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Sample records for refined vegetable oils

  1. Optimization of Refining Craft for Vegetable Insulating Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhu-Jun; Hu, Ting; Cheng, Lin; Tian, Kai; Wang, Xuan; Yang, Jun; Kong, Hai-Yang; Fang, Fu-Xin; Qian, Hang; Fu, Guang-Pan

    2016-05-01

    Vegetable insulating oil because of its environmental friendliness are considered as ideal material instead of mineral oil used for the insulation and the cooling of the transformer. The main steps of traditional refining process included alkali refining, bleaching and distillation. This kind of refining process used in small doses of insulating oil refining can get satisfactory effect, but can't be applied to the large capacity reaction kettle. This paper using rapeseed oil as crude oil, and the refining process has been optimized for large capacity reaction kettle. The optimized refining process increases the acid degumming process. The alkali compound adds the sodium silicate composition in the alkali refining process, and the ratio of each component is optimized. Add the amount of activated clay and activated carbon according to 10:1 proportion in the de-colorization process, which can effectively reduce the oil acid value and dielectric loss. Using vacuum pumping gas instead of distillation process can further reduce the acid value. Compared some part of the performance parameters of refined oil products with mineral insulating oil, the dielectric loss of vegetable insulating oil is still high and some measures are needed to take to further optimize in the future.

  2. Unilever food safety assurance system for refined vegetable oils and fats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Duijn Gerrit

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Unilever Food Safety Assurance system for refined oils and fats is based on risk assessments for the presence of contaminants or pesticide residues in crude oils, and refining process studies to validate the removal of these components. Crude oil risk assessments were carried out by combining supply chain visits, and analyses of the contaminant and pesticide residue levels in a large number of crude oil samples. Contaminants like poly-aromatic hydrocarbons and hydrocarbons of mineral origin, and pesticide residues can largely be removed by refining. For many years, this Food Safety Assurance System has proven to be effective in controlling contaminant levels in refined vegetable oils and fats.

  3. The effect of consecutive steps of refining on squalene content of vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nergiz, Cevdet; Celikkale, Deniz

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of refining steps on the squalene content of some vegetable oils. A comparison has been made between the crude oils and consecutive steps of refining process (neutralization, bleaching, deodorization, winterization) in the amounts of squalene of the oil samples. Among the oils, virgin and refined olive oils contained higher amounts of squalene. A mean of 491.0 ± 15.55 mg/100 g squalene was found in virgin olive oil samples. While appreciable quantities of squalene has been reduced during refining, considerable level of squalene were still present in refined olive oils (290.0 ± 9.89 mg/100 g). The squalene content of crude seed oils varied from 13.8 ± 0.39 mg/100 g to 26.2 ± 0.08 mg/100 g as average. It has been determined that refining process reduced the level of squalene in examined oils. The highest reduction in squalene content of the oils was detected during deodorization. The effect of refining steps on the amount of squalene in vegetable oils was found to be significant (p oil has been considered an important source of squalene, even after it has been refined, compared to seed oils.

  4. LIQUID-LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM FOR TERNARY SYSTEMS CONTAINING ETHYLIC BIODIESEL + ANHYDROUS ETHANOL + REFINED VEGETABLE OIL (SUNFLOWER OIL, CANOLA OIL AND PALM OIL: EXPERIMENTAL DATA AND THERMODYNAMIC MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. V. B. Dias

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPhase equilibria of the reaction components are essential data for the design and process operations of biodiesel production. Despite their importance for the production of ethylic biodiesel, the reaction mixture, reactant (oil and ethanol and the product (fatty acid ethyl esters up to now have received less attention than the corresponding systems formed during the separation and purification phases of biodiesel production using ethanol. In this work, new experimental measurements were performed for the liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE of the system containing vegetable oil (sunflower oil and canola oil + ethylic biodiesel of refined vegetable oil + anhydrous ethanol at 303.15 and at 323.15 K and the system containing refined palm oil + ethylic biodiesel of refined palm oil + ethanol at 318.15 K. The experimental data were successfully correlated by the nonrandom two-liquid (NRTL model; the average deviations between calculated and experimental data were smaller than 1.00%.

  5. Mechanism of formation of 3-chloropropan-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) esters under conditions of the vegetable oil refining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šmidrkal, Jan; Tesařová, Markéta; Hrádková, Iveta; Berčíková, Markéta; Adamčíková, Aneta; Filip, Vladimír

    2016-11-15

    3-MCPD esters are contaminants that can form during refining of vegetable oils in the deodorization step. It was experimentally shown that their content in the vegetable oil depends on the acid value of the vegetable oil and the chloride content. 3-MCPD esters form approximately 2-5 times faster from diacylglycerols than from monoacylglycerols. It has been proved that the higher fatty acids content in the oil caused higher 3-MCPD esters content in the deodorization step. Neutralization of free fatty acids in the vegetable oil before the deodorization step by alkaline carbonates or hydrogen carbonates can completely suppress the formation of 3-MCPD esters. Potassium salts are more effective than sodium salts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Solvent-free lipase-catalyzed preparation of diglycerides from co-products of vegetable oil refining

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    Tangkam, Kamol

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Co-products of vegetable oil refining such as a mixed deodorizer distillate resulting from the refining of various vegetable oils, a crude distillate resulting from the physical refining of coconut oil and commercial mixtures of distilled sunflower and coconut fatty acids were used as starting materials for the enzymatic preparation of diglycerides. Reaction conditions (temperature, pressure, molar ratio for the formation of diglycerides by lipase-catalyzed esterification/transesterification were studied using the mixed deodorizer distillate and glycerol as starting materials. The best results were obtained with the immobilized lipase B from Candida antarctica (Novozym 435 in vacuo at 60 °C leading to moderate proportions (~52% of diglycerides. The proportion of diglycerides increased when residual acylglycerides of the co-products of vegetable oil refining were hydrolyzed prior to esterification. Thus, the esterification of hydrolyzed co-products of vegetable oil refining with glycerol led to high formation (62-72% of diglycerides. Short-path vacuum distillation of the esterification products yielded distillation residues containing from 70% to 94% diglycerides. The proportions of fatty acids and monoglycerides in the distilled residues were quite low (Subproductos del refinado de los aceites vegetales tales como el destilado obtenido en el desodorizador al refinar distintos aceites vegetales, el destilado crudo resultante de la refinación física del aceite de coco, y mezclas comerciales de los ácidos grasos obtenidos en la destilación de aceites de girasol y coco fueron utilizados como materiales de partida para la preparación enzimática de diglicéridos. Se estudiaron las condiciones de reacción (temperatura, presión, relación molar para la formación de diglicéridos mediante esterificación/ transesterificación catalizada por lipasas usando la mezcla obtenida del desodorizador y glicerol como materiales de partida. Los mejores

  7. Synchronous front-face fluorescence spectroscopy for authentication of the adulteration of edible vegetable oil with refined used frying oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jin; Li, Rong; Jiang, Zi-Tao; Tang, Shu-Hua; Wang, Ying; Shi, Meng; Xiao, Yi-Qian; Jia, Bin; Lu, Tian-Xiang; Wang, Hao

    2017-02-15

    Synchronous front-face fluorescence spectroscopy has been developed for the discrimination of used frying oil (UFO) from edible vegetable oil (EVO), the estimation of the using time of UFO, and the determination of the adulteration of EVO with UFO. Both the heating time of laboratory prepared UFO and the adulteration of EVO with UFO could be determined by partial least squares regression (PLSR). To simulate the EVO adulteration with UFO, for each kind of oil, fifty adulterated samples at the adulterant amounts range of 1-50% were prepared. PLSR was then adopted to build the model and both full (leave-one-out) cross-validation and external validation were performed to evaluate the predictive ability. Under the optimum condition, the plots of observed versus predicted values exhibited high linearity (R(2)>0.96). The root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) were both lower than 3%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Application of enzymatic degumming on vegetable oils refining%酶法脱胶在植物油脂精炼中的应用进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐赢华; 王国敬; 李春; 戴大章

    2015-01-01

    Enzymatic degumming is a novel vegetable oils degumming process and has many advantages compared with conventional water or acid degumming methods. Degumming oil can satisfy the requirement for physical refining, reduction in the amounts of water used and wastewater production and less energy consumption, higher refined oil yield can also be achieved in the enzymatic degumming. So it has attracted much attention from the global edible oil processing industries. With the development of enzymatic degumming techniques, many phospholipases (A1, A2, B and C) have been used for vegetable oil degumming. Phospholipases A1 (Lecitase Ultra) is most widely used in various vegetable oils’ degumming and shows extensive applicability and good prospects. Phospholipases B (PLB) can hydrolyze phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), which are main components of phospholipids in the oil, into glycerylphosphorylcholine (GPC) and glycerylphosphorylethanolamine (GPE) respectively. GPC and GPE have been used in the field of food and pharmaceuticals industries because of their special physiological functions. So using PLB in oil degumming can further increase economic efficiency of enzymatic degumming. Phospholipases C (PLC) can remove the phosphoric acid from PC or PE, which can be hydrolyzed into diacylglycerol (DAG) and become a part of neutral oil. So utilization of PLC in the enzymatic degumming can not only decrease the phosphorus content of the oil, but also increase the yield of refined oil. The optimizations of enzymatic degumming process have been focused on some basic parameters (degumming temperature, enzyme dosage, pH value and added water amount, etc.) as well as acid pretreatment and dispersion of the buffered water and enzyme in the oil. Enzymatic degumming process has been developed from single enzyme degumming process to composite enzyme process, and also from application of free enzymes to immobilized enzymes. The degumming process of combination

  9. Treatment of vegetable oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bessler, T.R.

    1986-05-13

    A process is described for preparing an injectable vegetable oil selected from the group consisting of soybean oil and sunflower oil and mixtures thereof which comprise: (a) first treating the vegetable oil at a temperature of 80/sup 0/C to about 130/sup 0/C with an acid clay; (b) deodorizing the vegetable oil with steam at a temperature of 220/sup 0/C to about 280/sup 0/C and applying a vacuum to remove volatilized components; (c) treating the deodorized vegetable oil, at a temperature of from about 10/sup 0/C to about 60/sup 0/C, with an acid clay to reduce the content of a member selected from the group consisting of diglycerides, tocopherol components, and trilinolenin and mixtures thereof, wherein the acid clay is added in a weight ratio to the deoderized vegetable oil of from about 1:99 to about 1:1; and (d) thereafter conducting a particulate filtration to remove a substantial portion of the acid clay from the vegetable oil, wherein the filtration is accomplished with filters having a pore size of from about 0.1 to 0.45 microns, thereby obtaining the injectable oil.

  10. Authentication of vegetable oils.

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, S.C.; Amaral, J S; Oliveira, M.B.P.P.

    2011-01-01

    Authenticity of vegetable oils continues to be a challenge and the target of many studies. Consumers expectancy on healthier products that conform to the labelled information, and the vast amount of legislation a bout the correct characterisation and classification of vegetable oils have boosted a number of scientific works on this subject. Analytical t echniques to face this challenge are, at least, as manifold as ar e the ways of adulteration, ranging fro...

  11. China Becomes Globe's Second Largest Oil Refiner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Weijun

    2010-01-01

    @@ China's refining capacity of crude oil reached 477 million tons by the end of last year,ranking the second in the world.CNPC and Sinopec now own 27 percent of the country's oil refineries with a combined refining capacity amounting to 76 percent of the country's total.As the country's biggest oil refiner,Sinopec's refining ability has increased 72.8 percent in the past ten years with a growth rate of 6.3 percent per year,ranking the third in the world,according to statistics released by Sinopec.Meanwhile,China's local oil refining enterprises' total capacity has reached 88 million tons per year.According to Sinopec,China has built 17 ten-million-ton-oil refineries which amount to half of the country's total capacity.

  12. Phenolation of vegetable oils

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    ZORAN S. PETROVIĆ

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Novel bio-based compounds containing phenols suitable for the syn­thesis of polyurethanes were prepared. The direct alkylation of phenols with different vegetable oils in the presence of superacids (HBF4, triflic acid as ca­talysts was studied. The reaction kinetics was followed by monitoring the de­crease of the double bond content (iodine value with time. In order to under­stand the mechanism of the reaction, phenol was alkylated with model com­pounds. The model compounds containing one internal double bond were 9-oc­tadecene and methyl oleate and those with three double bonds were triolein and high oleic safflower oil (82 % oleic acid. It was shown that the best structures for phenol alkylation are fatty acids with only one double bond (oleic acid. Fatty acids with two double bonds (linoleic acid and three double bonds (lino­lenic acid lead to polymerized oils by a Diels–Alder reaction, and to a lesser extent to phenol alkylated products. The reaction product of direct alkylation of phenol with vegetable oils is a complex mixture of phenol alkylated with poly­merized oil (30–60 %, phenyl esters formed by transesterification of phenol with triglyceride ester bonds (<10 % and unreacted oil (30 %. The phenolated vegetable oils are new aromatic–aliphatic bio-based raw materials suitable for the preparation of polyols (by propoxylation, ethoxylation, Mannich reactions for the preparation of polyurethanes, as intermediates for phenolic resins or as bio-based antioxidants.

  13. Preservation of micronutrients during rapeseed oil refining: a tool to optimize the health value of edible vegetable oils? Rationale and design of the Optim'Oils randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladine, C; Meunier, N; Blot, Adeline; Bruchet, Lucile; Pagès, X; Gaud, M; Floter, E; Metin, Z; Rossignol, A; Cano, N; Chardigny, J M

    2011-03-01

    Numerous micronutrients naturally abundant in oilseeds prevent the risk of cardiovascular diseases by reducing cholesterolemia and oxidative stress. These micronutrients include phytosterols and various antioxidants such as polyphenols, tocopherols and coenzyme Q10/Q9 but most of them are lost during the oilseed oil refining. The main objective of the Optim'Oil project was to modify the processes of oil refining in order to reduce the lost of micronutrients. Two clinical trials (cross-over, monocentric, randomized, double-blind and controlled) were designed to investigate the effect of an optimized rapeseed oil 1) on cardiovascular biomarkers (long-term study) and 2) on oxidative stress parameters (post-prandial study). For the long-term study, 59 volunteers ingested daily 20 g of oil and 22 g of margarine (optimized or standard) for 2 periods of 3 weeks separated by a 3-week wash-out period. Blood samples were collected at the beginning and at the end of each period. For the post-prandial study, a sub-group of 16 volunteers came fasted at the laboratory and took 300 mL of a test meal containing 60% of the optimized or standard oils. Blood samples were collected before and during 6h after the test meal intake. In comparison with the standard oil and margarine, the optimized oil and margarine exhibit as expected an increased content of phytosterol (+22%), polyphenols (× 11), tocopherols (+131%) and coenzyme Q10/Q9 (+165%). Overall, conditions of this study were relevant to investigate the effect of the optimized rapeseed oil and margarine on the cardiovascular risk and the oxidative stress.

  14. Detection of argan oil adulterated with vegetable oils: New markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ourrach, I.; Rada, M.; Perez-Camino, M. C.; Benaissa, M.; Guinda, A

    2012-07-01

    This work aims to contribute to controlling the authenticity of pure argan oil, a valuable Moroccan product. Fatty acids, hydrocarbon fraction, 3,5-stigmastadiene, the alkyl esters of fatty acids, chlorophyllic pigments and physical properties such as viscosity, density and refractive index were studied in order to detect the adulteration of argan oil with edible vegetable oils. The results found in this study show that 3,5-stigmastadiene, kaurene and pheophytin-a can be used as possible new markers for argan oil blends of up to 5% with refined, sunflower and virgin olive oils. Due to the similarity of the fatty acid compositions of the edible oils studied and argan oil, fatty acids can be employed as markers for the detection of argan oil adulteration at levels higher than 10%. Among the physical properties studied, the refractive index shows significant differences for sunflower oil and its blend at 10% with argan oil. (Author) 35 refs.

  15. Oil Refining Giants to Cut Output

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Dingmin

    2002-01-01

    @@ China's refined oil product output rose slightly in the first five months of this year on strong demand,but the two biggest domestic producers plan to cut production rates in an attempt to bolster the sluggish price.

  16. The evolution of oil refining in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, A. [CONCAWE, Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-04-01

    Back in 1963 when CONCAWE was founded, the world looked very different from what it is today, and so did the global and European refining industry. Oil product markets were expanding fast and new refineries were being built at a steady rate. The oil crisis of the 1970s brought an abrupt end to this, heralding a long era of consolidation and stepwise adaptation. At the same time the nature of the global oil business shifted from fully integrated companies producing, transporting and refining their own oil to a much more diversified situation where oil production ('upstream') and refining/distribution ('downstream') gradually became two essentially separate businesses. From being purely a 'cost centre' in an integrated chain, refining has become a separate activity in its own right, operating as a 'profit centre' between two global markets - crude oil and products - which, although not entirely independent, have their own dynamics and influences. In addition demand gradually shifted towards lighter products while the quality requirements on all products were considerably tightened. This article explores the new challenges that these changes have imposed on EU refiners, and describes CONCAWE's contributions to understanding their impact on refinery production and investments.

  17. Liquid rheology study on refined rapeseed oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘其梅; 罗迎社; 殷水平; 陈胜铭; 张党权; 彭万喜

    2008-01-01

    The rapeseed oil extracted from the mature seeds was purified by refining processing,and the rheological characteristic analysis of the viscosity and dynamic shear rate at gradient temperatures was made.The result shows that at 20,40,60 and 80 ℃ respectively,when the shear rate gradually rises,the torque increases accordingly but its viscosity does not vary distinctly.The result suggests that when rapeseed oil is used as the raw of edible oils and industries,the working procedures at high temperature will not influence its rheological characteristic distinctly.

  18. Effect of refining on the fatty acid, sterol and tocopherols compositions of soybean oil from GM seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Amaral, J S; Casal,Susana; Costa, J.; Mafra, I; Oliveira, M.B.P.P.

    2008-01-01

    Soybeans are an exceptional source of polyunsaturated fats, high quality proteins and high levels of vitamin E, being part of the human diet mainly as vegetable oil and as source of protein. Nowadays, soybean oil represents almost 30% of the world’s vegetable oil production. As most vegetable oils, crude soybean oil must be refined in order to remove unacceptable materials, such as phospholipids, free fatty acids and pigments, that cause a decrease in the product quality. Nevertheless, during...

  19. Impact of Crude Oil Quality on the Refining Conditions and Composition of Nutraceuticals in Refined Palm Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Klicia A; Ayala, Jose Vila; Van Hoed, Vera; Monteiro, Simone; Ceriani, Roberta; Verhé, Roland; Meirelles, Antonio J A

    2017-08-01

    Palm oil is the major vegetable oil used worldwide due to its unique properties. The effect of crude palm oil acidity on the final free fatty acids (FFA) content, neutral oil loss (NOL), and nutraceutical compounds, such as carotenes, total tocols (tocopherols and tocotrienols), squalene, and phytosterols was investigated. A central composite design was employed to study the influence of the refining conditions: temperature (200 to 260 °C), steam percentage (0.5% to 3.5%), and initial FFA content (2.2% to 6.0%) on the quality of the refined product. The results revealed that initial palm oil acidity is a statistically important parameter to obtain commercially acceptable values for final FFA content. The increase of temperature presented the most important effect on the reduction of all nutraceutical compounds. The highest tocopherols (88%), phytosterols (98%), and squalene retention (84%) was obtained when applying the mildest temperature (200 °C). From the experimental results, 3 equations were generated enabling the prediction of the free fatty acids content, the tocols content, and the losses of neutral oil. Therefore, this work contributes to the understanding and optimization of the process for the production of palm oil with high nutraceutical quality and low free fatty acid contents. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  20. The potential of using vegetable oil fuels as fuel for diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altin, Recep [Ministry of Education, Projects Coordination Unit, Ankara (Turkey); Cetinkaya, Selim [Gazi Univ., Technical Education Faculty, Ankara (Turkey); Yucesu, Huseyin Serdar [Karaelmas Univ., Technical Education Faculty, Karabuk (Turkey)

    2001-03-01

    Vegetable oils are produced from numerous oil seed crops. While all vegetable oils have high energy content, most require some processing to assure safe use in internal combustion engines. Some of these oils already have been evaluated as substitutes for diesel fuels. The effects of vegetable oil fuels and their methyl esters (raw sunflower oil, raw cottonseed oil, raw soybean oil and their methyl esters, refined corn oil, distilled opium poppy oil and refined rapeseed oil) on a direct injected, four stroke, single cylinder diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions was investigated in this paper. The results show that from the performance viewpoint, both vegetable oils and their esters are promising alternatives as fuel for diesel engines. Because of their high viscosity, drying with time and thickening in cold conditions, vegetable oil fuels still have problems, such as flow, atomisation and heavy particulate emissions. (Author)

  1. Comparison of geometrical isomerization of unsaturated fatty acids in selected commercially refined oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasan, M.; Gecgel, U.; Demirci, M.

    2011-07-01

    Four different commercially refined vegetable oils were analyzed by capillary gas-liquid chromatography for their trans fatty acid contents. The results obtained showed that the total trans FA contents in refined sunflower, corn, soybean, and hazelnut oils were 0.68 {+-} 0.41, 0.51 {+-} 0.24, 1.27 {+-} 0.57, and 0.26 {+-} 0.07% of total FA, respectively. The total trans FA comprised isomers of the C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3 FA. Meanwhile, five brands of the refined sunflower oil and two brands of hazelnut oil contained no measurable amounts of total trans C18:3 acids. The total trans C18:2 acid was the predominant trans FA found in the refined sunflower and corn oils, while trans polyunsaturated FAs for the refined soybean oils were found at high levels. However, total trans C18:1 acid was the major trans FA for refined hazelnut oils. The commercially refined vegetable oils with a relatively high total polyunsaturated FA contained considerable amounts of trans polyunsaturated isomers. This study indicates that it is necessary to optimize industrial deodorization, especially the time and temperature, for each different FA composition of oil used. (Author) 28 refs.

  2. A detection method of vegetable oils in edible blended oil based on three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Liu, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Yu-Tian

    2016-12-01

    Edible blended vegetable oils are made from two or more refined oils. Blended oils can provide a wider range of essential fatty acids than single vegetable oils, which helps support good nutrition. Nutritional components in blended oils are related to the type and content of vegetable oils used, and a new, more accurate, method is proposed to identify and quantify the vegetable oils present using cluster analysis and a Quasi-Monte Carlo integral. Three-dimensional fluorescence spectra were obtained at 250-400nm (excitation) and 260-750nm (emission). Mixtures of sunflower, soybean and peanut oils were used as typical examples to validate the effectiveness of the method.

  3. Review and Prospect of China's Oil Refining Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Driven by the steady and rapid development of domestic economy and the rapid growth of oil demand in recent years, China's oil refining industry has overcome the influence of fluctuating international crude oil price and international financial crisis, and witnessed rapid increase in refining capacity and continuous rising of processed crude oil and production of gasoline,

  4. Latest Development in China's Oil Refining & Petrochemical Sector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Zuhua

    2008-01-01

    @@ China's big-three oil companies-CNPC, Sinopec and CNOOC-have intensified their competition in the domestic oil refining and petrochemical sector in recent years so as to better position themselves in the oil products market at home.

  5. Vegetable oil basestocks for lubricants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garces, R.; Martinez-Force, E.; Salas, J.

    2011-07-01

    The use of vegetable biodegradable basestocks for lubricant oils present several advantages over the much more extended mineral bases. These advantages refer to biodegradability, a renewable feedstock of local production, lubricant and viscosity index and lower costs than synthetic lubricant bases. Despite these benefits, their use in industry and motor vehicles is not yet extensive due their lower stability and higher pour points. Vegetable oils are esters of fatty acids and glycerol, and their physicochemical properties rely mainly on the composition of their acyl moieties. Thus, to assure the maximum levels of stability while maintaining acceptable behavior at low temperatures, monounsaturated fatty acids are preferred for this purpose. The presence of natural antioxidants also improves the properties of these vegetable based stocks as lubricants. These oils usually require additives to improve their viscosity value, oxidative stability and properties at low temperatures. In the present work, the different sources of vegetable oils appropriate for biolubricant production were reviewed. Their properties and the future improvement of the oil bases, oil based stock production, uses and additives are discussed. (Author).

  6. China Expands Oil Refining Capacity to Meet Rising Demand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Yin

    2006-01-01

    @@ With the booming of China's auto market, the oil refining industry is falling over itself to boost capacity in the coastal regions. Sinochem Corporation is the latest out of the starting blocks. Its new oil refining project in southeastern Fujian Province will see it move into territory already occupied by the nation's big-three oil companies - China National Petrochemical Corporation(Sinopec), China's largest oil refiner,China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC),the largest crude producer in the country, and China National Offshore Oil Corporation(CNOOC), the giant offshore oil player.

  7. Preparation of function-enhanced vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Maeda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previously, we (HM found that most commercially available edible oils, which were processed by hexane extraction followed by a number of purification steps, were extremely low in anti-peroxy radical (ROO., or radical scavenging activity. This is a great contrast to the respective virgin oils as exemplified by extra-virgin olive oil or crude rape seed oil [1-4] (Figure 1. Therefore, such highly purified oils will became prooxidant and less desirable food components in terms of health oriented diet. Oxidized oils may eventually cause DNA cleavages, modification of proteins, RNA, and lipids, as well as cellular damage, or promote inflammation and carcinogenesis at later time [5-9]. These commercial oils of low antioxidant activity may be improved by adding functionally effective antioxidative components, by using dried vegetable-waste such as tomato-juice-waste-residues and wine-ferment-waste-residues. Their antioxiative components will be transferred into the functionally poor grade edible oils, and consequently, one can improve the quality of such functionally poor oils and thereby contributing human health [2,8,9]. The purpose of this paper is to report a practical procedure to fortify functionally low grade conventional edible oils to functionally enriched edible oils using dried vegetable-waste residues such as tomato juice waste, and wine-ferment-residues, or other vegetable-waste residues. Methods: (1 Preparation and measurements of lycopene and carotenoid enriched oils. To 5.0g or 1.0g of the dried residue of tomato juice waste, 100ml of commercial rape seed (canola oil was added respectively. Each mixture was incubated at room temperature in dark for several weeks. Amount of lycopene and carotenoids extracted into the oil was monitored by increase of absorption (400-550nm and fluorescence at 470nm of carotenoid. Grape-juice ferment (wine waste was similarly prepared after hot air drying, and immersed in canola oil. (2

  8. Review and Prospect of China's Oil Refining Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Yun; Zhu He

    2012-01-01

    Prospect of China's oil refining industry during the "12th Five-Year Plan" period The "12th Five-Year Plan" period is critical to China oil refining industry to transform growth mode and grow from big to strong. China oil refining industry will base itself on domestic market demand and maintain rapider development through construction and reconstruction. The total scale will continue to grow, crude runs and product oil output will rise steadily, and the structure and layout of refining units will be further adjusted and optimized. During the period, the number of 10-million-tonnage refineries will rise to about 30, the quality of oil products will be upgraded, overseas interest capability will be improved, and the diversified of oil refining industry will be market competition pattern developed further.

  9. Economics of vegetable oil processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheithauer, R.; Dripchak, K.

    1988-05-01

    Vegetable oils offer great promise as a diesel fuel substitute, given the similarity in their physical and chemical properties. This report examines the cost of converting oilseeds to oil, as a first step in evaluating the potential competitiveness of vegetable oil fuels. Processing costs for typical existing US facilities - including solvent, prepress-solvent, and mechanical extraction technologies - were reviewed. The capital costs of a dedicated rapeseed oil processing facility in the southeastern US were also estimated. A third objective was to estimate the costs of modifying existing processing facilities to crush multiple oilseeds, since the oilseed industry has considerable excess capacity. Using existing excess capacity to crush oilseeds for 60 days per year resulted in savings for each of the three extraction technologies with prepress-solvent extraction being the minimum cost technology. The 17 southeastern prepress-solvent facilities identified could produce over 34 million gallons of rapeseed oil per year if each are operated for an additional 60 days per year. This would require over 312,000 acres of winter rapeseed production, providing an excellent opportunity for early introduction of this crop for energy purposes. 57 figs.

  10. Future prospects for palm oil refining and modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibon Véronique

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil is rich in minor components that impart unique nutritional properties and need to be preserved. In this context, refining technologies have been improved, with the dual temperature deodorizer, the double condensing unit and the ice condensing system. The DOBI is a good tool to assess quality of the crude palm oil and its ability to be properly refined. Specially refined oils open a market for new high quality products (golden palm oil, red palm oil, white soaps, etc.. Palm oil is a good candidate for the multi-step dry fractionation process, aiming to the production of commodity oils and specialty fats (cocoa butter replacers. New technological developments allow quality and yield improvements. Palm oil and fractions are also valuable feedstock for enzymatic interesterification in which applications are for commodity oil (low-trans margarines and shortenings and for special products (cocoa butter equivalents, infant formulation, ….

  11. Side-stream products of edible oil refining as feedstocks in biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Bojan S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel, a diesel fuel alternative, is produced from vegetable oils and animal fats by the transesterification reaction of triacylglycerols and lower aliphatic alcohols. Beside number advantages related to fossil fuels, the main barrier to biodiesel wider commercial use is the high price of edible oils. Recently, the special attention was given to side-stream products of edible oil refining as low-cost triacylglycerol sources for biodiesel production because of their positive economic and ecological effects. In this paper, the different procedures for biodiesel production from side-stream refining products such as soapstock, spent bleaching earth and deodorizer distillate were analyzed. The main goal of this paper is to analyze the possibilities for reusing the by-products of edible oil refinement in the biodiesel production.

  12. By-products of palm oil extraction and refining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Yew-Ai

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the utilisation of by-products resulting from the extraction and refining of palm oil. It summarises research by the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB directed at producing zero waste from the palm oil industry. MPOB regards by-products of the palm oil industry not as waste but resources. It will be evident that by-products from the palm oil industry can be and have been used extensively and that the research carried out is relevant to both the milling and refining sectors.

  13. Effect of refining on quality and composition of sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, U S; Patra, R K; Sahoo, N R; Bakhara, C K; Panda, M K

    2015-07-01

    An experimental oil refining unit has been developed and tested for sunflower oil. Crude pressed sunflower oil obtained from a local oil mill was refined using chemical method by degumming, neutralization, bleaching and dewaxing. The quality and composition of crude and refined oil were analysed compared. Reduction in phosphorous content from 6.15 ppm to 0, FFA content from 1.1 to 0.24 % (oleic acid), peroxide value from 22.5 to 7.9 meq/kg, wax content from 1,420 to 200 ppm and colour absorbance value from 0.149 to 0.079 (in spectrophotometer at 460 nm) were observed from crude to refined oil. It was observed that refining did not have significant effect on fatty acid compositions as found in the percentage peak area in the GC-MS chromatogram. The percentage of unsaturated fatty acid in both the oils were recorded to be about 95 % containing 9-Octadecenoic acid (Oleic acid) and 11,14-Eicosadienoic acid (elongated form of linoleic acid). The research results will be useful to small entrepreneurs and farmers for refining of sunflower oil for better marketability.

  14. Potential of vegetable oils for lubricants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegetable oils offer significant advantages in terms of resource renewability, biodegradability, and comparable performance properties to petroleum-based products. The petroleum-based lubricants render unfavorable impact on the environment. With the growing environmental concerns, seed oils are find...

  15. Vegetable oil basestocks for lubricants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcés, Rafael

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of vegetable biodegradable basestocks for lubricant oils present several advantages over the much more extended mineral bases. These advantages refer to biodegradability, a renewable feedstock of local production, lubricant and viscosity index and lower costs than synthetic lubricant bases. Despite these benefits, their use in industry and motor vehicles is not yet extensive due their lower stability and higher pour points. Vegetable oils are esters of fatty acids and glycerol, and their physicochemical properties rely mainly on the composition of their acyl moieties. Thus, to assure the maximum levels of stability while maintaining acceptable behavior at low temperatures, monounsaturated fatty acids are preferred for this purpose. The presence of natural antioxidants also improves the properties of these vegetable based stocks as lubricants. These oils usually require additives to improve their viscosity value, oxidative stability and properties at low temperatures. In the present work, the different sources of vegetable oils appropriate for biolubricant production were reviewed. Their properties and the future improvement of the oil bases, oil based stock production, uses and additives are discussed.

    El uso de bases vegetales biodegradables para aceites lubricantes presenta varias ventajas sobre las mucho más extendidas bases minerales. Estas ventajas se centran sobre todo en su biodegradabilidad, en ser un recurso renovable de producción local, en su lubricidad y en su índice de viscosidad, presentando además costes más bajos que las bases sintéticas. Sin embargo, estas ventajas no han extendido el uso de bases vegetales ni en industria ni en automoción debido a su menor estabilidad y sus mayores puntos críticos de fluidez. Los aceites vegetales son ésteres de ácidos grasos y glicerol y sus propiedades físico-químicas dependen principalmente de su composición acílica. Así, para asegurar los máximos niveles de

  16. Detection of argan oil adulterated with vegetable oils: new markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ourrach, I.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to contribute to controlling the authenticity of pure argan oil, a valuable Moroccan product. Fatty acids, hydrocarbon fraction, 3,5-stigmastadiene, the alkyl esters of fatty acids, chlorophyllic pigments and physical properties such as viscosity, density and refractive index were studied in order to detect the adulteration of argan oil with edible vegetable oils. The results found in this study show that 3,5-stigmastadiene, kaurene and pheophytin-a can be used as possible new markers for argan oil blends of up to 5% with refined, sunflower and virgin olive oils. Due to the similarity of the fatty acid compositions of the edible oils studied and argan oil, fatty acids can be employed as markers for the detection of argan oil adulteration at levels higher than 10%. Among the physical properties studied, the refractive index shows significant differences for sunflower oil and its blend at 10% with argan oil.

    El objetivo principal de este trabajo es contribuir al control de la autenticidad del aceite argán, un producto marroquí muy valorado. Con el fin de detectar la adulteración del aceite de argán con aceites vegetales comestibles, se han estudiado los siguientes parámetros: ácidos grasos, fracción de hidrocarburos, 3,5-estigmastadieno, ésteres alquílicos, pigmentos clorofílicos y propiedades físicas como la viscosidad, densidad e índice de refracción. Los resultados de este estudio muestran que el 3,5-estigmastadieno, kaureno y la feofitina-a podrían utilizarse como nuevos marcadores en la detección del aceite de argán adulterado con aceites refinados y aceite oliva virgen al 5%. La composición en ácidos grasos puede emplearse para la detección de la adulteración del aceite de argán a niveles superiores al 10%, debido a la similitud en la composición de los aceites estudiados. Entre las propiedades físicas analizadas, el índice de refracción mostró diferencias significativas entre el aceite de arg

  17. The refining of soybean oil to optimum quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusell, J.

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the objectives of the American Soybean Association is to improve the quality of soybean and related products in Turkey. In order to achieve this, a number of extraction plants and refineries were visited to enable first hand information to be obtained on the type of equipment used in all unit processes, the methodology employed, quality standards and levels of efficiency. The culmination of the visit was a seminar organised jointly by the American Soybean Association and the Turkish Vegetable Oil Association in Istanbul on 22nd September 1989, at which a paper with the above title was presented. A reproduction of this paper is attached which briefly describes the critical areas of soybean oil processing and includes recommendations for quality improvements. It concludes with the comment that provided proper care is taken and optimum refining processes employed, including hydrogenation where appropriate, an impressive range of oils, margarines and shortenings of high quality can ben produced. The author would like to record his grateful thanks to Dr. R. Leysen of the American Soybean Association for all his help and guidance, to Mr. Kenon Marasoglu, Chairman of the Turkish Vegetable Oil Association and to the management and staff of all the factories visited. Acknowledgement is also made to Dr. D. R. Arickson and Mr. L. H. Wiedermann of the American Soybean Association for the use of some technical information from a paper entitled «Soybean Oil-Modern Processing and Utilisation» which is to be published shortly.

    Uno de los objetivos de la Asociación Americana de Soja en Turquía es mejorar la calidad de la soja y de los productos relacionados. En orden a conseguir esto, diversas plantas de extracción y refinerías fueron visitadas para permitir obtener de primera mano información sobre el tipo de equipo usado en todas las unidades de proceso, la metodología empleada, los estándar de calidad y los niveles de eficacia. La

  18. Computer technology in oil refining: cost or benefit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, B. (KBC Process Technology (GB))

    1990-04-01

    There is undoubtedly a commitment in the oil refining industry to computerise wherever possible, and to develop advanced mathematical modelling techniques to improved profitability. However, many oil refiners are now asking themselves whether computer solutions are a cost, or are truly a benefit to their organisation. Problems have been caused by distributed computing running out of control in many organisations. This has been partly brought to reign recently, by advanced networking of PCs along with mainframe facilities, and development of management information systems with common data bases for all users to build their applications on. Implementation of information technology strategies helped many refiners to plan the way ahead for the future. The use of computers across the refining sector in the current marketplace is reviewed. The conclusion drawn is that although computer technology is a cost it can also be ranked as a significant benefit and success in the refining industry at present. (author).

  19. Effects of Neutralization, Decoloration, and Deodorization on Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons during Laboratory-Scale Oil Refining Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxiang Ma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of technological operations during oil refining process on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in neutralized, bleached, and deodorized oils was investigated on the basis of laboratory-scale study. Under the best experimental conditions, benzo[a]pyrene decreased by 85.1%, 99.7%, and 40.8% in neutralized, bleached, and deodorized oils, respectively. Total of 16 analytes decreased by 55.7%, 87.5%, and 47.7%, respectively. Bleaching with activated charcoal was the most efficient procedure to reduce PAHs in crude oil. Neutralization had a modest influence on sixteen analytes; however, deodorization was only responsible for a slight decrease in the light PAHs and heavy PAHs contents. Data obtained in this study suggest that the use of activated carbon during oil refining process is highly recommended; moreover, these results provide a useful guidance for oil refining plant to reduce security risk and ensure the quality of the vegetable oil products.

  20. Straight Vegetable Oil as a Diesel Fuel?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-01-01

    Biodiesel, a renewable fuel produced from animal fats or vegetable oils, is popular among many vehicle owners and fleet managers seeking to reduce emissions and support U.S. energy security. Questions sometimes arise about the viability of fueling vehicles with straight vegetable oil (SVO), or waste oils from cooking and other processes, without intermediate processing. But SVO and waste oils differ from biodiesel (and conventional diesel) in some important ways and are generally not considered acceptable vehicle fuels for large-scale or long-term use.

  1. Undesirable substances in vegetable oils: anything to declare?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacoste Florence

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of undesirable compounds in vegetable and animal oils and fats may have many different origins. Although the potential toxicity of most of these undesirable compounds is real, poisoning risks are rather limited due to the efficient elimination during oil-refining steps, careful conditioning, choice of efficient packaging and industrial quality control management. However the research of contaminants is part of multiple controls conducted by fat and oil industry to verify the conformity of products placed on the market in relation to regulations such as the European commission regulation EC No. 1881/2006 setting maximum levels for some contaminants in food as lead, some mycotoxins, dioxins, polychlorobiphenyls, benzo[a]pyrene. In the absence of regulation, the detection of contaminants must be addressed in partnership with authorities according to the toxicity of molecules. The controls are not confined to environmental contaminants. They also include compounds that can be formed during the production process of vegetable oils such as esters of 3-monochloropropanediol. This article focuses more particularly on heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, mineral oils, phthalates and 3-MCPD or glycidyl esters. Aspects such as methods for analysis, limits fixed by EC regulation and occurrence in vegetable oils are discussed.

  2. A new method to determine oxidative stability of vegetable fats and oils at simulated frying temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertz Christian

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A new procedure at simulated frying conditions in our laboratory was developed to monitor frying stability of fats and oils. Water-conditioned silica was prepared and added to the fresh vegetable oil, which was heated for two hours at 170°C. The oil stability at frying temperature was then evaluated by determining the amount of formed dimeric triglycerides The results obtained showed that the stability of the vegetable oils at frying temperature could not be explained by the fatty acid composition alone. Corn oil was observed to be more stable than soybean oil, and rapeseed oil was better than olive oil. It was also observed that crude, non-refined oils were found to have a better heat stability than refin-ed oils. To estimate the effectiveness of synthetic and naturally occurring antioxidants, namely various tocopherols, tocopherol acetate and phytosterol fractions, phenolic compounds like quercetin, oryzanol, ferulic acid, gallates, BHT, BHA and other compounds like ascorbic acid 6-palmitate and squalene were added to refined sunflower and rape seed oil, and their oxidative stability at elevated temperature (OSET values determined. Both linoleic and oleic rich oils gave comparable results for the activity of the various compounds. alpha-tocopherol, tocopherol esters and BHA had low effects on oil stability at frying temperature, while ascorbyl palmitate and some phytosterol fractions were found to have the most stabilizing activity under frying conditions.

  3. Simulation of thin-film deodorizers in palm oil refining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceriani, Roberta; Meirelles, Antonio J.A.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2010-01-01

    in the chemical and petrochemical industries as a tool for optimization and design of (new) processes, but that is not the case for the edible oil industry. Thin-film deodorizers are novel equipment developed for steam deacidification of vegetable oils, and no work on the simulation of this type of equipment...

  4. China Cut Tariffs on Refined Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China has cut import tariffs on gasoline, diesel, aviation kerosene, and fuel oil significantly since July 1 this year. According to the information released by the Ministry of Finance, the rate of import tariffs on motor gasoline and aviation gasoline was reduced from 5% to 1%; the rates of import tariffs on aviation kerosene and light diesel were reduced from 9% and 6% to 0 separately; the rate of import tariffs on 5"-7" fuel oil was reduced from 6% to 1%.

  5. Organogels of vegetable oil with plant wax – trans/saturated fat replacements

    Science.gov (United States)

    This featured article reviews recent advances on the development of trans fat-free, low saturated fat food products from organogels formed by a plant wax in a vegetable oil. Plant waxes are of great interest in this research area because they are obtained as by-products during the oil refining proce...

  6. Epoxy Resins Modified with Vegetable Oils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.Czub

    2007-01-01

    1 Results The application of modified natural oils, nontoxic, biodegradable and renewable materials, for the modification and the synthesis of epoxy resins were presented. Firstly, the application of epoxidized vegetable oils (soybean, rapeseed, linseed and sunflower):as reactive diluents for epoxy resins was proposed and studied[1-2]. Viscosity reducing ability of epoxidized oils was tested in the compositions with Bisphenol A based low-molecular-weight epoxy resins. The rheological behaviour of the mi...

  7. Crisis and Survival in Western European Oil Refining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinder, David A.

    1986-01-01

    In recent years, oil refining in Western Europe has experienced a period of intense contraction. Discussed are the nature of the crisis, defensive strategies that have been adopted, the spatial consequences of the strategies, and how effective they have been in combatting the root causes of crises. (RM)

  8. Acetic acid based oil palm biomass refining process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, P.F.H.; Keijsers, E.R.P.; Lips, S.J.J.; Dam, van J.E.G.; Engelen-Smit, N.P.E.

    2011-01-01

    The invention relates to a process for refining a biomass from empty fruit bunches of oil palm with a dry matter content of 5-95 wt.%, based on the total wt. of the biomass, where the process comprises the subsequent stages of (a) water extn. under atm. pressure conditions and at pH of 5-7, (b) pre

  9. Refining oil production in the latter stage of developing deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzhakiyev, K.T.; Balgimbayev, M.B.

    1983-01-01

    Certain characteristics of the Emba high viscosity oil deposits are examined. Experience in the development of the deposits which are in the latter stage show that despite the high relationships of the viscosities of the oil and water in the examined deposits, quite high values have been achieved. An orderly approach to refining the balanced reserves based on factual data from exploitation of the deposits is approached. The relationship between the accumulated withdrawals of oil and fluid, acquired as applied to Emba deposits, and the displacement factor, determined from factual data on the basis of a theory of full scale modeling, are used for this purpose.

  10. Procurement planning in oil refining industries considering blending operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddsdottir, Thordis Anna; Grunow, Martin; Akkerman, Renzo

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses procurement planning in oil refining, which has until now only had limited attention in the literature. We introduce a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) model and develop a novel two-stage solution approach, which aims at computational efficiency while addressing...... the problems due to discrepancies between a non-linear and a linearized formulation. The proposed model covers realistic settings by allowing the blending of crude oil in storage tanks, by modeling storage tanks and relevant processing units individually, and by handling more crude oil types and quality...

  11. How toxic is oil? Investigating specific receptor-mediated toxic effects of crude and refined oils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrabie, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Crude oils and refined oil products are major pollutants of the environment. Large oil spills, such as the recent blowout of the Deepwater Horizon in the Gulf of Mexico, raise concerns about the long term health effects of petroleum hydrocarbon exposure on wildlife and humans. In the environmental r

  12. Analysis of physical characteristics of vegetable oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piamba Tulcan, Oscar Edwin [Universidade Nacional da Colombia (UNAL), Bogota (Colombia). Fac. de Ingenieria; Universidade Federal Fluminense (PGMEC/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica], E-mail: oepiambat@unal.edu.co; Andrade, Danielle Oliveira de; Andrade, Ednilton Tavares de [Universidade Federal Fluminense (TER/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola e do Meio Ambiente; Pereira, Roberto Guimaraes [Universidade Federal Fluminense (TER/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2008-07-01

    Different vegetable oils were characterized using standardized methods. The evaluated characteristics were density, viscosity, flow point, cloud point and corrosion. The obtained data was tabulated and compared with average composition values of oils in percentage of fatty acids and iodine number for each oil. In this analysis it is shown that viscosity decreases with the increase of the iodine number, and density decrease. The cloud and flow point have greater relation with the presence of saturated or highly unsaturated fatty acids, respectively. The index of corrosion is greater when oil saturation or its iodine number are increased. (author)

  13. Oil refining industry: Technology complexity and supply flexibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulli' , F. (Univ. Commerciale L. Bocconi, Milan (Italy). Ist. di Economia delle Fonti di Energia)

    1992-01-01

    In the last twenty years, the rapid shifting of demand towards lighter products (together with a reduction in demand for crude oil), and the new environmental requirements for finished products have imposed a restructuring of the petroleum refining sector, as well as, a larger recourse to technologically more complex types of processes. However, global changes in the crude oil and petroleum products market did not take place in a uniform way; thus, remarkable differences in refining technologies now exist among the refining systems of the USA, Japan and Europe (Italy in particular). In highlighting and evaluating these differences, this paper identifies a clear technological gap between the US industry and the European and Japanese industries due mainly to the strong penetration in the US of conversion processes. In fact, this high conversion capacity is a consequence of the need to adjust the offer to increasing demand for light products. Further changes foreseen in the crude oil supply and finished products market call for greater re-conversion of downstream refining.

  14. Vegetable oil base stocks for lubricants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garces, R.; Martinez-Force, E.; Salas, J.

    2011-07-01

    The use of vegetable biodegradable base stocks for lubricant oils present several advantages over the much more extended mineral bases. These advantages refer to biodegradability, a renewable feedstock of local production, lubricant and viscosity index and lower costs than synthetic lubricant bases. Despite these benefits, their use in industry and motor vehicles is not yet extensive due their lower stability and higher pour points. Vegetable oils are esters of fatty acids and glycerol, and their physicochemical properties rely mainly on the composition of their acyl moieties. Thus, to assure the maximum levels of stability while maintaining acceptable behavior at low temperatures, monounsaturated fatty acids are preferred for this purpose. The presence of natural antioxidants also improves the properties of these vegetable based stocks as lubricants. These oils usually require additives to improve their viscosity value, oxidative stability and properties at low temperatures. In the present work, the different sources of vegetable oils appropriate for bio lubricant production were reviewed. Their properties and the future improvement of the oil bases, oil based stock production, uses and additives are discussed. (Author).

  15. 19 CFR 10.56 - Vegetable oils, denaturing; release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vegetable oils, denaturing; release. 10.56 Section... Vegetable Oils § 10.56 Vegetable oils, denaturing; release. (a) Olive, palm-kernel, rapeseed, sunflower, and sesame oil shall be classifiable under subheadings 1509.10.20, 1509.10.40, 1509.90.20, 1509.90.40,...

  16. Corrosion problems and solutions in oil refining and petrochemical industry

    CERN Document Server

    Groysman, Alec

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses corrosion problems and their solutions at facilities in the oil refining and petrochemical industry, including cooling water and boiler feed water units. Further, it describes and analyzes corrosion control actions, corrosion monitoring, and corrosion management. Corrosion problems are a perennial issue in the oil refining and petrochemical industry, as they lead to a deterioration of the functional properties of metallic equipment and harm the environment – both of which need to be protected for the sake of current and future generations. Accordingly, this book examines and analyzes typical and atypical corrosion failure cases and their prevention at refineries and petrochemical facilities, including problems with: pipelines, tanks, furnaces, distillation columns, absorbers, heat exchangers, and pumps. In addition, it describes naphthenic acid corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, hydrogen damages, sulfidic corrosion, microbiologically induced corrosion, erosion-corrosion, and corrosion...

  17. Ácidos graxos trans em óleos vegetais refinados poli-insaturados comercializados no estado de São Paulo, Brasil Trans fatty acids in refined polyunsaturated vegetable oils commercialized in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabria Aued-Pimentel

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho são apresentados os resultados da composição de ácidos graxos, principalmente trans, de óleos vegetais poli-insaturados refinados, coletados no comércio do estado de São Paulo entre os anos de 2005 e 2007. Foram analisadas 34 amostras de óleo de soja, 7 de girassol, 2 de canola e 6 de milho. Os ésteres metílicos de ácidos graxos foram preparados por transesterificação alcalina a frio e analisados por cromatografia gasosa em coluna capilar de 100 m (SP 2560, após a otimização das condições analíticas. Dezesseis amostras de óleo de soja, duas de canola e quatro de girassol apresentaram níveis de ácidos graxos trans acima de 2,0% (p/p de ésteres metílicos. De acordo com a Resolução RDC 360/2003 da ANVISA/MS, é obrigatória a declaração dos níveis de ácidos graxos trans na rotulagem dos alimentos embalados quando os teores forem superiores a 0,2 g na porção do alimento. No caso de óleos vegetais, a porção é de 13 mL (uma colher de sopa e, portanto, na rotulagem nutricional de várias amostras deverá constar valor superior a zero. A melhoria no processo de refino dos óleos vegetais insaturados como soja, canola e girassol, pelo controle das temperaturas de desodorização, poderá contribuir para atender às recomendações da Organização Mundial de Saúde, no sentido de minimizar os níveis de ácidos graxos trans dos alimentos preservando a saúde da população.This paper describes the results of fatty acids composition, mainly trans, in refined polyunsaturated vegetable oils, commercialized in the city of São Paulo, Brazil during the years 2005 and 2007. The following samples were analyzed: 34 of soybean oil, 7 of sunflower oil, 2 of canola, and 6 of corn oil. The fatty acids were transesterified in a cold process and analyzed with optimized conditions by gas chromatography in a 100 m capillary column (SP 2560. Sixteen samples of soybean, two of canola, and four of sunflower oil showed

  18. Smart Manufacturing for the Oil Refining and Petrochemical Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Zhihong Yuan; Weizhong Qin; Jinsong Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Smart manufacturing will transform the oil refining and petrochemical sector into a connected, information-driven environment. Using real-time and high-value support systems, smart manufacturing enables a coordinated and performance-oriented manufacturing enterprise that responds quickly to customer demands and minimizes energy and material usage, while radically improving sustainability, productivity, innovation, and economic competitiveness. In this paper, several examples of the applicatio...

  19. Mathematical Modeling of Vegetable-Oil Crystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Jeppe Lindegaard

    be desirable to enhance specific properties such as shelf life, viscosity, texture, sensory aspects and physical appearance. Vegetable oils and fats constitute a considerable part of many food products such as chocolate, margarine, bread, spreads and ice cream. Several attractive properties found...

  20. Improving vegetable oil properties for lubrication methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    The inherent problems of vegetable oils, such as poor oxidation and low-temperature properties, can be improved by attaching functional groups at the sites of unsaturation through chemical modifications. In this article, you will see how functionalization helps overcome these disadvantages....

  1. Lubricants from chemically modified vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanella, Alejandrina; Rustoy, Eduardo; Baldessari, Alicia; Baltanás, Miguel A

    2010-01-01

    This work reports laboratory results obtained from the production of polyols with branched ether and ester compounds from epoxidized vegetable oils pertaining to annual, temperate climate crops (soybean, sunflower and high-oleic sunflower oils), focusing on their possible use as components of lubricant base stocks. To this end, two different opening reactions of the epoxide ring were studied. The first caused by the attack with glacial acetic acid (exclusively in a single organic phase) and the second using short-chain aliphatic alcohols, methanol and ethanol, in acid media. Both reactions proceed under mild conditions: low synthesis temperature and short reaction times and with conversions above 99%. Spectroscopic (NMR), thermal (DSC) and rheological techniques were used to characterize the oils, their epoxides and polyols, to assess the impact of the nature of the vegetable oil and the chemical modifications introduced, including long-term storage conditions. Several correlations were employed to predict the viscosity of the vegetable oils with temperature, and good agreement with the experimental data was obtained.

  2. Enzymatic Biodiesel Synthesis Using a Byproduct Obtained from Palm Oil Refining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Nascentes dos Santos Corrêa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An alternative route to produce biodiesel is based on esterification of free fatty acids present in byproducts obtained from vegetable oil refining, such as palm oil fatty acid distillate (PFAD. PFAD is a byproduct of the production of edible palm oil, which contains 96 wt.% of free fatty acids. The purpose of this work was to study biodiesel synthesis via esterification of PFAD with methanol and ethanol, catalyzed by commercial immobilized lipases (Novozym 435, Lipozyme RM-IM, and Lipozyme TL-IM, in a solvent-free system. The effects of reaction parameters such as type of lipase, enzyme amount, type of alcohol, alcohol amount, and enzyme reuse were studied. Fatty acid conversion of 93% was obtained after 2.5 h of esterification reaction between PFAD and ethanol using 1.0 wt.% of Novozym 435 at 60°C.

  3. Vegetable Oil: Nutritional and Industrial Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Aruna; Sharma, Aarti; Upadhyaya, Kailash C

    2016-06-01

    Oils of plant origin have been predominantly used for food-based applications. Plant oils not only represent a non-polluting renewable resource but also provide a wide diversity in fatty acids (FAs) composition with diverse applications. Besides being edible, they are now increasingly being used in industrial applications such as paints, lubricants, soaps, biofuels etc. In addition, plants can be engineered to produce fatty acids which are nutritionally beneficial to human health. Thus these oils have potential to 1) substitute ever increasing demand of non -renewable petroleum sources for industrial application and 2) also spare the marine life by providing an alternative source to nutritionally and medically important long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids or 'Fish oil'. The biochemical pathways producing storage oils in plants have been extensively characterized, but the factors regulating fatty acid synthesis and controlling total oil content in oilseed crops are still poorly understood. Thus understanding of plant lipid metabolism is fundamental to its manipulation and increased production. This review on oils discusses fatty acids of nutritional and industrial importance, and approaches for achieving future designer vegetable oil for both edible and non-edible uses. The review will discuss the success and bottlenecks in efficient production of novel FAs in non-native plants using genetic engineering as a tool.

  4. Comparison of geometrical isomerization of unsaturated fatty acids in selected commercially refined oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasan, M.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Four different commercially refined vegetable oils were analyzed by capillary gas-liquid chromatography for their trans fatty acid contents. The results obtained showed that the total trans FA contents in refined sunflower, corn, soybean, and hazelnut oils were 0.68 ± 0.41, 0.51 ± 0.24, 1.27 ± 0.57, and 0.26 ± 0.07% of total FA, respectively. The total trans FA comprised isomers of the C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3 FA. Meanwhile, five brands of the refined sunflower oil and two brands of hazelnut oil contained no measurable amounts of total trans C18:3 acids. The total trans C18:2 acid was the predominant trans FA found in the refined sunflower and corn oils, while trans polyunsaturated FAs for the refined soybean oils were found at high levels. However, total trans C18:1 acid was the major trans FA for refined hazelnut oils. The commercially refined vegetable oils with a relatively high total polyunsaturated FA contained considerable amounts of trans polyunsaturated isomers. This study indicates that it is necessary to optimize industrial deodorization, especially the time and temperature, for each different FA composition of oil used.

    Cuatro aceites vegetales refinados comerciales diferentes fueron analizados por cromatografía de gases para determinar el contenido en ácidos grasos trans. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que el contenido total de los FA trans de aceites refinados de girasol, maíz, soja y avellana fueron 0.68 ± 0.41, 0.51 ± 0.24, 1.27 ± 0.57, y 0.26 ± 0.07% de FA totales, respetivamente. Los ácidos grasos totales trans comprenden a isómeros de FA C18:1, C18:2 y C18:3. Cinco marcas de aceites de girasol refinado y dos marcas de aceite de avellana contenían cantidades no medibles de ácidos trans C18:3 totales. Los ácidos C18:2 trans totales fueron los FA trans predominantes en el aceite de girasol y ma

  5. Evaluating lubricating capacity of vegetal oils using Abbott-Firestone curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgescu, C.; Cristea, G. C.; Dima, C.; Deleanu, L.

    2017-02-01

    The paper presents the change of functional parameters defined on the Abbott-Firestone curve in order to evaluate the surface quality of the balls from the four ball tester, after tests done with several vegetable oils. The tests were done using two grades of rapeseed oil (degummed and refined) and two grades of soybean oil (coarse and degummed) and a common transmission oil (T90). Test parameters were 200 N and 0.576 m/s (1500 rpm) for 60 minutes. For the refined rapeseed oil, the changes in shape of the Abbott-Firestone curves are more dramatic, these being characterized by high values of Spk (the average value for the wear scars on the three balls), thus being 40% of the sum Svk + Sk + Spk, percentage also obtained for the soybean oil, but the value Spk being lower. For the degummed soybean oil, the profile height of the wear scars are taller than those obtained after testing the coarse soybean oil, meaning that the degumming process has a negative influence on the worn surface quality and the lubricating capacity of this oil. Comparing the surface quality of the wear scars on fixed tested balls is a reliable method to point out the lubricant properties of the vegetable oils, especially if they are compared to a “classical” lubricant as a non-additivated transmission mineral oil T90. The best surface after testing was obtained for the soybean oil, followed by T90 oil and the degummed grades of the soybean oil and rapeseed oil (these three giving very close values for the functional parameters), but the refined rapeseed oil generated the poorest quality of the wear scars on the balls, under the same testing conditions.

  6. Quality Assessment of Effluent Discharges from Vegetable oil Plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality Assessment of Effluent Discharges from Vegetable oil Plant. ... oil processing company, located in Anambra State – South east Nigeria, was evaluated ... total hydrocarbon content (THC), oil and grease, total dissolved solids (TDS), pH, ...

  7. Phase equilibria study of systems composed of refined babassu oil, lauric acid, ethanol, and water at 303.2 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reipert, Erika C. D' Anton [EXTRAE, Department of Food Engineering (DEA-FEA), University of Campinas (UNICAMP), P.O. Box 6121, Zip Code 13083-862, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Rodrigues, Christianne E.C., E-mail: chrisrodrigues@usp.br [LES, Department of Food Engineering (ZEA-FZEA), University of Sao Paulo (USP), P.O. Box 23, Zip Code 13635-900, Pirassununga, SP (Brazil); Meirelles, Antonio J.A. [EXTRAE, Department of Food Engineering (DEA-FEA), University of Campinas (UNICAMP), P.O. Box 6121, Zip Code 13083-862, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: > Refining of vegetable oils. > Deacidification of babassu oil by liquid-liquid extraction using ethanol as solvent. > Distribution coefficient values of lauric acid and neutral oil were evaluated. > The carbon chain length of the molecules influenced the solubility of the system. - Abstract: Deacidification of vegetable oils can be performed using liquid-liquid extraction as an alternative method to the classical chemical and physical refining processes. This paper reports experimental data for systems containing refined babassu oil, lauric acid, ethanol, and water at 303.2 K with different water mass fractions in the alcoholic solvent (0, 0.0557, 0.1045, 0.2029, and 0.2972). The dilution of solvent with water reduced the distribution coefficient values, which indicates a reduction in the loss of neutral oil. The experimental data were used to adjust the NRTL equation parameters. The global deviation between the observed and the estimated compositions was 0.0085, indicating that the model can accurately predict the behavior of the compounds at different levels of solvent hydration.

  8. Smart Manufacturing for the Oil Refining and Petrochemical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihong Yuan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Smart manufacturing will transform the oil refining and petrochemical sector into a connected, information-driven environment. Using real-time and high-value support systems, smart manufacturing enables a coordinated and performance-oriented manufacturing enterprise that responds quickly to customer demands and minimizes energy and material usage, while radically improving sustainability, productivity, innovation, and economic competitiveness. In this paper, several examples of the application of so-called “smart manufacturing” for the petrochemical sector are demonstrated, such as the fault detection of a catalytic cracking unit driven by big data, advanced optimization for the planning and scheduling of oil refinery sites, and more. Key scientific factors and challenges for the further smart manufacturing of chemical and petrochemical processes are identified.

  9. Optimization of biodiesel production from refined cotton seed oil and its characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Okechukwu Onukwuli

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel was produced through transesterification of refined cotton seed oil with methanol and potassium hydroxide (KOH as a catalyst using batch mode. The physicochemical properties of cotton seed oil and biodiesel as an alternative fuel for diesel engine was characterized through ASTM standards for fuel tests. The functional groups of the biodiesel were investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Influence of key parameters like reaction temperature, reaction time, catalyst concentration and methanol/oil molar ratio were determined using batch mode. These process parameters were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM and analysis of variance (ANOVA. The significance of the different process parameters and their combined effects on the transesterification efficiency were established through a full factorial central composite design. The results obtained are in good agreement with published data for other vegetable oil biodiesel as well as various international standards for biodiesel fuel. An optimum yield of 96% was achieved with optimal conditions of methanol/oil molar ratio, 6:1; temperature, 55 °C; time, 60 min; and catalyst concentration, 0.6%. This investigation has shown that cotton seed oil from Nigeria can be used to produce biodiesel.

  10. Production and characterization of refined oils obtained from Indian oil sardine (Sardinella longiceps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Kajal; Joseph, Deepu

    2015-01-28

    Crude Sardinella longiceps oil was refined in different stages such as degumming, neutralization, bleaching, and deodorization. The efficiency of these processes was evaluated on the basis of free fatty acid (FFA), peroxide (PV), p-anisidine (pAV), total oxidation (TOTOX), thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) values, Lovibond CIE-L*a*b* color analyses, and (1)H NMR or GC-MS experiments. The utilities of NMR-based proton signal characteristics as new analytical tools to understand the signature peaks and relative abundance of different fatty acids and monitoring the refining process of fish oil have been demonstrated. Phosphoric acid (1%) was found to be an effective degumming reagent to obtain oil with the lowest FFA, PV, pAV, TOTOX, and TBARS values and highest color reduction. Significant reduction in the contents of hydrocarbon functionalities as shown by the decrease in proton integral in the characteristic (1)H NMR region was demonstrated by using 1% H3PO4 during the course of the degumming process. A combination (1.25:3.75%) of activated charcoal and Fuller's earth at 3% concentration for a stirring time of 40 min was found to be effective in bleaching the sardine oil. This study demonstrated that unfavorable odor-causing components, particularly low molecular weight carbonyl compounds, could successfully be removed by the refining process. The alkane-dienals/alkanes, which cause unfavorable fishy odors, were successfully removed by distillation (100 °C) under vacuum with aqueous acetic acid solution (0.25 N) to obtain greater quality of refined sardine oil, a rich source of essential fatty acids and improved oxidative stability. The present study demonstrated that the four-stage refinement process of sardine oil resulted in a significant improvement in quality characteristics and nutritional values, particularly n-3 PUFAs, with improved fish oil characteristics for use in the pharmaceutical and functional food industries.

