WorldWideScience

Sample records for refillable ink cartridge

  1. EPA Region 8, Memo on Desktop Printer Ink Cartridges Policy & Voluntary Printer Turn-in

    Science.gov (United States)

    This memo requests EPA Region 8 users to voluntarily turn-in their desktop printers and notifies users of the Region 8 policy to not provide maintenance or ink and toner cartridges for desktop printers.

  2. Environmental impacts and resource losses of incinerating misplaced household special wastes (WEEE, batteries, ink cartridges and cables)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigum, Marianne Kristine Kjærgaard; Damgaard, Anders; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    The contribution of misplaced special waste (sWEEE, lamps, CRT, batteries, ink cartridges and cables) to environmental impacts from incineration of residual household waste was quantified through life cycle assessment (LCA)-modelling. Misplaced special waste was quantified to constitute less than 1...... and batteries. However as shown by sensitivity analysis, lack of good data on the transfer of rare and hazardous metals to the flue gas in the incineration process should receive further investigation before the environmental impacts from misplaced incinerated special waste can fully be concluded upon. Although...... special waste (sWEEE, lamps, CRT, batteries, ink cartridges, and cables)....

  3. Fuel channel refilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoukri, M.; Abdul-Razzak, A.

    1992-11-01

    This report extends the work reported in document INFO-0370 on fuel channel refilling by providing analysis of the refilling tests conducted using the RD-14 and RD-14M test facilities. The analysis focuses on the general thermal-hydraulic characteristics of the facilities following various small and large inlet and outlet header breaks with emergency coolant injection. The two-fluid model thermal-hydraulic computer code CATHENA was tested against results obtained from selected experiments carried out in the two facilities. Conclusions related to the effect of break size, mode of emergency core injection, primary pump operation and parallel channels are presented. (Author) (116 figs., 17 tabs., 53 refs.)

  4. Fuel channel refilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoukri, M.; Abdul-Razzak, A.

    1990-04-01

    Analysis of existing data on fuel channel refilling is presented. The analysis focuses on the data obtained using the Stern Laboratories Cold Water Injection Test (CWIT) Facility. The two-fluid model thermal-hydraulics computer code CATHENA is also used to simulate experimental results on fuel channel refilling from both the CWIT and RD-14 facilities. Conclusions related to single and double break tests, including the effect of non-condensible gases, are presented. A set of recommendations is given for further analysis and separate effect experiments. (67 figs., 5 tabs., 24 refs.)

  5. IBM 3480 tape cartridge

    CERN Multimedia

    1984-01-01

    The 3480 tape format is a magnetic tape data storage format developed by IBM. The cartridge contains a single reel. IBM’s 3480 cartridge tape system sought to replace the traditional reels of magnetic tape in the computer center. Because of their speed, reliability, durability and low media cost, these tapes and tape drives are still in high demand. A hallmark of the genre is transferability. Tapes recorded with one tape drive are generally readable on another drive, even if the tape drives were built by different manufacturers.

  6. Raman spectroscopy and capillary electrophoresis applied to forensic colour inkjet printer inks analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Król, Małgorzata; Karoly, Agnes; Kościelniak, Paweł

    2014-09-01

    Forensic laboratories are increasingly engaged in the examination of fraudulent documents, and what is important, in many cases these are inkjet-printed documents. That is why systematic approaches to inkjet printer inks comparison and identification have been carried out by both non-destructive and destructive methods. In this study, micro-Raman spectroscopy and capillary electrophoresis (CE) were applied to the analysis of colour inkjet printer inks. Micro-Raman spectroscopy was used to study the chemical composition of colour inks in situ on a paper surface. It helps to characterize and differentiate inkjet inks, and can be used to create a spectra database of inks taken from different cartridge brands and cartridge numbers. Capillary electrophoresis in micellar electrophoretic capillary chromatography mode was applied to separate colour and colourless components of inks, enabling group identification of those components which occur in a sufficient concentration (giving intensive peaks). Finally, on the basis of the obtained results, differentiation of the analysed inks was performed. Twenty-three samples of inkjet printer inks were examined and the discriminating power (DP) values for both presented methods were established in the routine work of experts during the result interpretation step. DP was found to be 94.0% (Raman) and 95.6% (CE) when all the analysed ink samples were taken into account, and it was 96.7% (Raman) and 98.4% (CE), when only cartridges with different index numbers were considered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Indicating FTA Elute Cartridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bie, Roosmarie P.; Schmeink, Channa E.; Bakkers, Judith M.J.E.; Snijders, Peter J.F.; Quint, Wim G.V.; Massuger, Leon F.A.G.; Bekkers, Ruud L.M.; Melchers, Willem J.G.

