count in both geometrical considerations and their reflection parameters were calculated as a function of hydrogen content of the samples. Calibration lines were deduced using liquid hydrocarbons containing well-known hydrogen and carbon contents as standards. Two linear equations were generated from the calibration lines and were used to further determine the hydrogen content of thirteen (13) petroleum samples obtained from Quality Control Department of TOR. The total hydrogen contents were found to be in the range of 7.211(hw %) - 15.069 (hw %) for vertical geometry and 7.206 (hw %) - 14.948 (hw %) for horizontal geometry respectively. The results obtained agreed constructively with other results obtained using different methodologies by other studies. The percentage error of the hydrogen contents denoted by (% E) for the various petroleum samples were also obtained and noticed to be within an acceptable range. The neutron backscatter technique was observed as an alternative and more generalized method for quality assurance and standardization in the petroleum industries

  6. A retrospective analysis of nickel exposure data at a South African base metal refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Monica M; Van Der Merwe, Cornelius J; Linde, Stefan J L; Du Plessis, Johan L

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to analyze historical soluble nickel exposure data from a South African base metal refinery and to identify trends in the soluble nickel exposure from 1981 until 2014 in the electrowinning department. Exposure data were presented in an exposure matrix, which described exposure profiles for both area and personal exposures inside two tankhouses. Exposure data were standardized by converting total nickel aerosol concentrations to inhalable nickel concentrations (correction factor 3.0). One-way analyses of variances (ANOVA) were conducted to identify significant differences in log-transformed area and personal exposures from 1982 until 2014, and the trends were assessed with linear regression. Differences were evaluated in area exposure between sections inside the tankhouses, i.e., East, West, and Center bays and in personal exposure between occupations, i.e., cell workers, crane drivers, and supervisors. Area exposure in Tankhouse 1 declined significantly (p ≤ 0.0001) between 1982 and 1986 with a factor of 29. However, after 1986 no significant downward trend in area exposure was evident in Tankhouse 1. Personal exposures in Tankhouse 1 significantly (p ≤ 0.0001) decreased with a factor of three between 1991 and 2014. No significant trends were evident in area and personal exposure in Tankhouse 2. Downward exposure trends were evident in Tankhouse 1 and may be ascribed to the implementation of various control measures and process changes, e.g., increasing polypropylene bead load. Limited data were available for Tankhouse 2, therefore, no trend in exposure could be established. Retrospective analyses may be used to identify trends and anomalies in exposure which might not have been identified during daily exposure monitoring.

  7. Environmental radioactivity on Suape (PE) estuary: impact of the installation of an oil refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, Paula Frassinetti Pereira; Antonio Filho, Joao; Silva, Cleomacio Miguel da

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays there is a growing interest in the study of natural radioactivity levels, mainly of radionuclides; 238 U, 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K, and 210 Pb present in the environment. The environmental radioactivity control is very important to obtain information on exposure of humans and vegetables to potential sources on natural radioactive occurrences. Industrial processes involving mining and extraction and production of oil foster concentration of radionuclides, contributing to the occurrence of what is known as 'TENORM' - Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material. This work aims to assess the environmental radiological impact on the estuarine area of the Industrial Park of SUAPE, due the installation of an oil refinery and the consequent introduction on the environment of natural radioactive materials from other regions in that area. The radioisotopes 238 U, 226 Ra, 232 Th , 40 K and 210 Pb were determined in these samples per gamma spectrometry, except for 210 Pb, which was determined by the Ionic Resin Exchange method. Concentrations of 238 U, 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in the soil samples vary from 5.57 to 16.78, 3.89 to 11.75, 1.43 to 14.33 and from -1 , respectively. For those same elements in the sediments sample, the concentrations vary from 21.70 to 48.49, 9.97 to 15.35, 9.55 to 18.88 and from 54.61 to 291.47 Bq.kg -1 , respectively. Concentrations of 210 Pb in the soil and sediments samples vary from 25.89 to 58.88 and from 14.38 to 191.08 Bq.kg -1 . The preliminary studies show that the concentration of radionuclides in the environment is normal for the patterns of the area. (author)

  8. Evaluation of an activated carbon packed bed for the adsorption of phenols from petroleum refinery wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Naas, Muftah H; Alhaija, Manal A; Al-Zuhair, Sulaiman