  11. Problems Confronting China's Petroleum Refining Industry During the High Oil Price Period and Suggestions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Lingli; Lü Jiahuan

    2006-01-01

    This article has suggested that high oil price could loom many years in the future and has analyzed the impact of this trend on the oil product mix and petroleum refining industry in China. This article has also put forward measures for sharpening the international competitive edge of China's petroleum refining industry to cope with the challenges of high oil price.

  12. Novel Bioplastics and biocomposites from Vegetable Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henna, Phillip H. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    there are three degrees of unsaturation. In addition, the double bonds are not in conjugation. Table 1 gives the fatty acid make-up of linseed oil. It can be seen that linseed oil has an average of 6.0 double bonds per triglyceride. Its fatty acid content consists of 5.4% palmitic acid (C16:0), 3.5% stearic acid (C18:0), 19% oleic acid (C18:1), 24 % linoleic acid (C18:2) and 47% linolenic (C18:3). Table 1 also gives the fatty acid composition and varying degrees of unsaturation for various other naturally-occurring natural vegetable oils. The regions of unsaturation in natural oils allow for interesting polymer chemistry to take place. Some of this interesting polymer science, however, involves chemical modification of the regions of unsaturation. Acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) is prepared by epoxidation of the double bonds, followed by ring opening with acrylic acid. The resulting oil has both acrylate groups and hydroxyl groups. Wool and colleagues have further reacted the hydroxyl groups within the oil with maleic anhydride to produce maleated acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (MAESO). The MAESO has been copolymerized with styrene free radically to produce promising thermosetting sheet molding resins. Petrovi? and co-workers have directly ring opened the epoxidized oil to produce polyols that produce promising polyurethanes through condensation polymerization with diisocyanates. Our group's work initially focused on direct cationic copolymerization of the double bonds or conjugated double bonds of natural oils with monomers, such as styrene and divinylbenzene, to produce promising thermosetting resins. The only modification of the oils that was carried out in these studies was conjugation of the double bonds to enhance the reactivity of the oil. This work has been expanded recently with the incorporation of glass fiber to produce promising composites. We have also explored thermal polymerization techniques to make novel thermosets. This dissertation is

  13. Detoxification and safety evaluation of aflatoxin B1 in peanut oil using alkali refining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ning; Diao, Enjie; Li, Xiangyang; Zhang, Zheng; Dong, Haizhou

    2016-09-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ) is often detected in peanut oil, which comes from contaminated peanuts. AFB1 in peanut oil seriously threatens the health of consumers. However, there are few methods to effectively remove AFB1 in peanut oil. This study aimed to use an alkali-refining method to degrade AFB1 in peanut oil efficiently without increasing the equipment of oil and fat refining. The optimum detoxifying conditions of AFB1 in peanut oil with alkali refining were established using response surface methodology (RSM), and the safety of peanut oil after being refined with alkali was evaluated based on the Ames tests and HepG2 cell viability. The results showed that AFB1 in peanut oil was decreased from 34.78 to 0.37 µg kg(-1) (98.94% reduction) under the optimum detoxifying conditions, i.e. when the initial temperature of alkali refining was 43.51 °C, the amount of excess alkali was 0.30%, the content of alkali solution was 23.42% and the end temperature of alkali refining was 77.07 °C. The acid value and color of peanut oil refined by alkali were improved significantly, while the peroxide value was increased within an acceptable level. The safety of peanut oil contaminated by AFB1 was improved significantly after being refined with alkali. These results indicate that alkali refining is an effective method for removing AFB1 in peanut oil. The optimum detoxifying conditions of AFB1 in peanut oil with alkali refining could be used to guide the production of oil companies for ensuring food safety. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Upgrading and Refining of Crude Oils and Petroleum Products by Ionizing Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaikin, Yuriy A; Zaikina, Raissa F

    2016-06-01

    A general trend in the oil industry is a decrease in the proven reserves of light crude oils so that any increase in future oil exploration is associated with high-viscous sulfuric oils and bitumen. Although the world reserves of heavy oil are much greater than those of sweet light oils, their exploration at present is less than 12 % of the total oil recovery. One of the main constraints is very high expenses for the existing technologies of heavy oil recovery, upgrading, transportation, and refining. Heavy oil processing by conventional methods is difficult and requires high power inputs and capital investments. Effective and economic processing of high viscous oil and oil residues needs not only improvements of the existing methods, such as thermal, catalytic and hydro-cracking, but the development of new technological approaches for upgrading and refining of any type of problem oil feedstock. One of the perspective approaches to this problem is the application of ionizing irradiation for high-viscous oil processing. Radiation methods for upgrading and refining high-viscous crude oils and petroleum products in a wide temperature range, oil desulfurization, radiation technology for refining used oil products, and a perspective method for gasoline radiation isomerization are discussed in this paper. The advantages of radiation technology are simple configuration of radiation facilities, low capital and operational costs, processing at lowered temperatures and nearly atmospheric pressure without the use of any catalysts, high production rates, relatively low energy consumption, and flexibility to the type of oil feedstock.

  15. Genetically engineered plants with increased vegetative oil content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benning, Christoph

    2017-05-23

    The invention relates to genetically modified agricultural plants with increased oil content in vegetative tissues, as well as to expression systems, plant cells, seeds and vegetative tissues related thereto.

  16. Sedimentation Of Oil-MIneral Aggregates For Remediation Of Vegetable Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    A response alternative for floating vegetable oil spills based on sedimentation of negatively buoyant oil-mineral aggregrates followed by anaerobic biodegradation in the sediments is under investigation. Sedimentation of floating canola oil by interaction with montmorillonite wa...

  17. Novel Bioplastics and biocomposites from Vegetable Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henna, Phillip H. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    there are three degrees of unsaturation. In addition, the double bonds are not in conjugation. Table 1 gives the fatty acid make-up of linseed oil. It can be seen that linseed oil has an average of 6.0 double bonds per triglyceride. Its fatty acid content consists of 5.4% palmitic acid (C16:0), 3.5% stearic acid (C18:0), 19% oleic acid (C18:1), 24 % linoleic acid (C18:2) and 47% linolenic (C18:3). Table 1 also gives the fatty acid composition and varying degrees of unsaturation for various other naturally-occurring natural vegetable oils. The regions of unsaturation in natural oils allow for interesting polymer chemistry to take place. Some of this interesting polymer science, however, involves chemical modification of the regions of unsaturation. Acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) is prepared by epoxidation of the double bonds, followed by ring opening with acrylic acid. The resulting oil has both acrylate groups and hydroxyl groups. Wool and colleagues have further reacted the hydroxyl groups within the oil with maleic anhydride to produce maleated acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (MAESO). The MAESO has been copolymerized with styrene free radically to produce promising thermosetting sheet molding resins. Petrovi? and co-workers have directly ring opened the epoxidized oil to produce polyols that produce promising polyurethanes through condensation polymerization with diisocyanates. Our group's work initially focused on direct cationic copolymerization of the double bonds or conjugated double bonds of natural oils with monomers, such as styrene and divinylbenzene, to produce promising thermosetting resins. The only modification of the oils that was carried out in these studies was conjugation of the double bonds to enhance the reactivity of the oil. This work has been expanded recently with the incorporation of glass fiber to produce promising composites. We have also explored thermal polymerization techniques to make novel thermosets. This dissertation is

  18. Condition stabilization and improving the quality of oil refining at the Osinsk Administration for Oil and Gas Extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abashev, R.G.; Zapopzchenko, V.A.

    1984-01-01

    Based on an analysis of the preceding destabilization of conditions and oil refining quality at the Osinsk Administration for Oil and Gas Extraction and on the physiochemical characteristics of the product from producing wells, the probable causes of the breakdown in the dehydration conditions are established. Experiments and field tests are used to estimate the contribution of each factor to the destabilization of oil refining. The engineering and technological measures aimed at stablizing the equipment are given.

  19. Influence of deep frying on the unsaponifiable fraction of vegetable edible oils enriched with natural antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, Mara I; Priego-Capote, Feliciano; Luque de Castro, Maria D

    2011-07-13

    The influence of deep frying, mimicked by 20 heating cycles at 180 °C (each cycle from ambient temperature to 180 °C maintained for 5 min), on the unsaponifiable fraction of vegetable edible oils represented by three characteristic families of compounds (namely, phytosterols, aliphatic alcohols, and triterpenic compounds) has been studied. The target oils were extra virgin olive oil (with intrinsic content of phenolic antioxidants), refined sunflower oil enriched with antioxidant phenolic compounds isolated from olive pomace, refined sunflower oil enriched with an autoxidation inhibitor (dimethylpolysiloxane), and refined sunflower oil without enrichment. Monitoring of the target analytes as a function of both heating cycle and the presence of natural antioxidants was also evaluated by comparison of the profiles after each heating cycle. Identification and quantitation of the target compounds were performed by gas cromatography-mass spectrometry in single ion monitoring mode. Analysis of the heated oils revealed that the addition of natural antioxidants could be an excellent strategy to decrease degradation of lipidic components of the unsaponifiable fraction with the consequent improvement of stability.

  20. Production of biodiesel from vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luque, Susana

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is produced by transesterification of triglycerides present in animal fat or vegetable oils, by displacing glycerine with a low molar mass alcohol. This resulting ester mixture has physico-chemical properties similar to those of petroleum diesel. This paper reviews the synthetic paths that lead to biodiesel by means of the catalytic transesterification of vegetable oils. Although methyl esters are at present the only ones produced at industrial scale, the use of ethanol, which can also be obtained from renewable resources, has been considered, since it would generate a cleaner and more biocompatible fuel.El biodiésel se produce mediante la transesterificación de triglicéridos, presentes en grasas animales o aceites vegetales, en un proceso en el que un alcohol de bajo peso molecular desplaza a la glicerina. La mezcla de esteres así resultante posee unas propiedades físico-químicas similares a las del diésel procedente de petróleo. En este artículo se revisan las vías de síntesis de biodiésel mediante la transesterificación catalítica de aceites vegetales. Aunque actualmente a escala industrial solo se producen ésteres metílicos, también se ha considerado el uso de etanol, ya que éste se obtiene también de fuentes renovables, generando así un combustible más limpio y biocompatible.

  1. Thermodynamic Properties for the Simulation of Crude Oil Primary Refining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Gutierrez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Commonly, the use of simulators in the industry is performed without having a proper theoretical support. Sometimes this situation is a consequence of both, lack of time and the dairy dynamism required in the refinery industries. Particularly, the application of thermodynamic models is often not properly considered for the specific process under analysis. An undesirable fact can appear, for example, when a wrong properties package is chosen or even more when this selection step is completely ignored. The aim of this article is to prove that the habitual selection of the thermodynamic models is appropriate or not for the primary refining process. For the purpose, two available simulation softwares and thermodynamic models have been analyzed. The research paper focuses on establishing a guide for plant operators with information that has been previously proven, with theoretical support. In particular, for the oil crude atmospheric distillation (Topping, engineers use almost by default the Peng– Robinson thermodynamic package in Aspen Hysys simulator and Chao–Seader in Aspen Plus. Although the use of the thermodynamic property packages involves a whole theoretical support, this is not considered at the time of their election.

  2. Effect of the refining process on Moringa oleifera seed oil quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Machado, Dalia I; López-Cervantes, Jaime; Núñez-Gastélum, José A; Servín de la Mora-López, Gabriela; López-Hernández, Julia; Paseiro-Losada, Perfecto

    2015-11-15

    We evaluated the physicochemical properties and oxidative stability of the oil extracted from the seeds of Moringa oleifera during its refining process. Refining is accomplished in three stages: neutralization, degumming, and bleaching. Four samples were analyzed, corresponding to each step of the processed and crude oil. Increases in the density, viscosity, saponification value and oxidation of the oil were detected during the refining, while the peroxide value and carotenoid content diminished. Moreover, the refractive index and iodine content were stable throughout the refining. Nine fatty acids were detected in all four samples, and there were no significant differences in their composition. Oleic acid was found in the largest amount, followed by palmitic acid and behenic acid. The crude, neutralized, and degummed oils showed high primary oxidation stability, while the bleached oil had a low incidence of secondary oxidation.

  3. Price Relationships in the Petroleum Market: An Analysis of Crude Oil and Refined Product Prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asche, Frank; Gjoelberg, Ole; Voelker, Teresa

    2001-08-01

    In this paper the relationships between crude oil and refined product prices are investigated in a multivariate framework. This allows us to test several (partly competing) assumptions of earlier studies. In particular, we find that the crude oil price is weakly exogenous and that the spread is constant in some but not all relationships. Moreover, the multivariate analysis shows that the link between crude oil prices and several refined product prices implies market integration for these refined products. This is an example of supply driven market integration and producers will change the output mix in response to price changes. (author)

  4. Lipase-catalyzed production of biodiesel fuel from vegetable oils contained in waste activated bleaching earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizarro, Ana V. Lara; Park, Enoch Y. [Shizuoka Univ., Dept. of Applied Biological Chemistry, Shizuoka (Japan)

    2003-02-28

    Waste bleaching earths from crude vegetable oil refining process contain approximately 40% of its weight as oil. Low valued oils are potential substrates for biodiesel fuel production. Vegetable oils from waste bleaching earth samples were organic-solvent extracted and identified as soybean, palm and rapeseed oil. Methanolysis was efficiently catalyzed by Rhizopus oryzae lipase in the presence of high water content, and by a single addition of methanol. R. oryzae lipase was not inactivated by methanol in concentrations lower than 4 milli-equivalents and 75% water content. Optimum conditions for methanolysis of extracted oils were 75% water content (by weight of substrate), an oil/methanol molar ratio of I:4, and 67 IU/g of substrate with agitation at 175 rpm for 96 h at 35 deg C. The highest conversion yield reached 55% (w/w) with palm oil after 96 h of reaction. Adverse viscosity conditions might have influenced methanolysis of extracted soybean and rapeseed oil in spite of high water or methanol concentrations. (Author)

  5. The Structure and Fundamental Problems of Vegetable Oil Industry in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Azabagaoglu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available There are 167 oil factories in Turkey, with a capacity not only to meet Turkey's domestic demand but also for export purpose. Of these, 8 are concerned with the production and the marketing of margarine, while the others process unrefined and refined oil. In Turkey, the vegetable oil industry has a capacity about 6 million tons of seed grounding and 3 million tons of unrefined oil capacity. In addition, there is also a 950 thousand tons capacity for margarine production. However, the insufficiency of unrefined material has resulted low level capacity usage. For example, the capacity usage was realized as 50% for seed grounding, 47% for unrefined oil production and 40% for margarine production. In this research, the various problems such as quality of unrefined material, finance, storage, etc faced by the vegetable oil industry, from the supliance of unrefined material to domestic and international marketing have been investigated. This study was carried out thoroughly in Turkey for aiming to identify measurements in order to vegetable oil industry could operate near to full capacity.

  6. China Oil Reserve and Major Refined Products Marketing Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Xunying

    2001-01-01

    @@ 1 Current Status and Forecast on Supply and Demand for Oil in China 1.1 Chinese oil trade balance China's demand for crude oil has increased sharply since the 1990's. From 1991 to 2000, the consumption of China's crude oil increased by 6% a year, but the output still lagged far behind the domestic need (See Table 1).

  7. Quantum chemical study of the isomerization of 24-methylenecycloartanol, a potential marker of olive oil refining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedler, Henry B; Pemberton, Ryan P; Lounnas, Valère; Vriend, Gert; Tantillo, Dean J; Wang, Selina C

    2015-05-01

    Quantum chemical calculations on the isomerization of 24-methylenecycloartanol are described. An energetically viable mechanism, with a rate-determining protonation step, is proposed. This rearrangement may find applicability in tests for determining if an olive oil has been refined.

  8. Quantum chemical study of the isomerization of 24-methylenecycloartanol, a potential marker of olive oil refining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wedler, H.B.; Pemberton, R.P.; Lounnas, V.; Vriend, G.; Tantillo, D.J.; Wang, S.C.

    2015-01-01

    Quantum chemical calculations on the isomerization of 24-methylenecycloartanol are described. An energetically viable mechanism, with a rate-determining protonation step, is proposed. This rearrangement may find applicability in tests for determining if an olive oil has been refined.

  9. Applicability of Vegetable Oils as a Wood Preservative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eylem Dizman Tomak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Conventional heavy duty wood preservatives have been banned or restricted for some applications due to their mammalian toxicity and their adverse effect on the environment. New, eco-friendly, but nevertheless still effective protection systems, is needed to protect wood in outdoors. Non-toxic vegetable oils can form of a protective layer on the surface of the wood cells which decrease water uptake of wood. For that reason, oils have a good potential as being a wood preservative. However, impregnation with vegetable oils is insufficient to impart adequate biological decay and termite resistance, and indeed the treatment may increase wood’s propensity to burn. In addition, a high level of oil absorption required for good protection make the process impractical and uneconomic to use. The efficiency of the treatment can be improved with using the biocides and oils together. Beside this, usage of modified oils can decrease the retention levels in wood. In this study, applicability of vegetable oils being one of the environment-friendly, biodegradable water repellents on wood treatments was reported. Furthermore, problems related to the use of oils for wood protection, and possible solutions for the problems were discussed.In this study, applicability of vegetable oils as one of the environment-friendly, biodegradable water repellents was reported. Furthermore, problems related to the use of oils for wood protection and possible solutions for the problems were discussed

  10. Adsorption refinement of waste transformer oil using industrial montmorillonite-containing sorbents

    OpenAIRE

    Koval, Е. О.; Bogomolov, М. S.; Mayer, E. А.; Bondaletov, V. G.

    2007-01-01

    The possibilities of adsorption contact refining of waste transformer oil with active montmorillonite-containing sorbents of «Filtrol» series of BASF Catalysts LLC corporation and Zikeevsk М-80 deposit sorbent have been investigated. Usage of F-160 sorbents of «Filtrol» series in the refinement process allows achieving high quality degree of lean transformer oil, permitting its further use in the equipment with operating voltage to 750 kV.

  11. Hypocholesterolemic effect of physically refined rice bran oil: studies of cholesterol metabolism and early atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausman, Lynne M; Rong, Ni; Nicolosi, Robert J

    2005-09-01

    Physically refined rice bran oil containing 2-4% nontriglyceride components as compared to other vegetable oils appears to be associated with lipid lowering and antiinflammatory properties in several rodent, primate and human models. These experiments were designed to investigate possible mechanisms for the hypocholesterolemic effect of the physically refined rice bran oil and to examine its effect on aortic fatty streak formation. In the first experiment, 30 hamsters were fed, for 8 weeks, chow-based diets plus 0.03% added cholesterol and 5% (wt/wt) coconut, canola, or physically refined rice bran oil (COCO, CANOLA or PRBO animal groups, respectively). Both plasma total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were significantly reduced in PRBO but not in CANOLA relative to COCO. PRBO also showed a significant 15-17% reduction in cholesterol absorption and significant 30% increase in neutral sterol (NS) excretion with no effect on bile acid (BA) excretion. Both CANOLA and PRBO showed a significant 300-500% increase in intestinal 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase and significant (>25%) decrease in hepatic HMG-CoA reductase activities with respect to COCO. In a second experiment, 36 hamsters were fed chow-based diets with 0.05% added cholesterol, 10% coconut oil and 4% additional COCO, CANOLA or PRBO. Relative to COCO and CANOLA, plasma TC and LDL-C were significantly reduced in PRBO. Early atherosclerosis (fatty streak formation) was significantly reduced (48%) only in PRBO, relative to the other two. These results suggest that the lipid lowering found in PRBO is associated with decreased cholesterol absorption, but not hepatic cholesterol synthesis, and that the decrease in fatty streak formation with this oil may be associated with its nontriglyceride components not present in the other two diets.

  12. The Influence and Compatibility of Vegetable Oils and other ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABC_2

    The vegetable oils used as skin permeation enhancers were selected on the ... different concentrations of drug-polymers-permeation enhancers. .... weight of the cells before and after study at ... study was stuck on the animal and a backing.

  13. Analysis of the Triglycerides of Some Vegetable Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farines, Marie; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Explains that triglycerides consist of a mixture of different compounds, depending on the total number of fatty acid constituents. Details the method and instrumentation necessary for students to analyze a vegetable oil for its triglyceride content. Describes sample results. (CW)

  14. Hydrocracking of vacuum gas oil-vegetable oil mixtures for biofuels production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezergianni, Stella; Kalogianni, Aggeliki; Vasalos, Iacovos A

    2009-06-01

    Hydrocracking of vacuum gas oil (VGO)--vegetable oil mixtures is a prominent process for the production of biofuels. In this work both pre-hydrotreated and non-hydrotreated VGO are assessed whether they are suitable fossil components in a VGO-vegetable oil mixture as feed-stocks to a hydrocracking process. This assessment indicates the necessity of a VGO pre-hydrotreated step prior to hydrocracking the VGO-vegetable oil mixture. Moreover, the comparison of two different mixing ratios suggests that higher vegetable oil content favors hydrocracking product yields and qualities. Three commercial catalysts of different activity are utilized in order to identify a range of products that can be produced via a hydrocracking route. Finally, the effect of temperature on hydrocracking VGO-vegetable oil mixtures is studied in terms of conversion and selectivity to diesel, jet/kerosene and naphtha.

  15. Preparation of function-enhanced vegetable oils

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroshi Maeda; Takao Satoh; Waliul Islam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Previously, we (HM) found that most commercially available edible oils, which were processed by hexane extraction followed by a number of purification steps, were extremely low in anti-peroxy radical (ROO.), or radical scavenging activity. This is a great contrast to the respective virgin oils as exemplified by extra-virgin olive oil or crude rape seed oil [1-4] (Figure 1). Therefore, such highly purified oils will became prooxidant and less desirable food components in terms of...

  16. Highly efficient procedure for the transesterification of vegetable oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Xuezheng; Gao, Shan; He, Mingyuan [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Chemical Process, Department of Chemistry, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Yang, Jianguo [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Chemical Process, Department of Chemistry, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Energy Institute, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2009-10-15

    The highly efficient procedure has been developed for the synthesis of biodiesel from vegetable oil and methanol. The KF/MgO has been selected as the most efficient catalyst for the reactions with the yield of 99.3%. Operational simplicity, without need of the purification of raw vegetable oil, low cost of the catalyst used, high activities, no saponification and reusability are the key features of this methodology. (author)

  17. Epoxy thermoset networks derived from vegetable oils and their blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Chang; Ravalli, Matthew

    2015-03-01

    Epoxidized vegetable oils (EVOs), such as epoxidized soybean oil and linseed oils were prepared by the partial oxidation of the unsaturated double bonds in vegetable oils and used as monomers for preparing epoxy thermoset materials based on the cationic polymerization. These EVOs have been used to prepare epoxy thermosets of different network densities by cationic polymerization using onium salt catalyst. The crosslinked epoxy thermosets provide an ideal platform to study the structure-property-relationships of networked polymers. In particular, rheological studies on the epoxidized vegetable oil thermosets have been performed to measure the molecular weights between crosslinks (Mx) in the epoxy thermosets and to ultimately elucidate the role of functionality of epoxy groups in EVO on the mechanical and thermophysical properties of the epoxy thermoset materials. NSF DMR POLYMERS 1308617.

  18. Calendula oil processing : seed classification, oil extraction, refining process development and oil quality aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, R.J.J.

    2000-01-01

    The difference in Calendula oil quality from fractions obtained after seed classification is enormous. The oil quality varies from excellent to very poor, according to important aspects such as in the hulls and dust fraction, high free fatty acid values (13% vs. 0.6%) are found. This can be

  19. Calendula oil processing : seed classification, oil extraction, refining process development and oil quality aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, R.J.J.

    2000-01-01

    The difference in Calendula oil quality from fractions obtained after seed classification is enormous. The oil quality varies from excellent to very poor, according to important aspects such as in the hulls and dust fraction, high free fatty acid values (13% vs. 0.6%) are found. This can be explaine

  20. Calendula oil processing : seed classification, oil extraction, refining process development and oil quality aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, R.J.J.

    2000-01-01

    The difference in Calendula oil quality from fractions obtained after seed classification is enormous. The oil quality varies from excellent to very poor, according to important aspects such as in the hulls and dust fraction, high free fatty acid values (13% vs. 0.6%) are found. This can be explaine

  1. 30 CFR 208.4 - Royalty oil sales to eligible refiners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Royalty Oil” required by 30 CFR 208.5. (b) Sale to eligible refiners. (1) Upon a determination by the... of crude oil at equitable prices, the Secretary, at his or her discretion, may elect to take in kind... determined for that oil pursuant to 30 CFR part 206 had the royalties been paid in value rather than taken...

  2. A Simple Refining Technique of Coconut Oil for Small Holder Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugeng Triyono

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A simple refining equipment and process for small holder industries of edible coconut oil has beeninvestigated. The equipment consisted of 20-L filtering and NaOH neutralization bottles. Filtration wasintended to remove impurities such as gums and pigment, while neutralization was to remove free fattyacids (FFA and other non-fat materials. In the experiment, the crude coconut oil was found to have impurityof 0.16%, FFA of 8.02%, saponification number of 270, and water content of 0.33%. The results showed thateither granular activated carbon (GAC or zeolite filtration can be chosen individually to remove physicalimpurity. The GAC or zeolite-filtered coconut oil contained impurity less than the SNI standard of 0.05%.In term of FFA; however, the NaOH neutralized coconut oil did not meet the SNI standard of 0.3%. AfterNaOH neutralization, the GAC filtered oil contained 1.20% FFA; while the zeolite filtered oil contained1.32%. These FFA contents were definitely higher than the SNI standard, but could satisfy APCC standardfor grade IV coconut oil which is 5%. The refined coconut oils could also satisfy the SNI standard ofsaponification number which is 196 – 206 at minimum. In term of water content, either the filtered or theneutralized oil could also satisfy the SNI standard of 0.3%. In short, the proposed technique could helpfarmers refine their raw coconut oil, and hopefully improve its marketability.

  3. Effect of vegetable oil (Brazil nut oil and mineral oil (liquid petrolatum on dental biofilm control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia de Fátima Buldrini Filogônio

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Dental biofilm control represents a basic procedure to prevent caries and the occurrence of periodontal diseases. Currently, toothbrushes and dentifrices are used almost universally, and the employment of good oral hygiene allows for appropriate biofilm removal by both mechanical and chemical control. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of adding vegetable or mineral oil to a commercially available dentifrice in dental biofilm control. A comparison using the Oral Hygiene Index Simplified (OHI-S was performed in 30 individuals who were randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 (G1 received a commercially available dentifrice; the composition of this dentifrice was modified by addition of mineral oil (Nujol® for group 2 (G2 or a vegetable oil (Alpha Care® for group 3 (G3 at 10% of the total volume, respectively. The two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance (two-way ANOVA was used to test the effect of group (G1, G2 and G3 or time (baseline, 45 days and 90 days on the OHI-S index scores. Statistical analysis revealed a significant reduction in the OHI-S at day 90 in G2 (p < 0.05 and G3 (p < 0.0001 in comparison to G1. Therefore, the addition of a vegetable or a mineral oil to a commercially available dentifrice improved dental biofilm control, suggesting that these oils may aid in the prevention and/or control of caries and periodontal disease.

  4. Seeking China Capital for Investment in Iran Oil Refining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Audrey Guo

    2009-01-01

    @@ Influenced by the financial crisis.the overall bilateral trade volume between China and Iran decreased by 39% in the first quarter of 2009;however,the volume of Iran's exported crude oil to China has increased by 88% compared with the same period last year up to May of 2009,totaling 308.8 million tons.Iran,as the world's No.5 crude exporter,replaced Saudi Arabia as China's largest oil supplier.At the same time,China,as the world's No.2 oil consumer,now imports half of the crude oil it consumes,and has become Iran's third largest customer.

  5. The flocculants applied in the oil refining plant wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnokova, M. G.; Shalay, V. V.; Kriga, A. S.; Shaporenko, A. P.

    2017-08-01

    Flocculation methods for the oil refinery wastewater treatment are necessary, effective and economic, and are used, as a rule, for the demulsification of petroleum products from wastewater. In addition, flocculants can be used to remove other pollutants, not only oil products. The research purpose was to analyze the separate indicators level, measured on the oil refinery wastewater treatment facilities. Oil refinery wastewater purification rate was studied, indicating a different level of indicators considered. An influence of cationic and anionic flocculants working efficiency showed that the flocculants allows to increase the flotation technological indicators and to increase the solids content in water.

  6. A method to refine crude cottonseed oil using non-toxic polyamine-based cationic polymers☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hailin Lin; Tom C Wedegaertner; Xiaoyun Mao; Xudong Jing; Aicardo Roa-Espinosa

    2015-01-01

    The traditional method to refine crude cottonseed oil is time-consuming and expensive. This study evaluates the effectiveness of coagulation–flocculation–sedimentation process using quaternary polyamine-based polymers in refining crude cottonseed oil. Flocculated by four commercial polyamine-based cationic polymers (SL2700, SL3000, SL4500 and SL5000) with varied molecular weight (MW) and charge density (CD) and followed by co-agulation with sodium hydroxide, crude cottonseed oil can be effectively purified. Free fatty acids, gossypol, pig-ments and trace elements are all effectively and sufficiently removed by the four polymers in a MW-and CD-dependent manner. Our results suggest that the use of polyamine-based cationic polymers may offer an effective and feasible alternative to the traditional method for crude cottonseed oil refining.

  7. FEATURES OF ADSORPTION REFINING RAPESEED OIL DIATOMACEOUS ADSORBENTS

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The results of the studies of the effectiveness of diatomaceous bleached soil for the adsorption of rapeseed oil impurities are discussed. We have established that a mixture of diatomaceous bleached soil with activated carbon has a high degree of adsorption in relation to the pigments of rapeseed oil

  8. Biocatalytic Refining of Soybean Oil into Cosmeceutical Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our mission is to develop new, value-added uses for commodity crops and oils. We chose to fulfill this mission while adhering as closely as possible to the tenants of “green” chemistry. We have developed patented, all-natural oils called Feruloyl Soy Glycerols (FSG) from the biocatalytic transester...

  9. FEATURES OF ADSORPTION REFINING RAPESEED OIL DIATOMACEOUS ADSORBENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stryzhenok A. A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of the studies of the effectiveness of diatomaceous bleached soil for the adsorption of rapeseed oil impurities are discussed. We have established that a mixture of diatomaceous bleached soil with activated carbon has a high degree of adsorption in relation to the pigments of rapeseed oil

  10. Glycidyl fatty acid esters in refined edible oils: A review on occurrence, formation, analysis, and elimination methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glycidyl fatty acid esters (GEs), one of the groups of oil-processing contaminants, are mainly formed during the deodorization step of the oil refining process and, thus, found in almost all refined edible oils. GEs have been considered to be potentially carcinogenic because, in the gastrointestinal...

  11. Free and Esterified Sterol Distribution in Four Romanian Vegetable Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisc Vasile DULF

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The unsaponifiable lipid fraction of plant-based foods is a potential source of bioactive components such as phytosterols, triterpenoids, carotenoids, tocopherols and various hydrocarbons. The free and esterified sterol concentrations in four Romanian edible oils (corn germ, wheat germ, sweet almond and grape seed oil were determined, including individual values for β-sitosterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, Δ5-avenasterol, sitostanol, campestanol, and cholesterol. Free and esterified sterols were separated by solid-phase extraction (SPE, saponified, and analyzed as trimethylsilyl ether derivatives using gas-chromatography (GC with flame ionization detector (FID. Differences in total sterol content and the proportion of esterified (ES and free sterols (FS were evident for studied oil samples. In general, β-sitosterol was the most prevalent phytosterol, ranging in concentration from 158.3 mg/100 g in grape seed oil to 478.5 mg/100 g in corn germ oil. Only in these two vegetable oil, we identified trace amount of cholesterol (<3 mg/100g. The total sterol concentrations ranged from 199.9 mg/100g (sweet almond oil to 745.2 mg/100 g (corn germ oil. In corn germ and wheat germ oil, the dominant form of sterols was the esterified one (60.7% ES and 55.6% ES, respectively, of total sterols. This study consolidates the view that vegetable oils are good natural sources of phytosterols. The analyses of these components provide rich information about the identity and quality of vegetable oils. The corn germ and wheat germ oils proved to be the richest sources in phytosterols, being recommended as functional oils.

  12. Eco-Friendly Multipurpose Lubricating Greases from Vegetable Residual Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponnekanti Nagendramma

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmentally friendly multipurpose grease formulation has been synthesized by using Jatropha vegetable residual oil with lithium soap and multifunctional additive. The thus obtained formulation was evaluated for its tribological performance on a four-ball tribo-tester. The anti-friction and anti-wear performance characteristics were evaluated using standard test methods. The biodegradability and toxicity of the base oil was assessed. The results indicate that the synthesized residual oil grease formulation shows superior tribological performance when compared to the commercial grease. On the basis of physico-chemical characterization and tribological performance the vegetable residual oil was found to have good potential for use as biodegradable multipurpose lubricating grease. In addition, the base oils are biodegradable and non toxic.

  13. Rheological Properties of Vegetable Oil-Diesel Fuel Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Z.; Nguyen, Q. D.

    2008-07-01

    Straight vegetable oils provide cleaner burning and renewable alternatives to diesel fuels, but their inherently high viscosities compared to diesel are undesirable for diesel engines. Lowering the viscosity can be achieved by either increasing the temperature of the oil or by blending it with diesel fuel, or both. In this work the viscosity of diesel fuel and vegetable oil mixtures at differing compositions is measured as a function of temperature to determine a viscosity-temperature-composition relationship for use in design and optimization of heating and fuel injection systems. The oils used are olive, soybean, canola and peanut oils which are commercially available. All samples tested between 20°C and 80°C exhibit time-independent Newtonian behaviour. A modified Arrhenius relationship has been developed to predict the viscosity of the mixtures as functions of temperature and composition.

  14. Effect of vegetable oil (Brazil nut oil) and mineral oil (liquid petrolatum) on dental biofilm control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filogônio, Cíntia de Fátima Buldrini; Soares, Rodrigo Villamarim; Horta, Martinho Campolina Rebello; Penido, Cláudia Valéria de Sousa Resende; Cruz, Roberval de Almeida

    2011-01-01

    Dental biofilm control represents a basic procedure to prevent caries and the occurrence of periodontal diseases. Currently, toothbrushes and dentifrices are used almost universally, and the employment of good oral hygiene allows for appropriate biofilm removal by both mechanical and chemical control. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of adding vegetable or mineral oil to a commercially available dentifrice in dental biofilm control. A comparison using the Oral Hygiene Index Simplified (OHI-S) was performed in 30 individuals who were randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 (G1) received a commercially available dentifrice; the composition of this dentifrice was modified by addition of mineral oil (Nujol®) for group 2 (G2) or a vegetable oil (Alpha Care®) for group 3 (G3) at 10% of the total volume, respectively. The two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance (two-way ANOVA) was used to test the effect of group (G1, G2 and G3) or time (baseline, 45 days and 90 days) on the OHI-S index scores. Statistical analysis revealed a significant reduction in the OHI-S at day 90 in G2 (p mineral oil to a commercially available dentifrice improved dental biofilm control, suggesting that these oils may aid in the prevention and/or control of caries and periodontal disease.

  15. Experimental Layout for Investigating Temperature Dependednce of the Vibration Plane Rotation in Some Identified Mineral and Vegetable Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kaahwa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents results of a recent study done in Norway from Bergen University, to determine temperature dependence of linear birefringence in mineral oil and linear and induced birefringence in vegetable oils. The study was done between the temperature range of 6 and 45ºC in magnetic field up to 140 mT. It found the intrinsic birefringences responsible for optical activity in vegetable oils with impurities and all mineral oils. The results of optical activity in both oils obeyed the equation f = A + aw (1 where aw is the angle at which minimum irradiance Imin occurs in water and other substances which are optically inactive. Heavy oils like red diesel, Esso diesel and Fina diesel No. 2 rotate more the vibration plane and they possess more intrinsic birefringences than light diesel. The research team found that the temperature effect on rotation in both mineral and vegetable oils with impurities, yielded results that obeyed the equation f1 = A - bT (3 where b is positive. In vegetable oils for human consumption, application of magnetic field causes induced birefringences responsible for f given by f2 = VHL + aw (4 where V is Verdet’s constant in rad T-1m-1 and H is the magnetic field intensity in Am-1. Also the temperature dependence on rotation in vegetable oils free from impurities obeyed the relationship given by equation = VHL–bT (5. This method can be used to determine the level of refinement of mineral and vegetable oils.

  16. Wet scrubbing of biomass producer gas tars using vegetable oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhoi, Prakashbhai Ramabhai

    The overall aims of this research study were to generate novel design data and to develop an equilibrium stage-based thermodynamic model of a vegetable oil based wet scrubbing system for the removal of model tar compounds (benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene) found in biomass producer gas. The specific objectives were to design, fabricate and evaluate a vegetable oil based wet scrubbing system and to optimize the design and operating variables; i.e., packed bed height, vegetable oil type, solvent temperature, and solvent flow rate. The experimental wet packed bed scrubbing system includes a liquid distributor specifically designed to distribute a high viscous vegetable oil uniformly and a mixing section, which was designed to generate a desired concentration of tar compounds in a simulated air stream. A method and calibration protocol of gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy was developed to quantify tar compounds. Experimental data were analyzed statistically using analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedure. Statistical analysis showed that both soybean and canola oils are potential solvents, providing comparable removal efficiency of tar compounds. The experimental height equivalent to a theoretical plate (HETP) was determined as 0.11 m for vegetable oil based scrubbing system. Packed bed height and solvent temperature had highly significant effect (p0.05) effect on the removal of model tar compounds. The packing specific constants, Ch and CP,0, for the Billet and Schultes pressure drop correlation were determined as 2.52 and 2.93, respectively. The equilibrium stage based thermodynamic model predicted the removal efficiency of model tar compounds in the range of 1-6%, 1-4% and 1-2% of experimental data for benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene, respectively, for the solvent temperature of 30° C. The NRTL-PR property model and UNIFAC for estimating binary interaction parameters are recommended for modeling absorption of tar compounds in vegetable oils. Bench scale

  17. Determining an Efficient Solvent Extraction Parameters for Re-Refining of Waste Lubricating Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ali Durrani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Re-refining of vehicle waste lubricating oil by solvent extraction is one of the efficient and cheapest methods. Three extracting solvents MEK (Methyl-Ethyl-Ketone, 1-butanol, 2-propanol were determined experimentally for their performance based on the parameters i.e. solvent type, solvent oil ratio and extraction temperature. From the experimental results it was observed the MEK performance was highest based on the lowest oil percent losses and highest sludge removal. Further, when temperature of extraction increased the oil losses percent also decreased. This is due to the solvent ability that dissolves the base oil in waste lubricating oil and determines the best SOR (Solvent Oil Ratio and extraction temperatures.

  18. Technical aspects of biodiesel production from vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnakumar Janahiraman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel, a promising substitute as an alternative fuel has gained significant attention due to the finite nature of fossil energy sources and does not produce sulfur oxides and minimize the soot particulate in comparison with the existing one from petroleum diesel. The utilization of liquid fuels such as biodiesel produced from vegetable oil by transesterification process represents one of the most promising options for the use of conventional fossil fuels. In the first step of this experimental research, edible rice bran oil used as test material and converted into methyl ester and non-edible jatropha vegetable oil is converted into jatropha oil methyl ester, which are known as biodiesel and they are prepared in the presence of homogeneous acid catalyst and optimized their operating parameters like reaction temperature, quantity of alcohol and the catalyst requirement, stirring rate and time of esterification. In the second step, the physical properties such as density, flash point, kinematic viscosity, cloud point, and pour point were found out for the above vegetable oils and their methyl esters. The same characteristics study was also carried out for the diesel fuel for obtaining the baseline data for analysis. The values obtained from the rice bran oil methyl ester and jatropha oil methyl ester are closely matched with the values of conventional diesel and it can be used in the existing diesel engine without any hardware modification. In the third step the storage characteristics of biodiesel are also studied. .

  19. Effect of traditional Chinese cooking methods on fatty acid profiles of vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yamin; Hao, Pengfei; Liu, Bingjie; Meng, Xianghong

    2017-10-15

    The effect of four frying processes (vegetable salad, stir frying, pan frying, and deep frying) on fatty acid composition of ten vegetable oils (peanut oil, soybean oil, rapeseed oil, corn oil, sunflower seed oil, rice bran oil, olive oil, sesame oil, linseed oil, and peony seed oil) was investigated using GC-MS. The result showed that trans-fatty acid (TFA) was produced during all processes. Rapeseed oil had the highest TFA content in vegetable salad oil with 2.88% of total fatty acid. The TFA content of sunflower seed oil was 0.00% in vegetable salad oil, however, after stir frying and pan frying, it increased to 1.53% and 1.29%, respectively. Peanut oil had the lowest TFA content after deep frying for 12h with 0.74mg/g. It was concluded that a healthy cooking process could be acquired by a scientific collocation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of mineral oil free offset printing ink using vegetable oil esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ananda Sankar; Bhattacharjee, Moumita; Mondal, Rabindranath; Ghosh, Santinath

    2007-01-01

    Until the middle of this century, fats and oils are the major raw material source for paints, coating and lubricating applications. These markets are completely taken over by petroleum based stocks due to their abundance and versatility. However, recent public awareness to use environmentally acceptable products that minimize pollution, are compatible to human health and readily biodegradable created opportunities for vegetable oils for application in paints and printing inks. The formulation of vegetable oil methyl ester based 'green' offset printing ink that reduces the volatile organic compounds (VOC) has been discussed in the present study. Methyl esters of rapeseed, soybean, rice bran and palm oil have been prepared and their physical properties have been measured and compared with standard petroleum feed stock. Varnishes were prepared with these esters and their properties are also compared with that of the petroleum based products. Rheological properties of the inks are also evaluated and compared with standard printing ink using petroleum based solvent. In general performance of the ester-based printing inks are comparable with that of the mineral oil based product. On the basis of tack stability and gloss, ester based inks are much superior than the mineral oil based products. In conclusion, a new non-volatile diluent for printing ink has been developed. The diluent is made from common vegetable oils like rapeseed, soybean, rice bran and palm oil, a renewable source that is environmental friendly. Vegetable oil esters offer a cost effective solution for mineral oil based printing ink to meet VOCs regulations.

  1. Streptomycetes biosynthesis processes in the presence of vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Zhernosekova

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The rise of biosynthesis activity of the strain Streptomyces recifensis var. lyticus 2Р-15 induced by vegetable oil was established. When cultivating the streptomycetes in the mixed medium (glucose and sunflower oil the maximum biomass accumulation and staphylolytic enzymes’ activity of the strain 2P-15 increased by 19 and 20 % respectively in comparison with the streptomycetes grown in the medium of glucose and olive oil. The concentration of exogenic protein was also 9 times more for glucose and sunflower oil substrate. Monosubstrate of sunflower or olive oil didn’t increase the biosynthetic activity of the strain. However, the maximal indices were higher for sunflower oil than for olive one.

  2. Enzymatic transesterification of waste vegetable oil to produce biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopresto, C G; Naccarato, S; Albo, L; De Paola, M G; Chakraborty, S; Curcio, S; Calabrò, V

    2015-11-01

    An experimental study on enzymatic transesterification was performed to produce biodiesel from waste vegetable oils. Lipase from Pseudomonas cepacia was covalently immobilized on a epoxy-acrylic resin support. The immobilized enzyme exhibited high catalytic specific surface and allowed an easy recovery, regeneration and reutilisation of biocatalyst. Waste vegetable oils - such as frying oils, considered not competitive with food applications and wastes to be treated - were used as a source of glycerides. Ethanol was used as a short chain alcohol and was added in three steps with the aim to reduce its inhibitory effect on lipase activity. The effect of biocatalyst/substrate feed mass ratios and the waste oil quality have been investigated in order to estimate the process performances. Biocatalyst recovery and reuse have been also studied with the aim to verify the stability of the biocatalyst for its application in industrial scale.

  3. Nonlinear joint dynamics between prices of crude oil and refined products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Ma, Guofeng; Liu, Guangsheng

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the relationships between crude oil and refined product prices. We find that nonlinear correlations are stronger in the long-term than in the short-term. Crude oil and product prices are cointegrated and financial crisis in 2007-2008 caused a structural break of the cointegrating relationship. Moreover, different from the findings in most studies, we reveal that the relationships are almost symmetric based on a threshold error correction model. The so-called 'asymmetric relationships' are caused by some outliers and financial crisis. Most of the time, crude oil prices play the major role in the adjustment process of the long-term equilibrium. However, refined product prices dominated crude oil prices during the period of financial crisis. Important policy and risk management implications can be learned from the empirical findings.

  4. Comparison between jojoba oil and other vegetable oils as a substitute to petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Kinawy, O. [National Research centre, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt)

    2004-06-15

    Jojoba oil and other vegetable oils, such as soybean, sunflower and castor oils, were evaluated to be used as lubricants. Three standard mineral lubricating oils were considered in this study as reference. The essential parameters tested for comparison were the oil viscosity, viscosity index, and viscosity--temperature and shear rate--shear stress relationships. The effect of excessive heating on the vegetable oils' stability was studied and the corresponding parameters were also measured. Jojoba oil was found to be the best among all tested oils, whereas it gave the minimum change in viscosity gradient and hence the highest viscosity index. There was a linear relation between shear rate and shear stress of all oils before and after heat deterioration. Therefore, these oils were considered as Newtonion liquids. However, the oil viscosity, as well as the rate of viscosity variation with temperature, ({delta}{sup '}{eta}/{delta}{tau}) were affected by heat deterioration being lowered in value, in case of jojoba oil, and higher value, in case of castor oil. Jojoba oil was examined for other important properties for its use as a lubricant, such as refractive index, acid value, peroxide value, saponification value, iodine value, flash, fire and pour points. (author)

  5. Differential scanning calorimetry study--assessing the influence of composition of vegetable oils on oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Baokun; Zhang, Qiaozhi; Sui, Xiaonan; Wang, Zhongjiang; Li, Yang; Jiang, Lianzhou

    2016-03-01

    The thermal oxidation of eight different vegetable oils was studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) under non-isothermal conditions at five different heating rates (5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, and 15°C/min), in a temperature range of 100-400°C. For all oils, the activation energy (Ea) values at Tp were smaller than that at Ts and Ton. Among all the oils, refined palm oil (RPO) exhibited the highest Ea values, 126.06kJ/mol at Ts, 134.7kJ/mol at Ton, and 91.88kJ/mol at Tp. The Ea and reaction rate constant (k) values at Ts, Ton, and Tp were further correlated with oil compositions (fatty acids and triacylglycerols) using Pearson correlation analysis. The rate constant (k) and Ea of all oils exhibited varying correlations with FAs and TAGs, indicating that the thermal oxidation behaviors were affected by oil compositions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 椰子油的精深加工与综合利用%Refining and Comprehensive Utilization of Coconut Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段岢君; 陈卫军; 宋菲; 夏秋瑜; 赵松林

    2013-01-01

    椰子油(Coconut oil, CO)是近年来活跃在国际市场上的一种重要植物油脂。本文介绍椰子油的成分、精深加工产品,概述国内外部分精深加工产品的生产工艺及其用途,展望我国椰子油综合开发利用的广阔前景。%Coconut oil is a kind of vegetable oil which is very popular in the international market in recent years. This paper introduces the composition of coconut oil, the refining products. It also reviews the processing methods and comprehensive utilization of coconut oil , and provides the references for its further study.

  7. Sustainability aspects of biobased products : comparison of different crops and products from the vegetable oil platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meesters, K.P.H.; Corré, W.J.; Conijn, J.G.; Patel, M.K.; Bos, H.L.

    2012-01-01

    This study focusses on the production of vegetable oil based products. A limited number of aspacts of the sustainability of the full chain (from agriculture to product at the factory gate) was evaluated. Three different vegetable oils were taken into account: palm oil, soy oil and rapeseed oil. Also

  8. A Rapid Method for Detection of Refined Olive Oil as Adulterant in Extra Virgin Olive Oil by Differential Scanning Calorimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Karbasian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO is expensive oil, due to unique specification and its high quality among other edible oils; it might be mixed with other oils. The aim of this research was to identify the added refined olive oil (ROO to extra virgin olive oil. One sample of each oil was analyzed, admixtures of EVOO: ROO were prepared at different ratios (50:50 ,60:40, 70:30, 80:20, 90:10 and 95:5 w/w. To identify this adulteration, exothermic and endothermic thermograms were investigated. The results indicated that by increasing refined olive oil, onset temperature (Ton was increased from -61.08 to -56.16 °C; also, offset temperature (Toff decreased from 19.09 to 12.57 °C. Also results showed that when the ROO ratio increased then the enthalpy average values of both exothermic and endothermic curves were declined. Chemical tests were performed in parallel to better understanding these changes in curves.

  9. Improving the economics of biodiesel production through the use of low value lipids as feedstocks. Vegetable oil soapstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, Michael J. [U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Eastern Regional Research Center, 600 East Mermaid Lane, Wyndmoor, PA 19038 (United States)

    2005-06-25

    Semirefined and refined vegetable oils are the predominant feedstocks for the production of biodiesel. However, their relatively high costs render the resulting fuels unable to compete with petroleum-derived fuel. We have investigated the production of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME; biodiesel) from soapstock (SS), a byproduct of edible oil refining that is substantially less expensive than edible-grade refined oils. Multiple approaches were taken in search of a route to the production of fatty acid methyl esters from soybean soapstock. The most effective method involved the complete saponification of the soapstock followed by acidulation using methods similar to those presently employed in industry. This resulted in an acid oil with a free fatty acid (FFA) content greater than 90%. These fatty acids were efficiently converted to methyl esters by acid-catalyzed esterification. The fatty acid composition of the resulting ester product reflected that of soy soapstock and was largely similar to that of soybean oil. Following a simple washing protocol, this preparation met the established specifications for biodiesel of the American Society for Testing and Materials. Engine emissions and performance during operation on soy soapstock biodiesel were comparable to those on biodiesel from soy oil. An economic analysis suggested that the production cost of soapstock biodiesel would be approximately US$ 0.41/l, a 25% reduction relative to the estimated cost of biodiesel produced from soy oil. (author)

  10. Green Diesel from Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil Process Design Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilbers, T.J.; Sprakel, L.M.J.; Enk, van den L.B.J.; Zaalberg, B.; Berg, van den H.; Ham, van der A.G.J.

    2015-01-01

    A systematic approach was applied to study the process of hydrotreating vegetable oils. During the three phases of conceptual, detailed, and final design, unit operations were designed and sized. Modeling of the process was performed with UniSim Design®. Producing green diesel and jet fuel from vege

  11. Other Alternative Diesel Fuels from Vegetable Oils and Animal Fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    The energy crises of the 1970’s and early 1980’s provided impetus for developing alternative diesel fuels from vegetable oils and animal fats. Other driving forces may be derived from the Clean Air Act and its amendments and farmers desire to develop new uses for surplus agricultural commodities. ...

  12. Chemical qualities of oils from some fresh and market vegetable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JTEkanem

    oils were determined, high mineral composition of almond was observed compared to other vegetables. Moisture ... Biodiesel “referred to as a miracle fuel” is a fuel that can be .... hydrochloric acid while the solution was still hot to determine ...

  13. Margarine from organogel of healthy vegetable oils and plant wax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organogelator that can turn vegetable oil into a gel with a small quantity has drawn a lot of interests as a potential alternative for saturated fats and trans fat-containing solid fats in margarine and spread products. However, it is not practically used in those products yet. This research shows...

  14. Green Diesel from Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil Process Design Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilbers, T.J.; Sprakel, Lisette Maria Johanna; van den Enk, L.B.J.; Zaalberg, B.; van den Berg, Henderikus; van der Ham, Aloysius G.J.

    2015-01-01

    A systematic approach was applied to study the process of hydrotreating vegetable oils. During the three phases of conceptual, detailed, and final design, unit operations were designed and sized. Modeling of the process was performed with UniSim Design®. Producing green diesel and jet fuel from

  15. Heterogeneous hydrogenation of vegetable oils : A literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldsink, JW; Bouma, MJ; Schoon, NH; Beenackers, AACM

    1997-01-01

    Hardening of vegetable oils is reviewed from an engineering point of view. The present review focuses on kinetics of the hydrogenation and relevant transport and adsorption steps. It aims to contribute to accelerate new research to improve substantially on selectivities in general and a decrease of

  16. Environmentally friendly properties of vegetable oil methyl esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gateau Paul

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Measurements were carried out on Vegetable Oil Methyl Esters (VOME or FAME answering the most recent specifications. The products tested are RME (Rapeseed oil Methyl Ester, ERME (Erucic Rapeseed oil Methyl Esters, SME (Sunflower oil Methyl Esters, and HOSME (High Oleic Sunflower oil Methyl Esters. They contain more than 99.5% of fatty acid mono esters. The compositions are given. VOME are not volatile and they are not easily flammable. They are not soluble in water and they are biodegradable. According to the methods implemented for the determination of the German classification of substances hazardous to waters WGK, they are not toxic on mammals and unlike diesel fuel they are not toxic on fish, daphnia, algae and bacteria. The RME is not either toxic for shrimps. According to tests on rabbits, RME and SME are not irritating for the skin and the eyes. VOME display particularly attractive environmental properties.

  17. 油脂的沉淀现象%Sediments in Refined Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裘爱泳; 王文一

    2001-01-01

    sedimentation phenomena in refined oils were descr ibed,the composition,properties of sunflower and canola oil sediments were summa rized.the effects of various factors on sediment formation in oils were also stu died.%介绍了油脂沉淀现象,综述了葵花籽油、卡诺拉油等沉淀的组成、性质以及影响其形成的因素,初步探讨了防止沉淀生成的方法。

  18. Pyrolysis bio-oils as additives for vegetable oil based lubricants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Softwood and hardwood lignins, along with hardwood as such, were pyrolyzed to afford bio-oil distillates in which phenols were major products. Extraction with alkali gave a range of lignin-related phenols having molecular weights (MWs) from 110 to 344. Because vegetable oil based lubricants have dra...

  19. New antioxidants and antioxidant systems for improvement of the stability of vegetable oils and fish oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most vegetable oils and fish oils contain polyunsaturated fatty acids ranging from 18 carbons with two to three double bonds, to 22 or 24 carbons, and up to six double bonds. Nutritional research over the years has indicated that individual fatty acids from the diet play a complex role in nutrition ...

  20. Vegetable oil based emulsions in milk

    OpenAIRE

    Veronika Mikulcová; Iva Hauerlandová; Leona Buňková

    2014-01-01

    Milk and dairy products represent an important part of functional food in the market. Based on their positive health and nutritional benefits, they have gained popularity and their consumption as well as production is on the rise in the last few decades. As a result of this trend, milk-based products are being used for the delivery of bioactive food ingredients. This study is devoted to the formulation of stable emulsions containing grape seed oil dispersed with several emulsifiers (Tween 80,...

  1. Vitamin E and Beta Carotene Composition in Four Different Vegetable Oils

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Some vegetable oils contains natural antioxidants such as beta carotene and vitamin E namely tocopherol and tocotrienol. Different vegetable oils contained different amount of vitamin E and β-carotene. Approach: Study was carried out to investigate the natural antioxidants (vitamin E and beta carotene) composition in four different vegetable oils [Red Palm Olein (RPO), palm plein (PO), Corn Oil (CO) and Coconut Oil (COC)]. Results: The results showe...

  2. Antithrombotic lipid minor constituents from vegetable oils. Comparison between olive oils and others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karantonis, Haralabos C; Antonopoulou, Smaragdi; Demopoulos, Constantinos A

    2002-02-27

    Many epidemiological studies suggest that vegetable oils and especially olive oil present a protective effect against atherosclerosis. In this study, total lipids (TL) of Greek olive oils and seed oils of four kinds, namely, soybean, corn, sunflower, and sesame oil, were separated into total polar lipids (TPL) and total neutral lipids (TNL) via a novel extraction procedure. TPL and TNL of olive oil were fractionated by HPLC for further study. Each lipid fraction from HPLC separation along with TL, TPL, and TNL lipid samples from oils were tested in vitro for their capacity to induce or to inhibit washed rabbit platelet aggregation. Comparison between olive and seed oils supports the superiority of olive oil as high levels of platelet activating factor (PAF) antagonists have been detected, mainly in TPL. In addition, the structure of the most active fraction from olive oil was elucidated, as a glycerol-glycolipid. Because it has already been reported that PAF plays a pivotal role in atherogenesis, the existence of PAF agonists and antagonists in vegetable oils may explain their protective role against atherosclerosis.

  3. Optimization of biodiesel production process using recycled vegetable oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo, Yarely

    Petro diesel toxic emissions and its limited resources have created an interest for the development of new energy resources, such as biodiesel. Biodiesel is traditionally produced by a transesterification reaction between vegetable oil and an alcohol in the presence of a catalyst. However, this process is slow and expensive due to the high cost of raw materials. Low costs feedstock oils such as recycled and animal fats are available but they cannot be transesterified with alkaline catalysts due to high content of free fatty acids, which can lead to undesirable reactions such as saponification. In this study, we reduce free fatty acids content by using an acid pre-treatment. We compare sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid and ptoluenesulfonic acid (PTSA) to pre-treat recycled vegetable oil. PTSA removes water after 60 minutes of treatment at room temperature or within 15 minutes at 50°C. The pretreatment was followed by a transesterification reaction using alkaline catalyst. To minimize costs and accelerate reaction, the pretreatment and transesterification reaction of recycle vegetable oil was conducted at atmospheric pressure in a microwave oven. Biodiesel was characterized using a GC-MS method.

  4. Fundamental Studies on Development of Environment Friendly Vegetable Oil Filled Transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinke, Masami; Miyazato, Kenji; Tada, Toshiharu; Takeuchi, Yasuo; Nakagami, Yoshitake; Shimizu, Rumiko; Kosaka, Masaaki; Wada, Motoo

    In order to develop the environment-friendly transformer, the rapeseed ester oil which is vegetable oil was selected as the new insulating oil and various characteristics of rapeseed ester oil were investigated experimentally. These results showed that the basic characteristics of rapeseed ester oil surpasses as compared with mineral oil.

  5. On the economics of the oil refining industry in the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynk, E.L.

    1986-01-01

    The structural changes which have occurred in the oil refinery industry in the UK have been analysed and the input and pricing decisions of refiners have been modelled in the context of petroleum products used as inputs in the production functions of firms and sectors in the economy. Using the model of pricing and input demand, several hypotheses have been tested concerning marginal cost and mark-up pricing, the technology of production, and the speed of adjustment of inputs, particularly refining capacity, toward optimal levels.

  6. Soil TPH concentration estimation using vegetation indices in an oil polluted area of eastern China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhu, Linhai; Zhao, Xuechun; Lai, Liming; Wang, Jianjian; Jiang, Lianhe; Ding, Jinzhi; Liu, Nanxi; Yu, Yunjiang; Li, Junsheng; Xiao, Nengwen; Zheng, Yuanrun; Rimmington, Glyn M

    2013-01-01

    ... (Phragmites australis) around oil wells that have been producing oil for approximately 10 years in the Yellow River Delta, eastern China to evaluate the potential of vegetation indices and red edge parameters to estimate soil oil pollution...

  7. Conversion of by-products from the vegetable oil industry into biodiesel and its use in internal combustion engines: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Piloto-Rodríguez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel produced from by-products and waste materials can be an economical way of reducing traditional oil consumption and environmental problems. The by-products from the vegetable oil refining industry such as soapstock, acid oil and fatty acid distillates are suitable for producing biodiesel. The present work is a survey related to the use of these by-products to obtain biodiesel, covering not only the traditional and most widely used acid/base catalysis, but also solid and enzymatic catalysis. Details of the techniques are presented and compared. The advantages and drawbacks of the different approaches are mentioned and analyzed. The synthesis and use of by-products from the vegetable oil refining industry are covered in this work. The use of the obtained biodiesel in diesel engines is also included, demonstrating the disparity between the number of papers related to biodiesel production and engine performance assessment.

  8. New research progress of vegetable oil-based polyurethanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjie LIU

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the latest progress for vegetable oil-based polyurethanes mainly from the view of thermoset and thermoplastic. Firstly, the modification methods for traditional thermoset polyurethane are introduced, including physical modification methods (filling and alloying and chemical modification methods (copolymerization grafting, crosslinking and interpenetrating polymer network. Materials used for physical modification mainly contain inorganic materials such as SiO2 and organic substances such as cellulose. Grafting copolymerization of styrene, acrylate and other monomers with polyurethane is the main method of chemical modification. The characteristics, preparations and application fields of thermoplastic polyurethane are reviewed, and the preparations, performances and applications of oleic acid-based thermoplastic polyurethane are chiefly presented. The development prospects of vegetable oil-based polyurethane are put forward. Surface-initiated living polymerization and other methods are used to controllable chemical modification of the traditional thermoset polyurethane and click chemistry method is uesd to promote multi-functionalization of the thermoplastic polyurethane.

  9. Feasibility of Department of Defense Used Lubricating Oil Re-refining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    solid and high molecular materials are retained. Suggested variations in the process train include hydrotreating and polymeric adsorption. The Michel ...Hydrophobic, Michel & Pelton Company, Emeryville, CA, 1983. A’ 19. Coenen, Hubert, Re-refining Used Oil by Supercritical Fluid Ex- traction, Used Oil the...3.83 22. Total hourly cost $51.65 8. Costs by operating pattern (10 4 hr; $51.65/hr) Pattern Miles Callons Cost/gal Cost/gal-mi Cost/ton-mi #1 25 6 x

  10. A Simple Refining Technique of Coconut Oil for Small Holder Industries

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    A simple refining equipment and process for small holder industries of edible coconut oil has beeninvestigated. The equipment consisted of 20-L filtering and NaOH neutralization bottles. Filtration wasintended to remove impurities such as gums and pigment, while neutralization was to remove free fattyacids (FFA) and other non-fat materials. In the experiment, the crude coconut oil was found to have impurityof 0.16%, FFA of 8.02%, saponification number of 270, and water content of 0.33%. The r...

  11. Scientific Opinion on the safety of refined Buglossoides oil as a novel food ingredient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on refined Buglossoides oil as a novel food ingredient (NFI) in the context of Regulation (EC) No 258/97. The NFI is produced from the seeds...... of the proposed conditions of use. The available information does not give concerns as regards other undesirable substances in the NFI. Available animal studies provide only limited information on the safety of the NFI. Human studies that investigated different plant oils or fatty acid ethyl esters as sources...