    2011-01-01

    The clinically validated high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) and GP5+/6+-PCR assays were analyzed on an Indicating FTA Elute cartridge (FTA cartridge). The FTA cartridge is a solid dry carrier that allows safe transport of cervical samples. FTA cartridge samples were compared with liquid-based samples for hrHPV and high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) detection. One cervical sample was collected in a liquid-based medium, and one was applied to the FTA cartridge. DNA was eluted directly from the FTA cartridge by a simple elution step. HC2 and GP5+/6+-PCR assays were performed on both the liquid-based and the FTA-eluted DNA of 88 women. Overall agreement between FTA and liquid-based samples for the presence of hrHPV was 90.9% with GP5+/6+-PCR and 77.3% with HC2. The sensitivity for high-grade CIN of hrHPV testing on the FTA cartridges was 84.6% with GP5+/6+-PCR and only 53.8% with HC2. By comparison, these sensitivities on liquid-based samples were 92.3% and 100% for GP5+/6+-PCR and HC2, respectively. Therefore, the FTA cartridge shows reasonably good overall agreement for hrHPV detection with liquid-based media when using GP5+/6+-PCR but not HC2 testing. Even with GP5+/6+-PCR, the FTA cartridge is not yet capable of detecting all high-grade CIN lesions. PMID:21704269

  8. Thermal analysis with expendable cartridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susaki, K.; Landgraf, F.J.G.

    1981-01-01

    The pratical method of thermal analysis with expendable cartridge and some aspects of its use are presented. The results of the method applied to the system Nb-Mn are presented together with data from microprobe. (Author) [pt

  9. Effects of a direct refill program for automated dispensing cabinets on medication-refill errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmons, Pieter J; Dalton, Ashley J; Daniels, Charles E

    2012-10-01

    The effects of a direct refill program for automated dispensing cabinets (ADCs) on medication-refill errors were studied. This study was conducted in designated acute care areas of a 386-bed academic medical center. A wholesaler-to-ADC direct refill program, consisting of prepackaged delivery of medications and bar-code-assisted ADC refilling, was implemented in the inpatient pharmacy of the medical center in September 2009. Medication-refill errors in 26 ADCs from the general medicine units, the infant special care unit, the surgical and burn intensive care units, and intermediate units were assessed before and after the implementation of this program. Medication-refill errors were defined as an ADC pocket containing the wrong drug, wrong strength, or wrong dosage form. ADC refill errors decreased by 77%, from 62 errors per 6829 refilled pockets (0.91%) to 8 errors per 3855 refilled pockets (0.21%) (p error type detected before the intervention was the incorrect medication (wrong drug, wrong strength, or wrong dosage form) in the ADC pocket. Of the 54 incorrect medications found before the intervention, 38 (70%) were loaded in a multiple-drug drawer. After the implementation of the new refill process, 3 of the 5 incorrect medications were loaded in a multiple-drug drawer. There were 3 instances of expired medications before and only 1 expired medication after implementation of the program. A redesign of the ADC refill process using a wholesaler-to-ADC direct refill program that included delivery of prepackaged medication and bar-code-assisted refill significantly decreased the occurrence of ADC refill errors.

  10. The Imation 9840 Tape Cartridge

    CERN Multimedia

    It’s a 20 GB uncompressed center-load cartridge used in StorageTek T9840 tape drives. The tape is a Metal Particle (MP) tape suitable for use on all Oracle/Sun/StorageTek 9840 A, B, C and D drives. The 9840 tape has an archival life of 15-30 years.

  11. Quick-change filter cartridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, John C.; McFarland, Andrew R.; Ortiz, Carlos A.

    1995-01-01

    A quick-change filter cartridge. In sampling systems for measurement of airborne materials, a filter element is introduced into the sampled airstream such that the aerosol constituents are removed and deposited on the filter. Fragile sampling media often require support in order to prevent rupture during sampling, and careful mounting and sealing to prevent misalignment, tearing, or creasing which would allow the sampled air to bypass the filter. Additionally, handling of filter elements may introduce cross-contamination or exposure of operators to toxic materials. Moreover, it is desirable to enable the preloading of filter media into quick-change cartridges in clean laboratory environments, thereby simplifying and expediting the filter-changing process in the field. The quick-change filter cartridge of the present invention permits the application of a variety of filter media in many types of instruments and may also be used in automated systems. The cartridge includes a base through which a vacuum can be applied to draw air through the filter medium which is located on a porous filter support and held there by means of a cap which forms an airtight seal with the base. The base is also adapted for receiving absorbing media so that both particulates and gas-phase samples may be trapped for investigation, the latter downstream of the aerosol filter.

