WorldWideScience

Sample records for refinement protocol combining

  1. Combining Techniques to Refine Item to Skills Q-Matrices with a Partition Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmarais, Michel C.; Xu, Peng; Beheshti, Behzad

    2015-01-01

    The problem of mapping items to skills is gaining interest with the emergence of recent techniques that can use data for both defining this mapping, and for refining mappings given by experts. We investigate the problem of refining mapping from an expert by combining the output of different techniques. The combination is based on a partition tree…

  2. IEEE 802.11 Wireless LANs: Performance Analysis and Protocol Refinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatzimisios P.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The IEEE 802.11 protocol is emerging as a widely used standard and has become the most mature technology for wireless local area networks (WLANs. In this paper, we focus on the tuning of the IEEE 802.11 protocol parameters taking into consideration, in addition to throughput efficiency, performance metrics such as the average packet delay, the probability of a packet being discarded when it reaches the maximum retransmission limit, the average time to drop a packet, and the packet interarrival time. We present an analysis, which has been validated by simulation that is based on a Markov chain model commonly used in the literature. We further study the improvement on these performance metrics by employing suitable protocol parameters according to the specific communication needs of the IEEE 802.11 protocol for both basic access and RTS/CTS access schemes. We show that the use of a higher initial contention window size does not considerably degrade performance in small networks and performs significantly better in any other scenario. Moreover, we conclude that the combination of a lower maximum contention window size and a higher retry limit considerably improves performance. Results indicate that the appropriate adjustment of the protocol parameters enhances performance and improves the services that the IEEE 802.11 protocol provides to various communication applications.

  3. Combined analysis of fourteen nuclear genes refines the Ursidae phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagès, Marie; Calvignac, Sébastien; Klein, Catherine; Paris, Mathilde; Hughes, Sandrine; Hänni, Catherine

    2008-04-01

    Despite numerous studies, questions remain about the evolutionary history of Ursidae and additional independent genetic markers were needed to elucidate these ambiguities. For this purpose, we sequenced ten nuclear genes for all the eight extant bear species. By combining these new sequences with those of four other recently published nuclear markers, we provide new insights into the phylogenetic relationships of the Ursidae family members. The hypothesis that the giant panda was the first species to diverge among ursids is definitively confirmed and the precise branching order within the Ursus genus is clarified for the first time. Moreover, our analyses indicate that the American and the Asiatic black bears do not cluster as sister taxa, as had been previously hypothesised. Sun and sloth bears clearly appear as the most basal ursine species but uncertainties about their exact relationships remain. Since our larger dataset did not enable us to clarify this last question, identifying rare genomic changes in bear genomes could be a promising solution for further studies.

  4. Strobloy — The New Combined Grain Refiner and Modifier for Hypoeutectic AlSi Foundry Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondhus, Eivind; Sagstad, Trond

    Hydelko presents a new combination alloy for use in hypoeuctectic aluminium silicon foundry alloys. Strobloy simplifies today's addition practice of grain refiner and modifier by reducing the number of additions from two to one. Strobloy is a combination product between the well-established TiBloy, and strontium. The alloy contains nucleating particles in the form of the mixed boride (Al, Ti)B2, which is beneficial regarding settling and grain refining efficiency. Strontium is present as fast-dissolving AL4Sr particles. Trials carried out indicate that Strobloy shows very good performance compared to separate additions of TiBloy/AlTi5B1 and AlSr master alloy. The grain refining efficiency and modification level is the same or better. This paper displays results collected from tests done with different strontium levels in an A356 alloy. Comparisons to separate additions of TiBloy and AlSr are presented.

  5. Linearly Refined Session Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Baltazar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Session types capture precise protocol structure in concurrent programming, but do not specify properties of the exchanged values beyond their basic type. Refinement types are a form of dependent types that can address this limitation, combining types with logical formulae that may refer to program values and can constrain types using arbitrary predicates. We present a pi calculus with assume and assert operations, typed using a session discipline that incorporates refinement formulae written in a fragment of Multiplicative Linear Logic. Our original combination of session and refinement types, together with the well established benefits of linearity, allows very fine-grained specifications of communication protocols in which refinement formulae are treated as logical resources rather than persistent truths.

  6. Promise of combined hydrothermal/chemical and mechanical refining for pretreatment of woody and herbaceous biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Min; Dien, Bruce S; Singh, Vijay

    2016-01-01

    Production of advanced biofuels from woody and herbaceous feedstocks is moving into commercialization. Biomass needs to be pretreated to overcome the physicochemical properties of biomass that hinder enzyme accessibility, impeding the conversion of the plant cell walls to fermentable sugars. Pretreatment also remains one of the most costly unit operations in the process and among the most critical because it is the source of chemicals that inhibit enzymes and microorganisms and largely determines enzyme loading and sugar yields. Pretreatments are categorized into hydrothermal (aqueous)/chemical, physical, and biological pretreatments, and the mechanistic details of which are briefly outlined in this review. To leverage the synergistic effects of different pretreatment methods, conducting two or more pretreatments consecutively has gained attention. Especially, combining hydrothermal/chemical pretreatment and mechanical refining, a type of physical pretreatment, has the potential to be applied to an industrial plant. Here, the effects of the combined pretreatment (combined hydrothermal/chemical pretreatment and mechanical refining) on energy consumption, physical structure, sugar yields, and enzyme dosage are summarized.

  7. A protocol for the refinement of NMR structures using simultaneously pseudocontact shift restraints from multiple lanthanide ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sala, Davide; Giachetti, Andrea; Luchinat, Claudio, E-mail: luchinat@cerm.unifi.it; Rosato, Antonio, E-mail: rosato@cerm.unifi.it [University of Florence, Magnetic Resonance Center (CERM) (Italy)

    2016-11-15

    The binding of paramagnetic metal ions to proteins produces a number of different effects on the NMR spectra of the system. In particular, when the magnetic susceptibility of the metal ion is anisotropic, pseudocontact shifts (PCSs) arise and can be easily measured. They constitute very useful restraints for the solution structure determination of metal-binding proteins. In this context, there has been great interest in the use of lanthanide(III) ions to induce PCSs in diamagnetic proteins, e.g. through the replacement native calcium(II) ions. By preparing multiple samples in each of which a different ion of the lanthanide series is introduced, it is possible to obtain multiple independent PCS datasets that can be used synergistically to generate protein structure ensembles (typically called bundles). For typical NMR-based determination of protein structure, it is necessary to perform an energetic refinement of such initial bundles to obtain final structures whose geometric quality is suitable for deposition in the PDB. This can be conveniently done by using restrained molecular dynamics simulations (rMD) in explicit solvent. However, there are no available protocols for rMD using multiple PCS datasets as part of the restraints. In this work, we extended the PCS module of the AMBER MD package to handle multiple datasets and tuned a previously developed protocol for NMR structure refinement to achieve consistent convergence with PCS restraints. Test calculations with real experimental data show that this new implementation delivers the expected improvement of protein geometry, resulting in final structures that are of suitable quality for deposition. Furthermore, we observe that also initial structures generated only with traditional restraints can be successfully refined using traditional and PCS restraints simultaneously.

  8. Effects of combined additions of Sr and AlTiB grain refiners in hypoeutectic Al-Si foundry alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, L.; Dahle, A.K.

    2006-01-01

    Strontium is the most widely used and a very effective element for modifying the morphology of eutectic silicon, while Ti and B are commonly present in the commercial grain refiners used for Al-Si alloys. Systematic studies on the effects of combined additions of Sr and different AlTiB grain refiners on the Al + Si eutectic and primary aluminium solidification have been performed. While slight coarsening of both eutectic Si and primary aluminium grains occurs during holding, no obvious interactions are observed between Sr and AlTiB grain refiners when the addition level of grain refiners is low. As a result, a well-modified and grain refined structure was obtained. However, strong negative interactions between Sr and Al1.5Ti1.5B were observed as the addition level of the grain refiner increases. It was found that these interactions have a much more profound impact on the eutectic solidification than the primary Al solidification. The melt treated with combined additions of Sr and Al1.5Ti1.5B still shows good grain refinement efficiency even after losing its modification completely. The mechanism responsible for such negative interactions is further discussed

  9. Effects of combined additions of Sr and AlTiB grain refiners in hypoeutectic Al-Si foundry alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, L. [CSIRO Minerals, P.O. Box 883, Kenmore, Qld. 4069 (Australia)]. E-mail: Liming.Lu@csiro.au; Dahle, A.K. [CRC for Cast Metals Manufacturing, Division of Materials, School of Engineering, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld. 4072 (Australia)

    2006-11-05

    Strontium is the most widely used and a very effective element for modifying the morphology of eutectic silicon, while Ti and B are commonly present in the commercial grain refiners used for Al-Si alloys. Systematic studies on the effects of combined additions of Sr and different AlTiB grain refiners on the Al + Si eutectic and primary aluminium solidification have been performed. While slight coarsening of both eutectic Si and primary aluminium grains occurs during holding, no obvious interactions are observed between Sr and AlTiB grain refiners when the addition level of grain refiners is low. As a result, a well-modified and grain refined structure was obtained. However, strong negative interactions between Sr and Al1.5Ti1.5B were observed as the addition level of the grain refiner increases. It was found that these interactions have a much more profound impact on the eutectic solidification than the primary Al solidification. The melt treated with combined additions of Sr and Al1.5Ti1.5B still shows good grain refinement efficiency even after losing its modification completely. The mechanism responsible for such negative interactions is further discussed.

  10. Refining the Concept of Combining Hyperspectral and Multi-Angle Sensors for Land Surface Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simic, Anita

    Assessment of leaf and canopy chlorophyll content provides information on plant physiological status; it is related to nitrogen content and hence, photosynthesis process, net primary productivity and carbon budget. In this study, a method is developed for the retrieval of total chlorophyll content (Chlorophyll a+b) per unit leaf and per unit ground area based on improved vegetation structural parameters which are derived using multispectral multi-angle remote sensing data. Structural characteristics such as clumping and gaps within a canopy affect its solar radiation absorption and distribution and impact its reflected radiance acquired by a sensor. One of the main challenges for the remote sensing community is to accurately estimate vegetation structural parameters, which inevitably influence the retrieval of leaf chlorophyll content. Multi-angle optical measurements provide a means to characterize the anisotropy of surface reflectance, which has been shown to contain information on vegetation structural characteristics. Hyperspectral optical measurements, on the other hand, provide a fine spectral resolution at the red-edge, a narrow spectral range between the red and near infra-red spectra, which is particularly useful for retrieving chlorophyll content. This study explores a new refined measurement concept of combining multi-angle and hyperspectral remote sensing that employs hyperspectral signals only in the vertical (nadir) direction and multispectral measurements in two additional (off-nadir) directions within two spectral bands, red and near infra-red (NIR). The refinement has been proposed in order to reduce the redundancy of hyperspectral data at more than one angle and to better retrieve the three-dimensional vegetation structural information by choosing the two most useful angles of measurements. To illustrate that hyperspectral data acquired at multiple angles exhibit redundancy, a radiative transfer model was used to generate off-nadir hyperspectral

  11. The combined effect of titanic carbide and aluminum phosphide on the refinement of primary silicon in Al-50Si alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai Hongshang [Key Lab. of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong Univ., Jinan (China); Liu Xiangfa [Key Lab. of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong Univ., Jinan (China); Shandong Binzhou Bohai Piston Co., Ltd., Binzhou, SD (China)

    2008-12-15

    Two refinement methods for Al-50Si alloy are presented in this article: one way is using a newly developed Si-20P alloy at 1573 K: another technique is using the Si-20P alloy in company with Al-TiO{sub 2}-C mixture powder at 1473 K. Compared to the first method, the second one not only has better refinement effect on primary Si but also lower refinement temperature. These results are due to the combined effect of TiC and AlP on the refinement process, and the duplex TiC/AlP nucleus of primary silicon has been demonstrated using electron probe micro-analysis. Moreover, the reaction of Al-TiO{sub 2}-C mixture powder with increasing temperature was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry, which shows that the TiC particles are produced at about 1473 K. AlP particles combine with the in-situ TiC particles in the melt, which is the main reason for the formation of a duplex nucleus, and the disregistry between TiC and AlP in low-index planes is also discussed. (orig.)

  12. Modeling of the inhomogeneity of grain refinement during combined metal forming process by finite element and cellular automata methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majta, Janusz; Madej, Łukasz; Svyetlichnyy, Dmytro S.; Perzyński, Konrad; Kwiecień, Marcin, E-mail: mkwiecie@agh.edu.pl; Muszka, Krzysztof

    2016-08-01

    The potential of discrete cellular automata technique to predict the grain refinement in wires produced using combined metal forming process is presented and discussed within the paper. The developed combined metal forming process can be treated as one of the Severe Plastic Deformation (SPD) techniques that consists of three different modes of deformation: asymmetric drawing with bending, namely accumulated angular drawing (AAD), wire drawing (WD) and wire flattening (WF). To accurately replicate complex stress state both at macro and micro scales during subsequent deformations two stage modeling approach was used. First, the Finite Element Method (FEM), implemented in commercial ABAQUS software, was applied to simulate entire combined forming process at the macro scale level. Then, based on FEM results, the Cellular Automata (CA) method was applied for simulation of grain refinement at the microstructure level. Data transferred between FEM and CA methods included set of files with strain tensor components obtained from selected integration points in the macro scale model. As a result of CA simulation, detailed information on microstructure evolution during severe plastic deformation conditions was obtained, namely: changes of shape and sizes of modeled representative volume with imposed microstructure, changes of the number of grains, subgrains and dislocation cells, development of grain boundaries angle distribution as well as changes in the pole figures. To evaluate CA model predictive capabilities, results of computer simulation were compared with scanning electron microscopy and electron back scattered diffraction images (SEM/EBSD) studies of samples after AAD+WD+WF process.

  13. Identification of vegetable oil botanical speciation in refined vegetable oil blends using an innovative combination of chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Maria Teresa; Haughey, Simon A; Elliott, Christopher T; Koidis, Anastasios

    2015-12-15

    European Regulation 1169/2011 requires producers of foods that contain refined vegetable oils to label the oil types. A novel rapid and staged methodology has been developed for the first time to identify common oil species in oil blends. The qualitative method consists of a combination of a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to profile the oils and fatty acid chromatographic analysis to confirm the composition of the oils when required. Calibration models and specific classification criteria were developed and all data were fused into a simple decision-making system. The single lab validation of the method demonstrated the very good performance (96% correct classification, 100% specificity, 4% false positive rate). Only a small fraction of the samples needed to be confirmed with the majority of oils identified rapidly using only the spectroscopic procedure. The results demonstrate the huge potential of the methodology for a wide range of oil authenticity work. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Combined Protocol for Acute Malnutrition Study (ComPAS) in rural South Sudan and urban Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bailey, Jeanette; Lelijveld, Natasha; Marron, Bethany

    2018-01-01

    Background: Acute malnutrition is a continuum condition, but severe and moderate forms are treated separately, with different protocols and therapeutic products, managed by separate United Nations agencies. The Combined Protocol for Acute Malnutrition Study (ComPAS) aims to simplify and unify...... the treatment of uncomplicated severe and moderate acute malnutrition (SAM and MAM) for children 6-59 months into one protocol in order to improve the global coverage, quality, continuity of care and cost-effectiveness of acute malnutrition treatment in resource-constrained settings.  Methods/design: This study...... is a multi-site, cluster randomized non-inferiority trial with 12 clusters in Kenya and 12 clusters in South Sudan. Participants are 3600 children aged 6-59 months with uncomplicated acute malnutrition. This study will evaluate the impact of a simplified and combined protocol for the treatment of SAM and MAM...

  15. Structure of 3 at.% and 9 at.% Si-doped HfO{sub 2} from combined refinement of X-ray and neutron diffraction patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Lili [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, NC 27695 (United States); School of Information Science and Technology, Northwest University, Xi' an 710127 (China); Hou, Dong; Usher, Tedi-Marie; Iamsasri, Thanakorn; Fancher, Chris M.; Forrester, Jennifer S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, NC 27695 (United States); Nishida, Toshikazu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Florida, FL 32611 (United States); Moghaddam, Saeed [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Florida, FL 32611 (United States); Jones, Jacob L., E-mail: jacobjones@ncsu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, NC 27695 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    The crystal structure of 3 at.% and 9 at.% Si-doped HfO{sub 2} powder was determined through refinements using X-ray and neutron diffraction patterns. The lattice parameters, atomic positions, dopant occupancy, and the second phase fraction were determined with high precision using a combined full pattern fitting via the Rietveld method. The results show that both 3 at.% and 9 at.% Si-doped HfO{sub 2} powder exhibit the monoclinic crystal structure with P 1 2{sub 1}/c 1 space group. Through the combined refinement, the crystal structure parameters, especially for the positions and occupancies of the lighter atoms, were more precisely determined compared to independent X-ray diffraction refinement. Although the ionic radius of Si{sup 4+} is smaller than Hf{sup 4+}, with increasing Si occupancy, the unit cell volume slightly increases; possible mechanisms for this effect are discussed. Moreover, the refined results provide evidence of the existence of a non-equilibrium phase of Hf{sub x}Si{sub 1−x}O{sub 2}. The second phase (SiO{sub 2}) fraction is determined as 0.17 at.% for 3 at.% Si-doped HfO{sub 2} powders and 1.7 at.% for 9 at.% Si-doped HfO{sub 2} powders. - Highlights: • X-ray and neutron diffraction patterns were used to determine crystal structure. • Results from independent refinements and a combined refinement were compared. • Highly precise structural parameters were obtained by the combined refinement. • Structural data of 3 at.% and 9 at.% Si-doped HfO{sub 2} are provided. • The unit cell volume slightly increases with Si concentration from 3 to 9 at.%.

  16. Abbreviated Combined MR Protocol: A New Faster Strategy for Characterizing Breast Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschetta, Marco; Telegrafo, Michele; Rella, Leonarda; Stabile Ianora, Amato Antonio; Angelelli, Giuseppe

    2016-06-01

    The use of an abbreviated magnetic resonance (MR) protocol has been recently proposed for cancer screening. The aim of our study is to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of an abbreviated MR protocol combining short TI inversion recovery (STIR), turbo-spin-echo (TSE)-T2 sequences, a pre-contrast T1, and a single intermediate (3 minutes after contrast injection) post-contrast T1 sequence for characterizing breast lesions. A total of 470 patients underwent breast MR examination for screening, problem solving, or preoperative staging. Two experienced radiologists evaluated both standard and abbreviated protocols in consensus. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and diagnostic accuracy for both protocols were calculated (with the histological findings and 6-month ultrasound follow-up as the reference standard) and compared with the McNemar test. The post-processing and interpretation times for the MR images were compared with the paired t test. In 177 of 470 (38%) patients, the MR sequences detected 185 breast lesions. Standard and abbreviated protocols obtained sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic accuracy, PPV, and NPV values respectively of 92%, 92%, 92%, 68%, and 98% and of 89%, 91%, 91%, 64%, and 98% with no statistically significant difference (P < .0001). The mean post-processing and interpretation time were, respectively, 7 ± 1 minutes and 6 ± 3.2 minutes for the standard protocol and 1 ± 1.2 minutes and 2 ± 1.2 minutes for the abbreviated protocol, with a statistically significant difference (P < .01). An abbreviated combined MR protocol represents a time-saving tool for radiologists and patients with the same diagnostic potential as the standard protocol in patients undergoing breast MRI for screening, problem solving, or preoperative staging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Combining nitrous oxide with carbon dioxide decreases the time to loss of consciousness during euthanasia in mice--refinement of animal welfare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Aurelie A; Flecknell, Paul A; Golledge, Huw D R

    2012-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO(2)) is the most commonly used euthanasia agent for rodents despite potentially causing pain and distress. Nitrous oxide is used in man to speed induction of anaesthesia with volatile anaesthetics, via a mechanism referred to as the "second gas" effect. We therefore evaluated the addition of Nitrous Oxide (N(2)O) to a rising CO(2) concentration could be used as a welfare refinement of the euthanasia process in mice, by shortening the duration of conscious exposure to CO2. Firstly, to assess the effect of N(2)O on the induction of anaesthesia in mice, 12 female C57Bl/6 mice were anaesthetized in a crossover protocol with the following combinations: Isoflurane (5%)+O(2) (95%); Isoflurane (5%)+N(2)O (75%)+O(2) (25%) and N(2)O (75%)+O(2) (25%) with a total flow rate of 3 l/min (into a 7 l induction chamber). The addition of N(2)O to isoflurane reduced the time to loss of the righting reflex by 17.6%. Secondly, 18 C57Bl/6 and 18 CD1 mice were individually euthanized by gradually filling the induction chamber with either: CO(2) (20% of the chamber volume.min-1); CO(2)+N(2)O (20 and 60% of the chamber volume.min(-1) respectively); or CO(2)+Nitrogen (N(2)) (20 and 60% of the chamber volume.min-1). Arterial partial pressure (P(a)) of O(2) and CO(2) were measured as well as blood pH and lactate. When compared to the gradually rising CO(2) euthanasia, addition of a high concentration of N(2)O to CO(2) lowered the time to loss of righting reflex by 10.3% (Peuthanasia and hence may reduce the duration of any stress or distress to which mice are exposed during euthanasia.

  18. The Protocol of Fixed Reconstruction for Severely Worn Teeth Combined with Anterior Deep Bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Wen Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Full mouth reconstruction is one of the most effective methods to restore severe worn teeth that have suffered reduced vertical dimension. Although the use of the overlay splint restoration for a trial period allowing the patient to adapt to an increased vertical dimension is the recognized method, the specific protocol from the transitional splint to the fixed reconstruction is yet to be established. This case report describes a 50-year-old female patient who has severely worn teeth combined with an anterior deep bite and chewing pain. The protocol of the treatment process is described.

  19. [New protocol combining orthodontics and implant therapy for partially edentulous adult patients. Part I: Description of the Decker protocol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davarpanah, K; Decker, A; Sache, M P; Deffrennes, D; Demurashvili, G; Szmukler-Moncler, S

    2014-12-01

    The treatment of adult malocclusion is usually complex and pluridisciplinary. Its prognosis is not reliable. We present a new clinical protocol to improve the management and final result. We use a specific software (Simplant®, OMS®, Materialise Dental) and its accessory modules. It allows visualization of the expected final clinical result of the orthodontic treatment. Combined with guided-surgery, it allows placing implants at the beginning of treatment in a position that is compatible with the final position. The implants serve as absolute anchorage for dental motions during the orthodontic step; it is also used to support the final prosthesis. The treatment is thus optimized and its prognosis is improved. Finally, the reversed surgical sequences shorten the treatment thus promoting the compliance of patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Combining nitrous oxide with carbon dioxide decreases the time to loss of consciousness during euthanasia in mice--refinement of animal welfare?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelie A Thomas

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide (CO(2 is the most commonly used euthanasia agent for rodents despite potentially causing pain and distress. Nitrous oxide is used in man to speed induction of anaesthesia with volatile anaesthetics, via a mechanism referred to as the "second gas" effect. We therefore evaluated the addition of Nitrous Oxide (N(2O to a rising CO(2 concentration could be used as a welfare refinement of the euthanasia process in mice, by shortening the duration of conscious exposure to CO2. Firstly, to assess the effect of N(2O on the induction of anaesthesia in mice, 12 female C57Bl/6 mice were anaesthetized in a crossover protocol with the following combinations: Isoflurane (5%+O(2 (95%; Isoflurane (5%+N(2O (75%+O(2 (25% and N(2O (75%+O(2 (25% with a total flow rate of 3 l/min (into a 7 l induction chamber. The addition of N(2O to isoflurane reduced the time to loss of the righting reflex by 17.6%. Secondly, 18 C57Bl/6 and 18 CD1 mice were individually euthanized by gradually filling the induction chamber with either: CO(2 (20% of the chamber volume.min-1; CO(2+N(2O (20 and 60% of the chamber volume.min(-1 respectively; or CO(2+Nitrogen (N(2 (20 and 60% of the chamber volume.min-1. Arterial partial pressure (P(a of O(2 and CO(2 were measured as well as blood pH and lactate. When compared to the gradually rising CO(2 euthanasia, addition of a high concentration of N(2O to CO(2 lowered the time to loss of righting reflex by 10.3% (P<0.001, lead to a lower P(aO(2 (12.55 ± 3.67 mmHg, P<0.001, a higher lactataemia (4.64 ± 1.04 mmol.l(-1, P = 0.026, without any behaviour indicative of distress. Nitrous oxide reduces the time of conscious exposure to gradually rising CO(2 during euthanasia and hence may reduce the duration of any stress or distress to which mice are exposed during euthanasia.

  1. Refining revolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesharaki, F.; Isaak, D.

    1984-01-01

    A review of changes in the oil refining industry since 1973 examines the drop in capacity use and its effect on profits of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries compared to world refining. OPEC countries used their new oil revenues to expand Gulf refineries, which put additional pressure on OECD refiners. OPEC involvement in global marketing, however, could help to secure supplies. Scrapping some older OECD refineries could improve the percentage of capacity in use if new construction is kept to a minimum. Other issues facing refiners are the changes in oil demand patterns and government responses to the market. 2 tables.

  2. The combination of activated natural zeolite-bentonite to reduce Fe and Cu in refined bleached palm oil (RBPO) by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakwan; Raja, PM; Giyanto

    2018-02-01

    Indonesia is one of the crude palm oil (CPO) production country in the world. As many products are derivated from the CPO, the quality must be increased continuously. One of the things that influence the quality of palm oil is the Fe and Cu content. The objective of this research was to reduce Fe and Cu content in Refined Bleached Palm Oil (RBPO). In processing CPO or Refined Bleachead Palm Oil (RBPO) may be contaminated by Fe and Cu from metal tank and pipe in the factory. The zeolite and bentonite was activated by maceration method using hydrochloric acid (0,1 N). Four batch reactions consisting of refined palm oil (RPO), activated natural zeolite-bentonite (ANZB) was bleached by heating and stirring them at about 105°C and 1200 rpm for 30 minutes. The results showed that all combinations of ANZB can reduce the Fe content. Thereafter, the optimal combination of ANZB was obtained in K1, K2 and K4 with Cu content 0.02 ppm. In the future, it is needed to study on the reduction of the Fe and Cu content in palm oil with the other adsorbent.

  3. Refined images of the crust around the SAFOD drill site derived from combined active and passive seismic experiment data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roecker, S.; Thurber, C.; Shuler, A.; Liu, Y.; Zhang, H.; Powell, L.

    2005-12-01

    Five years of effort collecting and analyzing earthquake and explosion data in the vicinity of the SAFOD drill site culminated in the determination of the final trajectory for summer 2005's Phase 2 drilling. The trajectory was defined to optimize the chance of reaching one of two adjacent M2 "target earthquake" fault patches, whose centroids are separated horizontally by about 50 meters, with one or more satellite coreholes planned for Phase 3 drilling in summer 2007. Some of the most critical data for the final targeting were explosion data recorded on a Paulsson Geophysical Services, Inc., 80-element 3-component borehole string and earthquake data recorded on a pair of 3-component Duke University geophones in the SAFOD borehole. We are now utilizing the full 5-year dataset to refine our knowledge of three-dimensional (3D) crustal structure, wave propagation characteristics, and earthquake locations around SAFOD. These efforts are proceeding in parallel in several directions. Improved picks from a careful reanalysis of shear waves observed on the PASO array will be used in deriving an improved tomographic 3D wavespeed model. We are using finite-difference waveform modeling to investigate waveform complexity for earthquakes in and near the target region, including fault-zone head waves and strong secondary S-wave arrivals. A variety of waveform imaging methods are being applied to image fine-scale 3D structure and subsurface scatterers, including fault zones. In the process, we aim to integrate geophysical logging and geologic observations with our models to try to associate the target region earthquake activity, which is occurring on two fault strands about 280 meters apart, with shear zones encountered in the SAFOD Phase-2 borehole. These observations will be agumented and the target earthquake locations further refined over the next 2 years through downhole and surface recording of natural earthquakes and surface shots conducted at PASO station locations.

  4. Recolonization of the oral cavity by Streptococcus mutans after a combined mechanical/chemical antisepsis protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, R; Squarzoni, M A; Calura, G; Trombelli, L

    2009-06-01

    The bacterial colonization of teeth by Streptococcus mutans (StrepM) represents a major risk factor for the development of dental caries. At present, no clinical studies have explored the effect of a combined mechanical-chemical antisepsis protocol in a periodontally-healthy population and the pattern of recolonization of StrepM in subjects whose StrepM infection was successfully eradicated. The present study was designed in order to 1) determine the salivary and plaque changes in StrepM content after a combined mechanical/chemical antisepsis protocol; and 2) evaluate the pattern of recolonization when StrepM was successfully eradicated from saliva and plaque. Thirty-five periodontally-healthy and caries-susceptible subjects successfully entered and concluded the study. At baseline, non-surgical periodontal therapy was performed according to the principles of full mouth disinfection. Adjunctive home-based rinsing with a 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthrinse was requested for the following week. StrepM concentration was assessed in saliva and plaque at the initial contact appointment, at baseline, and 1-week, 1-month, 3-month and 6-month follow-up. A significant effect of ''time'' on StrepM concentration in saliva and plaque was observed (P<0.000). In subjects with successful eradication of StrepM at 1 week (N=17 plaque samples), StrepM infection recurrence occurred within 3-6 months. The results of the present study demonstrated that 1) the application of the investigated mechanical/chemical antisepsis protocol can effectively reduce StrepM colonies in saliva and plaque of periodontally healthy subjects; and 2) in plaque samples, StrepM infection recurrence tends to occur within 3-6 months.

  5. The interventional effect of new drugs combined with the Stupp protocol on glioblastoma: A network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mei; Song, Xiangqi; Zhu, Jun; Fu, Aijun; Li, Jianmin; Chen, Tong

    2017-08-01

    New therapeutic agents in combination with the standard Stupp protocol (a protocol about the temozolomide combined with radiotherapy treatment with glioblastoma was research by Stupp R in 2005) were assessed to evaluate whether they were superior to the Stupp protocol alone, to determine the optimum treatment regimen for patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma. We implemented a search strategy to identify studies in the following databases: PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, CNKI, CBM, Wanfang, and VIP, and assessed the quality of extracted data from the trials included. Statistical software was used to perform network meta-analysis. The use of novel therapeutic agents in combination with the Stupp protocol were all shown to be superior than the Stupp protocol alone for the treatment of newly diagnosed glioblastoma, ranked as follows: cilengitide 2000mg/5/week, bevacizumab in combination with irinotecan, nimotuzumab, bevacizumab, cilengitide 2000mg/2/week, cytokine-induced killer cell immunotherapy, and the Stupp protocol. In terms of serious adverse effects, the intervention group showed a 29% increase in the incidence of adverse events compared with the control group (patients treated only with Stupp protocol) with a statistically significant difference (RR=1.29; 95%CI 1.17-1.43; P<0.001). The most common adverse events were thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia, neutropenia, pneumonia, nausea, and vomiting, none of which were significantly different between the groups except for neutropenia, pneumonia, and embolism. All intervention drugs evaluated in our study were superior to the Stupp protocol alone when used in combination with it. However, we could not conclusively confirm whether cilengitide 2000mg/5/week was the optimum regime, as only one trial using this protocol was included in our study. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Combinative application of pH-zone-refining and conventional high-speed counter-current chromatography for preparative separation of caged polyprenylated xanthones from gamboge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Min; Fu, Wenwei; Zhang, Baojun; Tan, Hongsheng; Xiu, Yanfeng; Xu, Hongxi

    2016-02-01

    An efficient method for the preparative separation of four structurally similar caged xanthones from the crude extracts of gamboge was established, which involves the combination of pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography and conventional high-speed counter-current chromatography for the first time. pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography was performed with the solvent system composed of n-hexane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (7:3:8:2, v/v/v/v), where 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid was added to the upper organic stationary phase as a retainer and 0.03% triethylamine was added to the aqueous mobile phase as an eluter. From 3.157 g of the crude extract, 1.134 g of gambogic acid, 180.5 mg of gambogenic acid and 572.9 mg of a mixture of two other caged polyprenylated xanthones were obtained. The mixture was further separated by conventional high-speed counter-current chromatography with a solvent system composed of n-hexane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (5:5:10:5, v/v/v/v) and n-hexane/methyl tert-butyl ether/acetonitrile/water (8:2:6:4,v/v/v/v), yielding 11.6 mg of isogambogenic acid and 10.4 mg of β-morellic acid from 218.0 mg of the mixture, respectively. The purities of all four of the compounds were over 95%, as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, and the chemical structures of the four compounds were confirmed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. The combinative application of pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography and conventional high-speed counter-current chromatography shows great advantages in isolating and enriching the caged polyprenylated xanthones. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. NEREC, an effective brain mapping protocol for combined language and long-term memory functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone-Bertolotti, Marcela; Girard, Cléa; Cousin, Emilie; Vidal, Juan Ricardo; Pichat, Cédric; Kahane, Philippe; Baciu, Monica

    2015-12-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy can induce functional plasticity in temporoparietal networks involved in language and long-term memory processing. Previous studies in healthy subjects have revealed the relative difficulty for this network to respond effectively across different experimental designs, as compared to more reactive regions such as frontal lobes. For a protocol to be optimal for clinical use, it has to first show robust effects in a healthy cohort. In this study, we developed a novel experimental paradigm entitled NEREC, which is able to reveal the robust participation of temporoparietal networks in a uniquely combined language and memory task, validated in an fMRI study with healthy subjects. Concretely, NEREC is composed of two runs: (a) an intermixed language-memory task (confrontation naming associated with encoding in nonverbal items, NE) to map language (i.e., word retrieval and lexico-semantic processes) combined with simultaneous long-term verbal memory encoding (NE items named but also explicitly memorized) and (b) a memory retrieval task of items encoded during NE (word recognition, REC) intermixed with new items. Word recognition is based on both perceptual-semantic familiarity (feeling of 'know') and accessing stored memory representations (remembering). In order to maximize the remembering and recruitment of medial temporal lobe structures, we increased REC difficulty by changing the modality of stimulus presentation (from nonverbal during NE to verbal during REC). We report that (a) temporoparietal activation during NE was attributable to both lexico-semantic (language) and memory (episodic encoding and semantic retrieval) processes; that (b) encoding activated the left hippocampus, bilateral fusiform, and bilateral inferior temporal gyri; and that (c) task recognition (recollection) activated the right hippocampus and bilateral but predominant left fusiform gyrus. The novelty of this protocol consists of (a) combining two tasks in one (language

  8. Refined estimates of local recurrence risks by DCIS score adjusting for clinicopathological features: a combined analysis of ECOG-ACRIN E5194 and Ontario DCIS cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakovitch, E; Gray, R; Baehner, F L; Sutradhar, R; Crager, M; Gu, S; Nofech-Mozes, S; Badve, S S; Hanna, W; Hughes, L L; Wood, W C; Davidson, N E; Paszat, L; Shak, S; Sparano, J A; Solin, L J

    2018-06-01

    Better tools are needed to estimate local recurrence (LR) risk after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) for DCIS. The DCIS score (DS) was validated as a predictor of LR in E5194 and Ontario DCIS cohort (ODC) after BCS. We combined data from E5194 and ODC adjusting for clinicopathological factors to provide refined estimates of the 10-year risk of LR after treatment by BCS alone. Data from E5194 and ODC were combined. Patients with positive margins or multifocality were excluded. Identical Cox regression models were fit for each study. Patient-specific meta-analysis was used to calculate precision-weighted estimates of 10-year LR risk by DS, age, tumor size and year of diagnosis. The combined cohort includes 773 patients. The DS and age at diagnosis, tumor size and year of diagnosis provided independent prognostic information on the 10-year LR risk (p ≤ 0.009). Hazard ratios from E5194 and ODC cohorts were similar for the DS (2.48, 1.95 per 50 units), tumor size ≤ 1 versus  > 1-2.5 cm (1.45, 1.47), age ≥ 50 versus  15%) 10-year LR risk after BCS alone compared to utilization of DS alone or clinicopathological factors alone. The combined analysis provides refined estimates of 10-year LR risk after BCS for DCIS. Adding information on tumor size and age at diagnosis to the DS adjusting for year of diagnosis provides improved LR risk estimates to guide treatment decision making.

  9. Action Refinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorrieri, R.; Rensink, Arend; Bergstra, J.A.; Ponse, A.; Smolka, S.A.

    2001-01-01

    In this chapter, we give a comprehensive overview of the research results in the field of action refinement during the past 12 years. The different approaches that have been followed are outlined in detail and contrasted to each other in a uniform framework. We use two running examples to discuss

  10. Combining Q2MM Modeling and Kinetic Studies for Refinement of the Osmium-catalyzed Asymmetric Dihydroxylation (AD) Mnemonic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Peter; Jensen, Gitte Holm; Andersen, Marie Louise Nygaard

    2006-01-01

    The interactions between the substrate and the ligand in the Sharpless AD reaction have been examined in detail, using a combination of substrate competition experiments and molecular modeling of transition states. There is a good agreement between computational and experimental results......, in particular for the stereoselectivity of the reaction. The influence of each moiety in the second-generation ligand (DHQD)2PHAL on the rate and selectivity of the reaction has been elucidated in detail....

  11. A New Anaesthetic Protocol for Adult Zebrafish (Danio rerio: Propofol Combined with Lidocaine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M Valentim

    Full Text Available The increasing use of zebrafish model has not been accompanied by the evolution of proper anaesthesia for this species in research. The most used anaesthetic in fishes, MS222, may induce aversion, reduction of heart rate, and consequently high mortality, especially during long exposures. Therefore, we aim to explore new anaesthetic protocols to be used in zebrafish by studying the quality of anaesthesia and recovery induced by different concentrations of propofol alone and in combination with different concentrations of lidocaine.In experiment A, eighty-three AB zebrafish were randomly assigned to 7 different groups: control, 2.5 (2.5P, 5 (5P or 7.5 μg/ml (7.5P of propofol; and 2.5 μg/ml of propofol combined with 50, (P/50L, 100 (P/100L or 150 μg/ml (P/150L of lidocaine. Zebrafish were placed in an anaesthetic water bath and time to lose the equilibrium, reflex to touch, reflex to a tail pinch, and respiratory rate were measured. Time to gain equilibrium was also assessed in a clean tank. Five and 24 hours after anaesthesia recovery, zebrafish were evaluated concerning activity and reactivity. Afterwards, in a second phase of experiments (experiment B, the best protocol of the experiment A was compared with a new group of 8 fishes treated with 100 mg/L of MS222 (100M.In experiment A, only different concentrations of propofol/lidocaine combination induced full anaesthesia in all animals. Thus only these groups were compared with a standard dose of MS222 in experiment B. Propofol/lidocaine induced a quicker loss of equilibrium, and loss of response to light and painful stimuli compared with MS222. However zebrafish treated with MS222 recovered quickly than the ones treated with propofol/lidocaine.In conclusion, propofol/lidocaine combination and MS222 have advantages in different situations. MS222 is ideal for minor procedures when a quick recovery is important, while propofol/lidocaine is best to induce a quick and complete anaesthesia.

  12. Spanish Refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lores, F.R.

    2001-01-01

    An overview of petroleum refining in Spain is presented (by Repsol YPF) and some views on future trends are discussed. Spain depends heavily on imports. Sub-headings in the article cover: sources of crude imports, investments and logistics and marketing, -detailed data for each are shown diagrammatically. Tables show: (1) economic indicators (e.g. total GDP, vehicle numbers and inflation) for 1998-200; (2) crude oil imports for 1995-2000; (3) oil products balance for 1995-2000; (4) commodities demand, by product; (5) refining in Spain in terms of capacity per region; (6) outlets in Spain and other European countries in 2002 and (7) sales distribution channel by product

  13. Clinical results after different protocols of combined local heat and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcangeli, G.; Cividalli, A.; Nervi, C.; Lovisolo, G.

    1983-01-01

    Since 1977, 69 patients with 138 multiple lesions have been treated with combined radiotherapy and hyperthermia, according to 3 protocols. Firstly, radiotherapy was given following a thrice-a-day fractionation scheme of 1.5 to 2 Gy/fraction, up to 60 Gy. Hyperthermia (42.5 0 C/45 min) was applied each other day, immediately after the 2nd radiation fraction. Immediate response resulted significantly higher in the combined group (76% clearances in comparison with 46% after radiotherapy alone). Secondly, tumors received 40 Gy/8 fractions, twice a week, and hyperthermia (42.5 0 C/45 min) was applied with each radiotherapy fraction, either immediately after irradiation (simultaneously) of 4 h later (sequentially). A remarkable improvement of radiation response was obtained, especially with the simultaneous treatment. Thirdly, tumors received 30 Gy/6 fractions, twice a week. Hyperthermia (45 0 C/30 min) was applied simultaneously with each radiotherapy fraction and the surrounding skin was cooled. Complete tumor clearance was achieved in 88% lesions in comparison with 31% after radiotherapy alone. As expected, the incidence of thermal damage on uncooled skin was also increased. In conclusion, the best therapeutic ratio was obtained with low fractional radiotherapy doses and low temperature hyperthermia. (orig.) [de

  14. Synergism and rules from combination of Baicalin, Jasminoidin and Desoxycholic acid in refined Qing Kai Ling for treat ischemic stroke mice model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    Full Text Available Refined Qing-Kai-Ling (QKL, a modified Chinese medicine, consists of three main ingredients (Baicalin, Jasminoidin and Desoxycholic acid, plays a synergistic effect on the treatment of the acute stage of ischemic stroke. However, the rules of the combination and synergism are still unknown. Based on the ischemic stroke mice model, all different kinds of combination of Baicalin, Jasminoidin, and Desoxycholic acid were investigated by the methods of neurological examination, microarray, and genomics analysis. As a result, it confirmed that the combination of three drugs offered a better therapeutical effect on ischemic stroke than monotherapy of each drug. Additionally, we used Ingenuity pathway Analysis (IPA and principal component analysis (PCA to extract the dominant information of expression changes in 373 ischemia-related genes. The results suggested that 5 principal components (PC1-5 could account for more than 95% energy in the gene data. Moreover, 3 clusters (PC1, PC2+PC5, and PC3+PC4 were addressed with cluster analysis. Furthermore, we matched PCs on the drug-target networks, the findings demonstrated that Baicalin related with PC1 that played the leading role in the combination; Jasminoidin related with PC2+PC5 that played a compensatory role; while Desoxycholic acid had the least performance alone which could relate with PC3+PC4 that played a compatible role. These manifestations were accorded with the principle of herbal formulae of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM, emperor-minister-adjuvant-courier. In conclusion, we firstly provided scientific evidence to the classic theory of TCM formulae, an initiating holistic viewpoint of combination therapy of TCM. This study also illustrated that PCA might be an applicable method to analyze the complicated data of drug combination.

  15. Early pain management after periodontal treatment in dogs – comparison of single and combined analgesic protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Raušer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the analgesic effectiveness of three analgesic protocols in dogs undergoing a periodontal treatment. The study was performed as a prospective, randomized, “double blind” clinical study. A total of 45 client-owned dogs scheduled for periodontal treatment were included. Dogs of Group C received carprofen (4 mg·kg-1, dogs of Group B received bupivacaine (1 mg·kg-1 and dogs of Group CB received a combination of carprofen (4 mg·kg-1 and bupivacaine (1 mg·kg-1. Carprofen was administered subcutaneously 30 min before anaesthesia, bupivacaine was administered by nerve blocks in anaesthetized dogs. Painful periodontal treatment was performed in all patients, lasting up to one hour. Modified University of Melbourne Pain Score (UMPS, Visual Analogue Scale for pain assessment (VAS, plasma glucose and serum cortisol levels were assessed 30 min before administration of analgesics (C-0, B-0, CB‑0 and 2 h after recovery from anaesthesia (C-2, B-2, CB-2. For statistical analysis Friedman test, Mann-Whitney U-test, ANOVA and Fischer exact tests were used (P < 0.05. In CB‑2 compared to CB‑0 significantly decreased modified UMPS values. In CB‑2 UMPS values were significantly lower compared to C‑2 or B‑2. In C‑2 VAS values were significantly increased compared to C‑0, and in B‑2 VAS values were significantly increased compared to B‑0. Visual Analogue Scale values were significantly lower in CB‑2 compared to C‑2 or B‑2. Significantly increased plasma glucose concentrations were found in C‑2 compared to C‑0 and in B‑2 compared to B‑0. No other significant differences were detected. Administration of carprofen, bupivacaine or their combination is sufficient for early postoperative analgesia following periodontal treatment. Carprofen-bupivacaine combination is superior to carprofen or bupivacaine administered separately.

  16. Indirect MR venography: contrast medium protocols, postprocessing and combination in diagnosing pulmonary emboli with MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluge, A.; Bachmann, G.; Rominger, M.; Schoenburg, M.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Integration of MR venography in a comprehensive MR imaging protocol in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE) and evaluation of contrast media dosage, timing and postprocessing for diagnostic accuracy. Materials and Methods: Fortyeight consecutive inpatients with suspected PE or deep vein thrombosis were examined by MR venography according to one of the following protocols: protocol I: MR venography only, 0.25 mmol/kg bodyweight (BW) Gadopentate dimeglumine(Gd-DTPA) as single dose, bolus timing; protocol II: MR angiography of pulmonary arteries with a cumulative dosage of 0.25 mmol/kg contrast media, modification of coil setting for MR venography without further contrast media application; protocol III: as protocol II but with 0.125 mmol/kg BW, followed by MR venography. Signal-to-noise ratio, contrast-to-noise ratio, number of definable vascular segments and image quality were evaluated. The results were compared to conventional bilateral venography. Results: All MR venography examinations were of diagnostic quality and the examination time was below 10 min. MR venography could be performed in all 48 patients comparted to 43 of 48 patients for conventional venography. Significantly more superficial and deep veins of the leg could be visualized by MR venography (94% compared to 83% for conventional venography). Sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 92%, respectively. Quality differed significantly between 0.125 mmol/kg (protocol III) and 0.25 mmol/kg Gd-DTPA (protocols I and II) while timing did not influence quality (protocol I vs. II). (orig.) [de

  17. Immunochemical protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pound, John D

    1998-01-01

    ... easy and important refinements often are not published. This much anticipated 2nd edition of Immunochemzcal Protocols therefore aims to provide a user-friendly up-to-date handbook of reliable techniques selected to suit the needs of molecular biologists. It covers the full breadth of the relevant established immunochemical methods, from protein blotting and immunoa...

  18. Refining Ovarian Cancer Test accuracy Scores (ROCkeTS): protocol for a prospective longitudinal test accuracy study to validate new risk scores in women with symptoms of suspected ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundar, Sudha; Rick, Caroline; Dowling, Francis; Au, Pui; Rai, Nirmala; Champaneria, Rita; Stobart, Hilary; Neal, Richard; Davenport, Clare; Mallett, Susan; Sutton, Andrew; Kehoe, Sean; Timmerman, Dirk; Bourne, Tom; Van Calster, Ben; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Deeks, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Ovarian cancer (OC) is associated with non-specific symptoms such as bloating, making accurate diagnosis challenging: only 1 in 3 women with OC presents through primary care referral. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines recommends sequential testing with CA125 and routine ultrasound in primary care. However, these diagnostic tests have limited sensitivity or specificity. Improving accurate triage in women with vague symptoms is likely to improve mortality by streamlining referral and care pathways. The Refining Ovarian Cancer Test Accuracy Scores (ROCkeTS; HTA 13/13/01) project will derive and validate new tests/risk prediction models that estimate the probability of having OC in women with symptoms. This protocol refers to the prospective study only (phase III). Methods and analysis ROCkeTS comprises four parallel phases. The full ROCkeTS protocol can be found at http://www.birmingham.ac.uk/ROCKETS. Phase III is a prospective test accuracy study. The study will recruit 2450 patients from 15 UK sites. Recruited patients complete symptom and anxiety questionnaires, donate a serum sample and undergo ultrasound scored as per International Ovarian Tumour Analysis (IOTA) criteria. Recruitment is at rapid access clinics, emergency departments and elective clinics. Models to be evaluated include those based on ultrasound derived by the IOTA group and novel models derived from analysis of existing data sets. Estimates of sensitivity, specificity, c-statistic (area under receiver operating curve), positive predictive value and negative predictive value of diagnostic tests are evaluated and a calibration plot for models will be presented. ROCkeTS has received ethical approval from the NHS West Midlands REC (14/WM/1241) and is registered on the controlled trials website (ISRCTN17160843) and the National Institute of Health Research Cancer and Reproductive Health portfolios. PMID:27507231

  19. Refining Ovarian Cancer Test accuracy Scores (ROCkeTS): protocol for a prospective longitudinal test accuracy study to validate new risk scores in women with symptoms of suspected ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundar, Sudha; Rick, Caroline; Dowling, Francis; Au, Pui; Snell, Kym; Rai, Nirmala; Champaneria, Rita; Stobart, Hilary; Neal, Richard; Davenport, Clare; Mallett, Susan; Sutton, Andrew; Kehoe, Sean; Timmerman, Dirk; Bourne, Tom; Van Calster, Ben; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Menon, Usha; Deeks, Jon

    2016-08-09

    Ovarian cancer (OC) is associated with non-specific symptoms such as bloating, making accurate diagnosis challenging: only 1 in 3 women with OC presents through primary care referral. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines recommends sequential testing with CA125 and routine ultrasound in primary care. However, these diagnostic tests have limited sensitivity or specificity. Improving accurate triage in women with vague symptoms is likely to improve mortality by streamlining referral and care pathways. The Refining Ovarian Cancer Test Accuracy Scores (ROCkeTS; HTA 13/13/01) project will derive and validate new tests/risk prediction models that estimate the probability of having OC in women with symptoms. This protocol refers to the prospective study only (phase III). ROCkeTS comprises four parallel phases. The full ROCkeTS protocol can be found at http://www.birmingham.ac.uk/ROCKETS. Phase III is a prospective test accuracy study. The study will recruit 2450 patients from 15 UK sites. Recruited patients complete symptom and anxiety questionnaires, donate a serum sample and undergo ultrasound scored as per International Ovarian Tumour Analysis (IOTA) criteria. Recruitment is at rapid access clinics, emergency departments and elective clinics. Models to be evaluated include those based on ultrasound derived by the IOTA group and novel models derived from analysis of existing data sets. Estimates of sensitivity, specificity, c-statistic (area under receiver operating curve), positive predictive value and negative predictive value of diagnostic tests are evaluated and a calibration plot for models will be presented. ROCkeTS has received ethical approval from the NHS West Midlands REC (14/WM/1241) and is registered on the controlled trials website (ISRCTN17160843) and the National Institute of Health Research Cancer and Reproductive Health portfolios. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted

  20. Combined microfluidization and ultrasonication: a synergistic protocol for high-efficient processing of SWCNT dispersions with high quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Sida, E-mail: s.luo@buaa.edu.cn [Beihang University, School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation (China); Liu, Tao, E-mail: tliu@fsu.edu [Florida State University, High-Performance Materials Institute (United States); Wang, Yong; Li, Liuhe [Beihang University, School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation (China); Wang, Guantao; Luo, Yun [China University of Geosciences, Center of Safety Research, School of Engineering and Technology (China)

    2016-08-15

    High-efficient and large-scale production of high-quality CNT dispersions is necessary for meeting the future needs to develop various CNT-based electronic devices. Herein, we have designed novel processing protocols by combining conventional ultrasonication process with a new microfluidization technique to produce high-quality SWCNT dispersions with improved processing efficiency. To judge the quality of SWCNT dispersions, one critical factor is the degree of exfoliation, which could be quantified by both geometrical dimension of the exfoliated nanotubes and percentage of individual tubes in a given dispersion. In this paper, the synergistic effect of the combined protocols was systematically investigated through evaluating SWCNT dispersions with newly developed characterization techniques, namely preparative ultracentrifuge method (PUM) and simultaneous Raman scattering and photoluminescence spectroscopy (SRSPL). The results of both techniques draw similar conclusions that as compared with either of the processes operated separately, a low-pass microfluidization followed by a reasonable duration of ultrasonication could substantially improve the processing efficiency to produce high-quality SWCNT dispersions with averaged particle length and diameter as small as ~600 and ~2 nm, respectively.Graphical abstract.

  1. Promoting teamwork and surgical optimization: combining TeamSTEPPS with a specialty team protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbs, Sheila Marie; Moss, Jacqueline

    2014-11-01

    This quality improvement project was a 300-day descriptive preintervention and postintervention comparison consisting of a convenience sample of 18 gynecology surgical team members. We administered the Team Strategies & Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety (TeamSTEPPS®) Teamwork Perception Questionnaire to measure the perception of teamwork. In addition, we collected data regarding rates of compliance (ie, huddle, time out) and measurable surgical procedure times. Results showed a statistically significant increase in the number of team members present for each procedure, 2.34 μ before compared with 2.61 μ after (P = .038), and in the final time-out (FTO) compliance as a result of a clarification of the definition of FTO, 1.05 μ before compared with 1.18 μ after (P = .004). Additionally, there was improvement in staff members' perception of teamwork. The implementation of team training, protocols, and algorithms can enhance surgical optimization, communication, and work relationships. Copyright © 2014 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of A Combined Treatment Protocol in Chronic Regional Pain Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asghar Jameh-Bozorgi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Chronic regional pain syndrome (CRPS is one of the most important and worst types of peripheral nervous system, especially in upper extremity. The aim of this study was determination of the effect of a combined rehabilitation program in the treatment of patients with CRPS type I. Materials & Methods: In this quasi-experimental and before-after study, 20 patients with chronic regional pain syndrome were selected simply and their pain, range of motion, edema and muscular strength were examined and recorded before intervention. Then, patients under went a combined treatment programs included some modalities from physical and occupation therapy. Patients attended at clinic for 20 therapeutic sessions with one day intervals. Finally, data were analyzed using paired–t test. Results: Post operatively, pain and edema were decreased and range of motion and grip strength was increased significantly (P>0.05. Conclusion: Current study demonstrated that early and combined physical and occupational therapy efficient in the treatment of patients suffering from CRPS type I. This combined program can relieve pain and edema and increase ROM and grip strength.

  3. Hirshfeld atom refinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelli, Silvia C; Bürgi, Hans-Beat; Dittrich, Birger; Grabowsky, Simon; Jayatilaka, Dylan

    2014-09-01

    Hirshfeld atom refinement (HAR) is a method which determines structural parameters from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data by using an aspherical atom partitioning of tailor-made ab initio quantum mechanical molecular electron densities without any further approximation. Here the original HAR method is extended by implementing an iterative procedure of successive cycles of electron density calculations, Hirshfeld atom scattering factor calculations and structural least-squares refinements, repeated until convergence. The importance of this iterative procedure is illustrated via the example of crystalline ammonia. The new HAR method is then applied to X-ray diffraction data of the dipeptide Gly-l-Ala measured at 12, 50, 100, 150, 220 and 295 K, using Hartree-Fock and BLYP density functional theory electron densities and three different basis sets. All positions and anisotropic displacement parameters (ADPs) are freely refined without constraints or restraints - even those for hydrogen atoms. The results are systematically compared with those from neutron diffraction experiments at the temperatures 12, 50, 150 and 295 K. Although non-hydrogen-atom ADPs differ by up to three combined standard uncertainties (csu's), all other structural parameters agree within less than 2 csu's. Using our best calculations (BLYP/cc-pVTZ, recommended for organic molecules), the accuracy of determining bond lengths involving hydrogen atoms from HAR is better than 0.009 Å for temperatures of 150 K or below; for hydrogen-atom ADPs it is better than 0.006 Å(2) as judged from the mean absolute X-ray minus neutron differences. These results are among the best ever obtained. Remarkably, the precision of determining bond lengths and ADPs for the hydrogen atoms from the HAR procedure is comparable with that from the neutron measurements - an outcome which is obtained with a routinely achievable resolution of the X-ray data of 0.65 Å.

  4. Combining Mental Training and Physical Training With Goal-Oriented Protocols in Stroke Rehabilitation: A Feasibility Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is one of the leading causes of permanent disability in adults. The literature suggests that rehabilitation is key to early motor recovery. However, conventional therapy is labor and cost intensive. Robotic and functional electrical stimulation (FES devices can provide a high dose of repetitions and as such may provide an alternative, or an adjunct, to conventional rehabilitation therapy. Brain-computer interfaces (BCI could augment neuroplasticity by introducing mental training. However, mental training alone is not enough; but combining mental with physical training could boost outcomes. In the current case study, a portable rehabilitative platform and goal-oriented supporting training protocols were introduced and tested with a chronic stroke participant. A novel training method was introduced with the proposed rehabilitative platform. A 37-year old individual with chronic stroke participated in 6-weeks of training (18 sessions in total, 3 sessions a week, and 1 h per session. In this case study, we show that an individual with chronic stroke can tolerate a 6-week training bout with our system and protocol. The participant was actively engaged throughout the training. Changes in the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT suggest that the training positively affected arm motor function (12% improvement in WMFT score.

  5. Combined echo offset (Dixon) and line volume chemical shift imaging as a clinical imaging protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Listerud, J.; Chan, T.; Lenkinski, R.E.; Kressel, H.Y.; Chao, P.W.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have studied the sensitivity and specificity of the line-volume chemical-shift imaging (CSI) method as compared with the Dixon method they have recently implemented on a Signa, which supports a variety of options. Potential sources or error for the Dixon method include line broadening due to susceptibility, field inhomogeneity, and errors form olefinic resonances associated with fat, which behave like water in the Dixon regime. The authors investigate whether a combined Dixon/line-volume CSI method could be used to improve the placement of the line volume and to provide higher sensitivity and specificity than does the Dixon method alone

  6. A protocol for the delivery of cannabidiol (CBD) and combined CBD and ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) by vaporisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solowij, Nadia; Broyd, Samantha J; van Hell, Hendrika H; Hazekamp, Arno

    2014-10-16

    Significant interest has emerged in the therapeutic and interactive effects of different cannabinoids. Cannabidiol (CBD) has been shown to have anxiolytic and antipsychotic effects with high doses administered orally. We report a series of studies conducted to determine the vaporisation efficiency of high doses of CBD, alone and in combination with ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), to achieve faster onset effects in experimental and clinical trials and emulate smoked cannabis. Purified THC and CBD (40 mg/ml and 100 mg/ml respectively) were loaded onto a liquid absorbing pad in a Volcano vaporiser, vaporised and the vapours quantitatively analysed. Preliminary studies determined 200 mg CBD to be the highest dose effectively vaporised at 230 ° C, yielding an availability of approximately 40% in the vapour phase. Six confirmatory studies examined the quantity of each compound delivered when 200 mg or 4 mg CBD was loaded together with 8 mg of THC. THC showed 55% availability when vaporised alone or with low dose CBD, while large variation in the availability of high dose CBD impacted upon the availability of THC when co-administered, with each compound affecting the vaporisation efficiency of the other in a dynamic and dose-dependent manner. We describe optimised protocols that enable delivery of 160 mg CBD through vaporisation. While THC administration by vaporisation is increasingly adopted in experimental studies, often with oral predosing with CBD to examine interactive effects, no studies to date have reported the administration of CBD by vaporisation. We report the detailed methodology aimed at optimising the efficiency of delivery of therapeutic doses of CBD, alone and in combination with THC, by vaporisation. These protocols provide a technical advance that may inform methodology for clinical trials in humans, especially for examining interactions between THC and CBD and for therapeutic applications of CBD. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN24109245.

  7. Dose-Response Assessment of Four Genotoxic Chemicals in a Combined Mouse and Rat Micronucleus and Comet Assay Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recio, Leslie; Hobbs, Cheryl; Caspary, William; Witt, Kristine L.

    2012-01-01

    The in vivo micronucleus (MN) assay has proven to be an effective measure of genotoxicity potential. However, sampling a single tissue (bone marrow) for a single indicator of genetic damage using the MN assay provides a limited genotoxicity profile. The in vivo alkaline (pH>13) Comet assay, which detects a broad spectrum of DNA damage, can be applied to a variety of rodent tissues following administration of test agents. To determine if the Comet assay is a useful supplement to the in vivo MN assay, a combined test protocol (MN/Comet assay) was conducted in male B6C3F1 mice and F344/N rats using four model genotoxicants: ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), acrylamide (ACM), cyclophosphamide (CP), and vincristine sulfate (VS). Test compounds were administered on 4 consecutive days at 24-hour intervals (VS was administered to rats for 3 days); animals were euthanized 4 hours after the last administration. All compounds induced significant increases in micronucleated reticulocytes (MN-RET) in the peripheral blood of mice, and all but ACM induced MN-RET in rats. EMS and ACM induced significant increases in DNA damage, measured by the Comet assay, in multiple tissues of mice and rats. CP-induced DNA damage was detected in leukocytes and duodenum cells. VS, a spindle fiber disrupting agent, was negative in the Comet assay. Based on these results, the MN/Comet assay holds promise for providing more comprehensive assessments of potential genotoxicants, and the National Toxicology Program is presently using this combined protocol in its overall evaluation of the genotoxicity of substances of public health concern. PMID:20371966

  8. Prognostic factors in invasive bladder carcinoma treated by combined modality protocol (organ-sparing approach)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matos, Tadeja; Cufer, Tanja; Cervek, Jozica; Borstnar, Simona; Kragelj, Borut; Zumer-Pregelj, Mirjana

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: The results of bladder sparing approach for the treatment of muscle-invasive bladder cancer, using a combination of transurethral resection (TUR), chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, are encouraging. The survival of patients treated by this method is similar to the survival of patients treated by radical cystectomy. The aim of our study was to find out which pretreatment characteristics influence the survival of patients treated by organ sparing approach that would enable us to identify the patients most suitable for this type of treatment. Methods and Materials: The prognostic value of different factors, such as age, gender, performance status, hemoglobin level, clinical stage, histologic grade, presence of obstructive uropathy, and completeness of TUR, has been studied in 105 patients with invasive bladder cancer, who received a bladder sparing treatment in the period from 1988 to 1995. They were treated with a combination of TUR, followed by 2-4 cycles of methotrexate, cisplatinum, and vinblastine polychemotherapy. In complete responders the treatment was completed by radiotherapy (50 Gy to the bladder and 40 Gy to the regional lymph nodes), whereas nonresponders underwent cystectomy whenever feasible. Results: Our study has confirmed an independent prognostic value of performance status, histologic grade, and obstructive uropathy, for the disease-specific survival (DSS) of bladder cancer patients treated by a conservative approach. We believe that performance status best reflects the extent of disease and exerts significant influence on the extent and course of treatment, while obstructive uropathy is a good indicator of local spread of the disease, better than clinical T-stage. Our finding that histologic grade is one of the strongest prognostic factors shows that tumor biology also is a very important prognostic factor in patients treated by conservative approach. Conclusion: Patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer who are most likely to benefit

  9. Chapter 23: Combined Heat and Power Evaluation Protocol. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Simons, George [Itron, Davis, CA (United States); Barsun, Stephan [Itron, Davis, CA (United States)

    2017-11-06

    The main focus of most evaluations is to determine the energy-savings impacts of the installed measure. This protocol defines a combined heat and power (CHP) measure as a system that sequentially generates both electrical energy and useful thermal energy from one fuel source at a host customer's facility or residence. This protocol is aimed primarily at regulators and administrators of ratepayer-funded CHP programs; however, project developers may find the protocol useful to understand how CHP projects are evaluated.

  10. On the refinement calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Vickers, Trevor

    1992-01-01

    On the Refinement Calculus gives one view of the development of the refinement calculus and its attempt to bring together - among other things - Z specifications and Dijkstra's programming language. It is an excellent source of reference material for all those seeking the background and mathematical underpinnings of the refinement calculus.