  12. NMR spectroscopic study on methanolysis reaction of vegetable oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fangming Jin; Kohei Kawasaki; Hisanori Kishida; Kazuyuki Tohji; Takehoko Moriya; Heiji Enomoto [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Graduate School of Environmental Studies

    2007-05-15

    This study is to clarify the pathways of the transesterification of vegetable oil by applying NMR to the identification of intermediates in the transesterification reaction. Results showed that the significant methanolysis product was sn-1,3-diglycerides in diglycerides, and sn-2-monoglycerides was not found. These analytical results suggest that the methanolysis reaction may occur easily at the sn-2-position for both sn-tri- and sn-1,2-diglycerides. Short communication. 16 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Refinement of the critical angle calculation for the contrast reversal of oil slicks under sunglint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yingcheng; Sun, Shaojie; Zhang, Minwei; Murch, Brock; Hu, Chuanmin

    2016-01-01

    It has long been observed that oil slicks under sunglint can reverse their optical contrast against nearby oil-free seawater. Such a phenomenon has been described through both empirical statistical analysis of the sunglint strength and modeled theoretically using a critical angle concept. The critical angle, in this model, is the angle at which the image pixels show no or negligible contrast between oiled and nonoiled seawater. Pixels away from this critical angle show either positive or negative contrast from the oil-free pixels. Although this concept has been fully demonstrated in the published literature, its calculation needs to be further refined to take into account: (1) the different refractive indices of oil slicks (from natural seeps) and seawater and (2) atmospheric effects in the sensor-measured radiance. Using measurements from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) over oil films in the Gulf of Mexico, we show improvement in the modeled and MODIS-derived reflectance over oil slicks originated from natural seeps after incorporating these two factors in the model. Specifically, agreement between modeled and measured sunglint reflectance is found for both negative and positive-contrasting oil slicks. These results indicate that surface roughness and reflectance from oil films can be estimated given any solar/viewing geometry and surface wind. Further, this model might be used to correct the sunglint effect on thick oil under similar illumination conditions. Once proven possible, it may allow existing laboratory-based models, which estimate oil thickness after such corrections, to be applied to remote sensing imagery.

  14. Ozonized vegetable oils and therapeutic properties: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathália R. Almeida

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Derived from ozonetherapy, the ozonized oils represent an Ozonized oils represent an interesting pharmaceutical approach to the management of a variety of dermatological pathologies. Ozone reacts with carbon-carbon double bonds of unsaturated fatty acids according to the mechanism described by Criegee, forming ozonides or 1,2,4 trioxolane rings and peroxides as the most important products, responsible for the antimicrobial activity and stimulating tissue repair and regeneration properties. The ozonized vegetable oils can be liquids or semisolids at room temperature and have stability periods that may be adequate for commercial distribuition. Ozonized sunflower oil (Oleozon®, a drug registered nationally and developed in the Ozone Research Center in Cuba has been tested and it was found to have valuable antimicrobial activity against bacteria, fungi and virus. FT-IR and NMR technics are used to confirm the structural changes undergone by oil during the ozonation. For determining the quality of ozonized oils, analytical methods such as peroxide, acidity and iodine values are usually carried out. Products are available for an alternative use of available resources, natural and renewable sources, simple technology, low cost and with extensive biological activity with reduced collateral effects. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v4i4.467

  15. Utilisation of vegetable oils in the production of lovastatin by Aspergillus terreus ATCC 20542 in submerged cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattana Sripalakit

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of vegetable oils as a supplementary carbon source during the production of lovastatin by Aspergillus terreus ATCC 20542 in submerged culture was investigated. The six vegetable oils tested were sesame oil, sunflower oil, soya bean oil, corn oil, palm oil and olive oil. Lovastatin concentration and biomass were measured. Lovastatin production was higher in several oil-containing media compared to control medium. In particular, palm oil and soya bean oil significantly improved lovastatin production. Yields with palm oil and soya bean oil were 4.5- and 1.4-fold higher respectively, compared with control. Sesame oil and corn oil, however, had a negative effect on lovastatin production. Biomass was proportional to vegetable oil concentration, but an excessive vegetable oil concentration resulted in a lower yield of lovastatin. Thus, some vegetable oils appear to be excellent adjuvants for improving efficiency of lovastatin production.

  16. Correlation of basic oil quality indices and electrical properties of model vegetable oil systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevc, Tjaša; Cigić, Blaž; Vidrih, Rajko; Poklar Ulrih, Nataša; Šegatin, Nataša

    2013-11-27

    Model vegetable oil mixtures with significantly different basic oil quality indices (free fatty acid, iodine, and Totox values) were prepared by adding oleic acids, synthetic saturated triglycerides, or oxidized safflower oil ( Carthamus tinctorius ) to the oleic type of sunflower oil. Dielectric constants, dielectric loss factors, quality factors, and electrical conductivities of model lipids were determined at frequencies from 50 Hz to 2 MHz and at temperatures from 293.15 to 323.15 K. The dependence of these dielectric parameters on basic oil quality indices was investigated. Adding oleic acids to sunflower oil resulted in lower dielectric constants and conductivities and higher quality factors. Reduced iodine values resulted in increased dielectric constants and quality factors and decreased conductivities. Higher Totox values resulted in higher dielectric constants and conductivities at high frequencies and lower quality factors. Dielectric constants decreased linearly with temperature, whereas conductivities followed the Arrhenius law.

  17. Comparison of oil refining and biodiesel production process between screw press and n-hexane techniques from beauty leaf feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiya, M. M. K.; Rasul, M. G.; Khan, M. M. K.; Ashwath, N.

    2016-07-01

    The Beauty Leaf Tree (Callophylum inophyllum) is regarded as an alternative source of energy to produce 2nd generation biodiesel due to its potentiality as well as high oil yield content in the seed kernels. The treating process is indispensable during the biodiesel production process because it can augment the yield as well as quality of the product. Oil extracted from both mechanical screw press and solvent extraction using n-hexane was refined. Five replications each of 25 gm of crude oil for screw press and five replications each of 25 gm of crude oil for n-hexane were selected for refining as well as biodiesel conversion processes. The oil refining processes consists of degumming, neutralization as well as dewaxing. The degumming, neutralization and dewaxing processes were performed to remove all the gums (phosphorous-based compounds), free fatty acids, and waxes from the fresh crude oil before the biodiesel conversion process carried out, respectively. The results indicated that up to 73% and 81% of mass conversion efficiency of the refined oil in the screw press and n-hexane refining processes were obtained, respectively. It was also found that up to 88% and 90% of biodiesel were yielded in terms of mass conversion efficiency in the transesterification process for the screw press and n-hexane techniques, respectively. While the entire processes (refining and transesterification) were considered, the conversion of beauty leaf tree (BLT) refined oil into biodiesel was yielded up to 65% and 73% of mass conversion efficiency for the screw press and n-hexane techniques, respectively. Physico-chemical properties of crude and refined oil, and biodiesel were characterized according to the ASTM standards. Overall, BLT has the potential to contribute as an alternative energy source because of high mass conversion efficiency.

  18. Application Closed-End Oscillating Heat Pipe for Essential Oil Condensation of the Small Scale Essential Oil Refiner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakultala WANNAPAKHE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to investigate the design and building of a small scale essential oil refiner by using heat pipes for essential oil condensation. The device structure of the small scale essential oil refiner was divided into 3 sections as follows: 1 the boiler with a heater for heating, 2 the vapor tube, and 3 the condenser unit. Three patterns of condenser unit were investigated: 1 condensation by water circulation, 2 condensation using heat pipes, and 3 condensation using heat pipes with water circulation. The temperature for testing was 80, 90 and 100 °C. A closed-end oscillating heat pipe (CEOHP was used in this research. The inner diameter of the heat pipe was 2 mm. R123 was used as the working fluid. 500 g of kaffir lime peels were used for each test with a time of 2 hours. It was found that the highest quantity of essential oil was 1.4 cc when using a CEOHP with a water circulation unit at 100 °C.

  19. Unrefined and refined black raspberry seed oils significantly lower triglycerides and moderately affect cholesterol metabolism in male Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Mark M; Wolford, Kate A; Carden, Trevor J; Hwang, Keum Taek; Carr, Timothy P

    2011-09-01

    Unrefined and refined black raspberry seed oils (RSOs) were examined for their lipid-modulating effects in male Syrian hamsters fed high-cholesterol (0.12% g/g), high-fat (9% g/g) diets. Hamsters fed the refined and the unrefined RSO diets had equivalently lower plasma total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in comparison with the atherogenic coconut oil diet. The unrefined RSO treatment group did not differ in liver total and esterified cholesterol from the coconut oil-fed control animals, but the refined RSO resulted in significantly elevated liver total and esterified cholesterol concentrations. The unrefined RSO diets significantly lowered plasma triglycerides (46%; P=.0126) in comparison with the coconut oil diet, whereas the refined RSO only tended to lower plasma triglyceride (29%; P=.1630). Liver triglyceride concentrations were lower in the unrefined (46%; P=.0002) and refined (36%; P=.0005) RSO-fed animals than the coconut oil group, with the unrefined RSO diet eliciting a lower concentration than the soybean oil diet. Both RSOs demonstrated a null or moderate effect on cholesterol metabolism despite enrichment in linoleic acid, significantly lowering HDL cholesterol but not non-HDL cholesterol. Dramatically, both RSOs significantly reduced hypertriglyceridemia, most likely due to enrichment in α-linolenic acid. As a terrestrial source of α-linolenic acid, black RSOs, both refined and unrefined, provide a promising alternative to fish oil supplementation in management of hypertriglyceridemia, as demonstrated in hamsters fed high levels of dietary triglyceride and cholesterol.

  20. Disinfection of vegetable seed by treatment with essential oils, organic acids and plant extract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, van der J.M.; Birnbaum, Y.E.; Zouwen, van der P.S.; Groot, S.P.C.

    2008-01-01

    Various essential oils, organic acids, Biosept, (grapefruit extract), Tillecur and extracts of stinging nettle and golden rod were tested for their antimicrobial properties in order to disinfect vegetable seed. In in vitro assays, thyme oil, oregano oil, cinnamon oil, clove oil and Biosept had the h

  1. Refining Technology of Milk Thistle Seed Oil%水飞蓟籽油精炼工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王维敏; 梁霄; 梁宗锁; 梁慧珂; 顾雪; 张震环

    2012-01-01

    Technologies of refining the oil of Silybum marianum (milk thistle) seed were optimized to a-chieve the comprehensive utilization of the seed. Taking the mechanical pressing oil as raw material, technological conditions in the three refining procedures were examined by single and orthogonal experiments. Ths three stages included removing free acid by bases, decoloration by activated clay, and deodorization by steam distillation. Changes of bioactive constituents were also monitored by measuring the content of standard constituent silibin with HPLC. The results showed that in the free acid revoving procedure, the concentration of sodium hydroxide was 10%, the percentage of extra alkali addition was 0. 15%, and the neutralization time and temperature were 25 min 60°C , respectively. For decoloration, the optimal conditions were amount of the addition of activated caly: 4%, time: 25 min, temperature: 100 °C. Two hours introduction of steam could effectively remove the odor of crude oil. The content of silymarin in refined oil was 0. 247 mg · g-1, the loss rate was 11. 47%. After refining, the physical and chemical properties of the oil all meet the standards of edible vegetable oil.f%为了提高水飞蓟籽的综合利用率,研究水飞蓟籽油精炼的优化工艺.以机械压榨水飞蓟籽油为原料,分别采用单因素、多因素正交试验,系统研究了碱炼脱酸、活性白土脱色及水蒸气蒸馏脱臭的工艺条件,并以水飞蓟宾为标准,使用HPLC检测精炼前后水飞蓟素的含量.优化研究结果表明:超量碱0.15%,氢氧化钠浓度10%,中和时间25 min,中和温度60℃为碱炼脱酸最适条件;在活性白土添加量4%,脱色时间25 min,脱色温度100℃的条件下脱色效果最好;通入水蒸气2h可有效去除毛油在高温时容易产生的臭味;精炼油的水飞蓟素含量为0.247 mg·g-1,其水飞蓟素的损失率为11.47%.精炼后各项理化指标经检测符合食用植物油标准,

  2. Replacing Fish Oil with Vegetable Oils in Salmon Feed Increases Hepatic Lipid Accumulation and Reduces Insulin Sensitivity in Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtbø, Lisa Kolden

    %) of FO with different vegetable oils (VOs); rape seed oil (WDRO), olive oil (WD-OO) or soybean oil (WD-SO). These diets were given to C57BL/6J mice, and mice had higher hepatic lipid accumulation and lower insulin sensitivity when given WD-SO compared with WD-FO. Mice given WD-SO had higher hepatic...

  3. Comparative Study on Accelerated Thermal Ageing of Vegetable Insulating Oil-paperboard and Mineral Oil-paperboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhu-Jun; Hu, Ting; Cheng, Lin; Tian, Kai; Yang, Jun; Wang, Xuan; Fang, Fu-Xin; Kong, Hai-Yang; Qian, Hang

    2016-05-01

    To comparatively study the insulation ageing life of vegetable insulating oil-paperboard and mineral oil-paperboard, we conducted accelerated thermal ageing experiments at 170°C. Then according to the temperature rise of vegetable insulating oil transformer, we conducted accelerated thermal ageing experiments at 150°C for vegetable insulating oil-paperboard and at 140°C for mineral oil-paperboard. The appearance, polymerization degree, and SEM microstructure of the paperboard after different ageing experiments were comparative analyzed. The results show that after the oil-paperboard system is accelerated ageing for 1 000 h at 170°C, that is equivalent to 20 years natural ageing, the structure of paperboard in vegetable insulating oil is damaged severely, which indicates that the lifetime of transformer are in the late stage; while the structure of paperboard in mineral oil maintain complete, and the polymerization degree is still above 500, which indicate that the lifetime of transformer are in the middle stage. The accelerated ageing rate of the vegetable insulating oil-paperboard system at 150°C is slower than that of the mineral oil-paperboard system, which indicates that the lifetime of the vegetable insulating oil-paperboard is longer than that of the mineral oil-paperboard.

  4. Heavy metal absorbing Thioether-functionalized ligands derived from vegetable oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulfur-functionalized vegetable oils containing thioether groups have been shown to effectively remove Ag+ from aqueous solution. Interestingly, the absorption capacity differs depending upon the choice of which vegetable oil precursor is functionalized. In this study, we will provide data for oils ...

  5. Production of Biodiesel from Vegetable Oil Using Microware Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kapilan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The petroleum oil supply crisis, the increase in demand and the price eruption have led to a search for an alternative fuel of bio-origin in India. Among the alternative fuels, biodiesel is considered as a sustainable renewable alternative fuel to fossil diesel. Non-edible jatropha oil has considerable potential for the production of biodiesel in India. The production of biodiesel from jatropha oil using a conventional heating method takes more than 1h. In this work, microwave irradiation has been used as a source of heat for the transesterification reaction. A domestic microwave oven was modified and used for microwave heating of the reactants. The time taken for biodiesel production using microwave irradiation was 1 min. The fuel property analysis shows that the properties of jatropha oil biodiesel satisfy the biodiesel standards, and are close to the fossil diesel standards. From this work, it is concluded that biodiesel can be produced from vegetable oil using microwave irradiation, with a significant reduction in production time.

  6. Vegetable Oil-Based Hyperbranched Thermosetting Polyurethane/Clay Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deka Harekrishna

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The highly branched polyurethanes and vegetable oil-based polymer nanocomposites have been showing fruitful advantages across a spectrum of potential field of applications.Mesua ferreaL. seed oil-based hyperbranched polyurethane (HBPU/clay nanocomposites were prepared at different dose levels by in situ polymerization technique. The performances of epoxy-cured thermosetting nanocomposites are reported for the first time. The partially exfoliated structure of clay layers was confirmed by XRD and TEM. FTIR spectra indicate the presence of H bonding between nanoclay and the polymer matrix. The present investigation outlines the significant improvement of tensile strength, scratch hardness, thermostability, water vapor permeability, and adhesive strength without much influencing impact resistance, bending, and elongation at break of the nanocomposites compared to pristine HBPU thermoset. An increment of two times the tensile strength, 6 °C of melting point, and 111 °C of thermo-stability were achieved by the formation of nanocomposites. An excellent shape recovery of about 96–99% was observed for the nanocomposites. Thus, the formation of partially exfoliated clay/vegetable oil-based hyperbranched polyurethane nanocomposites significantly improved the performance.

  7. Vegetable Oil-Based Hyperbranched Thermosetting Polyurethane/Clay Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deka, Harekrishna; Karak, Niranjan

    2009-07-01

    The highly branched polyurethanes and vegetable oil-based polymer nanocomposites have been showing fruitful advantages across a spectrum of potential field of applications. Mesua ferrea L. seed oil-based hyperbranched polyurethane (HBPU)/clay nanocomposites were prepared at different dose levels by in situ polymerization technique. The performances of epoxy-cured thermosetting nanocomposites are reported for the first time. The partially exfoliated structure of clay layers was confirmed by XRD and TEM. FTIR spectra indicate the presence of H bonding between nanoclay and the polymer matrix. The present investigation outlines the significant improvement of tensile strength, scratch hardness, thermostability, water vapor permeability, and adhesive strength without much influencing impact resistance, bending, and elongation at break of the nanocomposites compared to pristine HBPU thermoset. An increment of two times the tensile strength, 6 °C of melting point, and 111 °C of thermo-stability were achieved by the formation of nanocomposites. An excellent shape recovery of about 96-99% was observed for the nanocomposites. Thus, the formation of partially exfoliated clay/vegetable oil-based hyperbranched polyurethane nanocomposites significantly improved the performance.

  8. Effect of methanol extracts of rosemary and olive vegetable water on the stability of olive oil and sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamel, T. H.

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Effect of methanol extracts of rosemary and olive vegetable water on the stability of olive oil and sunflower oil. Methanol phenolic extracts of dry rosemary leaves and olive vegetable water filtrate, in combination with BHA, were added to olive oil (blend of refined and virgin olive oil, 3 to 1 and to sunflower oil and their antioxidant effects under accelerated conditions were evaluated. Accelerated conditions included the oven test (at 63 °C and the conductivity method (Rancimat at 120 °C. Frying process at 180 °C was also applied. The methanol phenolic extracts and the BHA were added to each oil at the following concentrations: 200 ppm rosemary extract; 200 ppm olive vegetable water extract; 100 ppm rosemary extract + 100 ppm BHA; 100 ppm vegetable water extract + 100 ppm BHA and 200 ppm BHA. In general, antioxidant effect of phenolic additives of rosemary and of BHA was in the following order: 200 ppm rosemary extract > 100 ppm rosemary extract + 100 ppm BHA > and 200 ppm BHA. The addition of 200 ppm vegetable water extract and 100 ppm vegetable water extract + 100 ppm BHA exhibited similar antioxidant effect to that of 200 ppm BHA.

    Extractos metanólicos de fenoles de hojas secas de romero y filtrados de agua de vegetación de la aceituna, en combinación con BHA, se añadieron al aceite de oliva (mezcla de aceite de oliva refinado y virgen, 3 a 1 y al aceite de girasol, evaluándose sus efectos antioxidantes usando condiciones aceleradas. Estas condiciones incluyeron el test del horno de oxidación (a 63 °C y el método de conductividad (Rancimat a 120 °C. También se aplicó al proceso de fritura a 180 °C. Los extractos metanólicos de fenoles y el BHA se añadieron a cada aceite en las siguientes concentraciones: 200 ppm de extracto de romero, 200 ppm de extracto de agua de vegetación de la aceituna, 100 ppm de extracto de romero + 100 ppm de BHA, 100 ppm de extracto de agua de vegetación + 100 ppm de BHA y 200 ppm de BHA

  9. Effect of vegetable oils on fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of chicken frankfurters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belichovska, D.; Pejkovski, Z.; Belichovska, K.; Uzunoska, Z.; Silovska-Nikolova, A.

    2017-09-01

    To study the effect of pork adipose tissue substitution with vegetable oils in chicken frankfurters, six frankfurter formulations were produced: control; with pork backfat; with olive oil; with rapeseed oil; with sunflower oil; with palm oil, and; with a mixture of 12% rapeseed oil and 8% palm oil. Fatty acid composition and cholesterol content and some oxides thereof were determined in the final products. The use of vegetable oils resulted in improvement of the fatty acid composition and nutritional of frankfurters. Frankfurters with vegetable oils contained significantly less cholesterol and some of its oxides, compared to the frankfurters with pork fat. The formulation with palm oil had the least favourable fatty acid composition. The use of 12% rapeseed oil improved the ratio of fatty acids in frankfurters with a mixture of rapeseed and palm oils. Complete pork fat replacement with vegetable oils in chicken frankfurter production is technologically possible. The mixture of 12% rapeseed oil and 8% palm oil is a good alternative to pork fat from health aspects. Further research is needed to find the most appropriate mixture of vegetable oils, which will produce frankfurters with good sensory characteristics, a more desirable fatty acid ratio and high nutritional value.

  10. Review of Heterogeneous Catalysts for Catalytically Upgrading Vegetable Oils into Hydrocarbon Biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianhui Zhao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available To address the issues of greenhouse gas emissions associated with fossil fuels, vegetable oilseeds, especially non-food oilseeds, are used as an alternative fuel resource. Vegetable oil derived from these oilseeds can be upgraded into hydrocarbon biofuel. Catalytic cracking and hydroprocessing are two of the most promising pathways for converting vegetable oil to hydrocarbon biofuel. Heterogeneous catalysts play a critical role in those processes. The present review summarizes current progresses and remaining challenges of vegetable oil upgrading to biofuel. The catalyst properties, applications, deactivation, and regeneration are reviewed. A comparison of catalysts used in vegetable oil and bio-oil upgrading is also carried out. Some suggestions for heterogeneous catalysts applied in vegetable oil upgrading to improve the yield and quality of hydrocarbon biofuel are provided for further research in the future.

  11. Tariff Impact on the Domestic Price of Vegetable Oil in Iran and the Associated Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    omid gilanpour

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study uses vector error correction model to examine the effects of oilseeds, crude oil and vegetable oil tariffs on vegetable oil consumer price. Monthly data sets for the years 2004-2013 and VAR and VECM models were applied for this study. Research findings indicates only a long term equilibrium relation between the study variables .The effect of vegetable oil tariffs on consumer and producer price index are 0.4 and 0.07, respectively. Furthermore, one percent increase in the oil seeds and crude oil tariff, will increase consumer prices by 2.35, 0.19percent. The huge gap between the impacts of the two tariffs –e.g. oilseeds and crude oil tariffs- on consumer price shows that oil industries work with low efficiency. This practically doubles the impact of tariff on consumers. Accordingly, structural reform in the oil industry can develop oil production and prevent additional burden upon the consumer price.

  12. Detection and quantification of adulteration of sesame oils with vegetable oils using gas chromatography and multivariate data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Dan; Bi, Yanlan; Ren, Xiaona; Yang, Guolong; Sun, Shangde; Wang, Xuede

    2015-12-01

    This study was performed to develop a hierarchical approach for detection and quantification of adulteration of sesame oil with vegetable oils using gas chromatography (GC). At first, a model was constructed to discriminate the difference between authentic sesame oils and adulterated sesame oils using support vector machine (SVM) algorithm. Then, another SVM-based model is developed to identify the type of adulterant in the mixed oil. At last, prediction models for sesame oil were built for each kind of oil using partial least square method. To validate this approach, 746 samples were prepared by mixing authentic sesame oils with five types of vegetable oil. The prediction results show that the detection limit for authentication is as low as 5% in mixing ratio and the root-mean-square errors for prediction range from 1.19% to 4.29%, meaning that this approach is a valuable tool to detect and quantify the adulteration of sesame oil.

  13. Oil Secretory System in Vegetative Organs of Three Arnica Taxa: Essential Oil Synthesis, Distribution and Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kromer, Krystyna; Kreitschitz, Agnieszka; Kleinteich, Thomas; Gorb, Stanislav N; Szumny, Antoni

    2016-05-01

    Arnica, a genus including the medicinal species A. montana, in its Arbo variety, and A. chamissonis, is among the plants richest in essential oils used as pharmaceutical materials. Despite its extensive use, the role of anatomy and histochemistry in the internal secretory system producing the essential oil is poorly understood. Anatomical sections allowed differentiation between two forms of secretory structures which differ according to their distribution in plants. The first axial type is connected to the vascular system of all vegetative organs and forms canals lined with epithelial cells. The second cortical type is represented by elongated intercellular spaces filled with oil formed only between the cortex cells of roots and rhizomes at maturity, with canals lacking an epithelial layer.Only in A. montana rhizomes do secretory structures form huge characteristic reservoirs. Computed tomography illustrates their spatial distribution and fusiform shape. The axial type of root secretory canals is formed at the interface between the endodermis and cortex parenchyma, while, in the stem, they are located in direct contact with veinal parenchyma. The peripheral phloem parenchyma cells are arranged in strands around sieve tube elements which possess a unique ability to accumulate large amounts of oil bodies. The cells of phloem parenchyma give rise to the aforementioned secretory structures while the lipid components (triacylglycerols) stored there support the biosynthesis of essential oils by later becoming a medium in which these oils are dissolved. The results indicate the integrity of axial secretory structures forming a continuous system in vegetative plant organs.

  14. Development of building blocks using vegetable oil and recycled aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attia Mohamed I.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this research was to contribute towards greater sustainability of the construction industry in the Qatar by proposing methods to reduce its dependency on primary imported materials. In this investigation, recycled and secondary aggregates (RSA were combined with non-traditional binders to develop a unique method of manufacturing construction and building blocks. Following an extensive phase of laboratory trials and experimentation, it was realised that many types of graded mineral aggregates, when mixed with vegetable oils (virgin or waste at optimal proportions, then compacted and thermally cured at elevated temperatures can readily generate hardened composites that have the mechanical characteristics of conventional building blocks. The resultant blocks have been named “Vegeblocks” and are viewed as viable alternatives to conventional concrete blocks. Furthermore, the research has demonstrated the feasibility of producing Vegeblocks composed of 100% recycled aggregate and discarded waste cooking oil. Based on physical and mineralogical properties, each type of aggregate has an optimum oil content for maximum compressive strength, beyond which, any additional oil will result in reduction in mechanical properties. Acceptable compressive strength values were achieved by thermally curing Vegeblocks at of 170 °C for 24 hours.

  15. Natural (Mineral, Vegetable, Coconut, Essential) Oils and Contact Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verallo-Rowell, Vermén M; Katalbas, Stephanie S; Pangasinan, Julia P

    2016-07-01

    Natural oils include mineral oil with emollient, occlusive, and humectant properties and the plant-derived essential, coconut, and other vegetable oils, composed of triglycerides that microbiota lipases hydrolyze into glycerin, a potent humectant, and fatty acids (FAs) with varying physico-chemical properties. Unsaturated FAs have high linoleic acid used for synthesis of ceramide-I linoleate, a barrier lipid, but more pro-inflammatory omega-6:-3 ratios above 10:1, and their double bonds form less occlusive palisades. VCO FAs have a low linoleic acid content but shorter and saturated FAs that form a more compact palisade, more anti-inflammatory omega-6:-3 ratio of 2:1, close to 7:1 of olive oil, which disrupts the skin barrier, otherwise useful as a penetration enhancer. Updates on the stratum corneum illustrate how this review on the contrasting actions of NOs provide information on which to avoid and which to select for barrier repair and to lower inflammation in contact dermatitis genesis.

  16. Determination of saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons in vegetable oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez Coca, R.B.; Cert, R.; Perez Camino, M.C.; Moreda, W.

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this work is to inform about the development of a simple and reliable off-line method for the determination of saturated hydrocarbons (SH) in vegetable oils. SH can be used as markers for fuel or for mineral oil contamination in edible oils and fats. The method consists of the isolation of the fraction by LC on deactivated silver-silica gel and subsequent on-column GC-FID analysis. This stationary phase was prepared avoiding any kind of activation. The method was developed and validated through the participation in both a proficiency test organized by the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, and a collaborative trial carried out with trained Spanish laboratories according to the standard ISO 5725. Results showed acceptable repeatability and reproducibility values, and Horrat index, being this protocol in use with satisfactory results ever since. The method’s LOQ is 15 mg·kg–1 and its LOD 5 mg·kg–1, which make it suitable to quantify the 50 mg·kg–1 limit established by the EU, and to detect mineral oil content within the 10–500 mg·kg–1 range. Although other procedures with lower LOD have been developed throughout the years, the use of just regular laboratory equipment such as GC-FID makes the proposed method appropriate for application on a routine basis. (Author)

  17. Vegetable oils as hydraulic fluids for agricultural applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza, G.; Igartua, A.; Fernandez-Diaz, B.; Urquiola, F.; Vivanco, S.; Arguizoniz, R.

    2011-07-01

    The formulation of environmentally friendly lubricants following the criterion of the European EcoLabel is expensive owing to the lack of technological development in this area. The present work deals with the development of lubricant formulations from vegetable oils, in particular using high oleic sunflower oil as base fluid. These new biolubricants have to perform as good as the reference lubricants used in the real application (an agricultural tractor) but with the additional condition and value of their biodegradability without toxicity. Formulation development has been performed by Verkol Lubricantes, involving the selection of the base oil and the design of the additive package. The investigation performed by Tekniker in the laboratory has covered different aspects, characterizing the most important physicochemical properties of the lubricants, including their behavior at low temperatures and their resistance to oxidation. The ribological properties of the new biolubricants have also been studied, analyzing their ability to protect the interacting surface from wear, as well as the level of friction generated during sliding. Moreover, the compatibility of the new formulated oil with all the seals present in the real application has been taken into consideration. The selected lubricant is now being tested in agricultural machinery from AGRIA. (Author).

  18. Application of vegetable oils in the treatment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, C L; Gan, S; Ng, H K

    2010-05-15

    A brief review is conducted on the application of vegetable oils in the treatment of PAH-contaminated soils. Three main scopes of treatment strategies are discussed in this work including soil washing by oil, integrated oil-biological treatment and integrated oil-non-biological treatment. For each of these, the arguments supporting vegetable oil application, the applied treatment techniques and their efficiencies, associated factors, as well as the feasibility of the techniques are detailed. Additionally, oil regeneration, the environmental impacts of oil residues in soil and comparison with other commonly employed techniques are also discussed.

  19. Science, technology and environmental demands: innovations in oil refining process; Ciencia, tecnologia e demandas ambientais: inovacoes nos processos de refino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Adalberto Mantovani Martiniano de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Programa de Pos-graduacao do Departamento de Politica Cientifica e Tecnologica

    2003-07-01

    This paper consists in a survey about changes in oil refining technologies caused by an increase of external environmental restrictions, that create demands for innovations related to the reduction of environmental impacts in refining processes and products. The environmental restrictions considered in this paper include state regulation, like the control over solid and gas wastes and the control over levels of air pollutants on refined products. Another group of restrictions include market restrictions, mainly the restrictions for obtaining 'green' quality labels, like ISO 14000. The paper will show the main environmental restrictions for the Paulinia Refinery (REPLAN), and its reaction in introducing innovations in refining processes. Some aspects of the innovations observed will be described, like the kind of innovation (process or product), the institutions that created innovations and their resources, the knowledge fields applied, and another characteristics for the evaluation of environmental influence over the development on oil refining innovations. (author)

  20. Delivery of Vegetable Oil Suspensions in a Shear Thinning Fluid for Enhanced Bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Lirong; Truex, Michael J.; Kananizadeh, Negin; Li, Yusong; Lea, Alan S.; Yan, Xiulan

    2015-04-01

    In situ anaerobic biological processes are widely applied for dechlorination of chlorinated solvents in groundwater. A wide range of organic substrates have been tested and applied to support the dechlorination processes. Vegetable oils are a promising substrate and have been shown to induce effective dechlorination, have limited geochemical impacts, and good longevity. Distribution of vegetable oil in the subsurface, because it is a non-aqueous phase material, has typically been addressed by creating emulsified oil solutions. In this study, inexpensive waste vegetable oils were suspended in a xanthan gum solution, a shear-thinning fluid, as an alternative oil delivery mechanism. The stability, oil droplet size and distribution, and rheological behavior of the oil suspensions that are created in the xanthan solutions were studied in batch experiments. The injectability of the suspensions and oil distribution in porous medium were evaluated in column tests. Numerical modeling of the oil droplet transport and distribution in porous media was conducted to help interpret the column-test data. Batch studies showed that simple mixing of vegetable oil and xanthan solution produced stable suspensions of the oil as micron-size droplets. The mixture rheology retains shear-thinning properties that facilitate improved uniformity of substrate distribution in heterogeneous aquifers. Column tests demonstrated successful injection of the vegetable oil suspension into porous medium. This study provided evidence that vegetable oil suspensions in xanthan are a potential substrate to support in situ anaerobic bioremediation with favorable injection properties.

  1. On the Mineral and Vegetal Oils Used as Electroinsulation in Transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şerban, Mariana; Sângeorzan, Livia; Helerea, Elena

    Due to the relatively large availability and reduced price, the mineral transformer oils are widely used as electrical insulating liquids. However, mineral oil drastically degrades over time in service. New efforts were made to improve mineral oils characteristics, and other types of liquids like vegetal oils are proposed. This paper deals with new comparative tests on mineral and vegetal oils using as indicator the electric strength. The samples of non-additive mineral oil type TR 30 and vegetal oils of rape, sunflower and corn have been tested with increasing voltage of 60 Hz using different electrodes. The obtained data have been statistical processed. The analyze shows different average values of electrical strength for the different type of sample. New method of testing through electrical breakdown is proposed. Experimental data confirms that it is possible to use as electroinsulation organic vegetal oils in power transformers.

  2. Methods of refining and producing dibasic esters and acids from natural oil feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snead, Thomas E; Cohen, Steven A; Gildon, Demond L

    2015-04-07

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing dibasic esters and/or dibasic acids. The methods comprise reacting a terminal olefin with an internal olefin in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a dibasic ester and/or dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin esters are formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having olefin esters.

  3. Methods of refining and producing dibasic esters and acids from natural oil feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snead, Thomas E.; Cohen, Steven A.; Gildon, Demond L.

    2016-03-15

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing dibasic esters and/or dibasic acids. The methods comprise reacting a terminal olefin with an internal olefin in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a dibasic ester and/or dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin esters are formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having olefin esters.

  4. Methods of refining and producing dibasic esters and acids from natural oil feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snead, Thomas E; Cohen, Steven A; Gildon, Demond L

    2015-04-07

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing dibasic esters and/or dibasic acids. The methods comprise reacting a terminal olefin with an internal olefin in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a dibasic ester and/or dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin esters are formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having olefin esters.

  5. Kolkhoung (Pistacia khinjuk Hull Oil and Kernel Oil as Antioxidative Vegetable Oils with High Oxidative Stability and Nutritional Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Asnaashari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, in order to introduce natural antioxidative vegetable oil in food industry, the kolkhoung hull oil and kernel oil were extracted. To evaluate their antioxidant efficiency, gas chromatography analysis of the composition of kolkhoung hull and kernel oil fatty acids and high–performance liquid chromatography analysis of tocopherols were done. Also, the oxidative stability of the oil was considered based on the peroxide value and anisidine value during heating at 100, 110 and 120 °C. Gas chromatography analysis showed that oleic acid was the major fatty acid of both types of oil (hull and kernel and based on a low content of saturated fatty acids, high content of monounsaturated fatty acids, and the ratio of ω-6 and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, they were nutritionally well-balanced. Moreover, both hull and kernel oil showed high oxidative stability during heating, which can be attributed to high content of tocotrienols. Based on the results, kolkhoung hull oil acted slightly better than its kernel oil. However, both of them can be added to oxidation–sensitive oils to improve their shelf life.

  6. Methods of refining natural oils and methods of producing fuel compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firth, Bruce E; Kirk, Sharon E; Gavaskar, Vasudeo S

    2015-11-04

    A method of refining a natural oil includes: (a) providing a feedstock that includes a natural oil; (b) reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a metathesized product that includes olefins and esters; (c) passivating residual metathesis catalyst with an agent selected from the group consisting of phosphorous acid, phosphinic acid, and a combination thereof; (d) separating the olefins in the metathesized product from the esters in the metathesized product; and (e) transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product and/or hydrogenating the olefins to form a fully or partially saturated hydrogenated product. Methods for suppressing isomerization of olefin metathesis products produced in a metathesis reaction, and methods of producing fuel compositions are described.

  7. Methods of refining natural oils, and methods of producing fuel compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firth, Bruce E.; Kirk, Sharon E.

    2015-10-27

    A method of refining a natural oil includes: (a) providing a feedstock that includes a natural oil; (b) reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a metathesized product that includes olefins and esters; (c) passivating residual metathesis catalyst with an agent that comprises nitric acid; (d) separating the olefins in the metathesized product from the esters in the metathesized product; and (e) transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product and/or hydrogenating the olefins to form a fully or partially saturated hydrogenated product. Methods for suppressing isomerization of olefin metathesis products produced in a metathesis reaction, and methods of producing fuel compositions are described.

  8. First Brazilian patent for dielectric vegetable oil for transformers; Primeira patente brasileira de oleo dieletrico vegetal para transformadores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carioca, Jose O.B.; Carvalho, Paulo C.M.; Correa, Raimundo G.C.; Bernardo, Francisco A.B. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Coelho Junior, Luiz G. [2 Companhia Energetica do Ceara (COELCE), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Abreu, Rosa F.A. [Universidade Estadual do Ceara (UECE), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The present paper discuss the development of different insulating oils for electric power transformers during the last hundred years and analyze comparatively the potential for the use of vegetable oils as a source for green dielectric oils, due to its high level of biodegradability, nontoxic, material compatibility, good electric strength and insulation properties, long-term oxidative and thermal stability, relatively low pour point and reasonable cost. Based on these premises, the authors developed a new type of insulating fluid based on Brazilian vegetable oils never used before for this purpose. This product is competitive with similar and patented products developed from canola and soya vegetable oils. Recently a new patent related with the process for the production of this fluid was submitted to the World Industrial Property Organization - WIPO. (author)

  9. Changes occurring in vegetable oils composition due to microwave heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan El-Mallah, M.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of microwave heating on three vegetable oils having different lipid compositions was studied. Sunflower, soybean and peanut oils in comparison with oil admixture of soybean and peanut oil (1:1, w/w, were selected for this study. Each oil was heated for 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 15 and 18 minutes in microwave oven. Peroxide value, free acidity and colour absorbance (at 420 nm were proportionally increasing with the increase of heating period. Colour absorption threw light on the formation of browning products arising from phospholipids during microwave heating. Total tocopherol contents were determined by preparative thin layer chromatography, whereas the fatty acid compositions and formed epoxy acid were analyzed by capillary gas liquid chromatography. The formed conjugated dienes and trienes were determined by UV spectrophotometry. It was found that the total tocopherols of the microwave heated oils, decreased depending on the type of the predominating tocopherols. Also a relation of peroxide formation, during microwave heating, with changes in total tocopherol composition was discussed. It was found that polyunsaturated fatty acids generally decreased by increasing the heating period. The results obtained from the heated oil admixture helped interpret the results obtained from other heated individual oils.Se estudia el efecto del calentamiento en horno de microondas sobre aceites de diferente composición en ácidos grasos. Aceites de girasol, soja, cacahuete y una mezcla de soja y cacahuete al 50%, se calentaron durante 2, 4, 6, 8 10, 12, 15 y 18 minutos. Los valores de índice de peróxidos, acidez libre y absorbancia a 420 nm fueron proporcionales al tiempo de calentamiento. Otras determinaciones incluyeron el contenido total en tocoferoles mediante cromatografía en capa fina, la composición en ácidos grasos y en epoxiácidos mediante cromatografía gas líquido, y la formación de dienos y trienos conjugados mediante

  10. Biodegradation and toxicity of vegetable oils in contaminated aquatic environments: Effect of antioxidants and oil composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, Darine A; Suidan, Makram T; Venosa, Albert D

    2016-03-15

    Antioxidants may affect the oxidative rate of vegetable oils determining their fate and impact in contaminated aquatic media. In previous studies, we demonstrated the effectiveness of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), one of the most used antioxidants in edible oils, in enhancing the biodegradation of glyceryl trilinoleate, a pure triacylglycerol of cis,cis-9,12-octadecadienoic acid (C18:2 delta), through retarding its oxidative polymerization relatively to the oil with no added antioxidant. In this study, the effect of BHT on the biodegradation and toxicity of purified canola oil, a mixed-acid triacylglycerol with high C18:1 content, was investigated in respirometric microcosms and by use of the Microtox® assay. Investigations were carried out in the absence and presence (200 mg kg(-1)) of the antioxidant, and at an oil loading of 0.31 L m(-2) (333 gal acre(-1)). Substantial oil mineralization was achieved after 16 weeks of incubation (>77%) and was not significantly different (p>0.05) between the two BHT treatments, demonstrating an important role of the oil fatty acid composition in determining the potency of antioxidants and, consequently, the fate of spilled vegetable oils. Furthermore, for both treatments, toxicity was measured at early stages of the experiments and disappeared at a later stage of incubation. The observed transient toxicity was associated with the combined effect of toxic biodegradation intermediates and autoxidation products. These results were supported by the gradual disappearance of BHT in the microcosms initially supplemented with the antioxidant, reaching negligible amounts after only 2 weeks of incubation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization of Fatty Acid Profile of Argan Oil and Other Edible Vegetable Oils by Gas Chromatography and Discriminant Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ascensión Rueda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Virgin argan oil is an emergent oil that is being introduced into specialized international markets as a healthy and luxury food. In order to compare the fatty acid composition of argan oil with that of the eleven other vegetable edible oils, a combination of gas chromatography as analytical technique and multivariate discriminant analysis was applied. This analysis takes into account the conjoint effect of all the variables analyzed in the discrimination between oils and also shows the contribution of each variable to oils characterization. The model correctly classified 100% oil samples. According to the fatty acid composition, argan oil showed closest similarity firstly with sesame oil and secondly with high oleic sunflower oil. Olive oil was close to avocado oil and almond oil, followed by argan oil. Thus, similarities and differences between vegetable oils based on their fatty acid profile were established by the application of multivariate discriminant analysis. This method was proven to be a useful tool to study the relationships between oils according to the fat composition and to determine the importance of the fatty acid variables on the oils classification.

  12. Heat Transfer Properties of a Series of Oxidized and Unoxidized Vegetable Oils in Comparison with Petroleum Oil-Based Quenchants

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Ester Carvalho; Canale, Lauralice C. F.; Sarmiento, G. Sánchez; Agaliotis, Eliana; Carrara, Juan C.; Schicchi, Diego S.; Totten, George E.

    2013-07-01

    Vegetable oils, especially soybean oil, exhibit substantially poorer thermal-oxidative stability than commercially available petroleum oil quenchant formulations. Therefore, to achieve any commercially interesting performance, vegetable oils must be stabilized by the addition of antioxidant inhibitors. This work describes the ability of two commercially available antioxidants, Irganox L 57 and Irganox L 109, to stabilize soybean oil against thermal-oxidative degradation. In addition, the effect of antioxidant stabilization on quenching performance was evaluated by determining the profile of heat transfer coefficient variation throughout the quenching process at different times after being subjected to an accelerated thermal-oxidation aging test. The results of this work are discussed here.

  13. Edible olive pomace oil concentrated in triterpenic acids, procedure of physical refining utilised for obtainment thereof and recovery of functional components present in the crude oil

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Méndez, Mª Victoria; Dobarganes, M. Carmen; Sánchez Moral, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    Procedure of refining crude olive pomace oil obtained through centrifuging or decantation of the pomace, comprising the stage of filtration of the starting crude olive pomace oil carried out through filters having a pore size comprised in the interval from 0.1 to 20 microns and at a temperature below 70 C, preferentially between 35 and 45 C.

  14. A novel quantitative analysis method of three-dimensional fluorescence spectra for vegetable oils contents in edible blend oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Wang, Yu-Tian; Liu, Xiao-Fei

    2015-04-01

    Edible blend oil is a mixture of vegetable oils. Eligible blend oil can meet the daily need of two essential fatty acids for human to achieve the balanced nutrition. Each vegetable oil has its different composition, so vegetable oils contents in edible blend oil determine nutritional components in blend oil. A high-precision quantitative analysis method to detect the vegetable oils contents in blend oil is necessary to ensure balanced nutrition for human being. Three-dimensional fluorescence technique is high selectivity, high sensitivity, and high-efficiency. Efficiency extraction and full use of information in tree-dimensional fluorescence spectra will improve the accuracy of the measurement. A novel quantitative analysis is proposed based on Quasi-Monte-Carlo integral to improve the measurement sensitivity and reduce the random error. Partial least squares method is used to solve nonlinear equations to avoid the effect of multicollinearity. The recovery rates of blend oil mixed by peanut oil, soybean oil and sunflower are calculated to verify the accuracy of the method, which are increased, compared the linear method used commonly for component concentration measurement.

  15. Effects of vegetable oils on biochemical and biophysical properties of membrane retinal pigment epithelium cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Toihiri; Tremblay-Mercier, Jennifer; Berrougui, Hicham; Rat, Patrice; Khalil, Abdelouahed

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of vegetable oil enrichment of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells on their biochemical and biophysical properties. For this, RPE cells were incubated with 4 different vegetables oils (olive oil, corn oil, argan oil, and camelina oil). The cytotoxicity of these vegetable oils was assessed in vivo on 8-week-old mice and in vitro by using the neutral red and YO-PRO-1 tests. Membrane fluidity was evaluated by fluorescence anisotropy using the fluorescent probe diphenylhexatriene, and membrane fatty acid composition was assessed by gas chromatography. None of the oils tested displayed cytotoxic effects. In vitro, omega-3 rich oils improved membrane fluidity by 47% compared with the control cells. The omega-3 PUFA content within membranes decreased by 38% to 55% when cells were incubated separately with olive oil, corn oil, or argan oil, and increased when cells were incubated with a mixture of those oils, or with camelina oil alone (50% and 103% increase, respectively). Our results show that the fatty acids in vegetable oil incorporate into retinal cells and increase the plasma membrane fluidity.

  16. Comparison of Dissolved Gases in Mineral and Vegetable Insulating Oils under Typical Electrical and Thermal Faults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenmeng Xiang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved gas analysis (DGA is attracting greater and greater interest from researchers as a fault diagnostic tool for power transformers filled with vegetable insulating oils. This paper presents experimental results of dissolved gases in insulating oils under typical electrical and thermal faults in transformers. The tests covered three types of insulating oils, including two types of vegetable oil, which are camellia insulating oil, Envirotemp FR3, and a type of mineral insulating oil, to simulate thermal faults in oils from 90 °C to 800 °C and electrical faults including breakdown and partial discharges in oils. The experimental results reveal that the content and proportion of dissolved gases in different types of insulating oils under the same fault condition are different, especially under thermal faults due to the obvious differences of their chemical compositions. Four different classic diagnosis methods were applied: ratio method, graphic method, and Duval’s triangle and Duval’s pentagon method. These confirmed that the diagnosis methods developed for mineral oil were not fully appropriate for diagnosis of electrical and thermal faults in vegetable insulating oils and needs some modification. Therefore, some modification aiming at different types of vegetable oils based on Duval Triangle 3 were proposed in this paper and obtained a good diagnostic result. Furthermore, gas formation mechanisms of different types of vegetable insulating oils under thermal stress are interpreted by means of unimolecular pyrolysis simulation and reaction enthalpies calculation.

  17. Activated carbon adsorption of PAHs from vegetable oil used in soil remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zongqiang; Alef, Kassem; Wilke, Berndt-Michael; Li, Peijun

    2007-05-08

    Vegetable oil has been proven to be advantageous as a non-toxic, cost-effective and biodegradable solvent to extract polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated soils for remediation purposes. The resulting vegetable oil contained PAHs and therefore required a method for subsequent removal of extracted PAHs and reuse of the oil in remediation processes. In this paper, activated carbon adsorption of PAHs from vegetable oil used in soil remediation was assessed to ascertain PAH contaminated oil regeneration. Vegetable oils, originating from lab scale remediation, with different PAH concentrations were examined to study the adsorption of PAHs on activated carbon. Batch adsorption tests were performed by shaking oil-activated carbon mixtures in flasks. Equilibrium data were fitted with the Langmuir and Freundlich isothermal models. Studies were also carried out using columns packed with activated carbon. In addition, the effects of initial PAH concentration and activated carbon dosage on sorption capacities were investigated. Results clearly revealed the effectiveness of using activated carbon as an adsorbent to remove PAHs from the vegetable oil. Adsorption equilibrium of PAHs on activated carbon from the vegetable oil was successfully evaluated by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The initial PAH concentrations and carbon dosage affected adsorption significantly. The results indicate that the reuse of vegetable oil was feasible.

  18. Protective effects of hydroxytyrosol-supplemented refined olive oil in animal models of acute inflammation and rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, S; Sepodes, B; Rocha, J; Direito, R; Fernandes, A; Brites, D; Freitas, M; Fernandes, E; Bronze, M R; Figueira, M E

    2015-04-01

    Virgin olive oil is the primary source of fat in the Mediterranean diet, and its beneficial health effects have been related with oleic acid and phenolic compounds content. Hydroxytyrosol, a typical virgin olive oil phenolic compound, has beneficial antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties as previously reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydroxytyrosol-supplemented refined olive oil at 0.5 and 5 mg/kg in a rodent model of rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis was induced by intradermic administration, in male Wistar rats, of Freund's adjuvant with collagen type II on days 1 and 21. Hydroxytyrosol-supplemented refined olive oils were administrated by gavage from day 23 until day 35. The treatment at 5-mg/kg dose significantly decreased paw edema (Polive oil with hydroxytyrosol may be advantageous in rheumatoid arthritis with significant impact not only on chronic inflammation but also on acute inflammatory processes.

  19. Finding the food-fuel balance. Supply and demand dynamics in global vegetable oil markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savanti, P.

    2012-10-15

    Demand for vegetable oils for food and biofuel use is expected to increase by an additional 23 million tonnes by 2016; however supply is expected to struggle to keep up with this demand, according to this Rabobank report. Vegetable oil stocks have reached a 38 year low this year due in large part to constraints such as land availability and adverse weather.

  20. Properties of cookies made with natural wax-vegetable oil organogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organogels prepared with a natural wax and a vegetable oil were examined as alternatives to a commercial margarine in cookie. To investigate effects of wax and vegetable oil on properties of cookie dough and cookies, organogels prepared from four different waxes including sunflower wax, rice bran wa...

  1. New Bio-Based Materials From Vegetable Oil: Amination and Click Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    For some time we have been interested in utilizing vegetable oils as cheap and bio-renewable raw materials. We have found derivatization reactions with nitrogen-containing reagents to be good pathways to achieve a range of new vegetable oil-based products. One of our approaches is to derivatize ep...

  2. SUITABILITY OF SOYBEAN SEED OIL AS TRANSFORMER OIL

    OpenAIRE

    Egbuna, S.O.*, Ude, O.C., Ude, C.N.

    2016-01-01

    In search of solution to the harmful ecological problems due to toxicity and non-biodegradability posed by conventional transformer insulation oil (mineral oil), the production of transformer oil from soybean seed oil (vegetable oil) was carried out. The oil was extracted using n-hexane and was refined. The transformer oil was produced by transesterification and was characterized using American Society for Testing Material (ASTM) standard test. The solvent employed gave good yield of oil from...

  3. Evaluation of Palm Oil as a Suitable Vegetable Oil for Vitamin A Fortification Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignitter, Marc; Hernler, Natalie; Zaunschirm, Mathias; Kienesberger, Julia; Somoza, Mark Manuel; Kraemer, Klaus; Somoza, Veronika

    2016-06-21

    Fortification programs are considered to be an effective strategy to mitigate vitamin A deficiency in populations at risk. Fortified vegetable oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids were shown to be prone to oxidation, leading to limited vitamin A stability. Thus, it was hypothesized that fortified oils consisting of mainly saturated fatty acids might enhance the stability of vitamin A. Mildly (peroxide value: 1.0 meq O₂/kg) and highly (peroxide value: 7.5 meq O₂/kg) oxidized palm oil was stored, after fortification with 60 International Units/g retinyl palmitate, in 0.5 L transparent polyethylene terephthalate bottles under cold fluorescent lighting (12 h/day) at 32 °C for 57 days. An increase of the peroxide value by 15 meq O₂/kg, which was also reflected by a decrease of α-tocopherol congener by 15%-18%, was determined independent of the initial rancidity. The oxidative deterioration of the highly oxidized palm oil during storage was correlated with a significant 46% decline of the vitamin A content. However, household storage of mildly oxidized palm oil for two months did not induce any losses of vitamin A. Thus, mildly oxidized palm oil may be recommended for vitamin A fortification programs, when other sources of essential fatty acids are available.

  4. Evaluation of Palm Oil as a Suitable Vegetable Oil for Vitamin A Fortification Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Pignitter

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fortification programs are considered to be an effective strategy to mitigate vitamin A deficiency in populations at risk. Fortified vegetable oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids were shown to be prone to oxidation, leading to limited vitamin A stability. Thus, it was hypothesized that fortified oils consisting of mainly saturated fatty acids might enhance the stability of vitamin A. Mildly (peroxide value: 1.0 meq O2/kg and highly (peroxide value: 7.5 meq O2/kg oxidized palm oil was stored, after fortification with 60 International Units/g retinyl palmitate, in 0.5 L transparent polyethylene terephthalate bottles under cold fluorescent lighting (12 h/day at 32 °C for 57 days. An increase of the peroxide value by 15 meq O2/kg, which was also reflected by a decrease of α-tocopherol congener by 15%–18%, was determined independent of the initial rancidity. The oxidative deterioration of the highly oxidized palm oil during storage was correlated with a significant 46% decline of the vitamin A content. However, household storage of mildly oxidized palm oil for two months did not induce any losses of vitamin A. Thus, mildly oxidized palm oil may be recommended for vitamin A fortification programs, when other sources of essential fatty acids are available.

  5. Evaluation of Palm Oil as a Suitable Vegetable Oil for Vitamin A Fortification Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignitter, Marc; Hernler, Natalie; Zaunschirm, Mathias; Kienesberger, Julia; Somoza, Mark Manuel; Kraemer, Klaus; Somoza, Veronika

    2016-01-01

    Fortification programs are considered to be an effective strategy to mitigate vitamin A deficiency in populations at risk. Fortified vegetable oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids were shown to be prone to oxidation, leading to limited vitamin A stability. Thus, it was hypothesized that fortified oils consisting of mainly saturated fatty acids might enhance the stability of vitamin A. Mildly (peroxide value: 1.0 meq O2/kg) and highly (peroxide value: 7.5 meq O2/kg) oxidized palm oil was stored, after fortification with 60 International Units/g retinyl palmitate, in 0.5 L transparent polyethylene terephthalate bottles under cold fluorescent lighting (12 h/day) at 32 °C for 57 days. An increase of the peroxide value by 15 meq O2/kg, which was also reflected by a decrease of α-tocopherol congener by 15%–18%, was determined independent of the initial rancidity. The oxidative deterioration of the highly oxidized palm oil during storage was correlated with a significant 46% decline of the vitamin A content. However, household storage of mildly oxidized palm oil for two months did not induce any losses of vitamin A. Thus, mildly oxidized palm oil may be recommended for vitamin A fortification programs, when other sources of essential fatty acids are available. PMID:27338464

  6. Status of China's Refined Oil Products Consumption and Forecast on Demand During the"11th Five-Year Plan" Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Lu

    2007-01-01

    The author used two common methods in this industry.i.e.the"Consumption Coefficient Method"and the"Elasticity Coefficient Trend Method",to forecast the refined oil product demand in 2010.Through analyzing and comparing the two forecast results,it is projected that the demand for finished product oils in 2010 will be in the range of 220 to 240 million tons a year.In addition,out of concern about the total oil products consumption to exceed 600 million tons/year in 2020,the author puts forward suggestions and measures aimed at conservation of oil products and application of alternative fuels.

  7. Vitamin E and Beta Carotene Composition in Four Different Vegetable Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ab. G.M. Top

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Some vegetable oils contains natural antioxidants such as beta carotene and vitamin E namely tocopherol and tocotrienol. Different vegetable oils contained different amount of vitamin E and β-carotene. Approach: Study was carried out to investigate the natural antioxidants (vitamin E and beta carotene composition in four different vegetable oils [Red Palm Olein (RPO, palm plein (PO, Corn Oil (CO and Coconut Oil (COC]. Results: The results showed that RPO contained the highest amount of vitamin E and β-carotene compared to the other three types of vegetable oils studied. Conclusion: The RPO can be considered as a good source of natural antioxidant (tocopherol, tocotrienol and β-carotene.

  8. Determination of lipid oxidation products in vegetable oils and marine omega-3 supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune Blomhoff

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background : There is convincing evidence that replacing dietary saturated fats with polyunsaturated fats (PUFA decreases risk of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, PUFA rich foods such as vegetable oils, fatty fish, and marine omega-3 supplements are recommended. However, PUFA are easily oxidizable and there is concern about possible negative health effects from intake of oxidized lipids. Little is known about the degree of lipid oxidation in such products. Objective : To assess the content of lipid oxidation products in a large selection of vegetable oils and marine omega-3 supplements available in Norway. Both fresh and heated vegetable oils were studied. Design : A large selection of commercially available vegetable oils and marine omega-3 supplements was purchased from grocery stores, pharmacies, and health food stores in Norway. The content of lipid oxidation products were measured as peroxide value and alkenal concentration. Twelve different vegetable oils were heated for a temperature (225°C and time (25 minutes resembling conditions typically used during cooking. Results : The peroxide values were in the range 1.04–10.38 meq/kg for omega-3 supplements and in the range 0.60–5.33 meq/kg for fresh vegetable oils. The concentration range of alkenals was 158.23–932.19 nmol/mL for omega-3 supplements and 33.24–119.04 nmol/mL for vegetable oils. After heating, a 2.9–11.2 fold increase in alkenal concentration was observed for vegetable oils. Conclusions : The contents of hydroperoxides and alkenals in omega-3 supplements are higher than in vegetable oils. After heating vegetable oils, a large increase in alkenal concentration was observed.

  9. Physicochemical properties and potential food applications of Moringa oleifera seed oil blended with other vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollah, Sarafhana; Abdulkarim, Sabo Muhammad; Ahmad, Siti Hajar; Khoramnia, Anahita; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Blends (30:70, 50:50 and 70:30 w/w) of Moringa oleifera seed oil (MoO) with palm olein (PO), palm stearin (PS), palm kernel oil (PKO) and virgin coconut oil (VCO) were prepared. To determine the physicochemical properties of the blends, the iodine value (IV), saponication value (SV), fatty acid (FA) composition, triacylglycerol (TAG) composition, thermal behaviour (DSC) and solid fat content (SFC) tests were analysed. The incorporation of high oleic acid (81.73%) MoO into the blends resulted in the reduction of palmitic acid content of PO and PS from 36.38% to 17.17% and 54.66% to 14.39% and lauric acid content of PKO and VCO from 50.63% to 17.70% and 51.26% to 26.05% respectively while oleic acid and degree of unsaturation were increased in all blends. Changes in the FA composition and TAG profile have significantly affected the thermal behavior and solid fat content of the oil blends. In MoO/PO blends the melting temperature of MoO decreased while, in MoO/PS, MoO/PKO and MoO/VCO blends, it increased indicating produce of zero-trans harder oil blends without use of partial hydrogenation. The spreadability of PS, PKO and VCO in low temperatures was also increased due to incorporation of MoO. The melting point of PS significantly decreased in MoO/PS blends which proved to be suitable for high oleic bakery shortening and confectionary shortening formulation. The finding appears that blending of MoO with other vegetable oils would enable the initial properties of the oils to be modified or altered and provide functional and nutritional attributes for usage in various food applications, increasing the possibilities for the commercial use of these oils.

  10. Operation variables in transesterification of vegetable oil: an enzymatic catalysis review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Felipe Rojas González

    2010-07-01

    90h and a 3:1alcohol: vegetable oil molar ratio; however, such values would intrinsically depend on the type of lipase and oil u- sed. It was also found that free fatty acid and moisture concentration were parameters which did not require rigorous control due to high enzyme specificity. Lipases immobilised from Pseudomona cepacia bacteria and Rhizopus orizae fungi were most used in vegetable oil enzymatic transesterification.

  11. COMPARISON OF THE QUALITY OF VEGETABLE OILS DESIGNED FOR THE FRYING FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Mura

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of the research was to investigate the quality of vegetable oils for cooking food. The analysis used two types of oils - oil Fritol and Promienna. Both oils were purchased commercially. Oil changes were observed at frying French fries. At the same changes were observed oil stored at room temperature and the temperature in the refrigerator. The determined parameters included the measurement of polar materials in oil with electronic device Testo 265 for measuring the quality of cooking oil. Determination of change in the texture of oil during the oil deterioration by device Texturometer TA.XT Plus and determination the peroxide value by STN EN ISO 3960:2007. The work is also evaluating the results of the studied parameters. In all compared cases based on the content of the TPM showed higher heat resistance oil Fritol and sample of oil stored in the refrigerator.doi:10.5219/210

  12. TRANSESTERIFICATION OF VEGETABLES OIL USING SUBAND SUPERCRITICAL METHANOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Puspa Asri

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A benign process, non catalytic transesterification in sub and supercritical methanol method was usedto prepare biodiesel from vegetables oil. The experiment was carried out in batch type reactor (8.8 mlcapacity, stainless steel, AKICO, JAPAN by changing the reaction condition such as reactiontemperature (from 210°C in subcritical condition to 290°C in supercritical state with of 20°Cinterval, molar ratio oil to methanol (1:12-1:42 and time of reaction (10-90 min. The fatty acidmethyl esters (FAMEs content was analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GCFID.Such analysis can be used to determine the biodiesel yield of the transesterification. The resultsshowed that the yield of biodiesel increases gradually with the increasing of reaction time atsubcritical state (210-230oC. However, it was drastically increased at the supercritical state (270-290oC. Similarly, the yield of biodiesel sharply increased with increasing the ratio molar of soy oilmethanolup to 1:24. The maximum yield 86 and 88% were achieved at 290oC, 90 min of reaction timeand molar ratio of oil to methanol 1:24, for soybean oil and palm oil, respectively.Proses transesterifikasi non katalitik dengan metanol sub dan superkritis,merupakan proses yang ramah lingkungan digunakan untuk pembuatan biodiesel dari minyak nabati.Percobaan dilakukan dalam sebuah reaktor batch (kapasitas 8,8 ml, stainless steel, AKICO, JAPAN,dengan variabel kondisi reaksi seperti temperatur reaksi (dari kondisi subkritis 210°C-kondisisuperkritis 290°C dengan interval 20°C, rasio molar minyak-metanol (1:12-1:42 dan waktu reaksi(10-90 menit. Kandungan metil ester asam lemak (FAME dianalisis dengan kromatografi gasdengan detektor FID (GC-FID. Hasil Analisis tersebut dapat digunakan untuk menentukan yieldbiodiesel dari proses transesterifikasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa yield biodiesel meningkatsecara perlahan dengan meningkatnya waktu reaksi pada keadaan subkritis (210-230oC. Namun

  13. Delivery of vegetable oil suspensions in a shear thinning fluid for enhanced bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, L.; Truex, M. J.; Kananizadeh, N.; Li, Y.; Lea, A. S.; Yan, X.