  12. 40 CFR 165.45 - Refillable container standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refillable container standards. 165.45... PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Refillable Container Standards: Container Design § 165.45 Refillable container standards. (a) What Department of Transportation (DOT) standards do my refillable containers have...

  13. Beyond the basics: refills by electronic prescribing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Roberta E; Dubé, Catherine; Lapane, Kate L

    2010-07-01

    E-prescribing is part of a new generation of electronic solutions for the medical industry that may have great potential for improving work flow and communication between medical practices and pharmacies. In the US, it has been introduced with minimal monitoring of errors and general usability. This paper examines refill functionality in e-prescribing software. A mixed method study including focus groups and surveys was conducted. Qualitative data were collected in on-site focus groups or individual interviews with clinicians and medical office staff at 64 physician office practices. Focus group participants described their experiences with the refill functionality of e-prescribing software, provided suggestions for improving it, and suggested improvements in office procedures and software functionality. Overall, approximately 50% reduction in time spent each day on refills was reported. Overall reports of refill functionality were positive; but clinicians and staff identified numerous difficulties and glitches associated managing prescription refills. These glitches diminished over time. Benefits included time saved as well as patient convenience. Potential for refilling without thought because of the ease of use was noted. Clinicians and staff appreciated the ability to track whether patients are filling and refilling prescriptions. E-prescribing software for managing medication refills has not yet reached its full potential. To reduce work flow barriers and medication errors, software companies need to develop error reporting systems and response teams to deal effectively with problems experienced by users. Examining usability issues on both the medical office and pharmacy ends is required to identify the behavioral and cultural changes that accompany technological innovation and ease the transition to full use of e-prescribing software. 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Radiation curable inks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolon, D.A.; Lucas, G.M.

    1976-01-01

    A radiation curable ink is provided which is convertible to a conductive coating when cured on the surface of a substrate. When used as a printing ink, improved results are achieved if a minor amount of a blend of paraffin waxes is employed to control solvent evaporation

  15. StorageTek T10000 Data Cartridge

    CERN Multimedia

    This data cartridge works on several StorageTek systems. The goal is to provide cartridge compatibility across several system. It has been designed for space saving and ultra-high capacity tape. It permit to fulfill high-volume backup, archiving, and disaster recovery.

  16. BWR Refill-Reflood Program. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, L.L.

    1983-09-01

    The BWR Refill-Reflood Program is part of the continuing Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) research in the United States which is jointly sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Electric Power Research Institute, and the General Electric Company. The current program expanded the focus of this research to include full scale experimental evaluations of multidimensional and multichannel effects during system refill. The program has also made major contributions to the BWR version of the Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC) which has been developed cooperatively with the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for application to BWR transients. A summary description of the complete program is provided including the principal findings and main conclusions of the program. The results of the program have shown that multidimensional and parallel channel effects have the potential to significantly improve the system response over that observed in single channel tests

  17. Refilling the plasmasphere through the exospheric sieve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krall, J.; Huba, J.; Emmert, J. T.

    2016-12-01

    The ability to compute plasmasphere densities is critical to many space weather concerns. The sensitivity of refilling to the solar cycle is compelling because, paradoxically, refilling rates are generally lowest when the ionosphere is strongest. In the past, this has been attributed to a dearth of exosphere H at solar maximum. While H is needed to supply H + O+ -> H+ + O charge exchange, recent work demonstrates a significant sensitivity to O [1]. Results will be based on preliminary model-data comparisons using in situ Van Allen Probe EMFISIS data and the SAMI3 ionosphere/plasmasphere code. We will assess the impact of atmospheric composition (i.e., O and H) and solar activity (e.g., F10.7) on plasmasphere refilling rates and density following magnetic storms. SAMI3 (Sami3 is Also a Model of the Ionosphere) is a first-principles ionosphere/plasmasphere model. SAMI3 includes 7 ion species (H+, He+, O+, N+, O2+, N2+, NO+), each treated as a separate fluid, with temperature equations being solved for H+, He+, O+ and e- [2]. SAMI3 uses the empirical MSIS thermosphere/exosphere model to specify O and H densities. SAMI3 includes scaling factors that can be used to tune MSIS densities to bring them in line with measurements of satellite drag. Key inputs for this data-driven modeling are the thermosphere oxygen (O) and hydrogen (H) densities, and the F10.7 proxy for solar ultraviolet irradiance. [1 ]Krall, J., J. T. Emmert, F. Sassi, S. E. McDonald, and J. D. Huba (2016), Day-to-day variability in the thermosphere and its impact on plasmasphere refilling, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 121, doi:10.1002/2015JA022328. [2] Huba, J. and J. Krall (2013), Modeling the plasmasphere with SAMI3, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 6-10, doi:10.1029/2012GL054300 Research supported by NRL base funds.