  11. Isolation of a furan fatty acid from Hevea brasiliensis latex employing the combined use of pH-zone-refining and conventional countercurrent chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, Michael; Ulms, Kerstin; Wendlinger, Christine; Vetter, Walter

    2016-02-01

    Furan fatty acids are valuable and bioactive minor fatty acids that usually contribute chromatography. A first run using pH-zone-refining countercurrent chromatography provided 48.4 mg of 9-(3-methyl-5-pentylfuran-2-yl)-nonanoic acid from 210 mg latex extract in a purity of 95%. The purity was increased to 99% by means of one second run in conventional countercurrent chromatography mode. The Structure and purity of 9-(3-methyl-5-pentylfuran-2-yl)-nonanoic acid were determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Ultrasound assisted extraction of food and natural products. Mechanisms, techniques, combinations, protocols and applications. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemat, Farid; Rombaut, Natacha; Sicaire, Anne-Gaëlle; Meullemiestre, Alice; Fabiano-Tixier, Anne-Sylvie; Abert-Vian, Maryline

    2017-01-01

    This review presents a complete picture of current knowledge on ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) in food ingredients and products, nutraceutics, cosmetic, pharmaceutical and bioenergy applications. It provides the necessary theoretical background and some details about extraction by ultrasound, the techniques and their combinations, the mechanisms (fragmentation, erosion, capillarity, detexturation, and sonoporation), applications from laboratory to industry, security, and environmental impacts. In addition, the ultrasound extraction procedures and the important parameters influencing its performance are also included, together with the advantages and the drawbacks of each UAE techniques. Ultrasound-assisted extraction is a research topic, which affects several fields of modern plant-based chemistry. All the reported applications have shown that ultrasound-assisted extraction is a green and economically viable alternative to conventional techniques for food and natural products. The main benefits are decrease of extraction and processing time, the amount of energy and solvents used, unit operations, and CO 2 emissions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of forensic DNA mixture evidence: protocol for evaluation, interpretation, and statistical calculations using the combined probability of inclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieber, Frederick R; Buckleton, John S; Budowle, Bruce; Butler, John M; Coble, Michael D

    2016-08-31

    The evaluation and interpretation of forensic DNA mixture evidence faces greater interpretational challenges due to increasingly complex mixture evidence. Such challenges include: casework involving low quantity or degraded evidence leading to allele and locus dropout; allele sharing of contributors leading to allele stacking; and differentiation of PCR stutter artifacts from true alleles. There is variation in statistical approaches used to evaluate the strength of the evidence when inclusion of a specific known individual(s) is determined, and the approaches used must be supportable. There are concerns that methods utilized for interpretation of complex forensic DNA mixtures may not be implemented properly in some casework. Similar questions are being raised in a number of U.S. jurisdictions, leading to some confusion about mixture interpretation for current and previous casework. Key elements necessary for the interpretation and statistical evaluation of forensic DNA mixtures are described. Given the most common method for statistical evaluation of DNA mixtures in many parts of the world, including the USA, is the Combined Probability of Inclusion/Exclusion (CPI/CPE). Exposition and elucidation of this method and a protocol for use is the focus of this article. Formulae and other supporting materials are provided. Guidance and details of a DNA mixture interpretation protocol is provided for application of the CPI/CPE method in the analysis of more complex forensic DNA mixtures. This description, in turn, should help reduce the variability of interpretation with application of this methodology and thereby improve the quality of DNA mixture interpretation throughout the forensic community.

  14. Refinement of NMR structures using implicit solvent and advanced sampling techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianhan; Im, Wonpil; Brooks, Charles L

    2004-12-15

    NMR biomolecular structure calculations exploit simulated annealing methods for conformational sampling and require a relatively high level of redundancy in the experimental restraints to determine quality three-dimensional structures. Recent advances in generalized Born (GB) implicit solvent models should make it possible to combine information from both experimental measurements and accurate empirical force fields to improve the quality of NMR-derived structures. In this paper, we study the influence of implicit solvent on the refinement of protein NMR structures and identify an optimal protocol of utilizing these improved force fields. To do so, we carry out structure refinement experiments for model proteins with published NMR structures using full NMR restraints and subsets of them. We also investigate the application of advanced sampling techniques to NMR structure refinement. Similar to the observations of Xia et al. (J.Biomol. NMR 2002, 22, 317-331), we find that the impact of implicit solvent is rather small when there is a sufficient number of experimental restraints (such as in the final stage of NMR structure determination), whether implicit solvent is used throughout the calculation or only in the final refinement step. The application of advanced sampling techniques also seems to have minimal impact in this case. However, when the experimental data are limited, we demonstrate that refinement with implicit solvent can substantially improve the quality of the structures. In particular, when combined with an advanced sampling technique, the replica exchange (REX) method, near-native structures can be rapidly moved toward the native basin. The REX method provides both enhanced sampling and automatic selection of the most native-like (lowest energy) structures. An optimal protocol based on our studies first generates an ensemble of initial structures that maximally satisfy the available experimental data with conventional NMR software using a simplified

  15. Combining motivational and volitional strategies to promote unsupervised walking in patients with fibromyalgia: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, María-Ángeles; López-Roig, Sofía; Lledó, Ana; Peñacoba, Cecilia; Velasco, Lilian; Schweiger-Gallo, Inge; Cigarán, Margarita; Ecija, Carmen; Limón, Ramón; Sanz, Yolanda

    2014-04-11

    Fibromyalgia patients are often advised to engage in regular low- to moderate-intensity physical exercise. The need of fibromyalgia patients to walk has been stressed in previous research. Behavioral self-regulation theories suggest that a combination of motivational aspects (to develop or strengthen a behavioral intention: Theory of Planned Behavior) and volitional aspects (engagement of intention in behavior: implementation intentions) is more effective than a single intervention. In this paper, we describe a protocol for identifying the motivational processes (using the Theory of Planned Behavior) involved in the practice of walking (phase I) and for studying the efficacy of an intervention that combines motivational and volitional contents to enhance the acquisition and continuation of this exercise behavior (phase II). The paper also shows the characteristics of eligible individuals (women who do not walk) and ineligible populations (women who walk or do not walk because of comorbidity without medical recommendation to walk). Both groups consist of members of any of four patients' associations in Spain who are between 18 and 70 years of age and meet the London Fibromyalgia Epidemiology Study Screening Questionnaire criteria for fibromyalgia. Furthermore, using this study protocol, we will explore the characteristics of participants (eligible women who agreed to participate in the study) and nonparticipants (eligible women who refused to participate). Two studies will be conducted: Phase I will be a cross-sectional study, and phase II will be a triple-blind, randomized longitudinal study with two treatment groups and one active control group. The questionnaires were sent to a total of 2,227 members of four patients' associations in Spain. A total of 920 participants with fibromyalgia returned the questionnaires, and 582 were ultimately selected to participate. The first data gathered have allowed us to identify the characteristics of the study population and

  16. Acute effects of high-intensity interval, resistance or combined exercise protocols on testosterone - cortisol responses in inactive overweight individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco-Orjuela, Gina P; Domínguez-Sanchéz, María A; Hernández, Enrique; Correa-Bautista, Jorge E; Triana-Reina, Héctor R; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Peña-Ibagon, Jhonatan C; Izquierdo, Mikel; Cadore, Eduardo L; Hackney, Anthony C; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2018-06-22

    The purpose of this study was to compare the hormonal responses to one session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT, 4 × 4 min intervals at 85-95% maximum heart rate [HRmax], interspersed with 4 min of recovery at 75-85% HRmax), resistance training (RT at 50-70% of one repetition maximum 12-15 repetitions per set with 60s of recovery) or both (HIIT+RT) exercise protocol in a cohort of physical inactivity, overweight adults (age 18-30 years old). Randomized, parallel-group clinical trial among fifty-one men (23.6 ± 3.5 yr; 83.5 ± 7.8 kg; 28.0 ± 1.9 kg/m2), physical inactivity (i.e., 6 months), with abdominal obesity (waist circumference ≥90 cm) or body mass index ≥25 and ≤30 kg/m 2 were randomized to the following 4 groups: high-intensity interval training (HIIT, n = 14), resistance training (RT, n = 12), combined high-intensity interval and resistance training (HIIT+RT, n = 13), or non-exercising control (CON, n = 12). Cortisol, total- and free-testosterone and total-testosterone/cortisol-ratio (T/C) assessments (all in serum) were determined before (pre) and 1-min post-exercise for each protocol session. Decreases in cortisol levels were -57.08 (95%CI, -75.58 to -38.58; P = 0.001; ɳ 2  = 0.61) and - 37.65 (95%CI, -54.36 to -20.93; P = 0.001; ɳ 2  = 0.51) in the HIIT and control group, respectively. Increases in T/C ratio were 0.022 (95%CI, 0.012 to 0.031; P = 0.001; ɳ 2  = 0.49) and 0.015 (95%CI, 0.004 to 0.025; P = 0.007; ɳ 2  = 0.29) in the HIIT and control group, respectively. In per-protocol analyses revealed a significant change in cortisol levels [interaction effect F( 7.777 ), ɳ 2  = 0.33] and T/C ratio [interaction effect F( 5.298 ), ɳ 2  = 0.25] between groups over time. Additionally, we showed that in both the intention-to-treat (ITT) and per protocol analyses, HIIT+RT did not change serum cortisol, total or free testosterone. The present

  17. Pre-exposure and postexposure prophylaxes and the combination HIV prevention methods (The Combine! Study): protocol for a pragmatic clinical trial at public healthcare clinics in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grangeiro, Alexandre; Couto, Márcia Thereza; Peres, Maria Fernanda; Luiz, Olinda; Zucchi, Eliana Miura; de Castilho, Euclides Ayres; Estevam, Denize Lotufo; Alencar, Rosa; Wolffenbüttel, Karina; Escuder, Maria Mercedes; Calazans, Gabriela; Ferraz, Dulce; Arruda, Érico; Corrêa, Maria da Gloria; Amaral, Fabiana Rezende; Santos, Juliane Cardoso Villela; Alvarez, Vivian Salles; Kietzmann, Tiago

    2015-08-25

    Few results from programmes based on combination prevention methods are available. We propose to analyse the degree of protection provided by postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) for consensual sexual activity at healthcare clinics, its compensatory effects on sexual behaviour; and the effectiveness of combination prevention methods and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), compared with exclusively using traditional methods. A total of 3200 individuals aged 16 years or older presenting for PEP at 5 sexually transmitted disease (STD)/HIV clinics in 3 regions of Brazil will be allocated to one of two groups: the PEP group-individuals who come to the clinic within 72 h after a sexual exposure and start PEP; and the non-PEP group-individuals who come after 72 h but within 30 days of exposure and do not start PEP. Clinical follow-up will be conducted initially for 6 months and comprise educational interventions based on information and counselling for using prevention methods, including PrEP. In the second study phase, individuals who remain HIV negative will be regrouped according to the reported use of prevention methods and observed for 18 months: only traditional methods; combined methods; and PrEP. Effectiveness will be analysed according to the incidence of HIV, syphilis and hepatitis B and C and protected sexual behaviour. A structured questionnaire will be administered to participants at baseline and every 6 months thereafter. Qualitative methods will be employed to provide a comprehensive understanding of PEP-seeking behaviour, preventive choices and exposure to HIV. This study will be conducted in accordance with the resolution of the School of Medicine Research Ethics Commission of Universidade de São Paulo (protocol no. 251/14). The databases will be available for specific studies, after management committee approval. Findings will be presented to researchers, health managers and civil society members by means of newspapers, electronic media and scientific journals

  18. Combined positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for clinical oncology: technical aspects and acquisition protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, T.

    2004-01-01

    Combined PET/CT imaging is a non-invasive means of reviewing both, the anatomy and the molecular pathways of a patient during a quasi-simultaneous examination. Since the introduction of the prototype PET/CT in 1998 a rapid development of this imaging technology is being witnessed. The incorporation of fast PET detector technology into PET/CT designs and the routine use of the CT transmission images for attenuation correction of the PET allow for anato-metabolic whole-body examinations to be completed in less than 30 min. Thus, PET/CT imaging offers a logistical advantage to both, the patient and the clinicians since the two complementary exams - whenever clinically indicated - can be performed almost at the same time and a single integrated report can be created. Nevertheless, a number of pit-falls, primarily from the use of CT-based attenuation correction, have been identified and are being addressed through optimized acquisition protocols. It is fair to say, that PET/CT has been integrated in the diagnostic imaging arena, and in many cases has led to a close collaboration between different, yet complementary diagnostic and therapeutic medical disciplines. (orig.)

  19. PAAPPAS community trial protocol: a randomized study of obesity prevention for adolescents combining school with household intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele R. Sgambato

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of childhood obesity is increasing at a high rate in Brazil, making prevention a health priority. Schools are the central focus of interventions aiming the prevention and treatment of childhood obesity, however, randomized trials and cohort studies have not yet provided clear evidence of strategies to reduce prevalence of obesity. The aim of this study is to present a protocol to evaluate the efficacy of combining school and household level interventions to reduce excessive weight gain among students. Methods The intervention target fifth and sixth graders from 18 public schools (9 interventions and 9 controls in the municipality of Duque de Caxias, metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A sample size of 2500 students will be evaluated at school for their weight status and those from the intervention group who are overweight or obese will be followed monthly at home by community health agents. Demographic, socioeconomic, anthropometric, eating behavior and food consumption data will be collected at school using a standardized questionnaire programmed in personal digital assistant. At school, all students from the intervention group will be encouraged to change eating habits and food consumption and to increase physical activity and reducing sedentary behavior. Discussion This study will provide evidence whether integration of school with primary health care can prevent excessive weight gain among adolescents. Positive results will inform a sustainable strategy to be disseminated in the health care system in Brazil. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02711488 . Date of registration: March 11, 2016.

  20. Creating value in refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, C.B.

    2001-01-01

    This article focuses on recent developments in the US refining industry and presents a model for improving the performance of refineries based on the analysis of the refining industry by Cap Gemini Ernst and Young. The identification of refineries in risk of failing, the construction of pipelines for refinery products from Gulf State refineries, mergers and acquisitions, and poor financial performance are discussed. Current challenges concerning the stagnant demand for refinery products, environmental regulations, and shareholder value are highlighted. The structure of the industry, the creation of value in refining, and the search for business models are examined. The top 25 US companies and US refining business groups are listed

  1. Relational Demonic Fuzzy Refinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fairouz Tchier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We use relational algebra to define a refinement fuzzy order called demonic fuzzy refinement and also the associated fuzzy operators which are fuzzy demonic join (⊔fuz, fuzzy demonic meet (⊓fuz, and fuzzy demonic composition (□fuz. Our definitions and properties are illustrated by some examples using mathematica software (fuzzy logic.

  2. Gender-Specific Combination HIV Prevention for Youth in High-Burden Settings: The MP3 Youth Observational Pilot Study Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttolph, Jasmine; Inwani, Irene; Agot, Kawango; Cleland, Charles M; Cherutich, Peter; Kiarie, James N; Osoti, Alfred; Celum, Connie L; Baeten, Jared M; Nduati, Ruth; Kinuthia, John; Hallett, Timothy B; Alsallaq, Ramzi; Kurth, Ann E

    2017-03-08

    Nearly three decades into the epidemic, sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) remains the region most heavily affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), with nearly 70% of the 34 million people living with HIV globally residing in the region. In SSA, female and male youth (15 to 24 years) are at a disproportionately high risk of HIV infection compared to adults. As such, there is a need to target HIV prevention strategies to youth and to tailor them to a gender-specific context. This protocol describes the process for the multi-staged approach in the design of the MP3 Youth pilot study, a gender-specific, combination, HIV prevention intervention for youth in Kenya. The objective of this multi-method protocol is to outline a rigorous and replicable methodology for a gender-specific combination HIV prevention pilot study for youth in high-burden settings, illustrating the triangulated methods undertaken to ensure that age, sex, and context are integral in the design of the intervention. The mixed-methods, cross-sectional, longitudinal cohort pilot study protocol was developed by first conducting a systematic review of the literature, which shaped focus group discussions around prevention package and delivery options, and that also informed age- and sex- stratified mathematical modeling. The review, qualitative data, and mathematical modeling created a triangulated evidence base of interventions to be included in the pilot study protocol. To design the pilot study protocol, we convened an expert panel to select HIV prevention interventions effective for youth in SSA, which will be offered in a mobile health setting. The goal of the pilot study implementation and evaluation is to apply lessons learned to more effective HIV prevention evidence and programming. The combination HIV prevention package in this protocol includes (1) offering HIV testing and counseling for all youth; (2) voluntary medical circumcision and condoms for males; (3) pre-exposure prophylaxis (Pr

  3. Protocol for the process evaluation of interventions combining performance-based financing with health equity in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridde, Valéry; Turcotte-Tremblay, Anne-Marie; Souares, Aurélia; Lohmann, Julia; Zombré, David; Koulidiati, Jean Louis; Yaogo, Maurice; Hien, Hervé; Hunt, Matthew; Zongo, Sylvie; De Allegri, Manuela

    2014-10-12

    The low quality of healthcare and the presence of user fees in Burkina Faso contribute to low utilization of healthcare and elevated levels of mortality. To improve access to high-quality healthcare and equity, national authorities are testing different intervention arms that combine performance-based financing with community-based health insurance and pro-poor targeting. There is a need to evaluate the implementation of these unique approaches. We developed a research protocol to analyze the conditions that led to the emergence of these intervention arms, the fidelity between the activities initially planned and those conducted, the implementation and adaptation processes, the sustainability of the interventions, the possibilities for scaling them up, and their ethical implications. The study adopts a longitudinal multiple case study design with several embedded levels of analyses. To represent the diversity of contexts where the intervention arms are carried out, we will select three districts. Within districts, we will select both primary healthcare centers (n =18) representing different intervention arms and the district or regional hospital (n =3). We will select contrasted cases in relation to their initial performance (good, fair, poor). Over a period of 18 months, we will use quantitative and qualitative data collection and analytical tools to study these cases including in-depth interviews, participatory observation, research diaries, and questionnaires. We will give more weight to qualitative methods compared to quantitative methods. Performance-based financing is expanding rapidly across low- and middle-income countries. The results of this study will enable researchers and decision makers to gain a better understanding of the factors that can influence the implementation and the sustainability of complex interventions aiming to increase healthcare quality as well as equity.

  4. Refining margins and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudouin, C.; Favennec, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    Refining margins throughout the world have remained low in 1996. In Europe, in spite of an improvement, particularly during the last few weeks, they are still not high enough to finance new investments. Although the demand for petroleum products is increasing, experts are still sceptical about any rapid recovery due to prevailing overcapacity and to continuing capacity growth. After a historical review of margins and an analysis of margins by regions, we analyse refining over-capacities in Europe and the unbalances between production and demand. Then we discuss the current situation concerning barriers to the rationalization, agreements between oil companies, and the consequences on the future of refining capacities and margins. (author)

  5. North American refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osten, James; Haltmaier, Susan

    2000-01-01

    This article examines the current status of the North American refining industry, and considers the North American economy and the growth in demand in the petroleum industry, petroleum product demand and quality, crude oil upgrading to meet product standards, and changes in crude oil feedstocks such as the use of heavier crudes and bitumens. Refining expansion, the declining profits in refining, and changes due to environmental standards are discussed. The Gross Domestic Product and oil demand for the USA, Canada, Mexico, and Venezuela for the years 1995-2020 are tabulated

  6. Refinement by interface instantiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallerstede, Stefan; Hoang, Thai Son

    2012-01-01

    be easily refined. Our first contribution hence is a proposal for a new construct called interface that encapsulates the external variables, along with a mechanism for interface instantiation. Using the new construct and mechanism, external variables can be refined consistently. Our second contribution...... is an approach for verifying the correctness of Event-B extensions using the supporting Rodin tool. We illustrate our approach by proving the correctness of interface instantiation....

  7. Relational Demonic Fuzzy Refinement

    OpenAIRE

    Tchier, Fairouz

    2014-01-01

    We use relational algebra to define a refinement fuzzy order called demonic fuzzy refinement and also the associated fuzzy operators which are fuzzy demonic join $({\\bigsqcup }_{\\mathrm{\\text{f}}\\mathrm{\\text{u}}\\mathrm{\\text{z}}})$ , fuzzy demonic meet $({\\sqcap }_{\\mathrm{\\text{f}}\\mathrm{\\text{u}}\\mathrm{\\text{z}}})$ , and fuzzy demonic composition $({\\square }_{\\mathrm{\\text{f}}\\mathrm{\\text{u}}\\mathrm{\\text{z}}})$ . Our definitions and properties are illustrated by some examples using ma...

  8. Live birth in a 46-year-old woman using microdose GnRH agonist flare-up protocol combined with GnRH antagonist: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Liu, Ya-Qiong; Lu, Guang-Xiu; Gong, Fei

    2016-12-01

    Few successful pregnancies after age 45 years with low ovarian reserve have been reported. We report a 46-year-old woman with basal FSH 20.36 mIU/mL and an antral follicle count of four obtained two embryos and delivered a healthy infant with IVF using a microdose GnRH-a flare-up protocol combined with GnRH-ant.

  9. 3Drefine: an interactive web server for efficient protein structure refinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Debswapna; Nowotny, Jackson; Cao, Renzhi; Cheng, Jianlin

    2016-07-08

    3Drefine is an interactive web server for consistent and computationally efficient protein structure refinement with the capability to perform web-based statistical and visual analysis. The 3Drefine refinement protocol utilizes iterative optimization of hydrogen bonding network combined with atomic-level energy minimization on the optimized model using a composite physics and knowledge-based force fields for efficient protein structure refinement. The method has been extensively evaluated on blind CASP experiments as well as on large-scale and diverse benchmark datasets and exhibits consistent improvement over the initial structure in both global and local structural quality measures. The 3Drefine web server allows for convenient protein structure refinement through a text or file input submission, email notification, provided example submission and is freely available without any registration requirement. The server also provides comprehensive analysis of submissions through various energy and statistical feedback and interactive visualization of multiple refined models through the JSmol applet that is equipped with numerous protein model analysis tools. The web server has been extensively tested and used by many users. As a result, the 3Drefine web server conveniently provides a useful tool easily accessible to the community. The 3Drefine web server has been made publicly available at the URL: http://sysbio.rnet.missouri.edu/3Drefine/. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  10. The Correction of a Secondary Bilateral Cleft Lip Nasal Deformity Using Refined Open Rhinoplasty with Reverse-U Incision, V-Y Plasty, and Selective Combination with Composite Grafting: Long-term Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Chae Cho

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThis article presents long-term outcomes after correcting secondary bilateral cleft lip nasal deformities using a refined reverse-U incision and V-Y plasty or in combination with a composite graft in order to elongate the short columella.MethodsA total of forty-six patients underwent surgery between September 1996 and December 2008. The age of the patients ranged from 3 to 19 years of age. A bilateral reverse-U incision and V-Y plasty were used in 24 patients. A composite graft from the helical root was combined with a bilateral reverse-U incision in the 22 patients who possessed a severely shortened columella. The follow-up period ranged between 2 and 10 years.ResultsA total of 32 patients out of 46 were evaluated postoperatively. The average columella length was significantly improved from an average of 3.7 mm preoperatively to 8.5 mm postoperatively. The average ratio of the columella height to the alar base width was 0.18 preoperatively and 0.29 postoperatively. The postoperative basal and lateral views revealed a better shape of the nostrils and columella. The elongated columella, combined with a composite graft, presented good maintenance of the corrected position with no growth disturbance. A composite graft showed color mismatching in several patients. Twenty-six patients demonstrated no alar-columella web deformity and satisfactory symmetry of the nostrils. Four patients experienced a drooping and overhanging of the corrected alar-columella web.ConclusionsA bilateral reverse-U incision with V-Y plasty or in combination with a composite graft was effective in correcting secondary bilateral cleft lip nasal deformity.

  11. Development of the protocol for purification of artemisinin based on combination of commercial and computationally designed adsorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piletska, Elena V; Karim, Kal; Cutler, Malcolm; Piletsky, Sergey A

    2013-01-01

    A polymeric adsorbent for extraction of the antimalarial drug artemisinin from Artemisia annua L. was computationally designed. This polymer demonstrated a high capacity for artemisinin (120 mg g(-1) ), quantitative recovery (87%) and was found to be an effective material for purification of artemisinin from complex plant matrix. The artemisinin quantification was conducted using an optimised HPLC-MS protocol, which was characterised by high precision and linearity in the concentration range between 0.05 and 2 μg mL(-1) . Optimisation of the purification protocol also involved screening of commercial adsorbents for the removal of waxes and other interfering natural compounds, which inhibit the crystallisation of artemisinin. As a result of a two step-purification protocol crystals of artemisinin were obtained, and artemisinin purity was evaluated as 75%. By performing the second stage of purification twice, the purity of artemisinin can be further improved to 99%. The developed protocol produced high-purity artemisinin using only a few purification steps that makes it suitable for large scale industrial manufacturing process. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Refining margins: recent trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudoin, C.; Favennec, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Despite a business environment that was globally mediocre due primarily to the Asian crisis and to a mild winter in the northern hemisphere, the signs of improvement noted in the refining activity in 1996 were borne out in 1997. But the situation is not yet satisfactory in this sector: the low return on invested capital and the financing of environmental protection expenditure are giving cause for concern. In 1998, the drop in crude oil prices and the concomitant fall in petroleum product prices was ultimately rather favorable to margins. Two elements tended to put a damper on this relative optimism. First of all, margins continue to be extremely volatile and, secondly, the worsening of the economic and financial crisis observed during the summer made for a sharp decline in margins in all geographic regions, especially Asia. Since the beginning of 1999, refining margins are weak and utilization rates of refining capacities have decreased. (authors)

  13. Refining and petrochemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constancio, Silva

    2006-07-01

    In 2004, refining margins showed a clear improvement that persisted throughout the first three quarters of 2005. This enabled oil companies to post significantly higher earnings for their refining activity in 2004 compared to 2003, with the results of the first half of 2005 confirming this trend. As for petrochemicals, despite a steady rise in the naphtha price, higher cash margins enabled a turnaround in 2004 as well as a clear improvement in oil company financial performance that should continue in 2005, judging by the net income figures reported for the first half-year. Despite this favorable business environment, capital expenditure in refining and petrochemicals remained at a low level, especially investment in new capacity, but a number of projects are being planned for the next five years. (author)

  14. Refining and petrochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constancio, Silva

    2006-01-01

    In 2004, refining margins showed a clear improvement that persisted throughout the first three quarters of 2005. This enabled oil companies to post significantly higher earnings for their refining activity in 2004 compared to 2003, with the results of the first half of 2005 confirming this trend. As for petrochemicals, despite a steady rise in the naphtha price, higher cash margins enabled a turnaround in 2004 as well as a clear improvement in oil company financial performance that should continue in 2005, judging by the net income figures reported for the first half-year. Despite this favorable business environment, capital expenditure in refining and petrochemicals remained at a low level, especially investment in new capacity, but a number of projects are being planned for the next five years. (author)

  15. Indian refining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, I.J.

    2002-01-01

    The author discusses the history of the Indian refining industry and ongoing developments under the headings: the present state; refinery configuration; Indian capabilities for refinery projects; and reforms in the refining industry. Tables lists India's petroleum refineries giving location and capacity; new refinery projects together with location and capacity; and expansion projects of Indian petroleum refineries. The Indian refinery industry has undergone substantial expansion as well as technological changes over the past years. There has been progressive technology upgrading, energy efficiency, better environmental control and improved capacity utilisation. Major reform processes have been set in motion by the government of India: converting the refining industry from a centrally controlled public sector dominated industry to a delicensed regime in a competitive market economy with the introduction of a liberal exploration policy; dismantling the administered price mechanism; and a 25 year hydrocarbon vision. (UK)

  16. The Correction of a Secondary Bilateral Cleft Lip Nasal Deformity Using Refined Open Rhinoplasty with Reverse-U Incision, V-Y Plasty, and Selective Combination with Composite Grafting: Long-term Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Chae Cho

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background This article presents long-term outcomes after correcting secondary bilateralcleft lip nasal deformities using a refined reverse-U incision and V-Y plasty or in combinationwith a composite graft in order to elongate the short columella.Methods A total of forty-six patients underwent surgery between September 1996 andDecember 2008. The age of the patients ranged from 3 to 19 years of age. A bilateral reverse-Uincision and V-Y plasty were used in 24 patients. A composite graft from the helical rootwas combined with a bilateral reverse-U incision in the 22 patients who possessed a severelyshortened columella. The follow-up period ranged between 2 and 10 years.Results A total of 32 patients out of 46 were evaluated postoperatively. The average columellalength was significantly improved from an average of 3.7 mm preoperatively to 8.5 mmpostoperatively. The average ratio of the columella height to the alar base width was 0.18preoperatively and 0.29 postoperatively. The postoperative basal and lateral views revealed abetter shape of the nostrils and columella. The elongated columella, combined with a compositegraft, presented good maintenance of the corrected position with no growth disturbance. Acomposite graft showed color mismatching in several patients. Twenty-six patients demonstratedno alar-columella web deformity and satisfactory symmetry of the nostrils. Four patientsexperienced a drooping and overhanging of the corrected alar-columella web.Conclusions A bilateral reverse-U incision with V-Y plasty or in combination with acomposite graft was effective in correcting secondary bilateral cleft lip nasal deformity.

  17. Refining - Panorama 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Investment rallied in 2007, and many distillation and conversion projects likely to reach the industrial stage were announced. With economic growth sustained in 2006 and still pronounced in 2007, oil demand remained strong - especially in emerging countries - and refining margins stayed high. Despite these favorable business conditions, tensions persisted in the refining sector, which has fallen far behind in terms of investing in refinery capacity. It will take renewed efforts over a long period to catch up. Looking at recent events that have affected the economy in many countries (e.g. the sub-prime crisis), prudence remains advisable

  18. The IVF Outcome Counseling Based on the Model Combining DHEAS and Age in Patients with Low AMH Prior to the First Cycle of GnRH Antagonist Protocol of Ovarian Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miro Šimun Alebić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the endocrine and/or clinical characteristics of women with low anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH that could improve the accuracy of IVF outcome prediction based on the female age alone prior to the first GnRH antagonist IVF cycle. Methods. Medical records of 129 patients with low AMH level (<6.5 pmol/L who underwent their first GnRH antagonist ovarian stimulation protocol for IVF/ICSI were retrospectively analyzed. The main outcome measure was the area under the ROC curve (AUC-ROC for the models combining age and other potential predictive factors for the clinical pregnancy. Results. Clinical pregnancy rate (CPR per initiated cycles was 11.6%. For the prediction of clinical pregnancy, DHEAS and age showed AUC-ROC of 0.726 (95%CI 0.641–0.801 and 0.662 (95%CI 0.573–0.743, respectively (. The predictive accuracy of the model combining age and DHEAS (AUC-ROC 0.796; 95%CI 0.716–0.862 was significantly higher compared to that of age alone (. In patients <37.5 years with DHEAS  pmol/L, 60% (9/15 of all pregnancies were achieved with CPR of 37.5%. Conclusions. DHEAS appears to be predictive for clinical pregnancy in younger women (<37.5 years with low AMH after the first GnRH antagonist IVF cycle. Therefore, DHEAS-age model could refine the pretreatment counseling on pregnancy prospects following IVF.

  19. An improved method of studying user-system interaction by combining transaction log analysis and protocol analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian R. Griffiths

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports a novel approach to studying user-system interaction that captures a complete record of the searcher's actions, the system responses and synchronised talk-aloud comments from the searcher. The data is recorded unobtrusively and is available for later analysis. The approach is set in context by a discussion of transaction logging and protocol analysis and examples of the search logging in operation are presented

  20. A stepwise protocol for drug permeation assessment that combines heat-separated porcine ear epidermis and vertical diffusion cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelić Ivana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available After decades long absence of an official consensus on the most appropriate evaluation method for in vitro skin performance of topical semisolid drugs, United States Pharmacopoeia (USP 39 finally suggested three types of testing equipment; however, all these provide data on drug release using inert synthetic membranes. Considering the need for a readily available membrane that would be more structurally similar to human skin, this paper provides a detailed protocol of a method for drug permeation assessment that uses heat-separated porcine ear epidermis and modified Franz diffusion cells. Phases that were shown to be critical for variability of the results are identified (e.g., membrane preparation, and process parameters optimized. Applicability of the method was tested on four cream samples loaded with aceclofenac as a model drug. Sample compositions were designed in such a way to provide „large“ variations (variation of the main stabilizer: natural-origin versus synthetic emulsifier and relatively „minor“ variations (co-solvent variation: none/isopropanol/glycerol. The developed protocol is a straightforward and reliable in vitro test for the evaluation of rate and extent of drug delivery into/through the skin. Moreover, this protocol may be routinely applied even in averagely equipped laboratories during formulation development or preliminary bioequivalence assessment of generic topical semisolids. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR34031

  1. Effect of strontium on the grain refining efficiency of Mg-3Al alloy refined by carbon inoculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Jun; Yang Jian; Kuwabara, Mamoru; Li Wenfang; Peng Jihua

    2009-01-01

    The effect of Sr on the grain refining efficiency of the Mg-3Al alloy refined by carbon inoculation has been investigated in the present study. A significant grain refinement was obtained for the Mg-3Al alloy treated with either 0.2% C or 0.2% Sr. The Al-C-O particles were found in the sample refined by 0.2% C, and the element O should come from reaction between Al 4 C 3 nuclei of Mg grains and water during the process of sample preparation. The grain size of the sample refined by carbon inoculation was further decreased after the combined addition of Sr. The grain size decreased with increasing Sr content. Much higher refining efficiency was obtained when the Sr addition was increased to 0.5%. Sr is an effective element to improve the grain refining efficiency for the Mg-Al alloys refined by carbon inoculation. The number of Al 4 C 3 particles in the sample refined by the combination of carbon and Sr was more than that in the sample refined by only carbon. No Al-C-O-Sr-rich particles were obviously found in the sample refined by the combination of carbon and a little (<0.5%) Sr addition

  2. Panorama 2012 - Refining 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marion, Pierre; Saint-Antonin, Valerie

    2011-11-01

    The major uncertainty characterizing the global energy landscape impacts particularly on transport, which remains the virtually-exclusive bastion of the oil industry. The industry must therefore respond to increasing demand for mobility against a background marked by the emergence of alternatives to oil-based fuels and the need to reduce emissions of pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHG). It is in this context that the 'Refining 2030' study conducted by IFP Energies Nouvelles (IFPEN) forecasts what the global supply and demand balance for oil products could be, and highlights the type and geographical location of the refinery investment required. Our study shows that the bulk of the refining investment will be concentrated in the emerging countries (mainly those in Asia), whilst the areas historically strong in refining (Europe and North America) face reductions in capacity. In this context, the drastic reduction in the sulphur specification of bunker oil emerges as a structural issue for European refining, in the same way as increasingly restrictive regulation of refinery CO 2 emissions (quotas/taxation) and the persistent imbalance between gasoline and diesel fuels. (authors)

  3. The Pirate group intervention protocol description and a case report of a modified constraint-induced movement therapy combined with bimanual training for young children with unilateral spastic cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, Pauline B.; van Hartingsveldt, Margo; Anderson, Patricia G.; van den Tillaar, Ingrid; van der Burg, Jan; Geurts, Alexander C.

    The purpose of this article was to describe a child-friendly modified constraint-induced movement therapy protocol that is combined with goal-directed task-specific bimanual training (mCIMT-BiT). This detailed description elucidates the approach and supports various research reports. This protocol

  4. Treatment of feline lymphoma using a 12-week, maintenance-free combination chemotherapy protocol in 26 cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, S; Eberle, N; Nerschbach, V; Nolte, I; Betz, D

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this prospective clinical trial was to investigate the efficacy and toxicity of a short-term, maintenance-free chemotherapy protocol in feline lymphoma. Twenty-six cats with confirmed diagnosis of high-/intermediate-grade lymphoma were treated with a 12-week protocol consisting of cyclic administration of l-asparaginase, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin and prednisolone. Complete (CR) and partial remission (PR) rates were 46 and 27%, respectively. Median duration of first CR was 394 days compared with a median PR duration of 41 days. No factor was identified to significantly influence the likelihood to reach CR. Overall survival amounted to 78 days (range: 9-2230 days). Median survival in CR cats was 454 days and in PR cats was 82 days. Toxicosis was mainly low grade with anorexia seen most frequently. In cats achieving CR, maintenance-free chemotherapy may be sufficient to attain long-term remission and survival. Factors aiding in prognosticating the likelihood for CR, strategies enhancing response and targeting chemotherapy-induced anorexia need to be identified in future. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Medical management of early pregnancy failure (EPF): a retrospective analysis of a combined protocol of mifepristone and misoprostol used in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colleselli, Valeria; Schreiber, Courtney A; D'Costa, Elisabeth; Mangesius, Stephanie; Wildt, Ludwig; Seeber, Beata E

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a combined protocol of mifepristone and misoprostol in the management of early pregnancy failure (EPF) and the average time to expulsion of tissue and rate of side effects. Retrospective chart review of all consecutive women treated with primary medical management for EPF at our institution from 2006 to 2012. 168 patients were included in the present study. The overall success rate, defined as the absence of the need for surgical intervention, was 61 % and did not differ by calendar year. There was no difference in success rate grouped by diagnosis [intrauterine embryonic/fetal demise (IUED/IUFD) vs. anembryonic gestation; p = 0.30] or gestational age (800 μg (68 vs. 50 %, p = 0.029). Of the possible predictive factors of success, only the dose of misoprostol required was a significant independent negative predictor. Mean and median time to tissue expulsion after the first dose of misoprostol were 8.4 and 5.5 h, respectively. The incidence of side effects was low with no blood transfusions required. The success rate in this study is markedly below published data. This can possibly be attributed to retrospective study design, allowing for physician subjectivity and patients' wishes in the absence of strict study requirements. The protocol was well tolerated with a paucity of side effects. We make suggestions for enhancing success rates in the clinical setting by optimizing medication protocols, establishing precise treatment guidelines and training physicians in the accurate interpretation of treatment outcomes.

  6. US refining reviewed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.

    1998-01-01

    The paper reviews the history, present position and future prospects of the petroleum industry in the USA. The main focus is on supply and demand, the high quality of the products, refinery capacity and product trade balances. Diagrams show historical trends in output, product demand, demand for transport fuels and oil, refinery capacity, refinery closures, and imports and exports. Some particularly salient points brought out were (i) production of US crude shows a marked downward trend but imports of crude will continue to increase, (ii) product demand will continue to grow even though the levels are already high, (iii) the demand is dominated by those products that typically yield the highest income for the refiner, (i.e. high quality transport fuels for environmental compliance), (iv) refinery capacity has decreased since 1980 and (v) refining will continue to have financial problems but will still be profitable. (UK)

  7. Outlook for Canadian refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boje, G.

    1998-01-01

    The petroleum supply and demand balance was discussed and a comparison between Canadian and U.S. refineries was provided. The impact of changing product specifications on the petroleum industry was also discussed. The major changes include sulphur reductions in gasoline, benzene and MMT additives. These changes have been made in an effort to satisfy environmental needs. Geographic margin variations in refineries between east and west were reviewed. An overview of findings from the Solomon Refining Study of Canadian and American refineries, which has been very complimentary of the Canadian refining industry, was provided. From this writer's point of view refinery utilization has improved but there is a threat from increasing efficiency of US competitors. Environmental issues will continue to impact upon the industry and while the chances for making economic returns on investment are good for the years ahead, it will be a challenge to maintain profitability

  8. Future of French refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvet, B.

    1993-01-01

    Over recent years, the refining industry has had to grapple with a growing burden of environmental and safety regulations concerning not only its plants and other facilities, but also its end products. At the same time, it has had to bear the effects of the reduction of the special status that used to apply to petroleum, and the consequences of economic freedom, to which we should add, as specifically concerns the French market, the impact of energy policy and the pro-nuclear option. The result is a drop in heavy fuel oil from 36 million tonnes per year in 1973 to 6.3 million in 1992, and in home-heating fuel from 37 to 18 million per year. This fast-moving market is highly competitive. The French market in particular is wide open to imports, but the refining companies are still heavy exporters for those products with high added-value, like lubricants, jet fuel, and lead-free gasolines. The competition has led the refining companies to commit themselves to quality, and to publicize their efforts in this direction. This is why the long-term perspectives for petroleum fuels are still wide open. This is supported by the probable expectation that the goal of economic efficiency is likely to soften the effects of the energy policy, which penalizes petroleum products, in that they have now become competitive again. In the European context, with the challenge of environmental protection and the decline in heavy fuel outlets, French refining has to keep on improving the quality of its products and plants, which means major investments. The industry absolutely must return to a more normal level of profitability, in order to sustain this financial effort, and generate the prosperity of its high-performance plants and equipment. 1 fig., 5 tabs

  9. Process for refining hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risenfeld, E H

    1924-11-26

    A process is disclosed for the refining of hydrocarbons or other mixtures through treatment in vapor form with metal catalysts, characterized by such metals being used as catalysts, which are obtained by reduction of the oxide of minerals containing the iron group, and by the vapors of the hydrocarbons, in the presence of the water vapor, being led over these catalysts at temperatures from 200 to 300/sup 0/C.

  10. Panorama 2009 - refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    For oil companies to invest in new refining and conversion capacity, favorable conditions over time are required. In other words, refining margins must remain high and demand sustained over a long period. That was the situation prevailing before the onset of the financial crisis in the second half of 2008. The economic conjuncture has taken a substantial turn for the worse since then and the forecasts for 2009 do not look bright. Oil demand is expected to decrease in the OECD countries and to grow much more slowly in the emerging countries. It is anticipated that refining margins will fall in 2009 - in 2008, they slipped significantly in the United States - as a result of increasingly sluggish demand, especially for light products. The next few months will probably be unfavorable to investment. In addition to a gloomy business outlook, there may also be a problem of access to sources of financing. As for investment projects, a mainstream trend has emerged in the last few years: a shift away from the regions that have historically been most active (the OECD countries) towards certain emerging countries, mostly in Asia or the Middle East. The new conjuncture will probably not change this trend

  11. Refining discordant gene trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górecki, Pawel; Eulenstein, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary studies are complicated by discordance between gene trees and the species tree in which they evolved. Dealing with discordant trees often relies on comparison costs between gene and species trees, including the well-established Robinson-Foulds, gene duplication, and deep coalescence costs. While these costs have provided credible results for binary rooted gene trees, corresponding cost definitions for non-binary unrooted gene trees, which are frequently occurring in practice, are challenged by biological realism. We propose a natural extension of the well-established costs for comparing unrooted and non-binary gene trees with rooted binary species trees using a binary refinement model. For the duplication cost we describe an efficient algorithm that is based on a linear time reduction and also computes an optimal rooted binary refinement of the given gene tree. Finally, we show that similar reductions lead to solutions for computing the deep coalescence and the Robinson-Foulds costs. Our binary refinement of Robinson-Foulds, gene duplication, and deep coalescence costs for unrooted and non-binary gene trees together with the linear time reductions provided here for computing these costs significantly extends the range of trees that can be incorporated into approaches dealing with discordance.

  12. Towards automated crystallographic structure refinement with phenix.refine

    OpenAIRE

    Afonine, Pavel V.; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; Echols, Nathaniel; Headd, Jeffrey J.; Moriarty, Nigel W.; Mustyakimov, Marat; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Urzhumtsev, Alexandre; Zwart, Peter H.; Adams, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    phenix.refine is a program within the PHENIX package that supports crystallographic structure refinement against experimental data with a wide range of upper resolution limits using a large repertoire of model parameterizations. It has several automation features and is also highly flexible. Several hundred parameters enable extensive customizations for complex use cases. Multiple user-defined refinement strategies can be applied to specific parts of the model in a single refinement run. An i...

  13. Towards automated crystallographic structure refinement with phenix.refine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afonine, Pavel V., E-mail: pafonine@lbl.gov; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; Echols, Nathaniel; Headd, Jeffrey J.; Moriarty, Nigel W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, MS64R0121, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Mustyakimov, Marat; Terwilliger, Thomas C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, M888, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Urzhumtsev, Alexandre [CNRS–INSERM–UdS, 1 Rue Laurent Fries, BP 10142, 67404 Illkirch (France); Université Henri Poincaré, Nancy 1, BP 239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Zwart, Peter H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, MS64R0121, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Adams, Paul D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, MS64R0121, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2012-04-01

    phenix.refine is a program within the PHENIX package that supports crystallographic structure refinement against experimental data with a wide range of upper resolution limits using a large repertoire of model parameterizations. This paper presents an overview of the major phenix.refine features, with extensive literature references for readers interested in more detailed discussions of the methods. phenix.refine is a program within the PHENIX package that supports crystallographic structure refinement against experimental data with a wide range of upper resolution limits using a large repertoire of model parameterizations. It has several automation features and is also highly flexible. Several hundred parameters enable extensive customizations for complex use cases. Multiple user-defined refinement strategies can be applied to specific parts of the model in a single refinement run. An intuitive graphical user interface is available to guide novice users and to assist advanced users in managing refinement projects. X-ray or neutron diffraction data can be used separately or jointly in refinement. phenix.refine is tightly integrated into the PHENIX suite, where it serves as a critical component in automated model building, final structure refinement, structure validation and deposition to the wwPDB. This paper presents an overview of the major phenix.refine features, with extensive literature references for readers interested in more detailed discussions of the methods.

  14. Vertical Protocol Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groß, Thomas; Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The security of key exchange and secure channel protocols, such as TLS, has been studied intensively. However, only few works have considered what happens when the established keys are actually used—to run some protocol securely over the established “channel”. We call this a vertical protocol.......e., that the combination cannot introduce attacks that the individual protocols in isolation do not have. In this work, we prove a composability result in the symbolic model that allows for arbitrary vertical composition (including self-composition). It holds for protocols from any suite of channel and application...

  15. Refining the Eye: Dermatology and Visual Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Corinne; Huang, Jennifer T.; Buzney, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    In 2014 the Museum of Fine Arts Boston and Harvard Medical School began a partnership focused on building visual literacy skills for dermatology residents in the Harvard Combined Dermatology Residency Program. "Refining the Eye: Art and Dermatology", a four session workshop, took place in the museum's galleries and utilized the Visual…

  16. Refining and petrochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benazzi, E.

    2003-01-01

    Down sharply in 2002, refining margins showed a clear improvement in the first half-year of 2003. As a result, the earnings reported by oil companies for financial year 2002 were significantly lower than in 2001, but the prospects are brighter for 2003. In the petrochemicals sector, slow demand and higher feedstock prices eroded margins in 2002, especially in Europe and the United States. The financial results for the first part of 2003 seem to indicate that sector profitability will not improve before 2004. (author)

  17. Refining and petrochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benazzi, E.; Alario, F.

    2004-01-01

    In 2003, refining margins showed a clear improvement that continued throughout the first three quarters of 2004. Oil companies posted significantly higher earnings in 2003 compared to 2002, with the results of first quarter 2004 confirming this trend. Due to higher feedstock prices, the implementation of new capacity and more intense competition, the petrochemicals industry was not able to boost margins in 2003. In such difficult business conditions, aggravated by soaring crude prices, the petrochemicals industry is not likely to see any improvement in profitability before the second half of 2004. (author)

  18. Refining mineral oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1946-07-05

    A process is described refining raw oils such as mineral oils, shale oils, tar, their fractions and derivatives, by extraction with a selected solvent or a mixture of solvents containing water, forming a solvent more favorable for the hydrocarbons poor in hydrogen than for hydrocarbons rich in hydrogen, this process is characterized by the addition of an aiding solvent for the water which can be mixed or dissolved in the water and the solvent or in the dissolving mixture and increasing in this way the solubility of the water in the solvent or the dissolving mixture.

  19. Atlantic Basin refining profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    A review of the profitability margins of oil refining in the Atlantic Basin was presented. Petroleum refiners face the continuous challenge of balancing supply with demand. It would appear that the profitability margins in the Atlantic Basin will increase significantly in the near future because of shrinking supply surpluses. Refinery capacity utilization has reached higher levels than ever before. The American Petroleum Institute reported that in August 1997, U.S. refineries used 99 per cent of their capacity for several weeks in a row. U.S. gasoline inventories have also declined as the industry has focused on reducing capital costs. This is further evidence that supply and demand are tightly balanced. Some of the reasons for tightening supplies were reviewed. It was predicted that U.S. gasoline demand will continue to grow in the near future. Gasoline demand has not declined as expected because new vehicles are not any more fuel efficient today than they were a decade ago. Although federally-mandated fuel efficiency standards were designed to lower gasoline consumption, they may actually have prevented consumption from falling. Atlantic margins were predicted to continue moving up because of the supply and demand evidence: high capacity utilization rates, low operating inventories, limited capacity addition resulting from lower capital spending, continued U.S. gasoline demand growth, and steady total oil demand growth. 11 figs

  20. A universal protocol for the combined isolation of metabolites, DNA, long RNAs, small RNAs, and proteins from plants and microorganisms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valledor, Luis; Escandón, M.; Meijón, M.; Nukarinen, E.; Jesús Cañal, M.; Weckwerth, W.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 1 (2014), s. 173-180 ISSN 0960-7412 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0256 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : systems biology * combined isolation * RNA * small RNA * proteins * metabolites * Chlamydomonas reinhardtii * Arabidopsis thaliana * Populus sp. * Pinus sp. * technical advance Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 5.972, year: 2014

  1. Petroleum refining industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walls, W.D.

    2010-01-01

    The oil refining industry in China has faced rapid growth in oil imports of increasingly sour grades of crude with which to satisfy growing domestic demand for a slate of lighter and cleaner finished products sold at subsidized prices. At the same time, the world petroleum refining industry has been moving from one that serves primarily local and regional markets to one that serves global markets for finished products, as world refining capacity utilization has increased. Globally, refined product markets are likely to experience continued globalization until refining investments significantly expand capacity in key demand regions. We survey the oil refining industry in China in the context of the world market for heterogeneous crude oils and growing world trade in refined petroleum products. (author)

  2. Effects of a combined intervention with a lentil protein hydrolysate and a mixed training protocol on the lipid metabolism and hepatic markers of NAFLD in Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Rosario; Kapravelou, Garyfallia; Donaire, Ana; Lopez-Chaves, Carlos; Arrebola, Francisco; Galisteo, Milagros; Cantarero, Samuel; Aranda, Pilar; Porres, Jesus M; López-Jurado, María

    2018-02-21

    Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic alterations characterized by central obesity, dyslipidemia, elevated plasma glucose, insulin resistance (IR) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In this study, a combined intervention of a lentil protein hydrolysate and a mixed training protocol was assessed in an animal experimental model of genetic obesity and metabolic syndrome. Thirty-two male obese and 32 lean Zucker rats were divided into eight different experimental groups. Rats performed a mixed exercise protocol or had a sedentary lifestyle and were administered a lentil protein hydrolysate or placebo. Daily food intake, weekly body weight gain, plasma parameters of glucose and lipid metabolisms, body composition, hepatic weight, total fat content and fatty acid profile, as well as gene expression of lipogenic and lipolytic nuclear transcription factors and their target genes were measured. Obese Zucker rats exhibited higher body and liver weight and fat content than did their lean counterparts. Such alterations were related to modifications in aerobic capacity, plasma biochemical parameters of glucose and lipid metabolisms, hepatic fatty acid profile and gene expression of nuclear transcription factors SREBP1c, PPARα, LXR and associated lipogenic and lipolytic enzymes. The interventions tested did not affect body weight gain but improved aerobic capacity, reduced hepatomegalia and steatosis associated with NAFLD and relieved the adverse effects produced by this condition in glucose and lipid metabolisms through the modulation in the expression of different genes involved in diverse metabolic pathways.

  3. Treatment of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome with a combination of lopinavir-ritonavir and interferon-β1b (MIRACLE trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabi, Yaseen M; Alothman, Adel; Balkhy, Hanan H; Al-Dawood, Abdulaziz; AlJohani, Sameera; Al Harbi, Shmeylan; Kojan, Suleiman; Al Jeraisy, Majed; Deeb, Ahmad M; Assiri, Abdullah M; Al-Hameed, Fahad; AlSaedi, Asim; Mandourah, Yasser; Almekhlafi, Ghaleb A; Sherbeeni, Nisreen Murad; Elzein, Fatehi Elnour; Memon, Javed; Taha, Yusri; Almotairi, Abdullah; Maghrabi, Khalid A; Qushmaq, Ismael; Al Bshabshe, Ali; Kharaba, Ayman; Shalhoub, Sarah; Jose, Jesna; Fowler, Robert A; Hayden, Frederick G; Hussein, Mohamed A

    2018-01-30

    It had been more than 5 years since the first case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus infection (MERS-CoV) was recorded, but no specific treatment has been investigated in randomized clinical trials. Results from in vitro and animal studies suggest that a combination of lopinavir/ritonavir and interferon-β1b (IFN-β1b) may be effective against MERS-CoV. The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of treatment with a combination of lopinavir/ritonavir and recombinant IFN-β1b provided with standard supportive care, compared to treatment with placebo provided with standard supportive care in patients with laboratory-confirmed MERS requiring hospital admission. The protocol is prepared in accordance with the SPIRIT (Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Interventional Trials) guidelines. Hospitalized adult patients with laboratory-confirmed MERS will be enrolled in this recursive, two-stage, group sequential, multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind randomized controlled trial. The trial is initially designed to include 2 two-stage components. The first two-stage component is designed to adjust sample size and determine futility stopping, but not efficacy stopping. The second two-stage component is designed to determine efficacy stopping and possibly readjustment of sample size. The primary outcome is 90-day mortality. This will be the first randomized controlled trial of a potential treatment for MERS. The study is sponsored by King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Enrollment for this study began in November 2016, and has enrolled thirteen patients as of Jan 24-2018. ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT02845843 . Registered on 27 July 2016.

  4. A combined static-dynamic single-dose imaging protocol to compare quantitative dynamic SPECT with static conventional SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, Maria; Shrestha, Uttam M; Seo, Youngho; Gullberg, Grant T; Botvinick, Elias H

    2017-08-03

    SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is a clinical mainstay that is typically performed with static imaging protocols and visually or semi-quantitatively assessed for perfusion defects based upon the relative intensity of myocardial regions. Dynamic cardiac SPECT presents a new imaging technique based on time-varying information of radiotracer distribution, which permits the evaluation of regional myocardial blood flow (MBF) and coronary flow reserve (CFR). In this work, a preliminary feasibility study was conducted in a small patient sample designed to implement a unique combined static-dynamic single-dose one-day visit imaging protocol to compare quantitative dynamic SPECT with static conventional SPECT for improving the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD). Fifteen patients (11 males, four females, mean age 71 ± 9 years) were enrolled for a combined dynamic and static SPECT (Infinia Hawkeye 4, GE Healthcare) imaging protocol with a single dose of 99m Tc-tetrofosmin administered at rest and a single dose administered at stress in a one-day visit. Out of 15 patients, eleven had selective coronary angiography (SCA), 8 within 6 months and the rest within 24 months of SPECT imaging, without intervening symptoms or interventions. The extent and severity of perfusion defects in each myocardial region was graded visually. Dynamically acquired data were also used to estimate the MBF and CFR. Both visually graded images and estimated CFR were tested against SCA as a reference to evaluate the validity of the methods. Overall, conventional static SPECT was normal in ten patients and abnormal in five patients, dynamic SPECT was normal in 12 patients and abnormal in three patients, and CFR from dynamic SPECT was normal in nine patients and abnormal in six patients. Among those 11 patients with SCA, conventional SPECT was normal in 5, 3 with documented CAD on SCA with an overall accuracy of 64%, sensitivity of 40% and specificity of 83%. Dynamic SPECT image

  5. Comparing Refinements for Failure and Bisimulation Semantics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eshuis, H.; Fokkinga, M.M.

    2002-01-01

    Refinement in bisimulation semantics is defined differently from refinement in failure semantics: in bisimulation semantics refinement is based on simulations between labelled transition systems, whereas in failure semantics refinement is based on inclusions between failure systems. There exist

  6. Fast Track Characterization of Highly Radioactive Waste Pits Combining Off-the-Shelf Robotics with Innovative Investigation Protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabeuf, Jean-Michel; Boya, Didier

    2008-01-01

    The investigation and characterization of radioactive waste pits and effluent storage tanks represents a substantial and challenging step in the overall decommissioning programme launched by AREVA NC in 1998 on the site of Marcoule on behalf of the French Atomic Energy commission. Physical ,radiological and regulatory constraints, combined with a tight schedule, have lead our teams to use proven conventional instrumentation and robotics in innovative configurations . One such investigation, conducted on a particularly challenging radioactive effluent storage pit, is described below. The 'H' pit is a stainless steel clad concrete cavity, located in the second basement of the de-cladding building of Marcoule site. It was used for forty years as buffer storage for high activity effluents and has a length of 5 meters, a width of 3 meters , a height of 2.5 meters, and is topped by lead plates over 5 cm thick and The bottom of the cavity is covered with a layer of mud containing mainly graphite, diatoms and resins. The mud level ranges from about 20 centimeters to over 50 centimeters. The overall mud volume is around 2.4 cubic meters. Ambient dose rates above the lead plates exceed 10 mSv/h. The main purpose of our investigation was to characterize the muds for future recovery and conditioning prior to decontaminating the pit. The history of the pit together with the varying mud altimetry lead us to believe that sedimentation had probably occurred throughout the years. We thus decided to combine dose rate measurements using IF104 probes, gamma spectroscopy with CdTe probes and sample collections at different depths to ensure the representativeness and full characterization of the muds. Poor access, ambient dose rates have lead us to conceive a robotic arm, mounted on an shaft which can be modified to fit a wide range of pits and tanks. Custom built robotic tools with maximum manoeuvrability generally involve costs and delays far exceeding our purposes. SIT, a French

  7. Commercial refining in the Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packer, P.

    1999-01-01

    About 9% of the world's oil refining capacity is on the Mediterranean: some of the world's biggest and most advanced refineries are on Sicily and Sardinia. The Mediterranean refineries are important suppliers to southern Europe and N. Africa. The article discusses commercial refining in the Mediterranean under the headings of (i) historic development, (ii) product demand, (iii) refinery configurations, (iv) refined product trade, (v) financial performance and (vi) future outlook. Although some difficulties are foreseen, refining in the Mediterranean is likely to continue to be important well into the 21st century. (UK)

  8. Protocol for the combined immunosuppression & radiotherapy in thyroid eye disease (CIRTED trial: A multi-centre, double-masked, factorial randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingston Laura

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical management of thyroid eye disease remains controversial due to a paucity of high quality evidence on long-term treatment outcomes. Glucocorticoids are known to be effective initially but have significant side-effects with long-term use and recrudescence can occur on cessation. Current evidence is conflicting on the efficacy of radiotherapy and non-steroid systemic immunosuppression, and the majority of previous studies have been retrospective, uncontrolled, small or poorly designed. The Combined Immunosuppression and Radiotherapy in Thyroid Eye Disease (CIRTED trial was designed to investigate the efficacy of radiotherapy and azathioprine in combination with a standard course of oral prednisolone in patients with active thyroid eye disease. Methods/design Patients with active thyroid eye disease will be randomised to receive (i azathioprine or oral placebo and (ii radiotherapy or sham-radiotherapy in this multi-centre, factorial randomised control trial. The primary outcome is improvement in disease severity (assessed using a composite binary measure at 12 months and secondary end-points include quality of life scores and health economic measures. Discussion The CIRTED trial is the first study to evaluate the role of radiotherapy and azathioprine as part of a long-term, combination immunosuppressive treatment regime for Thyroid Eye Disease. It will provide evidence for the role of radiotherapy and prolonged immunosuppression in the management of this condition, as well as pilot data on their use in combination. We have paid particular attention in the trial design to establishing (a robust placebo controls and masking protocols which are effective and safe for both radiotherapy and the systemic administration of an antiproliferative drug; (b constructing effective inclusion and exclusion criteria to select for active disease; and (c selecting pragmatic outcome measures. Trial registration Current controlled trials

  9. Forecast Combinations

    OpenAIRE

    Timmermann, Allan G

    2005-01-01

    Forecast combinations have frequently been found in empirical studies to produce better forecasts on average than methods based on the ex-ante best individual forecasting model. Moreover, simple combinations that ignore correlations between forecast errors often dominate more refined combination schemes aimed at estimating the theoretically optimal combination weights. In this paper we analyse theoretically the factors that determine the advantages from combining forecasts (for example, the d...

  10. Management of corneal ectasia after LASIK with combined, same-day, topography-guided partial transepithelial PRK and collagen cross-linking: the athens protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanellopoulos, Anastasios John; Binder, Perry S

    2011-05-01

    To evaluate a series of patients with corneal ectasia after LASIK that underwent the Athens Protocol: combined topography-guided photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) to reduce or eliminate induced myopia and astigmatism followed by sequential, same-day ultraviolet A (UVA) corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL). Thirty-two consecutive corneal ectasia cases underwent transepithelial PRK (WaveLight ALLEGRETTO) immediately followed by CXL (3 mW/cm(2)) for 30 minutes using 0.1% topical riboflavin sodium phosphate. Uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), manifest refraction spherical equivalent, keratometry, central ultrasonic pachymetry, corneal tomography (Oculus Pentacam), and endothelial cell counts were analyzed. Mean follow-up was 27 months (range: 6 to 59 months). Twenty-seven of 32 eyes had an improvement in UDVA and CDVA of 20/45 or better (2.25 logMAR) at last follow-up. Four eyes showed some topographic improvement but no improvement in CDVA. One of the treated eyes required a subsequent penetrating keratoplasty. Corneal haze grade 2 was present in 2 eyes. Combined, same-day, topography-guided PRK and CXL appeared to offer tomographic stability, even after long-term follow-up. Only 2 of 32 eyes had corneal ectasia progression after the intervention. Seventeen of 32 eyes appeared to have improvement in UDVA and CDVA with follow-up >1.5 years. This technique may offer an alternative in the management of iatrogenic corneal ectasia. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. The HPA photon protocol and proposed electron protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitchford, W.G.

    1985-01-01

    The Hospital Physicists Association (HPA) photon dosimetry protocol has been produced and was published in 1983. Revised values of some components of Csub(lambda) and refinements introduced into the theory in the last few years have enabled new Csub(lambda) values to be produced. The proposed HPA electron protocol is at present in draft form and will be published shortly. Both protocels are discussed. (Auth.)

  12. Second-line treatment of recurrent HNSCC: tumor debulking in combination with high-dose-rate brachytherapy and a simultaneous cetuximab-paclitaxel protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, M.; Teudt, I. U.; Meyer, J. E.; Schröder, U.; Kovács, G.; Wollenberg, B.

    2016-01-01

    After the failure of first-line treatment, the clinical prognosis in head and neck cancer (HNSCC) deteriorates. Effective therapeutic strategies are limited due to the toxicity of previous treatments and the diminished tolerance of surrounding normal tissue. This study demonstrates a promising second-line regimen, with function preserving surgical tumor debulking, followed by a combination of postoperative interstitial brachytherapy and a simultaneous protocol of cetuximab and taxol. From January 2006 to May 2013, 197 patients with HNSCC were treated with brachytherapy at the University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein Campus Lübeck, including 94 patients due to recurrent cancer. Within these, 18 patients were referred to our clinic because of early progressive disease following first- or second-line treatment failure. They received the new palliative regimen. A matched-pair analysis including recurrent tumor stage, status of resection margins, tissue invasion and previous therapy was performed to evaluate this treatment retrospectively. Overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), functional outcome and treatment toxicity was analyzed on the basis of medical records and follow-up data. DFS and OS of the study group were 8.7 and 14.8 months. Whereas, DFS and OS of the control group, treated only by function preserving tumor debulking and brachytherapy, was 3.9 and 6.1 months respectively. This demonstrates a positive trend through the additional use of the cetuximab-taxane protocol. Furthermore, no increase of therapy induced toxicities was displayed. Pre-treated patients with a further relapse benefit from the ‘cetuximab-taxane recurrency scheme’. It seems to be a valuable complement to interdisciplinary and multimodal tumor therapy, which improves OS and results in acceptable toxicity. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13014-016-0583-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  13. Improved assessment of mediastinal and pulmonary pathologies in combined staging CT examinations using a fast-speed acquisition dual-source CT protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, Franziska M.; Holzner, Veronica; Meinel, Felix G.; Armbruster, Marco; Brandlhuber, Martina; Ertl-Wagner, Birgit; Sommer, Wieland H. [University Hospital Munich, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany)

    2017-12-15

    To demonstrate the feasibility of fast Dual-Source CT (DSCT) and to evaluate the clinical utility in chest/abdomen/pelvis staging CT studies. 45 cancer patients with two follow-up combined chest/abdomen/pelvis staging CT examinations (maximally ±10 kV difference in tube potential) were included. The first scan had to be performed with our standard protocol (fixed pitch 0.6), the second one using a novel fast-speed DSCT protocol (fixed pitch 1.55). Effective doses (ED) were calculated, noise measurements performed. Scan times were compared, motion artefacts and the diagnostic confidence rated in consensus reading. ED for the standard and fast-speed scans was 9.1 (7.0-11.1) mSv and 9.2 (7.4-12.8) mSv, respectively (P = 0.075). Image noise was comparable (abdomen; all P > 0.05) or reduced for fast-speed CTs (trachea, P = 0.001; ascending aorta, P < 0.001). Motion artefacts of the heart/the ascending aorta (all P < 0.001) and breathing artefacts (P < 0.031) were reduced in fast DSCT. The diagnostic confidence for the evaluation of mediastinal (P < 0.001) and pulmonary (P = 0.008) pathologies was improved for fast DSCT. Fast DSCT for chest/abdomen/pelvis staging CT examinations is performed within 2 seconds scan time and eliminates relevant intrathoracic motion/breathing artefacts. Mediastinal/pulmonary pathologies can thus be assessed with high diagnostic confidence. Abdominal image quality remains excellent. (orig.)