    2015-04-01

    In situ anaerobic biological processes are widely applied for dechlorination of chlorinated solvents in groundwater. A wide range of organic substrates have been tested and applied to support the dechlorination processes. Vegetable oils are a promising type of substrate and have been shown to induce effective dechlorination, have limited geochemical impacts, and maintain good longevity. Because they are non-aqueous phase liquids, distribution of vegetable oils in the subsurface has typically been approached by creating emulsified oil solutions for injection into the aquifer. In this study, inexpensive waste vegetable oils were suspended in a shear-thinning xanthan gum solution as an alternative approach for delivery of vegetable oil to the subsurface. The stability, oil droplet size distribution, and rheological behavior of the oil suspensions that are created in the xanthan solutions were studied in batch experiments. The injectability of the suspensions and the oil distribution in a porous medium were evaluated in column tests. Numerical modeling of oil droplet transport and distribution in porous media was conducted to help interpret the column-test data. Batch studies showed that simple mixing of vegetable oil with xanthan solution produced stable suspensions of the oil as micron-size droplets. The mixture rheology retains shear-thinning properties that facilitate improved uniformity of substrate distribution in heterogeneous aquifers. Column tests demonstrated successful injection of the vegetable oil suspension into a porous medium. This study provides evidence that vegetable oil suspensions in xanthan gum solutions have favorable injection properties and are a potential substrate for in situ anaerobic bioremediation.

  14. Lipase pre-hydrolysis enhance anaerobic biodigestion of soap stock from an oil refining industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherif, Slim; Aloui, Fathi; Carrière, Frédéric; Sayadi, Sami

    2014-01-01

    A novel alcalophilic Staphylococcus haemolyticus strain with the lipolytic activity was used to perform enzymatic hydrolysis pretreatment of soap stock: a lipid rich solid waste from an oil refining industry. The culture liquid of the selected bacteria and an enzymatic preparation obtained by precipitation with ammonium sulphate from a filtrate of the same culture liquid were used for enzymatic pretreatment. The hydrolysis was carried with different incubation concentrations (10, 20 and 30%) of soap stock and the pretreatment efficiency was verified by running comparative biodegradability tests (crude and treated lipid waste). All pretreated assays showed higher reaction rate compared to crude lipid waste, which was confirmed by the increased levels of biogas production. The pretreatment of solutions containing 10% emulsified soap stock was optimized for 24 h hydrolysis time, enabling high-biogaz formation (800 ml). The use of enzymatic pre-treatment seemed to be a very promising alternative for treating soap stock having high fat contents.

  15. Decision support in hierarchical planning systems: The case of procurement planning in oil refining industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallestrup, Kasper Bislev; Lynge, Lasse Hadberg; Akkerman, Renzo;

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the development of decision support systems for hierarchically structured planning approaches, such as commercially available advanced planning systems. We develop a framework to show how such a decision support system can be designed with the existing organization in mind......, and how a decision process and corresponding software can be developed from this basis. Building on well-known hierarchical planning concepts, we include the typical anticipation mechanisms used in such systems to be able to decompose planning problems, both from the perspective of the planning problem...... and from the perspective of the organizational aspects involved. To exemplify and develop our framework, we use a case study of crude oil procurement planning in the refining industry. The results of the case study indicate an improved organizational embedding of the DSS, leading to significant savings...

  16. Methods of refining and producing isomerized fatty acid esters and fatty acids from natural oil feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snead, Thomas E.; Cohen, Steven A.; Gildon, Demond L.; Beltran, Leslie V.; Kunz, Linda A.; Pals, Tessa M.; Quinn, Jordan R; Behrends, Jr., Raymond T.; Bernhardt, Randal J.

    2016-07-05

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing isomerized esters and acids. The methods comprise providing a C4-C18 unsaturated fatty ester or acid, and isomerizing the fatty acid ester or acid in the presence of heat or an isomerization catalyst to form an isomerized fatty ester or acid. In some embodiments, the methods comprise forming a dibasic ester or dibasic acid prior to the isomerizing step. In certain embodiments, the methods further comprise hydrolyzing the dibasic ester to form a dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin is formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having unsaturated esters.

  17. Using melted media in processes of oil refining and petrochemistry. Primeniniye rasplavlennykh sred v protsessakh neftepererabotki i neftekhimii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feygin, Ye.A.; Raud, E.A.

    1983-01-01

    The review is dedicated to rapidly developing trend in the oil refining and petrochemical industry, to the processes of processing a hydrocarbon raw material and oil products in the presence of melted mediums of metals, salts and oxides. The methods developed in the USSR and abroad for processing in melted mediums are analyzed, along with the industrial layouts, the modal parameters, the equipment formulation and experimental data for different large tonnage processes in oil refining and petrochemistry. Equipment designs are cited for different methods for placing the hydrocarbons in contact with the melts and for different methods of heat supply. The specifications which must be met by the melts used in processing a hydrocarbon raw material and oil products are systemtized. The compositions and basic physical properties of the most common and promising melted mediums are cited.

  18. Formation and reduction of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol esters in peanut oil during physical refining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chang; Li, Linyan; Jia, Hanbing; Wang, Yuting; Shen, Mingyue; Nie, Shaoping; Xie, Mingyong

    2016-05-15

    In the present study, lab-scale physical refining processes were investigated for their effects on the formation of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) esters. The potential precursors, partial acylglycerols and chlorines were determined before each refining step. 3-MCPD esters were not detected in degummed and bleached oil when the crude oils were extracted by solvent. While in the hot squeezed crude oils, 3-MCPD esters were detected with low amounts. 3-MCPD esters were generated with maximum values in 1-1.5h at a certain deodorizing temperature (220-260°C). Chlorine seemed to be more effective precursor than partial acylglycerol. By washing bleached oil before deodorization with ethanol solution, the precursors were removed partially and the content of 3-MCPD esters decreased to some extent accordingly. Diacetin was found to reduce 3-MCPD esters effectively.

  19. A model approach to vanadium involvement in crude oils and their refining. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christou, G.

    1994-04-01

    Heavy crude oils contain a large amount of metal impurities, primarily vanadium species. These comprise both vanadyl porphyrins and vanadyl non-porphyrins. During hydrotreating of crude oils (reaction with H{sub 2} over a supported Mo/S catalyst at 350-- 450{degrees}C) for upgrading to usable products the V impurities are converted to insoluble V sulfides which help poison the fixed-bed Mo catalyst. Very little is known about the chemistry occurring at a detailed level; basically, it is known that initial impurities are vanadyl (VO){sup 2+}, i.e., V{sup IV} species, and that during the refining processes they are reduced and sulfided into polymers, i.e., the metal is reduced from V{sup IV} to {approximately} V{sup III}, the oxo is lost, the organic ligation is lost, and the metal is sulfided. In what order and in precisely what manner this overall transformation is occurring is not known. The essence of our research efforts is to develop vanadium chemistry of relevance to this area and to thereby provide fundamental information on the transformations occurring and that might prove useful in catalyst design. Our work has encompassed the study of the reactivity chemistry of [VO]{sup 2+} species and the formation and characterization of V/S aggregates under conditions designed to mimic those present under hydrotreating conditions. Thus, we are applying an Inorganic Model Approach to provide insights into the chemistry occurring during the refining process. Our emphasis has been on definitive characterization of products using a variety of physical techniques,including X-ray crystallography. Our work covers the following areas, each of which is described: studies in V/O{sup 2+} chemistry; V{sup III}/O chemistry; V/S complexes; and absorption of [VO]{sup 2+} groups on catalyst surfaces.

  20. Auxiliary units for refining of high nitrogen content oils: Premium II refinery case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolato, Paolo Contim; Pinotti, Rafael [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    PETROBRAS is constantly investing on its refining park in order to increase the production of clean and stable fuels and to be capable to process heavier oils with high contaminants content. Sulfur and nitrogen are the main heteroatoms present in petroleum. They are responsible for some undesirable fuels properties like corrosivity and instability, and also emit pollutants when burnt. Hydrotreating and hydrocracking processes are designed to remove these contaminants and adjust other fuel properties, generating, as byproduct, sour gases and sour water streams rich in H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3}, which are usually sent to Sour Water Treatment Units and Sulfur Recovery Units. The regeneration of the amine used for the light streams treatment, as fuel gas and LPG, also generates sour gas streams that must be also sent to Sulfur Recovery Units. As the ammonia content in the sour streams increases, some design parameters must be adjusted to avoid increasing the Refinery emissions. Sulfur Recovery Units must provide proper NH3 destruction. Sour Water Treatment must have a proper segregation between H{sub 2}S and ammonia streams, whenever desirable. Amine Regeneration Systems must have an efficient procedure to avoid the ammonia concentration in the amine solution. This paper presents some solutions usually applied to the Petroleum Industry and analyses some aspects related to Premium II Refinery Project and how its design will help the Brazilian refining park to meet future environmental regulation and market demands. (author)

  1. Recovery assessment of a refined-oil impacted and fire ravaged mangrove ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otitoloju, Adebayo A; Are, Taofeek; Junaid, Kolade A

    2007-04-01

    An assessment of the diversity and abundance of macrobenthic community in a refined-oil (petrol) impacted and fire-ravaged mangrove ecosystem within the vicinity of a marine receipt terminal facility (Atlas Cove) serving as a distribution and pump station for refined products was carried out. The mangrove ecosystem was subjected to massive petrol spillage from a leaking pipeline and eventual fire outbreak. Following rehabilitation activities, a recovery assessment of the impacted ecosystem was carried out. The field surveys revealed that the petrol leakage and fire outbreak resulted in a near complete destruction of the mangrove ecosystem around the Atlas Cove depot, with macrobenthic species diversity index ranging between 0-0.4, compared to 0.78-0.87 in the control stations. The dominant early arrivals or colonizers of the impacted stations areas were Clibanarius africanus and Callinectes amnicola. Early signs of recovery of the impacted area were observed within about two and a half (2 1/2) to three (3) months, based on diversity and abundance indices respectively. The period of early signs of recovery also coincide with an observed reduction in the total hydrocarbon content (THC) levels in the sediment collected from the impacted stations by about nine folds from 3.67 mg/kg to 0.42 mg/kg within 3 months. Despite the apparent signs of recovery, the need for long-term monitoring of the impacted stations was discussed.

  2. Replacement of Dietary Saturated Fat by PUFA-Rich Pumpkin Seed Oil Attenuates Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Atherosclerosis Development, with Additional Health Effects of Virgin over Refined Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Martine C; Mulder, Petra; Stavro, P Mark; Suárez, Manuel; Arola-Arnal, Anna; van Duyvenvoorde, Wim; Kooistra, Teake; Wielinga, Peter Y; Kleemann, Robert

    2015-01-01

    As dietary saturated fatty acids are associated with metabolic and cardiovascular disease, a potentially interesting strategy to reduce disease risk is modification of the quality of fat consumed. Vegetable oils represent an attractive target for intervention, as they largely determine the intake of dietary fats. Furthermore, besides potential health effects conferred by the type of fatty acids in a vegetable oil, other minor components (e.g. phytochemicals) may also have health benefits. Here, we investigated the potential long-term health effects of isocaloric substitution of dietary fat (i.e. partial replacement of saturated by unsaturated fats), as well as putative additional effects of phytochemicals present in unrefined (virgin) oil on development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and associated atherosclerosis. For this, we used pumpkin seed oil, because it is high in unsaturated fatty acids and a rich source of phytochemicals. ApoE*3Leiden mice were fed a Western-type diet (CON) containing cocoa butter (15% w/w) and cholesterol (1% w/w) for 20 weeks to induce risk factors and disease endpoints. In separate groups, cocoa butter was replaced by refined (REF) or virgin (VIR) pumpkin seed oil (comparable in fatty acid composition, but different in phytochemical content). Both oils improved dyslipidaemia, with decreased (V)LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels in comparison with CON, and additional cholesterol-lowering effects of VIR over REF. While REF did not affect plasma inflammatory markers, VIR reduced circulating serum amyloid A and soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1. NAFLD and atherosclerosis development was modestly reduced in REF, and VIR strongly decreased liver steatosis and inflammation as well as atherosclerotic lesion area and severity. Overall, we show that an isocaloric switch from a diet rich in saturated fat to a diet rich in unsaturated fat can attenuate NAFLD and atherosclerosis development. Phytochemical-rich virgin pumpkin

  3. Replacement of Dietary Saturated Fat by PUFA-Rich Pumpkin Seed Oil Attenuates Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Atherosclerosis Development, with Additional Health Effects of Virgin over Refined Oil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine C Morrison

    Full Text Available As dietary saturated fatty acids are associated with metabolic and cardiovascular disease, a potentially interesting strategy to reduce disease risk is modification of the quality of fat consumed. Vegetable oils represent an attractive target for intervention, as they largely determine the intake of dietary fats. Furthermore, besides potential health effects conferred by the type of fatty acids in a vegetable oil, other minor components (e.g. phytochemicals may also have health benefits. Here, we investigated the potential long-term health effects of isocaloric substitution of dietary fat (i.e. partial replacement of saturated by unsaturated fats, as well as putative additional effects of phytochemicals present in unrefined (virgin oil on development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and associated atherosclerosis. For this, we used pumpkin seed oil, because it is high in unsaturated fatty acids and a rich source of phytochemicals.ApoE*3Leiden mice were fed a Western-type diet (CON containing cocoa butter (15% w/w and cholesterol (1% w/w for 20 weeks to induce risk factors and disease endpoints. In separate groups, cocoa butter was replaced by refined (REF or virgin (VIR pumpkin seed oil (comparable in fatty acid composition, but different in phytochemical content.Both oils improved dyslipidaemia, with decreased (VLDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels in comparison with CON, and additional cholesterol-lowering effects of VIR over REF. While REF did not affect plasma inflammatory markers, VIR reduced circulating serum amyloid A and soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1. NAFLD and atherosclerosis development was modestly reduced in REF, and VIR strongly decreased liver steatosis and inflammation as well as atherosclerotic lesion area and severity.Overall, we show that an isocaloric switch from a diet rich in saturated fat to a diet rich in unsaturated fat can attenuate NAFLD and atherosclerosis development. Phytochemical-rich virgin

  4. TA Research on Determining Some Performance Values by Using Proportional Mixture of Vegetable Oils and Diesel Fuel at a Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kayisoglu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this particular study was to research the effects on characteristics of a diesel engine by using different diesel fuel and vegetable oil blends. As experimental material 6 LD 360 type diesel engine with single cylinder, direct injection, four cycles, 5.52 kW defined power was used. Nothing was changed on the diesel engine parts and refined vegetable oils were chosen to add into fuel oil. In this research, depending on the number of revaluation and time, the air intake inlet temperature, exhaust gas outlet temperature, fuel consumption, volume efficiency, engine oil pressure, cylinder indicated pressure, the quantity of soot were determined. The results in the of sunflower oil and diesel fuel blends were found better than the soybean oil and diesel fuel blends. In addition, lubrication oil of the engine by using the soybean and diesel fuel blends were get dirty excessively and viscosity of the engine lubrication oil was reduced more than the others. The results by using 75% diesel fuel+25% sunflower oil blend showed nearly the same results by using diesel fuel.

  5. Encapsulation of vegetable oils as source of omega-3 fatty acids for enriched functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Ruiz, Jorge Carlos; Ortiz Vazquez, Elizabeth De La Luz; Segura Campos, Maira Rubi

    2017-05-03

    Polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (PUFAs), a functional component present in vegetable oils, are generally recognized as being beneficial to health. Omega-3 PUFAs are rich in double bonds and unsaturated in nature; this attribute makes them highly susceptible to lipid oxidation and unfit for incorporation into long shelf life foods. The microencapsulation of oils in a polymeric matrix (mainly polysaccharides) offers the possibility of controlled release of the lipophilic functional ingredient and can be useful for the supplementation of foods with PUFAs. The present paper provides a literature review of different vegetable sources of omega-3 fatty acids, the functional effects of omega-3 fatty acids, different microencapsulation methods that can possibly be used for the encapsulation of oils, the properties of vegetable oil microcapsules, the effect of encapsulation on oxidation stability and fatty acid composition of vegetable oils, and the incorporation of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in foods.

  6. Fatty acid esters of monochloropropanediol (MCPD) and glycidol in refined edible oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, B D; Chiodini, A; Garst, J; Granvogl, M

    2013-01-01

    Recently, fatty acid esters of monochloropropanediol (MCPD) and that of glycidol have been reported in refined edible oils. Since then a wealth of research has been published on the factors influencing the formation of these contaminants in foods. It can be noted that the predominant precursors in a given matrix will not necessarily be the same as in other matrices. Further, proven relationships in the past between precursors responsible for free MCPD or free glycidol formation will not necessarily be valid for their fatty acid-esterified counterparts. This review attempts to summarise the current status of the literature as it pertains to the reasons surrounding the manifestation of MCPD esters and glycidyl esters in oils and fats. Recent efforts to mitigate the levels of these contaminants were highlighted and put into the context of their respective reaction matrices. As more accurate occurrence data for MCPD esters and glycidyl esters in other foods are collected, more targeted mitigation experiments can be formulated with respect to the reaction matrices under investigation.

  7. Influence of Vegetable Oil on the Thermal Aging Rate of Kraft Paper and its Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Lijun; DENG Bangfei; LIAO Ruijin; SUN Caixin; ZHU Mengzhao

    2012-01-01

    With the development of new insulation materials,vegetable oil—the best substitute for mineral oil—has gradually been widely used in the liquid insulation of transformers.To investigate the influence of vegetable oil on the thermal aging rate of oil paper,Kraft paper impregnated with mineral oil and vegetable oil have been underwent thermally accelerated aging at three different temperatures.The degree of polymerization(DP) of Kraft paper was measured to indicate the aging degree of insulation paper.The aging rate of Kraft paper in mineral oil and vegetable oil was compared quantitatively,and results showed that vegetable oil retarded paper's degradation rate and extended its useful lifetime.The reasons contributing to such phenomena were analyzed using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy(XPS) and molecular simulation software.Kraft paper in vegetable oil had larger activation energy.Due to the larger interaction force between water and natural ester molecules,water molecules were easily bonded with natural ester,weakening the hydrolysis process of cellulose.Cellulose was chemically modified by natural ester during the thermal aging process,and the reactive-OH(hydroxyl) groups on the cellulose became esterified with fatty acid esters.Water molecules were firmly bounded to the ester groups on glucose produced by esterification.The long-chain fatty acid esterified to cellulose was parallel with cellulose chains and acted as a "water barrier" to further weaken the hydrolysis process.

  8. The refined of waste oil as sustainable solution: Ecoroil project; El re-refinamiento como solucion sostenible para el aceite usado: proyecto Ecoril

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torras, J. M.

    1999-11-01

    Waste oil must be re-refined at all? Or simply burn it all and forget about it? Today`s waste oil is burnt and dumped, thus causing serious and unnecessary pollution of the environment, contamination of the rivers, seas, water sources, soil and atmosphere. Industry and government, both, have fundamental responsibility to use every option to them to reduce pollution and to re-use and recycle before producing more. One of the most effective recycling possibilities is the re-refining. The lubricating oil business is large, profitable and complex. The new technologies in re-refining produce base oils of highest quality which can equal the performance of virgin oil. The ECOROIL Project carried forward by three companies from different sectors, F. L. Iberia - Infineum -Cator, S. A. - has demonstrated it. The paper also provides some light aspects about waste oil and re-refined oils in the last years in Spain. (Author) 4 refs.

  9. Physical refining of edible oils using nitrogen as stripping gas. Process optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciani Constante, E.

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of nitrogen as a stripping gas in physical refining of edible oils represents a technological improvement with potential advantages such as the possibilities of recovering high quality deodorized distillates and eliminating pollution.
    The objectives of the present paper are to study, evaluate and optimize, as far as possible, independent variables involved in the process (nitrogen flow, operating temperature and the height of the oil layer inside the deodorizer in reference to the quality of the obtained oils as well as the manufacturing requirements.
    All the experiments were carried out with sunflower oil in a discontinuous deodorizer with a 200 Kg capacity. A 4x4 latin square experimental design was used, consisting of three factors, each of which had four different levels.
    The results led to the establishment of charts that allow to determine the most suitable conditions in which to carry out the processing in accord with the desired quality of the finished oil and the functional objectives of the factory. These charts are presented in the paper. The results were checked by another set of experiments.

    La utilización de nitrógeno como gas de arrastre en la refinación física de aceites comestibles representa un avance tecnológico con ventajas potenciales, como la posibilidad tanto de recoger destilados de desodorización de alta calidad como de eliminar polución.
    Los objetivos del presente trabajo son estudiar, evaluar y optimizar, tanto como sea posible, las variables que intervienen en el proceso (flujo de nitrógeno, temperatura de operación y altura de la capa de aceite en el desodorizador en función de la calidad de los aceites obtenidos así como de los requerimientos de producción.
    Los ensayos se han realizado con aceite de girasol en un desodorizador discontinuo de 200 kg de capacidad. Se ha utilizado un diseño de experimento en cuadrado latino de 4x4, constituido por tres

  10. Synthesis and applications of vegetable oil-based fluorocarbon water repellent agents on cotton fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tao; Zheng, Junzhi; Sun, Gang

    2012-06-05

    Vegetable oil-based fluorocarbon water repellent agents were prepared by chemical modifications of different vegetable oils - soybean and linseed oils through several reactions, including saponification, acidification, acylation of vegetable oil and trans-esterification with 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol and 2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropanol. The resulted fluorocarbon agents were then copolymerized with styrene. The structures of the vegetable oil based agents were characterized by FT-IR and NMR. By evaluating water contact angle and time of water disappearance on cotton fabrics, as well as whiteness and breaking strength of cotton fabrics that were treated by these agents, optimum fabric finishing conditions were explored. The cotton fabrics finished with the vegetable oil-based fluorocarbon agents showed excellent water repellency, while other properties of the cotton fabrics declined to certain level. The linseed oil-based tetrafluoropropanol water repellent agent displayed the highest water repellency among all modified oils. All the treated fabrics exhibited good durability of water repellency. The linseed oil-based tetrafluoropropanol water repellent agent demonstrated the best durability among all repellent agents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Vegetable oils as hydraulic fluids for agricultural applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendoza, G.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The formulation of environmentally friendly lubricants following the criterion of the European EcoLabel is expensive owing to the lack of technological development in this area. The present work deals with the development of lubricant formulations from vegetable oils, in particular using high oleic sunflower oil as base fluid. These new biolubricants have to perform as good as the reference lubricants used in the real application (an agricultural tractor but with the additional condition and value of their biodegradability without toxicity. Formulation development has been performed by Verkol Lubricantes, involving the selection of the base oil and the design of the additive package. The investigation performed by Tekniker in the laboratory has covered different aspects, characterizing the most important physicochemical properties of the lubricants, including their behavior at low temperatures and their resistance to oxidation. The tribological properties of the new biolubricants have also been studied, analyzing their ability to protect the interacting surface from wear, as well as the level of friction generated during sliding. Moreover, the compatibility of the new formulated oil with all the seals present in the real application has been taken into consideration. The selected lubricant is now being tested in agricultural machinery from AGRIA.

    La formulación de lubricantes amigables con el medioambiente siguiendo los criterios Europeos de la EcoLabel resulta cara debido a la falta de desarrollo tecnológico en esta área. En el presente trabajo se han desarrollado formulaciones de lubricantes a partir de aceites de origen vegetal, en particular empleando como aceite base el GAO (Girasol de Alto Oleico. Estos nuevos lubricantes deben presentar un comportamiento tan bueno como el de los lubricantes de referencia empleados en la aplicación real (un tractor agrícola, pero con la condición y valor añadido de ser biodegradables y no t

  12. Antibacterial Activity of Daucus crinitus Essential Oils along the Vegetative Life of the Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Bendiabdellah, Amel; DIB, Mohammed El Amine; Meliani, Nawel; Muselli, Alain; Nassim, Djabou; Tabti, Boufeldja; Costa, Jean

    2013-01-01

    The essential oils from the aerial parts of Daucus crinitus Desf. were analyzed at three developmental stages (early vegetative, early flowering, and full flowering). Oil yield was found to vary depending on the stage of development, and the highest content of oil (0.15% w/w) was obtained at full flowering. The chemical composition of essential oils studied by GC and GC-MS showed a total of 71 compounds: 27 aliphatic compounds, 18 sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, 9 hydrocarbons monoterpene, 5 oxyg...

  13. Stability of traditionally processed vegetable oils and their blends ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    physicochemical properties which included acid value, saponification value, peroxide value, iodine value and refractive index. The oils ... Keywords: Palm, Sunflower, Sesame oil, Blends, Traditionally processed oils, Storage, Stability. ... good and desirable formulations which will ..... blends on physical chemical properties.

  14. Inedible vegetable oils and their derivatives for alternative diesel fuels in CI engines: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    No, Soo-Young [Chungbuk National University, Department of Biosystems Engineering, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    The use of inedible vegetable oils as an alternative fuel for diesel engine is accelerated by the energy crisis due to depletion of resources and increased environmental problems including the great need for edible oil as food and the reduction of biodiesel production cost, etc. Of a lot of inedible vegetable oils which can be exploited for substitute fuel as diesel fuel, seven vegetable oils, i.e., jatropha, karanja, mahua, linseed, rubber seed, cottonseed and neem oils were selected for discussion in this review paper. The application of jatropha oil as a liquid fuel for CI engine can be classified with neat jatropha oil, engine modifications such as preheating, and dual fuelling, and fuel modifications such as jatropha oil blends with other fuels, mostly with diesel fuel, biodiesel, biodiesel blends and degumming. Therefore, jatropha oil is a leading candidate for the commercialization of non-edible vegetable oils. There exists a big difference in the fuel properties of seven inedible vegetable oils and its biodiesels considered in this review. It is clear from this review that biodiesel generally causes an increase in NOx emission and a decrease in HC, CO and PM emissions compared to diesel. It was reported that a diesel engine without any modification would run successfully on a blend of 20% vegetable oil and 80% diesel fuel without damage to engine parts. This trend can be applied to the biodiesel blends even though particular biodiesel shows 40% blend. In addition, the blends of biodiesel and diesel can replace the diesel fuel up to 10% by volume for running common rail direct injection system without any durability problems. (author)

  15. Analysis of Environment for Development of Oil Refining Business in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Aiping; Yang Weijun

    2006-01-01

    This articles focuses on analysis of the changing trend relating to crude supply and petroleum products demand inside China, while introducing the preliminary progress resulted from restructuring of China' s refining industry and dynamics of competition among Chinese refining enterprises. This article has made a preliminary judgment and analysis on the situation facing China's refining industry and may serve as a reference to refiners intending to develop refining business inside China.

  16. Photolysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans dissolved in vegetable oils: influence of oil quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isosaari, Pirjo; Laine, Olli; Tuhkanen, Tuula; Vartiainen, Terttu

    2005-03-20

    Sunlight or ultraviolet light irradiation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in the presence of vegetable oil offers a potential method for the cleanup of contaminated soil. In this study, the effects of different types of vegetable oils on the photochemical degradation of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzofuran and heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF/HpCDD) were investigated in the laboratory. Using a blacklight lamp as a source of ultraviolet light, 93-100% of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF degraded in 60 min in rapeseed oil, extra virgin olive oil and olive oil. Less degradation occurred in palm oil (59%), toluene (39%) and hexane (20%). The better degradation in vegetable oils in comparison with organic solvents was attributed to the photooxidation of lipids producing hydrogen for PCDD/F dechlorination. In addition to the hydrogen donor capacity, permeability of ultraviolet light was involved in the differences between vegetable oils. alpha-Tocopherol and chlorophyll did not influence the performance of oil at concentrations normally present in vegetable oils, whereas beta-carotene had an inhibitory effect on the degradation of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF. Up to 28% of the degradation products of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF were formed via the dechlorination pathway. Products included both toxic (2,3,7,8-chlorinated) and non-toxic PCDD/Fs, the toxic PCDD/Fs being more stable. Irradiation of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD yielded only non-toxic dechlorination products. Polychlorinated hydroxybiphenyls (OH-PCBs), polychlorinated dihydroxybiphenyls (DOH-PCBs) and polychlorinated hydroxydiphenylethers (OH-PCDEs) containing one to seven chlorine atoms were not detected in irradiated HpCDF/HpCDD samples.

  17. Determination of saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons in vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez-Coca, R. B.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to inform about the development of a simple and reliable off-line method for the determination of saturated hydrocarbons (SH in vegetable oils. SH can be used as markers for fuel or for mineral oil contamination in edible oils and fats. The method consists of the isolation of the fraction by LC on deactivated silver-silica gel and subsequent on-column GC-FID analysis. This stationary phase was prepared avoiding any kind of activation. The method was developed and validated through the participation in both a proficiency test organized by the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, and a collaborative trial carried out with trained Spanish laboratories according to the standard ISO 5725. Results showed acceptable repeatability and reproducibility values, and Horrat index, being this protocol in use with satisfactory results ever since. The method’s LOQ is 15 mg.kg–1 and its LOD 5 mg.kg–1, which make it suitable to quantify the 50 mg.kg–1 limit established by the EU, and to detect mineral oil content within the 10–500 mg.kg–1 range. Although other procedures with lower LOD have been developed throughout the years, the use of just regular laboratory equipment such as GC-FID makes the proposed method appropriate for application on a routine basis.El objetivo de este trabajo es el de dar cuenta del desarrollo de un método sencillo y fiable para la determinación de hidrocarburos saturados (HS en aceites vegetales. Los HS pueden utilizarse como marcadores de contaminación de aceites y grasas comestibles con fuel-oil y aceites minerales El procedimiento consiste en el aislamiento de la fracción correspondiente por cromatografía en columna de gel de sílice argentada sin activar y posterior análisis mediante GC (on-column-FID. El método se desarrolló y validó mediante la participación en una prueba de competencia organizada por el Joint Research Centre de la Comisión Europea, además de con un

  18. Mixtures of Vegetable Oil and Xanthan as a Substrate for Biological Dechlorination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, L.; Macbeth, T.; Truex, M. J.; Yan, X.

    2012-12-01

    In situ anaerobic biological processes are widely applied for dechlorination of chlorinated solvents in groundwater. A wide range of organic substrates have been tested and applied to support the dechlorination processes. Key factors considered in substrate selection are the induced dechlorination kinetics, geochemical impacts such as pH decreases, longevity of the substrate, and ability to distribute the substrate in the subsurface. Vegetable oils are a promising substrate and have been shown to induce effective dechlorination, have limited geochemical impacts, and good longevity. Distribution of vegetable oil in the subsurface, because it is a non-aqueous phase material, has typically been addressed by creating emulsified oil solutions. In this study, inexpensive waste vegetable oils were tested in laboratory microcosm experiments and induced dechlorination reactions with minor geochemical impacts and good longevity. Additional testing showed that mixtures of waste vegetable oil and Xanthan, a biopolymer with shear-thinning properties, produced stable suspensions of the oil as micron-scale droplets. The mixture rheology retains shear-thinning properties that would facilitate improved uniformity of substrate distribution in heterogeneous aquifers. Soil column tests were conducted as a first step in quantifying the transport of the oil droplets in the mixture through porous media. Results show that the mixture of vegetable oil and Xanthan is a potential substrate for supporting in situ anaerobic bioremediation for some subsurface settings.

  19. Remediation of trichloroethylene-contaminated soils by star technology using vegetable oil smoldering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Madiha; Gerhard, Jason I; Major, David W; Pironi, Paolo; Hadden, Rory

    2015-03-21

    Self-sustaining treatment for active remediation (STAR) is an innovative soil remediation approach based on smoldering combustion that has been demonstrated to effectively destroy complex hydrocarbon nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) with minimal energy input. This is the first study to explore the smoldering remediation of sand contaminated by a volatile NAPL (trichloroethylene, TCE) and the first to consider utilizing vegetable oil as supplemental fuel for STAR. Thirty laboratory-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the relationship between key outcomes (TCE destruction, rate of remediation) to initial conditions (vegetable oil type, oil: TCE mass ratio, neat versus emulsified oils). Several vegetable oils and emulsified vegetable oil formulations were shown to support remediation of TCE via self-sustaining smoldering. A minimum concentration of 14,000 mg/kg canola oil was found to treat sand exhibiting up to 80,000 mg/kg TCE. On average, 75% of the TCE mass was removed due to volatilization. This proof-of-concept study suggests that injection and smoldering of vegetable oil may provide a new alternative for driving volatile contaminants to traditional vapour extraction systems without supplying substantial external energy.

  20. Vegetable oil based eco-friendly coating materials: A review article

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alam, Manawwer; Akram, Deewan; Sharmin, Eram; Zafar, Fahmina; Ahmad, Sharif

    2014-01-01

    Vegetable oils (VO) constitute the single, largest, easily available, low cost, non-toxic, non-depletable, biodegradable family yielding materials that are capable of competing with fossil fuel derived petro-based products...

  1. ZETA POTENTIAL AND COLOR INVESTIGATIONS OF VEGETABLE OIL BASED EMULSIONS AS ECO-FRIENDLY LUBRICANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROMICĂ CREŢU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the past 10 years, the need for biodegradable lubricants has been more and more emphasized. The use of vegetable oils as lubricants offers several advantages. The vegetable oils are biodegradable; thus, the environmental pollution is minimal either during or after their use. The aim of this paper is to presents a preliminary study concerning the influence of some preparation conditions on the stability of vegetable oil-in-water (O/W emulsions as eco-friendly lubricants stabilized by nonionic surfactant. In this context, vegetable oil-in-water emulsions characteristics where assessed using microscopically observation and zeta potential. In addition, the color of these emulsions can be evaluated. It can be observed that the emulsions tend to stabilize in time.

  2. Projections of the impact of expansion of domestic heavy oil production on the U.S. refining industry from 1990 to 2010. Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, D.K.; Ramzel, E.B.; Strycker, A.R. [National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research, Bartlesville, OK (United States). ITT Research Institute; Guariguata, G.; Salmen, F.G. [Bonner and Moore Management Science, Houston, TX (United States)

    1994-12-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil (10{degrees} to 20{degrees} API gravity) production. This report provides a compendium of the United States refining industry and analyzes the industry by Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PADD) and by ten smaller refining areas. The refining capacity, oil source and oil quality are analyzed, and projections are made for the U.S. refining industry for the years 1990 to 2010. The study used publicly available data as background. A linear program model of the U.S. refining industry was constructed and validated using 1990 U.S. refinery performance. Projections of domestic oil production (decline) and import of crude oil (increases) were balanced to meet anticipated demand to establish a base case for years 1990 through 2010. The impact of additional domestic heavy oil production, (300 MB/D to 900 MB/D, originating in select areas of the U.S.) on the U.S. refining complex was evaluated. This heavy oil could reduce the import rate and the balance of payments by displacing some imported, principally Mid-east, medium crude. The construction cost for refining units to accommodate this additional domestic heavy oil production in both the low and high volume scenarios is about 7 billion dollars for bottoms conversion capacity (delayed coking) with about 50% of the cost attributed to compliance with the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990.

  3. 黄瓜籽油的精炼与分析%Refining and composition analysis of cucumber seed oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李孝莉; 李丽华; 张金生; 郁永清; 周雅兰

    2011-01-01

    Crude cucumber seed oil was extracted by Soxhlet method, and after degumming, deacidifica-tion, decolorization and deodorizing, the refined oil was obtained. The research showed that after laboratory refining,the acid value,peroxide value,color and phospholipids content of the product was nearly up to 2nd level of the soybean oil. After refining,the content of saturated fatty acid increased, while that of un-saturated fatty acids decreased slightly; but great loss of metal elements were caused by refining, especially the content of K, which got a loss of 1 505.0 μg/g.%通过索氏法提取黄瓜籽油,经过脱胶、脱酸、脱色和脱臭后,得到精炼油.考察精炼对油中各组分的影响,结果表明:实验室精炼后,黄瓜籽油的酸值、过氧化值、色泽和磷脂含量基本达到国家二级浸出大豆油的标准;精炼后,饱和脂肪酸含量升高,不饱和脂肪酸含量略有降低;而常量金属元素在精炼过程损耗较大,其中K含量减小幅度显著,达到1 505.0μg/g.

  4. Production of vegetal oil for energetic purposes; Producao de oleo vegetal com fins energeticos a partir de oleoginosas perenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade Pinto, R. de [Companhia Paranaense de Energia (COPEL), Curitiba, PQ (Brazil)

    1987-12-31

    The technology to obtain vegetable oil from trans esterification is already dominated. However, the oil grain`s cultures of annual cycle (soy-beans, peanuts, sunflowers) demand fertile and plain lands, which actually ought to be destined for food production, The utilization of slope wise areas, which are often destroyed by means of burning, for the reforestation with perennial oily trees which will be subject for further experimental researches, is studied. Particularly, the studies involves the cultivation of avocado`s varieties, which present pulps with a high oil concentration, in regions of temperate climates. It also involves an analysis of the high productivity and various difficulties to be surpassed, since the development of a simple procedure for thr oils and by-products extraction (in rural properties), until genetic developments of new avocado`s kinds, in order to achieve a better adaptation to the regions climate and to contain a higher oil concentration. 7 refs., 1 tab.

  5. Vegetable oils affect the composition of lipoproteins in sea bream (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Maria José; Torstensen, Bente E; Robaina, Lidia; Montero, Daniel; Izquierdo, Marisol

    2006-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of the dietary fatty acid profile on the lipoprotein composition in sea bream fed different vegetable oils. Six experimental diets were formulated combining fish oil with three vegetable oils (soybean, rapeseed, linseed) in order to obtain 60-80 % (w/w) fish-oil replacement. VLDL, LDL and HDL in plasma samples were obtained by sequential centrifugal flotation. The lipid class, protein content and fatty acid composition of each lipoprotein fraction were analysed. HDL was the predominant lipoprotein in sea bream plasma containing the highest proportion of protein (34 %) and phosphatidylcholine. LDL presented a high content of cholesterol, whereas triacylglycerol comprised a larger proportion of VLDL. The lipid class of the lipoprotein fractions was affected by the dietary vegetable oils. Thus, a high dietary inclusion of soyabean and linseed oil (80 %) increased the cholesterol in HDL and LDL in comparison to fish oil. Similarly, the triacylglycerol concentration of VLDL was increased in fish fed 80 % soyabean and linseed oils owing to the low n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid content of these diets. Lipoprotein fatty acid composition easily responded to dietary fatty acid composition. VLDL was the fraction more affected by dietary fatty acid, followed by LDL and HDL. The n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid content increased in the order VLDL less than LDL and less than HDL, regardless of dietary vegetable oils.

  6. Organohalogen compounds in present day vegetable oils sourced from the Middle East

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, M. [Univ. of Surrey, Guildford (United Kingdom); Covaci, A. [Univ. of Antwerp (Belgium)

    2004-09-15

    Organohalogen chemicals such as hexachlorohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCBs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are persistent, hydrophobic and thus accumulate in the food chain. The relevance of fish and dairy products as source for human contamination with these pollutants is widely recognized and as a result, routine monitoring programs of fish and dairy products are used to monitor exposure. Monitoring of vegetable oils for organohalogen contaminants is more on an ad hoc basis vegetable oils are generally far less contaminated than animal fats. Where monitoring is undertaken, samples originating from or entering the European and US market are generally analysed and data are available in the published literature. However, little data is available in the public domain for other major producers, particularly the Middle East. Olive oil is integral to Middle Eastern cooking and is widely consumed in relatively large quantities. Rich in monounsaturated fatty acids, nutritionally olive oil is considered to impart important health benefits as observed in southern Mediterranean diet studies. Here we report the levels of PCBs, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and PBDEs in eight olive oil and three vegetable oil samples from the Middle East obtained in 2003 and in three additional olive oil samples from the Mediterranean countries (Turkey, Greece and Egypt). The present study provides an extension of our previous study on organohalogen contaminant data in historic olive and ground nut oil from Palestine and gives a preliminary indication of dietary exposure to organohalogen contaminants from vegetable oils.

  7. Sensory Evaluation of Mayonnaise Preparred with Vegetable Oil and Egg Yolk of Local Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firman Jaya

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of current research were to find out the precise combination between concentrations of vegetable oils (65%; 70%; 75% and chicken egg of local chicken (6%; 9% and 12% which produced mayonnaise with an acceptance of panelist. The results showed that the best treatment obtained from a combination of vegetable oil 75% concentration by concentration of chicken egg of local chicken 9% Key words: fat, fatty acids, carotene, shrimp waste

  8. United States Gulf of Mexico Coastal Marsh Vegetation Responses and Sensitivities to Oil Spill: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Reza Pezeshki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present review summarizes the literature on the effects of oil spill on the U.S. Gulf of Mexico coastal vegetation including freshwater-, brackish-, and salt-marshes. When in contact with plant tissues, oil may have adverse impacts via physical and chemical effects. Oil may also become detrimental to plants by covering soil surfaces, leading to root oxygen stress and/or penetrate into the soil where it becomes in contact with the roots. The affected vegetation may survive the impact by producing new leaves, however, an episode of oil spill may impose severe stress. Oil spills may lead to partial or complete plant death but in many situations plants recover by regenerating new shoots. Plant sensitivity to oil varies among species; plants from salt marshes appear to be more sensitive than freshwater species. In addition, sensitivity appears to be dependent on the oil characteristics and the quantity of oil being spilled, repeated oiling events, season of spill, greenhouse vs. field conditions, and plant age are among the many factors that interact simultaneously. Many aspects of coastal plant responses to oiling remain in need of additional research, including the possibility that differences in oil sensitivity may interact with changes in the environment, and contribution to additional wetland losses through coastal erosion. Environmental stressors such as drought and salinity may also interact with oil, leading to the observed changes in plant species community composition following an oil spill.

  9. Rapid determination of saponification value and polymer content of vegetable and fish oils by terahertz spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Feng Ling; Ikeda, Ikuo; Ogawa, Yuichi; Endo, Yasushi

    2012-01-01

    A rapid method for determining the saponification value (SV) and polymer content of vegetable and fish oils using the terahertz (THz) spectroscopy was developed. When the THz absorption spectra for vegetable and fish oils were measured in the range of 20 to 400 cm⁻¹, two peaks were seen at 77 and 328 cm⁻¹. The level of absorbance at 77 cm⁻¹ correlated well with the SV. When the THz absorption spectra of thermally treated high-oleic safflower oils were measured, the absorbance increased with heating time. The polymer content in thermally treated oil correlated with the absorbance at 77 cm⁻¹. These results demonstrate that the THz spectrometry is a suitable non-destructive technique for the rapid determination of the SV and polymer content of vegetable and fish oils.

  10. The influence of animal fat replacement with vegetable oils on sensorial perception of meat emulsified products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian TUDOSE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of the present study, in an emulsified meat product the pork backfat was replaced with a vegetable oil pre-emulsion and its effect on quality attributes were investigated. In order to do so, a classic and a new meat products were manufactured. Extra virgin olive oil and palm oil pre-emulsion were added instead of animal fat in the new product. Texture and physiochemical properties were analyzed by instrumental measurements. It was observed that during storage moisture and pH decreased. Using vegetable oils determined substantial increase of TBA values. Texture was influenced mainly by storage time for both products, while replacement of pork backfat with vegetable oil pre-emulsion had no influence on sample firmness. The sensory properties of meat products were evaluated by a group of trained panelists using an analitycal sensory evaluation technique. Overall the new product presented good acceptability which recommends it like a new healthier meat product.

  11. Recent developments in microbial oils production: a possible alternative to vegetable oils for biodiesel without competition with human food?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwendoline Christophe

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Since centuries vegetable oils are consumed as human food but it also finds applications in biodiesel production which is attracting more attention. But due to being in competition with food it could not be sustainable and leads the need to search for alternative. Nowdays microbes-derived oils (single cell oils seem to be alternatives for biodiesel production due to their similar composition to that of vegetable oils. However, the cold flow properties of the biodiesel produced from microbial oils are unacceptable and have to be modified by an efficient transesterification. Glycerol which is by product of transesterification can be valorised into some more useful products so that it can also be utilised along with biodiesel to simplify the downstream processing. The review paper discusses about various potent microorganisms for biodiesel production, enzymes involved in the lipid accumulation, lipid quantification methods, catalysts used in transesterification (including enzymatic catalyst and valorisation of glycerol.

  12. Glycidyl esters in refined palm (Elaeis guineensis) oil and related fractions. Part II: practical recommendations for effective mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, Brian D; Nagy, Kornél; Seefelder, Walburga; Dubois, Mathieu; Destaillats, Frédéric

    2012-05-01

    In a previous work, it was shown that at high temperatures (up to 280°C) glycidyl esters (GE) are formed from diacylglycerols (DAG) via elimination of free fatty acid (FFA). In the present study, the impact of DAG content and temperature on the formation of GE using a model vacuum system mimicking industrial edible oil deodorization is investigated. These deodorization experiments confirmed that the formation of GE from DAG is extensive at temperatures above 230-240°C, and therefore, this value should be considered as an upper limit for refining operations. Furthermore, experimental data suggest that the formation of GE accelerates in particular when the DAG levels in refined oils exceed 3-4% of total lipids. Analysis of the lipid composition of crude palm oil (CPO) samples allowed the estimation that this critical DAG content corresponds to about 1.9-2.5% of FFA, which is the conventional quality marker of CPO. Moreover, high levels (>100ppm) of GE were also found in palm fatty acid distillate samples, which may indicate that the level of GE in fully refined palm oils also depends on the elimination rate of GE into the fatty acid distillate. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Water and sediment quality in a tropical swamp used for agricultural and oil refining activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norville, Wendy; Banjoo, Darryl

    2011-01-01

    The Godineau Swamp in Trinidad receives anthropogenic input from agricultural and oil refining activities, sewage and domestic waste. This study was conducted in order to provide a comprehensive baseline dataset for the swamp, to assess water and sediment quality in the swamp, and to identify hotspots and possible sources of pollutants to the swamp. Ten sampling stations were established in the swamp during April/May and July 2002. Water quality parameters monitored included physicochemical measurements (pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen and salinity), total suspended solids, and nutrients (ammonia, nitrites, nitrates and total phosphorus). Sediments were analyzed for hydrocarbons, heavy metals and total organic carbon. Temperatures and pH of water in the swamp were ambient; dissolved oxygen was low in many instances (saltwater intrusion along the Oropuche River up to the most easterly station. Levels of ammonia and phosphorus concentrations were suggestive of periodic inputs of agricultural and domestic wastes. Hydrocarbons concentrations in sediment were above ambient levels and suggestive of contamination from industrial activities. Sediments from the Godineau River contained elevated nutrients, hydrocarbons, metals and TOC compared with other stations. The results of this study indicate some degree of pollution of the Godineau swamp, which prompts the need for the implementation of measures beneficial for wise use of the swamp.

  14. The density and cloud point of diesel oil mixtures with the straight vegetable oils (SVO): Palm, cabbage palm, cotton, groundnut, copra and sunflower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abolle, Abolle; Loukou, Kouakou; Henri, Planche [Unite de Chimie et Procedes de l' Ecole Nationale Superieure des Techniques Avancees, 32 boulevard Victor, 75739 Paris Cedex 15 (France)

    2009-12-15

    The densities and cloud points of six vegetable oils mixed in variable proportions to diesel oils (commercial vehicle fuels) are measured. Simple correlations are reported between these properties and the fatty acids vegetable oil composition. A simple modelling summarises experimental data informations. (author)

  15. The influence of natural tocopherols during thermal oxidation of refined and partially hydrogenated soybean oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrera-Arellano, D.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Samples of refined and partially hydrogenated soybean oils, with iodine values between 60 and 130, tocopherol-stripped or not by aluminium oxide treatment, were submitted to thermal oxidation, at 180 °C (during for 10 hours. Samples were collected at 0, 2, 5, 8 and 10 hours, for the determination of dimers and polymers (degradation compounds and tocopherols. The relation of iodine value to the formation of dimers and polymers and the role of originally present tocopherols in the protection of fats and oils against thermal degradation was verified. The degradation curves for tocopherols showed that α and γ -tocopherols were destroyed faster than β and δ -tocopherols. In addition, the degradation rate of tocopherols was greater in the more saturated fats. The formation of dimers and polymers was greater in the oil than in the hydrogenated samples and in the samples treated with aluminium oxide with respect to the original, untreated samples.Muestras de aceites refinados y parcialmente hidrogenados de soja, con índices de yodo entre 60 y 130, tratadas o no con óxido de aluminio para eliminar los tocoferoles naturales presentes en los aceites, fueron sometidas a termoxidación, a 180 °C durante 10 horas. Se tomaron muestras en los tiempos 0, 2, 5, 8 y 10 horas, para determinación de dímeros y polímeros (compuestos de degradación y de tocoferoles. Se verificó la relación del índice de yodo con la formación de dímeros y polímeros, y también el papel de los tocoferoles originales del aceite y de las grasas en la protección contra la degradación térmica. Las curvas de degradación de los tocoferoles mostraron la destrucción más rápida de α y γ -tocoferoles, respecto a β y δ-tocoferoles. Además, la degradación de los tocoferoles ocurrió a mayor velocidad en las grasas más saturadas. La formación de dímeros y polímeros fue mayor en el aceite que en las muestras hidrogenadas y en las muestras tratadas

  16. New frontiers in oilseed biotechnology: meeting the global demand for vegetable oils for food, feed, biofuel, and industrial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chaofu; Napier, Johnathan A; Clemente, Thomas E; Cahoon, Edgar B

    2011-04-01

    Vegetable oils have historically been a valued commodity for food use and to a lesser extent for non-edible applications such as detergents and lubricants. The increasing reliance on biodiesel as a transportation fuel has contributed to rising demand and higher prices for vegetable oils. Biotechnology offers a number of solutions to meet the growing need for affordable vegetable oils and vegetable oils with improved fatty acid compositions for food and industrial uses. New insights into oilseed metabolism and its transcriptional control are enabling biotechnological enhancement of oil content and quality. Alternative crop platforms and emerging technologies for metabolic engineering also hold promise for meeting global demand for vegetable oils and for enhancing nutritional, industrial, and biofuel properties of vegetable oils. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fast quality screening of vegetable oils by HPLC-thermal lens spectrometric detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luterotti, S.; Franko, M.; Bicanic, D.

    2002-01-01

    Isocratic reversed-phase HPLC with thermal lens spectrometric (TLS) detection enabled identification of linseed, olive, sesame, and wheat germ vegetable oils to control the authenticity of the oils based on characteristic carotenoid/carotene profiles. Four characteristic regions of carotenoids

  18. Preparation of margarines from organogels of sunflower wax and vegetable oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    It was previously reported that sunflower wax (SW) had high potential as an organogelator for soybean oil-based margarine and spread products. In this study twelve other vegetable oils were evaluated in a margarine formulation to test feasibility of utilization of SW as an alternative to solid fats ...

  19. GLC analysis of poison ivy and poison oak urushiol components in vegetable oil preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsohly, M A; Turner, C E

    1980-05-01

    A procedure is described for the analysis of urushiol content of pharmaceutical preparations containing extracts of poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans) and poison oak (T. diversilobum) in vegetable oils. The procedure involves extraction of the urushiols from the oily solutions using 90% methanol in water followed by GLC analysis of the extracts. Recoveries of both poison ivy and poison oak urushiols from solutions in corn oil, olive oil, sesame seed oil, and cottonseed oil were calculated. Correlation coefficients (r2) ranged from 0.97 to 1.00, and the coefficients of variations ranged from 3.08 to 7.90%.

  20. Incorporating different vegetable oils into an aqueous dispersion of hybrid organic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samyn, Pieter, E-mail: Pieter.Samyn@fobawi.uni-freiburg.de [Albert-Luedwigs-University Freiburg, Institute for Forest Utilization (Germany); Schoukens, Gustaaf [Ghent University, Department of Textiles (Belgium); Stanssens, Dirk; Vonck, Leo; Van den Abbeele, Henk [Topchim N.V. (Belgium)

    2012-08-15

    Different vegetable oils including soy oil, high-oleic sunflower oil, corn oil, castor oil (CO), rapeseed oil, and hydrogenated CO were added to the imidization reaction of poly(styrene-maleic anhydride) or SMA, with ammonium hydroxide in aqueous medium. The oils favorably reduce viscosity during ammonolysis of the anhydride moieties and increase the maximum solid content of the dispersed imidized SMA to at least 50 wt%, compared to a maximum of 35 wt% for pure imidized SMA. The viscosity of imidized SMA with polyunsaturated oils was generally larger than for monosaturated oils, but it was highest for COs due to high contents of hydroxyl groups. Depending on the oil reactivity, homogeneous or core-shell nanoparticles with 20-60 nm diameters formed. The interactions of oil and organic phase were studied by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, indicating qualitative variances between different oils, the fraction imidized SMA and remaining fraction of ammonolyzed SMA without leakage of oil upon diluting the dispersion and precipitation at low pH. A quantitative analysis with calculation of imide contents, amounts of reacted oil and chemical interactions was made by Fourier-transform-Raman spectroscopy suggesting that most interactions take place around the unsaturated oil moieties and ammonolyzed anhydride.

  1. Replacement of Dietary Fish Oil with Vegetable Oils Improves the Growth and Flesh Quality of Large Yellow Croaker (Larmichthys crocea)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Qingyuan; MAI Kangsen; SHENTU Jikang; AI Qinghui; ZHONG Huiying; JIANG Yujian; ZHANG Lu; ZHANG Chunxiao; GUO Sitong

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of the replacement of dietary fish oil with vegetable oils on the growth and flesh quality of large yellow croaker (Larmichthys crocea). The basal diet (FO) was formulated to contain 66.5%fish meal and 6.4%menhaden fish oil;whereas the other 3 experimental diets were formulated by replacing the fish oil with 50%soybean oil (SO50), 100%soybean oil (SO100) and 100%palm oil (PO100), respectively. The 4 diets were randomly assigned to 4 floating sea cages (3.0 m × 3.0 m × 3.0 m), and each was stocked with 250 fish individuals with an initial average weight of 245.29 g ± 7.45 g. The fish were fed to apparent sa-tiation twice a day at 5:00 and 17:00, respectively, for 12 weeks. Experimental analysis showed that the specific growth rate of fish fed SO50 or PO100 were significantly higher than that of fish fed FO or SO100 (P0.05). Compared to FO diet, SO50, SO100 and PO100 diets led to substantial decreases in the liquid loss and wa-ter loss from fresh fillets (1 d, 4℃) (P<0.05). Similarly, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values of fillets under dif-ferent storage conditions (1 d, 4℃;7 d, 4℃;4 weeks,-20℃;8 weeks,-20℃) decreased significantly after partial or complete re-placement of fish oil with vegetable oils. These findings indicated that the growth performance and selected flesh quality properties (liquid holding capacity and TBARS value) of large yellow croaker were substantially improved by replacing dietary fish oil with vegetable oils.

  2. 33 CFR 154.1240 - Specific requirements for animal fats and vegetable oils facilities that could reasonably be...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... fats and vegetable oils facilities that could reasonably be expected to cause substantial harm to the... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Response Plans for Animal Fats and Vegetable Oils Facilities § 154.1240 Specific requirements for animal fats and...

  3. Direct oxidation of waste vegetable oil in solid-oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Z. F.; Kumar, R.; Thakur, S. T.; Rudnick, L. R.; Schobert, H.; Lvov, S. N.

    Solid-oxide fuel cells with ceria, ceria-Cu, and ceria-Rh anode were demonstrated to generate stable electric power with waste vegetable oil through direct oxidation of the fuel. The only pre-treatment to the fuel was a filtration to remove particulates. The performance of the fuel cell was stable over 100 h for the waste vegetable oil without dilution. The generated power was up to 0.25 W cm -2 for ceria-Rh fuel cell. This compares favorably with previously studied hydrocarbon fuels including jet fuels and Pennsylvania crude oil.

  4. Experimental Investigation of Performanec of Single Cylinder 4s Diesel Engine Using Dual Vegetable Oil Blended

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. C. S. Koli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades there has been a tremendous increase in the number of automobiles and a corresponding increase in the fuel price. In this regard, alternative fuels like vegetable oils play a major role. Use of pure vegetable oil in diesel engines causes some problems due to their high viscosity compared with diesel fuel. To solve the problems due to high viscosity various techniques are used. One such technique is fuel blending. This paper investigated the performance parameters of dual vegetable oil blends (mixture of Mustard oil and Palm oil with diesel on a stationary single cylinder, four stroke direct injection compression ignition engine. The blends of BB 10 (combination of Diesel 90% by volume, Mustard oil 5% by volume and Palm oil 5% by volume and blends of BB 20 (combination of Diesel 80% by volume, Mustard oil 10% by volume and Palm oil 10% by volume gave better brake thermal efficiency, lower total fuel consumption and lower brake specific fuel consumption than other blends (BB 30, BB 40 and BB 50.

  5. Selection of a suitable vegetable oil for high voltage insulation applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosier, I. L.; Guushaa, A.; Vaughan, A. S.; Swingler, S. G.

    2009-08-01

    Many items of high voltage plant employ a liquid both as a dielectric and a coolant. Currently these systems use a mineral oil, however, this suffers from the drawback of being potentially toxic and hence leakages and eventual disposal can be serious issues. To overcome this problem, an increasing trend in the UK is to backfill existing paper/oil cable systems with dodecylbenzene (DDB). This fluid possesses the advantages of improved gas absorption, good dielectric properties and biodegradability; nevertheless it is still derived from crude oil, a non-renewable resource. Vegetable oils offer the added advantage of being renewable although many types are available with very different properties. In order to select a suitable vegetable oil for high voltage applications, a standardised ageing and testing regime is required. In this paper, a wide range of vegetable oils were subjected to controlled laboratory ageing and the resulting aged oils were characterised by a number of analytical techniques. The results from these tests were then used to rank the different oils, and to select the most ageing resistant oil.

  6. Economic analysis and performance of a low power diesel engine using soybean oil refined; Analise economica e de desempenho de um motor diesel de baixa potencia utilizando oleo de soja refinado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Guilherme Ladeira dos; Fernandes, Haroldo Carlos; Alvarenga, Cleyton Batista de; Leite, Daniel Mariano; Siqueira, Wagner da Cunha [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], E-mails: glsantos@yahoo.com.br, haroldo@ufv.br, cleyton.alvarenga@ufv.br, daniel.mariano@ufv.br, wagner.siqueira@ufv.br

    2011-07-01

    Oil is the main source of energy available to power internal combustion engines, enabling its transformation into mechanical energy. To meet the production of vegetable oils, many cultures can be used, according to regional conditions, especially those that are already commercially exploited, such as peanuts, Soybeans, Corn, Palm oil, Sunflower and Canola, and other public regional and castor oil, Andiroba, Pequi, Buriti, Inaja, Carnauba, Jatropha, among others. The objective of this work make an economic analysis of replacing diesel fuel by mixing and compare performance on the engine and using B{sub 2} biodiesel fuel mixture of diesel with 2 % Refined Soybean Oil (SAB). The loads applied by the dynamometer in the engine were 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19 and 21.5 lbs. The engine was coupled to the dynamometer with the aid of pulleys and belts of the type V with gear ratio of 1:1,9. Apparently, the best vegetable oil mixture was 30 %, both in terms of specific consumption and cost from R$ kW{sup -1} h{sup -1}. Providing the same cost of pure diesel. (author)

  7. CASTOR SEED BIO -TRANSFORMER OIL AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO CONVENTIONAL TRANSFORMER OIL

    OpenAIRE

    Egbuna, S.O.*, Ude, O.C., Ude, C.N.

    2016-01-01

    In search of solution to the harmful ecological problems due to toxicity and non-biodegradability posed by conventional transformer insulation oil (mineral oil), the production of transformer oil from castor seed oil (vegetable oil) was carried out. The oil was extracted using N-hexane and was refined. The transformer oil was produced by trans-esterification and was characterized using American Society for Testing Material (ASTM) standard test. The solvent employed gave good yield of oil from...

  8. A rapid method to authenticate vegetable oils through surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Ming Yang; Zhang, Xin; Ren, Hai Rui; Liu, Luo; Zhao, Yong Mei; Wang, Zheng; Wu, Zheng Long; Liu, Li Min; Xu, Hai Jun

    2016-03-01

    Vegetable oils are essential in our daily diet. Among various vegetable oils, the major difference lies in the composition of fatty acids, including unsaturated fatty acids (USFA) and saturated fatty acids (SFA). USFA include oleic acid (OA), linoleic acid (LA), and α-linolenic acid (ALA), while SFA are mainly palmitic acid (PA). In this study, the most typical and abundant USFA present with PA in vegetable oils were quantified. More importantly, certain proportional relationships between the integrated intensities of peaks centered at 1656 cm-1 (S1656) in the surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectra of different USFA were confirmed. Therefore, the LA or ALA content could be converted into an equivalent virtual OA content enabling the characterization of the USFA content in vegetable oils using the equivalent total OA content. In combination with the S1656 of pure OA and using peanut, sesame, and soybean oils as examples, the ranges of S1656 corresponding to the National Standards of China were established to allow the rapid authentication of vegetable oils. Gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer analyses verified the accuracy of the method, with relative errors of less than 5%. Moreover, this method can be extended to other detection fields, such as diseases.

  9. Determination of vegetable oils and fats adulterants in diesel oil by high performance liquid chromatography and multivariate methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Luiz Filipe Paiva; Braga, Jez Willian Batista; Suarez, Paulo Anselmo Ziani

    2012-02-17

    The current legislation requires the mandatory addition of biodiesel to all Brazilian road diesel oil A (pure diesel) marketed in the country and bans the addition of vegetable oils for this type of diesel. However, cases of irregular addition of vegetable oils directly to the diesel oil may occur, mainly due to the lower cost of these raw materials compared to the final product, biodiesel. In Brazil, the situation is even more critical once the country is one of the largest producers of oleaginous products in the world, especially soybean, and also it has an extensive road network dependent on diesel. Therefore, alternatives to control the quality of diesel have become increasingly necessary. This study proposes an analytical methodology for quality control of diesel with intention to identify and determine adulterations of oils and even fats of vegetable origin. This methodology is based on detection, identification and quantification of triacylglycerols on diesel (main constituents of vegetable oils and fats) by high performance liquid chromatography in reversed phase with UV detection at 205nm associated with multivariate methods. Six different types of oils and fats were studied (soybean, frying oil, corn, cotton, palm oil and babassu) and two methods were developed for data analysis. The first one, based on principal component analysis (PCA), nearest neighbor classification (KNN) and univariate regression, was used for samples adulterated with a single type of oil or fat. In the second method, partial least square regression (PLS) was used for the cases where the adulterants were mixtures of up to three types of oils or fats. In the first method, the techniques of PCA and KNN were correctly classified as 17 out of 18 validation samples on the type of oil or fat present. The concentrations estimated for adulterants showed good agreement with the reference values, with mean errors of prediction (RMSEP) ranging between 0.10 and 0.22% (v/v). The PLS method was

  10. Effect of Catalyst on Transesterifi cation of Waste Vegetable Oils from Food Processing Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Iličković

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Converting waste vegetable oils from food processing facilities, restaurants and households to biodiesel by the transestrification reaction with methanol has important advantages for human health and environment. The transesterification reaction of waste vegetable oils is affected by free fatty acids and water content of oils and fats, type of alcohol, type and quantities of catalyst, reaction temperature and reaction time. Basic aim of this paper is to explore effect of type and quantities of catalyst on transesterification process of different waste vegetable oils from food processing facilities with methanol. Comparison of basic characteristics between produced biodiesel, industrially produced biodiesel and values from European standards for biodiesel fuel (EN14214 was made.