    2017-03-01

    The performance of an adsorption column packed with granular activated carbon was evaluated for the removal of phenols from refinery wastewater. The effects of phenol feed concentration (80-182 mg/l), feed flow rate (5-20 ml/min), and activated carbon packing mass (5-15 g) on the breakthrough characteristics of the adsorption system were determined. The continuous adsorption process was simulated using batch data and the parameters for a new empirical model were determined. Different dynamic models such as Adams-Bohart, Wolborsko, Thomas, and Yoon-Nelson models were also fitted to the experimental data for the sake of comparison. The empirical, Yoon-Nelson and Thomas models showed a high degree of fitting at different operation conditions, with the empirical model giving the best fit based on the Akaike information criterion (AIC). At an initial phenol concentration of 175 mg/l, packing mass of 10 g, a flow rate of 10 ml/min and a temperature of 25 °C, the SSE of the new empirical and Thomas models were identical (248.35) and very close to that of the Yoon-Nelson model (259.49). The values were significantly lower than that of the Adams-Bohart model, which was determined to be 19,358.48. The superiority of the new empirical model and the Thomas model was also confirmed from the values of the R 2 and AIC, which were 0.99 and 38.3, respectively, compared to 0.92 and 86.2 for Adams-Bohart model.

  9. Mapping of Biomass Fluxes: A Method for Optimizing Biogas-Refinery of Livestock Effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Nardin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the topic of the management of livestock effluents and, therefore, nutrients (particularly N in the framework of the biogas supply chain. The bio-refinery will be analyzed as a unique system, from the farm to the biomass produced and sent to anaerobic digestion, focusing on the fate/change of the flow of material and nutrients content through the system. Within four categories of farms considered in the article, integrated ones frequently have a breeding consistency from 90 to 320 heads, according to more extensive or intensive settings. These farms must manage from 3.62 to 12.81 m3 day−1 of slurry and from 11.40 to 40.34 kg day−1 of nitrogen (N as the sum of excreta from all herd categories. By selecting a hypo-protein diet, a reduction of 10% and 24% for total effluent amount and for N excreted, respectively, can be achieved. Nitrogen can be reduced up to 45% if the crude protein content is limited and a further 0.23% if animals of similar ages, weights and (or production or management are grouped and fed according to specific requirements. Integrated farms can implement farming activity with biogas production, possibly adding agricultural residues to the anaerobically-digested biomass. Average biogas yields for cattle effluents range from 200 to 400 m3 ton−1 VS (volatile solids. Values from 320 to 672 m3 day−1 of biogas can be produced, obtaining average values from 26 to 54.5 kWe (kilowatt-electric. This type of farm can well balance farm-production profit, environmental protection, animal husbandry well-being and energy self-sufficiency.

  10. Oil spill prevention: Regulatory trends and compliance at existing storage terminals and refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janisz, A.J.

    1993-01-01

    In 1973, the Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) regulations were promulgated. The objective of the regulations was to prevent oil spills. However, in the late 1980s and early 1990s, several catastrophic spills of oils led to review of oil spill prevention regulations by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the US Coast Guard, and the Department of the Interior's Minerals Management Service. The reviews led to promulgation of various acts and regulations including the proposed revisions to the SPCC regulations, the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA-90), and others. Numerous facilities within the petroleum and chemical industry were or will be affected by these regulations. This paper discusses regulatory trends for spill planning and prevention in general, but principally concentrates on above ground storage tanks at facilities storing or refining petroleum products. The paper includes discussions of bills on above ground storage tanks and proposed national standards, as well as regulatory trends in various states. Proposed SPCC regulations and their effects on the industry are also discussed, including requirements for impermeable surfaces and increasing secondary containment capacity. Management strategies to review facility operations and prepare for upgrades are outlined. The paper discusses the types of upgrades typically necessary at existing storage terminals and refineries and discusses information necessary to prepare conceptual designs and cost estimates. Cost estimates for typical upgrades, such as raising earthen berms and installing isolation valves, are presented. Facilities in the state of New Jersey are used as examples, because regulations in New Jersey are similar to the proposed federal regulations

  11. All cause mortality and incidence of cancer in workers in bauxite mines and alumina refineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritschi, Lin; Hoving, Jan Lucas; Sim, Malcolm R; Del Monaco, Anthony; MacFarlane, Ewan; McKenzie, Dean; Benke, Geza; de Klerk, Nicholas