  14. On Modal Refinement and Consistency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyman, Ulrik; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Wasowski, Andrzej

    2007-01-01

    Almost 20 years after the original conception, we revisit several fundamental question about modal transition systems. First, we demonstrate the incompleteness of the standard modal refinement using a counterexample due to Hüttel. Deciding any refinement, complete with respect to the standard...

  15. Crystal structure refinement with SHELXL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheldrick, George M., E-mail: gsheldr@shelx.uni-ac.gwdg.de [Department of Structural Chemistry, Georg-August Universität Göttingen, Tammannstraße 4, Göttingen 37077 (Germany)

    2015-01-01

    New features added to the refinement program SHELXL since 2008 are described and explained. The improvements in the crystal structure refinement program SHELXL have been closely coupled with the development and increasing importance of the CIF (Crystallographic Information Framework) format for validating and archiving crystal structures. An important simplification is that now only one file in CIF format (for convenience, referred to simply as ‘a CIF’) containing embedded reflection data and SHELXL instructions is needed for a complete structure archive; the program SHREDCIF can be used to extract the .hkl and .ins files required for further refinement with SHELXL. Recent developments in SHELXL facilitate refinement against neutron diffraction data, the treatment of H atoms, the determination of absolute structure, the input of partial structure factors and the refinement of twinned and disordered structures. SHELXL is available free to academics for the Windows, Linux and Mac OS X operating systems, and is particularly suitable for multiple-core processors.

  16. A rapid tattoo removal technique using a combination of pulsed Er:YAG and Q-Switched Nd:YAG in a split lesion protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardana, Kabir; Ranjan, Rashmi; Kochhar, Atul M; Mahajan, Khushbu Goel; Garg, Vijay K

    2015-01-01

    Tattoo removal has evolved over the years and though Q-switched laser is the 'workhorse' laser, it invariably requires multiple sittings, which are dependent on numerous factors, including the skin colour, location of the tattoo, age of the tattoo, colour of pigment used, associated fibrosis and the kind of tattoo treated. Though ablative lasers, both pulsed CO2 and Er:YAG, have been used for recalcitrant tattoos, very few studies have been done comparing them with pigment-specific lasers. Our study was based on the premise that ablating the epidermis overlying the tattoo pigment with Er:YAG could help in gaining better access to the pigment which would enable the Q-switched laser to work effectively with less beam scattering. A study of rapid tattoo removal (RTR) technique using a combination of pulsed Er:YAG and Q-Switched Nd:YAG in a split lesion protocol. This prospective study was undertaken during 2010-13 at a laser Clinic in the Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi. A total of 10 patients were recruited, 5 of amateur tattoo and 5 of professional tattoo. After informed consent each tattoo was arbitrarily 'split' into two parts. One part was treated with QS Nd:YAG laser(1064 nm) and the other part with Er:YAG laser immediately followed by the QS Nd:YAG. The laser treatments were repeated at 6-week intervals until the tattoo pigment had cleared. On the combination side in subsequent sittings only the QS Nd:YAG was used, to minimize repetitive ablation. To ensure consistency in the intervention methods a trained dermatologist who was independent of the treatment delivery randomly rated 10% of the procedures. The mean improvement achieved by the Q-switched laser (2.93) was less than the combination laser (3.85) side (p = 0.001) and needed more sessions (3.8 vs. 1.6; p = 0.001). There was a statistically significant difference in the improvement on the combination side till the second session. On the combination side patients required a maximum of 2 sessions

  17. Comparison of Placido disc and Scheimpflug image-derived topography-guided excimer laser surface normalization combined with higher fluence CXL: the Athens Protocol, in progressive keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanellopoulos AJ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Anastasios John Kanellopoulos,1,2 George Asimellis11Laservision.gr Eye Institute, Athens, Greece; 2New York University School of Medicine, Department of Opthalmology, NY, NY, USABackground: The purpose of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of two alternative corneal topography data sources used in topography-guided excimer laser normalization, combined with corneal collagen cross-linking in the management of keratoconus using the Athens protocol, ie, a Placido disc imaging device and a Scheimpflug imaging device.Methods: A total of 181 consecutive patients with keratoconus who underwent the Athens protocol between 2008 and 2011 were studied preoperatively and at months 1, 3, 6, and 12 postoperatively for visual acuity, keratometry, and anterior surface corneal irregularity indices. Two groups were formed, depending on the primary source used for topoguided photoablation, ie, group A (Placido disc and group B (Scheimpflug rotating camera. One-year changes in visual acuity, keratometry, and seven anterior surface corneal irregularity indices were studied in each group.Results: Changes in visual acuity, expressed as the difference between postoperative and preoperative corrected distance visual acuity were +0.12 ± 0.20 (range +0.60 to -0.45 for group A and +0.19 ± 0.20 (range +0.75 to -0.30 for group B. In group A, K1 (flat keratometry changed from 45.202 ± 3.782 D to 43.022 ± 3.819 D, indicating a flattening of -2.18 D, and K2 (steep keratometry changed from 48.670 ± 4.066 D to 45.865 ± 4.794 D, indicating a flattening of -2.805 D. In group B, K1 (flat keratometry changed from 46.213 ± 4.082 D to 43.190 ± 4.398 D, indicating a flattening of -3.023 D, and K2 (steep keratometry changed from 50.774 ± 5.210 D to 46.380 ± 5.006 D, indicating a flattening of -4.394 D. For group A, the index of surface variance decreased to -5.07% and the index of height decentration to -26.81%. In group B, the index of surface variance

  18. Low-dose X-ray computed tomography image reconstruction with a combined low-mAs and sparse-view protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Bian, Zhaoying; Huang, Jing; Zhang, Yunwan; Niu, Shanzhou; Feng, Qianjin; Chen, Wufan; Liang, Zhengrong; Ma, Jianhua

    2014-06-16

    To realize low-dose imaging in X-ray computed tomography (CT) examination, lowering milliampere-seconds (low-mAs) or reducing the required number of projection views (sparse-view) per rotation around the body has been widely studied as an easy and effective approach. In this study, we are focusing on low-dose CT image reconstruction from the sinograms acquired with a combined low-mAs and sparse-view protocol and propose a two-step image reconstruction strategy. Specifically, to suppress significant statistical noise in the noisy and insufficient sinograms, an adaptive sinogram restoration (ASR) method is first proposed with consideration of the statistical property of sinogram data, and then to further acquire a high-quality image, a total variation based projection onto convex sets (TV-POCS) method is adopted with a slight modification. For simplicity, the present reconstruction strategy was termed as "ASR-TV-POCS." To evaluate the present ASR-TV-POCS method, both qualitative and quantitative studies were performed on a physical phantom. Experimental results have demonstrated that the present ASR-TV-POCS method can achieve promising gains over other existing methods in terms of the noise reduction, contrast-to-noise ratio, and edge detail preservation.

  19. Comparative efficacy and acceptability of antidepressants, psychological interventions, and their combination for depressive disorder in children and adolescents: protocol for a network meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xinyu; Cipriani, Andrea; Zhang, Yuqing; Cuijpers, Pim; Hetrick, Sarah E; Weisz, John R; Pu, Juncai; Giovane, Cinzia Del; Furukawa, Toshiaki A; Barth, Jürgen; Coghill, David; Leucht, Stefan; Yang, Lining; Ravindran, Arun V; Xie, Peng

    2017-01-01

    measures. Subgroup analyses and sensitivity analyses will be conducted to assess the robustness of the findings. Dissemination This NMA will provide the most up to date and clinically useful information about the comparative efficacy and acceptability of antidepressants, psychological intervention and their combination in the acute treatment of children and adolescents with depressive disorder. This is the newest NMA and therefore these results are very important in terms of evidence-based medicine. The results will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publication. Protocol registration PROSPERO CRD42015020841. PMID:28801423

  20. High Intensity Interval- vs Resistance or Combined- Training for Improving Cardiometabolic Health in Overweight Adults (Cardiometabolic HIIT-RT Study): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Hernandez, Alejandra; Castro, Karem; Tordecilla-Sanders, Alejandra; González-Ruíz, Katherine; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; Izquierdo, Mikel; García-Hermoso, Antonio

    2016-06-24

    Although evidence shows the positive health effects of physical activity, most of the adult population in Colombia are sedentary. It is, therefore, important to implement strategies that generate changes in lifestyle behaviours. This protocol describes a study in which we will compare the effects of 12 weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIIT), resistance training (RT) or combined training (HIIT + RT) on the improvement of body composition, endothelial function, blood pressure, blood lipids, and cardiorespiratory fitness in a cohort of sedentary, overweight adults (aged 30-50 years). Sixty sedentary, overweight adults attending primary care in Bogotá, Colombia will be included in a factorial randomised controlled trial. Participants will be randomly assigned to the following intervention groups: (1) non-exercise group: usual care with dietary support, (2) HIIT group: 4 × 4-min intervals at 85-95 % maximum heart rate (HRmax) (with the target zone maintained for at least 2 minutes), interspersed with a 4-min recovery period, at 65 % HRmax, (3) RT group: completing a resistance circuit (including upper and lower muscle groups) as many times as needed according to subject's weight until an expenditure of 500 kcal at 40-80 % of one-rep max (1RM) has been achieved, and (4) combined group: HIIT + RT. The primary end point for effectiveness is vascular function as measured by flow-mediated vasodilatation 1 week after the end of exercise training. The results of this study will provide new information about the possible effect of the programme in improving the cardiometabolic health of overweight adults, making a more efficient use of an adult's resources over time. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT02715063 . Registered on 8 March 2016.

  1. Improving outcomes in patients with coexisting multimorbid conditions-the development and evaluation of the combined diabetes and renal control trial (C-DIRECT): study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griva, Konstadina; Mooppil, Nandakumar; Khoo, Eric; Lee, Vanessa Yin Woan; Kang, Augustine Wee Cheng; Newman, Stanton P

    2015-02-12

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the most common cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Patients with diabetes on dialysis have worse clinical outcomes and increased psychological burden. The need to manage the combined treatment demands for both conditions is particularly challenging yet there is paucity of data of the barriers preventing optimal management to combined therapy for diabetes and kidney failure. The study aims to explore needs of patients and develop an intervention to enable people with diabetes and ESRD to better manage both their conditions. A two-phase study comprising a mixed method observational study (phase I) and a feasibility trial (phase II). Phase I will seek to document outcomes and needs of the population (patients with DM-ESRD) and seek input on preferred delivery/implementation for the programme. Data will be collected with in-depth interviews with patients, caregivers and healthcare providers (N=50), and from a questionnaire-based survey (N=170). Phase 2 will build on these data to design and test the feasibility of a practical, low-intensity, clinic-integrated intervention using a self-management paradigm. The intervention will primarily seek to support behavioural change so as to improve adherence and clinical outcomes for DM as well as for ESRD. For the feasibility trial, we will be evaluating acceptability, retention and completion rates of the programme. The study protocol has been approved by the local ethics committee and written informed consent is required from every participant. Findings will be disseminated through journals, conferences and will be used to create a fully manualised intervention (materials) and training course for facilitators. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. A Canadian refiner's perspective of synthetic crudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halford, T.L.; McIntosh, A.P.; Rasmussen

    1997-01-01

    Some of the factors affecting a refiner's choice of crude oil include refinery hardware, particularly gas oil crackers, products slate and product specifications, crude availability, relative crude price and crude quality. An overview of synthetic crude, the use of synthetic crude combined with other crudes and a comparison of synthetic crude with conventional crude oil was given. The two main users of synthetic crude are basically two groups of refiners, those large groups who use synthetic crude combined with other crudes, and a smaller group who run synthetic crude on specially designed units as a sole feed. The effects of changes in fuel legislation were reviewed. It was predicted that the changes will have a mixed impact on the value of synthetic crude, but low sulphur diesel regulations and gasoline sulphur regulations will make current synthetic crudes attractive. The big future change with a negative impact will be diesel cetane increases to reduce engine emissions. This will reduce synthetic crude attractiveness due to distillate yields and quality and high gas oil yields. Similarly, any legislation limiting aromatics in diesel fuel will also make synthetic crudes less attractive. Problems experienced by refiners with hardware dedicated to synthetic crude (salt, naphthenic acid, fouling, quality variations) were also reviewed. 3 tabs

  3. South Korea - oil refining overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.

    1999-01-01

    Following the economic problems of the 1990s, the petroleum refining industry of South Korea underwent much involuntary restructuring in 1999 with respect to takeovers and mergers and these are discussed. The demand for petroleum has now pretty well recovered. The reasons for fluctuating prices in the 1990s, how the new structure should be cushioned against changes in the future, and the potential for South Korea to export refined petroleum, are all discussed

  4. Adaptive Mesh Refinement in CTH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, David

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports progress on implementing a new capability of adaptive mesh refinement into the Eulerian multimaterial shock- physics code CTH. The adaptivity is block-based with refinement and unrefinement occurring in an isotropic 2:1 manner. The code is designed to run on serial, multiprocessor and massive parallel platforms. An approximate factor of three in memory and performance improvements over comparable resolution non-adaptive calculations has-been demonstrated for a number of problems

  5. Steel refining possibilities in LF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitru, M. G.; Ioana, A.; Constantin, N.; Ciobanu, F.; Pollifroni, M.

    2018-01-01

    This article presents the main possibilities for steel refining in Ladle Furnace (LF). These, are presented: steelmaking stages, steel refining through argon bottom stirring, online control of the bottom stirring, bottom stirring diagram during LF treatment of a heat, porous plug influence over the argon stirring, bottom stirring porous plug, analysis of porous plugs disposal on ladle bottom surface, bottom stirring simulation with ANSYS, bottom stirring simulation with Autodesk CFD.

  6. Combination Protocol of Low-Frequency rTMS and Intensive Occupational Therapy for Post-stroke Upper Limb Hemiparesis: a 6-year Experience of More Than 1700 Japanese Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuda, Wataru; Abo, Masahiro; Sasanuma, Jinichi; Shimizu, Masato; Okamoto, Takatsugu; Kimura, Chikou; Kakita, Kiyohito; Hara, Hiroyoshi

    2016-06-01

    Several years ago, we proposed a combination protocol of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and intensive occupational therapy (OT) for upper limb hemiparesis after stroke. Subsequently, the number of patients treated with the protocol has increased in Japan. We aimed to present the latest data on our proposed combination protocol for post-stroke upper limb hemiparesis as a result of a multi-institutional study. After confirming that a patient met the inclusion criteria for the protocol, they were scheduled to receive the 15-day inpatient protocol. In the protocol, two sessions of 20-min rTMS and 120-min occupational therapy were provided daily, except for Sundays and the days of admission/discharge. Motor function of the affected upper limb was evaluated by the Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA) and Wolf motor function test (WMFT) at admission/discharge and at 4 weeks after discharge if possible. A total of 1725 post-stroke patients were studied (mean age at admission 61.4 ± 13.0 years). The scheduled 15-day protocol was completed by all patients. At discharge, the increase in FMA score, shortening in performance time of WMFT, and increase in functional ability scale (FAS) score of WMFT were significant (FMA score 46.8 ± 12.2 to 50.9 ± 11.4 points, p hemiparesis after stroke, although its efficacy should be confirmed in a randomized controlled study.

  7. A Flexible Multidose GnRH Antagonist versus a Microdose Flare-Up GnRH Agonist Combined with a Flexible Multidose GnRH Antagonist Protocol in Poor Responders to IVF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayem İnayet Turgay Çelik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare the effectiveness of a flexible multidose gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH antagonist against the effectiveness of a microdose flare-up GnRH agonist combined with a flexible multidose GnRH antagonist protocol in poor responders to in vitro fertilization (IVF. Study Design. A retrospective study in Akdeniz University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, IVF Center, for 131 poor responders in the intracytoplasmic sperm injection-embryo transfer (ICSI-ET program between January 2006 and November 2012. The groups were compared to the patients’ characteristics, controlled ovarian stimulation (COH results, and laboratory results. Results. Combination protocol was applied to 46 patients (group 1, and a single protocol was applied to 85 patients (group 2. In group 1, the duration of the treatment was longer and the dose of FSH was higher. The cycle cancellation rate was significantly higher in group 2 (26.1% versus 38.8%. A significant difference was not observed with respect to the number and quality of oocytes and embryos or to the number of embryos transferred. There were no statistically significant differences in the hCG positivity (9.5% versus 9.4% or the clinical pregnancy rates (7.1% versus 10.6%. Conclusion. The combination protocol does not provide additional efficacy.

  8. A Flexible Multidose GnRH Antagonist versus a Microdose Flare-Up GnRH Agonist Combined with a Flexible Multidose GnRH Antagonist Protocol in Poor Responders to IVF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Gayem İnayet Turgay; Sütçü, Havva Kömür; Akpak, Yaşam Kemal; Akar, Münire Erman

    2015-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of a flexible multidose gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist against the effectiveness of a microdose flare-up GnRH agonist combined with a flexible multidose GnRH antagonist protocol in poor responders to in vitro fertilization (IVF). A retrospective study in Akdeniz University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, IVF Center, for 131 poor responders in the intracytoplasmic sperm injection-embryo transfer (ICSI-ET) program between January 2006 and November 2012. The groups were compared to the patients' characteristics, controlled ovarian stimulation (COH) results, and laboratory results. Combination protocol was applied to 46 patients (group 1), and a single protocol was applied to 85 patients (group 2). In group 1, the duration of the treatment was longer and the dose of FSH was higher. The cycle cancellation rate was significantly higher in group 2 (26.1% versus 38.8%). A significant difference was not observed with respect to the number and quality of oocytes and embryos or to the number of embryos transferred. There were no statistically significant differences in the hCG positivity (9.5% versus 9.4%) or the clinical pregnancy rates (7.1% versus 10.6%). The combination protocol does not provide additional efficacy.

  9. Refinement of Parallel and Reactive Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Back, R. J. R.

    1992-01-01

    We show how to apply the refinement calculus to stepwise refinement of parallel and reactive programs. We use action systems as our basic program model. Action systems are sequential programs which can be implemented in a parallel fashion. Hence refinement calculus methods, originally developed for sequential programs, carry over to the derivation of parallel programs. Refinement of reactive programs is handled by data refinement techniques originally developed for the sequential refinement c...

  10. Safety and feasibility of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) combined with sensorimotor retraining in chronic low back pain: a protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouellette, Adam Louis; Liston, Matthew B; Chang, Wei-Ju; Walton, David M; Wand, Benedict Martin; Schabrun, Siobhan M

    2017-08-21

    Chronic low back pain (LBP) is a common and costly health problem yet current treatments demonstrate at best, small effects. The concurrent application of treatments with synergistic clinical and mechanistic effects may improve outcomes in chronic LBP. This pilot trial aims to (1) determine the feasibility, safety and perceived patient response to a combined transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and sensorimotor retraining intervention in chronic LBP and (2) provide data to support a sample size calculation for a fully powered trial should trends of effectiveness be present. A pilot randomised, assessor and participant-blind, sham-controlled trial will be conducted. Eighty participants with chronic LBP will be randomly allocated to receive either (1) active tDCS + sensorimotor retraining or (2) sham tDCS + sensorimotor retraining. tDCS (active or sham) will be applied to the primary motor cortex for 20 min immediately prior to 60 min of supervised sensorimotor retraining twice per week for 10 weeks. Participants in both groups will complete home exercises three times per week. Feasibility, safety, pain, disability and pain system function will be assessed immediately before and after the 10-week intervention. Analysis of feasibility and safety will be performed using descriptive statistics. Statistical analyses will be conducted based on intention-to-treat and per protocol and will be used to determine trends for effectiveness. Ethical approval has been gained from the institutional human research ethics committee (H10184). Written informed consent will be provided by all participants. Results from this pilot study will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals. ACTRN12616000624482. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Patients' and therapists' experiences with a new treatment programme for eating disorders that combines physical exercise and dietary therapy: the PED-t trial. A qualitative study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersen, Gunn; Rosenvinge, Jan H; Bakland, Maria; Wynn, Rolf; Mathisen, Therese Fostervold; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn

    2018-01-08

    Women with bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder often suffer for many years before they seek professional help. Evidence-based treatments like cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) might be poorly accessible, and about 50% of those who receive CBT respond to it. Such outcome may reflect the heterogeneous nature of eating disorders, and addressing this heterogeneity calls for expanding the portfolio of treatment options. In particular, it is important to explore such options' acceptability, tolerability and affordability expressed through experiences with the treatment. This protocol outlines the rationale and design of a qualitative study. It captures experiences from patients and therapists who were involved in a randomised controlled trial (RCT) exploring the efficacy of a new group-based treatment programme combining physical exercise and dietary therapy. 15 patients with bulimia nervosa or binge eating disorder, 10 therapists (physical trainers and dietitians) and 6-10 patients who dropped out of the RCT will be semistructurally interviewed. All interviews will be analysed using a systematic text condensation approach. Results will be presented in peer-reviewed international journals, and at relevant international conferences. Key findings will be available to study participants as well as to patient organisations and health authorities. The overall study meets the intent and requirements of the Health Research Act and the Declaration of Helsinki. It is approved by the regional committee for medical research ethics (2013/1871). NCT02079935; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Feasibility of corifollitropin alfa/GnRH antagonist protocol combined with GnRH agonist triggering and freeze-all strategy in polycystic ovary syndrome patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiann-Loung Hwang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Purpose: The long-acting corifollitropin alfa is comparable to FSH in terms of pregnancy outcomes in normal responders and poor responders. Corifollitropin alfa has never been studied in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS patients because of concerns of excessive ovarian stimulation and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS. The purpose of the study was to evaluate if corifollitropin alfa can be used in PCOS patients. Methods: Forty PCOS patients who were going to undergo in vitro fertilization were enrolled in this study. A single injection of corifollitropin alfa was administered on cycle day 2 or day 3. From stimulation day 8 onwards, daily FSH was administered until the day of final oocyte maturation. Cetrorelix was administered from stimulation day 5 to prevent premature LH surge. Final oocyte maturation was triggered by: acetate. All embryos were cryopreserved and replaced in subsequent cycles. Results: All 40 patients were subjected to oocyte retrieval, and none developed moderate or severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (0%, 95% CI 0–0.088. For each patient, an average of 23.4 (±7.4; 95% CI 21.0–25.7 oocytes were retrieved and a mean of 11.7 (±6.4; 95% CI 9.6–13.8 embryos were frozen. Mean serum estradiol level on the day of GnRHa triggering was 7829.9 pg/ml (±3297; 95% CI 6775–8885. The cumulated ongoing pregnancy rate after 3 frozen-thawed embryo transfers was 75.0% (95% CI 61.6%–88.4%. Conclusion: The results suggest that corifollitropin alfa/GnRH antagonist protocol can be used in PCOS patients, in combination with GnRHa triggering and embryo cryopreservation. Keywords: Corifollitropin alfa, Cryopreservation, GnRH agonist, Polycystic ovary syndrome

  13. Biofuels Refining Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobban, Lance [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    2017-03-28

    carbon capture and hydrogen efficiency. Our research approach combined catalyst synthesis, measurements of catalyst activity and selectivity in different reactor systems and conditions, and detailed catalyst characterization to develop fundamental understanding of reaction pathways and the capability to predict product distributions. Nearly all of the candidate catalysts were prepared in-house via standard techniques such as impregnation, co-impregnation, or chemical vapor deposition. Supports were usually purchased, but in some cases coprecipitation was used to simultaneously create the support and active component, which can be advantageous for strong active component-support interactions and for achieving high active component dispersion. In-house synthesis also allowed for studies of the effects on catalyst activity and selectivity of such factors as support porosity, calcination temperature, and reduction/activation conditions. Depending on the physical characteristics of the molecule, catalyst activity measurements were carried out in tubular flow reactors (for vapor phase reactions) or stirred tank reactors (for liquid phase reactions) over a wide range of pressures and temperatures. Reactant and product concentrations were measured using gas chromatography (both on-line and off-line, with TCD, FID, and/or mass spectrometric detection). For promising catalysts, detailed physicochemical characterization was carried out using FTIR, Raman, XPS, and XRD spectroscopies (all available in our laboratories) and TEM spectroscopy (available at OU). Additional methods included temperature programmed techniques (TPD, TPO) and surface area measurements by nitrogen adsorption techniques.

  14. Romanian refining industry assesses restructuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanasescu, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    The Romanian crude oil refining industry, as all the other economic sectors, faces the problems accompanying the transition from a centrally planned economy to a market economy. At present, all refineries have registered as joint-stock companies and all are coordinated and assisted by Rafirom S.A., from both a legal and a production point of view. Rafirom S.A. is a joint-stock company that holds shares in refineries and other stock companies with activities related to oil refining. Such activities include technological research, development, design, transportation, storage, and domestic and foreign marketing. This article outlines the market forces that are expected to: drive rationalization and restructuring of refining operations and define the targets toward which the reconfigured refineries should strive

  15. Data refinement for true concurrency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh Dongol

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The majority of modern systems exhibit sophisticated concurrent behaviour, where several system components modify and observe the system state with fine-grained atomicity. Many systems (e.g., multi-core processors, real-time controllers also exhibit truly concurrent behaviour, where multiple events can occur simultaneously. This paper presents data refinement defined in terms of an interval-based framework, which includes high-level operators that capture non-deterministic expression evaluation. By modifying the type of an interval, our theory may be specialised to cover data refinement of both discrete and continuous systems. We present an interval-based encoding of forward simulation, then prove that our forward simulation rule is sound with respect to our data refinement definition. A number of rules for decomposing forward simulation proofs over both sequential and parallel composition are developed.

  16. Bauxite Mining and Alumina Refining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Neale; Olney, David

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To describe bauxite mining and alumina refining processes and to outline the relevant physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic, and psychosocial health risks. Methods: Review article. Results: The most important risks relate to noise, ergonomics, trauma, and caustic soda splashes of the skin/eyes. Other risks of note relate to fatigue, heat, and solar ultraviolet and for some operations tropical diseases, venomous/dangerous animals, and remote locations. Exposures to bauxite dust, alumina dust, and caustic mist in contemporary best-practice bauxite mining and alumina refining operations have not been demonstrated to be associated with clinically significant decrements in lung function. Exposures to bauxite dust and alumina dust at such operations are also not associated with the incidence of cancer. Conclusions: A range of occupational health risks in bauxite mining and alumina refining require the maintenance of effective control measures. PMID:24806720

  17. Effectiveness and safety of celecoxib combined with diacerein in the treatment of senile degenerative knee osteoarthritis: study protocol and preliminary results of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-dong Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug celecoxib, used for the treatment of senile degenerative knee osteoarthritis, has a rapid onset of action and few side effects. However, it cannot prevent the occurrence and development of knee osteoarthritis. Celecoxib withdrawal is likely to induce a rebound increase in inflammation that may aggravate symptoms. Diacerein is a drug used to improve articular cartilage metabolism. It can delay the progression of senile degenerative knee osteoarthritis, but has a slow onset of action. Whether combined treatment with celecoxib and diacerein provides complimentary actions to achieve a better therapeutic effect on senile degenerative knee osteoarthritis remains unclear. >Design: A prospective, single-center, randomized controlled trial. Methods: Three hundred patients with senile degenerative knee osteoarthritis who receive treatment at the Department of Orthopedics, Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, China will be randomly assigned to the celecoxib (200 mg, once a day, orally, diacerein (50 mg, twice a day, orally, and celecoxib + diacerein (celecoxib 200 mg, once a day, orally and diacerein 50 mg, twice a day, orally groups, with 100 patients in each group. Patients in each group will be treated for 12 successive weeks, and a 36-week follow-up will be performed. At 24 weeks after treatment, the VAS score for pain during the 20-meter walk test and osteoarthritis index were significantly decreased in the diacerein and celecoxib + diacerein groups compared to pre-treatment (P Outcome measures and preliminary results: The primary outcome measure of this study is the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS score for pain during the 20-meter walk test before and 1, 4, 12, 24, and 36 weeks after treatment. The secondary outcome measures of this study include osteoarthritis index and X-ray image findings of the knee before and 1, 4, 12, 24, and 36 weeks after treatment, as well

  18. Bioremediation protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sheehan, David

    1997-01-01

    ..., .. . . . . .. ,. . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . .. . .. 3 2 Granular Nina Sludge Christiansen, Consortia lndra for Bioremediation, M. Mathrani, and Birgitte K. Ahring . 23 PART II PROTOCOLS...

  19. Refining capacity in Quebec : the Quebec market, industry viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trudelle, F.

    2004-01-01

    Canada's second largest oil refinery is operated by Ultramar Ltd. in Levis, Quebec. The refinery, which supplies 45 per cent of all Quebec's petroleum, distributes its products to Quebec, Ontario and the Maritime provinces. The refinery currently produces 215,000 barrels per day. Ultramar is a division of Valero, an American firm which has a total refining capacity of 2.4 million barrels per day. A summary of the company's petroleum energy distribution, consumption, and reserves was presented and compared with the national and global position. It was noted that world demand for petroleum products increases yearly by 1 to 1.5 per cent while the demand for automobile fuel in North America increases by 2.5 to 3.5 per cent. In the last 10 years, world demand has increased by more than 22 per cent but refining capacity has only increased by 12 per cent. The average profitability of the refining industry from 1992 to 2002 was approximately 5.5 per cent, which limited investments in new refinery installations. Much of the industry's profits have been utilized to modify installations in order to reduce the sulphur content in gasoline and diesel fuels. Furthermore, the obtention of permits to construct new refining installations has become a major obstacle and the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol may signify a 30 per cent reduction in automotive fuel demand. Given this, there is currently some hesitation and uncertainty by the refining industry to proceed with new major installations. tabs., figs

  20. (Na,□)5[MnO2]13 nanorods: a new tunnel structure for electrode materials determined ab initio and refined through a combination of electron and synchrotron diffraction data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugnaioli, Enrico; Gemmi, Mauro; Merlini, Marco; Gregorkiewitz, Michele

    2016-01-01

    (Nax□1 − x)5[MnO2]13 has been synthesized with x = 0.80 (4), corresponding to Na0.31[MnO2]. This well known material is usually cited as Na0.4[MnO2] and is believed to have a romanèchite-like framework. Here, its true structure is determined, ab initio, by single-crystal electron diffraction tomography (EDT) and refined both by EDT data applying dynamical scattering theory and by the Rietveld method based on synchrotron powder diffraction data (χ2 = 0.690, R wp = 0.051, R p = 0.037, R F2 = 0.035). The unit cell is monoclinic C2/m, a = 22.5199 (6), b = 2.83987 (6), c = 14.8815 (4) Å, β = 105.0925 (16)°, V = 918.90 (4) Å3, Z = 2. A hitherto unknown [MnO2] framework is found, which is mainly based on edge- and corner-sharing octahedra and comprises three types of tunnels: per unit cell, two are defined by S-shaped 10-rings, four by egg-shaped 8-rings, and two by slightly oval 6-rings of Mn polyhedra. Na occupies all tunnels. The so-determined structure excellently explains previous reports on the electrochemistry of (Na,□)5[MnO2]13. The trivalent Mn3+ ions concentrate at two of the seven Mn sites where larger Mn—O distances and Jahn–Teller distortion are observed. One of the Mn3+ sites is five-coordinated in a square pyramid which, on oxidation to Mn4+, may easily undergo topotactic transformation to an octahedron suggesting a possible pathway for the transition among different tunnel structures. PMID:27910840

  1. Biomolecular structure refinement using the GROMOS simulation software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, Nathan; Allison, Jane R.; Dolenc, Jožica; Eichenberger, Andreas P.; Kunz, Anna-Pitschna E.; Gunsteren, Wilfred F. van

    2011-01-01

    For the understanding of cellular processes the molecular structure of biomolecules has to be accurately determined. Initial models can be significantly improved by structure refinement techniques. Here, we present the refinement methods and analysis techniques implemented in the GROMOS software for biomolecular simulation. The methodology and some implementation details of the computation of NMR NOE data, 3 J-couplings and residual dipolar couplings, X-ray scattering intensities from crystals and solutions and neutron scattering intensities used in GROMOS is described and refinement strategies and concepts are discussed using example applications. The GROMOS software allows structure refinement combining different types of experimental data with different types of restraining functions, while using a variety of methods to enhance conformational searching and sampling and the thermodynamically calibrated GROMOS force field for biomolecular simulation.

  2. Biomolecular structure refinement using the GROMOS simulation software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Nathan; Allison, Jane R.; Dolenc, Jozica; Eichenberger, Andreas P.; Kunz, Anna-Pitschna E.; Gunsteren, Wilfred F. van, E-mail: wfvgn@igc.phys.chem.ethz.ch [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH, Laboratory of Physical Chemistry (Switzerland)

    2011-11-15

    For the understanding of cellular processes the molecular structure of biomolecules has to be accurately determined. Initial models can be significantly improved by structure refinement techniques. Here, we present the refinement methods and analysis techniques implemented in the GROMOS software for biomolecular simulation. The methodology and some implementation details of the computation of NMR NOE data, {sup 3}J-couplings and residual dipolar couplings, X-ray scattering intensities from crystals and solutions and neutron scattering intensities used in GROMOS is described and refinement strategies and concepts are discussed using example applications. The GROMOS software allows structure refinement combining different types of experimental data with different types of restraining functions, while using a variety of methods to enhance conformational searching and sampling and the thermodynamically calibrated GROMOS force field for biomolecular simulation.

  3. Refining Nodes and Edges of State Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallerstede, Stefan; Snook, Colin

    2011-01-01

    State machines are hierarchical automata that are widely used to structure complex behavioural specifications. We develop two notions of refinement of state machines, node refinement and edge refinement. We compare the two notions by means of examples and argue that, by adopting simple conventions...... refinement theory and UML-B state machine refinement influences the style of node refinement. Hence we propose a method with direct proof of state machine refinement avoiding the detour via Event-B that is needed by UML-B....

  4. Development of an efficient grain refiner for Al-7Si alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kori, S.A.; Murty, B.S.; Chakraborty, M. [Indian Inst. of Technol., Kharagpur (India). Dept. of Metall. and Mater. Eng.

    2000-03-15

    The response of Al-7Si alloy towards grain refinement by Al-Ti-B master alloys (with different Ti-B ratios) at different addition levels has been studied in detail. The results indicate that high B-containing master alloys are powerful grain refiners when compared to conventional grain refiners like Al-5Ti-lB master alloys. In the present study, indigenously developed master alloys have been used for the grain refinement of alloys Al-7Si and LM-25. Significant improvements in mechanical properties have been obtained with a combination of grain refiner and Sr as modifier. (orig.)

  5. Process for refining shale bitumen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plauson, H

    1920-09-19

    A process is disclosed for refining shale bitumen for use as heavy mineral oil, characterized by mixtures of blown hard shale pitch and heavy mineral oil being blown with hot air at temperatures of 120 to 150/sup 0/ with 1 to 3 percent sulfur, and if necessary with 0.5 to 3 percent of an aldehyde.

  6. Panorama 2007: Refining and Petrochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, C.

    2007-01-01

    The year 2005 saw a new improvement in refining margins that continued during the first three quarters of 2006. The restoration of margins in the last three years has allowed the refining sector to regain its profitability. In this context, the oil companies reported earnings for fiscal year 2005 that were up significantly compared to 2004, and the figures for the first half-year 2006 confirm this trend. Despite this favorable business environment, investments only saw a minimal increase in 2005 and the improvement expected for 2006 should remain fairly limited. Looking to 2010-2015, it would appear that the planned investment projects with the highest probability of reaching completion will be barely adequate to cover the increase in demand. Refining sector should continue to find itself under pressure. As for petrochemicals, despite a steady up-trend in the naphtha price, the restoration of margins consolidated a comeback that started in 2005. All in all, capital expenditure remained fairly low in both the refining and petrochemicals sectors, but many projects are planned for the next ten years. (author)

  7. Multigrid for refined triangle meshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapira, Yair

    1997-02-01

    A two-level preconditioning method for the solution of (locally) refined finite element schemes using triangle meshes is introduced. In the isotropic SPD case, it is shown that the condition number of the preconditioned stiffness matrix is bounded uniformly for all sufficiently regular triangulations. This is also verified numerically for an isotropic diffusion problem with highly discontinuous coefficients.

  8. Coded Splitting Tree Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to multiple access control called coded splitting tree protocol. The approach builds on the known tree splitting protocols, code structure and successive interference cancellation (SIC). Several instances of the tree splitting protocol are initiated, each...... instance is terminated prematurely and subsequently iterated. The combined set of leaves from all the tree instances can then be viewed as a graph code, which is decodable using belief propagation. The main design problem is determining the order of splitting, which enables successful decoding as early...

  9. Marine sediment pore-water profiles of phosphate d18O using a refined micro-extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldhammer, Tobias; Max, Thomas; Brunner, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    and small amounts of marine porewaters available for analysis. We obtained porewater profiles of Pi oxygen isotopes using a refined protocol based on the original micro-extraction designed by Colman (2002). This refined and customized method allows the conversion of ultra-low quantities (0.5 – 1 μmol...

  10. A refined method for calculating equivalent effective stratospheric chlorine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Andreas; Bönisch, Harald; Ostermöller, Jennifer; Chipperfield, Martyn P.; Dhomse, Sandip; Jöckel, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    Chlorine and bromine atoms lead to catalytic depletion of ozone in the stratosphere. Therefore the use and production of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) containing chlorine and bromine is regulated by the Montreal Protocol to protect the ozone layer. Equivalent effective stratospheric chlorine (EESC) has been adopted as an appropriate metric to describe the combined effects of chlorine and bromine released from halocarbons on stratospheric ozone. Here we revisit the concept of calculating EESC. We derive a refined formulation of EESC based on an advanced concept of ODS propagation into the stratosphere and reactive halogen release. A new transit time distribution is introduced in which the age spectrum for an inert tracer is weighted with the release function for inorganic halogen from the source gases. This distribution is termed the release time distribution. We show that a much better agreement with inorganic halogen loading from the chemistry transport model TOMCAT is achieved compared with using the current formulation. The refined formulation shows EESC levels in the year 1980 for the mid-latitude lower stratosphere, which are significantly lower than previously calculated. The year 1980 is commonly used as a benchmark to which EESC must return in order to reach significant progress towards halogen and ozone recovery. Assuming that - under otherwise unchanged conditions - the EESC value must return to the same level in order for ozone to fully recover, we show that it will take more than 10 years longer than estimated in this region of the stratosphere with the current method for calculation of EESC. We also present a range of sensitivity studies to investigate the effect of changes and uncertainties in the fractional release factors and in the assumptions on the shape of the release time distributions. We further discuss the value of EESC as a proxy for future evolution of inorganic halogen loading under changing atmospheric dynamics using simulations from

  11. Combined staging at one stop using MR mammography. Evaluation of an extended protocol to screen for distant metastasis in primary breast cancer. Initial results and diagnostic accuracy in a prospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietzel, M.; Zoubi, R.; Burmeister, H.P.; Kaiser, W.A.; Baltzer, P.A.T. [Jena Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Runnebaum, I.B. [University Hospital Jena (Germany). Dept. of Gynecology and Obstetrics

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: Accurate staging of primary breast cancer is essential for the therapeutic approach. Modern whole-body MR scanners would allow local and distant staging during a single examination. Accordingly, we designed a dedicated protocol for this purpose and prospectively evaluated the diagnostic accuracy. Materials and Methods: 65 consecutive breast cancer patients underwent pre-therapeutic MRI (1.5 T). A bilateral breast protocol (axial: T1w/GRE dynamic contrast-enhanced, T2w/TSE; TA: 10 min) was extended to screen for distant metastasis at one stop without repositioning (coronal: T2w/HASTE, T1w/VIBE; FOV: thorax, abdomen and spine; TA: 90 sec; multichannel surface coils). The standard of reference was S3 guideline-compliant staging examinations. Global assessment regarding the presence of distant metastasis was performed independently by two experienced and blinded radiologists (five-level confidence score). Inter-rater agreement (weighted kappa) and observer scoring were analyzed (contingency tables). Results: The prevalence of synchronous metastases was 7.7 % (n = 5). The protocol enabled global assessment regarding the presence of distant metastasis with high accuracy (sensitivity: 100 %; specificity: 98.3 %) and inter-rater agreement (kappa: 0.92). Conclusion: Applying the extended MRI protocol, accurate screening for distant metastasis was possible in combination with a dedicated breast examination. (orig.)

  12. A Family of ACO Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupérez Cañas, Delfín; Sandoval Orozco, Ana Lucila; García Villalba, Luis Javier; Kim, Tai-hoon

    2017-01-01

    In this work, an ACO routing protocol for mobile ad hoc networks based on AntHocNet is specified. As its predecessor, this new protocol, called AntOR, is hybrid in the sense that it contains elements from both reactive and proactive routing. Specifically, it combines a reactive route setup process with a proactive route maintenance and improvement process. Key aspects of the AntOR protocol are the disjoint-link and disjoint-node routes, separation between the regular pheromone and the virtual pheromone in the diffusion process and the exploration of routes, taking into consideration the number of hops in the best routes. In this work, a family of ACO routing protocols based on AntOR is also specified. These protocols are based on protocol successive refinements. In this work, we also present a parallelized version of AntOR that we call PAntOR. Using programming multiprocessor architectures based on the shared memory protocol, PAntOR allows running tasks in parallel using threads. This parallelization is applicable in the route setup phase, route local repair process and link failure notification. In addition, a variant of PAntOR that consists of having more than one interface, which we call PAntOR-MI (PAntOR-Multiple Interface), is specified. This approach parallelizes the sending of broadcast messages by interface through threads. PMID:28531159

  13. A Family of ACO Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupérez Cañas, Delfín; Sandoval Orozco, Ana Lucila; García Villalba, Luis Javier; Kim, Tai-Hoon

    2017-05-22

    In this work, an ACO routing protocol for mobile ad hoc networks based on AntHocNet is specified. As its predecessor, this new protocol, called AntOR, is hybrid in the sense that it contains elements from both reactive and proactive routing. Specifically, it combines a reactive route setup process with a proactive route maintenance and improvement process. Key aspects of the AntOR protocol are the disjoint-link and disjoint-node routes, separation between the regular pheromone and the virtual pheromone in the diffusion process and the exploration of routes, taking into consideration the number of hops in the best routes. In this work, a family of ACO routing protocols based on AntOR is also specified. These protocols are based on protocol successive refinements. In this work, we also present a parallelized version of AntOR that we call PAntOR. Using programming multiprocessor architectures based on the shared memory protocol, PAntOR allows running tasks in parallel using threads. This parallelization is applicable in the route setup phase, route local repair process and link failure notification. In addition, a variant of PAntOR that consists of having more than one interface, which we call PAntOR-MI (PAntOR-Multiple Interface), is specified. This approach parallelizes the sending of broadcast messages by interface through threads.

  14. Indirect MR venography: contrast medium protocols, postprocessing and combination in diagnosing pulmonary emboli with MRI; Indirekte MR-Phlebografie: Kontrastmittelprotokolle, Nachverarbeitung und Kombination mit Lungenemboliediagnostik in der MRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kluge, A.; Bachmann, G. [Diagnostische Radiologie, Kerckhoff-Klinik, Bad Nauheim (Germany); Rominger, M. [Diagnostische Radiologie, Phillips-Univ. Marburg (Germany); Schoenburg, M. [Herzchirurgie, Kerckhoff-Klinik, Bad Nauheim (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Purpose: Integration of MR venography in a comprehensive MR imaging protocol in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE) and evaluation of contrast media dosage, timing and postprocessing for diagnostic accuracy. Materials and Methods: Fortyeight consecutive inpatients with suspected PE or deep vein thrombosis were examined by MR venography according to one of the following protocols: protocol I: MR venography only, 0.25 mmol/kg bodyweight (BW) Gadopentate dimeglumine(Gd-DTPA) as single dose, bolus timing; protocol II: MR angiography of pulmonary arteries with a cumulative dosage of 0.25 mmol/kg contrast media, modification of coil setting for MR venography without further contrast media application; protocol III: as protocol II but with 0.125 mmol/kg BW, followed by MR venography. Signal-to-noise ratio, contrast-to-noise ratio, number of definable vascular segments and image quality were evaluated. The results were compared to conventional bilateral venography. Results: All MR venography examinations were of diagnostic quality and the examination time was below 10 min. MR venography could be performed in all 48 patients comparted to 43 of 48 patients for conventional venography. Significantly more superficial and deep veins of the leg could be visualized by MR venography (94% compared to 83% for conventional venography). Sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 92%, respectively. Quality differed significantly between 0.125 mmol/kg (protocol III) and 0.25 mmol/kg Gd-DTPA (protocols I and II) while timing did not influence quality (protocol I vs. II). (orig.) [German] Ziel: Integration der MR-Phlebografie in ein umfassendes Konzept der MRT-Diagnostik bei Verdacht auf Lungenembolie (LE). Untersuchung des Einflusses von Kontrastmittelmenge, -bolusform und Verzoegerungszeit sowie der Nachverarbeitung auf die diagnostische Qualitaet von MR-Phlebografien. Material und Methode: Bei 48 konsekutiven stationaeren Patienten mit Verdacht auf Beinvenenthrombose (TVT

  15. European refining: evolution or revolution?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuthbert, N.

    1999-01-01

    A recent detailed analysis of the refining business in Europe (by Purvin and Gurtz) was used to highlight some key issues facing the industry. The article was written under five sub-sections: (i) economic environment (assessment of the economic prospects for Europe), (ii) energy efficiency and global warming (lists the four points of the EU car makers' voluntary agreement), (iii) fuel quality and refinery investment (iv) refinery capacity and utilisation and (v) industry structure and development. Diagrams show GDP per capita for East and West, European road fuel demand to 2015 and European net trade and European refinery ownership by crude capacity. It was concluded that the future of refining in Europe is 'exciting and challenging' and there are likely to be more large joint venture refineries. (UK)

  16. Uranium refining by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraikaew, J.

    1996-01-01

    The yellow cake refining was studied in both laboratory and semi-pilot scales. The process units mainly consist of dissolution and filtration, solvent extraction, and precipitation and filtration. Effect of flow ratio (organic flow rate/ aqueous flow rate) on working efficiencies of solvent extraction process was studied. Detailed studies were carried out on extraction, scrubbing and stripping processes. Purity of yellow cake product obtained is high as 90.32% U 3 O 8

  17. Process for refining naphthalene, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petroff, G

    1922-05-13

    A process is described for the refining of naphthalene, its distillates, and mineral oils by the use of dilute sulfuric acid, characterized in that the oils are oxidized with oxygen of the air and thereafter are treated with 65 to 75 percent sulfuric acid to separate the unsaturated hydrocarbons in the form of polymerized products whereby, if necessary, heating and application of usual or higher pressure can take place.

  18. Preparation of refined oils, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1931-02-03

    A process is disclosed for the preparation of refined sulfur-containing oils from sulfur-containing crude oils obtained by distillation of bituminous limestone, characterized by this crude oil being first subjected to a purification by distillation with steam in the known way, then treated with lime and chloride of lime and distilled preferably in the presence of zinc powder, whereby in this purification a rectification can be added for the purpose of recovering definite fractions.

  19. Bauxite Mining and Alumina Refining

    OpenAIRE

    Donoghue, A. Michael; Frisch, Neale; Olney, David

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To describe bauxite mining and alumina refining processes and to outline the relevant physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic, and psychosocial health risks. Methods: Review article. Results: The most important risks relate to noise, ergonomics, trauma, and caustic soda splashes of the skin/eyes. Other risks of note relate to fatigue, heat, and solar ultraviolet and for some operations tropical diseases, venomous/dangerous animals, and remote locations. Exposures to bauxite dust,...

  20. The Charfuel coal refining process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, L.G.

    1991-01-01

    The patented Charfuel coal refining process employs fluidized hydrocracking to produce char and liquid products from virtually all types of volatile-containing coals, including low rank coal and lignite. It is not gasification or liquefaction which require the addition of expensive oxygen or hydrogen or the use of extreme heat or pressure. It is not the German pyrolysis process that merely 'cooks' the coal, producing coke and tar-like liquids. Rather, the Charfuel coal refining process involves thermal hydrocracking which results in the rearrangement of hydrogen within the coal molecule to produce a slate of co-products. In the Charfuel process, pulverized coal is rapidly heated in a reducing atmosphere in the presence of internally generated process hydrogen. This hydrogen rearrangement allows refinement of various ranks of coals to produce a pipeline transportable, slurry-type, environmentally clean boiler fuel and a slate of value-added traditional fuel and chemical feedstock co-products. Using coal and oxygen as the only feedstocks, the Charfuel hydrocracking technology economically removes much of the fuel nitrogen, sulfur, and potential air toxics (such as chlorine, mercury, beryllium, etc.) from the coal, resulting in a high heating value, clean burning fuel which can increase power plant efficiency while reducing operating costs. The paper describes the process, its thermal efficiency, its use in power plants, its pipeline transport, co-products, environmental and energy benefits, and economics

  1. A Macdonald refined topological vertex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Omar; Wu, Jian-Feng

    2017-07-01

    We consider the refined topological vertex of Iqbal et al (2009 J. High Energy Phys. JHEP10(2009)069), as a function of two parameters ≤ft\\lgroup x, y \\right\\rgroup , and deform it by introducing the Macdonald parameters ≤ft\\lgroup q, t \\right\\rgroup , as in the work of Vuletić on plane partitions (Vuletić M 2009 Trans. Am. Math. Soc. 361 2789-804), to obtain ‘a Macdonald refined topological vertex’. In the limit q → t , we recover the refined topological vertex of Iqbal et al and in the limit x → y , we obtain a qt-deformation of the original topological vertex of Aganagic et al (2005 Commun. Math. Phys. 25 425-78). Copies of the vertex can be glued to obtain qt-deformed 5D instanton partition functions that have well-defined 4D limits and, for generic values of ≤ft\\lgroup q, t\\right\\rgroup , contain infinite-towers of poles for every pole present in the limit q → t .

  2. Refining's-clean new jingle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that at a time when profit margins are slim and gasoline demand is down, the U.S. petroleum-refining industry is facing one of its greatest challenges; How to meet new federal and state laws for reformulated gasoline, oxygenated fuels, low-sulfur diesel and other measures to improve the environment. The American Petroleum Institute (API) estimates that industry will spend between $15 and $23 billion by the end of the decade to meet the U.S. Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990, and other legislation. ENSR Consulting and Engineering's capital-spending figure runs to between $70 and 100 billion this decade, including $24 billion to produce reformulated fuels and $10-12 billion to reduce refinery emissions. M.W. Kellogg Co. estimates that refiners may have to spend up to $30 billion this decade to meet the demand for reformulated gasoline. The estimates are wide-ranging because refiners are still studying their options and delaying final decisions as long as they can, to try to ensure they are the best and least-costly decisions. Oxygenated fuels will be required next winter, but federal regulations for reformulated gasoline won't go into effect until 1995, while California's tougher reformulated-fuels law will kick in the following year

  3. Southeast Asian oil markets and refining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, N.D. [FACTS, Inc., Honolulu, Hawaii (United States)

    1999-09-01

    An overview of the Southeast Asian oil markets and refining is presented concentrating on Brunei, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand refiners. Key statistics of the refiners in this region are tabulated. The demand and the quality of Indonesian, Malaysian, Philippine, Singapore and Thai petroleum products are analysed. Crude distillation unit capacity trends in the Southeastern Asian refining industry are discussed along with cracking to distillation ratios, refining in these countries, and the impact of changes in demand and refining on the product trade.

  4. Southeast Asian oil markets and refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of the Southeast Asian oil markets and refining is presented concentrating on Brunei, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand refiners. Key statistics of the refiners in this region are tabulated. The demand and the quality of Indonesian, Malaysian, Philippine, Singapore and Thai petroleum products are analysed. Crude distillation unit capacity trends in the Southeastern Asian refining industry are discussed along with cracking to distillation ratios, refining in these countries, and the impact of changes in demand and refining on the product trade

  5. Peer support for family carers of people with dementia, alone or in combination with group reminiscence in a factorial design: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenborn Jennifer

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peer support interventions can improve carer wellbeing and interventions that engage both the carer and person with dementia can have significant mutual benefits. Existing research has been criticised for inadequate rigour of design or reporting. This paper describes the protocol for a complex trial that evaluates one-to-one peer support and a group reminiscence programme, both separately and together, in a factorial design. Design A 2 × 2 factorial multi-site randomised controlled trial of individual peer support and group reminiscence interventions for family carers and people with dementia in community settings in England, addressing both effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. Discussion The methods described in this protocol have implications for research into psychosocial interventions, particularly complex interventions seeking to test both individual and group approaches. Trial Registration ISRCTN37956201

  6. Latin American oil markets and refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.; Obadia, C.

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the oil markets and refining in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela, and examines the production of crude oil in these countries. Details are given of Latin American refiners highlighting trends in crude distillation unit capacity, cracking to distillation ratios, and refining in the different countries. Latin American oil trade is discussed, and charts are presented illustrating crude production, oil consumption, crude refining capacity, cracking to distillation ratios, and oil imports and exports

  7. Influences of different degassing processes on refining effect and properties of 4004 Al alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Liping

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the plasticity of 4004 Al alloy and subsequently the productivity of 4004 Al foil, the research studied in detail the influence of the rotary impeller degassing process on the refining effect of 4004 Al alloy, in which the impacts of four major parameters: gas flow, rotational speed, refining time, and stewing time, on degassing rate of 4004 Al alloy was systematically studied by using an orthogonal experiment methodology. Results show that the rotational speed has the greatest impact on the degassing of 4004 Al alloy, followed by gas flow and refining time; stewing time has the least impact. The optimum purification parameters obtained by current orthogonal analysis were: rotor speed of 500 r·min-1, inert gas flow of 0.4 mL·h-1, refining time of 15 min, and stewing time of 6 min. Degassing rate using the optimum parameters reaches 68%. In addition, the comparison experiments among C2Cl6 refining, rotary impeller degassing, and combined treatment of C2Cl6 refining and rotary impeller degassing for 4004 Al alloy were performed. The experimental data indicated that the combined treatment of C2Cl6 refining and rotary impeller degassing has the best degassing effect. Degassing rate of C2Cl6 refining, rotary impeller degassing and combined refining treatment is 39%, 69.1% and 76.9%, respectively. The mechanical properties of the specimen refined by rotary impeller degassing were higher than those by C2Cl6 refining, but lower than those by combined refining treatment.

  8. Grain refinement of aluminum and its alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaid, A.I.O.

    2001-01-01

    Grain refinement of aluminum and its alloys by the binary Al-Ti and Ternary Al-Ti-B master alloys is reviewed and discussed. The importance of grain refining to the cast industry and the parameters affecting it are presented and discussed. These include parameters related to the cast, parameters related to the grain refining alloy and parameters related to the process. The different mechanisms, suggested in the literature for the process of grain refining are presented and discussed, from which it is found that although the mechanism of refining by the binary Al-Ti is well established the mechanism of grain refining by the ternary Al-Ti-B is still a controversial matter and some research work is still needed in this area. The effect of the addition of other alloying elements in the presence of the grain refiner on the grain refining efficiency is also reviewed and discussed. It is found that some elements e.g. V, Mo, C improves the grain refining efficiency, whereas other elements e.g. Cr, Zr, Ta poisons the grain refinement. Based on the parameters affecting the grain refinement and its mechanism, a criterion for selection of the optimum grain refiner is forwarded and discussed. (author)

  9. Neutron Powder Diffraction and Constrained Refinement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawley, G. S.; Mackenzie, Gordon A.; Dietrich, O. W.

    1977-01-01

    The first use of a new program, EDINP, is reported. This program allows the constrained refinement of molecules in a crystal structure with neutron diffraction powder data. The structures of p-C6F4Br2 and p-C6F4I2 are determined by packing considerations and then refined with EDINP. Refinement is...

  10. COSMOLOGICAL ADAPTIVE MESH REFINEMENT MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS WITH ENZO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, David C.; Xu Hao; Norman, Michael L.; Li Hui; Li Shengtai

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we present EnzoMHD, the extension of the cosmological code Enzo to include the effects of magnetic fields through the ideal magnetohydrodynamics approximation. We use a higher order Godunov method for the computation of interface fluxes. We use two constrained transport methods to compute the electric field from those interface fluxes, which simultaneously advances the induction equation and maintains the divergence of the magnetic field. A second-order divergence-free reconstruction technique is used to interpolate the magnetic fields in the block-structured adaptive mesh refinement framework already extant in Enzo. This reconstruction also preserves the divergence of the magnetic field to machine precision. We use operator splitting to include gravity and cosmological expansion. We then present a series of cosmological and non-cosmological test problems to demonstrate the quality of solution resulting from this combination of solvers.

  11. The management of cornea blindness from severe corneal scarring, with the Athens Protocol (transepithelial topography-guided PRK therapeutic remodeling, combined with same-day, collagen cross-linking).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanellopoulos, Anastasios John

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of combined transepithelial topography-guided photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) therapeutic remodeling, combined with same-day, collagen cross-linking (CXL). This protocol was used for the management of cornea blindness due to severe corneal scarring. A 57-year-old man had severe corneal blindness in both eyes. Both corneas had significant central scars attributed to a firework explosion 45 years ago, when the patient was 12 years old. Corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) was 20/100 both eyes (OU) with refraction: +4.00, -4.50 at 135° in the right eye and +3.50, -1.00 at 55° in the left. Respective keratometries were: 42.3, 60.4 at 17° and 35.8, 39.1 at 151.3°. Cornea transplantation was the recommendation by multiple cornea specialists as the treatment of choice. We decided prior to considering a transplant to employ the Athens Protocol (combined topography-guided partial PRK and CXL) in the right eye in February 2010 and in the left eye in September 2010. The treatment plan for both eyes was designed on the topography-guided wavelight excimer laser platform. Fifteen months after the right eye treatment, the right cornea had improved translucency and was topographically stable with uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) 20/50 and CDVA 20/40 with refraction +0.50, -2.00 at 5°. We noted a similar outcome after similar treatment applied in the left eye with UDVA 20/50 and CDVA 20/40 with -0.50, -2.00 at 170° at the 8-month follow-up. In this case, the introduction of successful management of severe cornea abnormalities and scarring with the Athens Protocol may provide an effective alternative to other existing surgical or medical options.

  12. Use of a combined oxygen/nitrous oxide/morphine chlorydrate protocol for analgesia in burned children requiring painful local care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozil, Camille; Vialle, Raphaël; Thevenin-Lemoine, Camille; Conti, Elvira; Annequin, Daniel

    2010-03-01

    We present the results of the use of a protocol of inhalational oxygen/nitrous oxide mixtures associated with oral opioids on a prospective cohort of 33 children undergoing local care for acute but limited burned skin lesions. All the children were orally administered 0.4 mg/kg morphine chlorydrate, and nitrous oxide was administered as an equimolar mixture (50% N2O, 50% O2) via a face mask during the procedure. Pain and comfort of the patient were evaluated by the use of a validated behavioural score. After the end of the procedure, child and parent satisfactions were noted. Mean age was 3 years 6 months (10 months-11 years). A successful detersion procedure was performed in all the cases. Behavioural score was 6 in 15 cases out of 33, comprising between 7 and 9 in 15 patients and 10 in three patients. Subjective satisfaction of pain management was noted in 16 out of 20 patients after the procedure. Subjective satisfaction of the parents was noted in all the cases. Our study demonstrates that the use of a simple protocol of inhalational oxygen/nitrous oxide mixtures associated with oral opioids could be safe and effective. This association was well tolerated without any adverse effect.

  13. Medium-/Long-Term Effects of a Specific Exercise Protocol Combined with Patient Education on Spine Mobility, Chronic Fatigue, Pain, Aerobic Fitness and Level of Disability in Fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Giannotti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To propose a rehabilitation protocol able to produce immediate and long-term beneficial effects on level of disability and overall performance in ADLs. Materials and Methods. Forty-one FM patients were randomized to an exercise and educational-behavioral programme group (experimental group, EG = 21 or to a control group (CG = 20. Each subject was evaluated before, at the end (T1, and after 6 months (T6 from the conclusion of the rehabilitation treatment using the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ, the visual analogue scale (VAS, the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ, the fatigue severity scale (FSS, the 6-minute walking test (6MWT, tender points count (TPC, and spinal active range of motion. The exercise protocol included 20 sessions consisting in self-awareness, stretching, strengthening, spine flexibility, and aerobic exercises, which patients were subsequently educated to perform at home. Results. The two groups were comparable at baseline. At T1, the EG showed a positive trend in FIQ, VAS, HAQ, and FSS scales and significant improvement in 6MWT and in most spinal active range of motion measurements (P between 0.001 and 0.04. The positive results were maintained at the follow-up. Conclusion. The proposed programme was well tolerated and produced immediate and medium-term beneficial effects improving function and strain endurance. This trial is registered with DRKS00005071 on DRKS.

  14. Niobium-base grain refiner for aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Pontes, P. da; Robert, M.H.; Cupini, N.L.

    1980-01-01

    A new chemical grain refiner for aluminium has been developed, using inoculation of a niobium-base compound. When a bath of molten aluminium is inoculated whith this refiner, an intermetallic aluminium-niobium compound is formed which acts as a powerful nucleant, producing extremely fine structure comparable to those obtained by means of the traditional grain refiner based on titanium and boron. It was found that the refinement of the structure depends upon the weight percentage of the new refiner inoculated as well as the time of holding the bath after inoculation and before pouring, but mainly on the inoculating temperature. (Author) [pt

  15. State of European refining industry is less bleak than reported

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    It is difficult to pick up a trade publication without reading of the imminent demise of the European refining industry. Major oil companies are combining operations to minimize costs. Refineries are being shuttered, and analysts are calling for the immediate closure of many more plants. There is little doubt that European cracking margins have fallen since the early 1990s, in step with the rest of the world. However, the refining industry in Europe does not, in the opinion of Pace Consultants Inc., suffer from some overriding fundamental flaw that dooms it to low margins forever. The intent of this article is to put some of the industry's recent events in perspective, to discuss some of the fundamental differences between American and European operations, and to perhaps lay to rest the idea that refining is somehow dead in Europe

  16. Bayesian ensemble refinement by replica simulations and reweighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummer, Gerhard; Köfinger, Jürgen

    2015-12-01

    We describe different Bayesian ensemble refinement methods, examine their interrelation, and discuss their practical application. With ensemble refinement, the properties of dynamic and partially disordered (bio)molecular structures can be characterized by integrating a wide range of experimental data, including measurements of ensemble-averaged observables. We start from a Bayesian formulation in which the posterior is a functional that ranks different configuration space distributions. By maximizing this posterior, we derive an optimal Bayesian ensemble distribution. For discrete configurations, this optimal distribution is identical to that obtained by the maximum entropy "ensemble refinement of SAXS" (EROS) formulation. Bayesian replica ensemble refinement enhances the sampling of relevant configurations by imposing restraints on averages of observables in coupled replica molecular dynamics simulations. We show that the strength of the restraints should scale linearly with the number of replicas to ensure convergence to the optimal Bayesian result in the limit of infinitely many replicas. In the "Bayesian inference of ensembles" method, we combine the replica and EROS approaches to accelerate the convergence. An adaptive algorithm can be used to sample directly from the optimal ensemble, without replicas. We discuss the incorporation of single-molecule measurements and dynamic observables such as relaxation parameters. The theoretical analysis of different Bayesian ensemble refinement approaches provides a basis for practical applications and a starting point for further investigations.