  11. Effect of Catalyst on Transesterification of Waste Vegetable Oils from Food Processing Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Iličković

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Converting waste vegetable oils from food processing facilities, restaurants and households to biodiesel by the transestrification reaction with methanol has important advantages for human health and environment. The transesterification reaction of waste vegetable oils is affected by free fatty acids and water content of oils and fats, type of alcohol, type and quantities of catalyst, reaction temperature and reaction time. Basic aim of this paper is to explore effect of type and quantities of catalyst on transesterification process of different waste vegetable oils from food processing facilities with methanol. Comparison of basic characteristics between produced biodiesel, industrially produced biodiesel and values from European standards for biodiesel fuel (EN14214 was made.

  12. The use of Brazilian vegetable oils in nanoemulsions: an update on preparation and biological applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiane Bajerski

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Vegetable oils present important pharmacological properties, which gained ground in the pharmaceutical field. Its encapsulation in nanoemulsions is considered a promising strategy to facilitate the applicability of these natural compounds and to potentiate the actions. These formulations offer several advantages for topical and systemic delivery of cosmetic and pharmaceutical agents including controlled droplet size, protection of the vegetable oil to photo, thermal and volatilization instability and ability to dissolve and stabilize lipophilic drugs. For these reasons, the aim of this review is to report on some characteristics, preparation methods, applications and especially analyze recent research available in the literature concerning the use of vegetable oils with therapeutic characteristics as lipid core in nanoemulsions, specially from Brazilian flora, such as babassu (Orbignya oleifera, aroeira (Schinus molle L., andiroba (Carapa guaianiensis, casca-de-anta (Drimys brasiliensis Miers, sucupira (Pterodon emarginatus Vogel and carqueja doce (Stenachaenium megapotamicum oils.

  13. Detection of argan oil adulteration with vegetable oils by high-performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salghi, Rachid; Armbruster, Wolfgang; Schwack, Wolfgang

    2014-06-15

    Triacylglycerol profiles were selected as indicator of adulteration of argan oils to carry out a rapid screening of samples for the evaluation of authenticity. Triacylglycerols were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detection. Different peak area ratios were defined to sensitively detect adulteration of argan oil with vegetable oils such as sunflower, soy bean, and olive oil up to the level of 5%. Based on four reference argan oils, mean limits of detection and quantitation were calculated to approximately 0.4% and 1.3%, respectively. Additionally, 19 more argan oil reference samples were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography-refractive index detection, resulting in highly comparative results. The overall strategy demonstrated a good applicability in practise, and hence a high potential to be transferred to routine laboratories. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. HPLC-UV Polyphenolic Profiles in the Classification of Olive Oils and Other Vegetable Oils via Principal Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireia Farrés-Cebrián

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available High performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV was applied to the analysis and characterization of olive oils and other vegetable oils. A chromatographic separation on a Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C8 reversed-phase column was proposed under gradient elution, employing 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution and methanol as mobile phase, for the determination of 14 polyphenols and phenolic acids, allowing us to obtain compositional profiles in less than 20 min. Acceptable sensitivity (limit of detection (LOD values down to 80 µg/L in the best of cases, linearity (r2 higher than 0.986, good run-to-run and day-to-day precisions (relative standard deviation (RSD values lower than 11.5%, and method trueness (relative errors lower than 6.8% were obtained. The proposed HPLC-UV method was then applied to the analysis of 72 oil samples (47 olive oils and 27 vegetable oils including sunflower, soy, corn, and mixtures of them. Analytes were recovered using a liquid–liquid extraction method employing ethanol:water 70:30 (v/v solution and hexane as extracting and defatting solvents, respectively. HPLC-UV polyphenolic profiles using peak areas were then analysed by principal component analysis (PCA to extract information from the most significant data contributing to the characterization and classification of olive oils against other vegetable oils, as well as among Arbequina and Picual olive oil varieties. PCA results showed a noticeable difference between olive oils and the other classes. In addition, a reasonable discrimination of olive oils as a function of fruit varieties was also encountered.

  15. Effect of Replacing Pork Fat with Vegetable Oils on Quality Properties of Emulsion-type Pork Sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Jin; Jung, Eun-Hee; Lee, Sang-Hwa; Kim, Jong-Hee; Lee, Jae-Joon; Choi, Yang-Ii

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the quality properties of emulsion-type pork sausages when pork fat is replaced with vegetable oil mixtures during processing. Pork sausages were processed under six treatment conditions: T1 (20% pork fat), T2 (10% pork fat + 2% grape seed oil + 4% olive oil + 4% canola oil), T3 (4% grape seed oil + 16% canola oil), T4 (4% grape seed oil + 4% olive oil + 12% canola oil), T5 (4% grape seed oil + 8% olive oil + 8% canola oil), and T6 (4% grape seed oil + 12% olive oil + 4% canola oil). Proximate analysis showed significant (pfat content among the emulsion-type pork sausages. Furthermore, replacement with vegetable oil mixtures significantly decreased the ash content (psausages. Also, cholesterol content in T6 was significantly lower than T2 (psausages were significantly (preplacement. On the contrary, cohesiveness and springiness in the T4 group were similar to those of group T1. The unsaturated fatty acid content in emulsion-type pork sausages was increased by vegetable oil mixtures replacement. Replacement of pork fat with mixed vegetable oils had no negative effects on the quality properties of emulsion-type pork sausages, and due to its reduced saturated fatty acid composition, the product had the quality characteristics of the healthy meat products desired by consumers.

  16. Bio diesel from vegetable oils; Biodiesel a partir de oleos vegetais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, W.A.; Nunes, P.P.; Ferreira, M.S.; Martins, E.P.; Reguera, F.M.; Pastura, N.M.R. [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica. Grupo de Catalise

    2000-07-01

    Obtention alternative fuel from vegetable oils using catalytic transformation is a very interesting possibility, that begin to be research from petroleum crisis in 1973 and 1978, and has an advantage from others ways of energy because it do not vanish the soil nor harmful the ambient. M E catalysis group development research in combustible renewable source since 1979, with several publications. At first, various vegetable oils were researched and became evident that oils must be pre-hydrogenated in order to improve the quantity of hydrocarbons like diesel oil. So far, when the acidity of solids catalysts were studied, Broensted and Lewis acidity from supported catalysts with different acidity were compared, using soybean oil not hydrogenated, babassu and 'pinhao manso and wild', and others fatty acids as models compounds. So, carboxylic acid were studies as models compounds and the vegetable oil reforming on acids catalysts with niobium, modifying zeolites or not by rare earth, in order to get more quantity in bio diesel. This paper objective is notice the research that since 1970 decade is done by this group improving vegetable oils as renewable energy source. (author)

  17. Effects of Oil-Contaminated Sediments on Submerged Vegetation: An Experimental Assessment of Ruppia maritima.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles W Martin

    Full Text Available Oil spills threaten the productivity of ecosystems through the degradation of coastal flora and the ecosystem services these plants provide. While lab and field investigations have quantified the response of numerous species of emergent vegetation to oil, the effects on submerged vegetation remain uncertain. Here, we discuss the implications of oil exposure for Ruppia maritima, one of the most common species of submerged vegetation found in the region affected by the recent Deepwater Horizon oil spill. We grew R. maritima in a range of manipulated sediment oil concentrations: 0, 0.26, 0.53, and 1.05 mL oil /L tank volume, and tracked changes in growth (wet weight and shoot density/length, reproductive activity (inflorescence and seed production, root characteristics (mass, length, diameter, and area, and uprooting force of plants. While no statistical differences were detected in growth, plants exhibited significant changes to reproductive output, root morphology, and uprooting force. We found significant reductions in inflorescences and fruiting bodies at higher oil concentrations. In addition, the roots growing in the high oil were shorter and wider. Plants in medium and high oil required less force to uproot. A second experiment was performed to separate the effects of root morphology and oiled sediment properties and indicated that there were also changes to sediment cohesion that contributed to a reduction in uprooting forces in medium and high oil. Given the importance of sexual reproduction for these plants, oil contamination may have substantial population-level effects. Moreover, areas containing buried oil may be more susceptible to high energy storm events due to the reduction in uprooting force of foundation species such as R. maritima.

  18. Determination of trigonelline in seeds and vegetable oils by capillary electrophoresis as a novel marker for the detection of adulterations in olive oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Hernández, Laura; Puchalska, Patrycja; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Crego, Antonio L; Marina, Maria Luisa

    2010-07-14

    A capillary electrophoresis method with UV detection was developed for the first time for the determination of the pyridine betaine trigonelline (N-methylnicotinic acid) in seeds and vegetable oils. Analytical characteristics of the method showed its good performance in terms of linearity (r > 0.999), precision (relative standard deviations oils). The developed method was applied to the analysis of soy and sunflower seeds, three varieties of olives, and sunflower, soy, and extra virgin olive oils. Trigonelline was determined in soy and sunflower seeds and their respective oils, whereas it was not detected in olives or olive oils. Different mixtures of extra virgin olive oil with seed oils were analyzed, detecting up to 10% of soy oil in olive oil. As a consequence, trigonelline is proposed in this work as a novel marker for the detection of adulterations of olive oils with other vegetable oils such as soy and sunflower oils.

  19. Prospects of application of vegetable oils as antifungal agents (Literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Mikheev

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of work – to summarize and present modern scientific literature reviews of alternative antifungal agents usage, among which herbal medicines, and in particular herbal oils, may play significant role. Fungal infections (mycoses are one of the leading infectious diseases in the world. Besides the medical importance, pathogenic fungi play a significant role in the food industry as potential pollutants. In order to treat fungal infections and to prevent food spoilage various medications that are products of chemical synthesis are widely used and the need for them increases significantly. However, among large number of medications and herbal drugs only a small part is used to treat fungal infections and to prevent food decay, though plants contain a lot of bioactive compounds with potential antifungal properties. Therefore, question of application of vegetable oils as antifungal agents is relevant. Various plants contain oils that have the potential antifungal properties, but are often used only in gastronomic purpose. The same time those oils can be successfully used for the treatment of candidiasis and infections caused by fungi of genera Aspergillus, Trichoderma, Penicillium, Fusarium, Metrhizium, Ophiostoma, Scopulariopsis and others. Their effects are manifested like using a single vegetable oil and mixtures of oils. Conclusions. Vegetable oils usage has big perspectives due to the lack of «addictive» effect and the development of resistance in fungi of different taxa. Vegetable oils do not require considerable investments for their reception, and thanks to traditions of aromo- and herbal medicine, their usage can be more effective in contrast to traditional chemotherapeutic agents. The search and study of new medicines based on vegetable oils may be a perspective direction of modern microbiological sciences and requires further deep studies of their biological properties and mechanisms of action.

  20. Use of Vegetable Oil in Reductive Dechlorination of Tetrachloroethene

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-08-01

    such as common soybean oil), solid (such as palm kernel oil) or an 11 emulsified mixture (with the addition of an emulsifying agent, such as lecithin ...contact is desired, means must be sought to spread the oil better. Vegoil may be emulsified with water either by using an emulsifier such as lecithin ...lower than that of the equivalent mass of an emulsified vegoil. Such "spreading" techniques will, however, likely lead to much more rapid fermentation

  1. Manufacturing of environment friendly biolubricants from vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebtisam K. Heikal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Environment friendly products such as fuels and lubricants are among the candidates which are studied in several countries including Egypt. The purpose of this work was to utilize commercially available palm oil and Jatropha oil for the production of biolubricants, through two stages of Transesterification. The first stage is the process of using methanol in the presence of potassium hydroxide to produce biodiesel. The second stage is the reaction of biodiesel with trimethylolpropane using sodium methoxide as catalyst to yield palm or Jatropha oil base trimethylolpropane esters (biolubricants. Palm oil based trimethylolpropane esters with yield of 97.8% was obtained after 4 h of reaction at 130 °C. Under similar reaction conditions, Jatropha oil based trimethylolpropane esters with a yield of 98.2% was obtained. The resulting products were confirmed by FTIR and evaluated by ASTM analyses. The obtained Jatropha oil based trimethylolpropane esters exhibited high viscosity indices (140, low pour point temperature (−3 °C, and moderate thermal stabilities and met the requirement of commercial industrial oil ISO VG46 grade. In spite of the high pour point of Palm oil based trimethylolpropane esters (5 °C, which needs pour point depressant to reduce the pour point, other lubrication properties such as viscosity, viscosity indices and flash point are comparable to commercial industrial oil ISO VG32 and VG46.

  2. A systematic review of high-oleic vegetable oil substitutions for other fats and oils on cardiovascular disease risk factors: implications for novel high-oleic soybean oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, Peter J; Fulgoni, Victor L; Larson, Brian T

    2015-11-01

    High-oleic acid soybean oil (H-OSBO) is a trait-enhanced vegetable oil containing >70% oleic acid. Developed as an alternative for trans-FA (TFA)-containing vegetable oils, H-OSBO is predicted to replace large amounts of soybean oil in the US diet. However, there is little evidence concerning the effects of H-OSBO on coronary heart disease (CHD)(6) risk factors and CHD risk. We examined and quantified the effects of substituting high-oleic acid (HO) oils for fats and oils rich in saturated FAs (SFAs), TFAs, or n-6 (ω-6) polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) on blood lipids in controlled clinical trials. Searches of online databases through June 2014 were used to select studies that defined subject characteristics; described control and intervention diets; substituted HO oils compositionally similar to H-OSBO (i.e., ≥70% oleic acid) for equivalent amounts of oils high in SFAs, TFAs, or n-6 PUFAs for ≥3 wk; and reported changes in blood lipids. Studies that replaced saturated fats or oils with HO oils showed significant reductions in total cholesterol (TC), LDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B (apoB) (P oil sources with HO oils showed significant reductions in TC, LDL cholesterol, apoB, TGs, TC:HDL cholesterol and increased HDL cholesterol and apoA-1 (mean percentage of change: -5.7%, -9.2%, -7.3%, -11.7%, -12.1%, 5.6%, 3.7%, respectively; P oils high in n-6 PUFAs with equivalent amounts of HO oils, TC, LDL cholesterol, TGs, HDL cholesterol, apoA-1, and TC:HDL cholesterol did not change. These findings suggest that replacing fats and oils high in SFAs or TFAs with either H-OSBO or oils high in n-6 PUFAs would have favorable and comparable effects on plasma lipid risk factors and overall CHD risk.

  3. Vitamin A--fortified vegetable oil exported from Malaysia and Indonesia can significantly contribute to vitamin A intake worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laillou, Arnaud; Panagides, Dora; Garrett, Greg S; Moench-Pfanner, Regina

    2013-06-01

    Vitamin A deficiency is a public health problem worldwide, affecting approximately 190 million preschool-aged children and 19.1 million pregnant women. Fortification of vegetable oils with vitamin A is an effective, low-cost technology to improve vitamin A intake. To examine the potential contribution of fortification of vegetable oils with vitamin A in Indonesia and Malaysia to increasing vitamin A consumption in these two countries and in countries to which oil is exported. Detailed interviews were administered and a desk review was conducted. We also estimated potential vitamin A intakes from fortified vegetable oil. Malaysia and Indonesia are two of the largest producers and exporters of vegetable oil. Fortification of vegetable oil in both countries has the potential to be used as a tool for control of vitamin A deficiency. Both countries have the capacity to export fortified vegetable oil. Vegetable oil fortified at a level of 45 IU/g could provide 18.8% of the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for an Ethiopian woman, 30.9% and 46.9% of the EAR for a Bangladeshi child and woman, respectively, and 17.5% of the EAR for a Cambodian woman. Although concerns about obesity are valid, fortification of existing vegetable oil supplies does not promote overconsumption of oil but rather promotes consumption of vegetable oil of higher nutrient quality. Fortifying vegetable oil on a large scale in Malaysia and Indonesia can reach millions of people globally, including children less than 5 years old. The levels of fortification used are far from reaching the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL). Vegetable oil fortification has the potential to become a global public health intervention strategy.

  4. Melt crystallization for refinement of triolein and palmitic acid mixture as a model waste oil for biodiesel fuel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Keisuke; Maeda, Kouji; Kuramochi, Hidetoshi

    2013-06-01

    Melt crystallization using an annular vessel with two circular cylinders was applied to produce high-quality vegetable oil from waste oil. The inner cylinder was cooled at a constant rate and rotated, and the outer cylinder was heated at a constant temperature. The melt was solidified on the inner cylinder surface. The binary system of triolein and palmitic acid was used as the model waste oil. We measured the distribution coefficient of triolein. Suitable operation conditions were proposed to attain a high yield and a high purity of triolein from waste oil. The distribution coefficient correlated well with the theoretical equation derived on the basis of the "local lever rule" at the interface of the crystal layer and melt [1].

  5. Effect of oil type and fatty acid composition on dynamic and steady shear rheology of vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, Hasan; Toker, Omer Said; Dogan, Mahmut

    2012-01-01

    In this study, effect of fatty acid composition on dynamic and steady shear rheology of oils was studied. For this aim, different types of vegetable oils (soybean, sunflower, olive, hazelnut, cottonseed and canola), were used. Rheological properties of oil samples were identified by rheometer (Thermo-Haake) at 25°C and fatty acid composition of oils was determined by GC (Agilent 6890). Steady shear rheological properties of oil samples were measured at shear rate range of 0.1-100 s⁻¹. Viscosity of olive, hazelnut, cottonseed, canola, soybean and sunflower was 61.2 mPa.s, 59.7 mPa.s, 57.3 mPa.s, 53.5 mPa.s, 48.7 mPa.s and 48.2 mPa.s, respectively. There was a significant difference between viscosity of oils except soybean and sunflower. As a result it was seen that there was a correlation between viscosity and monounsaturated (R=0.89), polyunsaturated (R=-0.97) fatty acid composition of oils, separately. Equation was found to predict viscosity of the oils based on mono and polyunsaturation composition of oils. In addition the dynamic rheological properties of oils were also examined. G', G'' and tan δ (G''/G') values were measured at 0.3 Pa (in viscoelastic region) and 0.1-1 Hz. As a result of multiple regression analysis another equations were found between tan δ, viscosity and polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  6. Effects of different vegetable oils on rumen fermentation and conjugated linoleic acid concentration in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Amitava; Mandal, Guru Prasad; Patra, Amlan Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different vegetable oils on rumen fermentation and concentrations of beneficial cis-9 trans-11 C18:2 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and trans-11 C18:1 fatty acid (FA) in the rumen fluid in an in vitro condition. Materials and Methods: Six vegetable oils including sunflower, soybean, sesame, rice bran, groundnut, and mustard oils were used at three dose levels (0%, 3% and 4% of substrate dry matter [DM] basis) in three replicates for each treatment in a completely randomized design using 6 × 3 factorial arrangement. Rumen fluid for microbial culture was collected from four goats fed on a diet of concentrate mixture and berseem hay at a ratio of 60:40 on DM basis. The in vitro fermentation was performed in 100 ml conical flakes containing 50 ml of culture media and 0.5 g of substrates containing 0%, 3% and 4% vegetable oils. Results: Oils supplementation did not affect (p>0.05) in vitro DM digestibility, and concentrations of total volatile FAs and ammonia-N. Sunflower oil and soybean oil decreased (p0.05) on protozoal numbers. Both trans-11 C18:1 FA and cis-9, trans-11 CLA concentrations were increased (p0.05) increase the trans-11 C18:1 FA and cis-9, trans-11 CLA concentrations as compared to the control. The concentrations of stearic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids were not altered (p>0.05) due to the addition of any vegetable oils. Conclusion: Supplementation of sunflower and soybean oils enhanced beneficial trans-11 C18:1 FA and cis-9, trans-11 CLA concentrations in rumen fluid, while sesame, rice bran, groundnut, and mustard oils were ineffective in this study. PMID:28246442

  7. Effects of different vegetable oils on rumen fermentation and conjugated linoleic acid concentration in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitava Roy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different vegetable oils on rumen fermentation and concentrations of beneficial cis-9 trans-11 C18:2 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and trans-11 C18:1 fatty acid (FA in the rumen fluid in an in vitro condition. Materials and Methods: Six vegetable oils including sunflower, soybean, sesame, rice bran, groundnut, and mustard oils were used at three dose levels (0%, 3% and 4% of substrate dry matter [DM] basis in three replicates for each treatment in a completely randomized design using 6 × 3 factorial arrangement. Rumen fluid for microbial culture was collected from four goats fed on a diet of concentrate mixture and berseem hay at a ratio of 60:40 on DM basis. The in vitro fermentation was performed in 100 ml conical flakes containing 50 ml of culture media and 0.5 g of substrates containing 0%, 3% and 4% vegetable oils. Results: Oils supplementation did not affect (p>0.05 in vitro DM digestibility, and concentrations of total volatile FAs and ammonia-N. Sunflower oil and soybean oil decreased (p0.05 on protozoal numbers. Both trans-11 C18:1 FA and cis-9, trans-11 CLA concentrations were increased (p0.05 increase the trans-11 C18:1 FA and cis-9, trans-11 CLA concentrations as compared to the control. The concentrations of stearic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids were not altered (p>0.05 due to the addition of any vegetable oils. Conclusion: Supplementation of sunflower and soybean oils enhanced beneficial trans-11 C18:1 FA and cis-9, trans-11 CLA concentrations in rumen fluid, while sesame, rice bran, groundnut, and mustard oils were ineffective in this study.

  8. Inhibitory effect of yuzu essential oil on the formation of N-nitrosodimethylamine in vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawamura, Masayoshi; Wu, Yingxia; Fujiwara, Chikako; Urushibata, Masato

    2005-05-18

    The inhibitory effect of yuzu (Citrus junos Tanaka) essential oil on the formation of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) in the presence of vegetables (31 species) or saliva was investigated by HPLC. Most vegetable extracts enhanced the formation of NDMA. However, the formation ratio of NDMA in vegetable extracts was decreased by yuzu oil in the range of 59 to 22%. In the presence of yuzu oil and saliva, its ratio ranged between 62 and 24%. These results indicated that yuzu oil inhibited the formation of NDMA even in vegetables and saliva. The contents of ascorbic acid, nitrate, and nitrite in the 31 vegetable species were 0.3-65 mg/100 g, 3-581 mg/100 g, and 10-750 microg/100 g, respectively. Ascorbic acid and nitrite had little effect on the inhibition or formation of NDMA at their intact levels. Nitrate accelerated the formation of NDMA, and the addition of saliva further enhanced it. The mechanism of inhibition of NDMA formation by alpha-terpinene was studied. It was assumed from the results of LC-MS that a new compound formed by the reaction of alpha-terpinene with nitrite would be a derivative of alpha-terpinene with dinitroso groups. The molecular weight of this compound was 194. It is suggested that terpene hydrocarbons in citrus essential oils would contribute to the decrease of NDMA formation.

  9. Vegetable oil spills on salt marsh sediments; comparison between sunflower and linseed oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M Glória; Mudge, Stephen M; Latchford, John

    2003-09-01

    The effects of a simulated spill of sunflower oil in salt marsh sediments were compared with an experiment with linseed oil. Sunflower and linseed oil penetrated the sediments at the same rates but different adsorption of the oils onto sediment particles resulted in the establishment of anaerobic conditions at shallower depths in sediments contaminated with linseed oil than with sunflower oil. The total lipid content of sunflower oil contaminated sediments remained almost stable for 6 months, whilst only 40% of linseed oil remained in the sediment after 2 months. Numbers of culturable heterotrophic bacteria and aerobic oil degrading bacteria in muddy sediment increased rapidly in response to the presence of the oils but bacterial numbers in sandy sediments increased more slowly for sunflower oil. Changes in fatty acid composition indicate similar degradation pathways for both oils but sunflower oil degraded more slowly than linseed oil and thus has the potential for longer lasting effects in marine environments.

  10. Extraction of tocopherolquinone from commercially produced vegetable oil waste and its regeneration back to vitamin E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayala, Isso

    Vegetable oils are the most important natural source of vitamin E in the human diet. These oils are refined in order to eliminate impurities and undesirable substances that may affect the taste or cause health risks. While the goal of the refinery is to improve the quality of certain organoleptic parameters such as odors, it also has some negative impacts on the content and stability of the micronutrients such as tocopherols and tocotrienols. Synthetic vitamin E now manufactured as all-racemic alpha tocopheryl acetate is usually marked as d, l-tocopherol or d, l-tocopheryl acetate with no known side effects, but has been proven to be less active than its natural form. Naturopathic and orthomolecular medicine advocates consider the synthetic vitamin E forms to offer little or no benefit for cancer, circulatory and heart diseases. The market for vitamin E has been growing since the year 2000 causing a gradual rise in pricing because of the shortage in supplies. On a geographical basis North America constitutes the largest consumer on the planet with 50 % of the synthetic vitamin E world market followed by Europe with 25 % and Latin America and Asia Pacific sharing equally the remaining balance. In response to the shortfall, several companies are modifying their operations by rationalizing their older facilities while upgrading technology and adding capacity to meet the demand. But this response has also its downside with companies obligated to meet tough environmental regulations. The purpose of the present dissertation was to develop a method that can help industries involved in vitamin E production maximize their productivity by transforming some of the waste products to vitamin E. To that end, a cost effective simple method was developed in chapter II using tin (II) to regenerate tocopherolquinone back to vitamin E. Chapter II also concerns a method developed to reduce tocopherolquinone back to vitamin E but this time using the chemical species chromium (III

  11. Unusual effects of some vegetable oils on the survival time of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, M Z; Watanabe, S; Kobayashi, T; Nagatsu, A; Sakakibara, J; Okuyama, H

    1997-07-01

    Preliminary experiments have shown that a diet containing 10% rapeseed oil (low-erucic acid) markedly shortens the survival time of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive (SHRSP) rats under 1% NaCl loading as compared with diets containing perilla oil or soybean oil. High-oleate safflower oil and high-oleate sunflower oil were found to have survival time-shortening activities comparable to that of rapeseed oil; olive oil had slightly less activity. A mixture was made of soybean oil, perilla oil, and triolein partially purified from high-oleate sunflower oil to adjust the fatty acid composition to that of rapeseed oil. The survival time of this triolein/mixed oil group was between those of the rapeseed oil and soybean oil groups. When 1% NaCl was replaced with tap water, the survival time was prolonged by approximately 80%. Under these conditions, the rapeseed oil and evening primrose oil shortened the survival time by approximately 40% as compared with n-3 fatty acid-rich perilla and fish oil; lard, soybean oil, and safflower oil with relatively high n-6/n-3 ratios shortened the survival time by roughly 10%. The observed unusual survival time-shortening activities of some vegetable oils (rapeseed, high-oleate safflower, high-oleate sunflower, olive, and evening primrose oil) may not be due to their unique fatty acid compositions, but these results suggest that these vegetable oils contain factor(s) which are detrimental to SHRSP rats.

  12. Antibacterial Activity of Daucus crinitus Essential Oils along the Vegetative Life of the Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Bendiabdellah, Amel; DIB, Mohammed El Amine; Meliani, Nawel; Muselli, Alain; Nassim, Djabou; Tabti, Boufeldja; Costa, Jean

    2013-01-01

    The essential oils from the aerial parts of Daucus crinitus Desf. were analyzed at three developmental stages (early vegetative, early flowering, and full flowering). Oil yield was found to vary depending on the stage of development, and the highest content of oil (0.15% w/w) was obtained at full flowering. The chemical composition of essential oils studied by GC and GC-MS showed a total of 71 compounds: 27 aliphatic compounds, 18 sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, 9 hydrocarbons monoterpene, 5 oxyg...

  13. Breads Fortified with Freeze-Dried Vegetables: Quality and Nutritional Attributes. Part II: Breads Not Containing Oil as an Ingredient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viren Ranawana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present article describes the second part of a study investigating the effect of adding vegetables on the nutritional, physico-chemical, and oxidative properties of wheat bread, and specifically focuses on bread that does not contain oil as an added ingredient. Wheat flour breads fortified with freeze-dried carrot, tomato, beetroot or broccoli were developed and assessed for their nutritional composition, antioxidant potential, oxidative stability, and storage properties. Using a simulated in vitro model, the study also examined the impact of vegetable addition on the oxidative stability of macronutrients during gastro-intestinal digestion. Adding vegetables improved the nutritional and functional attributes of the oil-free breads. However, they demonstrated a lower antioxidant potential compared to their oil-containing counterparts. Similarly, the textural and storage properties of the oil-free vegetable breads were poorer compared to the oil-containing breads. As expected, in the absence of oil the oil-free breads were associated with lower lipid oxidation both in their fresh form and during gastro-intestinal digestion. Adding vegetables reduced protein oxidation in the fresh oil-free breads but had no effect during gastro-intestinal digestion. The impact of vegetables on macronutrient oxidation in the oil-free breads during digestion appears to be vegetable-specific with broccoli exacerbating it and the others having no effect. Of the evaluated vegetables, beetroot showed the most promising nutritional and physico-chemical benefits when incorporated into bread that does not contain added oil.

  14. An Investigation on Tribological Properties and Lubrication Mechanism of Graphite Nanoparticles as Vegetable Based Oil Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Su

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper used graphite nanoparticles with the diameter of 35 and 80 nm and LB2000 vegetable based oil to prepare graphite oil-based nanofluids with different volume fractions by two-step method. The tribological properties of graphite nanoparticles as LB2000 vegetable based oil additive were investigated with a pin-on-disk friction and wear tester. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS were used to examine the morphology and the content of some typical elements of wear scar, respectively. Further, the lubrication mechanism of graphite nanoparticles was explored. It was found that graphite nanoparticles as vegetable based oil additive could remarkably improve friction-reducing and antiwear properties of pure oil. With the increase of volume fraction of graphite nanoparticles, the friction coefficient and the wear volume of disk decreased. At the same volume fraction, the smaller particles, the lower friction coefficient and wear volume. The main reason for the improvement in friction-reducing and antiwear properties of vegetable based oil using graphite nanoparticles was that graphite nanoparticles could form a physical deposition film on the friction surfaces.

  15. Alkyl amine and vegetable oil mixture-a viable candidate for CO2 capture and utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uma Maheswari, A; Palanivelu, K

    2017-02-01

    In this present work, the absorption of CO2 in alkyl amines and vegetable oil mixture has been evaluated. The results showed that the absorption is higher in alkyl amines and vegetable oil mixture compared with the aqueous alkyl amines. In addition to that, by employing the greener and non-toxic vegetable oil media, the CO2 gas has been captured as well as converted into value-added products, such as carbamates of ethylenediamine, diethylenetriamine, and triethylenetetramine. The carbamates have been isolated and characterized by Fourier transform infrared and (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic techniques. The formation of these products in precipitate form has not been observed in the case of aqueous medium. Among the various alkyl amine and vegetable oil combinations, triethylenetetramine in coconut oil medium showed the maximum CO2 capture capacity of 72%. The coconut oil used for the process has been recovered, recycled, and reused for 3 cycles. Thus, this novel scheme seems to be a better alternative to conquer the drawback of aqueous amine-based CO2 capture as well as for the capture and utilization of the CO2 gas to gain the value-added products.

  16. Effect of the use of waste vegetable oil based biodiesel on the landscape in diesel engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bereczky Akos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum-based fuels are now widely known as environmentally unfriendly because of non-renewable supplies and its contribution to environmental pollution. The challenge, therefore is to ensure appropriate energy supplies at minimum cost. There is an increasing energy demand in the world and nowadays it can be fulfilled only on the basis of fossil fuels. Therefore, it is necessary to evolve a renewable energy source with lower environmental impact. One alternative solution can be oils of plant origin, like vegetable oils and non-edible oils. With waste vegetable oil methyl ester, biofuel dependency can be decreased. Therefore, the aim of this research paper is to analyze the economic and environmental effect of waste vegetable oil methyl ester compared to fossil fuels. In some cases only the age of vehicles could raise burdens to biofuel utilization in road vehicles. Transport and energy policy – on a large scale – can play an important role in fuel consumption. Author is aware that waste vegetable oil methyl ester can play only a limited role in biofuel substitution.

  17. Replacing Fish Oil with Vegetable Oils in Salmon Feed Increases Hepatic Lipid Accumulation and Reduces Insulin Sensitivity in Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtbø, Lisa Kolden

    %) of FO with different vegetable oils (VOs); rape seed oil (WDRO), olive oil (WD-OO) or soybean oil (WD-SO). These diets were given to C57BL/6J mice, and mice had higher hepatic lipid accumulation and lower insulin sensitivity when given WD-SO compared with WD-FO. Mice given WD-SO had higher hepatic......Background: Due to a growing global aquaculture production, fish oil (FO) and fish meal (FM) are partly replaced with vegetable ingredients in aqua feed for Atlantic salmon. These replacements in the feed lead to an altered fatty acid composition in the salmon fillet. We aimed to investigate how...... levels of diacylglycerol (DAG), ceramides and arachidonic acid (AA)-derived oxylipins compared with mice fed WD-FO. In addition, C57BL/6J mice were fed fish oil-enriched diets with different carbohydrate sources, and we observed that sucrose dose-dependently abrogate the antiobesity effect of fish oil...

  18. Soil TPH concentration estimation using vegetation indices in an oil polluted area of eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Linhai; Zhao, Xuechun; Lai, Liming; Wang, Jianjian; Jiang, Lianhe; Ding, Jinzhi; Liu, Nanxi; Yu, Yunjiang; Li, Junsheng; Xiao, Nengwen; Zheng, Yuanrun; Rimmington, Glyn M

    2013-01-01

    Assessing oil pollution using traditional field-based methods over large areas is difficult and expensive. Remote sensing technologies with good spatial and temporal coverage might provide an alternative for monitoring oil pollution by recording the spectral signals of plants growing in polluted soils. Total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations of soils and the hyperspectral canopy reflectance were measured in wetlands dominated by reeds (Phragmites australis) around oil wells that have been producing oil for approximately 10 years in the Yellow River Delta, eastern China to evaluate the potential of vegetation indices and red edge parameters to estimate soil oil pollution. The detrimental effect of oil pollution on reed communities was confirmed by the evidence that the aboveground biomass decreased from 1076.5 g m(-2) to 5.3 g m(-2) with increasing total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations ranging from 9.45 mg kg(-1) to 652 mg kg(-1). The modified chlorophyll absorption ratio index (MCARI) best estimated soil TPH concentration among 20 vegetation indices. The linear model involving MCARI had the highest coefficient of determination (R(2) = 0.73) and accuracy of prediction (RMSE = 104.2 mg kg(-1)). For other vegetation indices and red edge parameters, the R(2) and RMSE values ranged from 0.64 to 0.71 and from 120.2 mg kg(-1) to 106.8 mg kg(-1) respectively. The traditional broadband normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), one of the broadband multispectral vegetation indices (BMVIs), produced a prediction (R(2) = 0.70 and RMSE = 110.1 mg kg(-1)) similar to that of MCARI. These results corroborated the potential of remote sensing for assessing soil oil pollution in large areas. Traditional BMVIs are still of great value in monitoring soil oil pollution when hyperspectral data are unavailable.

  19. Soil TPH concentration estimation using vegetation indices in an oil polluted area of eastern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linhai Zhu

    Full Text Available Assessing oil pollution using traditional field-based methods over large areas is difficult and expensive. Remote sensing technologies with good spatial and temporal coverage might provide an alternative for monitoring oil pollution by recording the spectral signals of plants growing in polluted soils. Total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations of soils and the hyperspectral canopy reflectance were measured in wetlands dominated by reeds (Phragmites australis around oil wells that have been producing oil for approximately 10 years in the Yellow River Delta, eastern China to evaluate the potential of vegetation indices and red edge parameters to estimate soil oil pollution. The detrimental effect of oil pollution on reed communities was confirmed by the evidence that the aboveground biomass decreased from 1076.5 g m(-2 to 5.3 g m(-2 with increasing total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations ranging from 9.45 mg kg(-1 to 652 mg kg(-1. The modified chlorophyll absorption ratio index (MCARI best estimated soil TPH concentration among 20 vegetation indices. The linear model involving MCARI had the highest coefficient of determination (R(2 = 0.73 and accuracy of prediction (RMSE = 104.2 mg kg(-1. For other vegetation indices and red edge parameters, the R(2 and RMSE values ranged from 0.64 to 0.71 and from 120.2 mg kg(-1 to 106.8 mg kg(-1 respectively. The traditional broadband normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, one of the broadband multispectral vegetation indices (BMVIs, produced a prediction (R(2 = 0.70 and RMSE = 110.1 mg kg(-1 similar to that of MCARI. These results corroborated the potential of remote sensing for assessing soil oil pollution in large areas. Traditional BMVIs are still of great value in monitoring soil oil pollution when hyperspectral data are unavailable.

  20. Soil TPH Concentration Estimation Using Vegetation Indices in an Oil Polluted Area of Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Linhai; Zhao, Xuechun; Lai, Liming; Wang, Jianjian; Jiang, Lianhe; Ding, Jinzhi; Liu, Nanxi; Yu, Yunjiang; Li, Junsheng; Xiao, Nengwen; Zheng, Yuanrun; Rimmington, Glyn M.

    2013-01-01

    Assessing oil pollution using traditional field-based methods over large areas is difficult and expensive. Remote sensing technologies with good spatial and temporal coverage might provide an alternative for monitoring oil pollution by recording the spectral signals of plants growing in polluted soils. Total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations of soils and the hyperspectral canopy reflectance were measured in wetlands dominated by reeds (Phragmites australis) around oil wells that have been producing oil for approximately 10 years in the Yellow River Delta, eastern China to evaluate the potential of vegetation indices and red edge parameters to estimate soil oil pollution. The detrimental effect of oil pollution on reed communities was confirmed by the evidence that the aboveground biomass decreased from 1076.5 g m−2 to 5.3 g m−2 with increasing total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations ranging from 9.45 mg kg−1 to 652 mg kg−1. The modified chlorophyll absorption ratio index (MCARI) best estimated soil TPH concentration among 20 vegetation indices. The linear model involving MCARI had the highest coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.73) and accuracy of prediction (RMSE = 104.2 mg kg−1). For other vegetation indices and red edge parameters, the R2 and RMSE values ranged from 0.64 to 0.71 and from 120.2 mg kg−1 to 106.8 mg kg−1 respectively. The traditional broadband normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), one of the broadband multispectral vegetation indices (BMVIs), produced a prediction (R2 = 0.70 and RMSE = 110.1 mg kg−1) similar to that of MCARI. These results corroborated the potential of remote sensing for assessing soil oil pollution in large areas. Traditional BMVIs are still of great value in monitoring soil oil pollution when hyperspectral data are unavailable. PMID:23342066

  1. Formation mechanisms of monochloropropanediol (MCPD) fatty acid diesters in refined palm (Elaeis guineensis) oil and related fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destaillats, Frédéric; Craft, Brian D; Sandoz, Laurence; Nagy, Kornél

    2012-01-01

    Monochloropropanediol (MCPD) fatty acid esters are process contaminants generated during the deodorisation of edible oils. In particular, MCPD diesters are found in higher abundance in refined palm oil than other edible oils. In the present study, a series of model reactions mimicking palm oil deodorisation has been conducted with pure acylglycerols in the presence or absence of either organic or inorganic chlorine-containing compounds. Results showed that the bulk of MCPD diesters are formed above 200°C through the reaction of organochlorines with triacylglycerols (TAG). Additional experiments confirmed that this reaction can be initiated during palm oil deodorisation by hydrogen chloride (HCl) gas evolved through the thermal degradation of organochlorines present in the oil. Therein, the majority of the ultimately produced MCPD diesters are the result of HCl reacting with TAG, via protonation, followed by the elimination of a fatty acid residue. Two possible MCPD diester formation mechanisms are highlighted, both of which involve acyloxonium ion reactive intermediates. Investigations with pure TAG regio-isomers showed that MCPD ester formation is regioselective and the sn-1(3) position of the glycerol backbone is favoured.

  2. Experimental investigation of electro-rheological properties of modeled vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valantina, S Rubalya; Susan, D; Bavasri, S; Priyadarshini, V; Saraswathi, R Ramya; Suriya, M

    2016-02-01

    Vegetable oil becomes polarized on oxidation and polymerization resulting in the formation of peroxide, triglycerides, etc. The quality and reusable state were investigated for sunflower, sesame, rice bran oil and model oil with the addition of oleic acid (2, 4 and 6 %) and antioxidants (citric and tert-Butyl hydroquinone-TBHQ). Excessive reclaims of cooking oil produce toxic by-products due to chemical breakdown that induce the production of polar compounds in oil. To determine the consumable fitness, variations of dielectric constant are observed at different temperatures (29 to 70 °C) and frequencies (1 to 10(7)Hz) for the cooking oil. Physical parameters, such as viscosity and density associated with the saturated and unsaturated fatty acid, are also measured at different temperatures to determine the quality of oil. Dielectric constant and viscosity are correlated and analyzed using a newly developed equation with high correlation constant (R (2)  = 0.998) for oil added with citric acid. Oil added with 2-4 % of oleic acid is observed to have high determination coefficient (R (2)  > 0.92). A lowest correlation (R (2)  = 0.6-0.7) was observed for the oil added with TBHQ. The present study also states that addition of TBHQ to oil does not impede oxidation reaction. Besides, even the shelf life of the oil could not be enhanced and may produce adverse effects in human health.

  3. Production and refining of Dacryodes edulis “native pear” seeds oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-02

    May 2, 2008 ... when left in oil will result in the production of off flavours, odours and colours ... such as palm kernel (40%), peanuts (49%), cotton seed. (36%), and soybean ... resulted in acceleration of rate deterioration (rancidity) in the oil.

  4. Producers, refiners view strategies to trim Texas' glut of ultralight condensate oil

    OpenAIRE

    Jesse B. Thompson

    2014-01-01

    Hampered by the federal oil export ban, producers are seeking alternative means to bring to global markets the burgeoning supplies of ultralight condensate oil drawn from the Eagle Ford Shale region of South Texas.

  5. Emerging Techniques in Vegetable Oil Analysis Using Stable Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, S. D.; Rhodes, C.

    2002-07-01

    As the practice of vegetable oil adulteration becomes more sophisticated, the possibility to subvert detection using established techniques such as capillary gas chromatography is increasing. One of the most powerful techniques to be used in food authenticity studies is stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry (SIRMS) which utilises differences in the natural abundance of the stable isotopes of the light bio elements hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon, oxygen and sulfur to detect food fraud. SIRMS has found application in the authentication of a wide range of foodstuffs, including fruit juices, wines, spirits, honey and to detect the adulteration of flavour compounds with synthetic analogues. This papers reviews the current state-of-the-art for the authentication of vegetable oils using SIRMS and highlights emergent techniques such as compound-an position specific-isotope mass spectrometry. These latter developments offer the potential to provide more rapid and improved detection of the economic adulteration of vegetable oils. (Author) 38 refs.

  6. Composition-Explicit Distillation Curves of Waste Lubricant Oils and Resourced Crude Oil: A Diagnostic for Re-Refining and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Starkey Ott

    2010-01-01

    of the various oils streams and is a valuable diagnostic for future re-refining of the used lubricant oils. This information will be essential in the development of models for the thermophysical properties of such fluids.

  7. Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in vegetable oils combining gel permeation chromatography with solid-phase extraction clean-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fromberg, Arvid; Højgård, A.; Duedahl-Olesen, Lene

    2007-01-01

    of benzo[a]pyrene levels in foods laid down by the Commission of the European Communities. A survey of 69 vegetable oils sampled from the Danish market included olive oil as well as other vegetable oils such as rapeseed oil, sunflower oil, grape seed oil and sesame oil. Levels of benzo[a]pyrene in all......A semi-automatic method for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in edible oils using a combined gel permeation chromatography/solid-phase extraction (GPC/SPE) clean-up is presented. The method takes advantage of automatic injections using a Gilson ASPEC XL sample handling...... system equipped with a GPC column (S-X3) and pre-packed silica SPE columns for the subsequent clean-up and finally gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) determination. The method was validated for the determination of PAHs in vegetable oils and it can meet the criteria for the official control...

  8. 松籽油的精炼工艺∗%Study on Refining Process of Pine Seed Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李婉莹; 刘俊渤; 唐珊珊; 常海波

    2015-01-01

    以松籽油为原料,通过单因素和正交试验,优化松籽油精炼的工艺和条件,同时对精炼松籽油理化指标及其脂肪酸组成进行测定分析。结果表明:脱胶最佳工艺条件为加热温度40℃,加酸量4�0%,搅拌时间30 min;脱酸最佳工艺条件为碱炼温度80℃,碱液浓度8%,超碱量0�25%,碱炼时间40 min;脱色最佳工艺条件为活性炭与活性白土复合脱色剂(1∶1),脱色剂用量7%,脱色温度70℃,脱色时间30 min;精炼后松籽油酸值和过氧化值较低,主要脂肪酸为9种,不饱和脂肪酸相对含量约为87�58%,其中亚油酸相对含量在46�32%。%With pine seed oil as raw material, process and conditions of refining pine see d oil were optimized through single factor experiment and orthogonal test. At the same time, physical and chemical indicators and fatty acid composition of pine seed oil were determined and analyzed. The results showed that the optimum conditions of degumming are heating temperature 40 ℃, acid a⁃mount 4�0% and stirring time 30 min. The optimum conditions of deacidification are alkali refining temperature 80 ℃, alkali solution concentration 8%, super alkali amount 0�25%, and alkali refi⁃ning time 40 min. The optimum conditions of decolorization are ratio of activated carbon and activa⁃ted clay 1 ∶ 1, decoloring agent dosage 7%, decoloring temperature 70 ℃, and decoloring time 30 min. Through the experiment we can find that the refined pine seed oil is of low acid value and per⁃oxide value. The refined pine seed oil contains 9 kinds of fatty acids. Among them, the relative con⁃tent of unsaturated fatty acids is about 87�58% and the relative content of linoleic acid reaches 46�32%.

  9. 大庆和涠洲混炼油糠醛精制研究%Study on furfural refining of Daqing and Weizhou dewaxing oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝俊静; 龙文宇; 李文深; 秦永航; 周传志

    2011-01-01

    The second line of distillation oil of Daqing and Weizhou mixed oil( volume ratio is 1 ∶ 1) as raw material and furfural as the solvent, the impact of catalyst/oil ratio and extraction temperature on refining effect of lube base oil were studied. This experiment shows that the viscosity index increased as the catalyst/oil ratio and the refining temperature increasing, while the yield of refined oil was opposite. When the refining temperature rose to a certain point, although the yield of refining oil changed, the viscosity index and the refractive index did not alter obviously.%以大庆和涠洲混炼油(体积比为1∶1)减二线脱蜡油为原料,糠醛为溶剂,考察了剂油比、抽提温度对润滑油基础油糠醛精制效果的影响.实验表明,精制油的粘度指数随剂油比的增加和精制温度的上升而增大,精制油的收率随剂油比的增加和精制温度的上升而下降.当温度增大到一定程度时,精制油收率有变化,而粘度指数与折光率基本不变.

  10. Effect of vegetable oil oxidation on the hydrogenation reaction process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalantari, Faranak

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogenation has been carried out in a batch reactor with three different oxidized bleached oils in order to discover the effect of oxidation on the hydrogenation reaction process. Specifications of hydrogenated oils such as melting point, Iodine value, solid fat content and fatty acid composition of the oxidized oils were compared with their un-oxidized reference oils. Oxidized bleached sunflower oil was hydrogenated to target melting points (34, 39 and 42°C at higher iodine values vs. its reference oil with the same reaction time. Oxidized bleached soybean and canola oils were hydrogenated to target melting points (34, 39 and 42°C at higher iodine values as well, but reaction times were longer than their reference oils. The resulting solid fat content and total trans fatty acids of all hydrogenated oils were less than their references. A peroxide value above 0.5meq O2/kg for non auto-oxidized oils and above 5meq O2/kg for auto-oxidized oils will significantly change the hydrogenation process.

    La hidrogenación fue llevada cabo en un reactor discontinuo con tres aceites decoloradas y oxidadas con objeto de estudiar el efecto de la oxidación en el proceso de hidrogenación. Las especificaciones de los aceites hidrogenados tales como el punto de fusión, índice de yodo, contenido de grasa sólida y composición de ácidos grasos de los aceites oxidados fueron comparados con sus correspondientes aceites de referencia sin oxidar. El aceite de girasol decolorado y oxidado fue hidrogenado hasta alcanzar un punto de fusión (34, 39 and 42°C con altos índices de yodo versus su aceite de referencia con el mismo tiempo de reacción. Aceites decolorado y oxidado de soja y de canola fueron hidrogenados hasta alcanzar puntos de fusión (34,39 y 42°C con altos valores de yodo, pero los tiempo de reacción fueron más largos que en sus aceites de referencia. Los resultados del contenido de grasa sólida y ácidos grasos

  11. Effects of Vegetable Oil Type and Lipophilic Emulsifiers on the Induction Period of Fat Crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagawa, Yayoi; Ogawa, Takenobu; Nakagawa, Kyuya; Adachi, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    The induction period of crystallization, which is defined as the time required for oil to start to crystallize, is useful indicator of the freeze-thaw stability of food emulsions such as mayonnaise. We investigated the induction period of vegetable oils with low melting points, such as rapeseed and soybean oils, which are commonly employed for mayonnaise production. The induction period was measured by monitoring the temperature of a specimen during storage at low temperature. The induction period depended on the type of oil and lipophilic emulsifier, emulsifier concentration, and storage temperature. The effect of the oil type on the induction period depended on the composition of the oil. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses of the lipophilic emulsifiers suggested that the melting trend of the emulsifier is strongly related to the induction period.

  12. EFFECT OF VARIOUS VEGETABLE OILS ON THE LIPID PROFILE AND ANTIOXIDANT STATUS IN HYPERCHOLESTEROLAEMIC WISTAR RATS- A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Ravindra Manjeshwar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Various vegetable oils are used for cooking foods in India. Controversies have been created that consumption of certain vegetable oils cause atherogenesis. A little is known about the effect of vegetable oils in hypercholesterolaemic conditions. Hypercholesterolaemia, mainly the increased plasma Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol levels and Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS has been implicated in the early development and progression of atherosclerosis and Coronary Heart Diseases (CHD. Current study is designed to assess the effect of various vegetable oils such as coconut, sunflower, palm, olive oil and vanaspati on lipid profile and oxidative stress parameters in rats fed on a high-cholesterol diet. MATERIALS AND METHODS Hypercholesterolaemia is induced by supplementing cholesterol with the basal diet. Reference dose of various vegetable oils were administered once daily for 90 days. After the treatment period of 90 days, triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol and oxidative stress parameters are estimated and analysed. RESULTS In the present study, we observed the lipid-lowering effect of various vegetable oils in rats fed with high-cholesterol diet. Administration of cholesterol showed increased level of lipid profile. Concurrent administration of various vegetable oils with high-cholesterol diet caused a significant decrease in serum total cholesterol, LDL and VLDL cholesterol. This conclusion is made based on the observation that the vegetable oils were able to restore, at least partially, the lipid profile of hypercholesterolaemic rats. A decline of antioxidant status associated with an increase in lipid peroxidation was observed in all the vegetable oil treated groups. Among the oils, coconut oil showed a mild increase in High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL and least increase in lipid peroxidation compared to other vegetable oils treated groups. CONCLUSION Results suggest that the

  13. Formation of alkanes alkylcycloalkanes and alkylbenzenes during the catalytic hydrocracking of vegetable oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filho, G.N. da Rocha; Brodzki, D.; Djega-Mariadassou, G. (Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France). Lab. Reactivite de Surface et Structure)

    1993-04-01

    Catalytic hydrocracking of vegetable oils was performed in the presence of a NiMo/[gamma]-Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] catalyst sulfided in situ with elemental sulfur under hydrogen pressure. Various vegetable oils were selected to study the effect of the degree of saturation and lateral chain length: [ital Passiflora edulis] (maracuja), [ital Astrocaryum vulgare] (tucuma), [ital Mauritia flexuosa] (buriti), [ital Orbygnya martiana] (babassu) and soybean. The effects of reaction temperature and hydrogen pressure in cyclization were studied. Carboxylic acids were used as model compounds. 29 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Self-consistent photothermal techniques: Application for measuring thermal diffusivity in vegetable oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balderas-López, J. A.; Mandelis, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    The thermal wave resonator cavity (TWRC) was used to measure the thermal properties of vegetable oils. The thermal diffusivity of six commercial vegetable oils (olive, corn, soybean, canola, peanut, and sunflower) was measured by means of this device. A linear relation between both the amplitude and phase as functions of the cavity length for the TWRC was observed and used for the measurements. Three significant figure precisions were obtained. A clear distinction between extra virgin olive oil and other oils in terms of thermal diffusivity was shown. The high measurement precision of the TWRC highlights the potential of this relatively new technique for assessing the quality of this kind of fluids in terms of their thermophysical properties.

  15. Ultrasound assisted PTC catalyzed saponification of vegetable oils using aqueous alkali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatkhande, B S; Samant, S D

    1998-03-01

    A few vegetable oils were saponified using aqueous KOH and different PTCs at room temperature in the presence of ultrasound. The extent of saponification was studied using the saponification value as a reference. Optimizations of various parameters such as time, selection of PTC, quantity of PTC, quantity of KOH and quantity of water were carried out using soyabean oil as a sample oil under sonication with stirring. To study the effect of ultrasound, the saponification was also carried out at 35 +/- 2 degrees C under different conditions, namely stirring, sonication, stirring and sonication, and heating at 100 degrees C. It was found that the heterogeneous liquid-liquid phase saponification of different vegetable oils using aq. KOH/CTAB was remarkably accelerated at 35 +/- 2 degrees C in the presence of ultrasound along with stirring.

  16. North Carolina used-motor-oil re-refining program: economics and logistics; and operating results. Topical report 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canada, J.R.

    1983-07-01

    This is the third in a planned series of topical reports on a program to develop and demonstrate a State-operated re-refining system for used engine oil. The North Carolina Oil Re-Refining Facility, using a 2,000,000 gallon input per year PROP plant, was installed in late 1980. During the first year of startup operation ending December 31, 1981, approximately 137,000 gallons were produced. Report 2 of this series reflects on the startup experience and financial results for the first year of operation (1981) as well as projected expectations at that time. This report concentrates on operating and financial results for 1982 and the first five months of 1983. During the 17 months ending May 1983 only about 270,000 gallons were produced and sold. Based on normal annual accounting the loss for that period was $685,060 and the cashflow loss was $480,679. Even after substantial upgrading modifications were done in 1982-83, the plant still has major throughput problems, the greatest of which is the required quality and quantity of used oil feedstock. The report describes financial results, cost-variance analyses, production impediments encountered, and also projects future operating volumes necessary for the facility to cover costs.

  17. Fuels Coming from Locals Vegetables Oils for Operating of Thermals Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agboue, Akichi; Yobou, Bokra

    The energy crisis born from the oil problem determined a renewal of attention on the possible possibilities of production of substitute fuels for the operation of the machines and the thermal engines. The fuel`s production based on vegetable oils require a renewal attention about the research of replacement fuel for the opeating of machines and thermal engines. Actually, the scientific world takes an interest in the research of others liquids fuel obtained with renewables energy sources whose vegetables have a good place. So, for helping to solve the fuel problem and particularly in third world countries without petroleum resources but producing fruits and oils seed, this research was about search of fuel from vegetables oils. Extraction and physico-chemical analysis performed on various vegetables plants show an interesting energy aspect. Evaluation of actually energy parameters will permit to do a comparison with classics fuel like gas-oil and petrol. Finally, analysis of thermal engines show that fuels coming from biomass like jatropha, ricinodendron and pistacia can to use for operating of those thermal engines.

  18. [Consumption of nuts and vegetal oil in people with type 1 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-García, Juan Carlos; Granell Vidal, Lina; Muñoz Izquierdo, Amparo; Sánchez Juan, Carlos

    2015-06-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the cardiovascular benefits of the Mediterranean Diet, enriched with olive oil and nuts. People with diabetes, who have an increased risk of cardiovascular complications, could benefit greatly from following this type of eating pattern. Analysis of vegetable fats intake from nuts and olive oil in patients with 1 Diabetes Mellitus type (DM1). Transverse descriptive study comparing 60 people with type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (DM1) with 60 healthy individuals. We collect the frequency of consumption of vegetable oils and nuts and calculate the contribution of these foods in mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids (oleic acid, linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid). For data collection we designed a food frequency questionnaire specifically. We also collect anthropometric variables, cardiovascular risk factors and diabetes-related variables. Vegetable fat intake from vegetable oils (3.02 ± 1.14 vs 3.07 ± 1.27 portions/day, P = 0.822) and nuts (1.35 ± 2.24 vs 1.60 ± 2.44 portions/week, P = 0.560), was similar in both groups. The DM1 group consumed fewer portions of olive oil daily than the control group (2.55 ± 1.17 vs 3.02 ± 1.34 portions/day, P = 0.046). We detected a significantly lower intake of α-linolenic acid in the control group (1.13 ± 2.06 versus 2.64 ± 4.37 g/day, p = 0.018) while there were not differences in the rest of fatty acids (oleic acid 28.30 ± 18.13 vs 29.53 ± 16.90 g/day, P = 0.703; linoleic 13.70 ± 16.80 vs 15.45 ± 19.90 g/day, P = 0.605). In DM1, it not demonstrated an influence of the intake of vegetable fats and oils from nuts in the anthropometric, metabolic and diabetes-specific variables. In people with DM1, total intake of vegetable oils and nuts do not differ from the general population. However, the consumption of olive oil and the contribution of α-linolenic fatty acid derived from such fats are slightly lower than the general population. Although intake of vegetable oils and nuts in people with DM1

  19. Effect of fertilizer formulation and bioaugmentation on biodegradation and leaching of crude oils and refined products in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulon, F; Brassington, K J; Bazin, R; Linnet, P E; Thomas, K A; Mitchell, T R; Lethbridge, G; Smith, J W N; Pollarda, S J T

    2012-09-01

    The effects of soil characteristics and oil types as well as the efficacy of two fertilizer formulations and three bioaugmentation packages in improving the bioremediation of oil-contaminated soils were assessed as a means of ex situ treatment selection and optimization through seven laboratory microcosm studies. The influence of bioremediation on leaching of oil from the soil was also investigated. The studies demonstrated the benefits ofbiostimulation to overcome nutrient limitation, as most of the soils were nutrient depleted. The application of both liquid and pelleted slow-release N and P fertilizers increased both the hydrocarbon biodegradation rates (by a factor of 1.4 to 2.9) and the percentage of hydrocarbon mass degraded (by > 30% after 12 weeks and 80% after 37 weeks), when compared with the unamended soils. Slow-release fertilizers can be particularly useful when multiple liquid applications are not practical or cost-effective. Bioaugmentation products containing inoculum plus fertilizer also increased biodegradation by 20% to 37% compared with unamended biotic controls; however, there was no clear evidence of additional benefits due to the inocula, compared with fertilizer alone. Therefore biostimulation is seen as the most cost-effective bioremediation strategy for contaminated soils with the levels of crude oil and refined products used in this study. However, site-specific considerations remain essential for establishing the treatability of oil-contaminated soils.

  20. Experimental Determination of Thermal Condutivity of Various Milk and Vegetable Oil Products

    OpenAIRE

    Özkal, Sami Gökhan; Tülek, Yahya

    2001-01-01

    Thermal conductivity values of various milk and vegetable oil products were determined over a temperature range of 25o-75oC. Thermal conductivity of milk samples having higher solid content were found to be less than those having lower solid content. Thermal conductivity values of milk samples increased with increasing temperature. Thermal conductivity of oil samples was found to be similar and not to change with the increasing temperature. Also, mathematical models for the pre...

  1. The effects of heated vegetable oils on blood pressure in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamsiah Jaarin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to determine the possible mechanism that is involved in the blood pressureraising effect of heated vegetable oils. METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 11 groups; the control group was fed with rat chow, and the other groups were fed with chow that was mixed with 15% weight/weight palm or soy oils, which were either in a fresh form or heated once, twice, five, or ten times. Blood pressures were measured at the baseline and throughout the 24-week study. Plasma nitric oxide levels were assessed prior to treatment and at the end of the study. Following 24 weeks, the rats were sacrificed to investigate their vascular reactivity using the thoracic aorta. RESULTS: Palm and soy oils had no detrimental effects on blood pressure, and they significantly elevated the nitric oxide contents and reduced the contractile responses to phenylephrine. However, trials using palm and soy oils that were repeatedly heated showed an increase in blood pressure, enhanced phenylephrine-induced contractions, reduced acetylcholine- and sodium nitroprusside-induced relaxations relative to the control and rats that were fed fresh vegetable oils. CONCLUSIONS: The blood pressure-raising effect of the heated vegetable cooking oils is associated with increased vascular reactivity and a reduction in nitric oxide levels. The chronic consumption of heated vegetable oils leads to disturbances in endogenous vascular regulatory substances, such as nitric oxide. The thermal oxidation of the cooking oils promotes the generation of free radicals and may play an important contributory role in the pathogenesis of hypertension in rats.

  2. Vegetation recovery in an oil-impacted and burned Phragmites australis tidal freshwater marsh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengel, Scott; Weaver, Jennifer; Wilder, Susan L; Dauzat, Jeff; Sanfilippo, Chris; Miles, Martin S; Jellison, Kyle; Doelling, Paige; Davis, Adam; Fortier, Barret K; Harris, James; Panaccione, James; Wall, Steven; Nixon, Zachary

    2017-08-26

    In-situ burning of oiled marshes is a cleanup method that can be more effective and less damaging than intrusive manual and mechanical methods. In-situ burning of oil spills has been examined for several coastal marsh types; however, few published data are available for Phragmites australis marshes. Following an estimated 4200gallon crude oil spill and in-situ burn in a Phragmites tidal freshwater marsh at Delta National Wildlife Refuge (Mississippi River Delta, Louisiana), we examined vegetation impacts and recovery across 3years. Oil concentrations in marsh soils were initially elevated in the oiled-and-burned sites, but were below background levels within three months. Oiling and burning drastically affected the marsh vegetation; the formerly dominant Phragmites, a non-native variety in our study sites, had not fully recovered by the end of our study. However, overall vegetation recovery was rapid and local habitat quality in terms of native plants, particularly Sagittaria species, and wildlife value was enhanced by burning. In-situ burning appears to be a viable response option to consider for future spills in marshes with similar plant species composition, hydrogeomorphic settings, and oiling conditions. In addition, likely Phragmites stress from high water levels and/or non-native scale insect damage was also observed during our study and has recently been reported as causing widespread declines or loss of Phragmites stands in the Delta region. It remains an open question if these stressors could lead to a shift to more native vegetation, similar to what we observed following the oil spill and burn. Increased dominance by native plants may be desirable as local patches, but widespread loss of Phragmites, even if replaced by native species, could further acerbate coastal erosion and wetland loss, a major concern in the region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A Vegetable Oil-Based Organogel for use in pH-Mediated Drug Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Khuphe, M; Mukonoweshuro, B; Kazlauciunas, A; Thornton, PD

    2015-01-01

    Organogels prepared with vegetable oils as the liquid organic phase present an excellent platform for the controlled delivery of hydrophobic guest molecules. We disclose a graft copolymer comprised of a poly(l-serine) backbone linked to alkane side-chains by hydrolytically susceptible ester bonds, that is capable of gelating edible safflower oil. The thermoresponsive organogel formed, which is non-cytotoxic, is capable of withholding guest molecules before undergoing targeted disassembly upon...