    2008-08-15

    Bauxite is a reddish clay that is refined to produce alumina, which is then reduced to aluminium. There have been studies examining the health of workers in aluminium smelters, but not workers in bauxite mining and alumina refining. A cohort of employees of 1 large aluminium company since 1983 was assembled (n = 6,485, 5,828 men). Deaths and incident cancers to 2002 were ascertained by linkage to national and state cancer and death registries. SIRs and SMRs were calculated compared to national rates standardizing for calendar year, sex and 5-year age group. The mortality from all causes (SMR 0.68, 95% CI: 0.60-0.77), and from circulatory and respiratory diseases, all cancers combined and injury in the male cohort were lower than in the Australian male population and were similar across work groups and with duration of employment. The only significant increased mortality risk was from pleural mesothelioma. The incidence of all cancers combined was similar to the Australian rate. The cohort had a lower risk of incident lymphohaematopoietic cancer (SIR 0.50, 95% CI: 0.31-0.88) and a higher risk of melanoma (SIR 1.30, 95% CI: 1.00-1.69) although no dose-responses were seen. There was also an increased risk of mesothelioma (SIR 3.49, 95% CI: 1.82-6.71), which was associated with exposures outside the aluminium industry. This study is the first to examine cancer and mortality amongst workers in bauxite mines and alumina refineries and found little evidence for increased cancer incidence or mortality in these workers. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Dos generaciones de nativos digitales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Linne

    Full Text Available A partir de encuestas, entrevistas y observaciones en la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, afirmamos que existen dos generaciones de nativos digitales (ND: los jóvenes 1.0 y los adolescentes 2.0. Si bien ambas comparten características comunes, los 2.0 poseen rasgos propios: son una generación post-mail, suelen haberse criado alrededor de entornos digitales y manifiestan de modo online sus aspectos íntimos. Estos contenidos personales, que comparten con su grupo de pares a través de sitios de redes sociales, expresan una nueva concepción de la intimidad que podemos denominar "multimidad". A su vez, dividimos a los ND 2.0 según su nivel de alfabetización digital, condicionado por su entorno tecnológico, su capital cultural y su uso de las TIC, con el objetivo de brindar herramientas analíticas que contribuyan a mejorar las políticas públicas de inclusión digital.

  13. Health risk characterization for exposure to benzene in service stations and petroleum refineries environments using human adverse response data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edokpolo, Benjamin; Yu, Qiming Jimmy; Connell, Des

    2015-01-01

    Health risk characterization of exposure to benzene in service stations and petroleum refineries has been carried out in previous studies using guideline values set by various agencies. In this work, health risk was characterized with the exposure data as cumulative probability distribution (CPD) plots but using human epidemiological data. This was achieved by using lowest observable adverse effects levels (LOAEL) data plotted as cumulative probability lowest effects distribution (CPLED). The health risk due to benzene was characterized by using probabilistic methods of hazard quotient (HQ 50/50 and HQ 95/5 ), Monte-Carlo simulation (MCS) and overall risk probability (ORP). CPD relationships of adverse health effects relationships and exposure data were in terms of average daily dose (ADD) and lifetime average daily dose (LADD) for benzene. For service station environments HQ 50/50 and HQ 95/5 were in a range of 0.000071-0.055 and 0.0049-21, respectively. On the other hand, the risk estimated for petroleum refinery environments suggests higher risk with HQ 50/50 and HQ 95/5 values ranging from 0.0012 to 77 and 0.17 to 560, respectively. The results of Monte-Carlo risk probability (MRP) and ORP indicated that workers in petroleum refineries (MRP of 2.9-56% and ORP of 4.6-52% of the affected population) were at a higher risk of adverse health effects from exposure to benzene as compared to exposure to benzene in service station environments (MRP of 0.051 -3.4% and ORP of 0.35-2.7% affected population). The adverse effect risk probabilities estimated by using the Monte-Carlo simulation technique and the ORP method were found to be generally consistent.