  17. Adaptive mesh refinement for shocks and material interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, William Wenlong [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    There are three kinds of adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) in structured meshes. Block-based AMR sometimes over refines meshes. Cell-based AMR treats cells cell by cell and thus loses the advantage of the nature of structured meshes. Patch-based AMR is intended to combine advantages of block- and cell-based AMR, i.e., the nature of structured meshes and sharp regions of refinement. But, patch-based AMR has its own difficulties. For example, patch-based AMR typically cannot preserve symmetries of physics problems. In this paper, we will present an approach for a patch-based AMR for hydrodynamics simulations. The approach consists of clustering, symmetry preserving, mesh continuity, flux correction, communications, management of patches, and load balance. The special features of this patch-based AMR include symmetry preserving, efficiency of refinement across shock fronts and material interfaces, special implementation of flux correction, and patch management in parallel computing environments. To demonstrate the capability of the AMR framework, we will show both two- and three-dimensional hydrodynamics simulations with many levels of refinement.

  18. Pacific Basin Heavy Oil Refining Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hackett

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The United States today is Canada’s largest customer for oil and refined oil products. However, this relationship may be strained due to physical, economic and political influences. Pipeline capacity is approaching its limits; Canadian oil is selling at substantive discounts to world market prices; and U.S. demand for crude oil and finished products (such as gasoline, has begun to flatten significantly relative to historical rates. Lower demand, combined with increased shale oil production, means U.S. demand for Canadian oil is expected to continue to decline. Under these circumstances, gaining access to new markets such as those in the Asia-Pacific region is becoming more and more important for the Canadian economy. However, expanding pipeline capacity to the Pacific via the proposed Northern Gateway pipeline and the planned Trans Mountain pipeline expansion is only feasible when there is sufficient demand and processing capacity to support Canadian crude blends. Canadian heavy oil requires more refining and produces less valuable end products than other lighter and sweeter blends. Canadian producers must compete with lighter, sweeter oils from the Middle East, and elsewhere, for a place in the Pacific Basin refineries built to handle heavy crude blends. Canadian oil sands producers are currently expanding production capacity. Once complete, the Northern Gateway pipeline and the Trans Mountain expansion are expected to deliver an additional 500,000 to 1.1 million barrels a day to tankers on the Pacific coast. Through this survey of the capacity of Pacific Basin refineries, including existing and proposed facilities, we have concluded that there is sufficient technical capacity in the Pacific Basin to refine the additional Canadian volume; however, there may be some modifications required to certain refineries to allow them to process Western Canadian crude. Any additional capacity for Canadian oil would require refinery modifications or

  19. Refinement in Z and Object-Z foundations and advanced applications

    CERN Document Server

    Derrick, John

    2013-01-01

    Refinement is one of the cornerstones of the formal approach to software engineering, and its use in various domains has led to research on new applications and generalisation. This book brings together this important research in one volume, with the addition of examples drawn from different application areas. It covers four main themes:Data refinement and its application to ZGeneralisations of refinement that change the interface and atomicity of operationsRefinement in Object-ZModelling state and behaviour by combining Object-Z with CSPRefinement in Z and Object-Z: Foundations and Advanced A

  20. Unilever food safety assurance system for refined vegetable oils and fats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Duijn Gerrit

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Unilever Food Safety Assurance system for refined oils and fats is based on risk assessments for the presence of contaminants or pesticide residues in crude oils, and refining process studies to validate the removal of these components. Crude oil risk assessments were carried out by combining supply chain visits, and analyses of the contaminant and pesticide residue levels in a large number of crude oil samples. Contaminants like poly-aromatic hydrocarbons and hydrocarbons of mineral origin, and pesticide residues can largely be removed by refining. For many years, this Food Safety Assurance System has proven to be effective in controlling contaminant levels in refined vegetable oils and fats.

  1. Randomised controlled trial of two sequential artemisinin-based combination therapy regimens to treat uncomplicated falciparum malaria in African children: a protocol to investigate safety, efficacy and adherence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schallig, Henk D. F. H.; Tinto, Halidou; Sawa, Patrick; Kaur, Harparkash; Duparc, Stephan; Ishengoma, Deus S.; Magnussen, Pascal; Alifrangis, Michael; Sutherland, Colin J.

    2017-01-01

    Management of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria relies on artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs). These highly effective regimens have contributed to reductions in malaria morbidity and mortality. However, artemisinin resistance in Asia and changing parasite susceptibility to ACT

  2. The management of cornea blindness from severe corneal scarring, with the Athens Protocol (transepithelial topography-guided PRK therapeutic remodeling, combined with same-day, collagen cross-linking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanellopoulos AJ

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Anastasios John KanellopoulosLaservision.gr Institute, Athens, Greece; Manhattan Eye, Ear and Throat Hospital, New York, NY, USA; New York University Medical School, New York, NY, USAPurpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of combined transepithelial topography-guided photorefractive keratectomy (PRK therapeutic remodeling, combined with same-day, collagen cross-linking (CXL. This protocol was used for the management of cornea blindness due to severe corneal scarring.Methods: A 57-year-old man had severe corneal blindness in both eyes. Both corneas had significant central scars attributed to a firework explosion 45 years ago, when the patient was 12 years old. Corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA was 20/100 both eyes (OU with refraction: +4.00, –4.50 at 135° in the right eye and +3.50, –1.00 at 55° in the left. Respective keratometries were: 42.3, 60.4 at 17° and 35.8, 39.1 at 151.3°. Cornea transplantation was the recommendation by multiple cornea specialists as the treatment of choice. We decided prior to considering a transplant to employ the Athens Protocol (combined topography-guided partial PRK and CXL in the right eye in February 2010 and in the left eye in September 2010. The treatment plan for both eyes was designed on the topography-guided wavelight excimer laser platform.Results: Fifteen months after the right eye treatment, the right cornea had improved translucency and was topographically stable with uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA 20/50 and CDVA 20/40 with refraction +0.50, –2.00 at 5°. We noted a similar outcome after similar treatment applied in the left eye with UDVA 20/50 and CDVA 20/40 with –0.50, –2.00 at 170° at the 8-month follow-up.Conclusion: In this case, the introduction of successful management of severe cornea abnormalities and scarring with the Athens Protocol may provide an effective alternative to other existing surgical or medical options.Keywords: Athens Protocol, collagen cross

  3. Materials refining on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2007-05-01

    Oxygen, metals, silicon, and glass are raw materials that will be required for long-term habitation and production of structural materials and solar arrays on the Moon. A process sequence is proposed for refining these materials from lunar regolith, consisting of separating the required materials from lunar rock with fluorine. The fluorine is brought to the Moon in the form of potassium fluoride, and is liberated from the salt by electrolysis in a eutectic salt melt. Tetrafluorosilane produced by this process is reduced to silicon by a plasma reduction stage; the fluorine salts are reduced to metals by reaction with metallic potassium. Fluorine is recovered from residual MgF and CaF2 by reaction with K2O.

  4. Adaptive mesh refinement in titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colella, Phillip; Wen, Tong

    2005-01-21

    In this paper, we evaluate Titanium's usability as a high-level parallel programming language through a case study, where we implement a subset of Chombo's functionality in Titanium. Chombo is a software package applying the Adaptive Mesh Refinement methodology to numerical Partial Differential Equations at the production level. In Chombo, the library approach is used to parallel programming (C++ and Fortran, with MPI), whereas Titanium is a Java dialect designed for high-performance scientific computing. The performance of our implementation is studied and compared with that of Chombo in solving Poisson's equation based on two grid configurations from a real application. Also provided are the counts of lines of code from both sides.

  5. Refining shale-oil distillates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altpeter, J

    1952-03-17

    A process is described for refining distillates from shale oil, brown coal, tar, and other tar products by extraction with selective solvents, such as lower alcohols, halogen-hydrins, dichlorodiethyl ether, liquid sulfur dioxide, and so forth, as well as treating with alkali solution, characterized in that the distillate is first treated with completely or almost completely recovered phenol or cresotate solution, the oil is separated from the phenolate with solvent, for example concentrated or adjusted to a determined water content of lower alcohol, furfural, halogen-hydrin, dichlorodiethyl ether, liquid sulfur dioxide, or the like, extracted, and the raffinate separated from the extract layer, if necessary after distillation or washing out of solvent, and freeing with alkali solution from residual phenol or creosol.

  6. The Combined Intervention with Germinated Vigna radiata and Aerobic Interval Training Protocol Is an Effective Strategy for the Treatment of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD and Other Alterations Related to the Metabolic Syndrome in Zucker Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garyfallia Kapravelou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS is a group of related metabolic alterations that increase the risk of developing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Several lifestyle interventions based on dietary treatment with functional ingredients and physical activity are being studied as alternative or reinforcement treatments to the pharmacological ones actually in use. In the present experiment, the combined treatment with mung bean (Vigna radiata, a widely used legume with promising nutritional and health benefits that was included in the experimental diet as raw or 4 day-germinated seed flour, and aerobic interval training protocol (65–85% VO2 max has been tested in lean and obese Zucker rats following a 2 × 2 × 2 (2 phenotypes, 2 dietary interventions, 2 lifestyles factorial ANOVA (Analysis of Variance statistical analysis. Germination of V. radiata over a period of four days originated a significant protein hydrolysis leading to the appearance of low molecular weight peptides. The combination of 4 day-germinated V. radiata and aerobic interval training was more efficient compared to raw V. radiata at improving the aerobic capacity and physical performance, hepatic histology and functionality, and plasma lipid parameters as well as reverting the insulin resistance characteristic of the obese Zucker rat model. In conclusion, the joint intervention with legume sprouts and aerobic interval training protocol is an efficient treatment to improve the alterations of glucose and lipid metabolism as well as hepatic histology and functionality related to the development of NAFLD and the MetS.

  7. The Combined Intervention with Germinated Vigna radiata and Aerobic Interval Training Protocol Is an Effective Strategy for the Treatment of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) and Other Alterations Related to the Metabolic Syndrome in Zucker Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapravelou, Garyfallia; Martínez, Rosario; Nebot, Elena; López-Jurado, María; Aranda, Pilar; Arrebola, Francisco; Cantarero, Samuel; Galisteo, Milagros; Porres, Jesus M

    2017-07-19

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a group of related metabolic alterations that increase the risk of developing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Several lifestyle interventions based on dietary treatment with functional ingredients and physical activity are being studied as alternative or reinforcement treatments to the pharmacological ones actually in use. In the present experiment, the combined treatment with mung bean ( Vigna radiata ), a widely used legume with promising nutritional and health benefits that was included in the experimental diet as raw or 4 day-germinated seed flour, and aerobic interval training protocol (65-85% VO₂ max) has been tested in lean and obese Zucker rats following a 2 × 2 × 2 (2 phenotypes, 2 dietary interventions, 2 lifestyles) factorial ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) statistical analysis. Germination of V. radiata over a period of four days originated a significant protein hydrolysis leading to the appearance of low molecular weight peptides. The combination of 4 day-germinated V. radiata and aerobic interval training was more efficient compared to raw V. radiata at improving the aerobic capacity and physical performance, hepatic histology and functionality, and plasma lipid parameters as well as reverting the insulin resistance characteristic of the obese Zucker rat model. In conclusion, the joint intervention with legume sprouts and aerobic interval training protocol is an efficient treatment to improve the alterations of glucose and lipid metabolism as well as hepatic histology and functionality related to the development of NAFLD and the MetS.

  8. Trial Protocol: Cognitive functional therapy compared with combined manual therapy and motor control exercise for people with non-specific chronic low back pain: protocol for a randomised, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belache, Fabiana Terra Cunha; Souza, Cíntia Pereira de; Fernandez, Jessica; Castro, Julia; Ferreira, Paula Dos Santos; Rosa, Elizana Rodrigues de Sousa; Araújo, Nathalia Cristina Gimenez de; Reis, Felipe José Jandre; Almeida, Renato Santos de; Nogueira, Leandro Alberto Calazans; Correia, Luís Cláudio Lemos; Meziat-Filho, Ney

    2018-06-11

    Chronic low back pain is a public health problem, and there is strong evidence that it is associated with a complex interaction of biopsychosocial factors. Cognitive functional therapy is an intervention that deals with potentially modifiable multidimensional aspects of pain (eg, provocative cognitive, movement and lifestyle behaviours). There is evidence (from a single randomised, controlled trial) that cognitive functional therapy is better than combined manual therapy and motor control exercise. However, this study had significant methodological shortcomings including the failure to carry out an intention-to-treat analysis and a considerable loss of follow-up of participants. It is important to replicate this study in another domain through a randomised clinical trial with similar objectives but correcting these methodological shortcomings. To investigate the efficacy of cognitive functional therapy compared to combined manual therapy and exercise on pain and disability at 3 months in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain. Two-group, randomised, multicentre controlled trial with blinded assessors. One hundred and forty-eight participants with chronic low back pain that has persisted for >3months and no specific spinal pathology will be recruited from the school clinic of the Centro Universitário Augusto Motta and a private clinic in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Four to 10 sessions of cognitive functional therapy. The physiotherapists who will treat the participants in the cognitive functional therapy group have previously attended 2 workshops with two different tutors of the method. Such physiotherapists have completed 106 hours of training, including workshops and patient examinations, as well as conducting a pilot study under the supervision of another physiotherapist with>3 years of clinical experience in cognitive functional therapy. Four to 10 sessions of combined manual therapy and motor control exercises. Participants in the combined

  9. Treatment of non-small cell lung cancer with intensity-modulated radiation therapy in combination with cetuximab: the NEAR protocol (NCT00115518)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, AD; Hoess, A; Haberkorn, U; Huber, PE; Steins, M; Thomas, M; Debus, J; Herfarth, KK; Münter, MW; Bischoff, H; Haselmann, R; Timke, C; Krempien, R; Sterzing, F; Nill, S; Heeger, S

    2006-01-01

    Even today, treatment of Stage III NSCLC still poses a serious challenge. So far, surgical resection is the treatment of choice. Patients whose tumour is not resectable or who are unfit to undergo surgery are usually referred to a combined radio-chemotherapy. However, combined radio-chemotherapeutic treatment is also associated with sometimes marked side effects but has been shown to be more efficient than radiation therapy alone. Nevertheless, there is a significant subset of patients whose overall condition does not permit administration of chemotherapy in a combined-modality treatment. It could be demonstrated though, that NSCLCs often exhibit over-expression of EGF-receptors hence providing an excellent target for the monoclonal EGFR-antagonist cetuximab (Erbitux ® ) which has already been shown to be effective in colorectal as well as head-and-neck tumours with comparatively mild side-effects. The NEAR trial is a prospective phase II feasibility study combining a monoclonal EGF-receptor antibody with loco-regional irradiation in patients with stage III NSCLC. This trial aims at testing the combination's efficacy and rate of development of distant metastases with an accrual of 30 patients. Patients receive weekly infusions of cetuximab (Erbitux ® ) plus loco-regional radiation therapy as intensity-modulated radiation therapy. After conclusion of radiation treatment patients continue to receive weekly cetuximab for 13 more cycles. The primary objective of the NEAR trial is to evaluate toxicities and feasibility of the combined treatment with cetuximab (Erbitux ® ) and IMRT loco-regional irradiation. Secondary objectives are remission rates, 3-year-survival and local/systemic progression-free survival

  10. Treatment of non-small cell lung cancer with intensity-modulated radiation therapy in combination with cetuximab: the NEAR protocol (NCT00115518

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoess A

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Even today, treatment of Stage III NSCLC still poses a serious challenge. So far, surgical resection is the treatment of choice. Patients whose tumour is not resectable or who are unfit to undergo surgery are usually referred to a combined radio-chemotherapy. However, combined radio-chemotherapeutic treatment is also associated with sometimes marked side effects but has been shown to be more efficient than radiation therapy alone. Nevertheless, there is a significant subset of patients whose overall condition does not permit administration of chemotherapy in a combined-modality treatment. It could be demonstrated though, that NSCLCs often exhibit over-expression of EGF-receptors hence providing an excellent target for the monoclonal EGFR-antagonist cetuximab (Erbitux® which has already been shown to be effective in colorectal as well as head-and-neck tumours with comparatively mild side-effects. Methods/design The NEAR trial is a prospective phase II feasibility study combining a monoclonal EGF-receptor antibody with loco-regional irradiation in patients with stage III NSCLC. This trial aims at testing the combination's efficacy and rate of development of distant metastases with an accrual of 30 patients. Patients receive weekly infusions of cetuximab (Erbitux® plus loco-regional radiation therapy as intensity-modulated radiation therapy. After conclusion of radiation treatment patients continue to receive weekly cetuximab for 13 more cycles. Discussion The primary objective of the NEAR trial is to evaluate toxicities and feasibility of the combined treatment with cetuximab (Erbitux® and IMRT loco-regional irradiation. Secondary objectives are remission rates, 3-year-survival and local/systemic progression-free survival.

  11. Cryptographic Protocols:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler, Martin Joakim Bittel

    cryptography was thus concerned with message confidentiality and integrity. Modern cryptography cover a much wider range of subjects including the area of secure multiparty computation, which will be the main topic of this dissertation. Our first contribution is a new protocol for secure comparison, presented...... implemented the comparison protocol in Java and benchmarks show that is it highly competitive and practical. The biggest contribution of this dissertation is a general framework for secure multiparty computation. Instead of making new ad hoc implementations for each protocol, we want a single and extensible...... in Chapter 2. Comparisons play a key role in many systems such as online auctions and benchmarks — it is not unreasonable to say that when parties come together for a multiparty computation, it is because they want to make decisions that depend on private information. Decisions depend on comparisons. We have...

  12. Protein NMR Structures Refined with Rosetta Have Higher Accuracy Relative to Corresponding X-ray Crystal Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    We have found that refinement of protein NMR structures using Rosetta with experimental NMR restraints yields more accurate protein NMR structures than those that have been deposited in the PDB using standard refinement protocols. Using 40 pairs of NMR and X-ray crystal structures determined by the Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium, for proteins ranging in size from 5–22 kDa, restrained Rosetta refined structures fit better to the raw experimental data, are in better agreement with their X-ray counterparts, and have better phasing power compared to conventionally determined NMR structures. For 37 proteins for which NMR ensembles were available and which had similar structures in solution and in the crystal, all of the restrained Rosetta refined NMR structures were sufficiently accurate to be used for solving the corresponding X-ray crystal structures by molecular replacement. The protocol for restrained refinement of protein NMR structures was also compared with restrained CS-Rosetta calculations. For proteins smaller than 10 kDa, restrained CS-Rosetta, starting from extended conformations, provides slightly more accurate structures, while for proteins in the size range of 10–25 kDa the less CPU intensive restrained Rosetta refinement protocols provided equally or more accurate structures. The restrained Rosetta protocols described here can improve the accuracy of protein NMR structures and should find broad and general for studies of protein structure and function. PMID:24392845

  13. Treatment of locally advanced carcinomas of head and neck with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in combination with cetuximab and chemotherapy: the REACH protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habl, Gregor; Münter, Marc W; Jensen, Alexandra D; Potthoff, Karin; Uhl, Matthias; Hof, Holger; Hajda, Jacek; Simon, Christian; Debus, Jürgen; Krempien, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Primary treatment of carcinoma of the oro-/hypopharynx or larynx may consist of combined platinum-containing chemoradiotherapy. In order to improve clinical outcome (i.e. local control/overall survival), combined therapy is intensified by the addition of the EGFR inhibitor cetuximab (Erbitux ® ). Radiation therapy (RT) is carried out as intensity-modulated RT (IMRT) to avoid higher grade acute and late toxicity by sparing of surrounding normal tissues. The REACH study is a prospective phase II study combining chemoradiotherapy with carboplatin/5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) and the monoclonal epidermal growth factor-receptor (EGFR) antibody cetuximab (Erbitux ® ) as intensity-modulated radiation therapy in patients with locally advanced squamous-cell carcinomas of oropharynx, hypopharynx or larynx. Patients receive weekly chemotherapy infusions in the 1 st and 5 th week of RT. Additionally, cetuximab is administered weekly throughout the treatment course. IMRT is delivered as in a classical concomitant boost concept (bid from fraction 16) to a total dose of 69,9 Gy. Primary endpoint of the trial is local-regional control (LRC). Disease-free survival, progression-free survival, overall survival, toxicity, proteomic and genomic analyses are secondary endpoints. The aim is to explore the efficacy as well as the safety and feasibility of this combined radioimmunchemotherapy in order to improve the outcome of patients with advanced head and neck cancer. ISRCTN87356938

  14. Treatment of locally advanced carcinomas of head and neck with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT in combination with cetuximab and chemotherapy: the REACH protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Christian

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary treatment of carcinoma of the oro-/hypopharynx or larynx may consist of combined platinum-containing chemoradiotherapy. In order to improve clinical outcome (i.e. local control/overall survival, combined therapy is intensified by the addition of the EGFR inhibitor cetuximab (Erbitux®. Radiation therapy (RT is carried out as intensity-modulated RT (IMRT to avoid higher grade acute and late toxicity by sparing of surrounding normal tissues. Methods/Design The REACH study is a prospective phase II study combining chemoradiotherapy with carboplatin/5-Fluorouracil (5-FU and the monoclonal epidermal growth factor-receptor (EGFR antibody cetuximab (Erbitux® as intensity-modulated radiation therapy in patients with locally advanced squamous-cell carcinomas of oropharynx, hypopharynx or larynx. Patients receive weekly chemotherapy infusions in the 1st and 5th week of RT. Additionally, cetuximab is administered weekly throughout the treatment course. IMRT is delivered as in a classical concomitant boost concept (bid from fraction 16 to a total dose of 69,9 Gy. Discussion Primary endpoint of the trial is local-regional control (LRC. Disease-free survival, progression-free survival, overall survival, toxicity, proteomic and genomic analyses are secondary endpoints. The aim is to explore the efficacy as well as the safety and feasibility of this combined radioimmunchemotherapy in order to improve the outcome of patients with advanced head and neck cancer. Trial registration ISRCTN87356938

  15. Mindfulness-based relapse prevention combined with virtual reality cue exposure for methamphetamine addiction: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, XiJing; Wang, Dongmei; Zhou, Lidan; Winkler, Markus; Pauli, Paul; Sui, Nan; Li, Yonghui

    2018-04-18

    Mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP) is a method that combines cognitive behavioral relapse prevention with mindfulness practice. Research shows that MBRP can effectively reduce negative emotions and craving in people with substance use disorders (SUDs). An important part of MBRP is to practice mindfulness meditation to cope with high-risk situations for relapse, such as stimuli and situations associated with drug taking. Virtual reality cue exposure (VRCE) may be a complementary approach to MBRP as it allows for controlled and graded presentations of various high-risk situations with distal and proximal drug cues. The aim of the study is to investigate the effects of MBRP combined with VRCE, in comparison to MBRP alone or treatment as usual, on craving and emotional responses in people with methamphetamine use disorders. The study is a parallel randomized controlled study including 180 participants with methamphetamine use disorders. Three parallel groups will receive 8 weeks of MBRP combined with VRCE, MBRP alone, or treatment as usual, respectively. Craving, virtual cue reactivity, anxiety, depression, emotion regulation, mindfulness and drug-related attention bias will be assessed at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and 3 and 6 months of follow-up. This innovative study aims at investigating the effects of MBRP combined with VRCE in people with SUDs. The combined intervention may have important clinical implications for relapse prevention due to its ease of application and high cost-effectiveness. This study may also stimulate research on the neuronal and psychological mechanisms of MBRP in drug addiction. ChiCTR-INR-17013041. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Role of manganese on the grain refining efficiency of AZ91D magnesium alloy refined by Al4C3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shengfa; Zhang Yuan; Han Hui

    2010-01-01

    A novel Mg-50% Al 4 C 3 (hereafter in wt.%) master alloy has been developed by powder in situ synthesis process, the role of manganese on the grain refining efficiency of AZ91D magnesium alloy refined by this master alloy has been investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) results show the existence of Al 4 C 3 particles in this master alloy. After addition of 0.6% Al 4 C 3 or combined addition of 0.6% Al 4 C 3 and 0.27% Mn, the average grain size of AZ91D decreased dramatically from 360 μm to 210 μm, and from 360 μm to130 μm, respectively. However, no further refinement of grain size was achieved with additional amount of Mn exceeding 0.27% for AZ91D alloy refined by 0.6% Al 4 C 3 in the present investigation. Al-C-O-Mn-Fe-rich intermetallic particles with an Al-C-O-rich coating film, often observed in the central region of magnesium grains of the AZ91D alloy treated by the combination of Al 4 C 3 and Mn, are proposed to be the potent nucleating substrates for primary α-Mg.

  17. Refined geometric transition and qq-characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Taro; Mori, Hironori; Sugimoto, Yuji

    2018-01-01

    We show the refinement of the prescription for the geometric transition in the refined topological string theory and, as its application, discuss a possibility to describe qq-characters from the string theory point of view. Though the suggested way to operate the refined geometric transition has passed through several checks, it is additionally found in this paper that the presence of the preferred direction brings a nontrivial effect. We provide the modified formula involving this point. We then apply our prescription of the refined geometric transition to proposing the stringy description of doubly quantized Seiberg-Witten curves called qq-characters in certain cases.

  18. Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in combination with immunoablative protocol in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis: A 10-year follow-up of the first transplanted patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obradović Dragana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Multiple sclerosis (MS is an immunemediated disease of the central nervous system that affects young individuals and leads to severe disability. High dose immunoablation followed by autologous hemopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT has been considered in the last 15 years as potentialy effective therapeutic approach for agressive MS. The most recent long-time follow-up results suggest that AHSCT is not only effective for highly aggressive MS, but for relapsing-remitting MS as well, providing long-term remission, or maybe even cure. We presented a 10- year follow-up of the first MS patient being treated by immunoablation therapy and AHSCT. Case report. A 27-year-old male experienced the first symptoms - intermitent numbness and paresthesia of arms and legs of what was treated for two years by psychiatrist as anxiety disorder. After he developed severe paraparesis he was admitted to the Neurology Clinic and diagnosed with MS. Our patient developed aggressive MS with frequent relapses, rapid disability progression and transition to secondary progressive form 6 years after MS onset [the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS 7.0 Ambulation Index (AI 7]. AHSCT was performed, cyclophosphamide was used for hemopoietic stem cell mobilization and the BEAM protocol was used as conditionig regimen. No major adverse events followed the AHSCT. Neurological impairment improved, EDSS 6.5, AI 6 and during a 10-year followup remained unchanged. Brain MRI follow-up showed the absence of gadolinium enhancing lesions and a mild progression of brain atrophy. Conclusion. The patient with rapidly evolving, aggressive, noninflammatory MS initialy improved and remained stable, without disability progression for 10 years, after AHSCT. This kind of treatment should be considered in aggressive MS, or in disease modifying treatment nonresponsive MS patients, since appropriately timed AHSCT treatment may not only prevent disability progression but reduce

  19. Automated knowledge-base refinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Raymond J.

    1994-01-01

    Over the last several years, we have developed several systems for automatically refining incomplete and incorrect knowledge bases. These systems are given an imperfect rule base and a set of training examples and minimally modify the knowledge base to make it consistent with the examples. One of our most recent systems, FORTE, revises first-order Horn-clause knowledge bases. This system can be viewed as automatically debugging Prolog programs based on examples of correct and incorrect I/O pairs. In fact, we have already used the system to debug simple Prolog programs written by students in a programming language course. FORTE has also been used to automatically induce and revise qualitative models of several continuous dynamic devices from qualitative behavior traces. For example, it has been used to induce and revise a qualitative model of a portion of the Reaction Control System (RCS) of the NASA Space Shuttle. By fitting a correct model of this portion of the RCS to simulated qualitative data from a faulty system, FORTE was also able to correctly diagnose simple faults in this system.

  20. A method for refining oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruskin, Yu.A.; Gorokhov, V.V.; Kotler, L.D.; Kovalenko, N.F.; Spasskiy, Yu.B.; Titov, A.M.; Vlasenko, V.Ye.; Vytnov, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    In the method for refining oil through its distillation with the isolation of directly distilled gases and a benzine fraction (BS) with the use of a benzine fraction pyrolysis, in order to increase the output of the lower olefines and to reduce the energy expenditures, the distillation is conducted with the isolation of 10 to 40 percent of the benzine fraction from its potential content along with the directly distilled gases. The obtained mixture of the remaining part of the benzine fraction is absorbed at a pressure of 1.5 to 6 atmospheres with the feeding of the obtained saturated absorbent to pyrolysis and subsequent mixing of the obtained pyrolysis gas with the unabsorbed product and their joint gas division. As compared to the known method, the proposed method makes it possible to reduce the energy expenditures which is achieved through a reduction in the volume of irrigation in the tower, and to increase the output of the olefines through processing of the steam and gas mixture of the benzine and the directly distilled gases.

  1. An Accelerated Multi-Modality Rehabilitation Protocol Combined with Botulinum Toxin-A Injection in Adult Idiopathic Toe Walking: Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Ferdi; Balaban, Birol

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of Adult Idiopathic Toe Walking (AITW) is very rare in clinical practice. High quality studies regarding AITW and its treatment options have not been conducted previously. A 28-year-old male patient complaining of lower leg pain was referred to outpatient rehabilitation clinic. Physical examination revealed a gait abnormality of insufficient heel strike at initial contact. The aetiology was investigated and the patient’s walking parameters were assessed using a computerized gait analysis system. The AITW was diagnosed. Botulinum toxin-A (Dysport®) was injected to the bilateral gastrocnemius muscles. A combined 10-days rehabilitation program was designed, including a daily one-hour physiotherapist supervised exercise program, ankle dorsiflexion exercises using an EMG-biofeedback unit assisted virtual rehabilitation system (Biometrics) and virtual gait training (Rehawalk) every other day. After treatment, the patient was able to heel strike at the initiation of the stance phase of the gait. Ankle dorsiflexion range of motions increased. The most prominent improvement was seen in maximum pressure and heel force. In addition center of pressure evaluations were also improved. To the best of our knowledge this is the first case, of AITW treated with combined botulinum toxin, exercise and virtual rehabilitation systems. This short report demonstrates the rapid effect of this 10-days combined therapy. PMID:27504395

  2. A refined methodology for modeling volume quantification performance in CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Baiyu; Wilson, Joshua; Samei, Ehsan

    2014-03-01

    The utility of CT lung nodule volume quantification technique depends on the precision of the quantification. To enable the evaluation of quantification precision, we previously developed a mathematical model that related precision to image resolution and noise properties in uniform backgrounds in terms of an estimability index (e'). The e' was shown to predict empirical precision across 54 imaging and reconstruction protocols, but with different correlation qualities for FBP and iterative reconstruction (IR) due to the non-linearity of IR impacted by anatomical structure. To better account for the non-linearity of IR, this study aimed to refine the noise characterization of the model in the presence of textured backgrounds. Repeated scans of an anthropomorphic lung phantom were acquired. Subtracted images were used to measure the image quantum noise, which was then used to adjust the noise component of the e' calculation measured from a uniform region. In addition to the model refinement, the validation of the model was further extended to 2 nodule sizes (5 and 10 mm) and 2 segmentation algorithms. Results showed that the magnitude of IR's quantum noise was significantly higher in structured backgrounds than in uniform backgrounds (ASiR, 30-50%; MBIR, 100-200%). With the refined model, the correlation between e' values and empirical precision no longer depended on reconstruction algorithm. In conclusion, the model with refined noise characterization relfected the nonlinearity of iterative reconstruction in structured background, and further showed successful prediction of quantification precision across a variety of nodule sizes, dose levels, slice thickness, reconstruction algorithms, and segmentation software.

  3. A Refinement Calculus for Circus - Mini-thesis

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Marcel V. M.

    2004-01-01

    Most software developments do not use any of the existing theories and formalisms. This leads to a loss of precision and correctness on the resulting softwares. Two different approaches to formal techniques have been raised in the past decades: one focus on data aspects, and the other focus on the behavioural aspects of the system. Some combined languages have already been proposed to bring these two schools together. However, as far as we know, none of them has a related refinement calculus....

  4. Analysis of a novel protocol of combined induction chemotherapy and concurrent chemoradiation in unresected non-small-cell lung cancer: a ten-year experience with vinblastine, Cisplatin, and radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Eugenie; Dingle, Brian; Rodrigues, George; Vincent, Mark; Ash, Robert; Dar, Rashid; Inculet, Richard; Kocha, Walter; Malthaner, Richard; Sanatani, Michael; Stitt, Larry; Yaremko, Brian; Younus, Jawaid; Yu, Edward

    2010-07-01

    The London Regional Cancer Program (LRCP) uses a unique schedule of induction plus concurrent chemoradiation, termed VCRT (vinblastine, cisplatin, and radiation therapy), for the treatment of a subset of unresectable stage IIIA and IIIB non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This analysis was conducted to better understand the outcomes in VCRT-treated patients. We report a retrospective analysis of a large cohort of patients who underwent VCRT at the LRCP over a 10-year period, from 1996 to 2006. The analysis focused on OS, toxicities, and the outcomes from completion surgery in a small subset of patients. A total of 294 patients were included and 5-year OS, determined using Kaplan-Meier methodology, was 19.8% with a MST of 18.2 months. Reported grade 3-4 toxicities included neutropenia (39%), anemia (10%), pneumonitis (1%), and esophagitis (3%). Significant differences in survival between groups of patients were demonstrated with log-rank tests for completion surgery, use of radiation therapy, and cisplatin dose. Similarly, Univariate Cox regression showed that completion surgery, use of radiation therapy, cisplatin dose, and vinblastine dose were associated with increased survival. This retrospective analysis of a large cohort of patients reveals an OS for VCRT comparable to that reported in the literature for other current combined chemoradiation protocols. The success of this protocol seems to be dose dependent and the outcomes in those who underwent completion surgery suggests that pathologic complete remission is possible for IIIA and IIIB NSCLC.

  5. Synergistic effect of combined transcranial direct current stimulation/constraint-induced movement therapy in children and young adults with hemiparesis: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillick, Bernadette; Menk, Jeremiah; Mueller, Bryon; Meekins, Gregg; Krach, Linda E; Feyma, Timothy; Rudser, Kyle

    2015-11-12

    Perinatal stroke occurs in more than 1 in 2,500 live births and resultant congenital hemiparesis necessitates investigation into interventions which may improve long-term function and decreased burden of care beyond current therapies ( http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/cp/data.html ). Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy (CIMT) is recognized as an effective hemiparesis rehabilitation intervention. Transcranial direct current stimulation as an adjunct treatment to CIMT may potentiate neuroplastic responses and improve motor function. The methodology of a clinical trial in children designed as a placebo-controlled, serial -session, non-invasive brain stimulation trial incorporating CIMT is described here. The primary hypotheses are 1) that no serious adverse events will occur in children receiving non-invasive brain stimulation and 2) that children in the stimulation intervention group will show significant improvements in hand motor function compared to children in the placebo stimulation control group. A randomized, controlled, double-blinded clinical trial. Twenty children and/or young adults (ages 8-21) with congenital hemiparesis, will be enrolled. The intervention group will receive ten 2-hour sessions of transcranial direct current stimulation combined with constraint-induced movement therapy and the control group will receive sham stimulation with CIMT. The primary outcome measure is safety assessment of transcranial direct current stimulation by physician evaluation, vital sign monitoring and symptom reports. Additionally, hand function will be evaluated using the Assisting Hand Assessment, grip strength and assessment of goals using the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure. Neuroimaging will confirm diagnoses, corticospinal tract integrity and cortical activation. Motor cortical excitability will also be examined using transcranial magnetic stimulation techniques. Combining non-invasive brain stimulation and CIMT interventions has the potential to improve motor

  6. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy combined with periodontal treatment for metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Erika Elisabeth; França, Cristiane Miranda; Veni, Priscila; de Oliveira Silva, Tamires; Gonçalves, Rafael Moredo; de Carvalho, Verônica Franco; Deana, Alessandro Melo; Fernandes, Kristianne P S; Mesquita-Ferrari, Raquel A; Camacho, Cleber P; Bussadori, Sandra Kalil; Alvarenga, Letícia Heineck; Prates, Renato Araujo

    2015-05-27

    protocol for this trial was registered with Clinical Trials registration number NCT01964833 on 14 October 2013.

  7. The intracarotid amobarbital procedure (Wada test with two protocols combined, Montreal and Seattle Procedimentos do amobarbital intracarotideo (teste de Wada com dois protocolos combinados, Montreal e Seattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo J. M. Leite

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The intracarotid amobarbital procedure was carried out in 8 male and 7 female candidates to temporal lobectomy, and a female candidate to frontal lesionectomy, aged 18-50 (mean 32.5 years. Language and memory were tested after injection in each hemisphere. Both were measured by the Montreal procedure. In 9 patients language and memory were evaluated with the Seattle procedure too. In 12 patients the left hemisphere was dominant for language; three had bilateral dominance. In I patient the Seattle procedure demonstrated the dominant hemisphere by relatively slowness of speech during the drug effect in the left hemisphere. Memory was defined to be in the left hemisphere in 12 patients, in the right in 2, bilateral in 1 and in another lateralization was not possible. In 1 patient memory dominance was determined by the Montreal protocol alone because of lack of cooperation. These early results indicate that the methods may be complementary for determination of language and memory dominance in epilepsy surgery candidates.O testo do amobarbital intracarotídeo foi realizado em 8 homens e 7 mulheres candidatos a lobectomia temporal e em uma mulher candidata a lesionectomia frontal, com idades de 18-50 (média 32,5 anos. Linguagem e memória foram testadas após a injeção do amobarbial em cada hemisfério cerebral. Todos os pacientes foram avaliados pelo método de Montreal e 9 também pelo método de Seattle. Em 12 pacientes o hemisfério cerebral esquerdo foi dominante para linguagem e em 3 pacientes houve dominância bilateral. Em uma paciente a linguagem foi determinada apenas através do método de Seattle, com lentificação relativa da fal a, sob ação da droga no hemisfério cerebral esquerdo. Dominância da memória à esquerda foi observada em 12 pacientes, à direita em 2, bilateral em 1 e em outro não foi lateralizada. Dominância da memória foi definida apenas através do método de Montreal em um paciente, devido à pouca coopera

  8. Comparative effectiveness of injectable penicillin versus a combination of penicillin and gentamicin in children with pneumonia characterised by indrawing in Kenya: protocol for an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malla, Lucas; Perera-Salazar, Rafael; McFadden, Emily; English, Mike

    2017-09-18

    WHO treatment guidelines are widely recommended for guiding treatment for millions of children with pneumonia every year across multiple low-income and middle-income countries. Guidelines are based on synthesis of available evidence that provides moderate certainty in evidence of effects for forms of pneumonia that can result in hospitalisation. However, trials have included fewer children from Africa than other settings, and it is suggested that African children with pneumonia have higher mortality. Thus, despite improving access to recommended treatments and deployment with high coverage of childhood vaccines, pneumonia remains one of the top causes of mortality for children in Kenya. Establishing whether there are benefits of alternative treatment regimens to help reduce mortality would require pragmatic clinical trials. However, these remain relatively expensive and time consuming. This protocol describes an approach to using secondary analysis of a new, large observational dataset as a potentially cheaper and quicker way to examine the comparative effectiveness of penicillin versus penicillin plus gentamicin in treatment of indrawing pneumonia. Addressing this question is important, as although it is now recommended that this form of pneumonia is treated with oral medication as an outpatient, it remains associated with non-trivial mortality that may be higher outside trial populations. We will use a large observational dataset that captures data on all admissions to 13 Kenyan county hospitals. These data represent the findings of clinicians in practice and, because the system was developed for large observational research, pose challenges of non-random treatment allocation and missing data. To overcome these challenges, this analysis will use a rigorous approach to study design, propensity score methods and multiple imputation to minimise bias. The primary data are held by hospitals participating in the Kenyan Clinical Information Network project with de

  9. Dose-response relationship between cigarette smoking and site-specific cancer risk: protocol for a systematic review with an original design combining umbrella and traditional reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo, Alessandra; Bosetti, Cristina; Peveri, Giulia; Rota, Matteo; Bagnardi, Vincenzo; Gallus, Silvano

    2017-11-01

    attributable to cigarette smoking. This protocol was registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (CRD42017063991). © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Exercise combined with Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ExACT) compared to a supervised exercise programme for adults with chronic pain: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Máire-Bríd; Smart, Keith; Segurado, Ricardo; Hearty, Conor; Gopal, Hari; Lowry, Damien; Flanagan, Dearbhail; McCracken, Lance; Doody, Catherine

    2018-03-22

    Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is a form of cognitive behavioural therapy, which may be beneficial for people with chronic pain. The approach aims to enhance daily functioning through increased psychological flexibility. Whilst the therapeutic model behind ACT appears well suited to chronic pain, there is a need for further research to test its effectiveness in clinical practice, particularly with regards to combining ACT with physical exercise. This prospective, two-armed, parallel-group, single-centre randomised controlled trial (RCT) will assess the effectiveness of a combined Exercise and ACT programme, in comparison to supervised exercise for chronic pain. One hundred and sixty patients, aged 18 years and over, who have been diagnosed with a chronic pain condition by a physician will be recruited to the trial. Participants will be individually randomised to one of two 8-week, group interventions. The combined group will take part in weekly psychology sessions based on the ACT approach, in addition to supervised exercise classes led by a physiotherapist. The control group will attend weekly supervised exercise classes but will not take part in an ACT programme. The primary outcome will be pain interference at 12-week follow-up, measured using the Brief Pain Inventory-Interference Scale. Secondary outcomes will include self-reported pain severity, self-perception of change, patient satisfaction, quality of life, depression, anxiety and healthcare utilisation. Treatment process measures will include self-efficacy, pain catastrophising, fear avoidance, pain acceptance and committed action. Physical activity will be measured using Fitbit Zip TM activity trackers. Both groups will be followed up post intervention and again after 12 weeks. Estimates of treatment effects at follow-up will be based on an intention-to-treat framework, implemented using a linear mixed-effects model. Individual and focus group qualitative interviews will be undertaken with a

  11. Combining Exergame Training with Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Study assessing the Effect on Neuronal Structure/Function in the Elderly Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Schättin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A common problem in the older population is the risk of falling that might lead to injury, immobility, and reduced survival. Age-related neuronal changes, e.g. decline in grey- and white-matter, affect neuronal, cognitive, and motor functioning. The improvement of these factors might decrease fall events in elderly. Studies showed that the sole administration of video game-based physical exercise, a so-called exergame, or omega-3 fatty acid (FA may improve motor and/or cognitive functioning through neuronal changes in the brain of older adults. The aim of this study is to assess the effects of a combination of exergame training with omega-3 FA supplementation on the elderly brain. We hypothesize that an intervention using a combination approach differently effects on the neuronal structure and function of the elderly’s brain as compared to the sole administration of exergame training. The study is a parallel, double-blinded, randomized controlled trial lasting 26 weeks. Sixty autonomous living, non-smoking, and right-handed healthy older (>65 years adults who live independently or in a senior residency are included, randomized, and allocated to one of two study groups. The experimental group receives a daily amount of 13.5ml fish oil (including 2.9g of omega-3 FA, whereas the control group receives a daily amount of 13.5ml olive oil for 26 weeks. After 16 weeks, both groups start with an exergame training program three times per week. Measurements are performed on three time-points by treatment blinded investigators: pre-intervention measurement, blood sample after 16 week, and post-intervention measurements. The main outcomes are motor evoked potentials of the right M. tibialis anterior (transcranial magnetic stimulation and response-related potentials (electroencephalography during a cognitive test. For secondary outcomes, reaction times during cognitive tests and spatio-temporal parameters during gait performance are measured. Statistics

  12. Comparative efficacy and acceptability of antidepressants, psychological interventions, and their combination for depressive disorder in children and adolescents: protocol for a network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xinyu; Cipriani, Andrea; Zhang, Yuqing; Cuijpers, Pim; Hetrick, Sarah E; Weisz, John R; Pu, Juncai; Giovane, Cinzia Del; Furukawa, Toshiaki A; Barth, Jürgen; Coghill, David; Leucht, Stefan; Yang, Lining; Ravindran, Arun V; Xie, Peng

    2017-08-11

    Depressive disorder is common in children and adolescents, with important consequences and serious impairments in terms of personal and social functioning. While both pharmacological and psychological interventions have been shown to be effective, there is still uncertainty about the balance between these and what treatment strategy should be preferred in clinical practice. Therefore, we aim to compare and rank in a network meta-analysis (NMA) the commonly used psychological, pharmacological and combined interventions for depressive disorder in children and adolescents. We will update the literature search of two previous NMAs for the identification of trials of antidepressant and psychotherapy alone for depressive disorder in children and adolescents. For identification of trials of combination interventions, seven databases (PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials), Web of Science, PsycINFO, CINAHL, LiLACS) will be searched from date of inception. We will also search ClinicalTrials.gov, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and check relevant reports on the US Food and Drug Administration website for unpublished data. Building on our previous findings in the field, we will include any commonly prescribed oral antidepressants and any manualised or structured psychotherapies, as well as their combinations. Randomised controlled trials assessing any active intervention against active comparator or pill placebo/psychological controls in acute treatment for depressive disorder in children and adolescents will be included. The primary outcomes will be efficacy (mean change in depressive symptoms), and acceptability of treatment (dropout rate due to any cause). The secondary outcomes will be remission rate, tolerability of treatment (dropouts for adverse events), as well as suicide-related outcomes (suicidal behaviour or ideation). We will perform Bayesian NMAs for all relative outcome measures. Subgroup analyses and

  13. Refinement Checking on Parametric Modal Transition Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benes, Nikola; Kretínsky, Jan; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2015-01-01

    Modal transition systems (MTS) is a well-studied specification formalism of reactive systems supporting a step-wise refinement methodology. Despite its many advantages, the formalism as well as its currently known extensions are incapable of expressing some practically needed aspects in the refin...

  14. Comparing Syntactic and Semantics Action Refinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goltz, Ursula; Gorrieri, Roberto; Rensink, Arend

    The semantic definition of action refinement on labelled configuration structures is compared with the notion of syntactic substitution, which can be used as another notion of action refinement in a process algebraic setting. The comparison is done by studying a process algebra equipped with

  15. On Syntactic and Semantic Action Refinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagiya, M.; Goltz, U.; Mitchell, J.C.; Gorrieri, R.; Rensink, Arend

    1994-01-01

    The semantic definition of action refinement on labelled event structures is compared with the notion of syntactic substitution, which can be used as another notion of action refinement in a process algebraic setting. This is done by studying a process algebra equipped with the ACP sequential

  16. Anomalies in the refinement of isoleucine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berntsen, Karen R. M.; Vriend, Gert, E-mail: gerrit.vriend@radboudumc.nl [Radboud University Medical Center, Geert Grooteplein 26-28, 6525 GA Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2014-04-01

    The side-chain torsion angles of isoleucines in X-ray protein structures are a function of resolution, secondary structure and refinement software. Detailing the standard torsion angles used in refinement software can improve protein structure refinement. A study of isoleucines in protein structures solved using X-ray crystallography revealed a series of systematic trends for the two side-chain torsion angles χ{sub 1} and χ{sub 2} dependent on the resolution, secondary structure and refinement software used. The average torsion angles for the nine rotamers were similar in high-resolution structures solved using either the REFMAC, CNS or PHENIX software. However, at low resolution these programs often refine towards somewhat different χ{sub 1} and χ{sub 2} values. Small systematic differences can be observed between refinement software that uses molecular dynamics-type energy terms (for example CNS) and software that does not use these terms (for example REFMAC). Detailing the standard torsion angles used in refinement software can improve the refinement of protein structures. The target values in the molecular dynamics-type energy functions can also be improved.

  17. Refined large N duality for knots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kameyama, Masaya; Nawata, Satoshi

    We formulate large N duality of U(N) refined Chern-Simons theory with a torus knot/link in S³. By studying refined BPS states in M-theory, we provide the explicit form of low-energy effective actions of Type IIA string theory with D4-branes on the Ω-background. This form enables us to relate...

  18. Anomalies in the refinement of isoleucine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berntsen, Karen R. M.; Vriend, Gert

    2014-01-01

    The side-chain torsion angles of isoleucines in X-ray protein structures are a function of resolution, secondary structure and refinement software. Detailing the standard torsion angles used in refinement software can improve protein structure refinement. A study of isoleucines in protein structures solved using X-ray crystallography revealed a series of systematic trends for the two side-chain torsion angles χ 1 and χ 2 dependent on the resolution, secondary structure and refinement software used. The average torsion angles for the nine rotamers were similar in high-resolution structures solved using either the REFMAC, CNS or PHENIX software. However, at low resolution these programs often refine towards somewhat different χ 1 and χ 2 values. Small systematic differences can be observed between refinement software that uses molecular dynamics-type energy terms (for example CNS) and software that does not use these terms (for example REFMAC). Detailing the standard torsion angles used in refinement software can improve the refinement of protein structures. The target values in the molecular dynamics-type energy functions can also be improved

  19. Grain refinement of zinc-aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaid, A.I.O.

    2006-01-01

    It is now well-established that the structure of the zinc-aluminum die casting alloys can be modified by the binary Al-Ti or the ternary Al-Ti-B master alloys. in this paper, grain refinement of zinc-aluminum alloys by rare earth materials is reviewed and discussed. The importance of grain refining of these alloys and parameters affecting it are presented and discussed. These include parameters related to the Zn-Al alloys cast, parameters related to the grain refining elements or alloys and parameters related to the process. The effect of addition of other alloying elements e.g. Zr either alone or in the presence of the main grain refiners Ti or Ti + B on the grain refining efficiency is also reviewed and discussed. Furthermore, based on the grain refinement and the parameters affecting it, a criterion for selection of the optimum grain refiner is suggested. Finally, the recent research work on the effect of grain refiners on the mechanical behaviour, impact strength, wear resistance, and fatigue life of these alloys are presented and discussed. (author)

  20. Refined Phenotyping of Modic Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Määttä, Juhani H.; Karppinen, Jaro; Paananen, Markus; Bow, Cora; Luk, Keith D.K.; Cheung, Kenneth M.C.; Samartzis, Dino

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Low back pain (LBP) is the world's most disabling condition. Modic changes (MC) are vertebral bone marrow changes adjacent to the endplates as noted on magnetic resonance imaging. The associations of specific MC types and patterns with prolonged, severe LBP and disability remain speculative. This study assessed the relationship of prolonged, severe LBP and back-related disability, with the presence and morphology of lumbar MC in a large cross-sectional population-based study of Southern Chinese. We addressed the topographical and morphological dimensions of MC along with other magnetic resonance imaging phenotypes (eg, disc degeneration and displacement) on the basis of axial T1 and sagittal T2-weighted imaging of L1-S1. Prolonged severe LBP was defined as LBP lasting ≥30 days during the past year, and a visual analog scale severest pain intensity of at least 6/10. An Oswestry Disability Index score of 15% was regarded as significant disability. We also assessed subject demographics, occupation, and lifestyle factors. In total, 1142 subjects (63% females, mean age 53 years) were assessed. Of these, 282 (24.7%) had MC (7.1% type I, 17.6% type II). MC subjects were older (P = 0.003), had more frequent disc displacements (P disability. The strength of the associations increased with the number of MC. This large-scale study is the first to definitively note MC types and specific morphologies to be independently associated with prolonged severe LBP and back-related disability. This proposed refined MC phenotype may have direct implications in clinical decision-making as to the development and management of LBP. Understanding of these imaging biomarkers can lead to new preventative and personalized therapeutics related to LBP. PMID:27258491

  1. Refinement of boards' role required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbdenstock, R J

    1987-01-01

    The governing board's role in health care is not changing, but new competitive forces necessitate a refinement of the board's approach to fulfilling its role. In a free-standing, community, not-for-profit hospital, the board functions as though it were the "owner." Although it does not truly own the facility in the legal sense, the board does have legal, fiduciary, and financial responsibilities conferred on it by the state. In a religious-sponsored facility, the board fulfills these same obligations on behalf of the sponsoring institute, subject to the institute's reserved powers. In multi-institutional systems, the hospital board's power and authority depend on the role granted it by the system. Boards in all types of facilities are currently faced with the following challenges: Fulfilling their basic responsibilities, such as legal requirements, financial duties, and obligations for the quality of care. Encouraging management and the board itself to "think strategically" in attacking new competitive market forces while protecting the organization's traditional mission and values. Assessing recommended strategies in light of consequences if constituencies think the organization is abandoning its commitments. Boards can take several steps to match their mode of operation with the challenges of the new environment. Boards must rededicate themselves to the hospital's mission. Trustees must expand their understanding of health care trends and issues and their effect on the organization. Boards must evaluate and help strengthen management's performance, rather than acting as a "watchdog" in an adversarial position. Boards must think strategically, rather than focusing solely on operational details. Boards must evaluate the methods they use for conducting business.

  2. North Dakota Refining Capacity Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis Hill; Kurt Swenson; Carl Tuura; Jim Simon; Robert Vermette; Gilberto Marcha; Steve Kelly; David Wells; Ed Palmer; Kuo Yu; Tram Nguyen; Juliam Migliavacca

    2011-01-05

    According to a 2008 report issued by the United States Geological Survey, North Dakota and Montana have an estimated 3.0 to 4.3 billion barrels of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil in an area known as the Bakken Formation. With the size and remoteness of the discovery, the question became 'can a business case be made for increasing refining capacity in North Dakota?' And, if so what is the impact to existing players in the region. To answer the question, a study committee comprised of leaders in the region's petroleum industry were brought together to define the scope of the study, hire a consulting firm and oversee the study. The study committee met frequently to provide input on the findings and modify the course of the study, as needed. The study concluded that the Petroleum Area Defense District II (PADD II) has an oversupply of gasoline. With that in mind, a niche market, naphtha, was identified. Naphtha is used as a diluent used for pipelining the bitumen (heavy crude) from Canada to crude markets. The study predicted there will continue to be an increase in the demand for naphtha through 2030. The study estimated the optimal configuration for the refinery at 34,000 barrels per day (BPD) producing 15,000 BPD of naphtha and a 52 percent refinery charge for jet and diesel yield. The financial modeling assumed the sponsor of a refinery would invest its own capital to pay for construction costs. With this assumption, the internal rate of return is 9.2 percent which is not sufficient to attract traditional investment given the risk factor of the project. With that in mind, those interested in pursuing this niche market will need to identify incentives to improve the rate of return.

  3. Uranium refining by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraikaew, J.; Srinuttrakul, W.

    2014-01-01

    The solvent extraction process to produce higher purity uranium from yellowcake was studied in laboratory scale. Yellowcake, which the uranium purity is around 70% and the main impurity is thorium, was obtained from monazite processing pilot plant of Rare Earth Research and Development Center in Thailand. For uranium re-extraction process, the extractant chosen was Tributylphosphate (TBP) in kerosene. It was found that the optimum concentration of TBP was 10% in kerosene and the optimum nitric acid concentration in uranyl nitrate feed solution was 4 N. An increase in concentrations of uranium and thorium in feed solution resulted in a decrease in the distribution of both components in the extractant. However, the distribution of uranium into the extractant was found to be more than that of thorium. The equilibration study of the extraction system, UO_2(NO_3)/4N HNO_3 – 10%TBP/Kerosene, was also investigated. Two extraction stages were calculated graphically from 100,000 ppm uranium concentration in feed solution input with 90% extraction efficiency and the flow ratio of aqueous phase to organic phase was adjusted to 1.0. For thorium impurity scrubbing process, 10% TBP in kerosene was loaded with uranium and minor thorium from uranyl nitrate solution prepared from yellowcake and was scrubbed with different low concentration nitric acid. The results showed that at nitric acid normality was lower than 1 N, uranium distributed well to aqueous phase. As conclusion, optimum nitric acid concentration for scrubbing process should not less than 1 N and diluted nitric acid or de-ionized water should be applied to strip uranium from organic phase in the final refining process. (author)

  4. Did low tube voltage CT combined with low contrast media burden protocols accomplish the goal of "double low" for patients? An overview of applications in vessels and abdominal parenchymal organs over the past 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yaqi; Hu, Xuemei; Zou, Xianlun; Zhu, Di; Li, Zhen; Hu, Daoyu

    2016-09-01

    Imaging communities have already reached a consensus that the radiation dose of computed tomography (CT) should be reduced as much as reasonably achievable to lower population risks. Increasing attention is being paid to iodinated contrast media (CM) induced nephrotoxicity (CIN); a decrease in the intake of iodinated CM is required by increasingly more radiologists. Theoretically, the radiation dose varies with the tube current time and square of the tube voltage, with higher iodine contrast at low photon energies (Huda et al. [2000] Radiology, 21 7, 430-435).The use of low tube voltage is a promising strategy to reduce both the radiation dose and CM burden. The term 'double low' has been coined to describe scanning protocols that reduce radiation dose and iodine intake synchronously. These protocols are becoming increasingly popular in the clinical setting. The aim of this review was to describe all original studies using the 'double low' strategy in the last 5 years. We searched an online electronic database (PubMed) from January 2011 to December 2015 for original studies published on the relationship of low tube voltage with low radiation dose and low iodine contrast media burden in patients undergoing CT scans. Studies that failed to reduce radiation dose or iodine CM burden were excluded in this study. Thirty-seven studies aimed at reducing radiation dose using low tube voltage combined with iodine CM reduced protocols were included in this study. Most studies evaluated conditions associated with arteries. Four were cerebral and neck computed tomography angiography (CTA) studies, 15 were pulmonary CTA (pCTA) and coronary CTA (cCTA) studies, one concerned myocardial perfusion, five studies focused on the thoracic and abdominal aorta, and one investigated renal arteries. Three studies consisted of CT venography (CTV) of the pelvis and lower extremities. Six publications examined the liver, and two focused on the kidney. Overall, this review demonstrates that

  5. Understanding protocol performance: impact of test performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Robert G

    2013-01-01

    This is the second of two articles that examine the factors that determine protocol performance. The objective of these articles is to provide a general understanding of protocol performance that can be used to estimate performance, establish limits on performance, decide if a protocol is justified, and ultimately select a protocol. The first article was concerned with protocol criterion and test correlation. It demonstrated the advantages and disadvantages of different criterion when all tests had the same performance. It also examined the impact of increasing test correlation on protocol performance and the characteristics of the different criteria. To examine the impact on protocol performance when individual tests in a protocol have different performance. This is evaluated for different criteria and test correlations. The results of the two articles are combined and summarized. A mathematical model is used to calculate protocol performance for different protocol criteria and test correlations when there are small to large variations in the performance of individual tests in the protocol. The performance of the individual tests that make up a protocol has a significant impact on the performance of the protocol. As expected, the better the performance of the individual tests, the better the performance of the protocol. Many of the characteristics of the different criteria are relatively independent of the variation in the performance of the individual tests. However, increasing test variation degrades some criteria advantages and causes a new disadvantage to appear. This negative impact increases as test variation increases and as more tests are added to the protocol. Best protocol performance is obtained when individual tests are uncorrelated and have the same performance. In general, the greater the variation in the performance of tests in the protocol, the more detrimental this variation is to protocol performance. Since this negative impact is increased as

  6. The effect of combining manual therapy with exercise for mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Roger M; Wearing, Jaxson; Gonski, Peter; Vemulpad, Subramanyam

    2017-06-17

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of disability and hospital admission. Current management strategies have not been successful in altering the loss of lung function typically seen as the disease progresses. A recent systematic review into the use of spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) in the management of COPD concluded that there was low level evidence to support the view that a combination of SMT and exercise had the potential to improve lung function more than exercise alone in people with moderate to severe COPD. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the combination of exercise and manual therapy (MT) that includes SMT produces sustainable improvements in lung function and exercise capacity in people with mild COPD. The study is a randomised controlled trial of 202 people with stable mild COPD. The cohort will be divided into two equal groups matched at baseline. The first group will receive a standardised exercise program. The second group will receive MT that includes SMT plus the same standardised exercise program. Exercise will be administered a total of 36 times over an 18-week period, while MT will be administered in conjunction with exercise a total of 15 times over a 6-week period. The primary outcome measure is lung function (forced expiratory volume in the 1 st second: FEV 1 and forced vital capacity: FVC). The secondary outcome measures are the 6-minute walking test (6MWT), quality of life questionnaire (St George's Respiratory Questionnaire: SGRQ), anxiety and depression levels (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale: HADS), frequency of exacerbations, chest wall expansion measurements (tape measurements) and systemic inflammatory biomarker levels. Outcome measurements will be taken by blinded assessors on seven occasions over a 48-week period. Adverse event data will also be gathered at the beginning of each intervention session. This randomised controlled trial is designed to investigate whether the combination

  7. [Lengthening temporalis myoplasty: Technical refinements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreschi, P; Labbé, D

    2015-10-01

    First described by Labbé in 1997, the lengthening temporalis myoplasty (LTM) ensures the transfer of the entire temporal muscle from the coronoid process to the upper half of the lip without interposition of aponeurotic tissue. Thanks to brain plasticity, the temporal muscle is able to change its function because it is entirely mobilized towards another effector: the labial commissure. After 6 months of speech rehabilitation, the muscle loses its chewing function and it acquires its new smiling function. We describe as far as possible all the technical points to guide surgeons who would like to perform this powerful surgical procedure. We show the coronoid process approaches both through an upper temporal fossa approach and a lower nasolabial fold approach. Rehabilitation starts 3 weeks after the surgery following a standardized protocol to move from a mandibular smile to a voluntary smile, and then a spontaneous smile in 3 steps. The LTM is the main part of a one-stage global treatment of the paralyzed face. It constitutes a dynamic palliative treatment usually started at the sequelae stage, 18 months after the outcome of a peripheral facial paralysis. This one-stage procedure is a reproducible and relevant surgical technique in the difficult treatment of peripheral facial paralysis. An active muscle is transferred to reanimate the labial commissure and to recreate a mobile nasolabial fold. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Analyzing the effect of routing protocols on media access control protocols in radio networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, C. L. (Christopher L.); Drozda, M. (Martin); Marathe, A. (Achla); Marathe, M. V. (Madhav V.)

    2002-01-01

    We study the effect of routing protocols on the performance of media access control (MAC) protocols in wireless radio networks. Three well known MAC protocols: 802.11, CSMA, and MACA are considered. Similarly three recently proposed routing protocols: AODV, DSR and LAR scheme 1 are considered. The experimental analysis was carried out using GloMoSim: a tool for simulating wireless networks. The main focus of our experiments was to study how the routing protocols affect the performance of the MAC protocols when the underlying network and traffic parameters are varied. The performance of the protocols was measured w.r.t. five important parameters: (i) number of received packets, (ii) average latency of each packet, (iii) throughput (iv) long term fairness and (v) number of control packets at the MAC layer level. Our results show that combinations of routing and MAC protocols yield varying performance under varying network topology and traffic situations. The result has an important implication; no combination of routing protocol and MAC protocol is the best over all situations. Also, the performance analysis of protocols at a given level in the protocol stack needs to be studied not locally in isolation but as a part of the complete protocol stack. A novel aspect of our work is the use of statistical technique, ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) to characterize the effect of routing protocols on MAC protocols. This technique is of independent interest and can be utilized in several other simulation and empirical studies.

  9. Actuating movement in refined wearables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toeters, M.J.; Feijs, L.M.G.