  4. Assessment of freshwater sediment toxicity from enhanced anaerobic vegetable oil degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.; Wohlgeschaffen, G.; King, T.; Cobanli, S.E. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Bedford Inst. of Oceanography; Doe, K.G.; Jackman, P.M. [Environment Canada, Moncton, NB (Canada). Environmental Conservation Branch; Wrenn, B.A.; Li, Z. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Venosa, A. [United States Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2004-07-01

    This study addressed some of the concerns associated with a proposed vegetable oil spill remediation method for use in aquatic environments. The method involves the addition of clay to mediate the transport of oil to the sediment where anaerobic microorganisms decompose it. There is concern that oleic acid and metabolic by products in the oil may be toxic. This study monitored the biodegradation and toxicity of canola oil within anaerobic sediments in replicate test chambers using Microtox{sup R} and amphipods bioassays. Anaerobic degradation was confirmed through gravimetric analysis of the residual oil and measurements of methane production. The Microtox{sup R} Solid-Phase Test indicated a trend towards the depression of EC50 values with higher oil concentrations at T=0. Both the oiled treatments had elevated toxicity levels after 2 weeks, but the sediments were found to recover to control levels after 2 months. Monitoring of survival and growth patterns of the amphipods assays showed similar trends. The results indicate that concerns are unfounded regarding the production of free fatty acids and other toxic metabolites from anaerobic hydrolysis of vegetable oil triglycerides in the proposed spill countermeasure.

  5. Antioxidant Effect on Oxidation Stability of Blend Fish Oil Biodiesel with Vegetable Oil Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hossain

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Two different phenolic synthetic antioxidants were used to improve the oxidation stability of fish oil biodiesel blends with vegetable oil biodiesel and petroleum diesel. Butylhydroxytoluene (BHT most effective for improvement of the oxidation stability of petro diesel, whereas  tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ showed good performance in fish oil biodiesel. Fish oil/Rapeseed oil biodiesel mixed showed some acceptable results in higher concentration ofantioxidants. TBHQ showed better oxidation stability than BHT in B100 composition. In fish oil biodiesel/diesel mixed fuel, BHT was more effective antioxidant than TBHQ to increase oxidationstability because BHT is more soluble than TBHQ. The stability behavior of biodiesel/diesel blends with the employment of the modified Rancimat method (EN 15751. The performance ofantioxidants was evaluated for treating fish oil biodiesel/Rapeseed oil biodiesel for B100, and blends with two type diesel fuel (deep sulfurization diesel and automotive ultra-low sulfur or zero sulfur diesels. The examined blends were in proportions of 5, 10, 15, and 20% by volume of fish oilbiodiesel.

  6. MICROWAVE ACTIVATION OF IMMOBILIZED LIPASE FOR TRANSESTERIFICATION OF VEGETABLE OILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monna Lisa B. Queiroz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This work investigated the effect of microwave irradiation (MW on the ethanolysis rate of soybean and sunflower oils catalyzed by supported Novozyme 435 (Candida antarctica. The effects of tert-butanol, water addition and oil:ethanol molar ratio on transesterification were evaluated under conventional heating (CH, and under optimum reaction conditions (with no added water in the system, 10% tert-butanol and 3:1 ethanol-to-oil molar ratio. The reactions were monitored up to 24 h to determine the conditions of initial reaction velocity. The investigated variables under MW (50 W were: reaction time (5.0-180 min and mode of reactor operation (fixed power, dynamic and cycles in the absence and presence of tert-butanol (10% (w/w. The measured response was the reaction conversion in ethyl esters, which was linked to the enzyme catalytic activity. The results indicated that the use of microwave improved the activity at fixed power mode. A positive effect of the association of tert-butanol and MW irradiation on the catalytic activity was observed. The reaction rate improved in the order of approximately 1.5 fold compared to that under CH with soybean oil. Using soybean oil, the enzymatic transesterification under MW for conversion to FAEE (fatty acid ethyl esters reached >99% in 3h, while with the use of CH the conversions were about 57% under similar conditions.

  7. Experimental and theoretical study of the influence of water on hydrolyzed product formation during the feruloylation of vegetable oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feruloylated vegetable oil is a valuable green bioproduct that has several cosmeceutical applications associated with its inherent anti-oxidant and UV-absorption properties. Hydrolyzed vegetable oil by-products can influence product quality and consistency. The formation of by-products by residual w...

  8. The Influencing Factors and Inter-Group Differences for Urban Residents’ Behavior of Consuming Edible Vegetable Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi WU; Wenjie MA

    2016-01-01

    To clarify the determinant factors and inter-group differences of Chinese urban residents’ edible vegetable oil consuming behavior is very important for us to understand their consumption features of edible vegetable oil,so as to guide their consuming behavior and improve China’s vegetable oil industry security.In this article,urban residents of China’s three traditional vegetable oil main production areas have been chosen as study objects,and multiple linear regression and one-way ANOVA have been used to do empirical analysis on the determinant factors and inter-group differences of their edible vegetable oil consuming behavior.The results indicate that the edible vegetable oil consuming behavior of urban residents from China’s three traditional vegetable oil main production areas show a trend of diversification;" publicity measures"," preference evaluation"," personal characteristics" and " family characteristics" remarkably affect urban residents’ edible vegetable oil consuming behavior and show obvious provincial characteristics.In addition,urban residents from different groups show differences in terms of " publicity measures" and " preference evaluation".

  9. Grinding temperature and energy ratio coe cient in MQL grinding of high-temperature nickel-base alloy by using di erent vegetable oils as base oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Benkai; Li Changhe; Zhang Yanbin; Wang Yaogang; Jia Dongzhou; Yang Min

    2016-01-01

    Vegetable oil can be used as a base oil in minimal quantity of lubrication (MQL). This study compared the performances of MQL grinding by using castor oil, soybean oil, rapeseed oil, corn oil, sunflower oil, peanut oil, and palm oil as base oils. A K-P36 numerical-control precision surface grinder was used to perform plain grinding on a workpiece material with a high-temperature nickel base alloy. A YDM–III 99 three-dimensional dynamometer was used to measure grinding force, and a clip-type thermocouple was used to determine grinding temperature. The grinding force, grind-ing temperature, and energy ratio coefficient of MQL grinding were compared among the seven veg-etable oil types. Results revealed that (1) castor oil-based MQL grinding yields the lowest grinding force but exhibits the highest grinding temperature and energy ratio coefficient;(2) palm oil-based MQL grinding generates the second lowest grinding force but shows the lowest grinding temperature and energy ratio coefficient;(3) MQL grinding based on the five other vegetable oils produces similar grinding forces, grinding temperatures, and energy ratio coefficients, with values ranging between those of castor oil and palm oil;(4) viscosity significantly influences grinding force and grinding tem-perature to a greater extent than fatty acid varieties and contents in vegetable oils;(5) although more viscous vegetable oil exhibits greater lubrication and significantly lower grinding force than less vis-cous vegetable oil, high viscosity reduces the heat exchange capability of vegetable oil and thus yields a high grinding temperature;(6) saturated fatty acid is a more efficient lubricant than unsaturated fatty acid;and (7) a short carbon chain transfers heat more effectively than a long carbon chain. Palm oil is the optimum base oil of MQL grinding, and this base oil yields 26.98 N tangential grinding force, 87.10 N normal grinding force, 119.6 °C grinding temperature, and 42.7%energy ratio coefficient

  10. Comparison of Chemical Characteristics of High Oleic Acid Fraction of Moringa oleifera Oil with Some Vegetable Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Rahman1

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical characteristics of High oleic acid fraction (HOF of Moringa oleifera oil (MOO was compared with sunflower, soybean and canola oils. HOF of MOO was obtained by dry fractionation at 0oC. Iodine value and C18:1 in HOF increased from 61.55 to 82.47 points and 70.29% to 81.15%, respectively. Cloud point of HOF was 1.1oC as compared to 10.2oC in MOO. The induction period of HOF was greater than all the vegetable oils tested in this investigation. HOF can be used as a source of edible oil with better health attributes and superior storage stability.

  11. Different techniques for the production of biodiesel from waste vegetable oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Refaat, A.A. [Cairo Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2010-01-01

    The production of biodiesel from waste vegetable oil offers a triple-facet solution: economic, environmental and waste management. The new process technologies developed during the last years made it possible to produce biodiesel from recycled frying oils comparable in quality to that of virgin vegetable oil biodiesel with an added attractive advantage of being lower in price. Thus, biodiesel produced from recycled frying oils has the same possibilities to be utilized. Producing biodiesel from used frying oil is environmentally beneficial since it provides a cleaner way for disposing these products, and can yield valuable cuts in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), the main contributor of global warming and climate change. While transesterification is well-established and becoming increasingly important, there remains considerable inefficiencies in existing transesterification processes. There is an imperative need to improve the existing biodiesel production methods from both economic and environmental viewpoints and to investigate alternative and innovative production processes. This study highlights the main changes occurring in the oil during frying in order to identify the characteristics of oil after frying and the anticipated effects of the products formed in the frying process on biodiesel quality and attempts to review the different techniques used in the production of biodiesel from recycled oils, stressing the advantages and limitations of each technique and the optimization conditions for each process. The emerging technologies which can be utilized in this field are also investigated. The quality of biodiesel produced from waste vegetable oil in previous studies is also reviewed and the performance of engines fueled with this biodiesel and the characteristics of the exhaust emissions resulting from it are highlighted. The overarching goal is to stimulate further activities in the field.

  12. Calculated identification of the output of a refinate in furfurol purification of distillate oil fractions. Raschetnoye opredeleniye vykhoda rafinata pri ochistke furfurolom distillyatnykh maslyanykh fraktsii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okhrimenko, N.V.; Dorodnova, V.S.; Martynenko, A.G.; Shiryayeva, G.P.

    1983-01-01

    The possibility is shown of using an equation proposed by Weigl and Dvayvedi for calculated identification of the outputs of a refinate in furfurol purification of gas oil fractions as applied to the purification of distillate oil fractions (350 to 420 and 420 to 500 degrees of a mixture of Eastern Ukrainian oils from the Druzhba pipeline with a content of 43.6 and 53.8 percent aromatic hydrocarbons (ArU). The deviations between the calculated values of the refinate output and the actual do not exceed 0.5 to 1.5 percent.

  13. Third-Party Evaluation of Petro Tex Hydrocarbons, LLC, ReGen Lubricating Oil Re-refining Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compere, A L [ORNL; Griffith, William {Bill} L [ORNL

    2009-04-01

    This report presents an assessment of market, energy impact, and utility of the PetroTex Hydrocarbons, LLC., ReGen process for re-refining used lubricating oil to produce Group I, II, and III base oils, diesel fuel, and asphalt. PetroTex Hydrocarbons, LLC., has performed extensive pilot scale evaluations, computer simulations, and market studies of this process and is presently evaluating construction of a 23 million gallon per year industrial-scale plant. PetroTex has obtained a 30 acre site in the Texas Industries RailPark in Midlothian Texas. The environmental and civil engineering assessments of the site are completed, and the company has been granted a special use permit from the City of Midlothian and air emissions permits for the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality.

  14. The use of isotope ratios (13C/12C) for vegetable oils authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristea, G.; Magdas, D. A.; Mirel, V.

    2012-02-01

    Stable isotopes are now increasingly used for the control of the geographical origin or authenticity of food products. The falsification may be more or less sophisticated and its sophistication as well as its costs increases with the improvement of analytical methods. In this study 22 vegetable oils (olive, sunflower, palm, maize) commercialized on Romanian market were investigated by mean of δ13C in bulk oil and the obtained results were compared with those reported in literature in order to check the labeling of these natural products. The obtained results were in the range of the mean values found in the literature for these types of oils, thus providing their accurate labeling.

  15. QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF CHICKEN BURGERS ENRICHED WITH VEGETABLE OILS, INULIN AND WHEAT FIBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cegielka

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to modify the composition of chicken burgers in terms of nutritional value by substitution of 20% of pork jowl with a mixture of rapeseed oil and linseed oil, and addition of inulin (1% or wheat fiber (3%. Substitution of pork jowl with vegetable oils resulted in significant increase in polyunsaturated fatty acids, and rosemary extract retarded the oxidation process of lipids. Addition of wheat fiber was helpful in maintaining the thermal processing yield and texture of burgers. Microbiological quality of vacuum packed burgers subjected to 21-day storage at +4°C±1 and -20°C±1 was satisfactory.

  16. Analysis of the Infrared Spectrum of Oil Samples of 5 Pecan nut Varieties (Carya Illinoensis K and their Comparison with Other Vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Chacón-Garza

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to evaluate the stability of pecan nut oil (Carya Illinoensis K from 5 different varieties, by chemical analysis of peroxides and saponification index, as well as an analysis of infrared spectroscopy in order to compare the spectra of the oils, and determine the degree of similarity they have with other vegetable oils rich in oleic and linolenic acid. The oil samples had a good stability over 3 months and no significant differences were found in the composition of the same, and they were very similar to other oils of vegetable origin.

  17. Chemical and spectroscopic characterization of a vegetable oil used as dielectric coolant in distribution transformers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, Neffer A.; Abonia, Rodrigo, E-mail: rodrigo.abonia@correounivalle.edu.co [Departamento de Quimica, Escuela de Ingenieria Electrica, Universidad del Valle, Cali (Colombia); Cadavid, Hector [Grupo GRALTA, Escuela de Ingenieria Electrica, Universidad del Valle, Cali (Colombia); Vargas, Ines H. [Area de Ingenieria de Distribucion, Empresas Publicas de Medellin (EPM), Medellin (Colombia)

    2011-09-15

    In this work, a complete UV-Vis, IR and (1H, 13C and DEPT) NMR spectroscopic analysis was performed for a FR3 vegetable oil sample used as dielectric coolant in an experimental distribution transformer. The same spectroscopic analysis was performed for three used FR3 oil samples (i.e., 4 months in use, 8 months in use and 7 years in use), removed from several operating distribution transformers. Comparison of the data indicated that no significant spectroscopic changes, and hence, no structural changes occurred to the oils by the use. Chemical transformations like catalytic hydrogenation (hardening) and hydrolysis were performed to the FR3 oil sample and the obtained products were analyzed by spectroscopic methods in order to collect further structural information about the FR3 oil. Accelerated aging tests in laboratory were also performed for three FR3 oil samples affording interesting information about the structure of the degradation products. These findings would be valuable to search for a spectroscopy-based technique for monitoring the lifetime and performance of this insulating vegetable oil. (author)

  18. Sensor and Methodology for Dielectric Analysis of Vegetal Oils Submitted to Thermal Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Luiz Stevan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable oils used in frying food represent a social problem as its destination. The residual oil can be recycled and returned to the production line, as biodiesel, as soap, or as putty. The state of the residual oil is determined according to their physicochemical characteristics whose values define its economically viable destination. However, the physicochemical analysis requires high costs, time and general cost of transporting. This study presents the use of a capacitive sensor and a quick and inexpensive method to correlate the physicochemical variables to the dielectric constant of the material undergoing oil samples to thermal cycling. The proposed method allows reducing costs in the characterization of residual oil and the reduction in analysis time. In addition, the method allows an assessment of the quality of the vegetable oil during use. The experimental results show the increasing of the dielectric constant with the temperature, which facilitates measurement and classification of the dielectric constant at considerably higher temperatures. The results also confirm a definitive degradation in used oil and a correlation between the dielectric constant of the sample with the results of the physicochemical analysis (iodine value, acid value, viscosity and refractive index.

  19. Impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on the salt marsh vegetation of Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Mark W; Willis, Jonathan M; Rouhani, Shahrokh; Steinhoff, Marla A; Baker, Mary C

    2016-09-01

    The coastal wetland vegetation component of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill Natural Resource Damage Assessment documented significant injury to the plant production and health of Louisiana salt marshes exposed to oiling. Specifically, marsh sites experiencing trace or greater vertical oiling of plant tissues displayed reductions in cover and peak standing crop relative to reference (no oiling), particularly in the marsh edge zone, for the majority of this four year study. Similarly, elevated chlorosis of plant tissue, as estimated by a vegetation health index, was detected for marsh sites with trace or greater vertical oiling in the first two years of the study. Key environmental factors, such as hydrologic regime, elevation, and soil characteristics, were generally similar across plant oiling classes (including reference), indicating that the observed injury to plant production and health was the result of plant oiling and not potential differences in environmental setting. Although fewer significant impacts to plant production and health were detected in the latter years of the study, this is due in part to decreased sample size occurring as a result of erosion (shoreline retreat) and resultant loss of plots, and should not be misconstrued as indicating full recovery of the ecosystem.

  20. Influence of Brazilian vegetable oils on mechanical resistence of hair fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Valéria Velasco

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Associating the global trend of incorporating active compounds and plants in cosmetic formulations and the vast Brazilian biodiversity, the present work aimed to study the incorporation of Brazilian vegetable oils in hair conditioner formulations, evaluating the mechanical resistance of hair fibers. The following oils were incorporated into base formulations at 5.0 % (w/w: babassu, buriti, andiroba and pequi. The formulations were applied to samples of Caucasian hair, followed by several washing steps, then the evaluation of mechanical strength. It was found that there was no statistically significant difference in mechanical resistance between samples treated with oils and the control between the first and seventh wash cycles. This fact can be explained by the possible low penetration of oils into the cortex, a region responsible for the mechanical properties of the hair fiber, since the grease composition disfavors its diffusion. The common effects of vegetable oils on the cuticle, such as filling in cracks or cavities, lubrication, and increased protein hydrophobicity cannot be excluded. The oils tested in this work were not able to raise or protect hair tresses. However, additional studies are required in order to establish the effects of oil treatments, particularly in damaged hair.

  1. Advances in DNA Extraction and Gene Detection for Vegetable Oils%植物油DNA提取和基因检测研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐玲倩; 刘秀; 丁梦璇; 刘远远; 柯润辉; 尹建军

    2016-01-01

    Methods for gene detection have been widely used in the authentication and GMO detection for vegetable oils because of their rapidity, efficiency, sensitivity and accuracy. While, as for vegetable oils, the low quantity and integrity of DNA caused by being refined increase the difficulties of DNA extraction and gene detection. In this paper, we review the progress of DNA extraction and gene detection for vegetable oils and make some respect for their future , so as to provide theoretical reference for the researchers in some degree.%基因检测方法以其快速、高效、灵敏、准确的特点而广泛应用在植物油真实性和转基因成分鉴定中。但植物油大都经过精制加工,DNA含量极少且完整度低,这对植物油的基因提取和检测造成了极大的困扰。本文对植物油DNA提取和基因检测进展进行了综述,并对以后的发展进行了展望,以期为研究者提供一定的理论参考。

  2. Contamination by oil crude extraction - Refinement and their effects on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Maria Isabel; Arevalo, Ana Paulina; Sotomayor, Santiago; Bailon-Moscoso, Natalia

    2017-08-18

    The harmful effects of oil on various species of flora and fauna have been studied extensively; however, few studies have studied the effects of oil exposure on human health. The objective of this research was to collect information on the acute health effects and serious psychological symptoms of the possible consequences of such exposure to crude oil. Some studies focused on the composition of different chemicals used in the extraction process, and wastes generated proved to be highly harmful to human health. Thus, studies have shown that individuals who live near oil fields or wells - or who take part in activities of cleaning oil spills - have presented health conditions, such as irritation to the skin, eyes, mucous membranes, kidney damage, liver, reproductive, among others. In Ecuador, this reality is not different from other countries, and some studies have shown increased diseases related with oil crude and oil spills, like skin irritation, throat, liver, lung, infertility, and abortions, and it has been linked to childhood leukemia. Other studies suggest a direct relationship between DNA damage because of oil resulting in a genetic instability of the main enzymes of cellular metabolism as well as a relationship with some cancers, such as leukemia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Catalytic co-pyrolysis of waste vegetable oil and high density polyethylene for hydrocarbon fuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunpu; Dai, Leilei; Fan, Liangliang; Cao, Leipeng; Zhou, Yue; Zhao, Yunfeng; Liu, Yuhuan; Ruan, Roger

    2017-03-01

    In this study, a ZrO2-based polycrystalline ceramic foam catalyst was prepared and used in catalytic co-pyrolysis of waste vegetable oil and high density polyethylene (HDPE) for hydrocarbon fuel production. The effects of pyrolysis temperature, catalyst dosage, and HDPE to waste vegetable oil ratio on the product distribution and hydrocarbon fuel composition were examined. Experimental results indicate that the maximum hydrocarbon fuel yield of 63.1wt. % was obtained at 430°C, and the oxygenates were rarely detected in the hydrocarbon fuel. The hydrocarbon fuel yield increased when the catalyst was used. At the catalyst dosage of 15wt.%, the proportion of alkanes in the hydrocarbon fuel reached 97.85wt.%, which greatly simplified the fuel composition and improved the fuel quality. With the augment of HDPE to waste vegetable oil ratio, the hydrocarbon fuel yield monotonously increased. At the HDPE to waste vegetable oil ratio of 1:1, the maximum proportion (97.85wt.%) of alkanes was obtained. Moreover, the properties of hydrocarbon fuel were superior to biodiesel and 0(#) diesel due to higher calorific value, better low-temperature low fluidity, and lower density and viscosity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Genotoxicity evaluation of wood-derived and vegetable oil-derived stanol esters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turnbull, D.; Frankos, V.H.; Delft, J.H.M. van; Vogel, N. de

    1999-01-01

    Plant stanol esters from wood and vegetable oil sources were tested for genotoxicity in bacterial (Salmonella typhimurium) and mammalian cell (L5178Y) gene mutation assays and in a mammalian cell chromosome aberration assay (CHO cells). The two stanol ester formulations were tested separately at dos

  5. A novel cardanol-based antioxidant and its application in vegetable oils and biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel antioxidant, epoxidized cardanol (ECD), derived from cardanol has been synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. Oxidative stability of ECD in vegetable oils and biodiesel was evaluated by the pressurized differential scanning calorimetry and Rancimat methods, respectively....

  6. Synthesis of epoxidized cardanol and its antioxidative properties for vegetable oils and biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel antioxidant epoxidized cardanol (ECD), derived from cardanol, was synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. Oxidative stability of ECD used in vegetable oils and biodiesel was evaluated by pressurized differential scanning calorimetry (PDSC) and the Rancimat method, respect...

  7. [Determination of gossypol in edible vegetable oil with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenhua; Huang, Chaoqun; Xie, Wen; Shen, Li

    2014-06-01

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of gossypol in edible vegetable oil. The sample was extracted with ethyl alcohol by vortex-excited oscillation. The extract was cleaned up by 0.22 microm filter membrane and centrifuged for 5 min at 4 000 r/min after standing in a fridge at 4 degrees C for 30 min. The compound was separated on a C18 column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 3.5 microm) with acetonitrile and 1% (v/v) formic acid aqueous solution as mobile phase. The detection of gossypol was carried out by LC-MS/MS with positive electrospray ionization under multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode using external standard method. The limits of quantification (S/N > 10) of gossypol in edible vegetable oil was 1 mg/kg. The recoveries were from 87.4% to 100% at the spiked levels of 1, 2, 200 mg/kg of gossypol in edible vegetable oil with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) between 3.9% and 12.2%. The method, with high sensitivity, good precision and high recovery, was suitable for the confirmation and quantification of gossypol residue in edible vegetable oil.

  8. A systematic framework for CAFD and resources allocation optimisation using MINLP in vegetable oil processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quaglia, Alberto; Sarup, Bent; Sin, Gürkan

    Although being a mature and well established industry segment, over the last few decades the vegetable oil industry has been facing many important new challenges due to emerging new products (such as biodiesel and nutraceuticals compounds), as well as new trends and regulations with regards...

  9. development of u-channel screw jack for vegetable oil extraction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    A U-channel screw jack for extracting vegetable oil was developed through design (with Solid works–Computer Aided. Design (CAD)) and ... content) and supercritical fluid extraction which is very expensive to ..... a e ar Reducer ” [J] Coal Mine.

  10. [Fatty acids in 80 brands of edible vegetable oil and in 14 brands of mayonnaise (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckers, H; Henneking, K; Schmahl, F W; Huth, K

    1976-07-15

    The fatty acid patterns have been defined in 80 commonly used table oils chosen at random and of 14 brands of mayonnaise commercially available in West Germany. In addition, sterols of the various mayonnaises were analysed. The oils could be grouped into 8 different categories: 12 oliver oils, 8 maize oils, 14 soya oils, 5 linseed oils, 22 sunflower oils, 3 safflower oils, 5 groundnut oils, and 8 rapeseed oils. As a result of the analyses, it is in almost every case a question of a pure variety of non-animal oils. The range of the values obtained for the composition of the fatty acids for each variety, which can be considerable, represents a modern complement to previous analyses. The fatty acid pattern of 3 additional commerical table oils suggest an amalgamation with fats of other types, among which are 2 cases of mixture with rapeseed oils. For mayonnaise, soya oil is used almost exclusively as a fat component. The presence of sunflower oil was only confirmed in one brand of mayonnaise. The concentrations of cholesterol which were determined lie between 17.0 and 72.3 mg (average 53 mg) per 100 g mayonnaise, so that even in the case of persons which present an elevated risk of atherosclerosis there can be no objection to the consumption of mayonnaise. The nutritive-physiological significance of these various oils for human nutrition is thoroughly discussed. A possible health hazard is the sale of vegetable oils rich in erucic acid permitted in the West German Republic (proportion of erucic acid in the 8 samples examined: 223-53%). These vegetable oils, as is shown by the additionally indicated trade names with the corresponding supplementary specifications are overwhelmingly labelled as vegetable oil (Pflanzenöl) or table oil (Speiseöl). The purchase prices indicated and paid by us for the oils examined are subject to considerable fluctuations even for oils of the same quality.

  11. Processing Of Neem And Jatropha Methyl Esters –Alternative Fuels From Vegetable Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasubramanian, S.; Manavalan, S.; Gnanavel, C.; Balakrishnan, G.

    2017-03-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel for diesel engine. The methyl esters of vegetable oils, known as biodiesel are becoming increasingly popular because of their low environmental impact and potential as a green alternative fuel for diesel engine. This paper deals with the manufacturing process of Biodiesel from jatropha and neem oil. Biodiesel was prepared from neem oil and jatropha oil, the transestrified having kinematic viscosity of 3 & 2.6 centistokes, methanol ratio is 6:1 & 5.1respectively. The secondary solution is preheated at 65 C & 60 C and reaction temperature is maintained at 60C & 55 C and reaction time is 60 minutes approximately with NaOH catalyst and low viscosity oil is allowed to settle 24 hours. The average yield of neem and jatropha methyl esters was about 85%. These methyl esters shows excellent alternative under optimum condition for fossil fuels.

  12. IODINATION OF VEGETABLE OIL AS A METHOD FOR CORRECTING IODINE DEFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Sturza

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is the study made for obtaining iodized oil that would satisfy the requirements in iodine for human body. The sunflower oil is a product with the most important value, thus the production of oil fortified with iodine would be a cheap and accessible option. These studies indicate that lipids present an important vehicle for the fortification with iodine. Eradication of the iodine deficiency may be realized not only by injection of the iodinated oil, but also by its use as an ingredient for the formulation of different food compositions. This method, complementary with the iodinated salt, would allow the increase of the efficiency of the prophylactic undertaken measures, because is based on the use of vegetal material – sunflower oil; it is cost-efficient and does not require substantial investments.

  13. Experimental investigation of various vegetable fibers as sorbent materials for oil spills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annunciado, T.R.; Sydenstricker, T.H.D.; Amico, S.C. [Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, (Brazil). Department of Mechanical Engineering

    2005-11-15

    Oil spills are a global concern due to their environmental and economical impact. various commercial systems have been developed to control these spills, including the use of fibers as sorbents. This research investigates the use of various vegetable fibers, namely mixed leaves residues, mixed sawdust, sisal (Agave sisalana), coir fiber (Cocos nucifera), sponge-gourd (Luffa cylindrica) and silk-floss as sorbent materials of crude oil. Sorption tests with crude oil were conducted in deionized and marine water media, with and without agitation. Water uptake by the fibers was investigated by tests in dry conditions and distillation of the impregnated sorbent. The silk-floss fiber showed a very high degree of hydrophobicity and oil sorption capacity of approximately 85 g oil/g sorbent (in 24 hours). Specific gravity measurements and buoyancy tests were also used to evaluate the suitability of these fibers for the intended application. (author)

  14. Genotoxicity of diesel engine emissions during combustion of vegetable oils, mineral oil, and their blends; Gentoxizitaet von Dieselmotoremissionen bei Verbrennung von Pflanzenoelen, Mineraloeldiesel und deren Mischkraftstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buenger, Joern

    2013-07-09

    High particle emissions and strong mutagenic effects were observed after combustion of vegetable oil in diesel engines. This study tested the hypothesis that these results are affected by the amount of unsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids of vegetable oils and that blends of diesel fuel and vegetable oil are mutagenic. Three different vegetable oils (linseed oil, LO; palm tree oil, PO; rapeseed oil, RO), blends of 20% vegetable oil and 80% diesel fuel (B20) and 50% vegetable oil and 50% diesel fuel (B50) as well as common diesel fuel (DF) were combusted in a heavy duty diesel engine. The exhaust was investigated for particle emissions and its mutagenic effect in comparison to emissions of DF. The engine was operated using European Stationary Cycle. Particle mass was determined gravimetrically while mutagenicity was determined using the bacterial reverse mutation assay with tester strains TA98 and TA100. Combustion of LO caused the largest amount of total particulate matter (TPM). In comparison to DF it particularly raised the soluble organic fraction (SOF). RO presented second highest TPM and SOF, followed by PO which was scarcely above DF. B50 revealed the lowest amount of TPM while B20 reached as high as DF. RO revealed the highest number of mutations of the vegetable oils closely followed by LO. PO was less mutagenic, but still induced stronger effects than DF. B50 showed higher mutagenic potential than B20. While TPM and SOF were strongly correlated with the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the vegetable oils, mutagenicity had a significant correlation with the amount of total unsaturated fatty acids. Vegetable oil blends seem to be less mutagenic than the pure oils with a shifted maximum compared to blends with biodiesel and DF. This study supports the hypothesis that numbers of double bounds in unsaturated fatty acids of vegetable oils combusted in diesel engines influence the amount of emitted particles and the mutagenicity of the exhaust. And

  15. Biosynthesis of medium chain length poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) (mcl-PHAs) by Comamonas testosteroni during cultivation on vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakor, Nehal; Trivedi, Ujjval; Patel, K C

    2005-11-01

    Comamonas testosteroni has been studied for its ability to synthesize and accumulate medium chain length poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) (mcl-PHAs) during cultivation on vegetable oils available in the local market. Castor seed oil, coconut oil, mustard oil, cotton seed oil, groundnut oil, olive oil and sesame oil were supplemented in the mineral medium as a sole source of carbon for growth and PHAs accumulation. The composition of PHAs was analysed by a coupled gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). PHAs contained C6 to C14 3-hydroxy acids, with a strong presence of 3-hydroxyoctanoate when coconut oil, mustard oil, cotton seed oil and groundnut oil were supplied. 3-hydroxydecanoate was incorporated at higher concentrations when castor seed oil, olive oil and sesame oil were the substrates. Purified PHAs samples were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and 13C NMR analysis. During cultivation on various vegetable oils, C. testosteroni accumulated PHAs up to 78.5-87.5% of the cellular dry material (CDM). The efficiency of the culture to convert oil to PHAs ranged from 53.1% to 58.3% for different vegetable oils. Further more, the composition of the PHAs formed was not found to be substrate dependent as PHAs obtained from C. testosteroni during growth on variety of vegetable oils showed similar compositions; 3-hydroxyoctanoic acid and/or 3-hydroxydecanoic acid being always predominant. The polymerizing system of C. testosteroni showed higher preference for C8 and C10 monomers as longer and smaller monomers were incorporated less efficiently.

  16. Recovery of different waste vegetable oils for biodiesel production: a pilot experience in Bahia State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Ednildo Andrade; Cerqueira, Gilberto S; Tiago, M Ferrer; Quintella, Cristina M; Raboni, Massimo; Torretta, Vincenzo; Urbini, Giordano

    2013-12-01

    In Brazil, and mainly in the State of Bahia, crude vegetable oils are widely used in the preparation of food. Street stalls, restaurants and canteens make a great use of palm oil and soybean oil. There is also some use of castor oil, which is widely cultivated in the Sertão Region (within the State of Bahia), and widely applied in industry. This massive use in food preparation leads to a huge amount of waste oil of different types, which needs either to be properly disposed of, or recovered. At the Laboratorio Energia e Gas-LEN (Energy & Gas lab.) of the Universidade Federal da Bahia, a cycle of experiments were carried out to evaluate the recovery of waste oils for biodiesel production. The experiences were carried out on a laboratory scale and, in a semi-industrial pilot plant using waste oils of different qualities. In the transesterification process, applied waste vegetable oils were reacted with methanol with the support of a basic catalyst, such as NaOH or KOH. The conversion rate settled at between 81% and 85% (in weight). The most suitable molar ratio of waste oils to alcohol was 1:6, and the amount of catalyst required was 0.5% (of the weight of the incoming oil), in the case of NaOH, and 1%, in case of KOH. The quality of the biodiesel produced was tested to determine the final product quality. The parameters analyzed were the acid value, kinematic viscosity, monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, free glycerine, total glycerine, clearness; the conversion yield of the process was also evaluated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of nanoparticle surfactant polarization on trapping depth of vegetable insulating oil-based nanofluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jian, E-mail: lijian@cqu.edu.cn; Du, Bin; Wang, Feipeng; Yao, Wei; Yao, Shuhan

    2016-02-05

    Nanoparticles can generate charge carrier trapping and reduce the velocity of streamer development in insulating oils ultimately leading to an enhancement of the breakdown voltage of insulating oils. Vegetable insulating oil-based nanofluids with three sizes of monodispersed Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were prepared and their trapping depths were measured by thermally stimulated method (TSC). It is found that the nanoparticle surfactant polarization can significantly influence the trapping depth of vegetable insulating oil-based nanofluids. A nanoparticle polarization model considering surfactant polarization was proposed to calculate the trapping depth of the nanofluids at different nanoparticle sizes and surfactant thicknesses. The results show the calculated values of the model are in a fairly good agreement with the experimental values. - Highlights: • Three different sized Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} vegetable-oil based nanofluids was successfully prepared. • The trapping depth of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanofluids was investigated. • A new model considering surfactant polarization was proposed to calculate the trapping depth of the nanofluids.

  18. Kolkhoung (Pistacia khinjuk) Hull Oil and Kernel Oil as Antioxidative Vegetable Oils with High Oxidative Stability 
and Nutritional Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnaashari, Maryam; Hashemi, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Mehr, Hamed Mahdavian; Yousefabad, Seyed Hossein Asadi

    2015-03-01

    In this study, in order to introduce natural antioxidative vegetable oil in food industry, the kolkhoung hull oil and kernel oil were extracted. To evaluate their antioxidant efficiency, gas chromatography analysis of the composition of kolkhoung hull and kernel oil fatty acids and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of tocopherols were done. Also, the oxidative stability of the oil was considered based on the peroxide value and anisidine value during heating at 100, 110 and 120 °C. Gas chromatography analysis showed that oleic acid was the major fatty acid of both types of oil (hull and kernel) and based on a low content of saturated fatty acids, high content of monounsaturated fatty acids, and the ratio of ω-6 and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, they were nutritionally well--balanced. Moreover, both hull and kernel oil showed high oxidative stability during heating, which can be attributed to high content of tocotrienols. Based on the results, kolkhoung hull oil acted slightly better than its kernel oil. However, both of them can be added to oxidation-sensitive oils to improve their shelf life.

  19. Modelling and allocation of CO{sub 2} emissions in a multiproduct industry: The case of oil refining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babusiaux, Denis; Pierru, Axel [IFP, Institut Francais du Petrole, 228 Avenue Napoleon Bonaparte, 92852 Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    2007-07-15

    As oil refining is a multiproduct industrial activity, there are innumerable ways to allocate a refinery's CO{sub 2} emissions among the various refined products. The linear-programming models used to manage refineries may serve to compute the marginal contribution of each finished product to the CO{sub 2} emissions of the refinery. We show that, under some conditions, this marginal contribution is a relevant means of allocating all the refinery's CO{sub 2} emissions. The application of this allocation rule leads to interesting results which can be used in a well-to-wheel life cycle assessment. In fact, this allocation rule holds rigorously if the demand equations are the only binding constraints with a non-zero right-hand side coefficient. This is certainly not the case for short-run models with fixed capacity of processing units. To extend the application field of our approach, we therefore suggest three distinct solutions, inspired by economic theory: applying the Aumann-Shapley cost-sharing method, or adapting the Ramsey pricing-formula, or using proportionally-adjusted marginal contributions. A numerical application to a simplified refining model is presented. (author)

  20. Comparison and analysis of fatty acids, sterols, and tocopherols in eight vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changmo; Yao, Yunping; Zhao, Guozhong; Cheng, Wen; Liu, Huilin; Liu, Chunyang; Shi, Zhen; Chen, Yao; Wang, Shuo

    2011-12-14

    The similarities and differences of eight vegetable oils produced in China were investigated in terms of their fatty acid, sterol, and tocopherol compositions and subsequent data processing by hierarchical clustering analysis and principal component analysis. The lipid profiles, acquired by analytical techniques tailored to each lipid class, revealed great similarities among the fatty acid profiles of corn and sesame oil as well as few differences in their sterol profiles. It turns out that not only was there great similarity between the fatty acid profiles of corn oil and sesame oil but also there were not too many differences for the sterol profiles. Sunflower and tea-seed oil showed similar sterol compositions, while the tea-seed oil tocopherol was very similar to palm oil. The results demonstrated that the use of only one of these profiles was unreliable for indentifying oil origin and authenticity. In contrast, the use of the sterol or tocopherol profile together with the fatty acid profile more accurately discriminates these oils.

  1. Fourier transform infrared and fluorescence spectroscopy for analysis of vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigri S.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Fourier transform infrared (FTIR and fluorescence spectroscopy, combined with chemometric approaches have been developed to analysis of extra virgin olive oil adulterated with pomace olive oil. The measurements were made on pure vegetable oils: extra virgin oil, pomace olive oil and that adulterated with varying concentration of pomace olive oil. Today, the application of FTIR spectroscopy has increased in food studied, and particularly has become a powerful analytical tool in the study of edible oils and fats. The spectral regions where the variations were observed chosen for developing models and cross validation was used. The synchronous fluorescence spectrometry takes advantage of the hardware capability to vary both the excitation and emission wavelengths during the analysis with constant wavelength difference is maintained between the two. The region between 300 and 400 nm is attributed to the tocopherols and phenols, the derivatives of vitamin E are associated with the region 400–600 nm and the bands in the region of 600–700 nm are attributed to the chlorophyll and peophytin pigments. The results presented in this study suggest that FTIR and fluorescence may be a useful tool for analysis and detecting adulteration of extra virgin olive oil with pomace oil.

  2. Interaction between vegetable oil based plasticizer molecules and polyvinyl chloride, and their plasticization effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryono, Agus; Triwulandari, Evi; Jiang, Pingping

    2017-01-01

    Plasticizer molecules are low molecular weight compounds that are widely used in polymer industries especially in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) resin. As an additive in PVC resin, the important role of plasticizer molecules is to improve the flexibility and processability of PVC by lowering the glass transition temperature (Tg). However, the commercial plasticizer like di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) is known to cause liver cancer, at least in laboratory rats. DEHP can leach out from PVC into blood, certain drug solutions and fatty foods, which has been detected in the bloodstream of patients undergoing transfusion. Vegetable oil based plasticizers have some attractive properties such as non-toxic, bio-degradable, good heat and light stability, renewable resources, and environmentally friendly. Here we discussed the main results and development of vegetable oil based plasticizer, and especially palm oil based plasticizer. The interaction between plasticizer and polymer was discussed from the properties of the plasticized polymeric material.

  3. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF VEGETABLE OIL PRODUCTION: A CASE STUDY OF AN OIL MILL IN IBADAN, NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Bamgbade, O A; Omoniyi, T E; Ewemoje, T A

    2016-01-01

    The gate-to-gate study aimed to evaluate the potential environmental impacts associated with the production of vegetable oil and to proffer ways of improving and reducing some of the environmental impacts associated with the production system. This study compared the Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) of four scenarios; different transportation distances for palm kernel materials and different type of fuel used in the boiler. The LCIA was conducted using Gabi 6 and Tool for the Reduction and...

  4. Chemical Composition of Vegetative Parts and Flowers Essential Oils of Wild Anvillea garcinii Grown in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merajuddin Khan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The flowers and vegetative parts essential oils of Anvillea garcinii were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS using polar and nonpolar columns which led to the identification of total 140 compounds from both oils, among which 130 compounds were identified for the first time in the genus Anvillea. In the flowers oil 126 compounds were identified, whereas 119 compounds were identified in the vegetative parts oil of A. garcinii representing 95.7% and 94.9% of the total oil composition, respectively. The major components in the flowers oil were bornyl acetate (33.7%, cis-nerolidol (7.3% and camphene (6.1%. In contrast, the major compounds in the vegetative parts oil were cis-nerolidol (16.0%, terpine n-4-ol (10.4% and cabreuva oxide B (6.4%.

  5. Aboveground carbon stocks in oil palm plantations and the threshold for carbon-neutral vegetation conversion on mineral soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khasanah, N.; Noordwijk, van M.; Ningsih, H.

    2015-01-01

    The carbon (C) footprint of palm oil production is needed to judge emissions from potential biofuel use. Relevance includes wider sustainable palm oil debates. Within life cycle analysis, aboveground C debt is incurred if the vegetation replaced had a higher C stock than oil palm plantations. Our

  6. Aboveground carbon stocks in oil palm plantations and the threshold for carbon-neutral vegetation conversion on mineral soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khasanah, N.; Noordwijk, van M.; Ningsih, H.

    2015-01-01

    The carbon (C) footprint of palm oil production is needed to judge emissions from potential biofuel use. Relevance includes wider sustainable palm oil debates. Within life cycle analysis, aboveground C debt is incurred if the vegetation replaced had a higher C stock than oil palm plantations. Our st

  7. Production of biodiesel from waste vegetable oil using impregnated diatomite as heterogeneous catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Edward Modiba; Christopher Enweremadu; Hilary Rutto

    2015-01-01

    In this study, biodiesel was produced from waste vegetable oil using a heterogeneous base catalyst synthesized by impregnating potassium hydroxide (KOH) onto diatomite. Response surface methodology based on a central composite design was used to optimize four transesterification variables:temperature (30–120 °C), reaction time (2–6 h), methanol to oil mass ratio (10%–50%) and catalyst to oil mass ratio (2.1%–7.9%). A quadratic poly-nomial equation was obtained to correlate biodiesel yield to the transesterification variables. The diatomite–KOH catalyst was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray detector (EDS). A maximum biodiesel yield of 90%(by mass) was obtained. The reaction conditions were as follows:methanol to oil mass ratio 30%, catalyst to oil mass ratio 5%, reaction time 4 h, and reaction temperature 75 °C. The XRD, FTIR and SEM (EDS) results confirm that the addition of KOH modifies the structure of diatomite. During impregnation and calcination of the diatomite catalyst the K2O phase forms in the diatomite structural matrix and the active basicity of this compound facilitates the transesterification process. It is possible to recycle the diatomite–KOH catalyst up to three times. The crucial biodiesel properties from waste vegetable oil are within the American Stan-dard Test Method specifications.

  8. Transesterification of vegetable oils with ethanol and characterization of the key fuel properties of ethyl esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastopoulos, G.; Zannikou, Y.; Stournas, S. [National Technical University of Athens, School of Chemical Engineering, Laboratory of Fuels Technology and Lubricants, Iroon Polytechniou 9, Athens 15780 (Greece); Kalligeros, S. [Hellenic Organization for Standardization, Technical Committee 66, 67 Prevezis Street, Athens, 10444 (Greece)

    2009-07-01

    The transesterification reactions of four different vegetable oils (sunflower, rapeseed, olive oil and used frying oil) with ethanol, using sodium hydroxide as catalyst, were studied. The ester preparation involved a two-step transesterification reaction, followed by purification. The effects of the mass ratio of catalyst to oil (0.25 - 1.5%), the molar ratio of ethanol to oil (6:1 - 12:1), and the reaction temperature (35 - 90 {sup o}C) were studied for the conversion of sunflower oil to optimize the reaction conditions in both stages. The rest of the vegetable oils were converted to ethyl esters under optimum reaction parameters. The optimal conditions for first stage transesterification were an ethanol/oil molar ratio of 12:1, NaOH amount (1% wt/wt), and 80 {sup o}C temperature, whereas the maximum yield of ethyl esters reached 81.4% wt/wt. In the second stage, the yield of ethyl esters was improved by 16% in relation with the one-stage transesterification, which was obtained under the following optimal conditions: catalyst concentration 0.75% and ethanol/oil molar ratio 6:1. The fuel properties of the esters were measured according to EN test methods. Based on the experimental results one can see that the ethyl esters do not differ significantly from methyl esters. Moreover, the results showed that the values of density, viscosity, and higher heating value of ethyl esters were similar to those of automotive and heavy duty engine diesel fuel. However, the CFPP values were higher, which may contribute to potential difficulties in cold starts. On the other hand, the flash points, which were higher than those of diesel fuel constituted a safety guarantee from the point of view of handling and storage. (author)

  9. Transesterification of Vegetable Oils with Ethanol and Characterization of the Key Fuel Properties of Ethyl Esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamoulis Stournas

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The transesterification reactions of four different vegetable oils (sunflower, rapeseed, olive oil and used frying oil with ethanol, using sodium hydroxide as catalyst, were studied. The ester preparation involved a two-step transesterification reaction, followed by purification. The effects of the mass ratio of catalyst to oil (0.25 – 1.5%, the molar ratio of ethanol to oil (6:1 – 12:1, and the reaction temperature (35 – 90 °C were studied for the conversion of sunflower oil to optimize the reaction conditions in both stages. The rest of the vegetable oils were converted to ethyl esters under optimum reaction parameters. The optimal conditions for first stage transesterification were an ethanol/oil molar ratio of 12:1, NaOH amount (1% wt/wt, and 80 °C temperature, whereas the maximum yield of ethyl esters reached 81.4% wt/wt. In the second stage, the yield of ethyl esters was improved by 16% in relation with the one-stage transesterification, which was obtained under the following optimal conditions: catalyst concentration 0.75% and ethanol/oil molar ratio 6:1. The fuel properties of the esters were measured according to EN test methods. Based on the experimental results one can see that the ethyl esters do not differ significantly from methyl esters. Moreover, the results showed that the values of density, viscosity, and higher heating value of ethyl esters were similar to those of automotive and heavy duty engine diesel fuel. However, the CFPP values were higher, which may contribute to potential difficulties in cold starts. On the other hand, the flash points, which were higher than those of diesel fuel constituted a safety guarantee from the point of view of handling and storage.

  10. Effect of four different vegetable oils (red palm olein, palm olein, corn oil, coconut oil) on antioxidant enzymes activity of rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauqan, Eqbal; Sani, Halimah Abdullah; Abdullah, Aminah; Kasim, Zalifah Mohd

    2011-03-15

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of four different vegetable oils [red palm olein (RPO), palm olein (PO), corn oil (CO), coconut oil (COC)] on antioxidant enzymes activity of rat liver. Sixty six Sprague Dawley male rats which were randomly divided into eleven groups of 6 rats per group and were treated with 15% of RPO, PO, CO and COC for 4 and 8 weeks. Rats in the control group were given normal rat pellet only while in treated groups, 15% of additional different vegetable oils were given. After 4 weeks of treatment the catalase (CAT) activity results showed that there was no significance difference (p > or = 0.05) between the control group and treated groups while after 8 weeks of treatment showed that there was no significant different (p > or = 0.05) between control group and RPO group but the treated rat liver with PO, CO and COC groups were the lowest and it were significantly lower (> or = 0.05) than control group. For superoxide dismutase (SOD) there was no significance difference (p > or = 0.05) between the control group and treated groups of vegetable oils after 4 and 8 weeks of treatment. Thus the study indicated that there was no significant (p > or = 0.05) effect on antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase) but there was significant effect (p > or = 0.05) on catalase in rat liver.

  11. Deep drawing of 304 L Steel Sheet using Vegetable oils as Forming Lubricants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashidhara, Y. M.; Jayaram, S. R.

    2012-12-01

    The study involves the evaluation of deep drawing process using two non edible oils, Pongam (Pongammia pinnata) and Jatropha (Jatropha carcass) as metal forming lubricants. Experiments are conducted on 304L steel sheets under the raw and modified oils with suitable punch and die on a hydraulic press of 200 ton capacity. The punch load, draw-in-length and wall thickness distribution for deep drawn cups are observed. The drawn cups are scanned using laser scanning technique and 3D models are generated using modeling package. The wall thickness profiles of cups at different sections (or height) are measured using CAD package. Among the two raw oils, the drawn cups under Jatropha oil, have uniform wall thickness profile compared to Pongam oil. Uneven flow of material and cup rupturing is observed under methyl esters of Pongam and Jatropha oil lubricated conditions. However, the results are observed under epoxidised Jatropha oil with uniform metal flow and wall thicknesses compared to mineral and other versions of vegetable oils.

  12. Function of ram spermatozoa frozen in diluents supplemented with casein and vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Valle, I; Souter, A; Maxwell, W M C; Muiño-Blanco, T; Cebrián-Pérez, J A

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess biologically safer components as alternatives to egg yolk for the frozen storage of ram semen using casein, coconut or palm oil in either Salamon's diluent (S) or a swim-up medium (SU). Ejaculates were frozen as pellets and sperm motility (subjectively) and acrosome integrity (FITC-PNA/PI) by flow cytometry were assessed at 0, 3 and 6h after thawing and incubation at 37°C. Three experiments were done: different concentrations of palm oil (5%, 10% and 20%); casein added as emulsifier and protective agent; and differences between egg yolk, coconut and palm oil in S and SU. 20% of oil added to SU accounted for a lesser percentage (Poil levels on viable cells. When casein was added to diluents containing 5% of palm oil, no differences were found between palm or casein (P>0.05). No differences were found when S and SU were compared neither as groups nor between S alone and containing coconut or palm oil; however, SU alone yielded less motility than SU 5% coconut. However, in both groups, S and SU, egg yolk accounted for the greatest values in both bases. These results indicate that none of biologically safer media components (casein, palm or coconut oil) used in this study maintained the function of ram spermatozoa after freeze-thawing better than S-containing egg yolk. The application of vegetable oils as substitutes for egg yolk in diluents for the cryopreservation of ram spermatozoa requires further research.

  13. [Rapid discriminating hogwash oil and edible vegetable oil using near infrared optical fiber spectrometer technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bing-Fang; Yuan, Li-Bo; Kong, Qing-Ming; Shen, Wei-Zheng; Zhang, Bing-Xiu; Liu, Cheng-Hai

    2014-10-01

    In the present study, a new method using near infrared spectroscopy combined with optical fiber sensing technology was applied to the analysis of hogwash oil in blended oil. The 50 samples were a blend of frying oil and "nine three" soybean oil according to a certain volume ratio. The near infrared transmission spectroscopies were collected and the quantitative analysis model of frying oil was established by partial least squares (PLS) and BP artificial neural network The coefficients of determina- tion of calibration sets were 0.908 and 0.934 respectively. The coefficients of determination of validation sets were 0.961 and 0.952, the root mean square error of calibrations (RMSEC) was 0.184 and 0.136, and the root mean square error of predictions (RMSEP) was all 0.111 6. They conform to the model application requirement. At the same time, frying oil and qualified edible oil were identified with the principal component analysis (PCA), and the accurate rate was 100%. The experiment proved that near infrared spectral technology not only can quickly and accurately identify hogwash oil, but also can quantitatively detect hog- wash oil. This method has a wide application prospect in the detection of oil.

  14. Transesterification of waste vegetable oil under pulse sonication using ethanol, methanol and ethanol–methanol mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Guerra, Edith; Gude, Veera Gnaneswar, E-mail: gude@cee.msstate.edu

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Pulse sonication effect on transesterification of waste vegetable oil was studied. • Effects of ethanol, methanol, and alcohol mixtures on FAMEs yield were evaluated. • Effect of ultrasonic intensity, power density, and its output rates were evaluated. • Alcohol mixtures resulted in higher biodiesel yields due to better solubility. - Abstract: This study reports on the effects of direct pulse sonication and the type of alcohol (methanol and ethanol) on the transesterification reaction of waste vegetable oil without any external heating or mechanical mixing. Biodiesel yields and optimum process conditions for the transesterification reaction involving ethanol, methanol, and ethanol–methanol mixtures were evaluated. The effects of ultrasonic power densities (by varying sample volumes), power output rates (in W), and ultrasonic intensities (by varying the reactor size) were studied for transesterification reaction with ethanol, methanol and ethanol–methanol (50%-50%) mixtures. The optimum process conditions for ethanol or methanol based transesterification reaction of waste vegetable oil were determined as: 9:1 alcohol to oil ratio, 1% wt. catalyst amount, 1–2 min reaction time at a power output rate between 75 and 150 W. It was shown that the transesterification reactions using ethanol–methanol mixtures resulted in biodiesel yields as high as >99% at lower power density and ultrasound intensity when compared to ethanol or methanol based transesterification reactions.

  15. PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS OF A CI ENGINE OPERATED ON VEGETABLE OILS AS ALTERNATIVE FUELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Rajagopal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available An experimental analysis was done using a four-stroke, single cylinder, constant speed, water-cooled diesel engine, which was interfaced with Engine software. Performance and emission characteristics were evaluated for three non-edible vegetable oils, i.e. thumba, jojoba, neem oil, as well as jojoba methyl ester, to study the effect of injection pressure at 205, 220, 240 and 260 bar with a variation in injection timing at 23°bTDC and 28°bTDC. The performance of jojoba methyl ester improved with an increase in injection pressure. A maximum brake thermal efficiency of 29.72% was obtained with lower emissions compared to the other vegetable oils; this might be explained by low viscosity and better combustion. Further investigations were carried out with a new lubricant, SAE 5W-30, which improved the performance of the CI engine by 1.59%. All of the abovementioned investigations were fruitful and these results are expected to lead to substantial contributions in the development of a viable vegetable oil engine.

  16. Production of biodiesel by lipase-catalyzed transesterification of vegetable oils: a kinetics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zuhair, Sulaiman

    2005-01-01

    Kinetics of production of biodiesel by enzymatic methanolysis of vegetable oils using lipase has been investigated. A mathematical model taking into account the mechanism of the methanolysis reaction starting from the vegetable oil as substrate, rather than the free fatty acids, has been developed. The kinetic parameters were estimated by fitting the experimental data of the enzymatic reaction of sunflower oil by two types of lipases, namely, Rhizomucor miehei lipase (RM) immobilized on ion-exchange resins and Thermomyces lanuginosa lipase (TL) immobilized on silica gel. There was a good agreement between the experimental results of the initial rate of reaction and those predicted by the proposed model equations, for both enzymes. From the proposed model equations, the regions where the effect of alcohol inhibition fades, at different substrate concentrations, were identified. The proposed model equation can be used to predict the rate of methanolysis of vegetable oils in a batch or a continuous reactor and to determine the optimal conditions for biodiesel production.

  17. Industrial vegetable oil by-products increase the ductility of polylactide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ruellan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of industrial by-products of the vegetable oil industry as ductility increasing additives of polylactide (PLA was investigated. Vegetable oil deodorization condensates were melt-blended by twin-screw extrusion up to a maximum inclusion quantity of 20 wt% without preliminary purification. Sample films were obtained by single screw cast extrusion. Compounded PLA films featured largely improved ductility in tensile testing with an elongation at break up to 180%. The glass transition temperature remained higher than room temperature. The native mixture of molecules, which composed the deodorization condensates, had superior performance compared to a synthetic mixture of main compounds. The investigation of the correlation between composition of the additives and the ductility of the PLA blends by Principal Component Analysis showed synergy in property improvement between fatty acids having a melting point below and beyond the room temperature. Furthermore, a compatibilizing effect of molecules present in the native mixture was evidenced. Oil deodorization condensates, which are a price competitive by-product of the vegetable oil industry, are therefore a very promising biobased and biodegradable additive for improving the ductility of PLA.

  18. Organic vegetable proteins and oil in feed for organic rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ivar; Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang; Jokumsen, Alfred

    The demand for organic trout is increasing, stressing the need for organic, vegetable feed ingredients as replacement for fish meal, as the principles of organic aquaculture encourage the development of feed that do not deplete global fish stocks. In addition, the organic code of practice does...... % and replaced by a matrix of organic horse bean, pea and rape in the proportion of 1:1:0.7. In the last two diets, the inclusion of fish oil was reduced by 50 and 100 %, respectively and replaced by flax seed oil high in omega-3 fatty acids. Digestibility was measured directly using a modified, flow....... The results indicate that a matrix of organic horse bean, pea and rape may partially replace fish meal, and flax seed oil may replace fish oil in feed for organic rainbow trout without compromising growth performance and feed utilization....

  19. Operations variables in the transesterification process of vegetable oil: a review - chemical catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Felipe Rojas González

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the results of a bibliographic review of the effects of operation conditions on process yield in the chemical transesterification of vegetable oil. The parameters studied were: temperature and time reaction, alcohol:oil molar ratio, catalyst and alcohol type, catalyst concentration, mixed intensity and free fatty acid and water concentration. It also reports that this pro- cess has been carried out with basic and acid catalysts using homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic processes for a wide va- riety of oils. It was found that reaction yield increased when temperature and time reaction increased; however this parameter de- creased at low catalyst concentration ( 1% w/w and water (> 3% w/w concentration in oil.

  20. Highly effective ionic liquids for biodiesel production from waste vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathy A. Yassin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available As conventional energy sources deplete, the need for developing alternative energy resources which are environment friendly becomes more imperative. Vegetable oils are attracting increased interest in this purpose. The methanolysis of vegetable oil to produce a fatty acid methyl ester (FAME, i.e., biodiesel fuel was catalyzed by commercial ionic liquid and its chloride modification. The imidazolium chloride ionic liquid was frequently chosen for the synthesis of biodiesel. The dual-functionalized’ ionic liquid is prepared by a direct combination reaction between imidazolium cation and various metal chlorides such as CoCl2, CuCl2, NiCl2, FeCl3 and AlCl3. Imidazolium tetrachloroferrate was proved to be a selective catalyst for the methanolysis reaction at a yield of 97% when used at 1:10, catalyst: oil ratio for 8 h at 55 °C. Operational simplicity, reusability of the used catalyst for 8 times at least, high yields and no saponification are the key features of this methodology. The dynamic viscosity and density of the upgraded vegetable oil decreased from 32.1 cP and 0.9227 g/cm3 to 10.2 cP and 0.9044 g/cm3 respectively, compared to those of the base vegetable oil. The objective of this study was the synthesis and characterization of biodiesel using commercial ionic liquid and its chloride modification. The ionic liquid catalysts were characterized using FTIR, Raman spectroscopy, DSC, TG and UV.

  1. Elevated circulating LDL phenol levels in men who consumed virgin rather than refined olive oil are associated with less oxidation of plasma LDL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Torre-Carbot, Karina; Chávez-Servín, Jorge L; Jaúregui, Olga

    2010-01-01

    In human LDL, the bioactivity of olive oil phenols is determined by the in vivo disposition of the biological metabolites of these compounds. Here, we examined how the ingestion of 2 similar olive oils affected the content of the metabolic forms of olive oil phenols in LDL in men. The oils differed...... in phenol concentrations as follows: high (629 mg/L) for virgin olive oil (VOO) and null (0 mg/L) for refined olive oil (ROO). The study population consisted of a subsample from the EUROLIVE study and a randomized controlled, crossover design was used. Intervention periods lasted 3 wk and were preceded...... acids (P olive oil modulates the phenolic metabolite content in LDL after sustained...

  2. Elevated circulating LDL phenol levels in men who consumed virgin rather than refined olive oil are associated with less oxidation of plasma LDL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Torre-Carbot, Karina; Chávez-Servín, Jorge L; Jaúregui, Olga

    2010-01-01

    In human LDL, the bioactivity of olive oil phenols is determined by the in vivo disposition of the biological metabolites of these compounds. Here, we examined how the ingestion of 2 similar olive oils affected the content of the metabolic forms of olive oil phenols in LDL in men. The oils differed...... in phenol concentrations as follows: high (629 mg/L) for virgin olive oil (VOO) and null (0 mg/L) for refined olive oil (ROO). The study population consisted of a subsample from the EUROLIVE study and a randomized controlled, crossover design was used. Intervention periods lasted 3 wk and were preceded...... acids (P olive oil modulates the phenolic metabolite content in LDL after sustained...

  3. Methods of refining and producing dibasic esters and acids from natural oil feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snead, Thomas E.; Cohen, Steven A.; Gildon, Demond L.

    2016-06-14

    Methods and systems for making dibasic esters and/or dibasic acids using metathesis are generally disclosed. In some embodiments, the methods comprise reacting a terminal olefin ester with an internal olefin ester in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a dibasic ester and/or dibasic acid. In some embodiments, the terminal olefin ester or the internal olefin ester are derived from a renewable feedstock, such as a natural oil feedstock. In some such embodiments, the natural oil feedstock, or a transesterified derivative thereof, is metathesized to make the terminal olefin ester or the internal olefin ester.

  4. Reactivity of vegetable oil macromonomers in thiol-ene, cationic, and emulsion polymerizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Micah Stephen

    Vegetable oils were, and continue, to be a mainstay in unsaturated polyester ("alkyd") technology. Our endeavor is to use vegetable oil-based polymers in environmentally-friendly coatings. The role of vegetable oil cis-unsaturation has not been fully explored in polymers. To that end, vegetable oil macromonomers (VOMMs) in three different systems were investigated to determine the involvement of cis-unsaturation in chain transfer, auto-oxidation, and copolymerization reactions. VOMMs were incorporated into UV curable thiol-ene coatings, UV cationic coatings, and acrylic solution copolymers and fundamental studies were conducted to determine how and to what extent cis-unsaturation contributes to film performance properties. In thiol-ene UV curable coatings, cis-unsaturation was involved in the initial curing reaction and to lesser degrees, in postcure crosslinking. Its behavior was determined to be dependent on the ene component. Thiol-ene photopolymerization yielded homogeneous networks but formulations containing VOMMs exhibited greater heterogeneity due to non-uniformity in the VOMM chemical structures, and the concurrent reactions occurring during thiol-ene photopolymerization and "dark cure". Partially epoxidized soybean oil was synthesized to contain varying levels of residual cis-unsaturation. Cationic photopolymerization of partially epoxidized soybean oil yielded lightly crosslinked films, but the influence of free radical decomposition byproducts has not been fully investigated. The low involvement of the cis-unsaturation in photopolymerization was attributed to its low reactivity and/or radical combination with antioxidants and molecular oxygen dissolved in the films. When used in emulsion polymerization, VOMMs lower the minimum filming temperature during coalescence and increase the Tg after application via auto-oxidation. Free radical polymerization of VOMMs is accompanied by chain transfer reactions between polymer radicals and VOMMs that reduces

  5. 药用肉桂油精馏提纯生产工艺分析%Analysis on Distillation and Refining Technology of Medicinal Cinnamon Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈锋; 冯婷

    2014-01-01

    通过分析影响药用肉桂油精馏提纯的关键生产要素,探讨最佳生产工艺,指导精馏提纯的工业化生产,以提高产品得率和产品质量。%By analyzing the key factors influenced the refinement process of medicinal cinnamon oil,the best productive tech-nology was explored.The results could be used to guide the industrialization of distillation and refining process of cinnamon oil, so as to improve the yield and quality of target product.