  18. Par Pond refill water quality sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, J.W. II; Martin, F.D.; Westbury, H.M.

    1996-08-01

    This study was designed to document anoxia and its cause in the event that the anoxia caused a fish kill. However, no fish kill was observed during this study, and dissolved oxygen and nutrient concentrations generally remained within the range expected for southeastern reservoirs. Par Pond water quality monitoring will continue during the second summer after refill as the aquatic macrophytes become reestablished and nutrients in the sediments are released to the water column

  19. The Ink of Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Leigh

    2017-01-01

    Nations actively write themselves onto human bodies. They etch and scratch their borders onto human flesh with figurative, often contradictory, ink that delivers stark material impact. The impacts hold their greatest force in metering the hinged consequences of contingent citizenship for some and unfettered citizenship for a few others. In this…

  20. StorageTek T10000 Tape Cartridge

    CERN Multimedia

    1985-01-01

    Oracle StorageTek T10000T2 cartridge has total capacity of 5 TB. It is actually manufactured by Fuji Film, uses Barium Ferrite (BaFe) particles technology data store, but is also equipped with RFID chip. There is over 1 km of tape inside of the cartridge with 3584 data tracks and it supports over 25000 load/unload cycles. The archival life is estimated to be around 30 years and uncorrected bit error rate is 10-19. CERN however usually migrates data to newer technologies roughly every 5 years in order to keep the footprint under control.

  1. Durability of ink jet prints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobric, E; Mirkovic, I Bolanca; Bolanca, Z

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is the result presentation of some optical properties research for ink jet prints after: exposing the prints to the mixed daylight and artificial light, exposing of prints to the sun-light through the glass window, and exposing of prints to outdoor conditions during the summer months. The prints obtained by piezoelectric and thermal ink jet technologies were used in the researches. The dye-based inks and the pigmented inks based on water and the low solvent inks were used. The results of these researches, except the scientific contribution in the domain of understanding and explaining the environmental conditions on the gamut size, i.e. the range of color tonality, colorimetric stability and print quality, can be used by the ink and paper manufacturers in new formulations, offer data for the printer producers for further production and evaluation of the position of their products.

  2. Ecology, fish and fishery of Lake Liambezi, a recently refilled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lake Liambezi (300 km2) refilled in 2009 after a prolonged 22-year dry period. Its aquatic macrophyte populations, fish fauna and fishery shortly after refilling are described. The emergent aquatic macrophyte Phragmites australis formed dense stands covering large parts of the lake, while extensive beds of submerged ...

  3. Colour cues facilitate learning flower refill schedules in wild hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Michael; Hurly, T Andrew; Healy, Susan D

    2014-11-01

    Free-living hummingbirds can learn the refill schedules of individual experimental flowers but little is known about what information they use to do this. Colour cues, in particular, may be important to hummingbirds when learning about rewarded flower properties. We investigated, therefore, whether colour cues facilitated the learning of flower refill schedules in wild, free-living rufous hummingbirds (Selasphorus rufus). In the Cued condition, we presented birds with an array of six flowers, three of one colour, each of which were refilled 10min after being emptied by the bird and three of a different colour, which were refilled 20min after being emptied. In the Uncued condition we presented birds with six flowers of the same colour, three of which were refilled after 10min and three of which were refilled after 20min as for the birds in the Cued condition. In the second part of the experiment, we moved the array 2m and changed the shape of the array. Across both phases, birds in the Cued condition learned to discriminate between 10 and 20-min flowers more quickly than did the birds in the Uncued condition. The Cued birds were also better at discriminating between the two distinct refill intervals. Colour cues can, therefore, facilitate learning the refill schedules of experimental flowers in these birds. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cognition in the wild. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The reactor Phenix - cartridge rupture detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graftieaux, J.