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays it is quite possible to deploy textiles as sensors and avoid traditional hard sensors. Actuation (movement) turns out more difficult. It is advantageous to combine sensing and actuation, similar to ecological perception theory. Although several actuators are known: SMA, voice coil, motors,

  10. Using generalized equivalent uniform dose atlases to combine and analyze prospective dosimetric and radiation pneumonitis data from 2 non-small cell lung cancer dose escalation protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fan; Yorke, Ellen D; Belderbos, José S A; Borst, Gerben R; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E; Lebesque, Joos V; Jackson, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    To demonstrate the use of generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) atlas for data pooling in radiation pneumonitis (RP) modeling, to determine the dependence of RP on gEUD, to study the consistency between data sets, and to verify the increased statistical power of the combination. Patients enrolled in prospective phase I/II dose escalation studies of radiation therapy of non-small cell lung cancer at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) (78 pts) and the Netherlands Cancer Institute (NKI) (86 pts) were included; 10 (13%) and 14 (17%) experienced RP requiring steroids (RPS) within 6 months after treatment. gEUD was calculated from dose-volume histograms. Atlases for each data set were created using 1-Gy steps from exact gEUDs and RPS data. The Lyman-Kutcher-Burman model was fit to the atlas and exact gEUD data. Heterogeneity and inconsistency statistics for the fitted parameters were computed. gEUD maps of the probability of RPS rate≥20% were plotted. The 2 data sets were homogeneous and consistent. The best fit values of the volume effect parameter a were small, with upper 95% confidence limit around 1.0 in the joint data. The likelihood profiles around the best fit a values were flat in all cases, making determination of the best fit a weak. All confidence intervals (CIs) were narrower in the joint than in the individual data sets. The minimum P value for correlations of gEUD with RPS in the joint data was .002, compared with P=.01 and .05 for MSKCC and NKI data sets, respectively. gEUD maps showed that at small a, RPS risk increases with gEUD. The atlas can be used to combine gEUD and RPS information from different institutions and model gEUD dependence of RPS. RPS has a large volume effect with the mean dose model barely included in the 95% CI. Data pooling increased statistical power. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of single and combination diuretics on glucose tolerance (PATHWAY-3): protocol for a randomised double-blind trial in patients with essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Morris J; Williams, Bryan; MacDonald, Thomas M; Caulfield, Mark; Cruickshank, J Kennedy; McInnes, Gordon; Sever, Peter; Webb, David J; Salsbury, Jackie; Morant, Steve; Ford, Ian

    2015-08-07

    Thiazide diuretics are associated with increased risk of diabetes mellitus. This risk may arise from K(+)-depletion. We hypothesised that a K(+)-sparing diuretic will improve glucose tolerance, and that combination of low-dose thiazide with K(+)-sparing diuretic will improve both blood pressure reduction and glucose tolerance, compared to a high-dose thiazide. This is a parallel-group, randomised, double-blind, multicentre trial, comparing hydrochlorothiazide 25-50 mg, amiloride 10-20 mg and combination of both diuretics at half these doses. A single-blind placebo run-in of 1 month is followed by 24 weeks of blinded active treatment. There is forced dose-doubling after 3 months. The Primary end point is the blood glucose 2 h after oral ingestion of a 75 g glucose drink (OGTT), following overnight fasting. The primary outcome is the difference between 2 h glucose at weeks 0, 12 and 24. Secondary outcomes include the changes in home systolic blood pressure (BP) and glycated haemoglobin and prediction of response by baseline plasma renin. Eligibility criteria are: age 18-79, systolic BP on permitted background treatment ≥ 140 mm Hg and home BP ≥ 130 mm Hg and one component of the metabolic syndrome additional to hypertension. Principal exclusions are diabetes, estimated-glomerular filtration rate 200 mm Hg or DBP >120 mm Hg (box 2). The sample size calculation indicates that 486 patients will give 80% power at α=0.01 to detect a difference in means of 1 mmol/L (SD=2.2) between 2 h glucose on hydrochlorothiazide and comparators. PATHWAY-3 was approved by Cambridge South Ethics Committee, number 09/H035/19. The trial results will be published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal. Eudract number 2009-010068-41 and clinical trials registration number: NCT02351973. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Clinical assessment of blood glucose homeostasis in horses: comparison of a continuous glucose monitoring system with a combined intravenous glucose and insulin test protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, P J; Wiedmeyer, C E; LaCarrubba, A; Messer, N T; Dingfelder, H A; Cogswell, A M; Amorim, J R R; Ganjam, V K

    2011-01-01

    The combined glucose-insulin test (CGIT) is helpful for evaluating insulin sensitivity. A continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) reports changes in interstitial glucose concentrations as they occur in the blood. Use of the CGMS minimizes animal contact and may be useful when performing a CGIT. Results obtained using a CGMS are useful for the evaluation of glucose responses during the evaluation of insulin sensitivity in equids. Seven mature, obese ponies. Ponies were equipped with CGMS for determination of interstitial glucose concentrations. Glucose (150 mg/kg, i.v.) and insulin (0.1 U/kg, i.v.) were administered and blood glucose concentrations determined at (minutes after time zero) 1, 5, 15, 25, 35, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105, and 120 with a hand-held glucometer. Blood chemistry results were compared with simultaneously obtained results using CGMS. Concordance coefficients determined for comparison of blood glucose concentrations determined by a hand-held glucometer and those determined by CGMS after the zero time point were 0.623, 0.764, 0.834, 0.854, and 0.818 (for delays of 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes, respectively). Interstitial glucose concentrations obtained by the CGMS compared favorably to blood glucose concentrations. CGMS may be useful for assessment of glucose dynamics in the CGIT. Copyright © 2010 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  13. A grid-enabled web service for low-resolution crystal structure refinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donovan, Daniel J; Stokes-Rees, Ian; Nam, Yunsun; Blacklow, Stephen C; Schröder, Gunnar F; Brunger, Axel T; Sliz, Piotr

    2012-03-01

    Deformable elastic network (DEN) restraints have proved to be a powerful tool for refining structures from low-resolution X-ray crystallographic data sets. Unfortunately, optimal refinement using DEN restraints requires extensive calculations and is often hindered by a lack of access to sufficient computational resources. The DEN web service presented here intends to provide structural biologists with access to resources for running computationally intensive DEN refinements in parallel on the Open Science Grid, the US cyberinfrastructure. Access to the grid is provided through a simple and intuitive web interface integrated into the SBGrid Science Portal. Using this portal, refinements combined with full parameter optimization that would take many thousands of hours on standard computational resources can now be completed in several hours. An example of the successful application of DEN restraints to the human Notch1 transcriptional complex using the grid resource, and summaries of all submitted refinements, are presented as justification.

  14. The use of Fourier reverse transforms in crystallographic phase refinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringrose, Sharon [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1997-10-08

    Often a crystallographer obtains an electron density map which shows only part of the structure. In such cases, the phasing of the trial model is poor enough that the electron density map may show peaks in some of the atomic positions, but other atomic positions are not visible. There may also be extraneous peaks present which are not due to atomic positions. A method for determination of crystal structures that have resisted solution through normal crystallographic methods has been developed. PHASER is a series of FORTRAN programs which aids in the structure solution of poorly phased electron density maps by refining the crystallographic phases. It facilitates the refinement of such poorly phased electron density maps for difficult structures which might otherwise not be solvable. The trial model, which serves as the starting point for the phase refinement, may be acquired by several routes such as direct methods or Patterson methods. Modifications are made to the reverse transform process based on several assumptions. First, the starting electron density map is modified based on the fact that physically the electron density map must be non-negative at all points. In practice a small positive cutoff is used. A reverse Fourier transform is computed based on the modified electron density map. Secondly, the authors assume that a better electron density map will result by using the observed magnitudes of the structure factors combined with the phases calculated in the reverse transform. After convergence has been reached, more atomic positions and less extraneous peaks are observed in the refined electron density map. The starting model need not be very large to achieve success with PHASER; successful phase refinement has been achieved with a starting model that consists of only 5% of the total scattering power of the full molecule. The second part of the thesis discusses three crystal structure determinations.

  15. Comparison of three experimental protocols in pre clinical studies for thyroid cancer treatment using sodium butyrate in combination with boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perona, M; Rodriguez, C; Carpano, M; Majdalani E; Nievas, S; Olivera, M; Pisarev, M; Cabrini, R; Juvenal, G; Dagrosa A

    2012-01-01

    Background: We have shown that boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) could be an alternative for the treatment of poorly differentiated (PDTC) and undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (UTC). However new strategies are being assayed in order to optimize its application. Histone de acetylase inhibitors (HDAC-I) like sodium butyrate (NaB), are emerging as a new class of chemotherapeutic agents which target the epigenome. Since histone hyper acetylation mediates changes in chromatin conformation, HDAC-I are involved in different epigenetically controlled activities like apoptosis, proliferation, cell differentiation, induction of cell cycle arrest and motility. The purpose of the present studies was to analyze different treatment regimens of combination of NaB and boronophenylalanine (BPA) uptake in animals bearing transplants of a human thyroid carcinoma Methods: NIH nude mice of 6-8 weeks were implanted (s.c.) with 10 6 of human follicular thyroid carcinoma cells (WRO). Three regimens were evaluated in 48 animals after 15 days when tumors had a size between 50 and 100 mm 3 . Group 1 (n=10): BPA and NaB (50 mM) via i.p. at a dose of 110 mg/kg b.w. 24 h before boron compound administration; group 2 (n=10): BPA and NaB 3.4% in the water ad libitum during a month after 15 days post-implantation; group 3 (n=10): BPA alone. In all the groups BPA was injected at a dose of 350 mg/Kg b.w. (i.p.) and the animals were sacrificed at 2 h post-administration. Boron measurements in tissues and blood were performed by ICP-OES. A control group without NaB (n=6) for each regimen was included. The tumor growth and the body weight were determined twice a week during a month. Results: The administration of NaB 3.4% during a month previous to BNCT did not modify the body weight of the mice and decreased the tumor growth compared to its control group (p<0.01). The biodistribution studies showed a tumor boron concentration of 32.6 ± 1.4 ppm for group 1 (NaB 50 mM plus BPA), of 16.9 ± 3.7 ppm

  16. Physiotherapy alone or in combination with corticosteroid injection for acute lateral epicondylitis in general practice: A protocol for a randomised, placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holmedal Øystein

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lateral epicondylitis is a painful condition responsible for loss of function and sick leave for long periods of time. In many countries, the treatment guidelines recommend a wait-and-see policy, reflecting that no conclusions on the best treatment can be drawn from the available research, published studies and meta-analyses. Methods/Design Randomized double blind controlled clinical trial in a primary care setting. While earlier trials have either compared corticosteroid injections to physical therapy or to naproxen orally, we will compare the clinical effect of physiotherapy alone or physiotherapy combined with corticosteroid injection in the initial treatment of acute tennis elbow. Patients seeing their general practitioner with lateral elbow pain of recent onset will be randomised to one of three interventions: 1: physiotherapy, corticosteroid injection and naproxen or 2: physiotherapy, placebo injection and naproxen or 3: wait and see treatment with naproxen alone. Treatment and assessments are done by two different doctors, and the contents of the injection is unknown to both the treating doctor and patient. The primary outcome measure is the patient's evaluation of improvement after 6, 12, 26 and 52 weeks. Secondary outcome measures are pain, function and severity of main complaint, pain-free grip strength, maximal grip strength, pressure-pain threshold, the patient's satisfaction with the treatment and duration of sick leave. Conclusion This article describes a randomized, double blind, controlled clinical trial with a one year follow up to investigate the effects of adding steroid injections to physiotherapy in acute lateral epicondylitis. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00826462

  17. A rapid and highly sensitive protocol for the detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 based on immunochromatography assay combined with the enrichment technique of immunomagnetic nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi H

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Hui Qi1, Zhen Zhong1, Han-Xin Zhou1, Chun-Yan Deng1, Hai Zhu2, Jin-Feng Li2, Xi-Li Wang2, Fu-Rong Li1,31Clinical Medical Research Center, The Second Clinical Medical College (Shenzhen People's Hospital, Jinan University, 2Shenzhen Bioeasy Biotechnologies Co, Ltd, 3Shenzhen Institute of Gerontology, Shenzhen, People's Republic of ChinaBackground: Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7 is an important pathogenic bacterium that threatens human health. A rapid, simple, highly sensitive, and specific method for the detection of E. coli O157:H7 is necessary.Methods: In the present study, immunomagnetic nanoparticles (IMPs were prepared with nanopure iron as the core, coated with E. coli O157:H7 polyclonal antibodies. These IMPs were used in combination with immunochromatographic assay (ICA and used to establish highly sensitive and rapid kits (IMPs+ICA to detect E. coli O157:H7. The kits were then used to detect E. coli O157:H7 in 150 food samples and were compared with conventional ICA to evaluate their efficacy.Results: The average diameter of IMPs was 56 nm and the amount of adsorbed antibodies was 106.0 µg/mg. The sensitivity of ICA and IMPs+ICA was 105 colony-forming units/mL and 103 CFUs/mL, respectively, for purified E. coli O157:H7 solution. The sensitivity of IMPs+ICA was increased by two orders, and its specificity was similar to ICA.Conclusion: The kits have the potential to offer important social and economic benefits in the screening, monitoring, and control of food safety.Keywords: colloidal gold, immunomagnetic nanoparticles, Escherichia coli O157:H7, immunochromatographic assay

  18. Determining the efficacy of guppies and pyriproxyfen (Sumilarv® 2MR) combined with community engagement on dengue vectors in Cambodia: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hustedt, John; Doum, Dyna; Keo, Vanney; Ly, Sokha; Sam, BunLeng; Chan, Vibol; Alexander, Neal; Bradley, John; Prasetyo, Didot Budi; Rachmat, Agus; Muhammad, Shafique; Lopes, Sergio; Leang, Rithea; Hii, Jeffrey

    2017-08-04

    Evidence on the effectiveness of low-cost, sustainable, biological vector-control tools for the Aedes mosquitoes is limited. Therefore, the purpose of this trial is to estimate the impact of guppy fish (guppies), in combination with the use of the larvicide pyriproxyfen (Sumilarv® 2MR), and Communication for Behavioral Impact (COMBI) activities to reduce entomological indices in Cambodia. In this cluster randomized controlled, superiority trial, 30 clusters comprising one or more villages each (with approximately 170 households) will be allocated, in a 1:1:1 ratio, to receive either (1) three interventions (guppies, Sumilarv® 2MR, and COMBI activities), (2) two interventions (guppies and COMBI activities), or (3) control (standard vector control). Households will be invited to participate, and entomology surveys among 40 randomly selected households per cluster will be carried out quarterly. The primary outcome will be the population density of adult female Aedes mosquitoes (i.e., number per house) trapped using adult resting collections. Secondary outcome measures will include the House Index, Container Index, Breteau Index, Pupae Per House, Pupae Per Person, mosquito infection rate, guppy fish coverage, Sumilarv® 2MR coverage, and percentage of respondents with knowledge about Aedes mosquitoes causing dengue. In the primary analysis, adult female Aedes density and mosquito infection rates will be aggregated over follow-up time points to give a single rate per cluster. This will be analyzed by negative binomial regression, yielding density ratios. This trial is expected to provide robust estimates of the intervention effect. A rigorous evaluation of these vector-control interventions is vital to developing an evidence-based dengue control strategy and to help direct government resources. Current Controlled Trials, ID: ISRCTN85307778 . Registered on 25 October 2015.

  19. Optimizing refiner operation with statistical modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broderick, G [Noranda Research Centre, Pointe Claire, PQ (Canada)

    1997-02-01

    The impact of refining conditions on the energy efficiency of the process and on the handsheet quality of a chemi-mechanical pulp was studied as part of a series of pilot scale refining trials. Statistical models of refiner performance were constructed from these results and non-linear optimization of process conditions were conducted. Optimization results indicated that increasing the ratio of specific energy applied in the first stage led to a reduction of some 15 per cent in the total energy requirement. The strategy can also be used to obtain significant increases in pulp quality for a given energy input. 20 refs., 6 tabs.

  20. Refinement Types for TypeScript

    OpenAIRE

    Vekris, Panagiotis; Cosman, Benjamin; Jhala, Ranjit

    2016-01-01

    We present Refined TypeScript (RSC), a lightweight refinement type system for TypeScript, that enables static verification of higher-order, imperative programs. We develop a formal core of RSC that delineates the interaction between refinement types and mutability. Next, we extend the core to account for the imperative and dynamic features of TypeScript. Finally, we evaluate RSC on a set of real world benchmarks, including parts of the Octane benchmarks, D3, Transducers, and the TypeScript co...

  1. Price implications for Russia's oil refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khartukov, Eugene M.

    1998-01-01

    Over the past several years, Russia's oil industry has undergone its radical transformation from a wholly state-run and generously subsidized oil distribution system toward a substantially privatized, cash-strapped, and quasi-market ''petropreneurship''. This fully applies to the industry's downstream sector. Still unlike more dynamic E and C operations, the country's refining has turned out better fenced off competitive market forces and is less capable to respond to market imperatives. Consequently, jammed between depressed product prices and persistent feedstock costs, Russian refiners were badly hit by the world oil glut - which has made a radical modernization of the obsolete refining sector clearly a must. (author)

  2. Study protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Benjamin E; Hendrick, Paul; Bateman, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    avoidance behaviours, catastrophising, self-efficacy, sport and leisure activity participation, and general quality of life. Follow-up will be 3 and 6 months. The analysis will focus on descriptive statistics and confidence intervals. The qualitative components will follow a thematic analysis approach....... DISCUSSION: This study will evaluate the feasibility of running a definitive large-scale trial on patients with patellofemoral pain, within the NHS in the UK. We will identify strengths and weaknesses of the proposed protocol and the utility and characteristics of the outcome measures. The results from...... this study will inform the design of a multicentre trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN35272486....

  3. A web delivered intervention for depression combining Behavioural Activation with physical activity promotion: study protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey David Lambert

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical activity (PA yields moderate effect sizes for treating depression (Cooney et al., 2013. PA may also help reduce depressive relapse, providing additional psychological benefits such as positive self-regard and a sense of competence (Babyak et al., 2000. Behavioural Activation (BA is an evidence-based psychological therapy for depression, which aims to get people more engaged with activities that provide positive reinforcement for non-depressed behaviours (Hopko, Lejuez, LePage, Hopko, & McNeil, 2003. The structured nature of BA is consistent with the use of good behaviour change techniques (specific goal-setting, self-regulation offering a potential platform for promoting PA alongside depression treatment. BA may also be useful for gradually increasing PA in people who are more sedentary than the general population. Aims: This pilot randomised controlled trial aims to assess the feasibility, acceptability, and fidelity of a web-delivered intervention combining BA and PA (eBAcPAc to enhance mental and physical health, and assess the trial methods. Method: A community sample of 120 people exhibiting symptoms of depression and who are participating in less than 150 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity per week will be randomized to receive eBAcPAc or be put on a wait list control group. eBAcPAc is informed by previous work (Farrand et al., 2014; Pentecost et al., 2015 and further developed using the Centre for eHealth Research and Disease management Roadmap (CeHReS (van Gemert-Pijnen et al., 2011 in order to be applied in an web-based setting. A platform hosted by the University of Glasgow which has been used to deliver a wide range of successful web-delivered interventions for mental health, will be used to deliver eBAcPAc. Feasibility measures will include data on recruitment, attrition and acceptability. Pre-post outcome measures will include the PHQ-9, and self-reported and accelerometer measured PA. Process and

  4. Acute adjustments of heart rate and oxygen consuption in an experimental protocol of step training with diferent combinations of platform height and musical rhythms - doi: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v35i2.11669

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Ribeiro de Ávila

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate adaptations acute heart rate (HR and oxygen consumption (VO2 in an experimental protocol of step training with different combinations of platform height (15.2, 20.3 and 25.4 cm and musical rhythms (125, 135 and 145 bpm. Thirty-five women were randomly selected, (mean ± DP aged 21.6 ± 1.8 years, body weight of 57.8 ± 8.2 kg, height of 162.6 ± 6.8 cm, body mass index of 21.8 ± 2.5 kg m-2 and fat percentage (% Fat of 24.8 ± 4.4%, with at least six months experience in step training sessions, and a frequency of at least two days a week. Techniques of descriptive and inferential statistics were employed. A significant difference was detected for the HR and VO2 in relation to the increase in step platform height and in musical rhythm for all the combinations, except for three situations. From the obtained results, we can infer that the cardiovascular and metabolic responses increase or decrease according to the musical rhythm and/or platform height.

  5. Assume-Guarantee Abstraction Refinement Meets Hybrid Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogomolov, Sergiy; Frehse, Goran; Greitschus, Marius; Grosu, Radu; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Podelski, Andreas; Strump, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Compositional verification techniques in the assume- guarantee style have been successfully applied to transition systems to efficiently reduce the search space by leveraging the compositional nature of the systems under consideration. We adapt these techniques to the domain of hybrid systems with affine dynamics. To build assumptions we introduce an abstraction based on location merging. We integrate the assume-guarantee style analysis with automatic abstraction refinement. We have implemented our approach in the symbolic hybrid model checker SpaceEx. The evaluation shows its practical potential. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work combining assume-guarantee reasoning with automatic abstraction-refinement in the context of hybrid automata.

  6. Body surface area adapted iopromide 300 mg/ml versus 370 mg/ml contrast medium injection protocol: Influence on quantitative and clinical assessment in combined PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verburg, Frederik A., E-mail: fverburg@ukaachen.de [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pauwelsstraße 30, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, P. Debyelaan 25, 6229 HX Maastricht (Netherlands); Apitzsch, Jonas [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Pauwelsstraße 30, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Lensing, Carina [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pauwelsstraße 30, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Kuhl, Christiane K. [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Pauwelsstraße 30, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Pietsch, Hubertus [Bayer Pharma AG, Müllerstrasse 178, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Mottaghy, Felix M. [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pauwelsstraße 30, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, P. Debyelaan 25, 6229 HX Maastricht (Netherlands); Behrendt, Florian F. [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pauwelsstraße 30, 52074 Aachen (Germany)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To investigate the quantitative and qualitative differences between combined positron emission tomography and computed X-ray tomography (PET/CT) enhanced with contrast medium with either an iodine concentration 300 mg/ml or 370 mg/ml. Materials and methods: 120 consecutive patients scheduled for F-18-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT were included. The first (second) 60 patients received contrast medium with 300 (370) mg iodine/ml. Intravenous injection protocols were adapted for an identical iodine delivery rate (1.3 mg/s) and body surface area (BSA) adapted iodine dose (22.26 g I/m{sup 2}). Maximum and mean standardized uptake values (SUV{sub max}; SUV{sub mean}) and contrast enhancement (HU) were determined in the ascending aorta, the abdominal aorta, the inferior vena cava, the portal vein, the liver and the right kidney in the venous contrast medium phase. PET data were evaluated visually for the presence of malignancy and image quality. Results: Both media caused significantly higher values for HU, SUV{sub mean} and SUV{sub max} for the enhanced PET/CT than the non-enhanced one (all p < 0.01). There were no significant differences in the degree of increase of HU, SUV{sub mean} and SUV{sub max} between the two contrast media at any anatomic site (all p > 0.05). Visual evaluation of lesions showed no differences between contrast and non-contrast PET/CT or between the two different contrast media (p = 0.77). Conclusion: When using a constant iodine delivery rate and total iodine dose in a BSA adapted injection protocol, there are no quantitative or qualitative differences in either CT or PET between contrast media with an iodine concentration of 300 mg/ml and 370 mg/ml, respectively.

  7. Development of a fast and simple gas chromatographic protocol based on the combined use of alkyl chloroformate and solid phase microextraction for the assay of polyamines in human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naccarato, Attilio; Elliani, Rosangela; Cavaliere, Brunella; Sindona, Giovanni; Tagarelli, Antonio

    2018-05-11

    Polyamines are aliphatic amines with low molecular weight that are widely recognized as one of the most important cancer biomarkers for early diagnosis and treatment. The goal of the work herein presented is the development of a rapid and simple method for the quantification of free polyamines (i.e., putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine, spermine) and N-monoacetylated polyamines (i.e., N 1 -Acetylspermidine, N 8 -Acetylspermidine, and N 1 -Acetylspermine) in human urine. A preliminary derivatization with propyl chloroformate combined with the use of solid phase microextraction (SPME) allowed for an easy and automatable protocol involving minimal sample handling and no consumption of organic solvents. The affinity of the analytes toward five commercial SPME coatings was evaluated in univariate mode, and the best result in terms of analyte extraction was achieved using the divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane fiber. The variables affecting the performance of SPME analysis were optimized by the multivariate approach of experimental design and, in particular, using a central composite design (CCD). The optimal working conditions in terms of response values are the following: extraction temperature 40 °C, extraction time of 15 min and no addition of NaCl. Analyses were carried out by gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-QqQ-MS) in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) acquisition mode. The developed method was validated according to the guidelines issued by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The satisfactory performances reached in terms of linearity, sensitivity (LOQs between 0.01 and 0.1 μg/mL), matrix effect (68-121%), accuracy, and precision (inter-day values between -24% and +16% and in the range 3.3-28.4%, respectively) make the proposed protocol suitable to be adopted for quantification of these important biomarkers in urine samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Refinement for Transition Systems with Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Carbone

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the response pattern for property specifications and applications within flexible workflow management systems, we report upon an initial study of modal and mixed transition systems in which the must transitions are interpreted as must eventually, and in which implementations can contain may behaviors that are resolved at run-time. We propose Transition Systems with Responses (TSRs as a suitable model for this study. We prove that TSRs correspond to a restricted class of mixed transition systems, which we refer to as the action-deterministic mixed transition systems. We show that TSRs allow for a natural definition of deadlocked and accepting states. We then transfer the standard definition of refinement for mixed transition systems to TSRs and prove that refinement does not preserve deadlock freedom. This leads to the proposal of safe refinements, which are those that preserve deadlock freedom. We exemplify the use of TSRs and (safe refinements on a small medication workflow.

  9. Taiwan: refined need for consuming population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, David.

    1995-01-01

    A brief discussion is given of the oil and gas industry in Taiwan. Topics covered include the possibility of privatization, refineries and refining contracts overseas, plans for a new petrochemical complex and an offshore submarine transmission pipeline. (UK)

  10. 1991 worldwide refining and gas processing directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    This book ia an authority for immediate information on the industry. You can use it to find new business, analyze market trends, and to stay in touch with existing contacts while making new ones. The possibilities for business applications are numerous. Arranged by country, all listings in the directory include address, phone, fax and telex numbers, a description of the company's activities, names of key personnel and their titles, corporate headquarters, branch offices and plant sites. This newly revised edition lists more than 2000 companies and nearly 3000 branch offices and plant locations. This east-to-use reference also includes several of the most vital and informative surveys of the industry, including the U.S. Refining Survey, the Worldwide Construction Survey in Refining, Sulfur, Gas Processing and Related Fuels, the Worldwide Refining and Gas Processing Survey, the Worldwide Catalyst Report, and the U.S. and Canadian Lube and Wax Capacities Report from the National Petroleum Refiner's Association

  11. Development of a Refined Staff Group Trainer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quensel, Susan

    1999-01-01

    .... As a follow-on effort to the previous SGT project, the goal was to refine a brigade-level staff training program to more effectively and efficiently coordinate the activities within and between the...

  12. Nucleation mechanisms of refined alpha microstructure in beta titanium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yufeng

    Due to a great combination of physical and mechanical properties, beta titanium alloys have become promising candidates in the field of chemical industry, aerospace and biomedical materials. The microstructure of beta titanium alloys is the governing factor that determines their properties and performances, especially the size scale, distribution and volume fraction of precipitate phase in parent phase matrix. Therefore in order to enhance the performance of beta titanium alloys, it is critical to obtain a thorough understanding of microstructural evolution in beta titanium alloys upon various thermal and/or mechanical processes. The present work is focusing on the study of nucleation mechanisms of refined alpha microstructure and super-refined alpha microstructure in beta titanium alloys in order to study the influence of instabilities within parent phase matrix on precipitates nucleation, including compositional instabilities and/or structural instabilities. The current study is primarily conducted in Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-3Cr (wt%, Ti-5553), a commercial material for aerospace application. Refined and super-refined precipitates microstructure in Ti-5553 are obtained under specific accurate temperature controlled heat treatments. The characteristics of either microstructure are investigated in details using various characterization techniques, such as SEM, TEM, STEM, HRSTEM and 3D atom probe to describe the features of microstructure in the aspect of morphology, distribution, structure and composition. Nucleation mechanisms of refined and super-refined precipitates are proposed in order to fully explain the features of different precipitates microstructure in Ti-5553. The necessary thermodynamic conditions and detailed process of phase transformations are introduced. In order to verify the reliability of proposed nucleation mechanisms, thermodynamic calculation and phase field modeling simulation are accomplished using the database of simple binary Ti-Mo system

  13. Oil refining in South Asia and Australasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.

    2000-01-01

    An overview of the oil markets of Southeast Asia and Australasia is presented focussing on oil refining. Key statistics of both areas are tabulated, and figures providing information on GDP/capita, crude production, comparison of demand barrels, and product demand are provided. Crude oil production and supply, oil product demand, and the refining industries are examined with details given of evolution of capacity and cracking to distillation ratios

  14. The present state of refining in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The european refining industry suffers from a production over-capacity and closures are inevitable; the situation is even worse in France due to the imbalance between gas oil and gasoline prices and the weak margin for distributors. The French refining industry is however an important and essential link for its strategic fuel and petroleum product supply, and represent 17000 jobs. Several measures are introduced by the French Industry department towards restructuring, capacity reduction and fuel price harmonization

  15. Design of Grain Refiners for Aluminium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronche, A.; Greer, A. L.

    The efficiency of a grain refiner can be quantified as the number of grains per nucleant particle in the solidified product. Even for effective refiners in aluminium, such as Al-5Ti-1B, it is known from experiments that efficiencies are very low, at best 10-3 to 102. It is of interest to explore the reasons for such low values, and to assess the prospects for increased efficiency though design of refiners. Recently it has been shown [1] that a simple recalescence-based model can make quantitative predictions of grain size as a function of refiner addition level, cooling rate and solute content. In the model, the initiation of grains is limited by the free growth from nucleant particles, the size distribution of which is very important. The present work uses this model as the basis for discussing the effect of particle size distribution on grain refiner performance. Larger particles (of TiB2 in the case of present interest) promote greater efficiency, as do narrower size distributions. It is shown that even if the size distribution could be exactly specified, compromises would have to be made to balance efficiency (defined as above) with other desirable characteristics of a refiner.

  16. An investigator-blinded, randomized study to compare the efficacy of combined CBT for alcohol use disorders and social anxiety disorder versus CBT focused on alcohol alone in adults with comorbid disorders: the Combined Alcohol Social Phobia (CASP) trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Andrew J; Sannibale, Claudia; Stapinski, Lexine A; Teesson, Maree; Rapee, Ronald M; Haber, Paul S

    2013-07-30

    Alcohol use disorders and social anxiety disorder are common and disabling conditions that frequently co-exist. Although there are efficacious treatments for each disorder, only two randomized controlled trials of interventions for these combined problems have been published. We developed a new integrated treatment for comorbid Social Anxiety Disorder and Alcohol Use Disorder based on established Motivational Interviewing (MI) and Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) interventions for the separate disorders. Compared to established MI/CBT for alcohol use disorders this new intervention is hypothesised to lead to greater reductions in symptoms of social anxiety and alcohol use disorder and to produce greater improvements in quality of life. Higher levels of alcohol dependence will result in relatively poorer outcomes for the new integrated treatment. A randomised controlled trial comparing 9 sessions of individual integrated treatment for alcohol and social phobia with 9 sessions of treatment for alcohol use problems alone is proposed. Randomisation will be stratified for stable antidepressant use. Post treatment clinical assessments of alcohol consumption and diagnostic status at 3 and 6 month follow-up will be blind to allocation. The proposed trial addresses a serious gap in treatment evidence and could potentially define the appropriate treatment for a large proportion of adults affected by these problems. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12608000228381.

  17. Beyond protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanderhoeven, Sonia; Branquart, Etienne; Casaer, Jim

    2017-01-01

    Risk assessment tools for listing invasive alien species need to incorporate all available evidence and expertise. Beyond the wealth of protocols developed to date, we argue that the current way of performing risk analysis has several shortcomings. In particular, lack of data on ecological impact...... information on risk and the exploration of improved methods for decision making on biodiversity management. This is crucial for efficient conservation resource allocation and uptake by stakeholders and the public......., transparency and repeatability of assessments as well as the incorporation of uncertainty should all be explicitly considered. We recommend improved quality control of risk assessments through formalized peer review with clear feedback between assessors and reviewers. Alternatively, a consensus building...

  18. Can a combined screening/treatment programme prevent premature failure of renal transplants due to chronic rejection in patients with HLA antibodies: study protocol for the multicentre randomised controlled OuTSMART trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Renal transplantation is the best treatment for kidney failure, in terms of length and quality of life and cost-effectiveness. However, most transplants fail after 10 to 12 years, consigning patients back onto dialysis. Damage by the immune system accounts for approximately 50% of failing transplants and it is possible to identify patients at risk by screening for the presence of antibodies against human leukocyte antigens. However, it is not clear how best to treat patients with antibodies. This trial will test a combined screening and treatment protocol in renal transplant recipients. Methods/Design Recipients >1 year post-transplantation, aged 18 to 70 with an estimated glomerular filtration rate >30 mL/min will be randomly allocated to blinded or unblinded screening arms, before being screened for the presence of antibodies. In the unblinded arm, test results will be revealed. Those with antibodies will have biomarker-led care, consisting of a change in their anti-rejection drugs to prednisone, tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil. In the blinded arm, screening results will be double blinded and all recruits will remain on current therapy (standard care). In both arms, those without antibodies will be retested every 8 months for 3 years. The primary outcome is the 3-year kidney failure rate for the antibody-positive recruits, as measured by initiation of long-term dialysis or re-transplantation, predicted to be approximately 20% in the standard care group but transplant dysfunction, incidence of infection, cancer and diabetes mellitus, an analysis of adherence with medication and a health economic analysis of the combined screening and treatment protocol. Blood samples will be collected and stored every 4 months and will form the basis of separately funded studies to identify new biomarkers associated with the outcomes. Discussion We have evidence that the biomarker-led care regime will be effective at preventing graft dysfunction and expect this to

  19. Refining MARGINS Mini-Lessons Using Classroom Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, E. A.; Manduca, C. A.; McDaris, J. R.; Lee, S.

    2009-12-01

    process instructive. Activity authors found the observations very helpful and the first mini-lessons have now been revised using feedback from testers. Initial results show that the tested mini-lessons give students hands-on experience with scientific data and help students make connections between geologic phenomena and data. Productive feedback ranged from suggestions for improving activity design, adaptations for other audiences, suggestions for clearer presentation, and tips for using the materials. The team plans to broaden the use of the protocol to test and refine all of the mini-lessons in the MARGINS collection.

  20. PREFMD: a web server for protein structure refinement via molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Lim; Feig, Michael

    2018-03-15

    Refinement of protein structure models is a long-standing problem in structural bioinformatics. Molecular dynamics-based methods have emerged as an avenue to achieve consistent refinement. The PREFMD web server implements an optimized protocol based on the method successfully tested in CASP11. Validation with recent CASP refinement targets shows consistent and more significant improvement in global structure accuracy over other state-of-the-art servers. PREFMD is freely available as a web server at http://feiglab.org/prefmd. Scripts for running PREFMD as a stand-alone package are available at https://github.com/feiglab/prefmd.git. feig@msu.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  1. Parallel Block Structured Adaptive Mesh Refinement on Graphics Processing Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckingsale, D. A. [Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE), Aldermaston (United Kingdom); Gaudin, W. P. [Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE), Aldermaston (United Kingdom); Hornung, R. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gunney, B. T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gamblin, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Herdman, J. A. [Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE), Aldermaston (United Kingdom); Jarvis, S. A. [Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE), Aldermaston (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-17

    Block-structured adaptive mesh refinement is a technique that can be used when solving partial differential equations to reduce the number of zones necessary to achieve the required accuracy in areas of interest. These areas (shock fronts, material interfaces, etc.) are recursively covered with finer mesh patches that are grouped into a hierarchy of refinement levels. Despite the potential for large savings in computational requirements and memory usage without a corresponding reduction in accuracy, AMR adds overhead in managing the mesh hierarchy, adding complex communication and data movement requirements to a simulation. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a native GPU-based AMR library, including: the classes used to manage data on a mesh patch, the routines used for transferring data between GPUs on different nodes, and the data-parallel operators developed to coarsen and refine mesh data. We validate the performance and accuracy of our implementation using three test problems and two architectures: an eight-node cluster, and over four thousand nodes of Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Titan supercomputer. Our GPU-based AMR hydrodynamics code performs up to 4.87× faster than the CPU-based implementation, and has been scaled to over four thousand GPUs using a combination of MPI and CUDA.

  2. Refining SCJ Mission Specifications into Parallel Handler Designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Zeyda

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Safety-Critical Java (SCJ is a recent technology that restricts the execution and memory model of Java in such a way that applications can be statically analysed and certified for their real-time properties and safe use of memory. Our interest is in the development of comprehensive and sound techniques for the formal specification, refinement, design, and implementation of SCJ programs, using a correct-by-construction approach. As part of this work, we present here an account of laws and patterns that are of general use for the refinement of SCJ mission specifications into designs of parallel handlers used in the SCJ programming paradigm. Our notation is a combination of languages from the Circus family, supporting state-rich reactive models with the addition of class objects and real-time properties. Our work is a first step to elicit laws of programming for SCJ and fits into a refinement strategy that we have developed previously to derive SCJ programs.

  3. Verifying large modular systems using iterative abstraction refinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahtinen, Jussi; Kuismin, Tuomas; Heljanko, Keijo

    2015-01-01

    Digital instrumentation and control (I&C) systems are increasingly used in the nuclear engineering domain. The exhaustive verification of these systems is challenging, and the usual verification methods such as testing and simulation are typically insufficient. Model checking is a formal method that is able to exhaustively analyse the behaviour of a model against a formally written specification. If the model checking tool detects a violation of the specification, it will give out a counter-example that demonstrates how the specification is violated in the system. Unfortunately, sometimes real life system designs are too big to be directly analysed by traditional model checking techniques. We have developed an iterative technique for model checking large modular systems. The technique uses abstraction based over-approximations of the model behaviour, combined with iterative refinement. The main contribution of the work is the concrete abstraction refinement technique based on the modular structure of the model, the dependency graph of the model, and a refinement sampling heuristic similar to delta debugging. The technique is geared towards proving properties, and outperforms BDD-based model checking, the k-induction technique, and the property directed reachability algorithm (PDR) in our experiments. - Highlights: • We have developed an iterative technique for model checking large modular systems. • The technique uses BDD-based model checking, k-induction, and PDR in parallel. • We have tested our algorithm by verifying two models with it. • The technique outperforms classical model checking methods in our experiments

  4. Chinese refining capacity for Canadian heavy oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce, G.W.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discussed China's refining capacity in relation to exports of Canadian heavy oil. Demand for oil is increasing throughout the world, and China is expected to consume 25 per cent of the projected yearly oil supplies. Alberta currently has an estimated 174 billion barrels of recoverable bitumen, and produces 1.06 million barrels per day. Production is expected to increase to 4.5 million barrels per day by the year 2020. Currently bitumen blends are refined and diluted with naphtha and sweet synthetic crude oil. Bitumen is a challenging feedstock for refineries, and requires thermal production methods or gasification processes. Primary conversion into sour synthetic crude is typically followed by hydrocracking and further refining into finished petroleum products. There are currently 50 refineries in China with a 7.4 million barrel per day capacity. Coastal refineries using imported crude oil have a 4 million barrel per day capacity. New facilities are being constructed and existing plants are being upgraded in order to process heavier and more sour crude oils. However, current refining capabilities in Chinese refineries have a limited ability for resid conversion. It was concluded that while China has a refining infrastructure, only refineries on the coast will use oil sands-derived feedstocks. However, there are currently opportunities to design refineries to match future feedstocks. tabs., figs

  5. The evolution of oil refining in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, A. [CONCAWE, Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-04-01

    Back in 1963 when CONCAWE was founded, the world looked very different from what it is today, and so did the global and European refining industry. Oil product markets were expanding fast and new refineries were being built at a steady rate. The oil crisis of the 1970s brought an abrupt end to this, heralding a long era of consolidation and stepwise adaptation. At the same time the nature of the global oil business shifted from fully integrated companies producing, transporting and refining their own oil to a much more diversified situation where oil production ('upstream') and refining/distribution ('downstream') gradually became two essentially separate businesses. From being purely a 'cost centre' in an integrated chain, refining has become a separate activity in its own right, operating as a 'profit centre' between two global markets - crude oil and products - which, although not entirely independent, have their own dynamics and influences. In addition demand gradually shifted towards lighter products while the quality requirements on all products were considerably tightened. This article explores the new challenges that these changes have imposed on EU refiners, and describes CONCAWE's contributions to understanding their impact on refinery production and investments.

  6. Grain refinement mechanism in A3003 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Hoon; Shin, Je-Sik; Lee, Byoung-Soo; Jo, Hyung-Ho

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, in order to find out an grain refinement mechanism, 0.1wt.% Al-10wt.%Ti master alloy was added into A3003 alloy melt contained in graphite crucible and in alumina crucible, and then the melt holding time at 750 deg. C was systematically changed from 1 min up to 120 min. It is interesting to note that the grain refinement and fading phenomena remarkably depend on the crucible material. The fading effect in the specimens using alumina crucible can be explained as the result of TiAl 3 phase dissolution into molten aluminium matrix. In the specimens using graphite crucible, the grain refinement was occurred gradually with increasing holding time. It was suggest that the continuous grain refinement is due to transition of refinement mechanism from TiAl 3 phase to TiC phase. It can be mentioned that the TiC formed from titanium and carbon solute in the aluminium melt, which came from the Al-10Ti alloy and the graphite crucible.

  7. Studies on the sedimentation and agglomeration behavior of Al-Ti-B and Al-Ti-C grain refiners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazanion, F.; Chen, X.G.; Dupuis, C. [Alcan International Ltd., Jonquiere, PQ (Canada). Arvida Research and Development Centre

    2002-07-01

    The sedimentation and agglomeration behavior of Al-Ti-B and Al-Ti-C grain refiners in liquid aluminum has been investigated using the LiMCA and PoDFA analysis techniques in combination with metallographic examination. The widely used Al-5%Ti-1%B and Al-3%Ti-0.15%C master alloys were chosen. Two aluminum alloys, an AAlxxx (commercially pure metal) and an AA5182 (Al-4.5%Mg) alloy, were prepared with different additions of grain refiners. The difference in particle behavior in liquid aluminum for both refiners is described and briefly analyzed in terms of sensitivity to agglomeration and grain refiner performance. Experimental results indicate that, in comparison with the Al-Ti-B refiner, the Al-Ti-C refiner is detrimentally affected by long holding periods due to the decomposition of TiC particles within the melt. (orig.)

  8. Shadowing of physical trajectories in chaotic dynamics: Containment and refinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grebogi, C.; Hammel, S.M.; Yorke, J.A.; Sauer, T.

    1990-01-01

    For a chaotic system, a noisy trajectory diverges rapidly from the true trajectory with the same initial condition. To understand in what sense the noisy trajectory reflects the true dynamics of the actual system, we developed a rigorous procedure to show that some true trajectories remain close to the noisy one for long times. The procedure involves a combination of containment, which establishes the existence of an uncountable number of true trajectories close to the noisy one, and refinement, which produces a less noisy trajectory. Our procedure is applied to noisy chaotic trajectories of the standard map and the driven pendulum

  9. India's refining prospects linked to economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, E.

    1996-01-01

    International investors assess refining ventures in India the same way they do comparable projects elsewhere in the world: according to their expectations about investment returns. By that standard, India's appeal is mixed, although its need for some measure of additional refining capacity seems certain. The success of future refinery investments will depend heavily on the government's commitment to policies allowing the economy to grow faster than the population. Unless accompanied by economic growth, expected increases in the population will not automatically raise demand for petroleum products. Decisions about investments in India's refining sector, therefore, must carefully weigh market fundamentals, the business environment, and likely investment performance. This paper reviews the market for the various products and predicts new economic trends

  10. Refining processes of selected copper alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rzadkosz

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the refining effectiveness of the liquid copper and selected copper alloys by various micro additions and special refiningsubstances – was performed. Examinations of an influence of purifying, modifying and deoxidation operations performed in a metal bath on the properties of certain selected alloys based on copper matrix - were made. Refining substances, protecting-purifying slag, deoxidation and modifying substances containing micro additions of such elements as: zirconium, boron, phosphor, sodium, lithium, or their compounds introduced in order to change micro structures and properties of alloys, were applied in examinations. A special attention was directed to macro and micro structures of alloys, their tensile and elongation strength and hot-cracks sensitivity. Refining effects were estimated by comparing the effectiveness of micro structure changes with property changes of copper and its selected alloys from the group of tin bronzes.

  11. Carcinogenicity of petroleum lubricating oil distillates: effects of solvent refining, hydroprocessing, and blending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, C A; Warne, T M; Little, R Q; Garvin, P J

    1984-01-01

    Certain refining processes were investigated to determine their influence on the dermal carcinogenic activity of petroleum-derived lubricating oil distillates. Specifically, the effects of solvent refining, hydroprocessing, a combination of both processes, and the blending of oils processed using each technique were evaluated in standard mouse skin-painting bioassays. The refining process used as well as the level or severity of treatment greatly influenced the carcinogenic outcome of processed lubricating oils. Solvent refining at severities normally used appeared to eliminate carcinogenicity. In contrast, hydroprocessing alone at mild levels of treatment was successful only in reducing the carcinogenic potency; severe hydroprocessing conditions were necessary to eliminate carcinogenic activity without the use of additional refining processes. Carcinogenic activity could also be eliminated by following moderate solvent refining with mild hydroprocessing. Blending of hydroprocessed oils with solvent-refined oils resulted in a substantial reduction or even elimination of carcinogenic activity. However, the degree of protection obtained varied with the particular distillates used and appeared largely dependent on the inherent biological activity of the hydroprocessed oil.

  12. Development of an efficient grain refiner for Al-7Si alloy and its modification with strontium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kori, S.A.; Murty, B.S.; Chakraborty, M. [Indian Inst. of Technol., Kharagpur (India). Dept. of Metall. and Mater. Eng.

    2000-05-15

    The grain refining response of Al and Al-7Si alloy has been studied with various Al-Ti, Al-B and Al-Ti-B master alloys at different addition levels. The results show that Al-B and B rich Al-Ti-B master alloys cannot grain refine Al, while they are efficient grain refiners to Al-7Si alloy. The level of grain refinement saturates after 0.03% of Ti or B for most of the master alloys studied both at short and long holding times. The grain refining efficiency of some elements other than Ti and B on Al-7Si alloy has also been studied. Interestingly, all the elements studied (B, Cr, Fe, Mg, Ni, Ti and Zr) have resulted in some grain refinement of Al-7Si alloy at short holding time and have shown fading/poisoning on long holding, which increased in the order of B (no poisoning), Ti, Cr, Ni, Fe, Mg, Zr. Sr (0.02%) has been found to provide complete modification of the eutectic in Al-7Si alloy within 2 min, which is not lost even after long holding up to 120 min. Significant improvements in the mechanical properties have been obtained by a combination of grain refinement and modification to an extent that was not possible by either of them alone. (orig.)

  13. Zone refining high-purity germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, G.S.; Haller, E.E.; Hansen, W.L.

    1977-10-01

    The effects of various parameters on germanium purification by zone refining have been examined. These parameters include the germanium container and container coatings, ambient gas and other operating conditions. Four methods of refining are presented which reproducibly yield 3.5 kg germanium ingots from which high purity (vertical barN/sub A/ - N/sub D/vertical bar less than or equal to2 x 10 10 cm -3 ) single crystals can be grown. A qualitative model involving binary and ternary complexes of Si, O, B, and Al is shown to account for the behavior of impurities at these low concentrations

  14. Adaptive mesh refinement for storm surge

    KAUST Repository

    Mandli, Kyle T.; Dawson, Clint N.

    2014-01-01

    An approach to utilizing adaptive mesh refinement algorithms for storm surge modeling is proposed. Currently numerical models exist that can resolve the details of coastal regions but are often too costly to be run in an ensemble forecasting framework without significant computing resources. The application of adaptive mesh refinement algorithms substantially lowers the computational cost of a storm surge model run while retaining much of the desired coastal resolution. The approach presented is implemented in the GeoClaw framework and compared to ADCIRC for Hurricane Ike along with observed tide gauge data and the computational cost of each model run. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Refining - Panorama 2008; Raffinage - Panorama 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Investment rallied in 2007, and many distillation and conversion projects likely to reach the industrial stage were announced. With economic growth sustained in 2006 and still pronounced in 2007, oil demand remained strong - especially in emerging countries - and refining margins stayed high. Despite these favorable business conditions, tensions persisted in the refining sector, which has fallen far behind in terms of investing in refinery capacity. It will take renewed efforts over a long period to catch up. Looking at recent events that have affected the economy in many countries (e.g. the sub-prime crisis), prudence remains advisable.

  16. India beckons participants in burgeoning refining sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that India has opened its refining sector to full private investment for the first time in more than 2 decades. The government again gave a green light to construction of three 120,000 b/d grassroots refineries in East, West, and Central India. The projects had won various governmental approvals in the past few years, but never moved off high center for a variety of economic and regulatory reasons. The difference this time is that the government is offering interests in the projects to private foreign and domestic investors. It's part of India's push to boost overall refining capacity by more than 80% this century

  17. Adaptive mesh refinement for storm surge

    KAUST Repository

    Mandli, Kyle T.

    2014-03-01

    An approach to utilizing adaptive mesh refinement algorithms for storm surge modeling is proposed. Currently numerical models exist that can resolve the details of coastal regions but are often too costly to be run in an ensemble forecasting framework without significant computing resources. The application of adaptive mesh refinement algorithms substantially lowers the computational cost of a storm surge model run while retaining much of the desired coastal resolution. The approach presented is implemented in the GeoClaw framework and compared to ADCIRC for Hurricane Ike along with observed tide gauge data and the computational cost of each model run. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Contextual Distance Refining for Image Retrieval

    KAUST Repository

    Islam, Almasri

    2014-01-01

    Recently, a number of methods have been proposed to improve image retrieval accuracy by capturing context information. These methods try to compensate for the fact that a visually less similar image might be more relevant because it depicts the same object. We propose a new quick method for refining any pairwise distance metric, it works by iteratively discovering the object in the image from the most similar images, and then refine the distance metric accordingly. Test show that our technique improves over the state of art in terms of accuracy over the MPEG7 dataset.

  19. Russian refining - an industry in transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, E [CentreInvest, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1999-02-01

    In the old Soviet Union (now called the CIS), the refining industry is undergoing much modernisation, although the process is far from complete. Eventually, the CIS is expected to have a market-responsive competitive refining business. The expected transformation is discussed according to a five-stage plan. The stages are (i) the change from horizontally integrated entity to vertically integrated global concerns, (ii) the change from over-manned dinosaurs to modern efficient businesses, (iii) the move towards smaller, more advanced market-orientated processes, (iv) improving the transport and storage infrastructures and (v) improving accountability and profitability. The predictions for 2005 onwards are for sustained profitability. (UK)

  20. Contextual Distance Refining for Image Retrieval

    KAUST Repository

    Islam, Almasri

    2014-09-16

    Recently, a number of methods have been proposed to improve image retrieval accuracy by capturing context information. These methods try to compensate for the fact that a visually less similar image might be more relevant because it depicts the same object. We propose a new quick method for refining any pairwise distance metric, it works by iteratively discovering the object in the image from the most similar images, and then refine the distance metric accordingly. Test show that our technique improves over the state of art in terms of accuracy over the MPEG7 dataset.

  1. SFESA: a web server for pairwise alignment refinement by secondary structure shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jing; Pei, Jimin; Grishin, Nick V

    2015-09-03

    Protein sequence alignment is essential for a variety of tasks such as homology modeling and active site prediction. Alignment errors remain the main cause of low-quality structure models. A bioinformatics tool to refine alignments is needed to make protein alignments more accurate. We developed the SFESA web server to refine pairwise protein sequence alignments. Compared to the previous version of SFESA, which required a set of 3D coordinates for a protein, the new server will search a sequence database for the closest homolog with an available 3D structure to be used as a template. For each alignment block defined by secondary structure elements in the template, SFESA evaluates alignment variants generated by local shifts and selects the best-scoring alignment variant. A scoring function that combines the sequence score of profile-profile comparison and the structure score of template-derived contact energy is used for evaluation of alignments. PROMALS pairwise alignments refined by SFESA are more accurate than those produced by current advanced alignment methods such as HHpred and CNFpred. In addition, SFESA also improves alignments generated by other software. SFESA is a web-based tool for alignment refinement, designed for researchers to compute, refine, and evaluate pairwise alignments with a combined sequence and structure scoring of alignment blocks. To our knowledge, the SFESA web server is the only tool that refines alignments by evaluating local shifts of secondary structure elements. The SFESA web server is available at http://prodata.swmed.edu/sfesa.

  2. Pilot scale refinning of crude soybean oil | Mensah | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pilot scale refinning of crude soybean oil. ... Abstract. A laboratory process for refining soybean has been scaled up to a 145 tonne per annum pilot plant to refine crude soybean oil. ... The quality of the refined oil was found to be within national and codex standard specifications for edible oil from vegetable sources.

  3. Investigation on grain refinement and precipitation strengthening applied in high speed wire rod containing vanadium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Da-yong; Xiao, Fu-ren, E-mail: frxiao@ysu.edu.cn; Wang, Bin; Liu, Jia-ling; Liao, Bo, E-mail: cyddjyjs@263.net

    2014-01-13

    To obtain necessary information for the simulation of high speed wire production process, the effect of grain refinement and precipitation strengthening on two high speed wire rod steels with different vanadium and nitrogen contents was investigated by continuous cooling transformation (CCT) characteristics. CCT curves were constructed by the dilatometer test and microscopic observation. Results showed that the formation of intra-granular ferrite (IGF) could refine grain remarkably and accelerate the ferrite transformation. Schedules for high speed wire production process focused on the effect of cooling rate. Ferrite grain was refined by increasing cooling rate and the formation of IGF. The microhardness calculation revealed that the steels were strengthened mostly by a combined effect of grain refinement and precipitation hardening. Degenerated pearlite was observed at lower transformation temperature and the fracture morphology changed from cementite lamellar to nanoscale cementite particle with increasing cooling rate. Based on the analysis above, an optimal schedule was applied and the microstructure and microhardness were improved.

  4. Evaluation of anaesthetic protocols for laboratory adult zebrafish (Danio rerio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Martins

    Full Text Available In the last decades, the use of zebrafish (Danio rerio in biomedical research has increased. Anaesthesia is daily used in fish during experimental procedures to avoid discomfort, stress or pain. Also, fish welfare and the reliability of results can be compromised if an unsuitable anaesthetic protocol is used. Therefore, we aimed to refine anaesthetic protocols to be used in adult zebrafish by evaluating the efficacy of different anaesthetics, used alone or in combination. For that, zebrafish were randomly assigned to 8 different groups: 100 μg/mLMS-222 (MS; 0.2 μg/mL etomidate (E; 0.2 μg/mL etomidate + 100 μg/mL lidocaine (E+L; 1.25 μg/mL propofol (P; 1.25 μg/mL propofol + 100 μg/mL lidocaine (P+L; 100 μg/mL ketamine (K; 100 μg/mL ketamine + 1.25 μg/mL medetomidine (K+M; and 100 μg/mL ketamine + 1.25 μg/mL medetomidine/3.125 μg/mL atipamezole (K+M/A. The animals were placed in an anaesthetic water bath, then, the following parameters were registered: time for equilibrium loss and anaesthesia induction, loss of sensitivity to soft and painful stimuli, respiratory rate, recovery time, and activity after recovery. The combined forms of E+L, P+L and K+M were the fastest to induce a surgical anaesthetic stage. Nevertheless, E+L induced respiratory depression, while K+M was shown to have the longer recovery time compared to MS-222, even when atipamezole was added. In conclusion, the P+L combination was shown to provide good anaesthesia with analgesia, without causing a major respiratory depression, providing as well a quick recovery, similar to MS-222.

  5. Study protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Troels; Helms, Anne Sofie; Adamsen, Lis

    2013-01-01

    , and problems related to interaction with peers. Methods/design The RESPECT study is a nationwide population-based prospective, controlled, mixed-methods intervention study looking at children aged 6-18 years newly diagnosed with cancer in eastern Denmark (n = 120) and a matched control group in western Denmark......, and one year after the cessation of treatment. The study is powered to quantify the impact of the combined educational, physical, and social intervention programs. Discussion RESPECT is the first population-based study to examine the effect of early rehabilitation for children with cancer, and to use...

  6. Structural refinement and coarsening in deformed metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, N.; Huang, X.; Xing, Q.

    2005-01-01

    The microstructural refinement by plastic deformation is analysed in terms of key parameters, the spacing between and the misorientation angle across the boundaries subdividing the structure. Coarsening of such structures by annealing is also characterised. For both deformed and annealed structur...

  7. Structure refinement of polycrystalline orthorhombic yttrium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The perovskite ceramic phases with composition Ca1−YTiO3+ (where = 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3; hereafter CYT-10, CYT-20 and CYT-30) have been synthesized by solid state reaction at 1050°C. The structure refinement using general structure analysis system (GSAS) software converges to satisfactory profile indicators ...

  8. Oil refining expansion criteria for Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, M.E.E.; Szklo, A.S.; Machado, G.V.; Schaeffer, R.; Mariano, J.B.; Sala, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper assesses different strategies for the expansion of Brazil's oil refining segment, using criteria that range from energy security (reducing imports and vulnerability for key products) through to maximizing the profitability of this sector (boosting the output of higher value oil products) and adding value to Brazil's oil production (reducing exports of heavy acid oil). The development prospects are analyzed for conventional fuel production technology routes, sketching out three possible refining schemes for Brazilian oil and a GTL plant for producing gasoil from natural gas. Market scenario simulations indicate that investments will be required in Brazil's oil refining segment over and above those allocated to planned modifications in its current facilities, reducing the nation's vulnerability in terms of gasoil and petrochemical naphtha imports. Although not economically attractive, oil refining is a key activity that is crucial to oil company strategies. The decision to invest in this segment depends on local infrastructure conditions, environmental constraints and fuel specifications, in addition to oil company strategies, steady growth in demand and the definition of a government policy that eases institutional risks. (author)

  9. Oil refining expansion criteria for Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, Marina Elisabete Espinho; Szklo, Alexandre Salem; Machado, Giovani Vitoria; Schaeffer, Roberto; Mariano, Jacqueline Barboza; Sala, Janaina Francisco

    2006-01-01

    This paper assesses different strategies for the expansion of Brazil's oil refining segment, using criteria that range from energy security (reducing imports and vulnerability for key products) through to maximizing the profitability of this sector (boosting the output of higher value oil products) and adding value to Brazil's oil production (reducing exports of heavy acid oil). The development prospects are analyzed for conventional fuel production technology routes, sketching out three possible refining schemes for Brazilian oil and a GTL plant for producing gasoil from natural gas. Market scenario simulations indicate that investments will be required in Brazil's oil refining segment over and above those allocated to planned modifications in its current facilities, reducing the nation's vulnerability in terms of gasoil and petrochemical naphtha imports. Although not economically attractive, oil refining is a key activity that is crucial to oil company strategies. The decision to invest in this segment depends on local infrastructure conditions, environmental constraints and fuel specifications, in addition to oil company strategies, steady growth in demand and the definition of a government policy that eases institutional risks

  10. On Syntactic and Semantic Action Refinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goltz, Ursula; Gorrieri, Roberto; Rensink, Arend

    1992-01-01

    The semantic definition of action refinement on labelled event structures is compared with the notion of syntactic substitution,which can be used as another notion of action refiment in a process algebraic setting. This is done by studying a process algebra equipped with the ACP sequential

  11. Uranium refining process using ion exchange membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Akira

    1977-01-01

    As for the method of refining uranium ore being carried out in Europe and America at present, uranium ore is roughly refined at the mine sites to yellow cake, then this is transported to refineries and refined by dry method. This method has the following faults, namely the number of processes is large, it requires expensive corrosion-resistant materials because of high temperature treatment, and the impurities in uranium tend to increase. On the other hand, in case of EXCER method, treatment is carried out at low temperature, and high purity uranium can be obtained, but the efficiency of electrolytic reduction process is extremely low, and economically infeasible. In the wet refining method called PNC process, uranium tetrafluoride is produced from uranium ore without making yellow cake, therefore the process is rationalized largely, and highly economical. The electrolytic reduction process in this method was developed by Asahi Chemical Industry Co., Ltd. by constructing the pilot plant in Ningyotoge Mine. The ion exchange membrane, the electrodes, and the problems concerning the process and the engineering for commercial plants were investigated. The electrolytic reduction process, the pilot plant, the development of the elements of electrolytic cells, the establishment of analytical process, the measurement of the electrolytic characteristics, the demonstration operation, and the life time of the electrolytic diaphragm are reported. (Kako, I.)

  12. Anomalies in the refinement of isoleucine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berntsen, K.R.M.; Vriend, G.

    2014-01-01

    A study of isoleucines in protein structures solved using X-ray crystallography revealed a series of systematic trends for the two side-chain torsion angles chi1 and chi2 dependent on the resolution, secondary structure and refinement software used. The average torsion angles for the nine rotamers

  13. Refining crude oils and gasolines, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1931-11-23

    A process of refining crude oils and gasolines distilled from shale and the like is described, consisting of submitting them to a prewash with soda, an oxidation preferably with hypochlorite solution, a hydrogenation with nascent hydrogen, and finally rectification and neutralization.

  14. Refinement from a control problem to program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schenke, Michael; Ravn, Anders P.

    1996-01-01

    The distinguishing feature of the presented refinement approach is that it links formalisms from a top level requirements notation down to programs together in a mathematically coherent development trajectory. The approach uses Duration Calculus, a real-time interval logic, to specifyrequirements...

  15. Robust Refinement as Implemented in TOPAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, K.; Stephens, P

    2010-01-01

    A robust refinement procedure is implemented in the program TOPAS through an iterative reweighting of the data. Examples are given of the procedure as applied to fitting partially overlapped peaks by full and partial models and also of the structures of ibuprofen and acetaminophen in the presence of unmodeled impurity contributions

  16. Refinement of the concept of uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penrod, J

    2001-04-01

    To analyse the conceptual maturity of uncertainty; to develop an expanded theoretical definition of uncertainty; to advance the concept using methods of concept refinement; and to analyse congruency with the conceptualization of uncertainty presented in the theory of hope, enduring, and suffering. Uncertainty is of concern in nursing as people experience complex life events surrounding health. In an earlier nursing study that linked the concepts of hope, enduring, and suffering into a single theoretical scheme, a state best described as 'uncertainty' arose. This study was undertaken to explore how this conceptualization fit with the scientific literature on uncertainty and to refine the concept. Initially, a concept analysis using advanced methods described by Morse, Hupcey, Mitcham and colleagues was completed. The concept was determined to be partially mature. A theoretical definition was derived and techniques of concept refinement using the literature as data were applied. The refined concept was found to be congruent with the concept of uncertainty that had emerged in the model of hope, enduring and suffering. Further investigation is needed to explore the extent of probabilistic reasoning and the effects of confidence and control on feelings of uncertainty and certainty.

  17. Quantum Geometry of Refined Topological Strings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aganagic, M.; Cheng, M.C.N.; Dijkgraaf, R.; Kreft, D.; Vafa, C.