  6. Synthesis of 1,2,4 trioxolanes from vegetable oils for pharmaceutical and veterinary application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathália R. Almeida

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable oils are rich in mono-and poly-unsaturated fatty acids, and these compounds contain carbon-carbon double bonds available for chemical/structural modification, especially via oxidative processes. Sunflower oil obtained from seed of sunflower (Helianthus annuus contains a large amount of these acids, such as linoleic (48-74% and oleic (14-39% acids, proving to be an ideal starting material for these changes [1]. Ozone is an oxidizing agent that reacts with double bonds of fatty acids present in vegetable oils to form ozonides or 1,2,4 trioxolanes,  and peroxidic species such as hydroperoxides, hydrogen peroxide, polymeric peroxides and other organic peroxides. These compounds are of great pharmaceutical interest for the treatment of various dermatological diseases, due to their antimicrobial properties and stimulating action on tissue repair and regeneration [2]. In this work, the sunflower oil was ozonized, and the ideal conditions, as reaction time, ozone concentration and temperature, were determined. The IR and 1H and 13C NMR of ozonized oils confirm the formation of 1,2,4 trioxolane ring according to the mechanism proposed by Criegee [3]. The ozonolysis reaction was performed under different conditions and the product is in the process of knowledge protection or patent.

  7. 76 FR 5107 - Regulation of Oil-Bearing Hazardous Secondary Materials From the Petroleum Refining Industry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 260 and 261 RIN-2050-AE78 Regulation of Oil-Bearing Hazardous Secondary Materials..., Earthjustice, 21 Ocean Avenue, Marblehead, MA 01945. Dear Ms. Evans: This is in response to the petition for... slagging inorganic feed at temperatures above 2,000 degrees C. (Petition at pg. 10) (3) You assert that the...

  8. In Situ/on-Site Biodegradation of Refined Oils and Fuels (A Technology Review). Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    Cook, Massey, and Ahearn, 1973). Cladosoorium resinae has been found in soil (Walker, Cofone, and Coo- ney, 1973) and has repeatedly been recovered as...Microbial petroleum degradation: the role of Cladosoorium resinae . In Proc. Joint Conf. on Prevention and Control of Oil Spills. American Petroleum

  9. Technological aspects of vegetable oils epoxidation in the presence of ion exchange resins: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milchert Eugeniusz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A review paper of the technology basics of vegetable oils epoxidation by means of peracetic or performic acid in the presence of acidic ion exchange resins has been presented. The influence of the following parameters: temperature, molar ratio of acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide to ethylenic unsaturation, catalyst loading, stirring intensity and the reaction time on a conversion of ethylenic unsaturation, the relative percentage conversion to oxirane and the iodine number was discussed. Optimal technological parameters, mechanism of epoxidation by carboxylic peracids and the possibilities of catalyst recycling have been also discussed. This review paper shows the application of epoxidized oils.

  10. Climate design of vegetable oil fuels for agricultural equipment; Klimadesign von Pflanzenoelkraftstoffen fuer landwirtschaftliche Maschinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoehr, Michael [B.A.U.M. Consult GmbH, Muenchen (Germany). International and Energy Projects; Pickel, Peter [John Deere European Technology Innovation Center, Kaiserslautern (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The use of biofuels in agricultural machinery is an option for complying with climate protection requirements that are presently discussed to be placed on manufacturers of mobile off-road machinery by the European Commission. A mathematical model has been developed that allows calculating greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) of biofuels for complex production paths in a straightforward, transparent manner and in pattern with the EU's Fuel Quality Directive (FQD). Therewith it has been shown that both rape seed and camelina sativa oil fuels can save more than 60 % GHGE. Key parameters have been identified and rules for a climate design of vegetable oil fuels have been formulated. (orig.)

  11. COMPARISON OF BIODIESEL PRODUCTIVITIES OF DIFFERENT VEGETABLE OILS BY ACIDIC CATALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AYTEN SAGIROGLU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel has become a subject which increasingly attracts worldwide attention because of its environmental benefits, biodegradability and renewability. Biodiesel production typically involves the transesterification of a triglyceride feedstock with methanol or other short-chain alcohols. This paper presents a study of transesterification of various vegetable oils, sunflower, safflower, canola, soybean, olive, corn, hazelnut and waste sunflower oils, with the acidic catalyst. Under laboratory conditions, fatty acid methyl esters (FAME were prepared by using methanol in the presence of 1.85% hydrochloric acid at 100 °C for 1 h and 25 °C for 3 h. The analyses of biodiesel were carried out by gas chroma¬tography and thin layer chromatography. Also, biodiesel productivities (% were determined on basis of the ratio of ester to oil content (w/w. The biodiesel productivities for all oils were found to be about 80% and about 90% at 25 and 100 °C, respectively. Also, the results showed that the yield of biodiesel depended on temperature for some oils, including canola, sunflower, safflower oils, but it was not found significant differences among all of the oil types on biodiesel productivities.

  12. Phase-transfer catalysis and ultrasonic waves II: saponification of vegetable oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entezari, M H; Keshavarzi, A

    2001-07-01

    Saponification of oils which is a commercially important heterogeneous reaction, can be speeded up by the application of ultrasound in the presence of phase-transfer catalyst (PTC). This paper focuses on the ability of ultrasound to cause efficient mixing of this liquid-liquid heterogeneous reaction. Castor oil was taken as a model oil and the kinetic of the reaction was followed by the extent of saponification. The hydrolysis of castor oil was carried out with different PTC such as cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), benzyl triethyl ammonium chloride (BTAC) and tetrabutyl ammonium bromide (TBAB) in aqueous alkaline solution. As hydroxyl anion moves very slowly from aqueous to oil phase, the presence of a PTC is of prime importance. For this purpose, cationic surfactants are selected. The sonication of biphasic system were performed by 20 kHz (simple horn and cup horn) and 900 kHz. It was found that CTAB was better than the two others and this could be related to the molecular structure of the PTCs. The effect of temperature was also studied on the saponification process. By increasing the temperature, the yield was also increased and this could be explained by intermolecular forces, interfacial tension and mass transfer. Saponification of three different vegetable oils shows that the almond oil is saponified easier than the two others and this could be related to their properties such as surface tension, viscosity and density.

  13. In Vitro Rumen Fermentation of Ration Supplemented with Protected Vegetable Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hidayah

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was designed to evaluate the effects of protected vegetable oils supplementation on in vitro fermentation characteristics, rumen microbial population, and methane production in cattle. The treatments were arranged in a complete randomized block design involving 2 factors i.e. oil type (sesame, canola, and flaxseed and protection methods (non protected, calcium soap, and microencapsulation. Variables observed were rumen pH, N-NH3, total and molar proportion of VFA, dry matter and organic matter digestibility, population of protozoa and total bacteria, methane production, and hydrogen balance. Data were tested using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and the differences among treatments means were examined by Duncan Multiple Range Test. The oil type did not affect all variables measured. The protection method using microencapsulation significantly increased N-NH3 concentration. There was an interaction between oil type and protection method on total VFA concentration, molar proportion of VFA, and methane production. The supplementation of calcium soap-flaxseed oil significantly increased total VFA production, while the supplementation of microencapsulated flaxseed oil had the highest propionate concentration and H2 utilization, the lowest A:P ratio, and methane production. It is concluded that microencapsulated flaxseed oil was the best treatment to optimize rumen fermentation.

  14. Effects of genotype and dietary fish oil replacement with vegetable oil on the intestinal transcriptome and proteome of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morais, Sofia; Silva, Tomé; Cordeiro, Odete; Rodrigues, Pedro; Guy, Derrick R; Bron, James E; Taggart, John B; Bell, J Gordon; Tocher, Douglas R

    2012-01-01

    ...) and better utilization of dietary vegetable oil (VO). Despite the central role of intestine in maintaining body homeostasis and health, its molecular response to replacement of dietary FO by VO has been little investigated...

  15. The replacement of fish oil with refined coconut oil in the diet of large rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Maxia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Three hundred rainbow trout (242.9 ± 6.9 g were randomly assigned to 12 fibreglass tanks (25 fish/tank. The fish were fed, for 231 days (feeding level: 0.74 % average bw, four experimental diets, containing increasing levels of coconut oil: diet A 0 %, diet B 6 %; diet C 12 % and diet D 13 %, as replacements of herring oil and cod liver oil. Weight gains of fish were > 3 g d-1 and FCR lower than 1.5, for all treatments. No significant difference was observed in the main car- cass traits and whole body composition, but whole fish energy content significantly increased in fish fed diet D (10.68 KJ g-1. Different dietary fatty acid profiles had significant effects on the rainbow trout muscle contents of C10:0, C12:0, C14:0, total n-3, and the main ratios: SFA/USFA; DHA/EPA; DHA/AA, n-3/n-6, but not on total fatty acids content of the muscle.

  16. Replacing dietary fish oil by vegetable oils has little effect on lipogenesis, lipid transport and tissue lipid uptake in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Nadège; Kaushik, Sadasivam; Larroquet, Laurence; Panserat, Stéphane; Corraze, Geneviève

    2006-08-01

    In order to investigate the effects of dietary lipid sources on mechanisms involved in lipid deposition, two groups of rainbow trout were fed from first-feeding to the commercial size of 1 kg (for 62 weeks) with two diets differing only by lipid source: 100% fish oil or 100% blend of vegetable oils (55% rapeseed oil, 30% palm oil, 15% linseed oil). The activities and levels of gene expression of lipogenic enzymes (fatty acid synthetase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme) in liver and of lipoprotein lipase in perivisceral adipose tissue, white muscle and liver were determined. Transport of lipid was studied by determining lipid composition of plasma and lipoprotein classes. We also examined the clearance of LDL by assaying the level of LDL receptor gene expression in several tissues. Total replacement of dietary fish oil by the blend of vegetable oils did not affect growth of rainbow trout and did not modify muscle lipid content. Hepatic lipogenesis and lipid uptake in perivisceral adipose tissue, white muscle and liver were also not modified by dietary treatments. Diets containing the blend of vegetable oils induced a decrease in plasma cholesterol and LDL. In trout fed the vegetable oils diet, expression of LDL receptor gene in the liver was down-regulated.

  17. Extracting Refined Oil from Semen Vaccariae with Extracritical CO2 and GC- MS Measurement%王不留行精油的超临界CO2萃取及GC-MS测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王向东

    2002-01-01

    Objective To extract and analyse Semen Vaccariae refined oil and ingredient. Methods Extracting refinedoil with extracritical CO2 and analysing the ingredients by GC - MS. Results Content of oil in the Semen Vaccariae accountfor 34.60% .The main content are oleic acid and linoleic acid. Unsaturated fat acid in fat acid account for 84.70% .The maincontents of saturated fat acid are palmitic acid. Conclusion Semen Vaccariae refined oil are good plant oil.

  18. Synthesis of bio-based building blocks from vegetable oils: a platform chemicals approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desroches Myriam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This review reports the synthesis of various building blocks from vegetable oils in one or two-steps syntheses. Thiol-ene coupling allows to synthesize new biobased reactants with various function and functionality with reaction conditions in agreement with green chemistry principles: it does not use neither solvent nor initiator or need simple purification step, feasible at industrial scale. Esterification and amidification were also used to insert ester or amide groups in fatty chains in order to modifiy properties of thereof synthesized polymers. Building blocks synthesized have various functions and functionality: polyols, polyacids, polyamines and dicyclocarbonates from vegetable oils and from glycerine derivatives. They were used for the synthesis of biobased polyurethanes, polyhydroxyurethanes and epoxy resins.

  19. Runoff, Erosion and Nutrient Sedimentation due Vegetative Soil Conservation Applied on Oil Palm Plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahrul Fuady

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Land cover crops play an important role in influencing erosion. Cover crops provide protection against the destruction of soil aggregates by rain and runoff. This research aims to study the effectiveness of vegetation as soil conservation in controlling erosion and runoff. This study was a field experiment on erosion plots measuring 10 m x 5 m were arranged in Split Plot design with replications as blocks, consists of a combination of two factors: the age of the oil palm and slope as the first factor, and vegetative soil conservation techniques as a second factor. The results showed the soil conservation techniques in oil palm cultivation can reduce the rate of surface runoff, soil erosion and nutrient loss. Soil conservation with upland rice planted with soybean sequence + strip Mucuna bracteata (T3 most effectively reduce runoff and prevent soil erosion and nutrient loss.

  20. Inward Processing Regime Promotion System in Vegetable Oil Industry: A Case Study of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan Duru

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine applicability of the Inward Processing Regime (IPR in enterprises which are vegetable oil producers and exporters. The data was obtained from 26 vegetable oil producer and exporter enterprises by using survey method. Frequency tables, indices, and percentage calculating were used to analyse Data. Also, SWOT analysis was used to determine the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats in the sector, and relationship among some variables were examined with correlation coefficient. According to research findings, 25 of the enterprises (96% utilised the IPR. Since the enterprises started to use that system; availability of cheap raw material, rate of capacity utilisation, market share, and export value all have increased. In addition, raw material was found as an important expense item, and the most important problems were qualified as raw material inadequacy and high input prices.

  1. Biodiesel and electrical power production through vegetable oil extraction and byproducts gasification: modeling of the system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allesina, Giulio; Pedrazzi, Simone; Tebianian, Sina; Tartarini, Paolo

    2014-10-01

    Aim of this work is to introduce an alternative to the standard biodiesel production chain, presenting an innovative in situ system. It is based on the chemical conversion of vegetable oil from oleaginous crops in synergy with the gasification of the protein cake disposed by the seed press. The syngas from the gasifier is here used to produce electrical power while part of it is converted into methanol. The methanol is finally used to transform the vegetable oil into biodiesel. Through a coupled use of ASPEN PLUS(TM) and MATLAB(TM) codes, a rapeseed, soy and sunflower rotation, with a duration of three year, was simulated considering 15ha of soil. This surface resulted sufficient to feed a 7kWel power plant. Simulation outputs proven the system to be self-sustainable. In addition, economical NPV of the investment is presented. Finally the environmental, economical and social advantages related to this approach are discussed.

  2. Organic vegetable proteins and oil in feed for organic rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ivar; Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang; Jokumsen, Alfred

    not allow addition of artificial amino acids to the feed, and optimization of the amino acid profile of organically based diets must therefore derive from the protein sources alone. The aim of this study was to evaluate the digestibility and growth performance of organic vegetable dietary ingredients......The demand for organic trout is increasing, stressing the need for organic, vegetable feed ingredients as replacement for fish meal, as the principles of organic aquaculture encourage the development of feed that do not deplete global fish stocks. In addition, the organic code of practice does...... as replacement for fish meal and fish oil in feed for organic rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Six iso-energetic and iso- nitrogenous diets were prepared, comprising a fish meal and fish oil based control diet and three diets in which the inclusion of fish meal was gradually reduced from 59 to 35...

  3. The refining industry and the future of the fuel oils; L'industrie du raffinage et le devenir des fiouls lourds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soleille, S. [Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques, 60 - Verneuil en Halatte (INERIS) (France)

    2004-07-15

    The INERIS established during the year 2003 a report on the problems about the fuel oils which may occurred in the context of the sustainable development of the refining sector. This presentation discusses the report and more precisely two chapters and the conclusion. The two chapters concern the french situation (demand, supply and and exports of fuel oils) and the evaluation of the world situation. They propose some hypothesis on the fuel market evolution. (A.L.B.)

  4. Fontes de óleo vegetal na dieta de cordeiros em confinamento Vegetable oil sources in feedlot lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Mari Yamamoto

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a ingestão de matéria seca, o ganho de peso diário, a conversão alimentar, o peso vivo ao abate e o período de confinamento em cordeiros Santa Inês puros e ½Dorset ½Santa Inês, alimentados com dietas isoenergéticas (76,59% de NDT e isoprotéicas (17,48% de PB contendo diferentes fontes de óleo vegetal (óleos de soja, canola e linhaça e uma dieta controle (sem inclusão de óleo vegetal. A relação volumoso:concentrado foi de 30:70 e utilizou-se feno de aveia como volumoso. Realizou-se também um ensaio de digestibilidade, utilizando quatro cordeiros não-castrados, distribuídos em delineamento quadrado latino, avaliando-se ingestão, excreção fecal e digestibilidade total dos nutrientes das rações. A ingestão de matéria seca, expressa em porcentagem do peso vivo, foi menor nos cordeiros que receberam dieta contendo óleo de canola que naqueles que receberam dieta controle. Porém, todas as rações proporcionaram ganhos de peso e conversão alimentar satisfatórios. Os valores de digestibilidade total da matéria seca (76,02% e matéria orgânica (76,82% da dieta controle foram superiores aos da dieta contendo óleo de linhaça (72,11% e 72,97%, respectivamente, embora não tenham diferido das dietas contendo óleos de soja (72,94 e 73,71% e canola (73,45 e 74,25%. A digestibilidade do extrato etéreo foi menor na dieta controle (84,02%, enquanto as demais dietas apresentaram valor médio de 91,98%. Os óleos vegetais reduziram a digestibilidade da matéria seca e da matéria orgânica, não afetando a ingestão e digestão dos demais nutrientes.This experiment was carried out to evaluate the dry matter ingestion, average daily gain, feed:gain ratio, live weight at slaughter and days in trial in pure Santa Inês and ½Dorset ½Santa Inês lambs, submitted to isoenergetic (76.59% TDN and isoprotein (17.48% crude protein diets with different sources of vegetable oil (soybean oil, canola and linseed and a

  5. Remediation of trichloroethylene-contaminated soils by star technology using vegetable oil smoldering

    OpenAIRE

    Salman, Madiha; Gerhard, Jason I.; Major, David W.; Pironi, Paolo; Hadden, Rory

    2015-01-01

    Self-sustaining treatment for active remediation (STAR) is an innovative soil remediation approach based on smoldering combustion that has been demonstrated to effectively destroy complex hydrocarbon nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) with minimal energy input. This is the first study to explore the smoldering remediation of sand contaminated by a volatile NAPL (trichloroethylene, TCE) and the first to consider utilizing vegetable oil as supplemental fuel for STAR. Thirty laboratory-scale exper...

  6. Measurements and modeling of physical properties for oil and biomaterial refining

    OpenAIRE

    Zaitseva, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate a set of binary systems for developing necessary thermodynamic models for oil and biofuel industries. Extensive experimental work was performed for supplying the necessary vapor – liquid equilibria (VLE) and excess enthalpy data for the selected systems. Binary systems with C4 hydrocarbons + alkenes, alcohols and ketones were measured due to their importance in production of fuel additives. Static total pressure apparatus was utilized for these iso...

  7. Synthesis of vegetable oil based polyol with cottonseed oil and sorbitol derived from natural source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lian Kun Jia; Li Xiang Gong; Wen Jiao Ji; Cheng You Kan

    2011-01-01

    In order to prepare the polyol with all bio-based components as raw materials, cottonseed oil was first epoxidized by peroxyformic acid generated in situ from hydrogen peroxide and formic acid, and the cottonseed oil based polyols with variable hydroxyl value were then prepared by the ring-opening of epoxidized cottonseed oil with sorbitol, which is a multi-functional hydroxyl compound derived from a natural source. The chemical structure of the products was characterized with FTIR analysis, and the residual epoxy oxygen content and hydroxyl value of the polyol versus the ring-opening time were investigated.

  8. Application of experimental design for extraction of BHA and BHT from edible vegetable oil and their determination using HPLC

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Biparva, P; Hadjmohammadi, M.R; Ehsani, M; Kamel, K

    2012-01-01

    The optimal conditions of liquid–liquid extraction of two synthetic phenolic antioxidants, BHA and BHT were investigated in five Iranian edible vegetable oil samples using the central composite design...

  9. Vegetable Oil-Loaded Nanocapsules: Innovative Alternative for Incorporating Drugs for Parenteral Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturinil, C G; Bruinsmann, A; Oliveira, C P; Contri, R V; Pohlmann, A R; Guterres, S S

    2016-02-01

    An innovative nanocapsule formulation for parenteral administration using selected vegetable oils (mango, jojoba, pequi, oat, annatto, calendula, and chamomile) was developed that has the potential to encapsulate various drugs. The vegetable oil-loaded nanocapsules were prepared by interfacial deposition and compared with capric/caprylic triglyceride-loaded lipid core nanocapsules. The major objective was to investigate the effect of vegetable oils on particle size distribution and physical stability and to determine the hemolytic potential of the nanocapsules, considering their applicability for intravenous administration. Taking into account the importance of accurately determining particle size for the selected route of administration, different size characterization techniques were employed, such as Laser Diffraction, Dynamic Light Scattering, Multiple Light Scattering, Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis, and Transmission Electronic Microscopy. Laser diffraction studies indicated that the mean particle size of all nanocapsules was below 300 nm. For smaller particles, the laser diffraction and multiple light scattering data were in agreement (D[3,2]-130 nm). Dynamic light scattering and nanoparticle tracking analysis, two powerful techniques that complement each other, exhibited size values between 180 and 259 nm for all nanoparticles. Stability studies demonstrated a tendency of particle creaming for jojoba-nanocapsules and sedimentation for the other nanoparticles; however, no size variation occurred over 30 days. The hemolysis test proved the hemocompatibility of all nanosystems, irrespective of the type of oil. Although all developed nanocapsules presented the potential for parenteral administration, jojoba oil-loaded nanocapsules were selected as the most promising nanoformulation due to their low average size and high particle size homogeneity.

  10. A novel infrared spectrophotometric method for the rapid determination of petroleum hydrocarbons, and animal and vegetable oils in water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Lin Tang; Yong Zhang; Sheng Zhong; Ai Min Li

    2012-01-01

    To determine the concentrations of total oils,petroleum hydrocarbons,and animal and vegetable oils in water,the conventional analytical methods involve two scans as well as a step of magnesium silicate adsorption to remove the animal and vegetable oils in water samples.In this study,a novel analytical method was developed to determine the above oils in wastewater samples through just one scan-the concentration of animal and vegetable oils,and that of total oils were determined by measuring the absorbance of the >C=O bond in the peak area between 1750 cm-1 and 1735 cm-1,and ofthe C-H bond at 2930cm-1,2960 cm-1,and 3030 cm- 1,respectively.The concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons was then calculated by subtracting the concentration of animal and vegetable oils from that of total oils.Compared with the well-known analytical method GB/T 16488-1996,the novel approach displayed similar accuracy in the quantitative determination of oils in wastewater samples,but significantly reduced material cost and operation time.

  11. Enzymatic interesterification of vegetable oil/ fish oil blend for margarine production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Nuzul Amri Bin; Xu, Xuebing

    the desired properties. In this study, palm stearin (PS), palm kernel oil (PKO) and fish oil (FO) are blended and modified by enzymatic interesterification. PS functioned as the hard stock, PKO as the soft oil and FO as a source for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/ docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The purpose......In margarine formulation, oils of different melting points are blended to make a product that is spreadable at room temperature. Usually, the blend would be subjected to modification process, either by interesterification (chemical or enzymatic) or partial hydrogenation in order to achieve...... they are consumed as a quick source of energy. The remaining 2-monoacyl- glycerol becomes a source of essential fatty acid, after being absorbed through the intestinal wall. This would enhance the nutritional value of the enzymatically interesterified product. However, the incorporation of FO into the blend would...

  12. Enzymatic interesterification of vegetable oil/ fish oil blend for margarine production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Nuzul Amri Bin; Xu, Xuebing

    In margarine formulation, oils of different melting points are blended to make a product that is spreadable at room temperature. Usually, the blend would be subjected to modification process, either by interesterification (chemical or enzymatic) or partial hydrogenation in order to achieve...... the desired properties. In this study, palm stearin (PS), palm kernel oil (PKO) and fish oil (FO) are blended and modified by enzymatic interesterification. PS functioned as the hard stock, PKO as the soft oil and FO as a source for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/ docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The purpose...... they are consumed as a quick source of energy. The remaining 2-monoacyl- glycerol becomes a source of essential fatty acid, after being absorbed through the intestinal wall. This would enhance the nutritional value of the enzymatically interesterified product. However, the incorporation of FO into the blend would...

  13. Direct Determination of MCPD Fatty Acid Esters and Glycidyl Fatty Acid Esters in Vegetable Oils by LC–TOFMS

    OpenAIRE

    Haines, Troy D.; Adlaf, Kevin J.; Pierceall, Robert M.; Lee, Inmok; Venkitasubramanian, Padmesh; Collison, Mark W.

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of MCPD esters and glycidyl esters in vegetable oils using the indirect method proposed by the DGF gave inconsistent results when salting out conditions were varied. Subsequent investigation showed that the method was destroying and reforming MCPD during the analysis. An LC time of flight MS method was developed for direct analysis of both MCPD esters and glycidyl esters in vegetable oils. The results of the LC–TOFMS method were compared with the DGF method. The DGF method consistent...

  14. Biodiesel production from vegetable oil and waste animal fats in a pilot plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alptekin, Ertan; Canakci, Mustafa; Sanli, Huseyin

    2014-11-01

    In this study, corn oil as vegetable oil, chicken fat and fleshing oil as animal fats were used to produce methyl ester in a biodiesel pilot plant. The FFA level of the corn oil was below 1% while those of animal fats were too high to produce biodiesel via base catalyst. Therefore, it was needed to perform pretreatment reaction for the animal fats. For this aim, sulfuric acid was used as catalyst and methanol was used as alcohol in the pretreatment reactions. After reducing the FFA level of the animal fats to less than 1%, the transesterification reaction was completed with alkaline catalyst. Due to low FFA content of corn oil, it was directly subjected to transesterification. Potassium hydroxide was used as catalyst and methanol was used as alcohol for transesterification reactions. The fuel properties of methyl esters produced in the biodiesel pilot plant were characterized and compared to EN 14214 and ASTM D6751 biodiesel standards. According to the results, ester yield values of animal fat methyl esters were slightly lower than that of the corn oil methyl ester (COME). The production cost of COME was higher than those of animal fat methyl esters due to being high cost biodiesel feedstock. The fuel properties of produced methyl esters were close to each other. Especially, the sulfur content and cold flow properties of the COME were lower than those of animal fat methyl esters. The measured fuel properties of all produced methyl esters met ASTM D6751 (S500) biodiesel fuel standards.

  15. Green ultrasound-assisted extraction of carotenoids from pomegranate wastes using vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goula, Athanasia M; Ververi, Maria; Adamopoulou, Anna; Kaderides, Kyriakos

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a new process for pomegranate peels application in food industries based on ultrasound-assisted extraction of carotenoids using different vegetable oils as solvents. In this way, an oil enriched with antioxidants is produced. Sunflower oil and soy oil were used as alternative solvents and the effects of various parameters on extraction yield were studied. Extraction temperature, solid/oil ratio, amplitude level, and extraction time were the factors investigated with respect to extraction yield. Comparative studies between ultrasound-assisted and conventional solvent extraction were carried out in terms of processing procedure and total carotenoids content. The efficient extraction period for achieving maximum yield of pomegranate peel carotenoids was about 30min. The optimum operating conditions were found to be: extraction temperature, 51.5°C; peels/solvent ratio, 0.10; amplitude level, 58.8%; solvent, sunflower oil. A second-order kinetic model was successfully developed for describing the mechanism of ultrasound extraction under different processing parameters.

  16. Serum lipid profile and retinol in rats fed micronutrient rich edible vegetable oil blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAFAR SALAMAT KHAN

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Khan HN, Farooqi H, Ali S, Khan JS. 2010. Serum lipid profile and retinol in rats fed micronutrient rich edible vegetable oil blend. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 109-116. The animal rats were given 10% oil mixed in fat free diet for one month or six months. In the experiment, the groups of rats were fed with the micronutrient (MN rich blends mixed previously with 1% cholesterol, and their effects were tested on serum lipid profile. Most significant changes in the High Dencity Lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol were observed in one-month study where HDL increased from 24 mg/dl in group to 64 mg/dl in the Mustard palm olein oil blend (MP; in mustard oil (MO alone fed rats, the HDL was 36 mg/dl. Serum retinol was analyzed as one of the important MN in rats receiving the diet mixed with the blend for various duration of time. The results assume great significance as MO or palm olein oil (PO alone could not bring the maximum beneficial effects, and the blends appear to have more merit as health oils in alleviating adverse health condition such as coronary heart disease (CHD, diabetes, obesity and hypertension.

  17. Antibacterial Activity of Daucus crinitus Essential Oils along the Vegetative Life of the Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amel Bendiabdellah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils from the aerial parts of Daucus crinitus Desf. were analyzed at three developmental stages (early vegetative, early flowering, and full flowering. Oil yield was found to vary depending on the stage of development, and the highest content of oil (0.15% w/w was obtained at full flowering. The chemical composition of essential oils studied by GC and GC-MS showed a total of 71 compounds: 27 aliphatic compounds, 18 sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, 9 hydrocarbons monoterpene, 5 oxygenated monoterpenes, 5 phenolic compounds, 4 oxygenated sesquiterpenes, 2 oxygenated diterpenes, and 01 diterpene hydrocarbons. Whatever the analyzed stage, phenolic compounds were the most abundant group. Their level significantly increased during ripening and varied from 36.4 to 82.1%. Antimicrobial activities of oils were tested on four different microorganisms. The oils of various phenological stages showed high activity against Candida albicans (30 mm and Staphylococcus aureus (11–28 mm bacteria strains which are deemed very dangerous and very difficult to eliminate. Thus, they represent an inexpensive source of natural antibacterial substances that may potentially be used in pathogenic systems.

  18. Preparation of 9-hydroxynonanoic acid methyl ester by ozonolysis of vegetable oils and its polycondensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Ivana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable oil-based and potentially biodegradable polyesters were prepared from 9-hydroxynonanoic acid methyl ester. This paper describes ozonolysis of vegetable oils and the method for preparation of useful monomers and in particular 9-hydroxynonanoic acid methyl ester. Ozonolysis of soybean oil and castor oil in methanol and methylene chloride solution, followed by reduction with sodium borohydride was used to obtain a mixture of triols, diols and monols. Triglyceride triols were separated from the rest of the mixture and transesterified with methanol to obtain methyl esters of fatty acids and glycerin. The main component of fatty acids was 9-hydroxynonanoic acid methyl ester, which was characterized and used for polycondensation by transesterification. High molecular weight polyhydroxy alcanoate was a solid having a melting point of 75°C. The molecular weight of the resulting polyester was affected by the purity of the monomer and side reactions such as cyclization. The polymer was characterized by chromatographic, thermal and analytical methods.

  19. Advanced Chemical Reactor Technologies for Biodiesel Production from Vegetable Oils - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luqman Buchori

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is an alternative biofuel that can replace diesel oil without requiring modifications to the engine and advantageously produces cleaner emissions. Biodiesel can be produced through transesterification process between oil or fat and alcohol to form esters and glycerol. The transesterification can be carried out with or without a catalyst. The catalyzed production of biodiesel can be performed by using homogeneous, heterogeneous and enzyme. Meanwhile, non-catalytic transesterification with supercritical alcohol provides a new way of producing biodiesel. Microwave and ultrasound assisted transesterification significantly can reduce reaction time as well as improve product yields. Another process, a plasma technology is promising for biodiesel synthesis from vegetable oils due to very short reaction time, no soap formation and no glycerol as a by-product. This paper reviews briefly the technologies on transesterification reaction for biodiesel production using homogeneous, heterogeneous, and enzyme catalysts, as well as advanced methods (supercritical, microwave, ultrasonic, and plasma technology. Advantages and disadvantages of each method were described comprehensively. Copyright © 2016 BCREC GROUP. All rights reserved Received: 17th May 2016; Revised: 20th September 2016; Accepted: 20th September 2016 How to Cite: Buchori, L., Istadi, I., Purwanto, P. (2016. Advanced Chemical Reactor Technologies for Biodiesel Production from Vegetable Oils - A Review. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 11 (3: 406-430 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.11.3.490.406-430 Permalink/DOI: http://doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.11.3.490.406-430

  20. Enhancement of growth of Lentinus crinitus in soil using benomyl and vegetable oil Aumento do crescimento de Lentinus crinitus em solo usando benomil e óleo vegetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia M.G. Machado

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify alternatives for soil fumigation in bioremediation process, the addition of benomyl and vegetable oil on the growth of L. crinitus and mitosporic fungi were evaluated. Benomyl can be used as an alternative to methyl bromide. Addition of vegetable oil favors the growth of L. crinitus.Para identificar alternativas para a fumigação de solo em processos de biorremediação, foi avaliada a adição de benomil e de óleo vegetal no crescimento de Lentinus crinitus e fungos mitospóricos. Benomil pode ser usado como alternativa ao brometo de metila. A adição de óleo vegetal favoreceu o crescimento de L. crinitus.

  1. Coke fouling process on the oil refining; Processo de incrustacao por coque no refino do petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bombardelli, Clovis; Fiorentin, Leila D.; Negrao, Cezar O.R.; Franco, Admilson T. [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Parana (CEFET-PR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica e de Materiais (PPGEM)

    2004-07-01

    The heavy crude fraction processing is performed under very high vacuum to minimize thermal cracking which cause coke deposition and damage the equipment. The current tendency is to process heavier oil leading to higher process temperatures and consequently to greater fouling. This situation demands better knowledge fouling process by carbonization. This problem is pronounced in the residual gasoil region of a vacuum distillation unit because it obstructs the recirculation circuits and the spray system with serious environmental and economics implications. This paper review the main correlated published work related to coke generation and fouling and presents a discussion about the works. (author)

  2. A new hypothesis about continuous distillation with striping gas and its application the physical refining of edible oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciani Constante, E.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the free fatty acid concentration in the gas inside the continuous deodorizer in continuous physical refining was studied and a hypothesis was formed to explain the results: In a continuous process of deacidification by distillation of free fatty acids at low pressure (2 - 3 mbar, high temperature (180 – 260 ºC, with stripping gas, initial free fatty acid content of oil ≤ 7.4% w/w and similar temperature for both the gas distillate inside the continuous deodorizer and the oil, in the equilibrium the ratio between the free fatty acid content of the deacidified oil and the concentration of free fatty acids in the gas inside the continuous deodorizer is constant. This hypothesis is submitted to discussion.Se estudia la influencia de la concentración en ácidos grasos libres en el gas de arrastre en la cabeza del desodorizador durante la refinación física en continuo, y se establece una hipótesis para explicar los resultados: En un proceso continuo de desacidificación por destilación de ácidos grasos a baja presión (2 - 3 mbar, alta temperatura (180 – 265ºC, con arrastre de vapor, con igual temperatura para los gases en la cabeza del desodorizador y para el aceite, aplicado a aceites con una acidez inicial ≤ 7,4 % peso/peso, en el equilibrio se cumple que la relación entre la concentración en ácidos grasos libres en el aceite desodorizado y la concentración en ácidos grasos libres en el gas situado en la cabeza del desodorizador es constante. Esta hipótesis se somete a discusión.

  3. Manufacturing of vegetable oils-based epoxy and composites for structural applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rongpeng

    Epoxidized vegetable oil (EVO) is one of the largest industrial applications of vegetable oils (VOs) and is widely used as a plasticizer and as a synthetic intermediate for polyol or unsaturated polyester. However, the utility of EVO as monomer for high performance epoxy thermoset polymer is limited by its reactivity and by the resulting physical properties. Herein, VO-based epoxy monomers, i.e., glycidyl esters of epoxidized fatty acids derived from soybean oil (EGS) or linseed oil (EGL), have been synthesized and were benchmarked against commercial available diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) and also epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) controls. EGS and EGL possessed higher oxirane content, more reactivity and lower viscosity than ESO or epoxidized linseed oil (ELO), provided better compatibility with DGEBA as a reactive diluent, and yielded thermally and mechanically stronger polymers than polymers obtained using ESO. Glass transition temperatures (T g) of the VO-based epoxy thermoset polymers were mostly a function of monomer oxirane content with some added structural influences of epoxy reactivity, and presence of a pendant chain. Organo-modified montmorillonite clay (OMMT) and long glass fiber reinforced composites (FRC) were efficiently manufactured using anhydride cured EGS as matrices. The OMMT nanocomposites showed higher mechanical and thermal strength than the neat polymers but were also dependent on the dispersion techniques and the clay concentration. Surprisingly, the neat EGS-anhydride matrix FRC showed comparable properties, such as flexural and impact strengths and slightly lower Tg, versus DGEBA based counterparts. These high performance monomers, polymers, and composites have potential to replace petroleum-based epoxy as value-added products from VOs compared to EVOs.

  4. Effect of Replacement of Marine Ingredients with Vegetable Oil and Protein on Oxidative Changes during Ice Storage of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Eymard, Sylvie; Timm Heinrich, Maike

    . The oil source was either fish oil, linseed oil, sunflower oil, rapeseed oil or grapeseed oil. Rainbow trout was stored on ice for up to 14 days. In both studies, the effect of the feeding regime on the fatty acid composition and lipid oxidation in the fish fillet was determined. In the first study......Recently, fish meal and fish oil have increasingly been replaced with proteins and oils from vegetable sources in the diets of farmed salmonids, but the consequences for the oxidative stability of the resulting fish products have only been investigated to a limited extent. This presentation...... will discuss results from two recent studies from our laboratory on this topic. In the first study, rainbow trout were fed six different diets, which differed in the ratio between marine oil and proteins vs. vegetable oil and protein. Rapeseed oil was used as the oil source and the vegetable proteins were...

  5. Preparation and Viscosity of Biodiesel from New and Used Vegetable Oil: An Inquiry-Based Environmental Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Nathan R.; Casey, John Patrick; Brown, Earlene D.; Oneyma, Ezenwa; Donaghy, Kelley J.

    2006-01-01

    A synthesis is developed to make biodiesel from vegetable oils such as soybean, sunflower, and corn oil, as an exercise in the laboratory. Viscosity measurements were used to gain an understanding of an intermolecular property of the biodiesel and that has limited the implementation of biodiesel on a wide scale basis, solidification at low…

  6. Fatty Acid Profile of Cheese from Dairy Goats Fed a Diet Enriched with Castor, Sesame and Faveleira Vegetable Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertha Medeiros

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The addition of vegetable oils to the diets of dairy goats is an alternative to supplemental feeding during the dry period and improves the lipid profile of milk and by-products. Cheeses were produced using milk from cross bred goats (Saanen × Alpina fed diets enriched with 4% vegetable oil (faveleira, sesame or castor, the fatty acid profile of cheeses was studied. Supplementation with vegetable oils did not increase the total fat percentage of the cheese (p ≥ 0.05 but did increase the percentage of CLA isomers, long-chain fatty acids (LCFA and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA; in addition, the index of desirable fatty acids (DFA - expressed as the sum of unsaturated fatty acids plus stearic acid was increased for cheese made from milk from goats fed sesame or faveleira oil. Cheeses may have had increased percentages of cis-9,trans-11-CLA due to the supplementation of animal diets with vegetable oils rich in C18:2, such as faveleira and sesame oils. The fatty acid profile of goat cheese did not change significantly in response to the use of castor oil. Thus, the addition of sesame and faveleira oils to goat diets positively altered the fatty acid profile, which improved the nutritional characteristics of the fat present in goat cheese.

  7. Rheology of oleogels based on sorbitan and glyceryl monostearates and vegetable oils for lubricating applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez, R.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Oleogels based on sorbitan and glyceryl monostearates and different types of vegetable oils, potentially applicable as biodegradable alternatives to traditional lubricating greases, have been studied. In particular, the rheological behavior, by means of small-amplitude oscillatory shear (SAOS measurements, and some lubrication performance-related properties (mechanical stability and tribological response have been evaluated in this work. SAOS response and mechanical stability of these oleogels are significantly influenced by the type and concentration of the organogelator and the vegetable oil used in the formulations. Glyceryl monostearate (GMS generally produces stronger gels than sorbitan monostearate (SMS. The use of low-viscosity oils, such as rapeseed and soybean oils, yields gels with significantly higher values of the linear viscoelastic functions than oleogels prepared with high-viscosity oils, i.e. castor oil. The rheological behavior of SMS-based oleogels also depends on the cooling rate applied during the gelification process. On the other hand, the oleogels studied present low values of the friction coefficient obtained in a tribological contact, although only some GMS/castor oil-based oleogels exhibit a suitable mechanical stability.

    En el presente trabajo se han estudiado diferentes oleogeles, basados en monoestearatos de sorbitano y glicerilo y aceites vegetales, que podrían ser potencialmente empleados como alternativas biodegradables a las grasas lubricantes tradicionales. En concreto, se ha evaluado su comportamiento reológico, a través de ensayos en cizalla oscilatoria, y algunas propiedades relacionadas con su rendimiento en la lubricación, tales como su estabilidad mecánica y comportamiento tribológico. La respuesta reológica y la estabilidad mecánica de los oleogeles estudiados están significativamente influenciadas por el tipo y la concentración del agente gelificante y por el aceite vegetal empleado. As

  8. Synthesis of Polyformate Esters of Vegetable Oils: Milkweed, Pennycress, and Soy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry-O'kuru, Rogers E; Biresaw, Girma; Tisserat, Brent; Evangelista, Roque

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study of the characteristics of acyl derivatives of polyhydroxy milkweed oil (PHMWO), it was observed that the densities and viscosities of the respective derivatives decreased with increased chain length of the substituent acyl group. Thus from the polyhydroxy starting material, attenuation in viscosity of the derivatives relative to PHMWO was found in the order: PHMWO ≫ PAcMWE ≫ PBuMWE ≫ PPMWE (2332 : 1733 : 926.2 : 489.4 cSt, resp., at 40°C), where PAcMWE, PBuMWE, and PPMWE were the polyacetyl, polybutyroyl, and polypentanoyl ester derivatives, respectively. In an analogous manner, the densities also decreased as the chain length increased although not as precipitously compared to the viscosity drop. By inference, derivatives of vegetable oils with short chain length substituents on the triglyceride would be attractive in lubricant applications in view of their higher densities and possibly higher viscosity indices. Pursuant to this, we have explored the syntheses of formyl esters of three vegetable oils in order to examine the optimal density, viscosity, and related physical characteristics in relation to their suitability as lubricant candidates. In the absence of ready availability of formic anhydride, we opted to employ the epoxidized vegetable oils as substrates for formyl ester generation using glacial formic acid. The epoxy ring-opening process was smooth but was apparently followed by a simultaneous condensation reaction of the putative α-hydroxy formyl intermediate to yield vicinal diformyl esters from the oxirane. All three polyformyl esters milkweed, soy, and pennycress derivatives exhibited low coefficient of friction and a correspondingly much lower wear scar in the 4-ball antiwear test compared to the longer chain acyl analogues earlier studied.

  9. Synthesis of Polyformate Esters of Vegetable Oils: Milkweed, Pennycress, and Soy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogers E. Harry-O’kuru

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study of the characteristics of acyl derivatives of polyhydroxy milkweed oil (PHMWO, it was observed that the densities and viscosities of the respective derivatives decreased with increased chain length of the substituent acyl group. Thus from the polyhydroxy starting material, attenuation in viscosity of the derivatives relative to PHMWO was found in the order: PHMWO ≫ PAcMWE ≫ PBuMWE ≫ PPMWE (2332 : 1733 : 926.2 : 489.4 cSt, resp., at 40°C, where PAcMWE, PBuMWE, and PPMWE were the polyacetyl, polybutyroyl, and polypentanoyl ester derivatives, respectively. In an analogous manner, the densities also decreased as the chain length increased although not as precipitously compared to the viscosity drop. By inference, derivatives of vegetable oils with short chain length substituents on the triglyceride would be attractive in lubricant applications in view of their higher densities and possibly higher viscosity indices. Pursuant to this, we have explored the syntheses of formyl esters of three vegetable oils in order to examine the optimal density, viscosity, and related physical characteristics in relation to their suitability as lubricant candidates. In the absence of ready availability of formic anhydride, we opted to employ the epoxidized vegetable oils as substrates for formyl ester generation using glacial formic acid. The epoxy ring-opening process was smooth but was apparently followed by a simultaneous condensation reaction of the putative α-hydroxy formyl intermediate to yield vicinal diformyl esters from the oxirane. All three polyformyl esters milkweed, soy, and pennycress derivatives exhibited low coefficient of friction and a correspondingly much lower wear scar in the 4-ball antiwear test compared to the longer chain acyl analogues earlier studied.

  10. Sterols and sterol oxides in the potato products, and sterols in the vegetable oils used for industrial frying operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dutta, Paresh Chandra

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the composition of sterols in vegetable oils used in industrial frying operations, and sterols and sterol oxides in the fried potato products. The sterols and sterol oxides were enriched by saponification of oils and by solid phase extraction. Preparative thin layer chromatography, capillary gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, were used to give qualitative and quantitative data. The results revealed that the content of desmethylsterols in palm oil, sunflower oil, high oleic sunflower oil, and rapeseed oil/palm oil blend were, 790, 4501, 3550, and 4497 ppm, respectively. Sitosterol was the major desmethylsterol in all samples. Palm oil also contained the lowest levels of total unsaponifiables. The sterols and unsaponifiable contents in sunflower oil were, to some extent, higher than in higholeic sunflower oil. The compositions of sterols after two days of frying were neither markedly different in the oils nor in the potato products fried in these oils compared with the original oils. Isomerised sterols were tentatively quantified to account for 10 ppm, 50 ppm and 20 ppm, in rapeseed oil/palm oil blend, sunflower oil, and high-oleic sunflower oils, respectively. Lipids extracted from French fries prepared in rapeseed oil/palm oil blend contained the highest levels of total sterol oxides, 191 ppm, and epoxides of both sitosterol and campesterol were the major contributors, together at a level of 172 ppm. On the other hand, lipids extracted from French fries prepared in sunflower oil and high-oleic sunflower oil contained 7α-hydroxy-, 7β-hydroxy-, 7-keto- and both epimers of epoxysitosterol, generally in equal amounts. All samples also contained small amounts of different oxidation products of campesterol and stigmasterol.

  11. 成品油物流主要成本控制策略研究%Research on the Measures of Refined Oil Logistics Main Cost Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴明涛; 王玉翠; 张彦明

    2012-01-01

    According to the present situation of higher oil logistics cost in China, combining the meaning of refined oil logistics and its logistics cost, the cost affecting factors of the transportation, storage and distribution, which are the larger of the refined oil logistics total cost are analyzed, and the logistics cost control measures corresponding to the three major aspects are proposed in this paper.%针对我国成品油物流成本较高的现状,结合成品油物流及其物流成本的含义,分析了占成品油物流总成本比重较大的运输、仓储和配送等物流环节的成本影响因素,并提出了与之相对应的物流成本控制策略.

  12. Fatty Acid Digestibility in Lactating Cows Fed Increasing Amounts of Protected Vegetable Oil, Fish Oil or Saturated Fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Christian Friis; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Hvelplund, Torben

    1992-01-01

    was for all fat sources independent of fat level. The FA digestibility of C16:0 was higher than that of C18:0. The experiment supports the theory that unsaturated FA has a synergistic effect on the digestibility of saturated FA. Bile acid secretion was estimated to be 282–550 g/day, with the lowest secretion......Fatty acid digestion was studied in three dairy cows cannulated in the rumen, duodenum and ileum. Cows were fed encapsulated fat sources (vegetable oil, saturated fat and fish oil). A preperiod diet was fed with no added fat. In a graeco-latin design nine diets comprising three levels of each...... of the three fat sources were fed. The preperiod diet contained 230 g fatty acids (FA), whereas the three other fats were fed at about 550, 850 and 1150 g FA/day. The feed-ileùm true digestibility of total FA was 95, 47 and 86% for vegetable, saturated and fish fat, respectively. The true digestibility of FA...

  13. Review of antidiabetic fruits, vegetables, beverages, oils and spices commonly consumed in the diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beidokhti, Maliheh Najari; Jäger, Anna K

    2017-04-06

    Type 2 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes and its prevalence is rapidly increasing throughout the world. Modifications of lifestyle such as suitable diet and exercise programs along with pharmacotherapy and education of patients are beneficial therapies for patients with type 2 diabetes. The ethnopharmacological use of herbal medicines, many of them part of our diet as spices, vegetables and fruits, has been developed for the treatment of diabetes due to inexpensiveness, easy availability and few side effects. Our aim is to present a review for researchers who are interested in the biologically active dietary plants traditionally utilized in the treatment of diabetes. Information was obtained from a literature search of electronic databases such as Google Scholar, Pubmed, Sci Finder and Cochrane. Common and scientific name of the fruits, vegetables, beverages, oils and spices and the words 'antidiabetic', 'hypoglycemic', 'anti-hyperglycemic', 'type 2 diabetes' were used as keywords for search. Certain fruits and vegetables are functional foods and their consumption reduces the incidence of type 2 diabetes. Hypoglycemic effects of fruits and vegetables may be due to their inducing nature on pancreatic β-cells for insulin secretion, or bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, alkaloids and anthocyanins, which act as insulin-like molecules or insulin secretagogues. This write-up covers hypoglycemic, anti-hyperglycemic and anti-diabetic activities of some dietary fruits, vegetables, beverages, oils and spices and their active hypoglycemic constituents. Including such plant species in the diet might improve management of type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. SRC burn test in 700-hp oil-designed boiler. Volume 2. Engineering evaluation report. Final technical report. [Oil-fired boiler to solvent-refined coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-12-01

    Volume 2 of this report gives the results of an engineering evaluation study and economic analysis of converting an existing 560-MW residual (No. 6) oil-fired unit to burn solvent refined coal (SRC) fuel forms. Volume 1 represents an integrated overview of the test program conducted at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. Three SRC forms (pulverized SRC, a solution of SRC dissolved in process-derived distillates, and a slurry of SRC and water) were examined. The scope of modifications necessary to convert the unit to each of the three SRC fuel forms was identified and a capital cost of the necessary modifications estimated. A fuel conversion feasibility study of the boiler was performed wherein boiler modifications and performance effects of each fuel on the boiler were identified. An economic analysis of the capital and operating fuel expenses of conversion of the unit was performed. It was determined that conversion of the unit to any one of the three SRC fuel forms was feasible where appropriate modifications were made. It also was determined that the conversion of the unit can be economically attractive if SRC fuel forms can be manufactured and sold at prices discounted somewhat from the price of No. 16 Fuel Oil. As expected, greater discounts are required for the pulverized SRC and the slurry than for the solution of SRC dissolved in process-derived distillates.

  15. Increased intake of vegetable oil rich in n-6 PUFA enhances allergic symptoms and prevents oral tolerance induction in whey-allergic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Elsen, Lieke W J; van Esch, Betty C A M; Dingjan, Gemma M; Hofman, Gerard A; Garssen, Johan; Willemsen, Linette E M

    2015-01-01

    Increased intake of vegetable oils rich in n-6 PUFA, including soyabean oil, has been associated with an increase in allergic disease. The present study aimed to determine the effect of an increasing dose of dietary vegetable oil on allergic outcomes in mice. To study this, mice received a 7 v. 10 %

  16. 亚洲炼油行业面临的机遇和挑战%Opportunities and challenges of Asian oil refining industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪静; 李振宇; 张璐瑶

    2012-01-01

    在欧美等发达国家经济停滞的后金融危机时代,中国、印度等亚洲国家炼油业保持了平稳增长势头,总炼油能力已占世界份额的28%,成为了推动世界炼油业发展的生力军。本文分析了中国、印度等亚洲新兴国家的炼油企业面临的国内经济快速发展、石油需求迅速增长的有利机遇和原油资源对外依存度高、炼油产能过剩、来自中东的竞争压力显现、二氧化碳减排压力增大等挑战,提出了扩大原料来源、强化炼化一体化、加强技术创新、减少二氧化碳排放等发展对策。%In the post-financial crisis era,the economics and refining sectors of the developed countries seemed to be at a standstill,on the other hand,the oil refining industries of China,India,and other Asian emerging economies maintained steady growth momentum,the new additional capacity is in the front row,the current total refining capacity have accounted for 28% of the whole world,promoting global refining industry progress.This paper analyzes the favorable opportunities which China,India refining enterprise is facing,such as the rapid development of the economy and domestic oil rapid growth of demand,and also presented the series of challenges including the tighten supply of crude oil,high crude oil external dependence,oil refining overcapacity,Middle East competition and carbon dioxide emissions pressures,it is advisable to take the following measures:expanding the oil sources to realize the resource diversity,strengthen the refining-chemical integration,focusing on the technology innovation and reducing carbon dioxide emissions.

  17. Monitoring of quality and stability characteristics and fatty acid compositions of refined olive and seed oils during repeated pan- and deep-frying using GC, FT-NIRS, and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zribi, Akram; Jabeur, Hazem; Aladedunye, Felix; Rebai, Ahmed; Matthäus, Bertrand; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2014-10-22

    Refined olive, corn, soybean, and sunflower oils were used as cooking oils for deep-frying at two different temperatures, 160 and 190 °C, and for pan-frying of potatoes at 180 °C for 10 successive sessions under the usual domestic practice. Several chemical parameters were assayed during frying operations to evaluate the status of the frying oils. Refined olive oil, as frying oil, was found to be more stable than the refined seed oils. In fact, this oil has proven the greatest resistance to oxidative deterioration, and its trans-fatty acid contents and percentages of total polar compounds were found to be lower at 160 °C during deep-frying. Finally, chemometric analysis has demonstrated that the lowest deterioration of the quality of all refined oils occurred in the refined olive oil during deep-frying at 160 °C and the highest deterioration occurred in the refined sunflower oil during pan-frying at 180 °C.

  18. 两种精炼工艺在新疆棉籽油生产加工中的应用对比%Application comparison of two kinds of oil refining processes in production and processing of Xinjiang cottonseed oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩文杰; 童玉海; 李崇达; 宋建封

    2014-01-01

    Process flows and control points of two kinds of refining processes ( conventional alkali refining process and miscella refining process) were described, and indexes of cottonseed oil products produced by the two kinds of refining processes were analyzed and compared. Comparing with the conventional al-kali refining process, R value of color,acid value, saponified matter content and content of oil in soap-stock of the cottonseed oil product obtained by miscella refining process decreased by 1 . 5 - 2 . 5 , 0 . 08 mgKOH/g , 0. 015 percentage point and 10 - 20 percentage point,respectively,and the yield of refining increased by 2-6 percentage point. Miscella refining process applicated in production and processing of Xinjiang cottonseed oil had the advantages of high refining yield,light color of product oil,low power con-sumption and low maintenance cost,and the adverse effect of high content gossypol in Xinjiang cottonseed on the production of cottonseed oil was eliminated,which was suitable for the production of Xinjiang cot-tonseed oil.%阐述了两种精炼工艺(常规精炼工艺和混合油精炼工艺)的工艺流程及控制要点,并将两种工艺生产的成品棉籽油的各项指标进行对比分析。与常规精炼工艺相比,混合油精炼得到的成品棉籽油色泽R值低1.5~2.5,酸值( KOH)低0.08 mg/g,含皂量低0.015个百分点,皂脚含油低10~20个百分点,精炼得率提高2~6个百分点。混合油精炼工艺在新疆棉籽油生产加工中的应用具有精炼得率高、成品油色泽浅、动力消耗低、维护费用低等优势,解决了新疆棉籽高棉酚含量对棉籽油生产加工的不利影响,更适合于新疆棉籽油的加工。

  19. Stability of potato chip fried in vegetable oils with different degree of unsaturation. Effect of ascorbyl palmitate during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres, R.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Four vegetable oils with different polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio (P/S: 5.2 for sunflower oil, 3.,4 for canola rapeseed oil, 0.4 for a blend of palm oleic and canola rapeseed oil (80:20, and 0.3 for palm olein were assayed for stability of crisps fried in these oils during storage at 60º C. The action of ascorbyl palmitate with special attention to its synergistic effect on the natural antioxidants was also tested. by addition to the fried potatoes. The evolution of the oxidative stability was measured through peroxide value, quantitation of tocopherols and tocotrienols, and induction time (IT by means of Rancimat. Oil degradation during frying was very low as both polar compound percentages and natural antioxidant had similar levels to those present in refined oils. Evolution of analytical parameters during storage results indicated that oil unsaturation degree or P/S had a much more importance on stability of the product than had the content and type of natural antioxidants and the addition of AP. Nevertheless, addition of AP to the fried potatoes had a significant effect resulting in higher retention of natural antioxidants, higher IT and lower PV at any storage timeSe estudia la evolución de la oxidación a 60º C en patatas fritas con cuatro aceites vegetales de distinta relación ácidos grasos poliinsaturados/saturados (P/S: 5,4 para el aceite de girasol, 3,4 para el aceite de canola, 0,4 para una mezcla de oleína de palma (80 % y aceite de canola (20 % y 0,3 para la oleína de palma. Se estudia igualmente la influencia de la adición de palmitato de ascorbilo (AP durante la conservación del producto frito con especial atención a su efecto sinergista sobre los antioxidantes naturales. La evolución de la oxidación en lotes de patatas, con y sin adición de AP, se determinó mediante las siguientes determinaciones analíticas: índice de peróxidos (PV, cuantificación de tocoferoles y tocotrienoles, y periodos de

  20. Layered double hydroxide catalyst for the conversion of crude vegetable oils to a sustainable biofuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollaeian, Keyvan

    Over the last two decades, the U.S. has developed the production of biodiesel, a mixture of fatty acid methyl esters, using chiefly vegetable oils as feedstocks. However, there is much concern about the availability of high-quality vegetable oils for longterm biodiesel production. Problems have also risen due to the production of glycerol, an unwanted byproduct, as well as the need for process wash water. Therefore, this study was initiated to produce not only fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) but also fatty acid glycerol carbonates (FAGCs) by replacing methanol with dimethyl carbonate (DMC). The process would have no unnecessary byproducts and would be a simplified process compared to traditional biodiesel. In addition, this altering of the methylating agent could convert triglycerides, free fatty acids, and phospholipids to a sustainable biofuel. In this project, Mg-Al Layered Double Hydroxide (LDH) was optimized by calcination in different temperature varied from 250°C to 450°C. The gallery between layers was increased by intercalating sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS). During catalyst preparation, the pH was controlled ~10. In our experiment, triazabicyclodecene (TBD) was attached with trimethoxysilane (3GPS) as a coupling agent, and N-cetyl-N,N,N-trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) was added to remove SDS from the catalyst. The catalyst was characterized by XRD, FTIR, and Raman spectroscopy. The effect of the heterogeneous catalyst on the conversion of canola oil, corn oil, and free fatty acids was investigated. To analyze the conversion of lipid oils to biofuel an in situ Raman spectroscopic method was developed. Catalyst synthesis methods and a proposed mechanism for converting triglycerides and free fatty acids to biofuel will be presented.

  1. Comparative evaluation of selected vegetable oils and Terpenes on Transdermal permeation of Ketorolac Tromethamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goudanavar Prakash

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A reservoir type transdermal patch for delivery of ketorolac tromethamine (KT, a potent analgesic agent was studied. Studies were carried out to investigate the effect of permeation enhancers on the in vitro permeation of KT across rat skin. Films were prepared by using hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC and polyvinylalcohol (PVA polymers by incorporating glycerine as plasticizers using solvent casting method. A total of fourteen formulations were prepared by using same drug polymer ratio of 1:1 and incorporated different terpenes and vegetable oils as permeation enhancers in same concentrations. The prepared systems released the drug in the following order: FP2 > FP3 > FH2 > FP5 > FH3 > FP4 > FH5 > FH4 > FH6 > FP6 > FH7 > FP7 > FH1 > FH1. The various permeation parameters such as enhancement ratio and percent of drug permeated were determined for all the formulations. The maximum percent of drug permeation was observed with PVA monolithic system containing 10% d-limonene. Permeation enhancement of KT with different enhancers followed the order: d-limonene > cineole > olive oil > menthol >linseed oil > sunflower oil. The in vitro release studies revealed that terpenes showed better permeation enhancement than vegetable oils and the release was sustained up to 24 h and it follows zero-order kinetics. All the films were found to be stable at 37°C and 45°C with respect to their physical parameters. A reservoir type transdermal patch for delivery of KT thus appears to be feasible of delivering KT across skin.

  2. Using MODIS NDVI products for vegetation state monitoring on the oil production territory in Western Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalev Anton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Article describes the results of using remote sensing data for vegetation state monitoring on the oil field territories in Western Siberia. We used MODIS data product providing the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI values. Average NDVI values of each studied area were calculated for the period from 2010 to 2015 with one year interval for June, July and August. Analysis was carried out via an open tool of geographic information system QGIS used for spatial analysis and calculation of statistical parameters within chosen polygons. Results are presented in graphs showing the variation of NDVI for each study area and explaining the changes in trend lines for each field. It is shown that the majority of graphs are similar in shape which is caused by similar weather conditions. To confirm these results, we have conducted data analysis including temperature conditions and information about the accidents for each area. Abnormal changes in NDVI values revealed an emergency situation on the Priobskoe oil field caused by the flood in 2015. To sum up, the research results show that vegetation of studied areas is in a sufficiently stable state.

  3. Determination of Milk Fat Adulteration with Vegetable Oils and Animal Fats by Gas Chromatographic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Man; Kim, Ha-Jung; Park, Jung-Min

    2015-09-01

    This study assessed the potential application of gas chromatography (GC) in detecting milk fat (MF) adulteration with vegetable oils and animal fats and of characterizing samples by fat source. One hundred percent pure MF was adulterated with different vegetable oils and animal fats at various concentrations (0%, 10%, 30%, 50%, 70%, and 90%). GC was used to obtain the fatty acid (FA) profiles, triacylglycerol (TG) contents, and cholesterol contents. The pure MF and the adulterated MF samples were discriminated based on the total concentrations of saturated FAs and on the 2 major FAs (oleic acid [C18:1n9c] and linoleic acid [C18:2n6c], TGs [C52 and C54], and cholesterol contents using statistical analysis to compared difference. These bio-markers enabled the detection of as low as 10% adulteration of non-MF into 100% pure MF. The study demonstrated the high potential of GC to rapidly detect MF adulteration with vegetable and animal fats, and discriminate among commercial butter and milk products according to the fat source. These data can be potentially useful in detecting foreign fats in these butter products. Furthermore, it is important to consider that several individual samples should be analyzed before coming to a conclusion about MF authenticity.