  14. Economic impacts of oil spills: Spill unit costs for tankers, pipelines, refineries, and offshore facilities. [Task 1, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-15

    The impacts of oil spills -- ranging from the large, widely publicized Exxon Valdez tanker incident to smaller pipeline and refinery spills -- have been costly to both the oil industry and the public. For example, the estimated costs to Exxon of the Valdez tanker spill are on the order of $4 billion, including $2.8 billion (in 1993 dollars) for direct cleanup costs and $1.125 billion (in 1992 dollars) for settlement of damages claims caused by the spill. Application of contingent valuation costs and civil lawsuits pending in the State of Alaska could raise these costs appreciably. Even the costs of the much smaller 1991 oil spill at Texaco`s refinery near Anacortes, Washington led to costs of $8 to 9 million. As a result, inexpensive waming, response and remediation technologies could lower oil spin costs, helping both the oil industry, the associated marine industries, and the environment. One means for reducing the impact and costs of oil spills is to undertake research and development on key aspects of the oil spill prevention, warming, and response and remediation systems. To target these funds to their best use, it is important to have sound data on the nature and size of spills, their likely occurrence and their unit costs. This information could then allow scarce R&D dollars to be spent on areas and activities having the largest impact. This report is intended to provide the ``unit cost`` portion of this crucial information. The report examines the three key components of the US oil supply system, namely, tankers and barges; pipelines and refineries; and offshore production facilities. The specific purpose of the study was to establish the unit costs of oil spills. By manipulating this key information into a larger matrix that includes the size and frequency of occurrence of oil spills, it will be possible` to estimate the likely future impacts, costs, and sources of oil spills.

  15. Fuzzy-based Prioritization of Health, Safety, and Environmental Risks: The Case of a Large Gas Refinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auob Mirsaeidi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to develop a fuzzy–based framework for the prioritization of health, safety and environment related risks posed against employees, working conditions, and process equipment in large gas refineries. The First Refinery at Pars Special Economic Energy Zone in South of Iran was taken as a case study. For this purpose, health, safety and environment related risks were determined based on the three criteria of impact severity, occurrence probability, and detect-ability using a questionnaire of 33 identified failures. The values obtained were processed by a so-called ‘contribution coefficient’. The results were then subjected to fuzzification and fuzzy rules were defined to calculate the risk level indices as the model outputs, which was then employed to facilitate the management decision-making process by prioritizing the management options. The prioritization values were then classified in six categories in the order of risk severity. Results revealed that failure in a combustion furnace had the highest rank while failure in the slug catcher ranked the lowest among the risk sources. It was also found that about 0.4% of the identified risks prioritized as “intolerable”, 79% as “major”, 20% as “tolerable”, and 0.7% as “minor”. Thus, most of the risks (more than 79% associated with the refinery has the potential of significant risks. The results indicated that the risk of the pollutant emissions from the combustion furnaces is the highest. Exposures to harmful physical, chemical, psychological, and ergonomic substances are the other risks, respectively.

  16. Isolation and Identification of Carcinogen Acenaphthene-Degrading Endemic Bacteria from Crude Oil Contaminated Soils around Abadan Refinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshid Kafilzadeh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: PAHs are non-polar organic compounds consisting of two or more fused benzene multi-rings. Among these compounds, acenaphthene is a multi-ring hydrocarbon that occurs abundantly in nature. Use of microorganisms to clean the contaminations of soil can be cheap and effective. The most important acenaphthene-degrading bacteria are pseudomonas, micrococcus, and Bacillus. The goal of this study was to isolate and identify the bacteria which degrade acenaphthene in soils around Abadan Refinery and to investigate the relation between the levels of environmental pollution with acenaphthene. Materials and Methods: Soil samples were collected from three areas around Abadan Refinery. The number of the bacteria was counted on the nutrient agar culture with and without acenaphthene. Isolation of the bacteria was done by culturing the samples on acenaphthene broth with a mineral-salt medium, and on an acenaphthene agar medium. Then, the bacteria were identified via biochemical diagnostic tests. Results: The logarithm average of the bacteria was 4.786 ± 0.073 at a medium with acenaphthene, which was 6.671 ± 0.073 less than that of the control medium. The maximum number of degrading bacteria was 7.089 ± 0.089 at Station C, and the minimum number of the degrading bacteria was 4.485 ± 0.089 at Station B. In this study, Bacillus sp, Micrococcus Luteus, Corynebacterium sp, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Pseudomonas sp bacteria were isolated and identified in terms of frequency, respectively. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the soil around Abadan Refinery contained a great number of acenaphthene degrading bacteria, especially Bacillus and Micrococcus.