    2012-01-01

    We consider branes in refined topological strings. We argue that their wavefunctions satisfy a Schrödinger equation depending on multiple times and prove this in the case where the topological string has a dual matrix model description. Furthermore, in the limit where one of the equivariant

  18. Red refinements of simplices into congruent subsimplices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Korotov, S.; Křížek, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 12 (2014), s. 2199-2204 ISSN 0898-1221 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-02067S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : sommerville tetrahedron * red refinement * higher-dimensional simplex Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.697, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0898122114000662

  19. Challenges of ICRP 60 for uranium refining and conversion facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takala, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Cameco Corporation operates high-grade uranium mines in northern Saskatchewan and uranium refining and conversion facilities in Ontario. The dose limits for these and all other nuclear facilities in Canada are 50 mSv per year and 4 WLM per year, which are applied separately. However, the upcoming incorporation of the recommendations in ICRP 60 into the Canadian regulations will result in several important changes. In addition to a more restrictive dose limit, the new regulations will require that all radiation exposures be combined into a single index of exposure. Meeting the new lower dose limits of 50 mSv per year and 100 mSv per 5 years will not be a major problem at Cameco facilities. However, the incorporation of long-lived radioactive dust exposures into the dose calculation will be a major challenge. This will cause the most difficulty at the uranium refining and conversion facilities where much of the process involves handling a variety of uranium compounds in the form of a dry powder. At the uranium conversion facilities the control of exposure to airborne uranium is achieved through a combination of lung counting, urinalysis, and fixed area monitors. To progress from a system of exposure control to dose estimation to individual workers will require some major changes. (author)

  20. The relationship between viscosity and refinement efficiency of pure aluminum by Al-Ti-B refiner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Lina [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, 73 Jingshi Road, Jinan 250061 (China); Liu Xiangfa [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, 73 Jingshi Road, Jinan 250061 (China)]. E-mail: xfliu@sdu.edu.cn

    2006-11-30

    The relationship between viscosity and refinement efficiency of pure aluminum with the addition of Al-Ti-B master alloy was studied in this paper. The experimental results show that when the grain size of solidified sample is finer the viscosity of the melt is higher after the addition of different Al-Ti-B master alloys. This indicates that viscosity can be used to approximately estimate the refinement efficiency of Al-Ti-B refiners in production to a certain extent. The main reason was also discussed in this paper by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) experiment.

  1. Evaluation of a High Concentrated Contrast Media Injection Protocol in Combination with Low Tube Current for Dose Reduction in Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography: A Randomized, Two-center Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yibo; Hua, Yanqing; Wang, Mingpeng; Mao, Dingbiao; Jin, Xiu; Li, Cheng; Shi, Kailei; Xu, Jianrong

    2017-12-01

    The study aimed to prospectively evaluate the radiation dose reduction potential and image quality (IQ) of a high-concentration contrast media (HCCM) injection protocol in combination with a low tube current (mAs) in coronary computed tomography angiography. Eighty-one consecutive patients (mean age: 62 years; 34 females; body mass index: 18-31) were included and randomized-assigned into two groups. All computed tomography (CT) examinations were performed in two groups with the same tube voltage (100 kV), flow rate of contrast medium (5.0 mL/s), and iodine dose (22.8 g). An automatic mAs and low concentration contrast medium (300 mgI/mL) were used in group A, whereas effective mAs was reduced by a factor 0.6 along with HCCM (400 mgI/mL) in group B. Radiation dose was assessed (CT dose index [CTDI vol ] and dose length product), and vessel-based objective IQ for various regions of interest (enhancement, noise, signal-to-noise ratio, and contrast-to-noise ratio), subjective IQ, noise, and motion artifacts were analyzed overall and vessel-based with a 5-point Likert scale. The CT attenuation of coronary arteries and image noise in group B were significantly higher than those in group A (ranges: 507.5-548.1 Hounsfield units vs 407.5-444.5 Hounsfield units; and 20.3 ± 8.6 vs 17.7 ± 8.0) (P ≤ 0.0166). There was no significant difference between the two groups in signal-to-noise ratio, contrast-to-noise ratio, and subjective IQ of coronary arteries (29.4-31.7, 30.0-37.0, and medium score of 5 in group A vs 29.4-32.4, 27.7-36.3, and medium score of 5 in group B, respectively, P ≥ 0.1859). Both mean CTDI vol and dose length product in group B were 58% of those of group A. HCCM combined with low tube current allows dose reduction in coronary computed tomography angiography and does not compromise IQ. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Modified calibration protocol evaluated in a model-based testing of SBR flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corominas, Lluís; Sin, Gürkan; Puig, Sebastià

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to refine the BIOMATH calibration protocol for SBR systems, in particular to develop a pragmatic calibration protocol that takes advantage of SBR information-rich data, defines a simulation strategy to obtain proper initial conditions for model calibration and provide...

  3. Publication trends of study protocols in rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus, Tiago S; Colquhoun, Heather L

    2017-09-04

    Growing evidence points for the need to publish study protocols in the health field. To observe whether the growing interest in publishing study protocols in the broader health field has been translated into increased publications of rehabilitation study protocols. Observational study using publication data and its indexation in PubMed. Not applicable. Not applicable. PubMed was searched with appropriate combinations of Medical Subject Headings up to December 2014. The effective presence of study protocols was manually screened. Regression models analyzed the yearly growth of publications. Two-sample Z-tests analyzed whether the proportion of Systematic Reviews (SRs) and Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) among study protocols differed from that of the same designs for the broader rehabilitation research. Up to December 2014, 746 publications of rehabilitation study protocols were identified, with an exponential growth since 2005 (r2=0.981; p<0.001). RCT protocols were the most common among rehabilitation study protocols (83%), while RCTs were significantly more prevalent among study protocols than among the broader rehabilitation research (83% vs. 35.8%; p<0.001). For SRs, the picture was reversed: significantly less common among study protocols (2.8% vs. 9.3%; p<0.001). Funding was more often reported by rehabilitation study protocols than the broader rehabilitation research (90% vs. 53.1%; p<0.001). Rehabilitation journals published a significantly lower share of rehabilitation study protocols than they did for the broader rehabilitation research (1.8% vs.16.7%; p<0.001). Identifying the reasons for these discrepancies and reverting unwarranted disparities (e.g. low rate of publication for rehabilitation SR protocols) are likely new avenues for rehabilitation research and its publication. SRs, particularly those aggregating RCT results, are considered the best standard of evidence to guide rehabilitation clinical practice; however, that standard can be improved

  4. Automata Learning through Counterexample Guided Abstraction Refinement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarts, Fides; Heidarian, Faranak; Kuppens, Harco

    2012-01-01

    to a small set of abstract events that can be handled by automata learning tools. In this article, we show how such abstractions can be constructed fully automatically for a restricted class of extended finite state machines in which one can test for equality of data parameters, but no operations on data...... are allowed. Our approach uses counterexample-guided abstraction refinement: whenever the current abstraction is too coarse and induces nondeterministic behavior, the abstraction is refined automatically. Using Tomte, a prototype tool implementing our algorithm, we have succeeded to learn – fully......Abstraction is the key when learning behavioral models of realistic systems. Hence, in most practical applications where automata learning is used to construct models of software components, researchers manually define abstractions which, depending on the history, map a large set of concrete events...

  5. Multivariate refined composite multiscale entropy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humeau-Heurtier, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Multiscale entropy (MSE) has become a prevailing method to quantify signals complexity. MSE relies on sample entropy. However, MSE may yield imprecise complexity estimation at large scales, because sample entropy does not give precise estimation of entropy when short signals are processed. A refined composite multiscale entropy (RCMSE) has therefore recently been proposed. Nevertheless, RCMSE is for univariate signals only. The simultaneous analysis of multi-channel (multivariate) data often over-performs studies based on univariate signals. We therefore introduce an extension of RCMSE to multivariate data. Applications of multivariate RCMSE to simulated processes reveal its better performances over the standard multivariate MSE. - Highlights: • Multiscale entropy quantifies data complexity but may be inaccurate at large scale. • A refined composite multiscale entropy (RCMSE) has therefore recently been proposed. • Nevertheless, RCMSE is adapted to univariate time series only. • We herein introduce an extension of RCMSE to multivariate data. • It shows better performances than the standard multivariate multiscale entropy.

  6. Refined reservoir description to maximize oil recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flewitt, W.E.

    1975-01-01

    To assure maximized oil recovery from older pools, reservoir description has been advanced by fully integrating original open-hole logs and the recently introduced interpretive techniques made available through cased-hole wireline saturation logs. A refined reservoir description utilizing normalized original wireline porosity logs has been completed in the Judy Creek Beaverhill Lake ''A'' Pool, a reefal carbonate pool with current potential productivity of 100,000 BOPD and 188 active wells. Continuous porosity was documented within a reef rim and cap while discontinuous porous lenses characterized an interior lagoon. With the use of pulsed neutron logs and production data a separate water front and pressure response was recognized within discrete environmental units. The refined reservoir description aided in reservoir simulation model studies and quantifying pool performance. A pattern water flood has now replaced the original peripheral bottom water drive to maximize oil recovery

  7. Cleaning Data with OpenRefine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth van Hooland

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Duplicate records, empty values and inconsistent formats are phenomena we should be prepared to deal with when using historical data sets. This lesson will teach you how to discover inconsistencies in data contained within a spreadsheet or a database. As we increasingly share, aggregate and reuse data on the web, historians will need to respond to data quality issues which inevitably pop up. Using a program called OpenRefine, you will be able to easily identify systematic errors such as blank cells, duplicates, spelling inconsistencies, etc. OpenRefine not only allows you to quickly diagnose the accuracy of your data, but also to act upon certain errors in an automated manner.

  8. Refined 3d-3d correspondence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alday, Luis F.; Genolini, Pietro Benetti; Bullimore, Mathew; Loon, Mark van [Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Andrew Wiles Building,Radcliffe Observatory Quarter, Woodstock Road, Oxford, OX2 6GG (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-28

    We explore aspects of the correspondence between Seifert 3-manifolds and 3d N=2 supersymmetric theories with a distinguished abelian flavour symmetry. We give a prescription for computing the squashed three-sphere partition functions of such 3d N=2 theories constructed from boundary conditions and interfaces in a 4d N=2{sup ∗} theory, mirroring the construction of Seifert manifold invariants via Dehn surgery. This is extended to include links in the Seifert manifold by the insertion of supersymmetric Wilson-’t Hooft loops in the 4d N=2{sup ∗} theory. In the presence of a mass parameter for the distinguished flavour symmetry, we recover aspects of refined Chern-Simons theory with complex gauge group, and in particular construct an analytic continuation of the S-matrix of refined Chern-Simons theory.

  9. Government will shape China's refining boom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H.

    1995-01-01

    China's refining system is undergoing a major overhaul. New refineries are being built as existing ones are upgraded and expanded. The success of refineries funded completely or partially by non-chinese companies will depend in part on Chinese government policy. There will be demand for products from third-party processing facilities, but hard current is necessary for the investors to repatriate profits and for china Petrochemical Corp. (Sinopec) to bid on the products from such facilities. The limited convertibility of chinese current constitutes a major central control over the country's entire economy. This control can be affected by limiting product exchange participants and the volumes to be traded. Such a limitation, however, will reduce access of non-Chinese companies to China's markets, and is not likely to occur in the next 10 years. The paper discusses the current situation in capacity and in refining, capacity, expansion, refinery planning, construction projects, third-party processing, and the prospects for change

  10. Computing Refined Buneman Trees in Cubic Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, G.S.; Fagerberg, R.; Östlin, A.

    2003-01-01

    Reconstructing the evolutionary tree for a set of n species based on pairwise distances between the species is a fundamental problem in bioinformatics. Neighbor joining is a popular distance based tree reconstruction method. It always proposes fully resolved binary trees despite missing evidence...... in the underlying distance data. Distance based methods based on the theory of Buneman trees and refined Buneman trees avoid this problem by only proposing evolutionary trees whose edges satisfy a number of constraints. These trees might not be fully resolved but there is strong combinatorial evidence for each...... proposed edge. The currently best algorithm for computing the refined Buneman tree from a given distance measure has a running time of O(n 5) and a space consumption of O(n 4). In this paper, we present an algorithm with running time O(n 3) and space consumption O(n 2). The improved complexity of our...

  11. Panorama 2016 - Refining outlook for 2035

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marion, Pierre; Saint-Antonin, Valerie

    2015-12-01

    The rising influence of objectives intended to address the energy transition in global industry helps to perpetuate a high degree of uncertainty about changes in the transportation sector, currently a bastion of the oil industry. How can the growing need for individual mobility be met while reducing Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions in a world of open international competition? The refining sector is gaining strength in Asia and the Middle East to the detriment of Europe and North America, reflecting demand and the intrinsic competitiveness of various geographic regions. The 2025 worldwide roll-out (2020 in Europe) of a bunker fuel grade below 0.5 wt% (percentage by weight) in sulphur could experience delays, given the number of installations to be completed. Finally, the reversal of the 'all diesel' trend in the European transport market is a positive change for the European refining industry. (authors)

  12. The big shedding of the European refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepetit, V.

    2007-01-01

    Everywhere in Europe the oil companies are selling their refineries. Even if they work at full capacity, the interest of the European market is far below the one of Asia where demand is in full expansion and Middle-East where the raw matter is abundant. The world refining capacity is of 86 million barrel per day and should reach 106 million barrel per day in 2020. (J.S.)

  13. Refining Automatically Extracted Knowledge Bases Using Crowdsourcing

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chunhua; Zhao, Pengpeng; Sheng, Victor S.; Xian, Xuefeng; Wu, Jian; Cui, Zhiming

    2017-01-01

    Machine-constructed knowledge bases often contain noisy and inaccurate facts. There exists significant work in developing automated algorithms for knowledge base refinement. Automated approaches improve the quality of knowledge bases but are far from perfect. In this paper, we leverage crowdsourcing to improve the quality of automatically extracted knowledge bases. As human labelling is costly, an important research challenge is how we can use limited human resources to maximize the quality i...

  14. Cleaning Data with OpenRefine

    OpenAIRE

    Seth van Hooland; Ruben Verborgh; Max De Wilde

    2013-01-01

    Duplicate records, empty values and inconsistent formats are phenomena we should be prepared to deal with when using historical data sets. This lesson will teach you how to discover inconsistencies in data contained within a spreadsheet or a database. As we increasingly share, aggregate and reuse data on the web, historians will need to respond to data quality issues which inevitably pop up. Using a program called OpenRefine, you will be able to easily identify systematic errors such as blank...

  15. Rare earths refining by vacuum sublimation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rytus, N.N.

    1983-01-01

    The process of rare earths refining by the sUblimation; method in high and superhigh oil-free vacuum, is investigated. The method is effective for rare earths obtaining and permits to prepare metal samples with a high value of electric resistance ratio γ=RsUb(298 K)/Rsub(4.2 K). The estimation of general purity is performed for Sm, Eu, Yb, Tm, Dy, Ho, Er and Se

  16. Refining of biodiesel by ceramic membrane separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yong; Ou, Shiyi; Tan, Yanlai; Tang, Shuze [Department of Food Science and Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Wang, Xingguo; Liu, Yuanfa [School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214112 (China)

    2009-03-15

    A ceramic membrane separation process for biodiesel refining was developed to reduce the considerable usage of water needed in the conventional water washing process. Crude biodiesel produced by refined palm oil was micro-filtered by ceramic membranes of the pore size of 0.6, 0.2 and 0.1 {mu}m to remove the residual soap and free glycerol, at the transmembrane pressure of 0.15 MPa and temperature of 60 C. The flux through membrane maintained at 300 L m{sup -} {sup 2} h{sup -} {sup 1} when the volumetric concentrated ratio reached 4. The content of potassium, sodium, calcium and magnesium in the whole permeate was 1.40, 1.78, 0.81 and 0.20 mg/kg respectively, as determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy. These values are lower than the EN 14538 specifications. The residual free glycerol in the permeate was estimated by water extraction, its value was 0.0108 wt.%. This ceramic membrane technology was a potential environmental process for the refining of biodiesel. (author)

  17. Oil price scenarios and refining profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, B.

    1993-01-01

    Currently refining profitability is low because there has been an overbuilding of conversion capacity in Western Europe in the last round. Oil marketing, the chemicals business and the fundamental economy itself are at low points in their cycles which have not coincided, at least in the UK, since 1975. Against that gloomy background, it is predicted that downstream profitability will recover in the mid-1990s. Crude oil prices will remain low until the call on OPEC crude increases again and takes up the capacity which has been brought on stream in response to the Gulf War. When this happens, it is likely to trigger another price spike and another round of investment in production capacity. Environmentally driven investments in desulphurisation or emissions reduction will be poorly remunerated all the way through the value chain. Refining margins will recover when white oil demand growth tightens up the need for conversion capacity. Marketing will need to reduce the retail network overcapacity in the mature markets if it is to improve its profitability. In this period of low profitability, even with the light at the end of the tunnel for refiners in the middle of the decade, the industry structure is under threat. There is a strong argument for new modes of competitive behaviour which are backed by strong elements of cooperation. (author)

  18. Problems persist for French refining sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that France's refiners face a continuing shortfall of middle distillate capacity and a persistent surplus of heavy fuel oil. That's the main conclusion of the official Hydrocarbon Directorate's report on how France's refining sector performed in 1991. Imports up---The directorate noted that although net production of refined products in French refineries rose to 1.534 million b/d in 1991 from 1.48 million b/d in 1990, products imports jumped 9.7% to 602,000 b/d in the period. The glut of heavy fuel oil eased to some extent last year because French nuclear power capacity, heavily dependent on ample water supplies, was crimped by drought. That spawned fuel switching. The most note worthy increase in imports was for motor diesel, climbing to 176,000 b/d from 148,000 b/d in 1990. Tax credits are spurring French consumption of that fuel. For the first time, consumption of motor diesel in 1991 outstripped that of gasoline at 374,000 b/d and 356,000 b/d respectively

  19. Refining glass structure in two dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadjadi, Mahdi; Bhattarai, Bishal; Drabold, D. A.; Thorpe, M. F.; Wilson, Mark

    2017-11-01

    Recently determined atomistic scale structures of near-two dimensional bilayers of vitreous silica (using scanning probe and electron microscopy) allow us to refine the experimentally determined coordinates to incorporate the known local chemistry more precisely. Further refinement is achieved by using classical potentials of varying complexity: one using harmonic potentials and the second employing an electrostatic description incorporating polarization effects. These are benchmarked against density functional calculations. Our main findings are that (a) there is a symmetry plane between the two disordered layers, a nice example of an emergent phenomena, (b) the layers are slightly tilted so that the Si-O-Si angle between the two layers is not 180∘ as originally thought but rather 175 ±2∘ , and (c) while interior areas that are not completely imagined can be reliably reconstructed, surface areas are more problematic. It is shown that small crystallites that appear are just as expected statistically in a continuous random network. This provides a good example of the value that can be added to disordered structures imaged at the atomic level by implementing computer refinement.

  20. Formal refinement of extended state machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Fayolle

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In a traditional formal development process, e.g. using the B method, the informal user requirements are (manually translated into a global abstract formal specification. This translation is especially difficult to achieve. The Event-B method was developed to incrementally and formally construct such a specification using stepwise refinement. Each increment takes into account new properties and system aspects. In this paper, we propose to couple a graphical notation called Algebraic State-Transition Diagrams (ASTD with an Event-B specification in order to provide a better understanding of the software behaviour. The dynamic behaviour is captured by the ASTD, which is based on automata and process algebra operators, while the data model is described by means of an Event-B specification. We propose a methodology to incrementally refine such specification couplings, taking into account new refinement relations and consistency conditions between the control specification and the data specification. We compare the specifications obtained using each approach for readability and proof complexity. The advantages and drawbacks of the traditional approach and of our methodology are discussed. The whole process is illustrated by a railway CBTC-like case study. Our approach is supported by tools for translating ASTD's into B and Event-B into B.

  1. A combination of ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol to test the effectiveness and safety in the fragile X syndrome: study protocol for a phase II, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Diego-Otero, Yolanda; Calvo-Medina, Rocio; Quintero-Navarro, Carolina; Sánchez-Salido, Lourdes; García-Guirado, Francisco; del Arco-Herrera, Ignacio; Fernández-Carvajal, Isabel; Ferrando-Lucas, Teresa; Caballero-Andaluz, Rafaela; Pérez-Costillas, Lucia

    2014-09-03

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is an inherited neurodevelopmental condition characterised by behavioural, learning disabilities, physical and neurological symptoms. In addition, an important degree of comorbidity with autism is also present. Considered a rare disorder affecting both genders, it first becomes apparent during childhood with displays of language delay and behavioural symptoms.Main aim: To show whether the combination of 10 mg/kg/day of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and 10 mg/kg/day of α-tocopherol (vitamin E) reduces FXS symptoms among male patients ages 6 to 18 years compared to placebo treatment, as measured on the standardized rating scales at baseline, and after 12 and 24 weeks of treatment.Secondary aims: To assess the safety of the treatment. To describe behavioural and cognitive changes revealed by the Developmental Behaviour Checklist Short Form (DBC-P24) and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised. To describe metabolic changes revealed by blood analysis. To measure treatment impact at home and in an academic environment. A phase II randomized, double-blind pilot clinical trial. male children and adolescents diagnosed with FXS, in accordance with a standardized molecular biology test, who met all the inclusion criteria and none of the exclusion criteria. clinical data, blood analysis, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised, Conners parent and teacher rating scale scores and the DBC-P24 results will be obtained at the baseline (t0). Follow up examinations will take place at 12 weeks (t1) and 24 weeks (t2) of treatment. A limited number of clinical trials have been carried out on children with FXS, but more are necessary as current treatment possibilities are insufficient and often provoke side effects. In the present study, we sought to overcome possible methodological problems by conducting a phase II pilot study in order to calculate the relevant statistical parameters and determine the safety of the proposed treatment. The

  2. Packet reversed packet combining scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhunia, C.T.

    2006-07-01

    The packet combining scheme is a well defined simple error correction scheme with erroneous copies at the receiver. It offers higher throughput combined with ARQ protocols in networks than that of basic ARQ protocols. But packet combining scheme fails to correct errors when the errors occur in the same bit locations of two erroneous copies. In the present work, we propose a scheme that will correct error if the errors occur at the same bit location of the erroneous copies. The proposed scheme when combined with ARQ protocol will offer higher throughput. (author)

  3. Interactive visual exploration and refinement of cluster assignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Michael; Lex, Alexander; Gehlenborg, Nils; Johnson, Chris R

    2017-09-12

    With ever-increasing amounts of data produced in biology research, scientists are in need of efficient data analysis methods. Cluster analysis, combined with visualization of the results, is one such method that can be used to make sense of large data volumes. At the same time, cluster analysis is known to be imperfect and depends on the choice of algorithms, parameters, and distance measures. Most clustering algorithms don't properly account for ambiguity in the source data, as records are often assigned to discrete clusters, even if an assignment is unclear. While there are metrics and visualization techniques that allow analysts to compare clusterings or to judge cluster quality, there is no comprehensive method that allows analysts to evaluate, compare, and refine cluster assignments based on the source data, derived scores, and contextual data. In this paper, we introduce a method that explicitly visualizes the quality of cluster assignments, allows comparisons of clustering results and enables analysts to manually curate and refine cluster assignments. Our methods are applicable to matrix data clustered with partitional, hierarchical, and fuzzy clustering algorithms. Furthermore, we enable analysts to explore clustering results in context of other data, for example, to observe whether a clustering of genomic data results in a meaningful differentiation in phenotypes. Our methods are integrated into Caleydo StratomeX, a popular, web-based, disease subtype analysis tool. We show in a usage scenario that our approach can reveal ambiguities in cluster assignments and produce improved clusterings that better differentiate genotypes and phenotypes.

  4. An efficient method for model refinement in diffuse optical tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirak, A. R.; Khademi, M.

    2007-11-01

    Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is a non-linear, ill-posed, boundary value and optimization problem which necessitates regularization. Also, Bayesian methods are suitable owing to measurements data are sparse and correlated. In such problems which are solved with iterative methods, for stabilization and better convergence, the solution space must be small. These constraints subject to extensive and overdetermined system of equations which model retrieving criteria specially total least squares (TLS) must to refine model error. Using TLS is limited to linear systems which is not achievable when applying traditional Bayesian methods. This paper presents an efficient method for model refinement using regularized total least squares (RTLS) for treating on linearized DOT problem, having maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimator and Tikhonov regulator. This is done with combination Bayesian and regularization tools as preconditioner matrices, applying them to equations and then using RTLS to the resulting linear equations. The preconditioning matrixes are guided by patient specific information as well as a priori knowledge gained from the training set. Simulation results illustrate that proposed method improves the image reconstruction performance and localize the abnormally well.

  5. Refining Housing, Husbandry and Care for Animals Used in Studies Involving Biotelemetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny Hawkins

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Biotelemetry can contribute towards reducing animal numbers and suffering in disciplines including physiology, pharmacology and behavioural research. However, the technique can also cause harm to animals, making biotelemetry a ‘refinement that needs refining’. Current welfare issues relating to the housing and husbandry of animals used in biotelemetry studies are single vs. group housing, provision of environmental enrichment, long term laboratory housing and use of telemetered data to help assess welfare. Animals may be singly housed because more than one device transmits on the same wavelength; due to concerns regarding damage to surgical sites; because they are wearing exteriorised jackets; or if monitoring systems can only record from individually housed animals. Much of this can be overcome by thoughtful experimental design and surgery refinements. Similarly, if biotelemetry studies preclude certain enrichment items, husbandry refinement protocols can be adapted to permit some environmental stimulation. Nevertheless, long-term laboratory housing raises welfare concerns and maximum durations should be defined. Telemetered data can be used to help assess welfare, helping to determine endpoints and refine future studies. The above measures will help to improve data quality as well as welfare, because experimental confounds due to physiological and psychological stress will be minimised.

  6. Region-of-interest volumetric visual hull refinement

    KAUST Repository

    Knoblauch, Daniel; Kuester, Falko

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a region-of-interest visual hull refinement technique, based on flexible voxel grids for volumetric visual hull reconstructions. Region-of-interest refinement is based on a multipass process, beginning with a focussed visual

  7. Grain Refinement of Permanent Mold Cast Copper Base Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.Sadayappan; J.P.Thomson; M.Elboujdaini; G.Ping Gu; M. Sahoo

    2005-04-01

    Grain refinement is a well established process for many cast and wrought alloys. The mechanical properties of various alloys could be enhanced by reducing the grain size. Refinement is also known to improve casting characteristics such as fluidity and hot tearing. Grain refinement of copper-base alloys is not widely used, especially in sand casting process. However, in permanent mold casting of copper alloys it is now common to use grain refinement to counteract the problem of severe hot tearing which also improves the pressure tightness of plumbing components. The mechanism of grain refinement in copper-base alloys is not well understood. The issues to be studied include the effect of minor alloy additions on the microstructure, their interaction with the grain refiner, effect of cooling rate, and loss of grain refinement (fading). In this investigation, efforts were made to explore and understand grain refinement of copper alloys, especially in permanent mold casting conditions.

  8. Refined Dummy Atom Model of Mg(2+) by Simple Parameter Screening Strategy with Revised Experimental Solvation Free Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yang; Zhang, Haiyang; Feng, Wei; Tan, Tianwei

    2015-12-28

    Metal ions play an important role in the catalysis of metalloenzymes. To investigate metalloenzymes via molecular modeling, a set of accurate force field parameters for metal ions is highly imperative. To extend its application range and improve the performance, the dummy atom model of metal ions was refined through a simple parameter screening strategy using the Mg(2+) ion as an example. Using the AMBER ff03 force field with the TIP3P model, the refined model accurately reproduced the experimental geometric and thermodynamic properties of Mg(2+). Compared with point charge models and previous dummy atom models, the refined dummy atom model yields an enhanced performance for producing reliable ATP/GTP-Mg(2+)-protein conformations in three metalloenzyme systems with single or double metal centers. Similar to other unbounded models, the refined model failed to reproduce the Mg-Mg distance and favored a monodentate binding of carboxylate groups, and these drawbacks needed to be considered with care. The outperformance of the refined model is mainly attributed to the use of a revised (more accurate) experimental solvation free energy and a suitable free energy correction protocol. This work provides a parameter screening strategy that can be readily applied to refine the dummy atom models for metal ions.

  9. Automatic mesh refinement and local multigrid methods for contact problems: application to the Pellet-Cladding mechanical Interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    This Ph.D. work takes place within the framework of studies on Pellet-Cladding mechanical Interaction (PCI) which occurs in the fuel rods of pressurized water reactor. This manuscript focuses on automatic mesh refinement to simulate more accurately this phenomena while maintaining acceptable computational time and memory space for industrial calculations. An automatic mesh refinement strategy based on the combination of the Local Defect Correction multigrid method (LDC) with the Zienkiewicz and Zhu a posteriori error estimator is proposed. The estimated error is used to detect the zones to be refined, where the local sub-grids of the LDC method are generated. Several stopping criteria are studied to end the refinement process when the solution is accurate enough or when the refinement does not improve the global solution accuracy anymore. Numerical results for elastic 2D test cases with pressure discontinuity show the efficiency of the proposed strategy. The automatic mesh refinement in case of unilateral contact problems is then considered. The strategy previously introduced can be easily adapted to the multi-body refinement by estimating solution error on each body separately. Post-processing is often necessary to ensure the conformity of the refined areas regarding the contact boundaries. A variety of numerical experiments with elastic contact (with or without friction, with or without an initial gap) confirms the efficiency and adaptability of the proposed strategy. (author) [fr

  10. A Clustering Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinke Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic topology of a mobile ad hoc network poses a real challenge in the design of hierarchical routing protocol, which combines proactive with reactive routing protocols and takes advantages of both. And as an essential technique of hierarchical routing protocol, clustering of nodes provides an efficient method of establishing a hierarchical structure in mobile ad hoc networks. In this paper, we designed a novel clustering algorithm and a corresponding hierarchical routing protocol for large-scale mobile ad hoc networks. Each cluster is composed of a cluster head, several cluster gateway nodes, several cluster guest nodes, and other cluster members. The proposed routing protocol uses proactive protocol between nodes within individual clusters and reactive protocol between clusters. Simulation results show that the proposed clustering algorithm and hierarchical routing protocol provide superior performance with several advantages over existing clustering algorithm and routing protocol, respectively.

  11. A model based security testing method for protocol implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yu Long; Xin, Xiao Long

    2014-01-01

    The security of protocol implementation is important and hard to be verified. Since the penetration testing is usually based on the experience of the security tester and the specific protocol specifications, a formal and automatic verification method is always required. In this paper, we propose an extended model of IOLTS to describe the legal roles and intruders of security protocol implementations, and then combine them together to generate the suitable test cases to verify the security of protocol implementation.

  12. Optimal algebraic multilevel preconditioning for local refinement along a line

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Margenov, S.D.; Maubach, J.M.L.

    1995-01-01

    The application of some recently proposed algebraic multilevel methods for the solution of two-dimensional finite element problems on nonuniform meshes is studied. The locally refined meshes are created by the newest vertex mesh refinement method. After the introduction of this refinement technique

  13. Grain refinement of AZ31 magnesium alloy by electromagnetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Low-frequency electromagnetic field; AZ31 magnesium alloy; Al4C3; grain refinement. Abstract. The effects of electromagnetic stirring and Al4C3 grain refiner on the grain refinement of semicontinuously cast AZ31 magnesium alloy were discussed in this investigation. The results indicate that electromagnetic stirring has an ...

  14. Neutrosophic Refined Similarity Measure Based on Cosine Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Broumi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the cosine similarity measure of neutrosophic refined (multi- sets is proposed and its properties are studied. The concept of this cosine similarity measure of neutrosophic refined sets is the extension of improved cosine similarity measure of single valued neutrosophic. Finally, using this cosine similarity measure of neutrosophic refined set, the application of medical diagnosis is presented.

  15. Formal language theory: refining the Chomsky hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Gerhard; Rogers, James

    2012-07-19

    The first part of this article gives a brief overview of the four levels of the Chomsky hierarchy, with a special emphasis on context-free and regular languages. It then recapitulates the arguments why neither regular nor context-free grammar is sufficiently expressive to capture all phenomena in the natural language syntax. In the second part, two refinements of the Chomsky hierarchy are reviewed, which are both relevant to the extant research in cognitive science: the mildly context-sensitive languages (which are located between context-free and context-sensitive languages), and the sub-regular hierarchy (which distinguishes several levels of complexity within the class of regular languages).

  16. Local adaptive mesh refinement for shock hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, M.J.; Colella, P.; Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, 94550 California)

    1989-01-01

    The aim of this work is the development of an automatic, adaptive mesh refinement strategy for solving hyperbolic conservation laws in two dimensions. There are two main difficulties in doing this. The first problem is due to the presence of discontinuities in the solution and the effect on them of discontinuities in the mesh. The second problem is how to organize the algorithm to minimize memory and CPU overhead. This is an important consideration and will continue to be important as more sophisticated algorithms that use data structures other than arrays are developed for use on vector and parallel computers. copyright 1989 Academic Press, Inc

  17. Effectiveness of intensive smoking reduction counselling plus combination nicotine replacement therapy in promoting long-term abstinence in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease not ready to quit smoking: Protocol of the REDUQ trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagens, Petra; Pieterse, Marcel E.; van der Valk, Paul; van der Palen, Job

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Limited tobacco dependence treatment resources exist for smoking COPD patients not ready to quit. Smoking reduction may be a viable treatment approach if it prompts quit attempts and subsequent abstinence. This article describes the protocol of the REDUQ (REDUce and Quit) study, which

  18. Safety and Efficacy of miltefosine alone and in combination with sodium stibogluconate and liposomal amphotericin B for the treatment of primary visceral leishmaniasis in East Africa: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omollo, Raymond; Alexander, Neal; Edwards, Tansy; Khalil, Eltahir A. G.; Younis, Brima M.; Abuzaid, Abuzaid A.; Wasunna, Monique; Njoroge, Njenga; Kinoti, Dedan; Kirigi, George; Dorlo, Thomas P. C.; Ellis, Sally; Balasegaram, Manica; Musa, Ahmed M.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Treatment options for Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) in East Africa are far from satisfactory due to cost, toxicity, prolonged treatment duration or emergence of parasite resistance. Hence there is a need to explore alternative treatment protocols such as miltefosine alone or in

  19. Application of a grain refiner and modifier to an Al-12 Si cast alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haro R, Sergio; Goytia R, Rafael E; Santos B, Audel; Dwivedi, D.K

    2008-01-01

    The refining and modification of an alloy of cast aluminum Al-12Si was studied, using sample alloys of Al-5Ti-1B as a refiner and Al-10Sr as a modifier. Two levels of each one were tested and added separately. The results show that the addition of titanium as well as of strontium favored the improvement of the tension properties of the cast Al-12Si alloy, by modifying the microstructure. But the addition of 0.06% Sr in the form of a master alloy produced a more adequate microstructure and presented the best combination of mechanical properties (au)

  20. Prospects for the U.S. energy and refining industries: Markets, profitability and key drivers for change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, B.F.

    1996-01-01

    The US refining industry has experienced an extended period of change covering the past 20 years. Growing regulatory requirements, combined with shifting market characteristics, have resulted in massive investments and significant and ongoing structural change. Despite excellent capacity utilization, recent profitability has been poor. Industry psychology can be described as depressed, with honest concern about the long-term attractiveness of domestic refining as an area for continued participation and investment. This paper provides an overview of how the industry arrived at these levels of poor profitability, examines the current situation and future drivers, and presents Chem Systems' views on the outlook for domestic refining

  1. Refining Automatically Extracted Knowledge Bases Using Crowdsourcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhua Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Machine-constructed knowledge bases often contain noisy and inaccurate facts. There exists significant work in developing automated algorithms for knowledge base refinement. Automated approaches improve the quality of knowledge bases but are far from perfect. In this paper, we leverage crowdsourcing to improve the quality of automatically extracted knowledge bases. As human labelling is costly, an important research challenge is how we can use limited human resources to maximize the quality improvement for a knowledge base. To address this problem, we first introduce a concept of semantic constraints that can be used to detect potential errors and do inference among candidate facts. Then, based on semantic constraints, we propose rank-based and graph-based algorithms for crowdsourced knowledge refining, which judiciously select the most beneficial candidate facts to conduct crowdsourcing and prune unnecessary questions. Our experiments show that our method improves the quality of knowledge bases significantly and outperforms state-of-the-art automatic methods under a reasonable crowdsourcing cost.

  2. Adaptive temporal refinement in injection molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karyofylli, Violeta; Schmitz, Mauritius; Hopmann, Christian; Behr, Marek

    2018-05-01

    Mold filling is an injection molding stage of great significance, because many defects of the plastic components (e.g. weld lines, burrs or insufficient filling) can occur during this process step. Therefore, it plays an important role in determining the quality of the produced parts. Our goal is the temporal refinement in the vicinity of the evolving melt front, in the context of 4D simplex-type space-time grids [1, 2]. This novel discretization method has an inherent flexibility to employ completely unstructured meshes with varying levels of resolution both in spatial dimensions and in the time dimension, thus allowing the use of local time-stepping during the simulations. This can lead to a higher simulation precision, while preserving calculation efficiency. A 3D benchmark case, which concerns the filling of a plate-shaped geometry, is used for verifying our numerical approach [3]. The simulation results obtained with the fully unstructured space-time discretization are compared to those obtained with the standard space-time method and to Moldflow simulation results. This example also serves for providing reliable timing measurements and the efficiency aspects of the filling simulation of complex 3D molds while applying adaptive temporal refinement.

  3. Refining Automatically Extracted Knowledge Bases Using Crowdsourcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunhua; Zhao, Pengpeng; Sheng, Victor S; Xian, Xuefeng; Wu, Jian; Cui, Zhiming

    2017-01-01

    Machine-constructed knowledge bases often contain noisy and inaccurate facts. There exists significant work in developing automated algorithms for knowledge base refinement. Automated approaches improve the quality of knowledge bases but are far from perfect. In this paper, we leverage crowdsourcing to improve the quality of automatically extracted knowledge bases. As human labelling is costly, an important research challenge is how we can use limited human resources to maximize the quality improvement for a knowledge base. To address this problem, we first introduce a concept of semantic constraints that can be used to detect potential errors and do inference among candidate facts. Then, based on semantic constraints, we propose rank-based and graph-based algorithms for crowdsourced knowledge refining, which judiciously select the most beneficial candidate facts to conduct crowdsourcing and prune unnecessary questions. Our experiments show that our method improves the quality of knowledge bases significantly and outperforms state-of-the-art automatic methods under a reasonable crowdsourcing cost.

  4. Adaptive hybrid mesh refinement for multiphysics applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamayseh, Ahmed; Almeida, Valmor de

    2007-01-01

    The accuracy and convergence of computational solutions of mesh-based methods is strongly dependent on the quality of the mesh used. We have developed methods for optimizing meshes that are comprised of elements of arbitrary polygonal and polyhedral type. We present in this research the development of r-h hybrid adaptive meshing technology tailored to application areas relevant to multi-physics modeling and simulation. Solution-based adaptation methods are used to reposition mesh nodes (r-adaptation) or to refine the mesh cells (h-adaptation) to minimize solution error. The numerical methods perform either the r-adaptive mesh optimization or the h-adaptive mesh refinement method on the initial isotropic or anisotropic meshes to equidistribute weighted geometric and/or solution error function. We have successfully introduced r-h adaptivity to a least-squares method with spherical harmonics basis functions for the solution of the spherical shallow atmosphere model used in climate modeling. In addition, application of this technology also covers a wide range of disciplines in computational sciences, most notably, time-dependent multi-physics, multi-scale modeling and simulation

  5. Effect of zirconium addition on welding of aluminum grain refined by titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaid, A.I.O.

    2011-01-01

    Aluminum and its alloys solidify in large grains columnar structure which tends to reduce their mechanical behaviour and surface quality. Therefore, they are industrially grain refined by titanium or titanium + boron. Furthermore, aluminum oxidizes in ordinary atmosphere which makes its weldability difficult and weak. Therefore, it is anticipated that the effect of addition of zirconium at a weight percentages of 0.1% (which proved to be an effective grain refiner on the weldability of aluminum grain refined by Ti) is worthwhile investigating. This formed the objective of this research work. In this paper, the effect of zirconium addition at a weight percentage of 0.1%, which corresponds to the peritctic limit on the aluminum-zirconium phase diagram, on the weldability of aluminum grain refined by Ti is investigated. Rolled sheets of commercially pure aluminum, Al grain refined Ti of 3 mm thickness were welded together using Gas Tungsten Arc Welding method (GTAW), formerly known as TIG. A constant air gap was maintained at a constant current level, 30 ampere AC, was used because it removes the oxides of the welding process under the same process parameters. Metallographic examination of weldments of the different combinations of aluminum and its microalloys at the heat affected zone, HAZ, and base metal was carried out and examined for width, porosity, cracks and microhardness. It was found that grain refining of commercially pure aluminum by Ti resulted in enhancement of its weldability. Similarly, addition of zirconium to Al grain refined by Ti resulted in further enhancement of the weldment. Photomicrographs of the HAZ regions are presented and discussed. (author)

  6. Grid refinement model in lattice Boltzmann method for stream function-vorticity formulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Myung Seob [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Dongyang Mirae University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    In this study, we present a grid refinement model in the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) for two-dimensional incompressible fluid flow. That is, the model combines the desirable features of the lattice Boltzmann method and stream function-vorticity formulations. In order to obtain an accurate result, very fine grid (or lattice) is required near the solid boundary. Therefore, the grid refinement model is used in the lattice Boltzmann method for stream function-vorticity formulation. This approach is more efficient in that it can obtain the same accurate solution as that in single-block approach even if few lattices are used for computation. In order to validate the grid refinement approach for the stream function-vorticity formulation, the numerical simulations of lid-driven cavity flows were performed and good results were obtained.

  7. Neural networks applied to characterize blends containing refined and extra virgin olive oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroca-Santos, Regina; Cancilla, John C; Pariente, Enrique S; Torrecilla, José S

    2016-12-01

    The identification and quantification of binary blends of refined olive oil with four different extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) varietals (Picual, Cornicabra, Hojiblanca and Arbequina) was carried out with a simple method based on combining visible spectroscopy and non-linear artificial neural networks (ANNs). The data obtained from the spectroscopic analysis was treated and prepared to be used as independent variables for a multilayer perceptron (MLP) model. The model was able to perfectly classify the EVOO varietal (100% identification rate), whereas the error for the quantification of EVOO in the mixtures containing between 0% and 20% of refined olive oil, in terms of the mean prediction error (MPE), was 2.14%. These results turn visible spectroscopy and MLP models into a trustworthy, user-friendly, low-cost technique which can be implemented on-line to characterize olive oil mixtures containing refined olive oil and EVOOs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The French dosimetry protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutreix, A.

    1985-01-01

    After a general introduction the protocol is divided in five sections dealing with: determination of the quality of X-ray, γ-ray and electron beams; the measuring instrument; calibration of the reference instrument; determination of the reference absorbed dose in the user's beams; determination of the absorbed dose in water at other points, in other conditions. The French protocol is not essentially different from the Nordic protocol and it is based on the experience gained in using both the American and the Nordic protocols. Therefore, only the main difference with the published protocols are discussed. (Auth.)

  9. The European refining and distribution industry at the 2010 vista

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacour, J.J.; Tessmer, G.; Ward, I.

    1998-01-01

    Oil company chairmen belonging to the AFTP, DGMK and IP associations met together to debate about the future of the European refining industry. The following topics were discussed: is it the end of the refining crisis? Which uncertainties will have to be met? What is the situation of petroleum products supply and demand? What are the consumers' expectations? How to face the environmental constraints? Which future for the refining activities in Europe? Seven round-tables took place with the following themes: the factors of uncertainty in the future of refining activities, the petroleum products supply and demand (automotive fuels, fuel oils, lubricants), the refining activities and the supply of consumers (service stations and supermarkets), the situation of the European petroleum policy, the European refining industry and the public regulations (development of more efficient environmental approaches), the impact of environmental constraints and the technical solutions, and the future of the refining industry. (J.S.)

  10. Technological studies on uranium refining at nuclear materials authority, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, H.S.

    1997-01-01

    In 1992 nuclear materials authority (NMA) took a decision to establish yellow cake refining. Unit so as to study refining of El-Atshan yellow cake which recently produced by ion-exchange pilot plant, production sector. The research studies followed the conventional refining rout to produce nuclear grade UO 3 . This implies investigations on some common solvents to refine the cake viz. tri alkyl phosphates, tri alkyl phosphine oxides, dialkyl phosphoric acid as well as high-molecular weight long-chain tertiary amines. Moreover, non-conventional refining process has also been presented depending on the selectivity of uranyl ion to be dissolved by carbonate and to be precipitated by hydrogen peroxide. Most of the proposed processes were found feasible to refine El-Atshan yellow cake. however, the non- conventional refining process appears to be the most promising, owing to its superior performance and economy

  11. Protocol Implementation Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho Quaresma, Jose Nuno; Probst, Christian W.

    2010-01-01

    Users expect communication systems to guarantee, amongst others, privacy and integrity of their data. These can be ensured by using well-established protocols; the best protocol, however, is useless if not all parties involved in a communication have a correct implementation of the protocol and a...... Generator framework based on the LySatool and a translator from the LySa language into C or Java....... necessary tools. In this paper, we present the Protocol Implementation Generator (PiG), a framework that can be used to add protocol generation to protocol negotiation, or to easily share and implement new protocols throughout a network. PiG enables the sharing, verification, and translation...

  12. Effect of a low dose combined oral contraceptive pill on the hormonal profile and cycle outcome following COS with a GnRH antagonist protocol in women over 35 years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakas, Panagiotis; Hassiakos, Dimitrios; Grigoriadis, Charalampos; Vlahos, Nikolaos F; Liapis, Angelos; Creatsas, George

    2014-11-01

    This prospective study examines if pre-treatment with two different doses of an oral contraceptive pill (OCP) modifies significantly the hormonal profile and/or the IVF/ICSI outcome following COS with a GnRH antagonist protocol. Infertile patients were allocated to receive either OCP containing 0.03 mg of ethinylestradiol and 3 mg of drospirenone, or OCP containing 0.02 mg of ethinylestradiol and 3 mg of drospirenone prior to initiation of controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) with recombinant gonadotropins on a variable multi-dose antagonist protocol (Ganirelix), while the control group underwent COS without OCP pretreatment. Lower dose OCP was associated with recovery of FSH on day 3 instead of day 5, but the synchronization of the follicular cohort, the number of retrieved oocytes and the clinical pregnancy rate were similar to higher dose OCP.

  13. Hybrid Long-Distance Entanglement Distribution Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brask, J.B.; Rigas, I.; Polzik, E.S.

    2010-01-01

    We propose a hybrid (continuous-discrete variable) quantum repeater protocol for long-distance entanglement distribution. Starting from states created by single-photon detection, we show how entangled coherent state superpositions can be generated by means of homodyne detection. We show that near......-deterministic entanglement swapping with such states is possible using only linear optics and homodyne detectors, and we evaluate the performance of our protocol combining these elements....

  14. Refining the ideas of "ethnic" skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Vicente; Herane, Maria Isabel; Costa, Adilson; Martin, Jaime Piquero; Troielli, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Skin disease occur worldwide, affecting people of all nationalities and all skin types. These diseases may have a genetic component and may manifest differently in specific population groups; however, there has been little study on this aspect. If population-based differences exist, it is reasonable to assume that understanding these differences may optimize treatment. While there is a relative paucity of information about similarities and differences in skin diseases around the world, the knowledge-base is expanding. One challenge in understanding population-based variations is posed by terminology used in the literature: including ethnic skin, Hispanic skin, Asian skin, and skin of color. As will be discussed in this article, we recommend that the first three descriptors are no longer used in dermatology because they refer to nonspecific groups of people. In contrast, "skin of color" may be used - perhaps with further refinements in the future - as a term that relates to skin biology and provides relevant information to dermatologists.

  15. China's oil market and refining sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.; Fridley, D.G.

    2000-01-01

    The article assesses the future for China's oil industry as the country makes the transition from a command economy to an international market. China has one of the world's biggest oil industries and recent years have seen much growth in exploration and development, refining capacity and trade. China is more and more dependent on oil imports and is now a major international player; it has attracted much outside investment. Diagrams show (i) how coal dominates other sources of energy in China; (ii) crude production 1977-1998; (iii) how Middle East crudes now dominate Chinese crude imports; (iv) the growth of petroleum demand in China; (v) the Chinese demand for petroleum products; (vi) the growth in transport fuels; (vii) Chinese product imports: import ban targeted diesel; (viii) crude imports favoured over product imports and (ix) refinery capacity and throughput. The changes are expected to result in further integration into international markets, increased transparency and a healthier oil business

  16. Japan's oil market and refining sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.

    2002-01-01

    The present economic situation in Japan is discussed. In particular, the focus is on fluctuations in oil product demand, imports of crude oil, and the refining industry. Throughout the 1990s, Japan was plagued by a volatile economy and the new millennium has shown no improvement. A prolonged recession means that the country now has little confidence in its leaders and its institutions, consumer confidence is low and asset values have deflated. Due to a low birth rate and long life expectancy, the population is aging and this means lower savings rates. The contrast between the present situation and the so-called economic miracle once enjoyed by the Japanese is hard to accept, but despite all this, the Japanese lifestyle and economy are to be envied

  17. Formal language theory: refining the Chomsky hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Gerhard; Rogers, James

    2012-01-01

    The first part of this article gives a brief overview of the four levels of the Chomsky hierarchy, with a special emphasis on context-free and regular languages. It then recapitulates the arguments why neither regular nor context-free grammar is sufficiently expressive to capture all phenomena in the natural language syntax. In the second part, two refinements of the Chomsky hierarchy are reviewed, which are both relevant to the extant research in cognitive science: the mildly context-sensitive languages (which are located between context-free and context-sensitive languages), and the sub-regular hierarchy (which distinguishes several levels of complexity within the class of regular languages). PMID:22688632

  18. Refining Grasp Affordance Models by Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Detry, Renaud; Kraft, Dirk; Buch, Anders Glent

    2010-01-01

    We present a method for learning object grasp affordance models in 3D from experience, and demonstrate its applicability through extensive testing and evaluation on a realistic and largely autonomous platform. Grasp affordance refers here to relative object-gripper configurations that yield stable...... with a visual model of the object they characterize. We explore a batch-oriented, experience-based learning paradigm where grasps sampled randomly from a density are performed, and an importance-sampling algorithm learns a refined density from the outcomes of these experiences. The first such learning cycle...... is bootstrapped with a grasp density formed from visual cues. We show that the robot effectively applies its experience by downweighting poor grasp solutions, which results in increased success rates at subsequent learning cycles. We also present success rates in a practical scenario where a robot needs...

  19. Biomaterials Evaluation: Conceptual Refinements and Practical Reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaeli, Reza; Zandsalimi, Kavosh; Tayebi, Lobat

    2018-01-01

    Regarding the widespread and ever-increasing applications of biomaterials in different medical fields, their accurate assessment is of great importance. Hence the safety and efficacy of biomaterials is confirmed only through the evaluation process, the way it is done has direct effects on public health. Although every biomaterial undergoes rigorous premarket evaluation, the regulatory agencies receive a considerable number of complications and adverse event reports annually. The main factors that challenge the process of biomaterials evaluation are dissimilar regulations, asynchrony of biomaterials evaluation and biomaterials development, inherent biases of postmarketing data, and cost and timing issues. Several pieces of evidence indicate that current medical device regulations need to be improved so that they can be used more effectively in the evaluation of biomaterials. This article provides suggested conceptual refinements and practical reforms to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of the existing regulations. The main focus of the article is on strategies for evaluating biomaterials in US, and then in EU.

  20. The evolution and refinements of varicocele surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel L Marmar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Varicoceles had been recognized in clinical practice for over a century. Originally, these procedures were utilized for the management of pain but, since 1952, the repairs had been mostly for the treatment of male infertility. However, the diagnosis and treatment of varicoceles were controversial, because the pathophysiology was not clear, the entry criteria of the studies varied among centers, and there were few randomized clinical trials. Nevertheless, clinicians continued developing techniques for the correction of varicoceles, basic scientists continued investigations on the pathophysiology of varicoceles, and new outcome data from prospective randomized trials have appeared in the world′s literature. Therefore, this special edition of the Asian Journal of Andrology was proposed to report much of the new information related to varicoceles and, as a specific part of this project, the present article was developed as a comprehensive review of the evolution and refinements of the corrective procedures.

  1. Panorama 2011: Refining: varying conditions by region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, C.

    2011-01-01

    The economic crisis has further weakened a sector that was already facing difficulties, if we look beyond the flush period (2005-2008) when, buoyed by strong demand, margins remained high and refiners could generate profits while maintaining a healthy level of activity. Falling demand and increased over-capacity in some regions - the immediate consequences of the deteriorating economic conditions over the past two years - have led to declining margins and to financial accounts being in the red. The adoption of increasingly stringent emissions standards and product specifications, burdensome regulatory requirements for refineries (for combating local pollution and reducing greenhouse gas emissions), stiffer competition from new fuels: all of these structural factors are weakening the sector, especially in industrialized nations with their more rigorous regulatory compliance. In this generally gloomy climate, numerous new projects are still being envisaged - although many have recently been postponed and tend to be concentrated in developing countries. (author)

  2. Refining prices and margins in 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favennec, J.P.; Baudoin, C.

    1999-01-01

    Despite a business environment that was globally mediocre due primarily to the Asian crisis and to a mild winter in the northern hemisphere, the signs of improvement noted in the refining activity in 1996 were borne out in 1997. But the situation is not yet satisfactory in this sector: the low return on invested capital and the financing of environmental protection expenditure are giving cause for concern. In 1998, the drop in crude oil prices and the concomitant fall in petroleum product prices was ultimately rather favorable to margins. Two elements tended to put a damper on this relative optimism. First of all, margins continue to be extremely volatile and, secondly, the worsening of the economic and financial crisis observed during the summer made for a sharp decline in margins in all geographic regions, especially Asia

  3. Direct numerical simulation of bubbles with parallelized adaptive mesh refinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talpaert, A.

    2015-01-01

    The study of two-phase Thermal-Hydraulics is a major topic for Nuclear Engineering for both security and efficiency of nuclear facilities. In addition to experiments, numerical modeling helps to knowing precisely where bubbles appear and how they behave, in the core as well as in the steam generators. This work presents the finest scale of representation of two-phase flows, Direct Numerical Simulation of bubbles. We use the 'Di-phasic Low Mach Number' equation model. It is particularly adapted to low-Mach number flows, that is to say flows which velocity is much slower than the speed of sound; this is very typical of nuclear thermal-hydraulics conditions. Because we study bubbles, we capture the front between vapor and liquid phases thanks to a downward flux limiting numerical scheme. The specific discrete analysis technique this work introduces is well-balanced parallel Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR). With AMR, we refined the coarse grid on a batch of patches in order to locally increase precision in areas which matter more, and capture fine changes in the front location and its topology. We show that patch-based AMR is very adapted for parallel computing. We use a variety of physical examples: forced advection, heat transfer, phase changes represented by a Stefan model, as well as the combination of all those models. We will present the results of those numerical simulations, as well as the speed up compared to equivalent non-AMR simulation and to serial computation of the same problems. This document is made up of an abstract and the slides of the presentation. (author)

  4. An optimized protocol for isolating primary epithelial cell chromatin for ChIP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A Browne

    Full Text Available A critical part of generating robust chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP data is the optimization of chromatin purification and size selection. This is particularly important when ChIP is combined with next-generation sequencing (ChIP-seq to identify targets of DNA-binding proteins, genome-wide. Current protocols refined by the ENCODE consortium generally use a two-step cell lysis procedure that is applicable to a wide variety of cell types. However, the isolation and size selection of chromatin from primary human epithelial cells may often be particularly challenging. These cells tend to form sheets of formaldehyde cross-linked material in which cells are resistant to membrane lysis, nuclei are not released and subsequent sonication produces extensive high molecular weight contamination. Here we describe an optimized protocol to prepare high quality ChIP-grade chromatin from primary human bronchial epithelial cells. The ENCODE protocol was used as a starting point to which we added the following key steps to separate the sheets of formaldehyde-fixed cells prior to lysis. (1 Incubation of the formaldehyde-fixed adherent cells in Trypsin-EDTA (0.25% room temperature for no longer than 5 min. (2 Equilibration of the fixed cells in detergent-free lysis buffers prior to each lysis step. (3 The addition of 0.5% Triton X-100 to the complete cell membrane lysis buffer. (4 Passing the cell suspension (in complete cell membrane lysis buffer through a 25-gauge needle followed by continuous agitation on ice for 35 min. Each step of the modified protocol was documented by light microscopy using the Methyl Green-Pyronin dual dye, which stains cytoplasm red (Pyronin and the nuclei grey-blue (Methyl green. This modified method is reproducibly effective at producing high quality sheared chromatin for ChIP and is equally applicable to other epithelial cell types.

  5. The Kyoto Protocol. An economic appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubb, M.

    2000-05-01

    This paper examines the overall economics of the Kyoto Protocol on climate change, in three main parts. The first part explores the structure of the Protocol and how this matches against classical economic criteria of an 'optimal' climate change agreement. This discussion also considers the nature of and reasons for shortcomings, and the prospects for its evolution. Given the various flexibilities in the agreement, the Kyoto Protocol is far more economically efficient in its structure than any previous global environmental agreement. The central conclusion is that, from an economic perspective, the Protocol's structure for industrialised country commitments is as good as could reasonably be expected. The second part of the paper explores more closely the economics of the commitments themselves and how they combine with the various flexibilities, briefly reviewing the available literature and using a simple spreadsheet model of how the commitments might combine with trading mechanisms under a range of assumptions. Flexibility is intrinsic and necessary, but it is argued that the allocations to Russia and Ukraine in particular mean that unlimited flexibility could render the Protocol's commitments weaker in their impacts than is economically desirable to address climate change. It is argued that, should this prove to be the case, access to the large surplus in the transition economies could be used as a control valve to limit the costs of the Protocol to within acceptable limits. Finally, the paper considers the issues of developing country involvement in the Kyoto Protocol, and the Protocol's longer-term impact and evolution, including its impact on technological evolution and dissemination and the evolution of future commitments. It is argued that taking account of such issues critically affects views of the Protocol

  6. A newly designed radiation therapy protocol in combination with prednisolone as treatment for meningoencephalitis of unknown origin in dogs: a prospective pilot study introducing magnetic resonance spectroscopy as monitor tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Katrin; Carrera, Inés; Steffen, Frank; Golini, Lorenzo; Kircher, Patrick R; Schneider, Uwe; Bley, Carla Rohrer

    2015-01-31

    A plethora of treatment options have been described for canine meningoencephalitis of unknown origin (MUO), yet a gold standard has not been established. The aim of this prospective pilot study was to document the effect of a newly designed 30 Gray (Gy) radiation therapy (RT) protocol plus corticosteroids as treatment for focal and multifocal MUO, to monitor clinical and imaging changes during the course of the disease with conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and proton MR Spectroscopy (H-1 MRS) and to detect the occurrence of radiation related side effects. Six dogs (3 with focal and 3 with multifocal lesions) were included in the study. The RT protocol used consisted of 30 Gy in 10 fractions. The neurological status of all six dogs improved during RT, with 3 of 6 cases returning to a normal condition. One dog was euthanized early during follow-up (dog and improved in 3 dogs and H-1 MRS normalized in 4. In the dog without improvement of the MRI lesions, the N-acetyl aspartate continued to decrease, while choline and creatine concentrations remained stable during that time. This dog was euthanized 18 month after the end of RT due to relapse. One dog was lost to follow up 12 month after completion of RT. The other 3 dogs are still alive at the time of writing. RT with 30 Gy in 10 fractions can provide an additional option for anti-inflammatory treatment of focal and multifocal MUO. The protocol used for treatment monitoring was feasible while no side effects of RT could be observed during the follow up period. Moreover, H-1 MRS could represent a new and non-invasive tool to control the progression of the disease during the treatment course.

  7. Computer network time synchronization the network time protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Mills, David L

    2006-01-01

    What started with the sundial has, thus far, been refined to a level of precision based on atomic resonance: Time. Our obsession with time is evident in this continued scaling down to nanosecond resolution and beyond. But this obsession is not without warrant. Precision and time synchronization are critical in many applications, such as air traffic control and stock trading, and pose complex and important challenges in modern information networks.Penned by David L. Mills, the original developer of the Network Time Protocol (NTP), Computer Network Time Synchronization: The Network Time Protocol

  8. Study protocol of a pragmatic, randomised controlled pilot trial: clinical effectiveness on smoking cessation of traditional and complementary medicine interventions, including acupuncture and aromatherapy, in combination with nicotine replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Soobin; Park, Sunju; Jang, Bo-Hyoung; Park, Yu Lee; Lee, Ju Ah; Cho, Chung-Sik; Go, Ho-Yeon; Shin, Yong Cheol; Ko, Seong-Gyu

    2017-06-02

    Nicotine dependence is a disease, and tobacco use is related to 6 million deaths annually worldwide. Recently, in many countries, there has been growing interest in the use of traditional and complementary medicine (T&CM) methods, especially acupuncture, as therapeutic interventions for smoking cessation. The aim of this pilot study is to investigate the effectiveness of T&CM interventions on smoking cessation. The STOP (Stop Tobacco Programme using traditional Korean medicine) study is designed to be a pragmatic, open-label, randomised pilot trial. This trial will evaluate whether adding T&CM methods (ie, ear and body acupuncture, aromatherapy) to conventional cessation methods (ie, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), counselling) increases smoking cessation rates. Forty participants over 19 years old who are capable of communicating in Korean will be recruited. They will be current smokers who meet one of the following criteria: (1) smoke more than 10 cigarettes a day, (2) smoke less than 10 cigarettes a day and previously failed to cease smoking, or (3) smoke fewer than 10 cigarettes a day and have a nicotine dependence score (Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence) of 4 points or more. The trial will consist of 4 weeks of treatment and a 20 week follow-up period. A statistician will perform the statistical analyses for both the intention-to-treat (all randomly assigned participants) and per-protocol (participants who completed the trial without any protocol deviations) data using SAS 9.1.3. This study has been approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) of the Dunsan Korean Medicine Hospital of Daejeon University (IRB reference no: DJDSKH-15-BM-11-1, Protocol No. version 4.1.).The protocol will be reapproved by IRB if it requires amendment. The trial will be conducted according to the Declaration of Helsinki, 7th version (2013). This study is designed to minimise the risk to participants, and the investigators will explain the study to the

  9. Study protocol of a pragmatic, randomised controlled pilot trial: clinical effectiveness on smoking cessation of traditional and complementary medicine interventions, including acupuncture and aromatherapy, in combination with nicotine replacement therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Soobin; Park, Sunju; Jang, Bo-Hyoung; Park, Yu Lee; Lee, Ju Ah; Cho, Chung-Sik; Go, Ho-Yeon; Shin, Yong Cheol; Ko, Seong-Gyu

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Nicotine dependence is a disease, and tobacco use is related to 6 million deaths annually worldwide. Recently, in many countries, there has been growing interest in the use of traditional and complementary medicine (T&CM) methods, especially acupuncture, as therapeutic interventions for smoking cessation. The aim of this pilot study is to investigate the effectiveness of T&CM interventions on smoking cessation. Methods and analysis The STOP (Stop Tobacco Programme using traditional Korean medicine) study is designed to be a pragmatic, open-label, randomised pilot trial. This trial will evaluate whether adding T&CM methods (ie, ear and body acupuncture, aromatherapy) to conventional cessation methods (ie, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), counselling) increases smoking cessation rates. Forty participants over 19 years old who are capable of communicating in Korean will be recruited. They will be current smokers who meet one of the following criteria: (1) smoke more than 10 cigarettes a day, (2) smoke less than 10 cigarettes a day and previously failed to cease smoking, or (3) smoke fewer than 10 cigarettes a day and have a nicotine dependence score (Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence) of 4 points or more. The trial will consist of 4 weeks of treatment and a 20 week follow-up period. A statistician will perform the statistical analyses for both the intention-to-treat (all randomly assigned participants) and per-protocol (participants who completed the trial without any protocol deviations) data using SAS 9.1.3. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) of the Dunsan Korean Medicine Hospital of Daejeon University (IRB reference no: DJDSKH-15-BM-11–1, Protocol No. version 4.1.).The protocol will be reapproved by IRB if it requires amendment. The trial will be conducted according to the Declaration of Helsinki, 7th version (2013). This study is designed to minimise the risk to participants

  10. Protein structure modeling and refinement by global optimization in CASP12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seung Hwan; Joung, InSuk; Flores-Canales, Jose C; Manavalan, Balachandran; Cheng, Qianyi; Heo, Seungryong; Kim, Jong Yun; Lee, Sun Young; Nam, Mikyung; Joo, Keehyoung; Lee, In-Ho; Lee, Sung Jong; Lee, Jooyoung

    2018-03-01

    For protein structure modeling in the CASP12 experiment, we have developed a new protocol based on our previous CASP11 approach. The global optimization method of conformational space annealing (CSA) was applied to 3 stages of modeling: multiple sequence-structure alignment, three-dimensional (3D) chain building, and side-chain re-modeling. For better template selection and model selection, we updated our model quality assessment (QA) method with the newly developed SVMQA (support vector machine for quality assessment). For 3D chain building, we updated our energy function by including restraints generated from predicted residue-residue contacts. New energy terms for the predicted secondary structure and predicted solvent accessible surface area were also introduced. For difficult targets, we proposed a new method, LEEab, where the template term played a less significant role than it did in LEE, complemented by increased contributions from other terms such as the predicted contact term. For TBM (template-based modeling) targets, LEE performed better than LEEab, but for FM targets, LEEab was better. For model refinement, we modified our CASP11 molecular dynamics (MD) based protocol by using explicit solvents and tuning down restraint weights. Refinement results from MD simulations that used a new augmented statistical energy term in the force field were quite promising. Finally, when using inaccurate information (such as the predicted contacts), it was important to use the Lorentzian function for which the maximal penalty arising from wrong information is always bounded. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Mirror of the refined topological vertex from a matrix model

    CERN Document Server

    Eynard, B

    2011-01-01

    We find an explicit matrix model computing the refined topological vertex, starting from its representation in terms of plane partitions. We then find the spectral curve of that matrix model, and thus the mirror symmetry of the refined vertex. With the same method we also find a matrix model for the strip geometry, and we find its mirror curve. The fact that there is a matrix model shows that the refined topological string amplitudes also satisfy the remodeling the B-model construction.