  4. Developing the Guidelines for Reclamation to Forest Vegetation in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straker, J. [Integral Ecology Group Ltd., Victoria, BC (Canada); Cumulative Environmental Management Association, Fort McMurray, AB (Canada). Reclamation Working Group, Terrestrial Subgroup; Donald, G. [Donald Functional and Applied Ecology Inc., Victoria, BC (Canada); Cumulative Environmental Management Association, Fort McMurray, AB (Canada). Reclamation Working Group, Terrestrial Subgroup

    2010-07-01

    This paper discussed the development process behind and the structure of the Guidelines for Reclamation to Forest Vegetation in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region. The advances present in the second edition, published in 2010, were described relative to the first edition, which was published in 1998. Oils sands mining companies are mandated to use the manual under the Alberta Environmental Protection and Enhancement Act. The paper provided an overview of the structure of the second edition and presented the process used to develop the second edition. It also described the planning approaches for revegetative treatments and the planning guidance of overstory and understory species selection. The methods for evaluating revegetative success were also described with particular reference to plant community composition and soil salinity indicators as examples of indicator development. The goal of the manual is to provide guidance on re-establishing the vegetation component of upland ecosystems on reclaimed landscapes and on evaluating the success of the re-establishment, assuming that the reclaimed plant communities should have species characteristic of native plant communities in the region, that the trends of vegetation community and structure development on reclaimed land should be similar to native plant communities in the region, and that the reclaimed ecosystems should have development trajectories that satisfy land-use objectives and provide resilience against natural disturbances. 15 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  5. Effect of refined coconut oil or copra meal on methane output and on intake and performance of beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, E; Lovett, D K; Monahan, F J; Callan, J; Flynn, B; O'Mara, F P

    2006-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to establish the effect of feeding either refined coconut oil (CO) or copra meal containing CO to beef heifers on DMI, animal performance, enteric CH4 emissions, diet digestibility, and the fatty acid profile of the resulting meat. Forty-one Charolais and Limousin crossbred beef heifers (474 +/- 29 kg; 661 +/- 89 d of age) were blocked by BW before being assigned in a randomized complete block design to 1 of 3 experimental treatments (n = 12) or to a pretrial slaughter group (n = 5) used to determine the initial carcass weight. The experimental period lasted for 93 d. Enteric CH4 output was recorded for 2 periods of 5 consecutive days from d 14 to 18 and from d 70 to 74. The 3 dietary treatments were 1) control, a barley/soybean meal-based concentrate with 0 g of CO/ d; 2) RCO, a barley/soybean meal-based concentrate with 250 g of CO/d from refined coconut oil; and 3) CM, a copra meal-based concentrate with 250 g of CO/d from copra meal. Each diet had a 50:50 forage:concentrate using grass silage as the forage source. There was no effect of diet on DMI (P = 0.734) or GE intake (P = 0.486). The addition of RCO increased ADG (P < 0.05) compared with the control treatment. The CM treatment decreased (P < 0.05) average daily carcass gain compared with the RCO treatment only. There was a decrease (P < 0.05) in the digestibility of the DM, OM, CP, and GE fractions of the diet only with the CM treatment. Both the RCO and CM concentrates decreased (P < 0.001) daily enteric CH4 output when expressed in terms of liters per day, liters per kilogram of DMI, percentage of GE intake, liters per kilogram of ADG, and liters per kilogram of average daily carcass gain. The RCO treatment produced the greatest numerical response for all measures. Ruminal protozoa numbers on the RCO treatment were lower (P < 0.05) than on the control treatment. The concentrations of the fatty acid methyl esters, lauric (P < 0.001) and myristic (P < 0.002) acids, were

  6. Classification of vegetable oils based on their concentration of saturated fatty acids using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbesse Kongbonga, Yvon G; Ghalila, Hassen; Onana, Marthe Boyomo; Ben Lakhdar, Zohra

    2014-03-15

    Spectrochemical analyses of organic liquid media such as vegetable oils and sweetened water were performed with the use of LIBS. The aim of this work is to study, on the basis of spectral analyses by LIBS technique of "Swan band" of C2 emitted by different vegetable oils in liquid phase, the characteristics of each organic media. Furthermore this paper proposes, as a classification, a single parameter that could be used to determine the concentration of saturated fatty acids of vegetable oils. A Nd:YAG operating at λ=532 nm and an energies per pulse of 30 mJ was focused onto the surface of the liquid in ambient air. Following ablation of vegetable oils and sweetened water, we find that vibrational bonds of C2 were released from the molecule containing carbon-carbon bonds linear. In the case of vegetable oils, we find a clear relationship between C2 emission from the plasma and the concentration of saturated fatty acids in the oil.

  7. Transesterification of waste vegetable oil under pulse sonication using ethanol, methanol and ethanol-methanol mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Guerra, Edith; Gude, Veera Gnaneswar

    2014-12-01

    This study reports on the effects of direct pulse sonication and the type of alcohol (methanol and ethanol) on the transesterification reaction of waste vegetable oil without any external heating or mechanical mixing. Biodiesel yields and optimum process conditions for the transesterification reaction involving ethanol, methanol, and ethanol-methanol mixtures were evaluated. The effects of ultrasonic power densities (by varying sample volumes), power output rates (in W), and ultrasonic intensities (by varying the reactor size) were studied for transesterification reaction with ethanol, methanol and ethanol-methanol (50%-50%) mixtures. The optimum process conditions for ethanol or methanol based transesterification reaction of waste vegetable oil were determined as: 9:1 alcohol to oil ratio, 1% wt. catalyst amount, 1-2 min reaction time at a power output rate between 75 and 150 W. It was shown that the transesterification reactions using ethanol-methanol mixtures resulted in biodiesel yields as high as >99% at lower power density and ultrasound intensity when compared to ethanol or methanol based transesterification reactions.

  8. Wet peroxide oxidation and catalytic wet oxidation of stripped sour water produced during oil shale refining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Jaidev; Tardio, James; Jani, Harit; Bhargava, Suresh K; Akolekar, Deepak B; Grocott, Stephen C

    2007-07-31

    Catalytic wet oxidation (CWO) and wet peroxide oxidation (WPO) of stripped sour water (SSW) from an oil shale refinery was investigated. Greater than 70% total organic carbon (TOC) removal from SSW was achieved using Cu(NO(3))(2) catalysed WO under the following conditions using a glass lined reaction vessel: 200 degrees C, pO(2)=0.5MPa, 3h, [Cu(NO(3))(2)]=67mmol/L. Significant TOC removal ( approximately 31%) also occurred in the system without added oxygen. It is proposed that this is predominantly due to copper catalysed oxidative decarboxylation of organics in SSW based on observed changes in copper oxidation state. Greater than 80% TOC removal was achieved using WPO under the following conditions: 150 degrees C, t=1.5h, [H(2)O(2)]=64g/L. Significantly more TOC could be removed from SSW by adding H(2)O(2) in small doses as opposed to adding the same total amount in one single dose. It was concluded that WPO was a far more effective process for removing odorous compounds from SSW.

  9. Characterization of vegetable oils: detailed compositional fingerprints derived from electrospray ionization fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhigang; Rodgers, Ryan P; Marshall, Alan G

    2004-08-25

    Adulteration of vegetable oil is of concern for both commercial and health reasons. Compositional based fingerprints can potentially reveal both the oil source and its possible adulteration. Here, electrospray ionization (ESI) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) resolves and identifies literally thousands of distinct chemical components of commercial canola, olive, and soybean oils, without extraction or other wet chemical separation pretreatment. In negative-ion ESI FT-ICR MS, the acidic components of soybean oil are easily distinguished from those of canola and olive oil based on relative abundances of C(18) fatty acids, whereas olive oil differs from canola and soybean oil based on relative abundances of tocopherols. In positive-ion ESI FT-ICR MS, the three oils are readily distinguished according to the relative abundances of di- and triacylglycerols with various numbers of double bonds in the fatty acid chains. We demonstrate the detection of soybean oil as an adulterant of olive oil, based on relative abundances of members of each of several chemical families. We suggest that the detailed chemical compositions of vegetable oils can be used to characterize them and to detect and identify adulterants.

  10. Fatty acids composition as a means to estimate the high heating value (HHV) of vegetable oils and biodiesel fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fassinou, Wanignon Ferdinand; Koua, Kamenan Blaise; Toure, Siaka [Laboratoire d' Energie Solaire, UFR-SSMT, Universite de Cocody (Cote d' Ivoire), 22BP582 Abidjan 22 (Ivory Coast); Sako, Aboubakar; Fofana, Alhassane [Laboratoire de Physique de l' Atmosphere et de Mecanique des Fluides, UFR-SSMT, Universite de Cocody (Cote d' Ivoire), 22BP582 Abidjan 22 (Ivory Coast)

    2010-12-15

    High heating value (HHV) is an important property which characterises the energy content of a fuel such as solid, liquid and gaseous fuels. The previous assertion is particularly important for vegetable oils and biodiesels fuels which are expected to replace fossil oils. Estimation of the HHV of vegetable oils and biodiesels by using their fatty acid composition is the aim of this paper. The comparison between the HHVs predicted by the method and those obtained experimentally gives an average bias error of -0.84% and an average absolute error of 1.71%. These values show the utility, the validity and the applicability of the method to vegetable oils and their derivatives. (author)

  11. Dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction of herbicides in vegetable oil with metal-organic framework MIL-101.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Zhang, Liyuan; Nian, Li; Cao, Bocheng; Wang, Zhibing; Lei, Lei; Yang, Xiao; Sui, Jiaqi; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Aimin

    2015-03-04

    Dispersive microsolid-phase extraction based on metal-organic framework has been developed and applied to the extraction of triazine and phenylurea herbicides in vegetable oils in this work. The herbicides were directly extracted with MIL-101 from diluted vegetables oils without any further cleanup. The separation and determination of herbicides were carried out on high performance liquid chromatography. The effects of experimental parameters, including volume ratio of n-hexane to oil sample, mass of MIL-101, extraction time, centrifugation time, eluting solvent, and elution time were investigated. The Student's t test was applied to evaluate the selected experimental conditions. The limits of detection for the herbicides ranged from 0.585 to 1.04 μg/L. The recoveries of the herbicides ranged from 87.3 to 107%. Our results showed that the present method is rapid, simple, and effective for extracting herbicides in vegetable oils.

  12. Influence of Monodisperse Fe3O4 Nanoparticle Size on Electrical Properties of Vegetable Oil-Based Nanofluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Du

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulating oil modified by nanoparticles (often called nanofluids has recently drawn considerable attention, especially concerning the improvement of electrical breakdown and thermal conductivity of the nanofluids. In this paper, three sized monodisperse Fe3O4 nanoparticles were prepared and subsequently dispersed into insulating vegetable oil to achieve nanofluids. The dispersion stability of nanoparticles in nanofluids was examined by natural sedimentation and zeta potential measurement. The electrical breakdown strength, space charge distribution, and several dielectric characteristics, for example, permittivity, dielectric loss, and volume resistivity of these nanofluids, were comparatively investigated. Experimental results show that the monodisperse Fe3O4 nanoparticles not only enhance the dielectric strength but also uniform the electric field of the nanofluids. The depth of electrical potential well of insulating vegetable oils and nanofluids were analyzed to clarify the influence of nanoparticles on electron trapping and on insulation improvement of the vegetable oil.

  13. Determination of coenzyme Q10, coenzyme Q9, and melatonin contents in virgin argan oils: comparison with other edible vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venegas, Carmen; Cabrera-Vique, Carmen; García-Corzo, Laura; Escames, Germaine; Acuña-Castroviejo, Darío; López, Luis Carlos

    2011-11-23

    Virgin argan oil possesses high antioxidant capacity (AC), which may be partially explained by its high content in antioxidant molecules such as polyphenols and tocopherols. However, the content in other antioxidant molecules, for example, coenzyme Q10 (CoQ(10)), coenzyme Q9 (CoQ(9)), and melatonin (Mel), which have been identified in other edible vegetable oils, have not been evaluated in virgin argan oil. Consequently, it was decided to evaluate the contents of CoQ(10), CoQ(9), and Mel in virgin argan oils and compare the results to those obtained in extra virgin olive oils and some varieties of seed oils. By the use of sensitive HPLC-EC/F methods, the results showed that virgin argan oil is a rich source of CoQ(10) and Mel, but no CoQ(9) was detected. Extra virgin olive oil showed higher levels of CoQ(10) and lower levels of Mel than virgin argan oil. Between the seed oil samples, only virgin soybean oil showed higher CoQ(10) and Mel levels than virgin argan oil. The results may be relevant for the contribution of CoQ(10) and Mel to the biological activities of virgin argan oil.

  14. Oil Biosynthesis in Underground Oil-Rich Storage Vegetative Tissue: Comparison of Cyperus esculentus Tuber with Oil Seeds and Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenle; Ji, Hongying; Liu, Dantong

    2016-12-01

    Cyperus esculentus is unique in that it can accumulate rich oil in its tubers. However, the underlying mechanism of tuber oil biosynthesis is still unclear. Our transcriptional analyses of the pathways from pyruvate production up to triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation in tubers revealed many distinct species-specific lipid expression patterns from oil seeds and fruits, indicating that in C. esculentus tuber: (i) carbon flux from sucrose toward plastid pyruvate could be produced mostly through the cytosolic glycolytic pathway; (ii) acetyl-CoA synthetase might be an important contributor to acetyl-CoA formation for plastid fatty acid biosynthesis; (iii) the expression pattern for stearoyl-ACP desaturase was associated with high oleic acid composition; (iv) it was most likely that endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated acyl-CoA synthetase played a significant role in the export of fatty acids between the plastid and ER; (v) lipid phosphate phosphatase (LPP)-δ was most probably related to the formation of the diacylglycerol (DAG) pool in the Kennedy pathway; and (vi) diacylglyceroltransacylase 2 (DGAT2) and phospholipid:diacylglycerolacyltransferase 1 (PDAT1) might play crucial roles in tuber oil biosynthesis. In contrast to oil-rich fruits, there existed many oleosins, caleosins and steroleosins with very high transcripts in tubers. Surprisingly, only a single ortholog of WRINKLED1 (WRI1)-like transcription factor was identified and it was poorly expressed during tuber development. Our study not only provides insights into lipid metabolism in tuber tissues, but also broadens our understanding of TAG synthesis in oil plants. Such knowledge is of significance in exploiting this oil-rich species and manipulating other non-seed tissues to enhance storage oil production.

  15. Rapid bioassay-guided screening of toxic substances in vegetable oils that shorten the life of SHRSP rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewandowski Paul

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It has been consistently reported that vegetable oils including canola oil have a life shortening effect in Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRSP and this toxic effect is not due to the fatty acid composition of the oil. Although it is possible that the phytosterol content or type of phytosterol present in vegetable oils may play some role in the life shortening effect observed in SHRSP rats this is still not completely resolved. Furthermore supercritical CO2 fractionation of canola oil with subsequent testing in SHRSP rats identified safe and toxic fractions however, the compounds responsible for life shortening effect were not characterised. The conventional approach to screen toxic substances in oils using rats takes more than six months and involves large number of animals. In this article we describe how rapid bioassay-guided screening could be used to identify toxic substances derived from vegetable oils and/or processed foods fortified with vegetable oils. The technique incorporates sequential fractionation of oils/processed foods and subsequent treatment of human cell lines that can be used in place of animal studies to determine cytotoxicity of the fractions with structural elucidation of compounds of interest determined via HPLC-MS and GC-MS. The rapid bioassay-guided screening proposed would require two weeks to test multiple fractions from oils, compared with six months if animal experiments were used to screen toxic effects. Fractionation of oil before bio-assay enhances the effectiveness of the detection of active compounds as fractionation increases the relative concentration of minor components.

  16. The role of genomics and biotechnology in achieving global food security for high-oleic vegetable oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Richard F

    2012-01-01

    Health related concerns for dietary 'trans-fat' in the U.S. have mediated a significant decline in the use of hydrogenated vegetable oils in edible applications. Oils having a natural abundance of oleic acid provide many functional properties that are derived from partial hydrogenation of polyunsaturated oils. However, the long term agronomic production capacity of existing high-oleic oil crops to replace hydrogenated oil ingredients is not sustainable. Although improvements are expected in processing technology, genetic modification of seed composition offers the most promising tactic to increase the overall supply of high-oleic commodity oils. Genetic enhancement of oleic acid concentration has been demonstrated experimentally in nearly every oilseed. Private companies have launched production of genetically enhanced oleic acid cultivars such as: Nexera™ Omega-9 canola and Omega-9 sunflower oils. The E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company plans commercial production of Plenish™ high-oleic soybeans in 2012. The Monsanto Co. plans commercial production of Vistive-Gold™ low-saturated high-oleic soybeans possibly as early as 2013. These 'new' high-oleic oilseeds must not only exhibit superior oil quality but also sequentially improved yield potential. Genetic maps that help breeders identify, locate and track useful genes will facilitate accomplishment of that goal. However, a reference sequence map in soybean is the only available chromosome scale assembly of an oilseed genome. Knowledge of genome structure enables technological advances that help increase soybean yielding ability, improve crop protection against biotic stresses, and reveal alleles for genes that mediate expression of quality traits. Led by soybean, genetically enhanced high-oleic vegetable oils that now are becoming commercially available may capture greater than 40% of the domestic consumption of vegetable oil in the U.S. by 2020. This innovation in oilseed technology is a positive step toward

  17. Rapid bioassay-guided screening of toxic substances in vegetable oils that shorten the life of SHRSP rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayake, Sunil; Lewandowski, Paul

    2010-02-02

    It has been consistently reported that vegetable oils including canola oil have a life shortening effect in Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRSP) and this toxic effect is not due to the fatty acid composition of the oil. Although it is possible that the phytosterol content or type of phytosterol present in vegetable oils may play some role in the life shortening effect observed in SHRSP rats this is still not completely resolved. Furthermore supercritical CO2 fractionation of canola oil with subsequent testing in SHRSP rats identified safe and toxic fractions however, the compounds responsible for life shortening effect were not characterised. The conventional approach to screen toxic substances in oils using rats takes more than six months and involves large number of animals. In this article we describe how rapid bioassay-guided screening could be used to identify toxic substances derived from vegetable oils and/or processed foods fortified with vegetable oils. The technique incorporates sequential fractionation of oils/processed foods and subsequent treatment of human cell lines that can be used in place of animal studies to determine cytotoxicity of the fractions with structural elucidation of compounds of interest determined via HPLC-MS and GC-MS. The rapid bioassay-guided screening proposed would require two weeks to test multiple fractions from oils, compared with six months if animal experiments were used to screen toxic effects. Fractionation of oil before bio-assay enhances the effectiveness of the detection of active compounds as fractionation increases the relative concentration of minor components.

  18. Process Parameters Optimization of Potential SO42-/ZnO Acid Catalyst for Heterogeneous Transesterification of Vegetable Oil to Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istadi Istadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the possible renewable energy resources, diesel fuels derived from triglycerides of vegetable oils and animal fats have shown potential as substitutes for petroleum-based diesel fuels. The biodiesel could be produced from vegetable oils over homogeneous catalyst, heterogeneous catalyst, or enzymatic catalyst. In this study, the synthesized SO42-/ZnO catalyst was explored to be used in the heterogeneous biodiesel production by using the vegetable oils and methanol. The study began with the preparation of SO42-/ZnO catalyst followed by the transesterification reaction between vegetable oil with methanol. The independent variables (reaction time and the weight ratio of catalyst/oil were optimized to obtain the optimum biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester yield. The results of this study showed that the acid catalyst SO42-/ZnO was potential to be used as catalyst for biodiesel production through heterogeneous transesterification of vegetable oils. Optimum operating condition for this catalytic reaction was the weight ratio of catalyst/oil of 8:1 and reaction time of 2.6 h with respect to 75.5% yield of methyl ester products. The biodiesel product was also characterized to identify the respected fatty acid methyl ester components. Copyright © 2012 by BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved. (Selected Paper from International Conference on Chemical and Material Engineering (ICCME 2012Received: 23rd October 2012, Revised: 25th November 2012, Accepted: 25th November 2012[How to Cite: I. Istadi, Didi D. Anggoro, Luqman Buchori, Inshani Utami, Roikhatus Solikhah, (2012. Process Parameters Optimization of Potential SO42-/ZnO Acid Catalyst for Heterogeneous Transesterification of Vegetable Oil to Biodiesel. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 7(2: 150-157. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.7.2.4064.150-157][How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.7.2.4064.150-157 ] | View in 

  19. Vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epstein, H.E.; Walker, D.A.; Bhatt, U.S.;

    2012-01-01

    • Over the past 30 years (1982-2011), the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), an index of green vegetation, has increased 15.5% in the North American Arctic and 8.2% in the Eurasian Arctic. In the more southern regions of Arctic tundra, the estimated aboveground plant biomass has...

  20. North Carolina used-motor-oil re-refining program. Topical report 2. Economics and logistics: startup experience and operating projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-07-01

    This is the second in a planned series of topical reports on a program to develop and demonstrate a state-operated re-refining system for used engine oil. The North Carolina Oil Re-Refining Facility, using a 2,000,000 gallon input per year PROP plant, was installed in late 1980. During the first year of startup operation ending December 31, 1981, approximately 137,000 gallons were produced. This was much less than expected due to many impediments; however, product quality has consistently been excellent. Capital costs to date total about $2.3 million, and it is projected that an additional $1.5 million of equipment upgrading and facility expansion/improvements will be needed before the plant will produce satisfactorily. For the first year, based on normal accrual accounting, operating costs exceeded revenues by about $350,000 and the negative cash flow was about $346,000. After upgrading, however, it is expected the plant will generate revenues sufficient to repay the investment within ten years, even assuming that the selling price of re-refined oil will not inflate faster than the cost of producing it. This report also contains sections reporting on the logistics of oil pickup and delivery and also brief descriptions of information forms and procedures developed for the facility.

  1. Synthesis of CaOZnO Nanoparticles Catalyst and Its Application in Transesterification of Refined Palm Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cicik Herlina Yulianti

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The CaOZnO nanoparticle catalysts with Ca to Zn atomic ratios of 0.08 and 0.25 have been successfully synthesized by co-precipitation method. The catalyst was characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD analysis provided with Rietica and Maud software, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, and its properties was compared with bare CaO and ZnO catalysts. The phase composition estimated by Rietica software revealed that the CaO catalyst consists of CaO and CaCO3 phases. The estimation of the particle size by Maud software, showed that the particle size of all catalysts increased by the following order: ZnO. © 2014 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 1st January 2014; Revised: 10th March 2014; Accepted: 18th March 2014[How to Cite: Yulianti, C.H., Ediati, R., Hartanto, D., Purbaningtias, T.E., Chisaki, Y., Jalil, A.A., Hitam, C.K.N.L.C.K., Prasetyoko, D., (2014. Synthesis of CaOZnO Nanoparticles Catalyst and Its Application in Transesterification of Refined Palm Oil. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 9 (2: 100-110. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.9.2.5998.100-110][Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.9.2.5998.100-110

  2. An application of multiple criteria decision-making techniques for ranking different national Iranian oil refining and distribution companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Nazari

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Performance measurement plays an essential role on management of governmental agencies especially when profitability is not the primary concern and we need to consider other important factors than profitability such as customer satisfaction, etc. In this paper, we propose a multi-criteria decision making method to rank different national Iranian oil refining and distribution companies. The proposed study of this paper uses six factors including per capita supply, energy cost, physical productivity of labor, staff participation, quality control inspection of stations and education per capita. The proposed study uses Entropy to find the relative importance of each criterion and TOPSIS to rank 37 alternatives based on cities and three regions. The results of the implementation of our method indicate that central regions close to capital city of the country maintains the highest ranking (0.9122 while southern regions maintains the lowest comes in the lowest priority (0.0569 and the northern region is in the middle (0.7635.

  3. High-melting point sediment from refined coconut oil stored in a tank for a long term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochida, Yoshiyuki; Hasegawa, Fukiko

    2008-01-01

    A small amount of sediment occurs in refined coconut oil stored in a large-scale tank for a long term. This sediment is different from that generally called Cocos Wax, is insoluble in various organic solvents, and has an m.p. of about 100 degrees C. In this report, we have done a structural analysis of this sediment. The sediment was carried out by hydrolyzing with a KOH/ethyl alcohol solution including toluene. Samples were analyzed by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, EI-MS, CI-MS, field desorption mass spectrometry (FD-MS), and MALDI/TOF-MS. The hydrolyzates were a compound including an oxo group, and its relative molecular mass was 382 for the acid part and 412 for the unsaponified matter according to EI-MS (ionization energy was 70 eV and 15 eV) and CI-MS (reagent gases were i-butane, ammonia, and nitrogen monoxide). The relative molecular mass of the sediment was 1140 according to the mass spectrometry of FD, EI, and MALDI. It was elucidated based on the characteristic absorption analysis by IR and the fragmentation behavior of the EI-MS that the sediment was a wax ester, 3, 9-di-9-oxotetradocosanecarboxy-11-oxohexacosane, consisting of an acid part of 9-oxotetradocosanecarboxylic acid and an unsaponified matter of 3, 9-di-hydroxy-11-oxohexacosane.

  4. Natural antioxidants of the Jaffna variety of Moringa Oleifera seed oil of Indian origin as compared to other vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatnagar, A. S.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Moringa oleifera crop is grown all over India for its nutritious pods, leaves and seeds. M. oleifera seeds are endowed with a high oil content (~39% which resembles olive oil because of its high oleic acid content (~65-75%. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the natural antioxidants of crude seed kernel oil from the Jaffna variety of M. oleifera (MSO. Natural antioxidants like tocopherols and phenolics as well as minor compounds such as sterols and carotenoids present in MSO and its radical scavenging activity were measured in comparison to dried coconut kernel (copra crude oil (CNO, crude sesame oil (SESO, crude niger seed oil (NSO, crude palm oil (CPO, crude rice bran oil (RBO and commercially refined groundnut oil (GNO. MSO contained 88 ppm of total tocopherols with α- tocopherol (56.2 ppm being the major tocopherol. MSO also contained 117.9 ppm of total phenolics with gallic acid (48.5 ppm being the major phenolic. MSO contained fair amounts of sterols (1700.8 ppm and carotenoids (17.9 ppm. MSO showed an IC50 value of 35.5 mg mL–1. This study indicates that MSO has antioxidant characteristics which are better than CNO and comparable to those of GNO.Las cosechas de Moringa oleifera se cultivan en toda la India por sus nutritivas vainas, sus hojas y sus semillas. Las semillas de M. oleifera están dotadas de un buen contenido de aceite (~39% y se asemejan al aceite de oliva debido a su alto contenido de ácido oleico (~65-75%. El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar los antioxidantes naturales de aceites crudos de semillas de M. oleifera variedad de Jaffna (MSO. Los antioxidantes naturales como tocoferoles y fenoles así como esteroles, carotenoides presentes en MSO y su actividad de captación de radicales se midió en comparación con los de aceite crudos de coco desecado (copra (CNO, de sésamo (SESO, de semilla de niger (NSO, de palma (CPO, de salvado de arroz (RBO y de cacahuete refinado comercial (GNO. MSO contenía 88

  5. Technological Aspects of Chemoenzymatic Epoxidation of Fatty Acids, Fatty Acid Esters and Vegetable Oils: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugeniusz Milchert

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The general subject of the review is analysis of the effect of technological parameters on the chemoenzymatic epoxidation processes of vegetable oils, fatty acids and alkyl esters of fatty acids. The technological parameters considered include temperature, concentration, amount of hydrogen peroxide relative to the number of unsaturated bonds, the amounts of enzyme catalysts, presence of solvent and amount of free fatty acids. Also chemical reactions accompanying the technological processes are discussed together with different technological options and significance of the products obtained.

  6. Evaluation of Group-Contribution Methods to Estimate Vegetable Oils and Biodiesel Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Lima Neto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Knowing the phase equilibrium has fundamental importance on mixture separation; and physical and thermodynamic properties of the compounds underlie that equilibrium. Estimation methods are supposed to be a powerful skill for predicting physical and thermodynamic properties of the involved compounds, not only because the large number of properties that can be predicted (vapor pressure, boiling point, melting point, critical properties, etc but also due to the low deviation to experimental measure. This work focuses the prediction of some properties of organic substances present in vegetable oils and in the biodiesel of these oils through group-contribution methods and empiric relations. Estimations were compared to data available on literature and experimental data. This comparison shows satisfactory deviation for application on engineering problems.

  7. Investigation of activated Al-pillared clay efficiency in vegetable oil purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lomić Gizela A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents a contribution to the applicability of natural clays and their derivates as adsorbents in the process of purification of vegetable oil. Investigation of textural properties of raw and purified clay samples reveals that during acid activation and Al-pillaring, BET and micropore surface area increases significantly. However, bleaching capacity of clay and its derivates is not determined by using sample surface area, but rather sample total pore volume. Surface area, especially micropore surface area contributes to removal of smaller molecules. This was confirmed by successful elimination of moisture and volatile materials by samples with an appropriate micropore structure. Used samples of clay and its derivates do not significantly influence acid and peroxide values of raw sunflower oil during its treatment.

  8. Performance evaluation of vegetable-based oils in drilling austenitic stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belluco, Walter; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2004-01-01

    The efficiency of six cutting oils was evaluated in drilling AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel using conventional HSS-Co tools by measurements of tool life, tool wear, cutting forces and chip formation. Seven tools were tested with each fluid to catastrophic failure. Cutting forces and chip...... in a measurement capability comparable to that obtained using tool life as a performance criterion. As a consequence, it is suggested that drilling thrust can be used to assess the performance of cutting fluids in drilling stainless steel, resulting in considerable time savings and cost reduction with respect...... breaking were recorded for each bore, and tool wear was measured at constant intervals. A commercial mineral-based oil was taken as reference product, and five vegetable-based cutting fluids at different levels of additivation were tested. All measured parameters were in agreement, confirming...

  9. Properties of Cookies Made with Natural Wax-Vegetable Oil Organogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hong-Sik; Singh, Mukti; Lee, Suyong

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of cookies in which the conventional margarine is replaced with an organogel of vegetable oil (VO) and natural wax. New cookies from VO organogels contain no trans fats and much less saturated fats than cookies made with a conventional margarine. To understand the effects of different kinds of waxes, organogels were prepared from 4 different waxes including sunflower wax (SW), rice bran wax (RBW), beeswax, and candelilla wax and properties of cookie dough and cookie were evaluated. To investigate the effects of different VOs on the properties of cookies, 3 VOs including olive oil, soybean oil and flaxseed oil representing oils rich in oleic acid (18:1), linoleic acid (18:2), and linolenic acid (18:3), respectively, were used. Both the wax and VO significantly affected properties of organogel such as firmness and melting behavior shown in differential scanning calorimetry. The highest firmness of organogel was observed with SW and flaxseed oil. Properties of dough such as hardness and melting behavior were also significantly affected by wax and VO while trends were somewhat different from those for organogels. SW and RBW provided greatest hardnesses to cookie dough. However, hardness, spread factor, and fracturability of cookie containing the wax-VO organogel were not significantly affected by different waxes and VOs. Several cookies made with wax-VO organogels showed similar properties to cookies made with a commercial margarine. Therefore, this study shows the high feasibility of utilization of the organogel technology in real foods such as cookies rich in unsaturated fats.

  10. Animal performance and meat characteristics in steers reared in intensive conditions fed with different vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, T; Cabezas, A; De la Fuente, J; Isabel, B; Manso, T; Jimeno, V

    2016-03-01

    Enhancing the quality of beef meat is an important goal in terms of improving both the nutritional value for the consumer and the commercial value for producers. The aim of this work was to study the effects of different vegetable oil supplements on growth performance, carcass quality and meat quality in beef steers reared under intensive conditions. A total of 240 Blonde D' Aquitaine steers (average BW=293.7±38.88 kg) were grouped into 24 batches (10 steers/batch) and were randomly assigned to one of the three dietary treatments (eight batches per treatment), each supplemented with either 4% hydrogenated palm oil (PALM) or fatty acids (FAs) from olive oil (OLI) or soybean oil (SOY). No differences in growth performance or carcass quality were observed. For the meat quality analysis, a steer was randomly selected from each batch and the 6th rib on the left half of the carcass was dissected. PALM meat had the highest percentage of 16:0 (P<0.05) and the lowest n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) ratio (P<0.05), OLI had the highest content of t11-18:1 (P<0.01) and c9,t11-18:2 (P<0.05) and SOY showed the lowest value of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) (P<0.001), the highest percentage of PUFA (P<0.01) and a lower index of atherogenicity (P=0.07) than PALM. No significant differences in the sensory characteristics of the meat were noted. However, the results of the principal component analysis of meat characteristics enabled meat from those steers that consumed fatty acids from olive oil to be differentiated from that of steers that consumed soybean oil.

  11. Survey of dissolved air flotation system efficiency for reduce of pollution of vegetable oil industry wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keramati, H; Alidadi, H; Parvaresh, A R; Movahedian, H; Mahvi, A H

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this research was to sudy the reduction of pollution of vegetable oil manufacturing wastewater with DAF system. At first phase of this examination, the optimum dosage of the coagulants was determined. The coagulants that used in this study were Alum and Ferric Chloride. The second phase was flotation in this series of examinations, oil, COD, total solid, volatile solid, fixed solid and suspended solid measured in raw wastewater and the effluent of the DAF pilot. Optimum value of pH for alum and ferric chloride obtained 7.5 and 5.5, respectively. Optimum dosage for these obtained 30 and 32 mg L(-1) in this research. Mean removal for the parameters ofoil, COD, total solid, volatile solid, fixed solid and suspended solid obtained 75.85, 78.27, 77.32, 82.47, 73.52 and 85.53%, respectively. With pressure rising from 3 to 4 and 5 atm removing rate of COD, total solid, volatile solid, fixed solid parameters reduced, but oil and suspended solid have increase. In addition, following increase of flotation time up to 120 sec all of the measured parameters have increase in removing rate. Optimum A/S for removal of COD, total solid, volatile solid, fixed solid parameters obtained 0.001 and for oil and suspended solid obtained 0.0015.

  12. Epoxidized Vegetable Oils Plasticized Poly(lactic acid Biocomposites: Mechanical, Thermal and Morphology Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buong Woei Chieng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Plasticized poly(lactic acid PLA with epoxidized vegetable oils (EVO were prepared using a melt blending method to improve the ductility of PLA. The plasticization of the PLA with EVO lowers the Tg as well as cold-crystallization temperature. The tensile properties demonstrated that the addition of EVO to PLA led to an increase of elongation at break, but a decrease of tensile modulus. Plasticized PLA showed improvement in the elongation at break by 2058% and 4060% with the addition of 5 wt % epoxidized palm oil (EPO and mixture of epoxidized palm oil and soybean oil (EPSO, respectively. An increase in the tensile strength was also observed in the plasticized PLA with 1 wt % EPO and EPSO. The use of EVO increases the mobility of the polymeric chains, thereby improving the flexibility and plastic deformation of PLA. The SEM micrograph of the plasticized PLA showed good compatible morphologies without voids resulting from good interfacial adhesion between PLA and EVO. Based on the results of this study, EVO may be used as an environmentally friendly plasticizer that can improve the overall properties of PLA.

  13. Sedimentation and deformation of an aqueous sodium hydroxide drop in vegetable oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Andrew; Hyacinthe, Hyaquino; Ward, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    The addition of water droplets in fuels is known to provide benefits such as decreased Nitrous Oxide NOx emissions. Unfortunately the shelf life of a water-fuel emulsion is limited by the sedimentation rate of the water droplets. It is well known that adding surfactants can significantly slow the sedimentation rate due to the introduction of Marangoni stresses. In the case of a vegetable oil fuel, adding sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to the water droplets will produce surfactants through saponification in the form of sodium-carboxylate salts. Pendant drops of aqueous NaOH solutions with pH between 11 and 13 will be suspended in several oils such as corn, olive, canola and soybean oil in order to measure the interfacial tension. The change in interfacial tension with time will be used to estimate the surfactant concentration and the saponification rate. Then individual drops will be placed in the oils to observe the settling velocity and drop deformation. NSF CBET.

  14. Fuel vegetable oils under some economic considerations; Oleos vegetais combustiveis sob algumas consideracoes economicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourad, Anna Lucia [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia]|[Instituto de Tecnologia de Alimentos (ITAL), Campinas, SP (Brazil)). Centro de Tecnologia de Embalagem]. E-mail: anna@ital.sp.gov.br

    2006-07-01

    The introduction of bio diesel in the Brazilian energy matrix has been mainly motivated by the governmental actions, which foresees social and economical development to the country in a program that allows the use of different oil seed crops as raw materials for bio fuel production. Cost estimates considering the average price received by the farmer and the oil content of each vegetable shows that the minimum cost of bio fuel was about 1.1(castor bean); 1.8(peanut); 2.0(soy beans); 3.3(corn) higher than the average cost of fossil diesel from 1975 to 2004. Among the evaluated raw materials, only the palm oil had inferior cost compared to the petroleum diesel (0.6%). The oleaginous plants that have a higher oil content and smaller agricultural production cost to produce bio fuels are economically most feasible and they should be prioritized in the Government Program so that it may become economically sustainable along the years, as well as generate adequate profit to the farmers of each culture. (author)

  15. Impact of refining on oat oil antioxidant capacity%精炼对燕麦油抗氧化能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈浩; 李再贵; 程永强; 郦金龙; 邱爽; 殷丽君

    2013-01-01

    In order to further increase the oat oil utilization value as edible oil,oat oil extracted by petroleum ether, hexane,isopropanol, ethyl acetate and ethanol,and soybean oil were refined to compare their differences in reducing power and DPPH · scavenging activity.The study results showed that the reducing power and DPPH o scavenging activity of refined oils were lower than crude oil, and the trend enhanced with the extraction solvent polarity increasing, DPPH· scavenging rate of different refined oils were petroleum ether 75.94%, n- hexane 74.98% Jsopropyl alcohol 75.38% ,acetic ether 79.37% ,ethanol 82.81%,respectively and soybean oil was 69.53%.Reducing power were petroleum ether 0.44,n-hexane 0.45,isopropyl alcohol 0.48,ethyl acetate 0.46,ethanol 0.52 respectively and soybean oil was 0.32.ln addition,various oat oils antioxidant capacity were significantly higher than the soybean oil.%为进一步增加燕麦油作为食用油的开发价值,对石油醚、正己烷、异丙醇、乙酸乙酯和乙醇五种溶剂提取的燕麦油进行精炼,对精炼油的DPPH·清除及还原力进行研究,并同大豆油进行比较.研究结果发现,精炼后的油脂,其还原力与DPPH·清除率都低于毛油,且随提取溶剂极性的增强而增强,精炼后的不同溶剂提取的燕麦油和大豆油DPPH·清除率分别为:石油醚75.94%、正己烷74.98%、异丙醇75.38%、乙酸乙酯79.37%、乙醇82.81%、大豆油69.53%;还原力分别为:石油醚0.45、正己烷0.44、异丙醇0.48、乙酸乙酯0.46、乙醇0.52、大豆油0.32.此外,各种燕麦油的还原力与DPPH·清除率显著高于大豆油.

  16. Effects of dietary supplementation of fish and vegetable oils on the growth performance and muscle compositions of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Muralisankar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was conducted to assess the suitability of three vegetable oils (sunflower oil, coconut oil and castor oil as an alternative dietary lipid source for cod liver oil to culture Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae (PLs. The experimental feeds contained 40% protein with separately incorporated three vegetable oils and cod liver oil. The feeding trial was conducted on M. rosenbergii PL for 60 days. In the final day of the experimental period, the survival rate, weight gain, length gain, specific growth rate and protein efficiency ratio of prawns showed no significance (P > 0.05 between sunflower oil and cod liver oil incorporated feed fed groups. The coconut oil and castor oil showed lower performance when compared with cod liver oil. The present result showed biochemical accumulation of total protein, amino acids, carbohydrate and lipid in experimental groups. Also there is no significant difference in ash and mineral (Na+ and K+ contents. Among the tested diets, the recorded growth rate and biochemical constituents of sunflower oil and cod liver oil incorporated feed fed groups were similar. The present results revealed that the sunflower oil was on par with cod liver oil. Hence, the sunflower oil can be incorporated in feed formulation for M. rosenbergii PL culture. It can be concluded that the coconut oil and castor oil are not ideal vegetable lipid source with these concentrations which produced lower performance in survival, growth and biochemical compositions of M. rosenbergii PL.

  17. The refining industry and the future of the fuel oils; L'industrie du raffinage et le devenir des fiouls lourds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soleille, S

    2004-01-15

    The fuel oils consumption decrease in France since 1970, because of the two petroleum crisis, the nuclear energy competition and the air pollution. The fuel oils industry is then looking other export possibilities. This report aims to offer a first approach of the problem and presents the main challenges. The first part is devoted to the technical context (definition, production and outlet. The second part presents the environmental context and the fuel oils market. In the third part the market is studied at the world scale, in the fourth at the french scale and in the fifth at the scale of other countries as United States, Japan and european Union. A synthesis tables is given in the last part to compare and propose some hypothesis concerning the future of fuel oils and the french refining industry. (A.L.B.)

  18. Performance of vegetable oils as a cooling medium in comparison to a standard mineral oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totten, G. E.; Tensi, H. M.; Lainer, K.

    1999-08-01

    Immersion quenching is the most widely used quenching technique today and is usually one of the last steps in heat treat processing. Improper hardening to incorrect cooling is generally a great loss and causes a great percentage of manufacturing costs. To avoid a failure in cooling, researchers are committed to describing the cooling effect as precisely as possible. The cooling of immersion cooled workpieces or probes is generally characterized by the process of wetting. Evaporable fluids exhibit the three well known stages of cooling: vapor blanket stage, boiling stage, and convective heat transfer. Therefore cooling behavior is influenced by a wide variety and depends on a number of parameters, that is, type of quenchant used, bath temperature, rate of agitation, and the physical and chemical properties of the quenched parts. Environmental pollution has caused the search for new products in har dening and shock cooling of steels. The use of soybean oils as quenching fluids is new, and compared with standard mineral oils, there are many advantages mainly concerning the environment and the health of workers.

  19. Early impact of oil palm planting density on vegetative and oil yield variables in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonneau Xavier

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A range of various different planting distances (from 7.5 to 9.5 m between oil palms were tested using an equilateral triangle design in a plantation density experiment which was settled in an oil palm commercial plantation in Nigeria. Climatic conditions were quite stable, with two seasons and around 2000 mm of annual rainfall. The soil was of desaturated ferralitic type, sandy on the surface, deep and without coarse elements. The early impact of plantation density was analysed at eight years after planting. Some early signs of depressive effect on yields were found for high planting densities (180 and 205 p/ha. Such a negative impact was not severe enough to counteract the effects of a higher number of palms per hectare. As a consequence, a gradient could be observed as yields (in tons of bunches per hectare increased with density. We can anticipate that the competition effect between palms will increase over time with high densities, so that the counteracting point ought to be reached in a few years. A thinning treatment has been included in the protocol. Thinning was carried out at the end of the eight-year period.

  20. Simultaneous determination of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin for vegetable oil adulteration by immunoaffinity chromatography cleanup coupled with LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fei; Yang, Qingqing; Matthäus, Bertrand; Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Liangxiao

    2016-05-15

    Capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin were selected as adulteration markers to authenticate vegetable oils. In this study, a method of immunoaffinity chromatography (IAC) combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was established for the determination of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in vegetable oils. In this method, immunosorbents were obtained by covalently coupling highly specific capsaicinoid polyclonal antibodieswith CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B, and then packed into a polyethylene column. In this paper, the major parameters affecting IAC extraction efficiency, including loading, washing and eluting conditions, were also investigated. The IAC column displayed high selectivity for capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin with the maximum capacity of 240ng. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for capsaicin were calculated as 0.02 and 0.08μgkg(-1), and for dihydrocapsaicin were 0.03 and 0.10μgkg(-1). The recoveries of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in oil samples were in the range of 87.3-95.2% with the relative standard deviation (RSD) of less than 6.1%. The results indicated that capsaicinoid compounds could not be found in edible vegetable oils. Therefore, the proposed method is simple, reliable and adequate for routine monitoring of capsaicinoid compounds in vegetable oils and has an excellent potential for detection of adulteration with inedible waste oil.

  1. Research Progress on Extraction and Refining of Citrus Essential Oil%柑橘类精油的粗提及浓缩精制研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆胜民; 施迎春; 杨颖

    2012-01-01

    Essential oil from citrus is a large type of natural flavors and fragrances, which is popularly used in food industry, daily chemical products and health care field. Combined with our previous research results, the development of oil extraction methods from citrus peel and their effects on oil quality were summarized in this paper. The necessity of refining and the characteristic of each refining and concentration method were discussed. The advantages and application prospect of high-fold concentrated citrus essential oil were also stated. All these would help to widen ideas on quality up-grading and competitive power improvement for citrus essential oil in China.%柑橘类精油是天然香精香料中的一大类,在食品、日化及医疗保健行业具有广泛的应用.本文结合课题组的前期研究,论述了柑橘类精油提取方式的发展以及提取方法对精油品质的影响,阐述了对柑橘类精油进行浓缩精制的必要性和益处,探讨了浓缩精制方法的特点与高倍浓缩精油的发展前景,为提高我国柑橘类精油的品质和市场竞争力拓宽思路.

  2. Techno-economic comparison of biojet fuel production from lignocellulose, vegetable oil and sugar cane juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederichs, Gabriel Wilhelm; Ali Mandegari, Mohsen; Farzad, Somayeh; Görgens, Johann F

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a techno-economic comparison was performed considering three processes (thermochemical, biochemical and hybrid) for production of jet fuel from lignocellulosic biomass (2G) versus two processes from first generation (1G) feedstocks, including vegetable oil and sugar cane juice. Mass and energy balances were constructed for energy self-sufficient versions of these processes, not utilising any fossil energy sources, using ASPEN Plus® simulations. All of the investigated processes obtained base minimum jet selling prices (MJSP) that is substantially higher than the market jet fuel price (2-4 fold). The 1G process which converts vegetable oil, obtained the lowest MJSPs of $2.22/kg jet fuel while the two most promising 2G processes- the thermochemical (gasification and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis) and hybrid (gasification and biochemical upgrading) processes- reached MJSPs of $2.44/kg and $2.50/kg jet fuel, respectively. According to the economic sensitivity analysis, the feedstock cost and fixed capital investment have the most influence on the MJSP.

  3. Non Catalytic Transesterification of Vegetables Oil to Biodiesel in Sub-and Supercritical Methanol: A Kinetic’s Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Puspa Asri

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Non catalytic transesterification in sub and supercritical methanol have been used to produce biodiesel from palm oil and soybean oil. A kinetic study was done under reaction condition with temperature and time control. The experiments were carried out in a batch type reactor at reaction temperatures from 210 °C (subcritical condition to 290 °C (the supercritical state in the interval ranges of temperature of 20 °C and at various molar ratios of oil to methanol. The rate constants of the reaction were determined by employing a simple method, with the overall chemical reaction followed the pseudo-first–order reaction. Based on the results, the rate constants of vegetables oil were significantly influenced by reaction temperature, which were gradually increased at subcritical temperature, but sharply increased in the supercritical state. However, the rate constants of soybean oil were slightly higher than that of palm oil. The activation energy for transesterification of soybean oil was 89.32 and 79.05 kJ/mole for palm oil. Meanwhile, the frequency factor values of both oils were 72462892 and 391210 min-1, respectively. The rate reaction for both of oil were expressed as -rTG = 72462892 exp(-89.32/RTCTG for soybean oil and -rTG = 391210 exp(-79.05/RTCTG for palm oil. © 2013 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 18th October 2012; Revised: 14th December 2012; Accepted: 16th December 2012[How to Cite: N.P. Asri, S. Machmudah, W. Wahyudiono, S. Suprapto, K. Budikarjono, A. Roesyadi, M. Goto, (2013. Non Catalytic Transesterification of Vegetables Oil to Biodiesel in Sub-and Supercritical Methanol: A Kinetic’s Study. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 7 (3: 215-223. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.7.3.4060.215-223][Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.7.3.4060.215-223 ] View in  |

  4. 群体AHP模式下成品油营销指标分析%Marketing Metrics Analysis of Refined Oil in Group AHP Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛泽琦

    2014-01-01

    Through judging, adapting and altering the factors affecting marketing results, and using the right marketing means, refined oil marketing can achieve marketing purposes. In this paper, the comprehensive evaluation index system of refined oil marketing was analyzed, each index weights were calculated to carry out comprehensive evaluation by group AHP model analysis, and a final sorting for each indicator systems of affecting refined oil marketing was determined, finally the key indicators were obtained, which was beneficial for the overall control and improvements for marketing activities.%成品油营销通过判断、适应、改变影响营销结果的因素,利用正确的营销手段,达到营销目的。分析了成品油营销的综合评价指标体系,利用群体 AHP 模型分析计算各指标权重幵迚行综合评判,对影响成品油营销的各指标体系迚行最终排序,得出其中的兲键指标,有利于对营销活动迚行整体的控制和改迚。

  5. 炼油工业供应链模式的营销集成研究%Sale Integration Research in the Mode of Oil Refining Supply Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    亢锐; 范全义; 叶伟

    2001-01-01

    Introduces the concept and structure of the supply chain of oil refining industry firstly, then analyzes the support technologies, design methods, isomerous information integration technologies and market prognostication function of the supply chain of oil refining industry. Based on these, the sale management system in the supply chain of oil refining industry is introduced and the system integration framework is put forward. Finally the design methods are analyzed, especially the market prognostication by using Markov method.%首先介绍了炼油工业供应链的定义与结构,分析了炼油工业供应链的支撑技术、开发方法、异构信息集成技术,以及市场预测功能。在此基础上,介绍了炼油工业供应链模式中的营销管理系统,提出了系统的集成框架结构,分析了其设计技术,特别提出了用马尔可夫方法进行市场预测的思路。

  6. Vegetation community composition in wetlands created following oil sand mining in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Marie-Claude; Foote, Lee; Ciborowski, Jan J H

    2016-05-01

    Reclaiming wetlands following open pit mining for industrial oil sand extraction is challenging due to the physical and chemical conditions of the post-mined landscape. The aim of our study was to examine and compare the influence of oil sands process water (OSPW) and material (fine fluid tails or FFT) on the plant community composition of created wetlands. Compared to created-unamended and natural wetlands, the created wetlands amended with OSPW and/or FFT (created-tailings wetlands) had significantly higher water salinity, conductivity, dissolved oxygen concentration and lower oxidative-reductive potential. Water chemistry parameters of created-unamended did not differ significantly from those of natural wetlands. The sediment of created wetlands had significantly less moisture, total nitrogen, and organic content than the natural wetlands. The application of OSPW/FFT in created wetlands will likely lead to initial vegetation composition atypical of natural regional wetlands. For the objective of reclaiming vegetation composition to the status of natural regional wetlands, unamended wetlands were the best reclamation option, based on the physical and chemical parameters measured. Despite being the favored reclamation option, created-unamended wetlands' physical and chemical characteristics remain atypical of natural wetlands. Most significantly, the basin morphometry of created wetlands was significantly different from that of naturally-formed wetlands in the region, and this appears to partly explain difference in vegetation composition. We also demonstrate that species richness alone is not a useful measure in wetland monitoring. Instead, plant community composition is a better indicator of wetland conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Formation of Glycidyl Fatty Acid Esters Both in Real Edible Oils during Laboratory-Scale Refining and in Chemical Model during High Temperature Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Weiwei; Liu, Guoqin; Liu, Xinqi

    2016-07-27

    In the present study, the formation mechanisms of glycidyl fatty acid esters (GEs) were investigated both in real edible oils (soybean oil, camellia oil, and palm oil) during laboratory-scale preparation and refining and in chemical model (1,2-dipalmitin (DPG) and 1-monopalmitin (MPG)) during high temperature exposure (160-260 °C under nitrogen). The formation process of GEs in the chemical model was monitored using attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. The results showed that the roasting and pressing process could produce certain amounts of GEs that were much lower than that produced in the deodorization process. GE contents in edible oils increased continuously and significantly with increasing deodorization time below 200 °C. However, when the temperature exceeded 200 °C, GE contents sharply increased in 1-2 h followed by a gradual decrease, which could verify a simultaneous formation and degradation of GEs at high temperature. In addition, it was also found that the presence of acylglycerol (DAGs and MAGs) could significantly increase the formation yield of GEs both in real edible oils and in chemical model. Compared with DAGs, moreover, MAGs displayed a higher formation capacity but substantially lower contribution to GE formation due to their low contents in edible oils. In situ ATR-FTIR spectroscopic evidence showed that cyclic acyloxonium ion intermediate was formed during GE formation derived from DPG and MPG in chemical model heated at 200 °C.

  8. Refining and fatty acid composition of crude giant salamander oil%粗大鲵油的精制及其脂肪酸组成分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗秦; 孙强; 叶欣; 冉旭; 高安友

    2014-01-01

    The impurities in crude giant salamander oil such as phospholipids, protein, free fatty acid and pigment could be removed through refining process. The results showed that the optimal refining parame-ters of crude giant salamander oil were obtained as follows:dosage of 40% H3 PO4 1% ( based on the oil mass) , degumming for 1 min at 70℃; dosage of 3% NaOH solution 1. 5% ( based on the oil mass) , deacidification for 30 min at 65℃;dosage of activated clay 1% ( based on the oil mass) , bleaching for 30 min at 60℃;reduced pressure deodorization for 30 min at 85℃. Under these conditions,the refined giant salamander oil was clear, transparent and light yellow with little fishlike smell. Twenty-five kinds of fatty acids in refined giant salamander oil were identified by GC. The contents of unsaturated fatty acids ( UFA ) , polyunsaturated fatty acids ( PUFA ) and saturated fatty acids ( SFA ) were 69. 81%, 27. 60% and 22. 64%, respectively.%粗大鲵油通过精制可除去其中的一些磷脂、蛋白质、游离脂肪酸和色素等杂质。结果表明:粗大鲵油精制工艺最佳参数为采用40%磷酸,添加量为1%(占油质量),70℃脱胶1 min;采用3%氢氧化钠溶液,添加量为1.5%(占油质量),65℃脱酸30 min;添加1%(占油质量)的活性白土,60℃脱色30 min;85℃下减压蒸馏脱臭30 min。在最佳工艺条件下,所得精制大鲵油澄清透明,略显淡黄色,鱼腥味较轻。对精制后的大鲵油采用气相色谱法共鉴定出25种脂肪酸,其中不饱和脂肪酸( UFA)含量为69.81%,多不饱和脂肪酸( PUFA )含量为27.60%,饱和脂肪酸( SFA )含量为22.64%。

  9. Environmental Impacts and Costs of Hydrotreated Vegetable Oils, Transesterified Lipids and Woody BTL—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Brekke

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews and compares assessments of three biodiesel fuels: (1 transesterified lipids, (2 hydrotreated vegetable oils (HVO, and (3 woody biomass-to-liquid (BTL Fischer-Tropsch diesel and selected feedstock options. The article attempts to rank the environmental performance and costs of fuel and feedstock combinations. Due to inter-study differences in goal and study assumptions, the ranking was mostly qualitative and intra-study results are emphasized. Results indicate that HVO made from wastes or by-products such as tall oil, tallow or used cooking oil outperform transesterified lipids and BTL from woody material, both with respect to environmental life cycle impacts and costs. These feedstock options are, however, of limited availability, and to produce larger volumes of biofuels other raw materials must also be used. BTL from woody biomass seems promising with good environmental performance and the ability not to compete with food production. Production of biofuels from agricultural feedstock sources requires much energy and leads to considerable emissions due to agrochemical inputs. Thus, such biodiesel fuels are ranked lowest in this comparison. Production of feedstock is the most important life cycle stage. Avoiding detrimental land use changes and maintaining good agricultural or forestry management practices are the main challenges to ensure that biofuels can be a sustainable option for the future transport sector.

  10. Final report on LDRD project : biodiesel production from vegetable oils using slit-channel reactors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalu, E. Eric (FAMU-FSU College of Engineering, Tallahassee, FL); Chen, Ken Shuang

    2008-01-01

    This report documents work done for a late-start LDRD project, which was carried out during the last quarter of FY07. The objective of this project was to experimentally explore the feasibility of converting vegetable (e.g., soybean) oils to biodiesel by employing slit-channel reactors and solid catalysts. We first designed and fabricated several slit-channel reactors with varying channel depths, and employed them to investigate the improved performance of slit-channel reactors over traditional batch reactors using a NaOH liquid catalyst. We then evaluated the effectiveness of several solid catalysts, including CaO, ZnO, MgO, ZrO{sub 2}, calcium gluconate, and heteropolyacid or HPA (Cs{sub 2.5}H{sub 0.5}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}), for catalyzing the soybean oil-to-biodiesel transesterification reaction. We found that the slit-channel reactor performance improves as channel depth decreases, as expected; and the conversion efficiency of a slit-channel reactor is significantly higher when its channel is very shallow. We further confirmed CaO as having the highest catalytic activity among the solid catalysts tested, and we demonstrated for the first time calcium gluconate as a promising solid catalyst for converting soybean oil to biodiesel, based on our preliminary batch-mode conversion experiments.

  11. Production of natural antioxidants from vegetable oil deodorizer distillates: effect of catalytic hydrogenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, María Ayelén; Baltanás, Miguel A

    2010-02-01

    Natural tocopherols are one of the main types of antioxidants found in living creatures, but they also have other critical biological functions. The biopotency of natural (+)-alpha-tocopherol (RRR) is 36% higher than that of the synthetic racemic mixture and 300% higher than the SRR stereoisomer. Vegetable oil deodorizer distillates (DD) are an excellent source of natural tocopherols. Catalytic hydrogenation of DD preconcentrates has been suggested as a feasible route for recovery of tocopherols in high yield. However, it is important to know whether the hydrogenation operation, as applied to these tocopherol-rich mixtures, is capable of preserving the chiral (RRR) character, which is critical to its biopotency. Fortified (i.e., (+)-alpha-tocopherol enriched) sunflower oil and methyl stearate, as well as sunflower oil DD, were fully hydrogenated using commercial Ni and Pd catalysts (120-180 degrees C; 20-60 psig). Products were analyzed by chiral HPLC. Results show that the desired chiral configuration (RRR) is fully retained. Thus, the hydrogenation route can be safely considered as a valid alternative for increasing the efficiency of tocopherol recovery processes from DDs while preserving their natural characteristics.

  12. Investigation of Performance and Emissions Effects of Waste Vegetable Oil Methyl Ester in A Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya ULUSOY

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study engine and emission performance of a 4-stroke, 4 cylinder, direct injection 62,5 kW engine, with three different biodiesel blends (B25, B50, B75,  was compared with those obtained with use of normal diesel (B0 through a 8-mode experimental test procedure, in convention with ISO 8178-C1. The results of the study showed that, performance and emission values of biodiesel fuels produced from vegetable oil and those obtained with diesel fuel (B0 are very close to each other.  In this context, the waste cooking oil, which is a serious risk to the environment and should be collected according to related legistlative measures,  could be processed to and used as biodiesel without creating any significant loss in terms of engine performance, while providing significant advantages in terms of engine emissions. These results revealed that, waste frying oils can be used as diesel fuel and to create an adding value for the economy instead of being potential environmental risk. 

  13. Brief Discussion on Vegetable Insulating Oil Transformer%浅谈植物绝缘油变压器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    项阳

    2014-01-01

    The development and main characteristics of domestic and foreign vegetable insulating oil and vegetable insulating oil transformer are introduced.The problems of the transformer are pointed out.The future of the transformer is prospected.%介绍了国内外植物绝缘油及植物绝缘油变压器的发展状况及主要特点,指出了需要注意的问题,展望了植物绝缘油变压器的前景.

  14. Effect of refining process on quality of oil-tea camellia seed oil%精炼过程对油茶籽油品质影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张东生; 薛雅琳; 金青哲; 王兴国; 张东; 钟诚

    2014-01-01

    研究了精炼过程对油茶籽油品质的影响。结果表明:脱胶脱酸工序中油茶籽油酸值降低;脱色工序中油茶籽油色泽变浅、酸值上升、过氧化值降低;脱臭工序中油茶籽油中甾醇、α-生育酚、角鲨烯含量显著降低,分别降低了32.1%、16.6%、40.0%;冬化工序中因饱和脂肪酸结晶析出而使得油茶籽油碘值、不饱和脂肪酸含量和三油酸甘油酯含量升高;精炼过程中,油茶籽油脂肪酸组成和甘油三酯组成变化不大。%The influence of refining process on the quality of oil-tea camellia seed oil was researched. The results showed that acid value of oil-tea camllia seed oil reduced in degumming and deacidification process;the color of oil-tea camellia seed oil dodged, the peroxide value lowered and acid value rose during bleaching;in the process of deodorization, the contents of sterol, squalene and α-tocopherol of oil-tea camellia seed oil significantly decreased by 32. 1%,16. 6% and 40. 0%, respectively;since the saturated fatty acids had been separated by crystallization, the iodine value and contents of unsaturated fatty acids and triolein increased during winterization; the compositions of fatty acid and triglyceride of oil-tea camellia seed oil changed slightly during refining.

  15. Absolute Viscosities of Vegetable Oils at Different Temperatures and Shear Rate Range of 64.5 to 4835 s−1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemuel M. Diamante

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to determine the effect of higher shear rates (64.5 to 4835 s−1 on the absolute viscosities of different vegetable oils at different temperatures (26 to 90°C. The absolute viscosities of the different vegetable oils were determined using a Lamy Viscometer RM100, a rotating viscometer with coaxial cylinder. The torque of each sample at different temperatures was recorded at different shear rates. Based on the rheograms (plot of mean shear stress against shear rate, all of the vegetable oils studied were found to be Newtonian fluids. Rice bran oil was the most viscous (0.0398 Pa·s at 38°C while walnut oil was the least viscous (0.0296 Pa·s at 38°C among the oils studied. The higher shear range used did not significantly affect the absolute viscosities of the vegetable oils at the different temperatures. The absolute viscosities of the vegetable oils decreased with increasing temperature and can be fitted with an Arrhenius type relationship. The activation energies for the different vegetable oils ranged from 21 to 30 kJ/mole. The peanut and safflower oils had the highest and lowest activation energies, respectively. This means that greater energy was needed to effect a viscosity change in the peanut oil.

  16. Evaluation of emissions in gas powered electric generator engine with vegetable oil; Avaliacao das emissoes de gases em motor gerador eletrico alimentado com oleo vegetal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Thalita C. de; Cunha, Joao Paulo Barreto; Cotrim, Suzane Santana; Brito, Gustavo Mendes; Delmond, Josue Gomes [Universidade Estadual de Goias (UNUCET/UEG), Anapolis, GO (Brazil). Unidade Universitaria de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas], E-mail: thalitacarrijo@gmail.com

    2012-11-01

    The use of vegetable oils as fuel in diesel engines is a good alternative to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere from the use of fossil fuels, either in pure form or as biodiesel. The soybean, oilseed single high-availability in Brazil, is the most viable feedstock for the production of oil and its use as a fuel because of the structure of production, distribution and grain crushing. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of a duty diesel generator fueled with blends of diesel and soybean oil at concentrations of 10%, 25%, 50% and 75%, and soybean oil pure, 100%. During the tests we evaluated the energy consumption of the generator and the emission of greenhouse gases (O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2}), according to the demand of electric charges (0, 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 Watts) connected to the group generator. The results, using the F test, showed that the hourly consumption of fuel increased with increasing concentration in the mixture of diesel fuel and engine load demand from the generator. It follows that in the environment, increasing the oil concentration in the mixture caused a reduction in emissions, except for the emission of oxygen. The best choice for the operation for the engine generator using vegetable oil soya be provided for up to 60 % oil in the mixture and load demand up to 1000W, in which occurred lower emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and therefore improved efficiency in the combustion process. (author)

  17. Evaluation of the use of a vegetable oil in distribution transformers Evaluación del uso de un aceite vegetal en transformadores de distribución

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Fernando-Navas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the start of transformers immersed in refrigerating liquid, the fluid traditionally used has been mineral oil. However, in recent decades, efforts have been joined in the search for alternatives with a lower environmental impact and which also satisfy the technical requirements of insulation and refrigeration in the transformers. Currently, insulating vegetable oils are available in the market, which may have lower environmental impact during their use and final disposition; nevertheless, their high cost and short time of use have limited their massive application. This work presents the thermal behavior evaluation of two distribution transformers at different powers immersed in dielectric vegetable oil