  17. The bioremediation, solution at the land´s pollution caused by hydrocarbon in Sergio Soto oil Refinery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Blanco Valdivia

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The land´s polution caused by hydrocarbon in Sergio Soto oil refinery constituted a problem for the technicians of this entity that in coordination with the Petroleum Investigations Center (CEINPET, carried out a study for the application of the bioremediation in the company. The area to this purpose was determined and the soil impacted was deposit on it, this soil was homogenized with an appropriate equipment (agricultural tractor. The fertilizers were added and the removal stage was made in order to help the soil oxygenation. They were carried out samples and analysis obtaining satisfactory results with the application of the bioremediation in the company.

  18. Gamma-ray scanning for troubleshooting and optimisation of distillation columns in petroleum refineries and chemical plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaafar Abdullah

    2001-01-01

    The technique and facilities for gamma-ray scanning have been developed by the Plant Assessment Technology (PAT) Group at the Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT). The technology has been successfully used for on-line troubleshooting and investigation of various types of distillation columns in petroleum refineries, gas processing installations and chemical plants in the country and the region. This paper outlines the basic principle of the technology and describes the inspection procedures, and in addition, a few case studies are presented. (Author)

  19. Zn isotope study of atmospheric emissions and dry depositions within a 5 km radius of a Pb-Zn refinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattielli, Nadine; Petit, Jérôme C. J.; Deboudt, Karine; Flament, Pascal; Perdrix, Esperanza; Taillez, Aurélien; Rimetz-Planchon, Juliette; Weis, Dominique

    The present paper examines the use of zinc isotopes as tracers of atmospheric sources and focuses on the potential fractionation of Zn isotopes through anthropogenic processes. In order to do so, Zn isotopic ratios are measured in enriched ores and airborne particles associated with pyrometallurgical activities of one of the major Pb-Zn refineries in France. Supporting the isotopic investigation, this paper also compares morphological and chemical characteristics of Zn particles collected on dry deposition plates ("environmental samples") placed within a 5 km radius of the smelter, with those of Zn particles collected inside the plant ("process samples"), i.e. dust collected from the main exhaust system of the plant. To ensure a constant isotopic "supply", the refinery processed a specific set of ores during the sampling campaigns, as agreed with the executive staff of the plant. Enriched ores and dust produced by the successive Zn extraction steps show strong isotope fractionation (from -0.66 to +0.22‰) mainly related to evaporation processes within the blast furnaces. Dust from the main chimney displays a δ 66Zn value of -0.67‰. Application of the Rayleigh equation to evaluate the fractionation factor associated with the Zn vapor produced after a free evaporation gives a range of αore/vapor from 1.0004 to 1.0008. The dry deposits, collected on plates downwind of the refinery, display δ 66Zn variations of up to +0.7‰. However, it is to be noted that between 190 and 1250 m from the main chimney of the refinery, the dry deposits show a high level of large (>10 μm) Zn, S, Fe and O bearing aggregates characterized by positive δ 66Zn values (+0.02 to +0.19‰). These airborne particles probably derive from the re-suspension of slag heaps and local emissions from the working-units. In contrast, from 1720 to 4560 m, the dry deposits are comprised of small (PM10) particles, including spherical Zn-bearing aggregates, showing negative δ 66Zn values (-0.52 to -0

  20. Ecological studies on algae isolated from the effluents of an oil refinery, a fertilizer factory and a brewery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, H D [Banarus Hindu Univ.; Bisaria, G P; Bhandari, L M; Rana, B C; Sharma, V

    1974-07-01

    Tha algal flora and physico-chemical characteristics of the effluents of the Indian Oil Refinery, Barauni; the Sindri Fertilizer Factory, Sindri; and the Mohan Meakin Brewery, Ghaziabad were studied. The studies indicate that algae can tolerate and grow in highly polluted waters. The blue-green algae, flagellates and euglenoids are mostly associated with organically rich effluents, low in dissolved oxygen, whereas waters rich in nitrogenous compounds favor the growth of green algae, e.g., Chlorella. A combination of algal and chemical characteristics may be successfully employed to evaluate the water quality of a given habitat.