  12. A refinement methodology for object-oriented programs

    OpenAIRE

    Tafat , Asma; Boulmé , Sylvain; Marché , Claude

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Refinement is a well-known approach for developing correct-byconstruction software. It has been very successful for producing high quality code e.g., as implemented in the B tool. Yet, such refinement techniques are restricted in the sense that they forbid aliasing (and more generally sharing of data-structures), which often happens in usual programming languages. We propose a sound approach for refinement in presence of aliases. Suitable abstractions of programs are d...

  13. Solving the Sophistication-Population Paradox of Game Refinement Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong , Shuo; Tiwary , Parth ,; Iida , Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Part 4: Short Papers; International audience; A mathematical model of game refinement was proposed based on uncertainty of game outcome. This model has been shown to be useful in measuring the entertainment element in the domains such as boardgames and sport games. However, game refinement theory has not been able to explain the correlation between the popularity of a game and the game refinement value. This paper introduces another aspect in the study of game entertainment, the concept of “a...

  14. A united refinement technology for commercial pure Al by Al-10Ti and Al-Ti-C master alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Xiaoguang [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Liu Xiangfa [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China)], E-mail: xfliu@sdu.edu.cn; Ding Haimin [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China)

    2009-03-05

    Because flake-like TiAl{sub 3} particles in Al-Ti-C master alloys prepared in a melt reaction method dissolve slowly when they are added into Al melt at 720 deg. C, Ti atoms cannot be released rapidly to play the assistant role of grain refinement, leading to a poor refinement efficiency of Al-Ti-C master alloys. A united refinement technology by Al-10Ti and Al-Ti-C master alloys was put forward in this paper. The rational combination of fine blocky TiAl{sub 3} particles in Al-10Ti and TiC particles in Al-Ti-C can improve the nucleation rate of {alpha}-Al. It not only improves the grain refinement efficiency of Al-Ti-C master alloys, but also reduces the consumption.

  15. A united refinement technology for commercial pure Al by Al-10Ti and Al-Ti-C master alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Xiaoguang; Liu Xiangfa; Ding Haimin

    2009-01-01

    Because flake-like TiAl 3 particles in Al-Ti-C master alloys prepared in a melt reaction method dissolve slowly when they are added into Al melt at 720 deg. C, Ti atoms cannot be released rapidly to play the assistant role of grain refinement, leading to a poor refinement efficiency of Al-Ti-C master alloys. A united refinement technology by Al-10Ti and Al-Ti-C master alloys was put forward in this paper. The rational combination of fine blocky TiAl 3 particles in Al-10Ti and TiC particles in Al-Ti-C can improve the nucleation rate of α-Al. It not only improves the grain refinement efficiency of Al-Ti-C master alloys, but also reduces the consumption

  16. Refining clean fuels for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courty, P.; Gruson, J.F.

    2001-01-01

    To which extent transportation fuels will reasonably be changed in the coming years? LPG and natural gas are expected to challenge conventional fuels, hydrogen and methanol are bounded to possible fuel cells development. Among others, security of supply, competitive economics and environmental protection issues will be the key to the changes in the coming years. But taking into account expected transportation development, liquid fuels from oil should prevail as the reference energy. Though most of technologies and catalysts needed for the future are still existing or under marketing plans, the industry has to cope with the growing share of middle distillates. Indeed future zero heavy fuel-oil refineries are technically feasible through many existing and recent technologies. However their potential profitability is weighed down deeply by the very high investments and operating costs which are tied up. Tomorrow's main gasoline challenges deal with sulfur in FCC gasoline, aromatics and olefins contents together with a possible ban of ethers, hampering future octane demand and its technical feasibility. In a similar way diesel oil issues for the future imply a very deep desulfurization with possible aromatics hydrogenation and rings opening in order to comply with cetane and poly-aromatics ratings. Natural gas upgrading via syngas chemistry is still expected to open the way to clean fuels for the future via improved and integrated FT's GTL technologies which could as a matter provide most of future increases in clean fuels demand without decreasing the related fatal carbon losses as CO 2 . As an overall view, clean fuels production for the future is technically feasible. Advanced hydro-refining and hydro-conversion technologies open the way to clean fuels and allow the best flexibility in the gasoline/middle distillates ratio. However cost reduction remains a key issue since the huge investments needed are faced with low and volatile refining margins. In addition, CO 2

  17. Refining of raw materials, lignite present economic problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schirmer, G.

    1985-06-01

    East Germany seeks an economic intensification program that involves refining raw materials to a higher level. Lignite briquetting prior to liquefaction and gasification illustrates both the theoretical and practical aspects of that goal and also introduces questions of secure supplies. The author describes the special labor processes, use of technology, recycling of waste materials, and other new problems that the approach entails as the refined raw materials become new materials or energy sources. Economics based on the value of the refined product and the cost of the materials determine the degree of refinement. The concept also involves the relationship of producer and user as profits increase.

  18. Method of optimization of the natural gas refining process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadykh-Zade, E.S.; Bagirov, A.A.; Mardakhayev, I.M.; Razamat, M.S.; Tagiyev, V.G.

    1980-01-01

    The SATUM (automatic control system of technical operations) system introduced at the Shatlyk field should assure good quality of gas refining. In order to optimize the natural gas refining processes and experimental-analytical method is used in compiling the mathematical descriptions. The program, compiled in Fortran language, in addition to parameters of optimal conditions gives information on the yield of concentrate and water, concentration and consumption of DEG, composition and characteristics of the gas and condensate. The algorithm for calculating optimum engineering conditions of gas refining is proposed to be used in ''advice'' mode, and also for monitoring progress of the gas refining process.

  19. New Process for Grain Refinement of Aluminum. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Joseph A. Megy

    2000-09-22

    A new method of grain refining aluminum involving in-situ formation of boride nuclei in molten aluminum just prior to casting has been developed in the subject DOE program over the last thirty months by a team consisting of JDC, Inc., Alcoa Technical Center, GRAS, Inc., Touchstone Labs, and GKS Engineering Services. The Manufacturing process to make boron trichloride for grain refining is much simpler than preparing conventional grain refiners, with attendant environmental, capital, and energy savings. The manufacture of boride grain refining nuclei using the fy-Gem process avoids clusters, salt and oxide inclusions that cause quality problems in aluminum today.

  20. Architectural Refinement for the Design of Survivable Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ellison, Robert

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a process for systematically refining an enterprise system architecture to resist recognize and recover from deliberate, malicious attacks by applying reusable design primitives...

  1. Radiological assessment for bauxite mining and alumina refining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Brian H; Donoghue, A Michael; Manning, Timothy J H; Chesson, Barry J

    2013-01-01

    Exposure Groups (SEGs). The monitoring was undertaken over 12 months, to provide annual average assessments of above-background doses, thereby reducing temporal variations, especially for radon exposures. The monitoring program concentrated on gamma and radon exposures, rather than gross alpha exposures, as past studies have shown that gross alpha exposures from inhalable dust for most of the workforce are small in comparison to combined gamma and radon exposures. The natural background determinations were consistent with data in the literature for localities near Alcoa's mining, refining and residue operations in Western Australia, and also with UNSCEAR global data. Within the mining operations, there was further consistency between the above-background dose estimates and the local geochemistry, with slight elevation of dose levels in mining pits. Conservative estimates of above-background levels for the workforce have been made using an assumption of 100% occupancy (1920 hours per year) for the SEGs considered. Total incremental composite doses for individuals were clearly less than 1.0 mSv/year when gamma, radon progeny and gross alpha exposures were considered. This is despite the activity concentration of some materials being slightly higher than the benchmark of 1 Bq/g. The results are consistent with previous monitoring and demonstrate compliance with the 1 mSv/year exemption level within mining, refining and residue operations. These results will be of value to bauxite mines and alumina refineries elsewhere in the world.

  2. Refining the ischemic penumbra with topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirugnanachandran, Tharani; Ma, Henry; Singhal, Shaloo; Slater, Lee-Anne; Davis, Stephen M; Donnan, Geoffrey A; Phan, Thanh

    2018-04-01

    It has been 40 years since the ischemic penumbra was first conceptualized through work on animal models. The topography of penumbra has been portrayed as an infarcted core surrounded by penumbral tissue and an extreme rim of oligemic tissue. This picture has been used in many review articles and textbooks before the advent of modern imaging. In this paper, we review our understanding of the topography of the ischemic penumbra from the initial experimental animal models to current developments with neuroimaging which have helped to further define the temporal and spatial evolution of the penumbra and refine our knowledge. The concept of the penumbra has been successfully applied in clinical trials of endovascular therapies with a time window as long as 24 h from onset. Further, there are reports of "good" outcome even in patients with a large ischemic core. This latter observation of good outcome despite having a large core requires an understanding of the topography of the penumbra and the function of the infarcted regions. It is proposed that future research in this area takes departure from a time-dependent approach to a more individualized tissue and location-based approach.

  3. Oil Production, Refining and Transportation in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igbal A. Guliyev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with fuel and energy complex of Canada as one of the largest manufacturers of primary energy in the world, which provides up to 6 percent of the world energy supply. Only the Russian Federation, PRC, the United States of America and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia have larger production volumes. However, oil plays the most significant role in Canada's energy exports. It is estimated that its proven reserves are sufficient to meet the demand for 140 years at current production rate. The relevance of the study, including the analysis of fuel and energy complex of Canada, is due to the fact that such comparison and synthesis of data on the amount of recoverable oil reserves, the volume of its production, imports, exports and transit of oil and oil products, the distribution of oil for transportation (via pipelines, rail, sea, road, strategic oil field, refining and transportation of oil and oil products development projects, as well as implementation of Canada's best practices in the Russian Federation, is being developed for the first time. In addition, the data given in previously published articles on the subject, due to the dynamic development of the industry, are obsolete and do not reflect the real situation.

  4. Linear Prediction Using Refined Autocorrelation Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shahidur Rahman

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new technique for improving the performance of linear prediction analysis by utilizing a refined version of the autocorrelation function. Problems in analyzing voiced speech using linear prediction occur often due to the harmonic structure of the excitation source, which causes the autocorrelation function to be an aliased version of that of the vocal tract impulse response. To estimate the vocal tract characteristics accurately, however, the effect of aliasing must be eliminated. In this paper, we employ homomorphic deconvolution technique in the autocorrelation domain to eliminate the aliasing effect occurred due to periodicity. The resulted autocorrelation function of the vocal tract impulse response is found to produce significant improvement in estimating formant frequencies. The accuracy of formant estimation is verified on synthetic vowels for a wide range of pitch frequencies typical for male and female speakers. The validity of the proposed method is also illustrated by inspecting the spectral envelopes of natural speech spoken by high-pitched female speaker. The synthesis filter obtained by the current method is guaranteed to be stable, which makes the method superior to many of its alternatives.

  5. Refined phase diagram of boron nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solozhenko, V.; Turkevich, V.Z.

    1999-01-01

    The equilibrium phase diagram of boron nitride thermodynamically calculated by Solozhenko in 1988 has been now refined on the basis of new experimental data on BN melting and extrapolation of heat capacities of BN polymorphs into high-temperature region using the adapted pseudo-Debye model. As compared with the above diagram, the hBN left-reversible cBN equilibrium line is displaced by 60 K toward higher temperatures. The hBN-cBN-L triple point has been calculated to be at 3480 ± 10 K and 5.9 ± 0.1 GPa, while the hBN-L-V triple point is at T = 3400 ± 20 K and p = 400 ± 20 Pa, which indicates that the region of thermodynamic stability of vapor in the BN phase diagram is extremely small. It has been found that the slope of the cBN melting curve is positive whereas the slope of hBN melting curve varies from positive between ambient pressure and 3.4 GPa to negative at higher pressures

  6. Refining and blending of aviation turbine fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, R D

    1999-02-01

    Aviation turbine fuels (jet fuels) are similar to other petroleum products that have a boiling range of approximately 300F to 550F. Kerosene and No.1 grades of fuel oil, diesel fuel, and gas turbine oil share many similar physical and chemical properties with jet fuel. The similarity among these products should allow toxicology data on one material to be extrapolated to the others. Refineries in the USA manufacture jet fuel to meet industry standard specifications. Civilian aircraft primarily use Jet A or Jet A-1 fuel as defined by ASTM D 1655. Military aircraft use JP-5 or JP-8 fuel as defined by MIL-T-5624R or MIL-T-83133D respectively. The freezing point and flash point are the principle differences between the finished fuels. Common refinery processes that produce jet fuel include distillation, caustic treatment, hydrotreating, and hydrocracking. Each of these refining processes may be the final step to produce jet fuel. Sometimes blending of two or more of these refinery process streams are needed to produce jet fuel that meets the desired specifications. Chemical additives allowed for use in jet fuel are also defined in the product specifications. In many cases, the customer rather than the refinery will put additives into the fuel to meet their specific storage or flight condition requirements.

  7. Structural refinement of vitreous silica bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadjadi, Mahdi; Wilson, Mark; Thorpe, M. F.

    The importance of glasses resides not only in their applications but in fundamental questions that they put forth. The continuous random network model can successfully describe the glass structure, but determining details, like ring statistics, has always been difficult using only diffraction data. But recent atomic images of 2D vitreous silica bilayers can offer valuable new insights which are hard to be observed directly in 3D silica models/experiments (for references see). However, the experimental results are prone to uncertainty in atomic positions, systematic errors, and being finite. We employ special boundary conditions developed for such networks to refine the experimental structures. We show the best structure can be found by using various potentials to maximize information gained from the experimental samples. We find a range of densities, the so-called flexibility window, in which tetrahedra are perfect. We compare results from simulations using harmonic potentials, MD with atomic polarizabilities included and DFT. We should thank David Drabold and Bishal Bhattarai for useful discussions. Support through NSF Grant # DMS 1564468 is gratefully acknowledged.

  8. FPGA Congestion-Driven Placement Refinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicente de, J.

    2005-07-01

    The routing congestion usually limits the complete proficiency of the FPGA logic resources. A key question can be formulated regarding the benefits of estimating the congestion at placement stage. In the last years, it is gaining acceptance the idea of a detailed placement taking into account congestion. In this paper, we resort to the Thermodynamic Simulated Annealing (TSA) algorithm to perform a congestion-driven placement refinement on the top of the common Bounding-Box pre optimized solution. The adaptive properties of TSA allow the search to preserve the solution quality of the pre optimized solution while improving other fine-grain objectives. Regarding the cost function two approaches have been considered. In the first one Expected Occupation (EO), a detailed probabilistic model to account for channel congestion is evaluated. We show that in spite of the minute detail of EO, the inherent uncertainty of this probabilistic model impedes to relieve congestion beyond the sole application of the Bounding-Box cost function. In the second approach we resort to the fast Rectilinear Steiner Regions algorithm to perform not an estimation but a measurement of the global routing congestion. This second strategy allows us to successfully reduce the requested channel width for a set of benchmark circuits with respect to the widespread Versatile Place and Route (VPR) tool. (Author) 31 refs.

  9. Development of an acquisition protocol and a segmentation algortihm for wounds of cutaneous Leishmaniasis in digital images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Kristians; Castañeda, Benjamín; Miranda, César; Lavarello, Roberto; Llanos, Alejandro

    2010-03-01

    We developed a protocol for the acquisition of digital images and an algorithm for a color-based automatic segmentation of cutaneous lesions of Leishmaniasis. The protocol for image acquisition provides control over the working environment to manipulate brightness, lighting and undesirable shadows on the injury using indirect lighting. Also, this protocol was used to accurately calculate the area of the lesion expressed in mm2 even in curved surfaces by combining the information from two consecutive images. Different color spaces were analyzed and compared using ROC curves in order to determine the color layer with the highest contrast between the background and the wound. The proposed algorithm is composed of three stages: (1) Location of the wound determined by threshold and mathematical morphology techniques to the H layer of the HSV color space, (2) Determination of the boundaries of the wound by analyzing the color characteristics in the YIQ space based on masks (for the wound and the background) estimated from the first stage, and (3) Refinement of the calculations obtained on the previous stages by using the discrete dynamic contours algorithm. The segmented regions obtained with the algorithm were compared with manual segmentations made by a medical specialist. Broadly speaking, our results support that color provides useful information during segmentation and measurement of wounds of cutaneous Leishmaniasis. Results from ten images showed 99% specificity, 89% sensitivity, and 98% accuracy.

  10. Adaptive mesh refinement and multilevel iteration for multiphase, multicomponent flow in porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornung, R.D. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    An adaptive local mesh refinement (AMR) algorithm originally developed for unsteady gas dynamics is extended to multi-phase flow in porous media. Within the AMR framework, we combine specialized numerical methods to treat the different aspects of the partial differential equations. Multi-level iteration and domain decomposition techniques are incorporated to accommodate elliptic/parabolic behavior. High-resolution shock capturing schemes are used in the time integration of the hyperbolic mass conservation equations. When combined with AMR, these numerical schemes provide high resolution locally in a more efficient manner than if they were applied on a uniformly fine computational mesh. We will discuss the interplay of physical, mathematical, and numerical concerns in the application of adaptive mesh refinement to flow in porous media problems of practical interest.

  11. Network protocols and sockets

    OpenAIRE

    BALEJ, Marek

    2010-01-01

    My work will deal with network protocols and sockets and their use in programming language C#. It will therefore deal programming network applications on the platform .NET from Microsoft and instruments, which C# provides to us. There will describe the tools and methods for programming network applications, and shows a description and sample applications that work with sockets and application protocols.

  12. Refining Housing, Husbandry and Care for Animals Used in Studies Involving Biotelemetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Penny

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Biotelemetry, the remote detection and measurement of an animal function or activity, is widely used in animal research. Biotelemetry devices transmit physiological or behavioural data and may be surgically implanted into animals, or externally attached. This can help to reduce animal numbers and improve welfare, e.g., if animals can be group housed and move freely instead of being tethered to a recording device. However, biotelemetry can also cause pain and distress to animals due to surgery, attachment, single housing and long term laboratory housing. This article explains how welfare and science can be improved by avoiding or minimising these harms. Abstract Biotelemetry can contribute towards reducing animal numbers and suffering in disciplines including physiology, pharmacology and behavioural research. However, the technique can also cause harm to animals, making biotelemetry a ‘refinement that needs refining’. Current welfare issues relating to the housing and husbandry of animals used in biotelemetry studies are single vs. group housing, provision of environmental enrichment, long term laboratory housing and use of telemetered data to help assess welfare. Animals may be singly housed because more than one device transmits on the same wavelength; due to concerns regarding damage to surgical sites; because they are wearing exteriorised jackets; or if monitoring systems can only record from individually housed animals. Much of this can be overcome by thoughtful experimental design and surgery refinements. Similarly, if biotelemetry studies preclude certain enrichment items, husbandry refinement protocols can be adapted to permit some environmental stimulation. Nevertheless, long-term laboratory housing raises welfare concerns and maximum durations should be defined. Telemetered data can be used to help assess welfare, helping to determine endpoints and refine future studies. The above measures will help to improve data quality as well as

  13. SPECT/CT workflow and imaging protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckers, Catherine [University Hospital of Liege, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Oncological Imaging, Department of Medical Physics, Liege (Belgium); Hustinx, Roland [University Hospital of Liege, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Oncological Imaging, Department of Medical Physics, Liege (Belgium); Domaine Universitaire du Sart Tilman, Service de Medecine Nucleaire et Imagerie Oncologique, CHU de Liege, Liege (Belgium)

    2014-05-15

    Introducing a hybrid imaging method such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT greatly alters the routine in the nuclear medicine department. It requires designing new workflow processes and the revision of original scheduling process and imaging protocols. In addition, the imaging protocol should be adapted for each individual patient, so that performing CT is fully justified and the CT procedure is fully tailored to address the clinical issue. Such refinements often occur before the procedure is started but may be required at some intermediate stage of the procedure. Furthermore, SPECT/CT leads in many instances to a new partnership with the radiology department. This article presents practical advice and highlights the key clinical elements which need to be considered to help understand the workflow process of SPECT/CT and optimise imaging protocols. The workflow process using SPECT/CT is complex in particular because of its bimodal character, the large spectrum of stakeholders, the multiplicity of their activities at various time points and the need for real-time decision-making. With help from analytical tools developed for quality assessment, the workflow process using SPECT/CT may be separated into related, but independent steps, each with its specific human and material resources to use as inputs or outputs. This helps identify factors that could contribute to failure in routine clinical practice. At each step of the process, practical aspects to optimise imaging procedure and protocols are developed. A decision-making algorithm for justifying each CT indication as well as the appropriateness of each CT protocol is the cornerstone of routine clinical practice using SPECT/CT. In conclusion, implementing hybrid SPECT/CT imaging requires new ways of working. It is highly rewarding from a clinical perspective, but it also proves to be a daily challenge in terms of management. (orig.)

  14. SPECT/CT workflow and imaging protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckers, Catherine; Hustinx, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Introducing a hybrid imaging method such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT greatly alters the routine in the nuclear medicine department. It requires designing new workflow processes and the revision of original scheduling process and imaging protocols. In addition, the imaging protocol should be adapted for each individual patient, so that performing CT is fully justified and the CT procedure is fully tailored to address the clinical issue. Such refinements often occur before the procedure is started but may be required at some intermediate stage of the procedure. Furthermore, SPECT/CT leads in many instances to a new partnership with the radiology department. This article presents practical advice and highlights the key clinical elements which need to be considered to help understand the workflow process of SPECT/CT and optimise imaging protocols. The workflow process using SPECT/CT is complex in particular because of its bimodal character, the large spectrum of stakeholders, the multiplicity of their activities at various time points and the need for real-time decision-making. With help from analytical tools developed for quality assessment, the workflow process using SPECT/CT may be separated into related, but independent steps, each with its specific human and material resources to use as inputs or outputs. This helps identify factors that could contribute to failure in routine clinical practice. At each step of the process, practical aspects to optimise imaging procedure and protocols are developed. A decision-making algorithm for justifying each CT indication as well as the appropriateness of each CT protocol is the cornerstone of routine clinical practice using SPECT/CT. In conclusion, implementing hybrid SPECT/CT imaging requires new ways of working. It is highly rewarding from a clinical perspective, but it also proves to be a daily challenge in terms of management. (orig.)

  15. Refined analysis results for multimedia network costs and profits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahkokorpi, M.; Falch, Morten; Skouby, Knud Erik

    This deliverable describes the techno-economic business model developed in EURORIM WP3 and presents the refined results of the multimedia service delivery cost-profit calculations......This deliverable describes the techno-economic business model developed in EURORIM WP3 and presents the refined results of the multimedia service delivery cost-profit calculations...

  16. Investment in exploration-production and refining 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maisonnier, G.; Hureau, G.; Serbutoviez, S.; Silva, C.

    2016-01-01

    IFPEN analyses in this study the 2015 evolution of global investment in the field of exploration-production and refining: - Changes in oil and gas prices; - Investment in Exploration/Production: the end of an upward cycle; - Drilling and the global drilling market, upstream activities and markets; - 2015, a breath of fresh air for refining

  17. Effect of Chemical Refining on Citrullus Colocynthis and Pongamia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oil from the both plant seeds was evaluated (both before and after refining) for different physico-chemical parameters like free fatty acids, iodine value, peroxide value, saponification value, unsaponifiable matter and fatty acid composition. Oil yield (30-35 %) in both plants was found average. After refining, per cent reduction ...

  18. Optimization of Refining Craft for Vegetable Insulating Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhu-Jun; Hu, Ting; Cheng, Lin; Tian, Kai; Wang, Xuan; Yang, Jun; Kong, Hai-Yang; Fang, Fu-Xin; Qian, Hang; Fu, Guang-Pan

    2016-05-01

    Vegetable insulating oil because of its environmental friendliness are considered as ideal material instead of mineral oil used for the insulation and the cooling of the transformer. The main steps of traditional refining process included alkali refining, bleaching and distillation. This kind of refining process used in small doses of insulating oil refining can get satisfactory effect, but can't be applied to the large capacity reaction kettle. This paper using rapeseed oil as crude oil, and the refining process has been optimized for large capacity reaction kettle. The optimized refining process increases the acid degumming process. The alkali compound adds the sodium silicate composition in the alkali refining process, and the ratio of each component is optimized. Add the amount of activated clay and activated carbon according to 10:1 proportion in the de-colorization process, which can effectively reduce the oil acid value and dielectric loss. Using vacuum pumping gas instead of distillation process can further reduce the acid value. Compared some part of the performance parameters of refined oil products with mineral insulating oil, the dielectric loss of vegetable insulating oil is still high and some measures are needed to take to further optimize in the future.

  19. The Analysis of the Refined Financial Management of Modern Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper briefly introduces the concept of the refined financial management, elaborates on its characteristics and puts forward some main points about it. It also comes up with some personal suggestions for reference on effective ways of refining financial management.

  20. Local grid refinement for free-surface flow simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Plas, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The principal goal of the current study is to explore and investigate the potential of local grid refinement for increasing the numerical efficiency of free-surface flow simulations in a practical context. In this thesis we propose a method for local grid refinement in the free-surface flow model

  1. Using atomic energy in the oil refining and petrochemical industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feigin, E.A.; Barashkov, R.Ia.; Raud, E.A.

    1982-01-01

    A short description of the basic large scale processes for oil refining and petrochemistry in which nuclear reactors can be used is given. The possible industrial plans for using nuclear reactors are examined together with the problems in using the advances in atomic technology in oil refining and petrochemical processes.

  2. Cavitation-aided grain refinement in aluminium alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atamanenko, T.V.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis deals with grain refinement under the influence of ultrasonic-driven cavitation in aluminium casting processes. Three major goals of this research were: (1) to identify the mechanism of the cavitation-aided grain refinement at different stages of solidification; (2) to reveal the

  3. RBT—A Tool for Building Refined Buneman Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Besenbacher, Søren; Mailund; Westh-Nielsen, Lasse

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a tool implementing an efficient algorithm for refined Buneman tree reconstruction. The algorithm—which has the same complexity as the neighbour-joining method and the (plain) Buneman tree construction—enables refined Buneman tree reconstruction on large taxa sets....

  4. Grain refining efficiency of Al-Ti-C alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birol, Yuecel

    2006-01-01

    The problems associated with boride agglomeration and the poisoning effect of Zr in Zr-bearing alloys have created a big demand for boron-free grain refiners. The potential benefits of TiC as a direct nucleant for aluminium grains have thus generated a great deal of interest in TiC-bearing alloys in recent years. In Al-Ti-C grain refiners commercially available today, Al 3 Ti particles are introduced into the melt along with the TiC particles. Since the latter are claimed to nucleate α-Al directly, it is of great technological interest to see if reducing the Ti:C ratio further, i.e., increasing the C content of the grain refiner, will produce an increase in the grain refining efficiency of these alloys. A series of grain refiner samples with the Ti concentration fixed at 3% and a range of C contents between 0 and 0.75 were obtained by appropriately mixing an experimental Al-3Ti-0.75C alloy with Al-10Ti alloy and commercial purity aluminium. The grain refining efficiency of these grain refiners was assessed to investigate the role of the insoluble TiC and the soluble Al 3 Ti particles. The optimum chemistry for the Al-Ti-C grain refiners was also identified

  5. Grain refining efficiency of Al-Ti-C alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birol, Yuecel [Materials Institute, Marmara Research Center, TUBITAK, 41470 Gebze, Kocaeli (Turkey)]. E-mail: yucel.birol@mam.gov.tr

    2006-09-28

    The problems associated with boride agglomeration and the poisoning effect of Zr in Zr-bearing alloys have created a big demand for boron-free grain refiners. The potential benefits of TiC as a direct nucleant for aluminium grains have thus generated a great deal of interest in TiC-bearing alloys in recent years. In Al-Ti-C grain refiners commercially available today, Al{sub 3}Ti particles are introduced into the melt along with the TiC particles. Since the latter are claimed to nucleate {alpha}-Al directly, it is of great technological interest to see if reducing the Ti:C ratio further, i.e., increasing the C content of the grain refiner, will produce an increase in the grain refining efficiency of these alloys. A series of grain refiner samples with the Ti concentration fixed at 3% and a range of C contents between 0 and 0.75 were obtained by appropriately mixing an experimental Al-3Ti-0.75C alloy with Al-10Ti alloy and commercial purity aluminium. The grain refining efficiency of these grain refiners was assessed to investigate the role of the insoluble TiC and the soluble Al{sub 3}Ti particles. The optimum chemistry for the Al-Ti-C grain refiners was also identified.

  6. Integration with U.S. refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boslett, T.

    2007-01-01

    The production of crude in western Canada is expected to increase significantly in the next 10 to 15 years as the development of oil sands leases continues. In particular, large-scale investments by major oil sands producers have focused on upgrading bitumen to light synthetic crude oil. Major refinery projects in the United States will take advantage of substantially lower capital costs to increase bitumen processing capabilities. In addition, by 2008, new pipeline projects will provide western Canada with more export capacity. The BP Energy Company is investing US$3 billion to increase the refining capacity of Canadian heavy crude at its refinery in Whiting, Indiana, which already has pipeline connectivity and long-term product placement capabilities. The project, which is scheduled to begin in 2011, will increase heavy blend processing capability to 260 thousand barrels per day and produce more than 1.7 million gallons of motor fuel per day. BP's investment has focused on the hydrogen unit, gas oil hydrotreater, hydrotreater revamps, a coker, a modular sulfur recovery unit, a sour water stripper complex, and 62 miles of piping. The refinery in Indiana has an experienced workforce and a greater availability of labor than in western Canada. Production forecasts indicate varying levels of heavy and light production, depending on the amount of condensate imports available. The project team will ensure that the refinery can handle the various levels of total acid number (TAN), sulfur and solids contained in Canadian heavy oils. The project risks are associated with uncertainties regarding production growth and quality; inflation risk as developments costs continue to rise for projects in Alberta; and regulatory risk that can impact bitumen cost. tabs., figs

  7. Filled pause refinement based on the pronunciation probability for lecture speech.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Hua Long

    Full Text Available Nowadays, although automatic speech recognition has become quite proficient in recognizing or transcribing well-prepared fluent speech, the transcription of speech that contains many disfluencies remains problematic, such as spontaneous conversational and lecture speech. Filled pauses (FPs are the most frequently occurring disfluencies in this type of speech. Most recent studies have shown that FPs are widely believed to increase the error rates for state-of-the-art speech transcription, primarily because most FPs are not well annotated or provided in training data transcriptions and because of the similarities in acoustic characteristics between FPs and some common non-content words. To enhance the speech transcription system, we propose a new automatic refinement approach to detect FPs in British English lecture speech transcription. This approach combines the pronunciation probabilities for each word in the dictionary and acoustic language model scores for FP refinement through a modified speech recognition forced-alignment framework. We evaluate the proposed approach on the Reith Lectures speech transcription task, in which only imperfect training transcriptions are available. Successful results are achieved for both the development and evaluation datasets. Acoustic models trained on different styles of speech genres have been investigated with respect to FP refinement. To further validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, speech transcription performance has also been examined using systems built on training data transcriptions with and without FP refinement.

  8. Realization of the Zone Length Measurement during Zone Refining Process via Implementation of an Infrared Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo C. Curtolo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Zone refining, as the currently most common industrial process to attain ultrapure metals, is influenced by a variety of factors. One of these parameters, the so-called “zone length”, affects not only the ultimate concentration distribution of impurities, but also the rate at which this distribution is approached. This important parameter has however neither been investigated experimentally, nor ever varied for the purpose of optimization. This lack of detections may be due to the difficult temperature measurement of a moving molten area in a vacuum system, of which the zone refining methodology is comprised. Up to now, numerical simulation as a combination of complex mathematical calculations, as well as many assumptions has been the only way to reveal it. This paper aims to propose an experimental method to accurately measure the molten zone length and to extract helpful information on the thermal gradient, temperature profile and real growth rate in the zone refining of an exemplary metal, in this case aluminum. This thermographic method is based on the measurement of the molten surface temperature via an infrared camera, as well as further data analysis through the mathematical software MATLAB. The obtained results show great correlation with the visual observations of zone length and provide helpful information to determine the thermal gradient and real growth rate during the whole process. The investigations in this paper approved the application of an infrared camera for this purpose as a promising technique to automatically control the zone length during a zone refining process.

  9. Identification of key oil refining technologies for China National Petroleum Co. (CNPC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Haiyan; Yu Jianning; Xu Jian; Fan Yu; Bao Xiaojun

    2007-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results from the project 'Vision of the Key Petroleum Refining Technologies for China National Petroleum Co. (CNPC) in the Early 21st Century' undertaken by the Department of R and D Administration, CNPC, and its affiliate key laboratory, The Key Laboratory of Catalysis operated by China University of Petroleum, Beijing. The objective of the project was to identify the challenges and opportunities of CNPC's petroleum refining business given increasing economy globalization and stricter environmental regulations. Using the modified Delphi method, four key technologies for CNPC's oil refining industry were identified. They are: integrated fluid catalytic cracking (FCC), hydroprocessing, residue hydrocracking, and high-grade lubricant production. The most significant technology will be the integrated FCC technology that can economically increase the yield of light fractions as well as upgrade transportation fuels. In China, FCC units produce about 80% and 30% commercial gasoline and diesel, respectively. To ensure compliance with future environmental legislation, hydroprocessing technologies, including those related to petroleum product hydrorefining and distillate hydrocracking, should be developed. By combining residue hydrocracking and FCC technologies, poorer quality residua can be processed. Supplying high-grade lube oils is one of the main tasks for CNPC's oil refining industry. Development of hydrodewaxing technologies to manufacture API group II/III base oil is the main direction for CNPC's lubricant production business

  10. Effects of Modification of Pain Protocol on Incidence of Post Operative Nausea and Vomiting

    OpenAIRE

    Schwarzkopf, Ran; Snir, Nimrod; Sharfman, Zachary T.; Rinehart, Joseph B.; Calderon, Michael-David; Bahn, Esther; Harrington, Brian; Ahn, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    Background: A Perioperative Surgical Home (PSH) care model applies a standardized multidisciplinary approach to patient care using evidence-based medicine to modify and improve protocols. Analysis of patient outcome measures, such as postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), allows for refinement of existing protocols to improve patient care. We aim to compare the incidence of PONV in patients who underwent primary total joint arthroplasty before and after modification of our PSH pain protoco...

  11. Assessing corrosion in oil refining and petrochemical processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy C. John

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the development of an information system used to manage corrosion of metals and alloys by high temperature gases found in many different oil refining, petrochemical, power generation, and chemical processes. The database currently represents about 7.9 million h of exposure time for about 5,500 tests with 89 commercial alloys for a temperature range of 200 - 1,200°C. The system manages corrosion data from well-defined exposures and determines corrosion product stabilities. New models used in the analysis of thermochemical data for the Fe-Ni-Cr-Co-C-O-S-N-H system are being compiled. All known phases based upon combinations of the elements have been analyzed to allow complete assessments of corrosion product stabilities. Use of these data allows prediction of stable corrosion products and hence identification of the possible dominant corrosion mechanisms. The system has the potential to be used in corrosion research, alloy development, failure analysis, lifetime prediction, and process operations evaluations. The corrosion mechanisms emphasized are oxidation, sulfidation, sulfidation/oxidation, and carburization.

  12. Protocol Fuel Mix reporting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-07-01

    The protocol in this document describes a method for an Electricity Distribution Company (EDC) to account for the fuel mix of electricity that it delivers to its customers, based on the best available information. Own production, purchase and sale of electricity, and certificates trading are taken into account. In chapter 2 the actual protocol is outlined. In the appendixes additional (supporting) information is given: (A) Dutch Standard Fuel Mix, 2000; (B) Calculation of the Dutch Standard fuel mix; (C) Procedures to estimate and benchmark the fuel mix; (D) Quality management; (E) External verification; (F) Recommendation for further development of the protocol; (G) Reporting examples

  13. Playing With Population Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Koegler

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Population protocols have been introduced as a model of sensor networks consisting of very limited mobile agents with no control over their own movement: A collection of anonymous agents, modeled by finite automata, interact in pairs according to some rules. Predicates on the initial configurations that can be computed by such protocols have been characterized under several hypotheses. We discuss here whether and when the rules of interactions between agents can be seen as a game from game theory. We do so by discussing several basic protocols.

  14. ATM and Internet protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Bentall, M; Turton, B

    1998-01-01

    Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is a protocol that allows data, sound and video being transferred between independent networks via ISDN links to be supplied to, and interpreted by, the various system protocols.ATM and Internet Protocol explains the working of the ATM and B-ISDN network for readers with a basic understanding of telecommunications. It provides a handy reference to everyone working with ATM who may not require the full standards in detail, but need a comprehensive guide to ATM. A substantial section is devoted to the problems of running IP over ATM and there is some discussion o

  15. Force field refinement from NMR scalar couplings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Jing [Department of Chemistry, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 80, 4056 Basel (Switzerland); Meuwly, Markus, E-mail: m.meuwly@unibas.ch [Department of Chemistry, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 80, 4056 Basel (Switzerland)

    2012-03-02

    Graphical abstract: We show that two classes of H-bonds are sufficient to quantitatively describe scalar NMR coupling constants in small proteins. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present force field refinements based on explicit MD simulations using scalar couplings across hydrogen bonds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This leads to {sup h3}J{sub NC{sup }{sup P}{sup r}{sup i}{sup m}{sup e}} couplings to within 0.03 Hz at best compared to experiment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A classification of H-bonds according to secondary structure is not sufficiently robust. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Grouping H-bonds into two classes and reparametrization yields an RMSD of 0.07 Hz. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This is an improvement of 50. - Abstract: NMR observables contain valuable information about the protein dynamics sampling a high-dimensional potential energy surface. Depending on the observable, the dynamics is sensitive to different time-windows. Scalar coupling constants {sup h3}J{sub NC{sup }{sup P}{sup r}{sup i}{sup m}{sup e}} reflect the pico- to nanosecond motions associated with the intermolecular hydrogen bond network. Including an explicit H-bond in the molecular mechanics with proton transfer (MMPT) potential allows us to reproduce experimentally determined {sup h3}J{sub NC{sup }{sup P}{sup r}{sup i}{sup m}{sup e}} couplings to within 0.02 Hz at best for ubiquitin and protein G. This is based on taking account of the chemically changing environment by grouping the H-bonds into up to seven classes. However, grouping them into two classes already reduces the RMSD between computed and observed {sup h3}J{sub NC{sup }{sup P}{sup r}{sup i}{sup m}{sup e}} couplings by almost 50%. Thus, using ensemble-averaged data with two classes of H-bonds leads to substantially improved scalar couplings from simulations with accurate force fields.

  16. View from the market : the refiners' perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earnest, N.K.

    2003-01-01

    The western Canadian crude market area is vast, ranging from Puget Sound to Oklahoma to western Pennsylvania. The three main challenges facing western Canadian crude oil producers are high crude production volumes of heavy sour grades, strong competition for market share from the United States and offshore crudes, and the inability to access offshore global crude markets in meaningful volumes. The paper includes a map depicting core markets which have historically processed most of the crude produced in western Canada. The map also includes extended market areas where western Canadian crude sales are expected to increase as production increases. These regions will become the price setting areas for Canadian crude. Currently more than 40 per cent of the total crude produced in western Canada flows into the upper Midwest market. This paper summarized Canadian crude pricing mechanisms, noting that more than half of the oil consumed in North America is imported, linking North America with the pricing dynamics and supply/demand considerations of the global crude markets. The two key points that have to be considered in the Canadian crude pricing mechanisms is the economics of refining and parity point location. Crude grades such as light sweet or medium sour, are priced relative to one another depending on their differing values as a feedstock. The greatest determinant of relative crude grade value is the proportion produced of high value, light transportation fuels compared to low value, heavy products such as asphalt and heavy fuel oil. The value of crude oil is also influenced by the level of sulphur and metal content. A section of the paper was devoted to the pricing of heavy sour conventional and bitumen blend crudes, which is different than for lighter crude grades because of the near lack of competition from similar imported crude grades. A market optimization model used to analyze the future price relationships for Canadian crudes showed that the Canadian crude

  17. Efficacy Study of the COmbination of Edoxaban and Physiotherapy on the PRevention of Venous-Thromboembolism in patients after Total Knee Arthroplasty (ESCORT-TKA Trial: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Sueta

    2016-07-01

    Discussion: This study will provide clinical evidence on the combined efficacy and safety of edoxaban and physiotherapy compared with that of physiotherapy alone. This is will be the first prospective trial designed to explore how thrombus formation after TKA can be predicted by the T-TAS™.

  18. Mobile Internet Protocol Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brachfeld, Lawrence

    1999-01-01

    ...) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP). Mobile IP allows mobile computers to send and receive packets addressed with their home network IP address, regardless of the IP address of their current point of attachment on the Internet...

  19. Comparison of efficacy and tolerance between combination therapy and monotherapy as first-line chemotherapy in elderly patients with advanced gastric cancer: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keun-Wook; Zang, Dae Young; Ryu, Min-Hee; Kim, Ki Hyang; Kim, Mi-Jung; Han, Hye Sook; Koh, Sung Ae; Park, Jin Hyun; Kim, Jin Won; Nam, Byung-Ho; Choi, In Sil

    2017-12-01

    The combination of a fluoropyrimidine [5-fluorouracil (5-FU), capecitabine, or S-1] with a platinum analog (cisplatin or oxaliplatin) is the most widely accepted first-line chemotherapy regimen for metastatic or recurrent advanced gastric cancer (AGC), based on the results of clinical trials. However, there is little evidence to guide chemotherapy for elderly patients with AGC because of under-representation of this age group in clinical trials. Thus, the aim of this study is to determine the optimal chemotherapy regimen for elderly patients with AGC by comparing the efficacies and safeties of combination therapy versus monotherapy as first-line chemotherapy. This study is a randomized, controlled, multicenter, phase III trial. A total of 246 elderly patients (≥70 years old) with metastatic or recurrent AGC who have not received previous palliative chemotherapy will be randomly allocated to a combination therapy group or a monotherapy group. Patients randomized to the combination therapy group will receive fluoropyrimidine plus platinum combination chemotherapy (capecitabine/cisplatin, S-1/cisplatin, capecitabine/oxaliplatin, or 5-FU/oxaliplatin), and those randomized to the monotherapy group will receive fluoropyrimidine monotherapy (capecitabine, S-1, or 5-FU). The primary outcome is the overall survival of patients in each treatment group. The secondary outcomes include progression-free survival, response rate, quality of life, and safety. We are conducting this pragmatic trial to determine whether elderly patients with AGC will obtain the same benefit from chemotherapy as younger patients. We expect that this study will help guide decision-making for the optimal treatment of elderly patients with AGC.

  20. Cognitive-Behavioural Analysis System of Psychotherapy (CBASP), a drug, or their combination: differential therapeutics for persistent depressive disorder: a study protocol of an individual participant data network meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Elisabeth; Weitz, Erica S; Salanti, Georgia; Efthimiou, Orestis; Michalak, Johannes; Watanabe, Norio; Keller, Martin B; Kocsis, James H; Klein, Daniel N; Cuijpers, Pim

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Despite important advances in psychological and pharmacological treatments of persistent depressive disorders in the past decades, their responses remain typically slow and poor, and differential responses among different modalities of treatments or their combinations are not well understood. Cognitive-Behavioural Analysis System of Psychotherapy (CBASP) is the only psychotherapy that has been specifically designed for chronic depression and has been examined in an increasing number of trials against medications, alone or in combination. When several treatment alternatives are available for a certain condition, network meta-analysis (NMA) provides a powerful tool to examine their relative efficacy by combining all direct and indirect comparisons. Individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis enables exploration of impacts of individual characteristics that lead to a differentiated approach matching treatments to specific subgroups of patients. Methods and analysis We will search for all randomised controlled trials that compared CBASP, pharmacotherapy or their combination, in the treatment of patients with persistent depressive disorder, in Cochrane CENTRAL, PUBMED, SCOPUS and PsycINFO, supplemented by personal contacts. Individual participant data will be sought from the principal investigators of all the identified trials. Our primary outcomes are depression severity as measured on a continuous observer-rated scale for depression, and dropouts for any reason as a proxy measure of overall treatment acceptability. We will conduct a one-step IPD-NMA to compare CBASP, medications and their combinations, and also carry out a meta-regression to identify their prognostic factors and effect moderators. The model will be fitted in OpenBUGS, using vague priors for all location parameters. For the heterogeneity we will use a half-normal prior on the SD. Ethics and dissemination This study requires no ethical approval. We will publish the findings in a peer

  1. Directions in refining and upgrading of heavy oil and bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, B.; Parker, R. J.; Flint, L.

    1997-01-01

    The expansion of heavy oil transportation, marketing and refining facilities over the past two decades have been reviewed to show the strides that several Canadian refiners have taken to build up the facilities required to process synthetic crude oil (SCO). Key points made at a conference, convened by the National Centre for Upgrading Technology (NCUT), held in Edmonton during September 1997 to discuss current and future directions in the refining and marketing of heavy oil, bitumen and SCO, were summarized. Among the key points mentioned were: (1) the high entry barriers faced by centralized upgraders, (2) the advantages of integrating SCO or heavy oil production with downstream refining, (3) the stiff competition from Venezuela and Mexico that both SCO and heavy oil will face in the U.S. PADD II market, (4) the differences between Canadian refiners who have profited from hydrocracking and are better able to handle coker-based SCO, and American refiners who rely chiefly on catalytic cracking and are less able to process the highly aromatic SCO, and (5) the disproportionate cost in the upgrading process represented by the conversion of asphaltenes. Challenges and opportunities for key stakeholders, i.e. producers, refiners, marketers and technology licensors also received much attention at the Edmonton conference

  2. USA-USSR protocol

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    On 30 November the USA Atomic Energy Commission and the USSR State Committee for the Utilization of Atomic Energy signed, in Washington, a protocol 'on carrying out of joint projects in the field of high energy physics at the accelerators of the National Accelerator Laboratory (Batavia) and the Institute for High Energy Physics (Serpukhov)'. The protocol will be in force for five years and can be extended by mutual agreement.

  3. A Dialogue Game Protocol for Agent Purchase Negotiations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McBurney, P.; Eijk, R.M. van; Parsons, S.; Amgoud, L.

    2003-01-01

    We propose a dialogue game protocol for purchase negotiation dialogues which identifies appropriate speech acts, defines constraints on their utterances, and specifies the different sub-tasks agents need to perform in order to engage in dialogues according to this protocol. Our formalism combines

  4. Production and characterization of refined oils obtained from Indian oil sardine (Sardinella longiceps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Kajal; Joseph, Deepu

    2015-01-28

    Crude Sardinella longiceps oil was refined in different stages such as degumming, neutralization, bleaching, and deodorization. The efficiency of these processes was evaluated on the basis of free fatty acid (FFA), peroxide (PV), p-anisidine (pAV), total oxidation (TOTOX), thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) values, Lovibond CIE-L*a*b* color analyses, and (1)H NMR or GC-MS experiments. The utilities of NMR-based proton signal characteristics as new analytical tools to understand the signature peaks and relative abundance of different fatty acids and monitoring the refining process of fish oil have been demonstrated. Phosphoric acid (1%) was found to be an effective degumming reagent to obtain oil with the lowest FFA, PV, pAV, TOTOX, and TBARS values and highest color reduction. Significant reduction in the contents of hydrocarbon functionalities as shown by the decrease in proton integral in the characteristic (1)H NMR region was demonstrated by using 1% H3PO4 during the course of the degumming process. A combination (1.25:3.75%) of activated charcoal and Fuller's earth at 3% concentration for a stirring time of 40 min was found to be effective in bleaching the sardine oil. This study demonstrated that unfavorable odor-causing components, particularly low molecular weight carbonyl compounds, could successfully be removed by the refining process. The alkane-dienals/alkanes, which cause unfavorable fishy odors, were successfully removed by distillation (100 °C) under vacuum with aqueous acetic acid solution (0.25 N) to obtain greater quality of refined sardine oil, a rich source of essential fatty acids and improved oxidative stability. The present study demonstrated that the four-stage refinement process of sardine oil resulted in a significant improvement in quality characteristics and nutritional values, particularly n-3 PUFAs, with improved fish oil characteristics for use in the pharmaceutical and functional food industries.

  5. The potential impact of proposed hazardous air pollutant legislation on the US refining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-11-01

    The Administration has recently submitted a Clean Air Act Bill to Congress which would significantly modify the regulatory treatment of industrial hazardous air pollutants (air toxics). The adverse economic impacts of this legislation on the petroleum refining industry could be substantial. Depending on how EPA interprets the legislative language, the capital costs of compliance for the proposed bill could range from $1.3 to $15.0 billion. At the upper end of the range, costs of this order of magnitude would be over 2.5 times larger than the combined estimated cost of EPAs gasoline volatility (RVP) regulations and the proposed diesel sulfur content regulations. Potential compliance costs could be as much as $0.40 per barrel processed for large, complex refineries and as much as $0.50 per barrel for some small, simple refineries. For perspective, total refining costs, including a normal return on investment, are $4--5 per barrel. Because foreign refineries supplying the US will not be affected by the US air toxics regulations, US refineries may not be able to raise prices sufficiently to recover their compliance costs. For this reason, the air toxic legislation may put US refineries at an economic disadvantage relative to foreign competitors. Even under the best petroleum product market conditions, costs of $0.40 to $0.50 per barrel processed could reduce US Gulf refiner cash operating margins by as much as 29 percent. Under less favorable market conditions, such as the mid-80's when refiners were losing money, the hazardous air pollutant regulations could greatly increase US refiner operating losses and potentially lead to closure of some marginal refineries

  6. Refinements to calandria tube - liquid injection nozzle (CT-LIN) contact assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedran, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the issue of CT-LIN contact, which first gained attention in 1989, has been addressed through CT-LIN gap measurements, followed by analytical predictions of time-to-contact. CT-LIN time-to-contact predictions have been preformed independently by CPUS Limited for Point Lepreau and Gentilly-2 and by AECL Sheridan Park (now Candu Energy Inc.) for Bruce Power and Gentilly-2. Both companies used the CDEPTH code in combination with CT-LIN gap measurements. Subsequent to the assessments for Point Lepreau and Gentilly-2, a recommended approach for future assessments was presented at the 2008 CANDU maintenance conference. Since that time, a number of refinements to the overall strategy for predicting CT-LIN time-to-contact have been developed and are outlined in this paper. The refinements include: 1. The use of ultrasonic LIN elevation measurements to confirm LIN creep sag behaviour 2. The development of a non-linear empirical CT Creep Sag Model 3. The development of a rationale for discrepancies observed in repeated optical CT-LIN gap measurements and a discussion of alternative CT-LIN gap measurements With these refinements, more accurate CT-LIN time-to-contact predictions can be obtained. For stations that plan to refurbish by 210,000 EFPH, the improvement in time-to-contact predictions resulting from the fore mentioned refinements will not be of any real benefit.. However, for stations that are planning life extensions in order to operate beyond 210,000 EFPH, CT-LIN contact will be an issue. For these stations, improvements in CT-LIN contact time predictions would be beneficial. This paper presents a summary of the proposed refinements and demonstrates how they would impact CT-LIN time-to-contact predictions. (author)

  7. Segmental Refinement: A Multigrid Technique for Data Locality

    KAUST Repository

    Adams, Mark F.; Brown, Jed; Knepley, Matt; Samtaney, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    We investigate a domain decomposed multigrid technique, termed segmental refinement, for solving general nonlinear elliptic boundary value problems. We extend the method first proposed in 1994 by analytically and experimentally investigating its complexity. We confirm that communication of traditional parallel multigrid is eliminated on fine grids, with modest amounts of extra work and storage, while maintaining the asymptotic exactness of full multigrid. We observe an accuracy dependence on the segmental refinement subdomain size, which was not considered in the original analysis. We present a communication complexity analysis that quantifies the communication costs ameliorated by segmental refinement and report performance results with up to 64K cores on a Cray XC30.

  8. Oil refining and product marketing developments in southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    Views on the future are based on supplies from a relatively stable Middle East and continued economic growth in the southeast Asian and Pacific countries. Under these circumstances the oil market for the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) will expand considerably during the decade of the 90's. Pacific country demand, 5.92 MMB/D, in 1990 is likely to grow to 7.06 MMB/D in 2000. Regional production could supply about 40% of this. The Asia-Pacific shortage of refining capacity could lead to high regional refined product prices and health refining profit margins. (author)

  9. Oil refining in U.S. foreign-trade zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, S.J.; Potter, T.J.

    1991-01-01

    With the crude-oil import supply being as inexpensive as it is today, relative to domestic supply, many independents have been sourcing their crude-oil needs from abroad and have found it an opportune time to step up their level of refining activity. To further enhance their competitive position with respect to foreign refineries, certain domestic refiners have discovered the operational benefits and savings that result from having a refinery designated as a foreign-trade zone (FTZ) under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of 1934, as amended. This paper examines the history and use of foreign-trade subzones for refining activities

  10. Segmental Refinement: A Multigrid Technique for Data Locality

    KAUST Repository

    Adams, Mark F.

    2016-08-04

    We investigate a domain decomposed multigrid technique, termed segmental refinement, for solving general nonlinear elliptic boundary value problems. We extend the method first proposed in 1994 by analytically and experimentally investigating its complexity. We confirm that communication of traditional parallel multigrid is eliminated on fine grids, with modest amounts of extra work and storage, while maintaining the asymptotic exactness of full multigrid. We observe an accuracy dependence on the segmental refinement subdomain size, which was not considered in the original analysis. We present a communication complexity analysis that quantifies the communication costs ameliorated by segmental refinement and report performance results with up to 64K cores on a Cray XC30.

  11. Enzymatic Refining and Cellulose Nanofiber Addition in Papermaking Processes from Recycled and Deinked Slurries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Delgado-Aguilar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Recycling and deinking processes cause fiber damage because of hornification phenomena and increased external fibrillation. Mechanical refining has been used for many years to enhance the mechanical properties of paper. Biorefining of pulp using enzymes is receiving increasing interest for energy reduction at the refining step of the paper-making process. Moreover, enzymes have also been used for the enhancement of mechanical properties without affecting the drainage rate. As an alternative to mechanical refining treatment, a combination of an enzymatic treatment and cellulose nanofibril (CNF addition was explored to enhance the mechanical properties of paper. The tests were carried out on a deinked pulp (DIP suspension made of 50% old newspapers (ONP and 50% old magazines (OMG. Various enzyme charges and CNF amounts were added to the mixture of ONP and OMG. All pulps (treated and untreated were characterized from a morphological point of view, and the paper sheets made thereof were mechanically characterized. The combination of the enzymatic treatment with the addition of 3% CNF provided sufficient tensile strength for the paper to be used in high-performance applications.

  12. Estimating changes in urban land and urban population using refined areal interpolation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoraghein, Hamidreza; Leyk, Stefan

    2018-05-01

    The analysis of changes in urban land and population is important because the majority of future population growth will take place in urban areas. U.S. Census historically classifies urban land using population density and various land-use criteria. This study analyzes the reliability of census-defined urban lands for delineating the spatial distribution of urban population and estimating its changes over time. To overcome the problem of incompatible enumeration units between censuses, regular areal interpolation methods including Areal Weighting (AW) and Target Density Weighting (TDW), with and without spatial refinement, are implemented. The goal in this study is to estimate urban population in Massachusetts in 1990 and 2000 (source zones), within tract boundaries of the 2010 census (target zones), respectively, to create a consistent time series of comparable urban population estimates from 1990 to 2010. Spatial refinement is done using ancillary variables such as census-defined urban areas, the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) and the Global Human Settlement Layer (GHSL) as well as different combinations of them. The study results suggest that census-defined urban areas alone are not necessarily the most meaningful delineation of urban land. Instead, it appears that alternative combinations of the above-mentioned ancillary variables can better depict the spatial distribution of urban land, and thus make it possible to reduce the estimation error in transferring the urban population from source zones to target zones when running spatially-refined temporal areal interpolation.

  13. Can the Medical-nursing Combined Care Promote the Accessibility of Health Services for the Elderly in Nursing Home? A Study Protocol of Analysis of the Effectiveness Regarding Health Service Utilization, Health Status and Satisfaction with Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, J; Wang, X-J; Yang, Y; Dong, R-Q; Mao, Z-F

    2015-12-01

    Currently, segmentation of healthcare and daily care for the elderly living in nursing homes usually results in the elderly not getting medical treatment timely and effectively. The medical-nursing combined care, which has been put into practice in several areas in China, is developed to enhance the accessibility of healthcare for the elderly. The aim of the study is to explore the effectiveness of the new care service, based on Andersen model, regarding health service utilization, health status and service satisfaction. The effectiveness of medical-nursing combined care will be measured in a cross-sectional study in nine nursing homes in Jianghan District, Wuhan, China, with 1067 old residents expected to participate. The questionnaire containing items of demographics, health service use, service satisfaction and instrument of SF-36 V2 is developed based on the conceptual framework of Andersen behaviour model of health service utilization. Descriptive analysis, variance analysis, multiple factors analysis, and correlation analysis will be performed to compare the sociological characteristics, health service use, health status and service satisfaction of the elderly living in different modes of nursing homes, to explore the influence factors of care effectiveness, as well as to study the relationship between health behaviour and health outcomes. The study design of analysing the effects of medical-nursing combined care and performing the horizontal comparison among the nursing homes under the framework of Andersen model is blazing new trails. Recruitment and design of questionnaire are important issues. Successful data collection and quality control are also necessary. Taking these into account, this study is estimated to provide evidence for the effectiveness of medical-nursing combined care service in China.

  14. Iterative-build OMIT maps: map improvement by iterative model building and refinement without model bias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; Afonine, Pavel V.; Moriarty, Nigel W.; Adams, Paul D.; Read, Randy J.; Zwart, Peter H.; Hung, Li-Wei

    2008-01-01

    An OMIT procedure is presented that has the benefits of iterative model building density modification and refinement yet is essentially unbiased by the atomic model that is built. A procedure for carrying out iterative model building, density modification and refinement is presented in which the density in an OMIT region is essentially unbiased by an atomic model. Density from a set of overlapping OMIT regions can be combined to create a composite ‘iterative-build’ OMIT map that is everywhere unbiased by an atomic model but also everywhere benefiting from the model-based information present elsewhere in the unit cell. The procedure may have applications in the validation of specific features in atomic models as well as in overall model validation. The procedure is demonstrated with a molecular-replacement structure and with an experimentally phased structure and a variation on the method is demonstrated by removing model bias from a structure from the Protein Data Bank

  15. A Secure and Efficient Handover Authentication Protocol for Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijia Wang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Handover authentication protocol is a promising access control technology in the fields of WLANs and mobile wireless sensor networks. In this paper, we firstly review an effcient handover authentication protocol, named PairHand, and its existing security attacks and improvements. Then, we present an improved key recovery attack by using the linearly combining method and reanalyze its feasibility on the improved PairHand protocol. Finally, we present a new handover authentication protocol, which not only achieves the same desirable effciency features of PairHand, but enjoys the provable security in the random oracle model.

  16. Developing a protocol for managing the biophysical condition of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Their function will focus on the overall management of water resources on a ... for the integrated management of the biophysical component of a catchment, with ... and implement a protocol which will combine and integrate the knowledge of ...

  17. A new process of electron beam refining of niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinatti, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    A review of thermodynamic equilibrium, the kinetic theory and experimental results of the metal-gas interaction in refractory metals is presented. N 2 , H 2 and CO absorption and desorption take place by a reversible process while O 2 takes place by a irreversible process with atom absorption and metal oxide desorption. A new technology of electron beam refining of Niobium is proposed based on four points: 1) preparation of the aluminothermic reduced electrode, 2) zone refining in the first melt, 3) kinetic theory of refining in the following melts and 4) design of a compact furnace. Experimental results in a pilot plant of 300 KW have shown complete agreement with the proposed technology yielding a productivity 2.4 times larger than the value predicted by the conventional technology of electron beam refining of Niobium. (Author) [pt

  18. Modified process for refining niobium by electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinatti, D.G.; Takano, C.

    1982-01-01

    The experimental results, thermodynamic equilibrium and kinetic theory of the metal/gas interaction in refractory metals are reviewed. The adsorption and desorption of nitrogen, hydrogen and CO are reversible, whereas those of oxygen are irreversible, with adsorption of an oxygen atom and volatilisation of the metal oxide. Based upon this fact, a new electron beam refining technology is proposed for niobium, consisting of four points: preparation of an electrode by aluminothermic reduction; zone refining in the first melt; kinetic refining in subsequent melts and compact design of the refining plant. Experimental results from a 300 kW pilot plant were in complete agreement with the technology proposed, giving 2.4 times the productivity predicted by the conventional technology. (Author) [pt

  19. Pakistan stepping up expansion of refining, transportation sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Pakistan is taking steps to speed expansion of its refining and oil transportation infrastructure. While the country has made significant progress toward energy self-efficiency by boosting oil and gas production it still must modernize and expand an aging, inadequate refining sector to meet rapidly growing demand for refined products. Pakistan's government has disclosed plans to build two refineries in the country, one at Rawalpindi near a string of recent oil discoveries, the other somewhere in the southern part of the country, likely Karachi. At the same time, efforts are proceeding to upgrade Pakistan's refineries. In addition, Pakistani state companies continue to press joint ventures in refining and marketing with foreign companies and expand downstream ties with neighbors that are key oil and gas exporters

  20. Refined isogeometric analysis for a preconditioned conjugate gradient solver

    KAUST Repository

    Garcia, Daniel; Pardo, D.; Dalcin, Lisandro; Calo, Victor M.

    2018-01-01

    Starting from a highly continuous Isogeometric Analysis (IGA) discretization, refined Isogeometric Analysis (rIGA) introduces C0 hyperplanes that act as separators for the direct LU factorization solver. As a result, the total computational cost

  1. Japan's refiner/marketers headed for major shakeout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Japan's downstream oil industry is in a state of crisis and headed for a major shakeout. The major catalyst for this was a dramatic deregulation step during April 1996 that allowed refined petroleum product imports by non-refiners. The move, together with a sharp drop in refining margins, falling retail gasoline prices, and a service station sector on the brink of collapse, are all leading to massive changes in the way the country's refiners and marketers do business. This paper reviews the collapse of corporate profits during this period of deregulation; the development of a new price system geared toward bringing the prices of gasoline, fuel oil, and kerosene into line with each other to offset the fall in gasoline prices; and industry restructuring including mergers, acquisitions, and marketing consolidation. The paper then makes predictions on the outcome of these changes on the Japanese oil industry

  2. Mathematical aspects of Rietveld refinement and crystal structure ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    The core mathematics, goodness-of-fit parameters of Rietveld refinement technique is introduced for structural ... transducers in medical and solar applications (Obmann ..... Prince 1985 in Structure and statistics in crystallography (ed.).

  3. P-Refinement and P-Threads (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dong, Steven; Karniadakis, George E

    2002-01-01

    ...]) in d dimensions, which is higher than lower-order methods. In this paper, we demonstrate that by employing multi-threading within MPI processes we manage to counter- balance the cost increase associated with P-refinement...

  4. Optimization bitumen-based upgrading and refining schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munteanu, M.; Chen, J. [National Centre for Upgrading Technology, Devon, AB (Canada); Natural Resources Canada, Devon, AB (Canada). CanmetENERGY

    2009-07-01

    This poster highlighted the results of a study in which the entire refining scheme for Canadian bitumen as feedstocks was modelled and simulated under different process configurations, operating conditions and product structures. The aim of the study was to optimize the economic benefits, product quality and energy use under a range of operational scenarios. Optimal refining schemes were proposed along with process conditions for existing refinery configurations and objectives. The goal was to provide guidelines and information for upgrading and refining process design and retrofitting. Critical steps were identified with regards to the upgrading process. It was concluded that the information obtained from this study would lead to significant improvement in process performance and operations, and in reducing the capital cost for building new upgraders and refineries. The simulation results provided valuable information for increasing the marketability of bitumen, reducing greenhouse gas emissions and other environmental impacts associated with bitumen upgrading and refining. tabs., figs.

  5. Architectural Refinement for the Design of Survivable Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ellison, Robert

    2001-01-01

    ...; that is, have no central administration and no unified security policy. The survivable architecture refinement is an iterative risk-driven process which adopts the structure of Boehm's Spiral Model Boehm 88...

  6. Flanking region sequence information to refine microRNA target ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    (SVM)-based target prediction refinement approach has been introduced through .... are kernel-based statistical learning machines, where a discriminant ...... Cox T and Cuff J 2002 The Ensembl genome database project;. Nucleic Acids Res.

  7. Significance of Kaduna River to Kaduna Refining and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    River through the Kaduna Refining and Petrochemicals Company (KRPC) plants and .... Other less-common process involves filtering heated crude using diatomaceous earth ..... Water is polluted by the fallout from air pollution and by refinery.

  8. CITGO Petroleum Corporation and PDV Midwest Refining, LLC Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    CITGO Petroleum Corporation and PDV Midwest Refining, LLC (collectively, CITGO) have agreed to pay a $1,955,000 civil penalty, perform environmental projects totaling more than $2 million, and spend an estimated $42 million in injunctive relief to resolve.

  9. Randomized phase II – study evaluating EGFR targeting therapy with Cetuximab in combination with radiotherapy and chemotherapy for patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer – PARC: study protocol [ISRCTN56652283

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heeger S

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pancreatic cancer is the fourth commonest cause of death from cancer in men and women. Advantages in surgical techniques, radiation therapy techniques, chemotherapeutic regimes, and different combined-modality approaches have yielded only a modest impact on the prognosis of patients with pancreatic cancer. Thus there is clearly a need for additional strategies. One approach involves using the identification of a number of molecular targets that may be responsible for the resistance of cancer cells to radiation or to other cytotoxic agents. As such, these molecular determinants may serve as targets for augmentation of the radiotherapy or chemotherapy response. Of these, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR has been a molecular target of considerable interest and investigation, and there has been a tremendous surge of interest in pursuing targeted therapy of cancers via inhibition of the EGFR. Methods/design The PARC study is designed as an open, controlled, prospective, randomized phase II trial. Patients in study arm A will be treated with chemoradiation using intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT combined with gemcitabine and simultaneous cetuximab infusions. After chemoradiation the patients receive gemcitabine infusions weekly over 4 weeks. Patients in study arm B will be treated with chemoradiation using intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT combined with gemcitabine and simultaneous cetuximab infusions. After chemoradiation the patients receive gemcitabine weekly over 4 weeks and cetuximab infusions over 12 weeks. A total of 66 patients with locally advanced adenocarcinoma of the pancreas will be enrolled. An interim analysis for patient safety reasons will be done one year after start of recruitment. Evaluation of the primary endpoint will be performed two years after the last patient's enrolment. Discussion The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and the toxicity profile of

  10. Melt refining of uranium contaminated copper, nickel, and mild steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Xinwen; Liu Wencang; Zhang Yuan

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the experiment results on melt refining of uranium contaminated metallic discards such as copper, nickel, and mild steel. Based on recommended processes, uranium contents in ingots shall decrease below 1 ppm; metal recovery is higher than 96%; and slag production is below 5% in weight of the metal to be refined. The uranium in the slag is homogeneously distributed. The slag seems to be hard ceramics, insoluble in water, and can be directly disposed of after proper packaging

  11. Refined Fuchs inequalities for systems of linear differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gontsov, R R

    2004-01-01

    We refine the Fuchs inequalities obtained by Corel for systems of linear meromorphic differential equations given on the Riemann sphere. Fuchs inequalities enable one to estimate the sum of exponents of the system over all its singular points. We refine these well-known inequalities by considering the Jordan structure of the leading coefficient of the Laurent series for the matrix of the right-hand side of the system in the neighbourhood of a singular point

  12. English-Chinese oil refining dictionary. [English-Chinese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, P; Zing, Z [eds.

    1979-01-01

    The dictionary is a collection of many disciplines but specialized in the terminology related to petroleum refining. It contains terms in areas such as refining, factory equipment and installation, petroleum products and test analysis, and instrument automation. It also contains terms in areas of petrochemistry, oil storage and transport, computer technology, and environmental protection. The total number of terms collected was approximately 53,000.

  13. A State Space Model for the Wood Chip Refining Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Di Ruscio

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available A detailed dynamic model of the fibre size distribution between the refiner discs, distributed along the refiner radius, is presented. Both one- and two-dimensional descriptions for the fibre or shive geometry are given. It is shown that this model may be simplified and that analytic solutions exist under non-restrictive assumptions. A direct method for the recursive estimation of unknown parameters is presented. This method is applicable to linear or linearized systems which have a triangular structure.

  14. Asian oil refining. Demand growth and deregulation - an uncertain future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sameer Nawaz.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the report is to identify the most important features of the oil refining industry in Asia. Major developments in consumption patterns changes in regional importance of countries are discussed, highlighting potential future developments. The first chapter introduces the various refining processes and presents a simple model for the analysis of complex refineries. Chapter 2 examines the development of the Asian refining industry against a background of economic growth and analyses trends in consumption of all products in Asian countries. In Chapter 3, the key issues concerning the refining industry are examined, among them the forces driving consumption, including the importance of economic development, and electricity and transport demand. The importance of product imports and international trade is discussed, and the extent of government involvement and the effects of changing retail and market prices are analysed. Chapter 4 looks at the strategies that oil and gas companies are following in the Asian refining industry. Particular significance is attached to the vertical integration of the oil majors, Japanese and Middle Eastern oil companies. A brief overview of the importance of the petrochemical industry is presented. The countries of Asia that are involved in the refining industry are profiled in Chapter 5. The future trend in oil consumption is examined in Chapter 6. There follows a brief discussion of the plans to expand crude refining capacity in the various countries and a forecast of the state of overcapacity which will result. In the final chapter, brief profiles of some of the most important companies in the Asian refining industry are presented, discussing their major activities and future plans. (Author)

  15. Reverse mechanical after effect during hydrogenation of zone refined iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spivak, L.V.; Skryabina, N.E.; Kurmaeva, L.D.; Smirnov, L.V. (Permskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR); AN SSSR, Sverdlovsk. Inst. Fiziki Metallov)

    1984-12-01

    The relationship between the process of hydrogenation and the reverse mechanical after effect (RMA) microplastic deformation in the zone refined iron has been studied. Metallographic investigations and mechanical testing of the samples hydrogenated under torsional strain have been performed. It is shown that in the zone refined iron the formation of voids responsible for irreversible hydrogen embrittlement does not occur, but the hydrogen-initiated RMA strain is conserved, i. e. the RMA effects are independent of the presence of discontinuities.

  16. Investment in Exploration-Production and Refining - 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maisonnier, Guy; Hureau, Geoffroy; Serbutoviez, Sylvain; Silva, Constancio

    2017-03-01

    IFPEN analyses in this study the 2016 evolution of global investment in the field of exploration-production and refining: - Trends in oil and gas prices; - Investment in exploration/production: in sharp decline for the second consecutive year - the first time this has happened since 1986; - The global drilling market; - Geophysical: global activity and markets; - Offshore construction: market and business; - A significant reduction in refining projects (atmospheric distillation and conversion)

  17. Mac protocols for wireless sensor network (wsn): a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arshad, J.; Akram, Q.; Saleem, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Data communication between nodes is carried out under Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol which is defined at data link layer. The MAC protocols are responsible to communicate and coordinate between nodes according to the defined standards in WSN (Wireless Sensor Networks). The design of a MAC protocol should also address the issues of energy efficiency and transmission efficiency. There are number of MAC protocols that exist in the literature proposed for WSN. In this paper, nine MAC protocols which includes S-MAC, T-MAC, Wise-MAC, Mu-MAC, Z-MAC, A-MAC, D-MAC, B-MAC and B-MAC+ for WSN have been explored, studied and analyzed. These nine protocols are classified in contention based and hybrid (combination of contention and schedule based) MAC protocols. The goal of this comparative study is to provide a basis for MAC protocols and to highlight different mechanisms used with respect to parameters for the evaluation of energy and transmission efficiency in WSN. This study also aims to give reader a better understanding of the concepts, processes and flow of information used in these MAC protocols for WSN. A comparison with respect to energy reservation scheme, idle listening avoidance, latency, fairness, data synchronization, and throughput maximization has been presented. It was analyzed that contention based MAC protocols are less energy efficient as compared to hybrid MAC protocols. From the analysis of contention based MAC protocols in term of energy consumption, it was being observed that protocols based on preamble sampling consume lesser energy than protocols based on static or dynamic sleep schedule. (author)

  18. In silico toxicology protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myatt, Glenn J; Ahlberg, Ernst; Akahori, Yumi; Allen, David; Amberg, Alexander; Anger, Lennart T; Aptula, Aynur; Auerbach, Scott; Beilke, Lisa; Bellion, Phillip; Benigni, Romualdo; Bercu, Joel; Booth, Ewan D; Bower, Dave; Brigo, Alessandro; Burden, Natalie; Cammerer, Zoryana; Cronin, Mark T D; Cross, Kevin P; Custer, Laura; Dettwiler, Magdalena; Dobo, Krista; Ford, Kevin A; Fortin, Marie C; Gad-McDonald, Samantha E; Gellatly, Nichola; Gervais, Véronique; Glover, Kyle P; Glowienke, Susanne; Van Gompel, Jacky; Gutsell, Steve; Hardy, Barry; Harvey, James S; Hillegass, Jedd; Honma, Masamitsu; Hsieh, Jui-Hua; Hsu, Chia-Wen; Hughes, Kathy; Johnson, Candice; Jolly, Robert; Jones, David; Kemper, Ray; Kenyon, Michelle O; Kim, Marlene T; Kruhlak, Naomi L; Kulkarni, Sunil A; Kümmerer, Klaus; Leavitt, Penny; Majer, Bernhard; Masten, Scott; Miller, Scott; Moser, Janet; Mumtaz, Moiz; Muster, Wolfgang; Neilson, Louise; Oprea, Tudor I; Patlewicz, Grace; Paulino, Alexandre; Lo Piparo, Elena; Powley, Mark; Quigley, Donald P; Reddy, M Vijayaraj; Richarz, Andrea-Nicole; Ruiz, Patricia; Schilter, Benoit; Serafimova, Rositsa; Simpson, Wendy; Stavitskaya, Lidiya; Stidl, Reinhard; Suarez-Rodriguez, Diana; Szabo, David T; Teasdale, Andrew; Trejo-Martin, Alejandra; Valentin, Jean-Pierre; Vuorinen, Anna; Wall, Brian A; Watts, Pete; White, Angela T; Wichard, Joerg; Witt, Kristine L; Woolley, Adam; Woolley, David; Zwickl, Craig; Hasselgren, Catrin

    2018-04-17

    The present publication surveys several applications of in silico (i.e., computational) toxicology approaches across different industries and institutions. It highlights the need to develop standardized protocols when conducting toxicity-related predictions. This contribution articulates the information needed for protocols to support in silico predictions for major toxicological endpoints of concern (e.g., genetic toxicity, carcinogenicity, acute toxicity, reproductive toxicity, developmental toxicity) across several industries and regulatory bodies. Such novel in silico toxicology (IST) protocols, when fully developed and implemented, will ensure in silico toxicological assessments are performed and evaluated in a consistent, reproducible, and well-documented manner across industries and regulatory bodies to support wider uptake and acceptance of the approaches. The development of IST protocols is an initiative developed through a collaboration among an international consortium to reflect the state-of-the-art in in silico toxicology for hazard identification and characterization. A general outline for describing the development of such protocols is included and it is based on in silico predictions and/or available experimental data for a defined series of relevant toxicological effects or mechanisms. The publication presents a novel approach for determining the reliability of in silico predictions alongside experimental data. In addition, we discuss how to determine the level of confidence in the assessment based on the relevance and reliability of the information. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Determination of Cation Distributions in Mineral Structures by use of the Rietveld Full-Profile Refinement Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nord, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    Use of the Rietveld full-profile refinement technique with X-ray or neutron powder diffraction data for the determination of divalent-metal cation distributions in three mineral structure types (farringtonite, grafonite, sarcopside) is demonstrated. The accuracy of the conventional cation distribution coefficient Ksub(D) is about 5-10 percent with 24-46 parameters to be refined, and the averaged metal-oxygen distances are reliable and well correlated to the observed cation distribution pattern. In particular the usefulness of the Rietveld technique in combination with Moessbauer spectroscopy is stressed. Some concluding remarks are also given

  20. On macromolecular refinement at subatomic resolution with interatomic scatterers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afonine, Pavel V., E-mail: pafonine@lbl.gov; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; Adams, Paul D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, BLDG 64R0121, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Lunin, Vladimir Y. [Institute of Mathematical Problems of Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino 142290 (Russian Federation); Urzhumtsev, Alexandre [IGMBC, 1 Rue L. Fries, 67404 Illkirch and IBMC, 15 Rue R. Descartes, 67084 Strasbourg (France); Faculty of Sciences, Nancy University, 54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, BLDG 64R0121, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2007-11-01

    Modelling deformation electron density using interatomic scatters is simpler than multipolar methods, produces comparable results at subatomic resolution and can easily be applied to macromolecules. A study of the accurate electron-density distribution in molecular crystals at subatomic resolution (better than ∼1.0 Å) requires more detailed models than those based on independent spherical atoms. A tool that is conventionally used in small-molecule crystallography is the multipolar model. Even at upper resolution limits of 0.8–1.0 Å, the number of experimental data is insufficient for full multipolar model refinement. As an alternative, a simpler model composed of conventional independent spherical atoms augmented by additional scatterers to model bonding effects has been proposed. Refinement of these mixed models for several benchmark data sets gave results that were comparable in quality with the results of multipolar refinement and superior to those for conventional models. Applications to several data sets of both small molecules and macromolecules are shown. These refinements were performed using the general-purpose macromolecular refinement module phenix.refine of the PHENIX package.

  1. Strategic issues and implications for the refining and marketing sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffe, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    Refiners have faced a challenging business environment for the past decade. During this period, the industry has made approximately $25 billion of capital expenditures primarily to comply with increased governmental mandates, faced highly volatile petroleum product prices and garnered a return to equity of only 5%. While worldwide and US refining capacity has been flat in recent years, demand for refined petroleum products has been on the upswing and domestic supplies have also increased due to improved US capacity utilization rates (76% in 1984 and 93% in 1994) and increased imports (gasoline sales up 11% since 1984). The result has been highly volatile and generally weak refining margins (net Gulf Coast crack spread ranging from ($.95)/bbl in 1984 to $1.84/bbl in 1990 and averaging $.81/bbl since 1984). In response to the sustained difficulties in the marketplace, one has recently witnessed some strategic realignment in the industry. Several of the integrated companies, frustrated with the required capital expenditures and meager returns, have decided to shed non-core, non-strategic refining assets. For the most part, these assets have been bought by independents at, by historical measures, very attractive terms. This paper will provide an overview of the economics of the refining business, discuss the recent trends in refinery M and A activity and summarize possible implications of the recent strategic realignment

  2. Development of a combined canine distemper virus specific RT-PCR protocol for the differentiation of infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) and genetic characterization of the hemagglutinin gene of seven Chinese strains demonstrated in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Li; Cheng, Shipeng; Xu, Hongli; Wang, Jianke; Cheng, Yuening; Yang, Shen; Luo, Bin

    2012-01-01

    A combined reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method was developed for the detection and differentiation of wild-type and vaccine strains of the canine distemper virus (CDV). A pair of primers (P1/P2) was used to detect both CDV wild-type strains and vaccines. Another pair (P3/P4) was used to detect only CDV wild-type strains. A 335bp fragment was amplified from the genomic RNA of the vaccine and wild-type strains. A 555bp fragment was amplified specifically from the genomic RNA of the wild-type strains. No amplification was achieved for the uninfected cells, cells infected with canine parvovirus, canine coronavirus, or canine adenovirus. The combined RT-PCR method detected effectively and differentiated the CDV wild-type and vaccine strains by two separate RT-PCRs. The method can be used for clinical detection and epidemiological surveillance. The phylogenetic analysis of the hemagglutinin gene of the local wild-type CDV strains revealed that the seven local isolates all belonged to the Asia-1 lineage, and were clustered closely with one another at the same location. These results suggested that the CDV genotype Asia-1 is circulating currently in domestic dogs in China. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Business protocol in integrated Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Pavelová, Nina

    2009-01-01

    The first chapter devotes to definitions of basic terms such as protocol or business protocol, to differences between protocol and etiquette, and between social etiquette and business etiquette. The second chapter focuses on the factors influencing the European business protocol. The third chapter is devoted to the etiquette of business protocol in the European countries. It touches the topics such as punctuality and planning of business appointment, greeting, business cards, dress and appear...

  4. Security Protocols in a Nutshell

    OpenAIRE

    Toorani, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Security protocols are building blocks in secure communications. They deploy some security mechanisms to provide certain security services. Security protocols are considered abstract when analyzed, but they can have extra vulnerabilities when implemented. This manuscript provides a holistic study on security protocols. It reviews foundations of security protocols, taxonomy of attacks on security protocols and their implementations, and different methods and models for security analysis of pro...

  5. HYLIFE-II reactor chamber design refinements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    House, P.A.

    1994-06-01

    Mechanical design features of the reactor chamber for the HYLIFE-II inertial confinement fusion power plant are presented. A combination of oscillating and steady, molten salt streams (Li 2 BeF 4 ) are used for shielding and blast protection of the chamber walls. The system is designed for a 6 Hz repetition rate. Beam path clearing, between shots, is accomplished with the oscillating flow. The mechanism for generating the oscillating streams is described. A design configuration of the vessel wall allows adequate cooling and provides extra shielding to reduce thermal stresses to tolerable levels. The bottom portion of the reactor chamber is designed to minimize splash back of the high velocity (>12 m/s) salt streams and also recover up to half of the dynamic head. Cost estimates for a 1 GWe and 2 GWe reactor chamber are presented

  6. LOCALLY REFINED SPLINES REPRESENTATION FOR GEOSPATIAL BIG DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Dokken

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available When viewed from distance, large parts of the topography of landmasses and the bathymetry of the sea and ocean floor can be regarded as a smooth background with local features. Consequently a digital elevation model combining a compact smooth representation of the background with locally added features has the potential of providing a compact and accurate representation for topography and bathymetry. The recent introduction of Locally Refined B-Splines (LR B-splines allows the granularity of spline representations to be locally adapted to the complexity of the smooth shape approximated. This allows few degrees of freedom to be used in areas with little variation, while adding extra degrees of freedom in areas in need of more modelling flexibility. In the EU fp7 Integrating Project IQmulus we exploit LR B-splines for approximating large point clouds representing bathymetry of the smooth sea and ocean floor. A drastic reduction is demonstrated in the bulk of the data representation compared to the size of input point clouds. The representation is very well suited for exploiting the power of GPUs for visualization as the spline format is transferred to the GPU and the triangulation needed for the visualization is generated on the GPU according to the viewing parameters. The LR B-splines are interoperable with other elevation model representations such as LIDAR data, raster representations and triangulated irregular networks as these can be used as input to the LR B-spline approximation algorithms. Output to these formats can be generated from the LR B-spline applications according to the resolution criteria required. The spline models are well suited for change detection as new sensor data can efficiently be compared to the compact LR B-spline representation.

  7. DNA repair protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergbæk, Lotte

    In its 3rd edition, this Methods in Molecular Biology(TM) book covers the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including advanced protocols and standard techniques in the field of DNA repair. Offers expert guidance for DNA repair, recombination, and replication. Current knowledge of the mechanisms...... that regulate DNA repair has grown significantly over the past years with technology advances such as RNA interference, advanced proteomics and microscopy as well as high throughput screens. The third edition of DNA Repair Protocols covers various aspects of the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including...... recent advanced protocols as well as standard techniques used in the field of DNA repair. Both mammalian and non-mammalian model organisms are covered in the book, and many of the techniques can be applied with only minor modifications to other systems than the one described. Written in the highly...

  8. AMMOS2: a web server for protein–ligand–water complexes refinement via molecular mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbé, Céline M.; Pencheva, Tania; Jereva, Dessislava; Desvillechabrol, Dimitri; Becot, Jérôme; Villoutreix, Bruno O.; Pajeva, Ilza

    2017-01-01

    Abstract AMMOS2 is an interactive web server for efficient computational refinement of protein–small organic molecule complexes. The AMMOS2 protocol employs atomic-level energy minimization of a large number of experimental or modeled protein–ligand complexes. The web server is based on the previously developed standalone software AMMOS (Automatic Molecular Mechanics Optimization for in silico Screening). AMMOS utilizes the physics-based force field AMMP sp4 and performs optimization of protein–ligand interactions at five levels of flexibility of the protein receptor. The new version 2 of AMMOS implemented in the AMMOS2 web server allows the users to include explicit water molecules and individual metal ions in the protein–ligand complexes during minimization. The web server provides comprehensive analysis of computed energies and interactive visualization of refined protein–ligand complexes. The ligands are ranked by the minimized binding energies allowing the users to perform additional analysis for drug discovery or chemical biology projects. The web server has been extensively tested on 21 diverse protein–ligand complexes. AMMOS2 minimization shows consistent improvement over the initial complex structures in terms of minimized protein–ligand binding energies and water positions optimization. The AMMOS2 web server is freely available without any registration requirement at the URL: http://drugmod.rpbs.univ-paris-diderot.fr/ammosHome.php. PMID:28486703

  9. AMMOS2: a web server for protein-ligand-water complexes refinement via molecular mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbé, Céline M; Pencheva, Tania; Jereva, Dessislava; Desvillechabrol, Dimitri; Becot, Jérôme; Villoutreix, Bruno O; Pajeva, Ilza; Miteva, Maria A

    2017-07-03

    AMMOS2 is an interactive web server for efficient computational refinement of protein-small organic molecule complexes. The AMMOS2 protocol employs atomic-level energy minimization of a large number of experimental or modeled protein-ligand complexes. The web server is based on the previously developed standalone software AMMOS (Automatic Molecular Mechanics Optimization for in silico Screening). AMMOS utilizes the physics-based force field AMMP sp4 and performs optimization of protein-ligand interactions at five levels of flexibility of the protein receptor. The new version 2 of AMMOS implemented in the AMMOS2 web server allows the users to include explicit water molecules and individual metal ions in the protein-ligand complexes during minimization. The web server provides comprehensive analysis of computed energies and interactive visualization of refined protein-ligand complexes. The ligands are ranked by the minimized binding energies allowing the users to perform additional analysis for drug discovery or chemical biology projects. The web server has been extensively tested on 21 diverse protein-ligand complexes. AMMOS2 minimization shows consistent improvement over the initial complex structures in terms of minimized protein-ligand binding energies and water positions optimization. The AMMOS2 web server is freely available without any registration requirement at the URL: http://drugmod.rpbs.univ-paris-diderot.fr/ammosHome.php. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  10. The REFER (REFer for EchocaRdiogram protocol: a prospective validation of a clinical decision rule, NT-proBNP, or their combination, in the diagnosis of heart failure in primary care. Rationale and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tait Lynda

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heart failure is a major cause of mortality and morbidity. As mortality rates are high, it is important that patients seen by general practitioners with symptoms suggestive of heart failure are identified quickly and treated appropriately. Identifying patients with heart failure or deciding which patients need further tests is a challenge. All patients with suspected heart failure should be diagnosed using objective tests such as echocardiography, but it is expensive, often delayed, and limited by the significant skill shortage of trained echocardiographers. Alternative approaches for diagnosing heart failure are currently limited. Clinical decision tools that combine clinical signs, symptoms or patient characteristics are designed to be used to support clinical decision-making and validated according to strict methodological procedures. The REFER Study aims to determine the accuracy and cost-effectiveness of our previously derived novel, simple clinical decision rule, a natriuretic peptide assay, or their combination, in the triage for referral for echocardiography of symptomatic adult patients who present in general practice with symptoms suggestive of heart failure. Methods/design This is a prospective, Phase II observational, diagnostic validation study of a clinical decision rule, natriuretic peptides or their combination, for diagnosing heart failure in primary care. Consecutive adult primary care patients 55 years of age or over presenting to their general practitioner with a chief complaint of recent new onset shortness of breath, lethargy or peripheral ankle oedema of over 48 hours duration, with no obvious recurrent, acute or self-limiting cause will be enrolled. Our reference standard is based upon a three step expert specialist consensus using echocardiography and clinical variables and tests. Discussion Our clinical decision rule offers a potential solution to the diagnostic challenge of providing a timely and

  11. Effectiveness of a combination of cognitive behavioral therapy and task-oriented balance training in reducing the fear of falling in patients with chronic stroke: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tai-Wa; Ng, Gabriel Y F; Ng, Shamay S M

    2018-03-07

    The consequences of falls are devastating for patients with stroke. Balance problems and fear of falling are two major challenges, and recent systematic reviews have revealed that habitual physical exercise training alone cannot reduce the occurrence of falls in stroke survivors. However, recent trials with community-dwelling healthy older adults yielded the promising result that interventions with a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) component can simultaneously promote balance and reduce the fear of falling. Therefore, the aim of the proposed clinical trial is to evaluate the effectiveness of a combination of CBT and task-oriented balance training (TOBT) in promoting subjective balance confidence, and thereby reducing fear-avoidance behavior, improving balance ability, reducing fall risk, and promoting independent living, community reintegration, and health-related quality of life of patients with stroke. The study will constitute a placebo-controlled single-blind parallel-group randomized controlled trial in which patients are assessed immediately, at 3 months, and at 12 months. The selected participants will be randomly allocated into one of two parallel groups (the experimental group and the control group) with a 1:1 ratio. Both groups will receive 45 min of TOBT twice per week for 8 weeks. In addition, the experimental group will receive a 45-min CBT-based group intervention, and the control group will receive 45 min of general health education (GHE) twice per week for 8 weeks. The primary outcome measure is subjective balance confidence. The secondary outcome measures are fear-avoidance behavior, balance ability, fall risk, level of activities of daily living, community reintegration, and health-related quality of life. The proposed clinical trial will compare the effectiveness of CBT combined with TOBT and GHE combined with TOBT in promoting subjective balance confidence among chronic stroke patients. We hope our results will provide evidence of a safe

  12. Renal and Cardiovascular Effects of sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibition in combination with loop Diuretics in diabetic patients with Chronic Heart Failure (RECEDE-CHF): protocol for a randomised controlled double-blind cross-over trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordi, Natalie A; Mordi, Ify R; Singh, Jagdeep S; Baig, Fatima; Choy, Anna-Maria; McCrimmon, Rory J; Struthers, Allan D; Lang, Chim C

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and heart failure (HF) are a frequent combination, where treatment options remain limited. There has been increasing interest around the sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors and their use in patients with HF. Data on the effect of SGLT2 inhibitor use with diuretics are limited. We hypothesise that SGLT2 inhibition may augment the effects of loop diuretics and the benefits of SGLT2 inhibitors may extend beyond those of their metabolic (glycaemic parameters and weight loss) and haemodynamic parameters. The effects of SGLT2 inhibitors as an osmotic diuretic and on natriuresis may underlie the cardiovascular and renal benefits demonstrated in the recent EMPA-REG study. Methods and analysis To assess the effect of SGLT2 inhibitors when used in combination with a loop diuretic, the RECEDE-CHF (Renal and Cardiovascular Effects of SGLT2 inhibition in combination with loop Diuretics in diabetic patients with Chronic Heart Failure) trial is a single-centre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial conducted in a secondary care setting within NHS Tayside, Scotland. 34 eligible participants, aged between 18 and 80 years, with stable T2D and CHF will be recruited. Renal physiological testing will be performed at two points (week 1 and week 6) on each arm to assess the effect of 25 mg empagliflozin, on the primary and secondary outcomes. Participants will be enrolled in the trial for a total period between 14 and 16 weeks. The primary outcome will assess the effect of empagliflozin versus placebo on urine output. The secondary outcomes are to assess the effect of empagliflozin on glomerular filtration rate, cystatin C, urinary sodium excretion, urinary protein/creatinine ratio and urinary albumin/creatinine ratio when compared with placebo. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval was obtained by the East of Scotland Research Ethics Service. Results of the trial will be submitted for publication in a peer

  13. The combined effect of Parathyroid hormone (1-34) and whole-body Vibration exercise in the treatment of OSteoporosis (PaVOS)- study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Ditte Beck; Ryg, Jesper; Jørgensen, Niklas Rye

    2018-01-01

    Background: PaVOS is a randomized controlled trial (RCT) which aims to address the use of whole-body vibration exercise (WBV) in combination with parathyroid hormone 1-34 fragment teriparatide (PTH 1-34) treatment in patients with osteoporosis. PTH 1-34 is an effective but expensive anabolic...... fracture risk. Methods/design: PaVOS is a multicenter, assessor-blinded, superiority, two-armed randomized controlled trial (RCT). Postmenopausal women (n = 40, aged 50 years and older) starting taking PTH 1-34 from outpatient clinics will be randomized and assigned to a PTH 1-34 + WBV-exercise group...... (intervention group), or a PTH 1-34-alone group (control group). The intervention group will undergo WBV three sessions a week (12 min each, including 1:1 ratio of exercise: rest, 30 Hz, 1 mm amplitude) for a 12-month intervention period. Both the intervention and the control group will receive PTH 1...

  14. High-intensity interval training or continuous training, combined or not with fasting, in obese or overweight women with cardiometabolic risk factors: study protocol for a randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lorenzo, Andrea; Van Bavel, Diogo; de Moraes, Roger; Tibiriça, Eduardo V

    2018-04-28

    Physical inactivity and increased caloric intake play important roles in the pathophysiology of obesity. Increasing physical activity and modifying eating behaviours are first-line interventions, frequently hampered by lack of time to exercise and difficulties in coping with different diets. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) may be a time-efficient method compared with moderate-intensity continuous training (CT). Conversely, diets with a fasting component may be more effective than other complex and restrictive diets, as it essentially limits caloric intake to a specified period without major diet composition changes. Therefore, the combination of HIIT and fasting may provide incremental benefits in terms of effectiveness and time efficiency in obese and sedentary populations. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of HIIT versus CT, combined or not with fasting, on microcirculatory function, cardiometabolic parameters, anthropometric indices, cardiorespiratory fitness and quality of life in a population of sedentary overweight or obese women with cardiometabolic risk factors. Sedentary women aged 30-50 years, with a body mass index ≥25 kg/m 2 and cardiometabolic risk factors, will be randomised to HIIT performed in the fasting state, HIIT performed in the fed state, CT in the fasting state or CT in the fed state. Cardiometabolic parameters, anthropometric indices, cardiorespiratory fitness, quality of life and microvascular function (cutaneous capillary density and microvascular reactivity evaluated by laser speckle contrast imaging) will be evaluated before initiation of the interventions and 16 weeks thereafter. The trial complies with the Declaration of Helsinki and has been approved by the local ethics committee (Instituto Nacional de Cardiologia, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). All patients provide written informed consent before enrolment and randomisation. The study's results will be disseminated to the healthcare community by publications and

  15. Hybrid-hybrid matrix structural refinement of a DNA three-way junction from 3D NOESY-NOESY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiviyanathan, Varatharasa; Luxon, Bruce A.; Leontis, Neocles B.; Illangasekare, Nishantha; Donne, David G.; Gorenstein, David G.

    1999-01-01

    Homonuclear 3D NOESY-NOESY has shown great promise for the structural refinement of large biomolecules. A computationally efficient hybrid-hybrid relaxation matrix refinement methodology, using 3D NOESY-NOESY data, was used to refine the structure of a DNA three-way junction having two unpaired bases at the branch point of the junction. The NMR data and the relaxation matrix refinement confirm that the DNA three-way junction exists in a folded conformation with two of the helical stems stacked upon each other. The third unstacked stem extends away from the junction, forming an acute angle (∼60 deg.) with the stacked stems. The two unpaired bases are stacked upon each other and are exposed to the solvent. Helical parameters for the bases in all three strands show slight deviations from typical values expected for right-handed B-form DNA. Inter-nucleotide imino-imino NOEs between the bases at the branch point of the junction show that the junction region is well defined. The helical stems show mobility (± 20 deg.) indicating dynamic processes around the junction region. The unstacked helical stem adjacent to the unpaired bases shows greater mobility compared to the other two stems. The results from this study indicate that the 3D hybrid-hybrid matrix MORASS refinement methodology, by combining the spectral dispersion of 3D NOESY-NOESY and the computational efficiency of 2D refinement programs, provides an accurate and robust means for structure determination of large biomolecules. Our results also indicate that the 3D MORASS method gives higher quality structures compared to the 2D complete relaxation matrix refinement method

  16. Refinement of RAIM via Implementation of Implicit Euler Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yoonhee; Kim, Han-Chul [Korea Institute of Nuclear and Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The first approach is a mechanistic approach which is used in LIRIC in which more than 200 reactions are modeled in detail. This approach enables to perform the detailed analysis. However, it requires huge computation burden. The other approach is a simplified model approach which is used in the IMOD, ASTEC/IODE, and etc. Recently, KINS has developed RAIM (Radio-Active Iodine chemistry Model) based on the simplified model approach. Since the numerical analysis module in RAIM is based on the explicit Euler method, there are major issues on the stability of the module. Therefore, implementation of a stable numerical method becomes essential. In this study, RAIM is refined via implementation of implicit Euler method in which the Newton method is used to find the solutions at each time step. The refined RAIM is tested by comparing to RAIM based on the explicit Euler method. In this paper, RAIM was refined by implementing the implicit Euler method. At each time step of the method in the refined RAIM, the reaction kinetics equations are solved by the Newton method in which elements of the Jacobian matrix are expressed analytically. With the results of OECD-BIP P10T2 test, the refined RAIM was compared to RAIM with the explicit Euler method. The refined RAIM shows better agreement with the experimental data than those from the explicit Euler method. For the rapid change of pH during the experiment, the refined RAIM gives more realistic changes in the concentrations of chemical species than those from the explicit Euler method. In addition, in terms of computing time, the refined RAIM shows comparable computing time to that with explicit Euler method. These comparisons are attributed to ⁓10 times larger time step size used in the implicit Euler method, even though computation burden at each time step in the refined RAIM is much higher than that of the explicit Euler method. Compared to the experimental data, the refined RAIM still shows discrepancy, which are attributed

  17. Refinement of RAIM via Implementation of Implicit Euler Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yoonhee; Kim, Han-Chul

    2016-01-01

    The first approach is a mechanistic approach which is used in LIRIC in which more than 200 reactions are modeled in detail. This approach enables to perform the detailed analysis. However, it requires huge computation burden. The other approach is a simplified model approach which is used in the IMOD, ASTEC/IODE, and etc. Recently, KINS has developed RAIM (Radio-Active Iodine chemistry Model) based on the simplified model approach. Since the numerical analysis module in RAIM is based on the explicit Euler method, there are major issues on the stability of the module. Therefore, implementation of a stable numerical method becomes essential. In this study, RAIM is refined via implementation of implicit Euler method in which the Newton method is used to find the solutions at each time step. The refined RAIM is tested by comparing to RAIM based on the explicit Euler method. In this paper, RAIM was refined by implementing the implicit Euler method. At each time step of the method in the refined RAIM, the reaction kinetics equations are solved by the Newton method in which elements of the Jacobian matrix are expressed analytically. With the results of OECD-BIP P10T2 test, the refined RAIM was compared to RAIM with the explicit Euler method. The refined RAIM shows better agreement with the experimental data than those from the explicit Euler method. For the rapid change of pH during the experiment, the refined RAIM gives more realistic changes in the concentrations of chemical species than those from the explicit Euler method. In addition, in terms of computing time, the refined RAIM shows comparable computing time to that with explicit Euler method. These comparisons are attributed to ⁓10 times larger time step size used in the implicit Euler method, even though computation burden at each time step in the refined RAIM is much higher than that of the explicit Euler method. Compared to the experimental data, the refined RAIM still shows discrepancy, which are attributed

  18. Experimental determination of spin-dependent electron density by joint refinement of X-ray and polarized neutron diffraction data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Maxime; Claiser, Nicolas; Pillet, Sébastien; Chumakov, Yurii; Becker, Pierre; Gillet, Jean Michel; Gillon, Béatrice; Lecomte, Claude; Souhassou, Mohamed

    2012-11-01

    New crystallographic tools were developed to access a more precise description of the spin-dependent electron density of magnetic crystals. The method combines experimental information coming from high-resolution X-ray diffraction (XRD) and polarized neutron diffraction (PND) in a unified model. A new algorithm that allows for a simultaneous refinement of the charge- and spin-density parameters against XRD and PND data is described. The resulting software MOLLYNX is based on the well known Hansen-Coppens multipolar model, and makes it possible to differentiate the electron spins. This algorithm is validated and demonstrated with a molecular crystal formed by a bimetallic chain, MnCu(pba)(H(2)O)(3)·2H(2)O, for which XRD and PND data are available. The joint refinement provides a more detailed description of the spin density than the refinement from PND data alone.

  19. Protocol Monitoring Energy Conservation; Protocol Monitoring Energiebesparing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boonekamp, P.G.M. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands); Mannaerts, H. [Centraal Planburea CPB, Den Haag (Netherlands); Tinbergen, W. [Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek CBS, Den Haag (Netherlands); Vreuls, H.H.J. [Nederlandse onderneming voor energie en milieu Novem, Utrecht (Netherlands); Wesselink, B. [Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieuhygiene RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    2001-12-01

    On request of the Dutch ministry of Economic Affairs five institutes have collaborated to create a 'Protocol Monitoring Energy Conservation', a common method and database to calculate the amount of energy savings realised in past years. The institutes concerned are the Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), the Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis (CPB), the Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), the National Agency for Energy and Environment (Novem) and the Netherlands Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM). The institutes have agreed upon a clear definition of energy use and energy savings. The demarcation with renewable energy, the saving effects of substitution between energy carriers and the role of import and export of energy have been elaborated. A decomposition method is used to split up the observed change in energy use in a number of effects, on a national and sectoral level. This method includes an analysis of growth effects, effects of structural changes in production and consumption activities and savings on end use or with more efficient conversion processes. To calculate these effects the total energy use is desegregated as much as possible. For each segment a reference energy use is calculated according to the trend in a variable which is supposed to be representative for the use without savings. The difference with the actual energy use is taken as the savings realised. Results are given for the sectors households, industry, agriculture, services and government, transportation and the energy sector; as well as a national figure. A special feature of the protocol method is the application of primary energy use figures in the determination of savings for end users. This means that the use of each energy carrier is increased with a certain amount, according to the conversion losses caused elsewhere in the energy system. The losses concern the base year energy sector and losses abroad for imports of secondary

  20. Total antioxidant content of alternatives to refined sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Katherine M; Carlsen, Monica H; Blomhoff, Rune

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative damage is implicated in the etiology of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other degenerative disorders. Recent nutritional research has focused on the antioxidant potential of foods, while current dietary recommendations are to increase the intake of antioxidant-rich foods rather than supplement specific nutrients. Many alternatives to refined sugar are available, including raw cane sugar, plant saps/syrups (eg, maple syrup, agave nectar), molasses, honey, and fruit sugars (eg, date sugar). Unrefined sweeteners were hypothesized to contain higher levels of antioxidants, similar to the contrast between whole and refined grain products. To compare the total antioxidant content of natural sweeteners as alternatives to refined sugar. The ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assay was used to estimate total antioxidant capacity. Major brands of 12 types of sweeteners as well as refined white sugar and corn syrup were sampled from retail outlets in the United States. Substantial differences in total antioxidant content of different sweeteners were found. Refined sugar, corn syrup, and agave nectar contained minimal antioxidant activity (sugar had a higher FRAP (0.1 mmol/100 g). Dark and blackstrap molasses had the highest FRAP (4.6 to 4.9 mmol/100 g), while maple syrup, brown sugar, and honey showed intermediate antioxidant capacity (0.2 to 0.7 mmol FRAP/100 g). Based on an average intake of 130 g/day refined sugars and the antioxidant activity measured in typical diets, substituting alternative sweeteners could increase antioxidant intake an average of 2.6 mmol/day, similar to the amount found in a serving of berries or nuts. Many readily available alternatives to refined sugar offer the potential benefit of antioxidant activity.

  1. Electromyogram refinement using muscle synergy based regulation of uncertain information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kyuengbo; Shin, Duk; Lee, Jongho; Kakei, Shinji

    2018-04-27

    Electromyogram signal (EMG) measurement frequently experiences uncertainty attributed to issues caused by technical constraints such as cross talk and maximum voluntary contraction. Due to these problems, individual EMGs exhibit uncertainty in representing their corresponding muscle activations. To regulate this uncertainty, we proposed an EMG refinement, which refines EMGs with regulating the contribution redundancy of the signals from EMGs to approximating torques through EMG-driven torque estimation (EDTE) using the muscular skeletal forward dynamic model. To regulate this redundancy, we must consider the synergistic contribution redundancy of muscles, including "unmeasured" muscles, to approximating torques, which primarily causes redundancy of EDTE. To suppress this redundancy, we used the concept of muscle synergy, which is a key concept of analyzing the neurophysiological regulation of contribution redundancy of muscles to exerting torques. Based on this concept, we designed a muscle-synergy-based EDTE as a framework for EMG refinement, which regulates the abovementioned uncertainty of individual EMGs in consideration of unmeasured muscles. In achieving the proposed EMG refinement, the most considerable point is to suppress a large change such as overestimation attributed to enhancement of the contribution of particular muscles to estimating torques. Therefore it is reasonable to refine EMGs by minimizing the change in EMGs. To evaluate this model, we used a Bland-Altman plot, which quantitatively evaluates the proportional bias of refined signals to EMGs. Through this evaluation, we showed that the proposed EDTE minimizes the bias while approximating torques. Therefore this minimization optimally regulates the uncertainty of EMGs and thereby leads to optimal EMG refinement. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of Grain Refinement and Cooling Rate on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Secondary Al-Si-Cu Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timelli, Giulio; Camicia, Giordano; Ferraro, Stefano

    2014-02-01

    The effect of AlTi5B1 grain refinement and different solidification rates on metallurgical and mechanical properties of a secondary AlSi7Cu3Mg alloy is reported. While the Ti content ranges from 0.04 up to 0.225 wt.%, the cooling rate varies between 0.1 and 5.5 °C/s. Metallographic and thermal analysis techniques have been used to quantitatively examine the macro- and microstructural changes occurring with grain refiner addition at various cooling rates. The results indicate that a small AlTi5B1 addition produces the greatest refinement, while no significant reduction of grain size is obtained with a great amount of grain refiner. On increasing the cooling rate, a lower amount of AlTi5B1 master alloy is necessary to produce a uniform grain size throughout the casting. The combined addition of AlTi5B1 and Sr does not produce any reciprocal interaction or effect on primary α-Al and eutectic solidification. The grain refinement improves the plastic behavior of the alloy and increases the reliability of castings, as evidenced by the Weibull statistics.

  3. Immunocytochemical methods and protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Javois, Lorette C

    1999-01-01

    ... monoclonal antibodies to study cell differentiation during embryonic development. For a select few disciplines volumes have been published focusing on the specific application of immunocytochemical techniques to that discipline. What distinguished Immunocytochemical Methods and Protocols from earlier books when it was first published four years ago was i...

  4. Critical Response Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingson, Charlene; Roehrig, Gillian; Bakkum, Kris; Dubinsky, Janet M.

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces the Critical Response Protocol (CRP), an arts-based technique that engages students in equitable critical discourse and aligns with the "Next Generation Science Standards" vision for providing students opportunities for language learning while advancing science learning (NGSS Lead States 2013). CRP helps teachers…

  5. Linear Logical Voting Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DeYoung, Henry; Schürmann, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Current approaches to electronic implementations of voting protocols involve translating legal text to source code of an imperative programming language. Because the gap between legal text and source code is very large, it is difficult to trust that the program meets its legal specification. In r...

  6. Principles of Protocol Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Robin

    This is a new and updated edition of a book first published in 1994. The book introduces the reader to the principles used in the construction of a large range of modern data communication protocols, as used in distributed computer systems of all kinds. The approach taken is rather a formal one...

  7. Using high-order methods on adaptively refined block-structured meshes - discretizations, interpolations, and filters.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, Jaideep; Lefantzi, Sophia; Najm, Habib N.; Kennedy, Christopher A.

    2006-01-01

    Block-structured adaptively refined meshes (SAMR) strive for efficient resolution of partial differential equations (PDEs) solved on large computational domains by clustering mesh points only where required by large gradients. Previous work has indicated that fourth-order convergence can be achieved on such meshes by using a suitable combination of high-order discretizations, interpolations, and filters and can deliver significant computational savings over conventional second-order methods at engineering error tolerances. In this paper, we explore the interactions between the errors introduced by discretizations, interpolations and filters. We develop general expressions for high-order discretizations, interpolations, and filters, in multiple dimensions, using a Fourier approach, facilitating the high-order SAMR implementation. We derive a formulation for the necessary interpolation order for given discretization and derivative orders. We also illustrate this order relationship empirically using one and two-dimensional model problems on refined meshes. We study the observed increase in accuracy with increasing interpolation order. We also examine the empirically observed order of convergence, as the effective resolution of the mesh is increased by successively adding levels of refinement, with different orders of discretization, interpolation, or filtering.

  8. Effect of zirconium addition on welding of aluminum grain refined by titanium plus boron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaid, A. I. O.

    2014-06-01

    Aluminum oxidizes freely in ordinary atmosphere which makes its welding difficult and weak, particularly it solidifies in columnar structure with large grains. Therefore, it is anticipated that the effect of addition of some grain refiners to its melt before solidification is worth while investigating as it may enhance its weldabilty and improve its mechanical strength. In this paper, the effect of addition of zirconium at a weight of 0.1% (which corresponds to the peretictic limit on the aluminum-zirconium base phase diagram) to commercially pure aluminum, grain refined by Ti+B on its weldability, using gas tungsten arc welding, GTAW, method which was formerly known as TIG. A constant current level of 30 AC Ampere was used because it removes the oxides during the welding process. Metallographic examination of the weldments of the different combinations of Al with Al and Al with its microalloys: in the heat affected zone, HAZ, and away from it was carried out and examined for HAZ width, porosity, cracks and microhardness. It was found that grain refining by Ti+B or Zr resulted in enhancement of the weldment.

  9. Effect of zirconium addition on welding of aluminum grain refined by titanium plus boron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaid, A. I. O.

    2013-01-01

    Aluminum oxidizes freely in ordinary atmosphere which makes its welding difficult and weak, particularly it solidifies in columnar structure with large grains. Therefore, it is anticipated that the effect of addition of some grain refiners to its melt before solidification is worth while investigating as it may enhance its weldabilty and improve its mechanical strength. In this paper, the effect of addition of zirconium at a weight of 0.1 percentage (which corresponds to the peretictic limit on the aluminum-zirconium base phase diagram) to commercially pure aluminum, grain refined by Tau i+Beta on its weldability, using gas tungsten arc welding, GTAW, method which was formerly known as TIG. A constant current level of 30 AC Ampere was used because it removes the oxides during the welding process. Metallographic examination of the weldments of the different combinations of Al with Al and Al with its microalloys: in the heat affected zone, HAZ, and away from it was carried out and examined for HAZ width, porosity, cracks and microhardness. It was found that grain refining by Tau i+Beta or Zr resulted in enhancement of the weldment. (author)

  10. Effect of zirconium addition on welding of aluminum grain refined by titanium plus boron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaid, A I O

    2014-01-01

    Aluminum oxidizes freely in ordinary atmosphere which makes its welding difficult and weak, particularly it solidifies in columnar structure with large grains. Therefore, it is anticipated that the effect of addition of some grain refiners to its melt before solidification is worth while investigating as it may enhance its weldabilty and improve its mechanical strength. In this paper, the effect of addition of zirconium at a weight of 0.1% (which corresponds to the peretictic limit on the aluminum-zirconium base phase diagram) to commercially pure aluminum, grain refined by Ti+B on its weldability, using gas tungsten arc welding, GTAW, method which was formerly known as TIG. A constant current level of 30 AC Ampere was used because it removes the oxides during the welding process. Metallographic examination of the weldments of the different combinations of Al with Al and Al with its microalloys: in the heat affected zone, HAZ, and away from it was carried out and examined for HAZ width, porosity, cracks and microhardness. It was found that grain refining by Ti+B or Zr resulted in enhancement of the weldment

  11. Model Additional Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockwood, Laura

    2001-01-01

    Since the end of the cold war a series of events has changed the circumstances and requirements of the safeguards system. The discovery of a clandestine nuclear weapons program in Iraq, the continuing difficulty in verifying the initial report of Democratic People's Republic of Korea upon entry into force of their safeguards agreement, and the decision of the South African Government to give up its nuclear weapons program and join the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons have all played a role in an ambitious effort by IAEA Member States and the Secretariat to strengthen the safeguards system. A major milestone in this effort was reached in May 1997 when the IAEA Board of Governors approved a Model Protocol Additional to Safeguards Agreements. The Model Additional Protocol was negotiated over a period of less than a year by an open-ended committee of the Board involving some 70 Member States and two regional inspectorates. The IAEA is now in the process of negotiating additional protocols, State by State, and implementing them. These additional protocols will provide the IAEA with rights of access to information about all activities related to the use of nuclear material in States with comprehensive safeguards agreements and greatly expanded physical access for IAEA inspectors to confirm or verify this information. In conjunction with this, the IAEA is working on the integration of these measures with those provided for in comprehensive safeguards agreements, with a view to maximizing the effectiveness and efficiency, within available resources, the implementation of safeguards. Details concerning the Model Additional Protocol are given. (author)

  12. The future of refining industry is in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupin, L.

    2010-01-01

    The decision of Total Group to close down the refining activity of its Flandres' site at Dunkerque (France) is a testimony of the deep restructuring that is affecting this sector. The migration of the refining activity towards Middle-East and Asia has started several years ago. The World capacities are increasing: in 2009 4.36 billion tons of petroleum products were refined in the world, representing a 1.9% rise with respect to 2008. 661 refineries exist in the world, among which 6 were inaugurated in 2009, 115 are located in Europe and 12 in France. The bad health of the European refining activity is beneficial to Middle and Asia where investments in new production capacities follow on from one another. From now to 2030, these areas will benefit from 70% of the worldwide investments compared to 11% only for Europe and North America. The decline of the European refining industry is directly linked to decay of the automotive fuel consumption and to the increase of the diesel fuel share with respect to gasoline. On the other hand, Asia, and in particular China and India, follow the exactly opposite trend thanks to their population and economic growths. Therefore, European oil companies try to invest in Asia and are looking for new production capacities in China and India. (J.S.)

  13. A refined approach: Saudi Arabia moves beyond crude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krane, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Saudi Arabia's role in global energy markets is changing. The kingdom is reshaping itself as a supplier of refined petroleum products while moving beyond its long-held role as a simple exporter of crude oil. This change is commensurate with the typical development trajectory of a state progressing to a more advanced stage of global economic integration. Gains from increased refining include reducing fuel imports and capturing margins now bequeathed to competitors. Refining also allows the kingdom to export its heavy crude oil to a wider array of customers, beyond select importers configured to handle heavy crudes. However, the move also presents strategic complications. The world's 'swing supplier' of oil may grow less willing or able to adjust supply to suit market demands. In the process, Saudi Arabia may have to update the old “oil for security” relationship that links it with Washington, augmenting it with a more diverse set of economic and investment ties with individual companies and countries, including China. -- Highlights: •Saudi Arabia is diverting crude oil into an expanding refining sector. •In doing so, the kingdom is moving beyond its role as global “swing supplier” of crude oil. •The kingdom will benefit from increased refining, including enhanced demand for heavy crude. •Strategic complications may force it to seek security partners beyond Washington

  14. Effective dose comparison between protocols stitched and usual protocols in dental cone beam CT for complete arcade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, M. R.; Maia, A. F.; Batista, W. O. G.; Lara, P. A.

    2014-08-01

    To visualization a complete dental radiology dental lives together with two separate proposals: [1] protocols diameter encompassing the entire arch (single) or [2] protocol with multiple fields of view (Fov) which together encompass the entire arch (stitched Fov s). The objective of this study is to evaluate effective dose values in examination protocols for all dental arcade available in different outfits with these two options. For this, a female anthropomorphic phantom manufactured by Radiology Support Devices twenty six thermoluminescent dosimeters inserted in relevant bodies and positions was used. Irradiate the simulator in the clinical conditions. The protocols were averaged and compared: [a] 14.0 cm x 8.5 cm and [b] 8.5 cm x 8.5 cm (Gendex Tomography GXCB 500), [c] protocol stitched for jaw combination of three volumes of 5.0 cm x 3.7 cm (Kodak 9000 3D scanner) [d] protocol stitched Fov s 5.0 cm x 8.0 cm (Planmeca Pro Max 3D) and [e] single technical Fov 14 cm x 8 cm (i-CAT Classical). Our results for the effective dose were: a range between 43.1 and 111.1 micro Sv for technical single Fov and 44.5 and 236.2 for technical stitched Fov s. The protocol presented the highest estimated effective dose was [d] and showed that lowest index was registered [a]. These results demonstrate that the protocol stitched Fov generated in Kodak 9000 3D machine applied the upper dental arch has practically equal value effective dose obtained by protocol extended diameter of, [a], which evaluates in a single image upper and lower arcade. It also demonstrates that the protocol [d] gives an estimate of five times higher than the protocol [a]. Thus, we conclude that in practical terms the protocol [c] stitched Fov s, not presents dosimetric advantages over other protocols. (Author)

  15. Effective dose comparison between protocols stitched and usual protocols in dental cone beam CT for complete arcade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, M. R.; Maia, A. F. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Departamento de Fisica, Cidade Universitaria Prof. Jose Aloisio de Campos, Marechal Rondon s/n, Jardim Rosa Elze, 49-100000 Sao Cristovao, Sergipe (Brazil); Batista, W. O. G. [Instituto Federal da Bahia, Rua Emidio dos Santos s/n, Barbalho, Salvador, 40301015 Bahia (Brazil); Lara, P. A., E-mail: wilsonottobatista@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares / CNEN, Av. Lineu Prestes 2242, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    To visualization a complete dental radiology dental lives together with two separate proposals: [1] protocols diameter encompassing the entire arch (single) or [2] protocol with multiple fields of view (Fov) which together encompass the entire arch (stitched Fov s). The objective of this study is to evaluate effective dose values in examination protocols for all dental arcade available in different outfits with these two options. For this, a female anthropomorphic phantom manufactured by Radiology Support Devices twenty six thermoluminescent dosimeters inserted in relevant bodies and positions was used. Irradiate the simulator in the clinical conditions. The protocols were averaged and compared: [a] 14.0 cm x 8.5 cm and [b] 8.5 cm x 8.5 cm (Gendex Tomography GXCB 500), [c] protocol stitched for jaw combination of three volumes of 5.0 cm x 3.7 cm (Kodak 9000 3D scanner) [d] protocol stitched Fov s 5.0 cm x 8.0 cm (Planmeca Pro Max 3D) and [e] single technical Fov 14 cm x 8 cm (i-CAT Classical). Our results for the effective dose were: a range between 43.1 and 111.1 micro Sv for technical single Fov and 44.5 and 236.2 for technical stitched Fov s. The protocol presented the highest estimated effective dose was [d] and showed that lowest index was registered [a]. These results demonstrate that the protocol stitched Fov generated in Kodak 9000 3D machine applied the upper dental arch has practically equal value effective dose obtained by protocol extended diameter of, [a], which evaluates in a single image upper and lower arcade. It also demonstrates that the protocol [d] gives an estimate of five times higher than the protocol [a]. Thus, we conclude that in practical terms the protocol [c] stitched Fov s, not presents dosimetric advantages over other protocols. (Author)

  16. New 2D adaptive mesh refinement algorithm based on conservative finite-differences with staggered grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerya, T.; Duretz, T.; May, D. A.

    2012-04-01

    We present new 2D adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) algorithm based on stress-conservative finite-differences formulated for non-uniform rectangular staggered grid. The refinement approach is based on a repetitive cell splitting organized via a quad-tree construction (every parent cell is split into 4 daughter cells of equal size). Irrespective of the level of resolution every cell has 5 staggered nodes (2 horizontal velocities, 2 vertical velocities and 1 pressure) for which respective governing equations, boundary conditions and interpolation equations are formulated. The connectivity of the grid is achieved via cross-indexing of grid cells and basic nodal points located in their corners: four corner nodes are indexed for every cell and up to 4 surrounding cells are indexed for every node. The accuracy of the approach depends critically on the formulation of the stencil used at the "hanging" velocity nodes located at the boundaries between different levels of resolution. Most accurate results are obtained for the scheme based on the volume flux balance across the resolution boundary combined with stress-based interpolation of velocity orthogonal to the boundary. We tested this new approach with a number of 2D variable viscosity analytical solutions. Our tests demonstrate that the adaptive staggered grid formulation has convergence properties similar to those obtained in case of a standard, non-adaptive staggered grid formulation. This convergence is also achieved when resolution boundary crosses sharp viscosity contrast interfaces. The convergence rates measured are found to be insensitive to scenarios when the transition in grid resolution crosses sharp viscosity contrast interfaces. We compared various grid refinement strategies based on distribution of different field variables such as viscosity, density and velocity. According to these tests the refinement allows for significant (0.5-1 order of magnitude) increase in the computational accuracy at the same

  17. What is the effect of a combined physical activity and fall prevention intervention enhanced with health coaching and pedometers on older adults' physical activity levels and mobility-related goals? Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiedemann, Anne; Paul, Serene; Ramsay, Elisabeth; O'Rourke, Sandra D; Chamberlain, Kathryn; Kirkham, Catherine; Merom, Dafna; Fairhall, Nicola; Oliveira, Juliana S; Hassett, Leanne; Sherrington, Catherine

    2015-05-09

    Physical inactivity and falls in older people are important public health problems. Health conditions that could be ameliorated with physical activity are particularly common in older people. One in three people aged 65 years and over fall at least once annually, often resulting in significant injuries and ongoing disability. These problems need to be urgently addressed as the population proportion of older people is rapidly rising. This trial aims to establish the impact of a combined physical activity and fall prevention intervention compared to an advice brochure on objectively measured physical activity participation and mobility-related goal attainment among people aged 60+. A randomised controlled trial involving 130 consenting community-dwelling older people will be conducted. Participants will be individually randomised to a control group (n = 65) and receive a fall prevention brochure, or to an intervention group (n = 65) and receive the brochure plus physical activity promotion and fall prevention intervention enhanced with health coaching and a pedometer. Primary outcomes will be objectively measured physical activity and mobility-related goal attainment, measured at both six and 12 months post randomisation. Secondary outcomes will include: falls, the proportion of people meeting the physical activity guidelines, quality of life, fear of falling, mood, and mobility limitation. Barriers and enablers to physical activity participation will be measured 6 months after randomisation. General linear models will be used to assess the effect of group allocation on the continuously-scored primary and secondary outcome measures, after adjusting for baseline scores. Between-group differences in goal attainment (primary outcome) will be analysed with ordinal regression. The number of falls per person-year will be analysed using negative binomial regression models to estimate the between-group difference in fall rates after one year (secondary outcome). Modified

  18. The effects of a protein enriched diet with lean red meat combined with a multi-modal exercise program on muscle and cognitive health and function in older adults: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Robin M; Gianoudis, Jenny; Prosser, Melissa; Kidgell, Dawson; Ellis, Kathryn A; O'Connell, Stella; Nowson, Caryl A

    2015-08-08

    Age-related muscle wasting has been strongly implicated with falls and fractures in the elderly, but it has also been associated with cognitive decline and dementia. Progressive resistance training (PRT) and adequate dietary protein are recognised as important contributors to the maintenance of muscle health and function in older adults. However, both factors also have the potential to improve brain function and prevent cognitive decline via several pathways, including the regulation of various growth and neurotrophic factors [insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)]; brain-derived growth factor (BDNF)] and/or the modulation of systemic inflammation. The primary aim of this study is to investigate whether a modest increase in dietary protein achieved through the consumption of lean red meat three days per week, when combined with PRT, can enhance muscle mass, size and strength and cognitive function in community-dwelling older people. The study design is a 48-week randomised controlled trial consisting of a 24-week intervention with a 24-week follow-up. Men and women (n=152) aged 65 years and over residing in the community will be randomly allocated to: 1) PRT and provided with 220 g (raw weight) of lean red meat to be cooked and divided into two 80 g servings on each of the three days that they complete their exercise session, or 2) control PRT in which participants will be provided with and advised to consume ≥1 serving (~1/2 cup) of rice and/or pasta or 1 medium potato on each of the three training days. The primary outcome measures will be muscle mass, size and strength and cognitive function. Secondary outcomes will include changes in: muscle function, neural health (corticospinal excitability and inhibition and voluntary activation), serum IGF-1 and BDNF, adipokines and inflammatory markers, fat mass and inter-/intra-muscular fat, blood pressure, lipids and health-related quality of life. All outcome measures will be assessed at baseline and 24 weeks, with the

  19. Statistical refinements for data analysis of mollusc reproduction tests: an example with Lymnaea stagnalis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbech, Henrik

    -contribution of each individual to the measured response. Furthermore, the combination of a Gamma-Poisson stochastic part with a Weibull concentration-response model allowed accounting for the inter-replicate variability. Second, we checked for the possibility of optimizing the initial experimental design through...... was twofold. First, we refined the statistical analyses of reproduction data accounting for mortality all along the test period. The variable “number of clutches/eggs produced per individual-day” was used for EC x modelling, as classically done in epidemiology in order to account for the time...

  20. A new concept for product refining in the Purex process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henrich, E.; Bauder, U.; Marquardt, R.

    1986-01-01

    In actual Purex plants the products are refined in additional solvent extraction cycles. Crystallization of uranyl and plutonyl nitrate from aqueous nitric acid solution is proposed as a potentially simpler product refining concept. Suitable crystallization conditions are being investigated in the laboratory using simulated and actual process solutions. A thorough removal of mother liquor is an essential purification step and well washed crystals usually contain less than 1% of an individual impurity. Crystallization simultaneously comprises a product concentration step. Hexavalent uranium can be separated from lower-valent plutonium. An outline of an integrated processing concept is given. Product refining by crystallization is compact; recycling of mother liquor plus wash acid prevents product loss and the generation of additional waste streams. (orig.) [de