    1967-01-01

    This report defines the role of cartridge rupture detection in the reactor Phenix. It gives the possible methods, their probable performances, their advantages and disadvantages. The final form of the installation will be determined mainly by the degree of safety required, by the technical possibilities of the reactor design and by the operational flexibility wanted. (author) [fr

  5. CONSTRUCTION AND OPTIMISATION OF A CARTRIDGE FILTER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    1Department of Chemistry, Egerton University, P.O. Box 356, Njoro, Kenya .... the resident time in the filter, thus there is not enough time for F- to interact with the ... associated with creation of too much backpressure in the cartridge as well as ...

  6. Hydrogen Car Cartridges: A New Strategy for Hydrogen Storage, Delivering and Refueling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prosini, Pier Paolo

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of the project is to introduce a sustainable model in the automotive field, guarantying the Kyoto agreements. The aim of the project is to develop an innovative hydrogen tank able to power an hydrogen fuel cell car with the same performance of liquid fuelled cars. Most of the system performance are expected to satisfy the Department of Energy (DOE) goals for 2015. The hydrogen releasing system is based on solid NaBH4 which is hydrolyzed with water or steam to obtain hydrogen. Sodium borate is obtained as by-product and it has to be recycled. Pure and humidified hydrogen, ready to be utilized in a fuel cell, is obtained by a simple and sure way. Hydrogen is produced only when it is requested and therefore there is never pressurized hydrogen or hydrogen overproduction The system works at atmospheric pressure avoiding the problems related to handling and storing pressurized gas. The car fuelling could be performed in area like the present service stations. The used cartridges can be removed and substituted by new cartridges. Contemporarily a water tank should be refilled. To improve the total energetic yield it was also proposed a NaBH4 regeneration process directly starting from the products of hydrolysis. (auth)

  7. Preliminary researches regarding edible jet printing inks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemtanu, M. R.; Brasoveanu, M.

    2002-01-01

    The automatic reproduction of images with edible materials is a new method used lately to decorate cakes. An important component of this technology is the ink. The paper presents the results obtained by using different physical methods for analysis of some jet printing inks types. The analysed inks were the Canon inks and edible inks from Thailand. The main considered methods were the spectrocolourymetrical, rheological, electrochemical. Choosing as a chromatic standard the Canon inks and for the physicochemical properties the edible inks from Thailand, it was prepared a yellow edible printing ink which was characterized by same methods

  8. 76 FR 66964 - Certain Inkjet Ink Cartridges With Printheads and Components Thereof; Notice of the Commission's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ... complaint named the following entities as respondents: MicroJet Technology Co., Ltd. of Hsinchu City, Taiwan (``MicroJet''); ain Asia Pacific Microsystems, Inc. of Hsinchu City, Taiwan (``APM''); Mipo Technology.... Respondent MicroJet defaulted. Respondent PTC did not participate in the hearing and failed to file post...

  9. Reductive photocatalysis and smart inks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Andrew; Wells, Nathan

    2015-05-21

    Semiconductor-sensitised photocatalysis is a well-established and growing area of research, innovation and commercialisation; the latter being mostly limited to the use of TiO2 as the semiconductor. Most of the work on semiconductor photocatalytic systems uses oxygen as the electron acceptor and explores a wide range of electron donors; such systems can be considered to be examples of oxidative photocatalysis, OP. OP underpins most current examples of commercial self-cleaning materials, such as: glass, tiles, concrete, paint and fabrics. OP, and its myriad of applications, have been reviewed extensively over the years both in this journal and elsewhere. However, the ability of TiO2, and other semiconductor sensitisers, to promote reductive photocatalysis, RP, especially of dyes, is significant and, although less well-known, is of growing importance. In such systems, the source of the electrons is some easily oxidised species, such as glycerol. One recent, significant example of a RP process is with respect to photocatalyst activity indicator inks. paiis, which provide a measure of the activity of a photocatalytic film under test via the rate of change of colour of the dye in the ink coating due to irreversible RP. In contrast, by incorporating the semiconductor sensitiser in the ink, rather than outside it, it is possible to create an effective UV dosimeter, based on RP, which can be used as a sun-burn warning indicator. In the above examples the dye is reduced irreversibly, but when the photocatalyst in an ink is used to reversibly photoreduce a dye, a novel, colourimetric oxygen-sensitive indicator ink can be created, which has commercial potential in the food packaging industry. Finally, if no dye is present in the ink, and the semiconductor photocatalyst-loaded ink film coats an easily reduced substrate, such as a metal oxide film, then it can be used to reduce the latter and so, for example, clean up tarnished steel. The above are examples of smart inks, i

  10. Refilling material for underground disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yajima, Tatsuya; Kato, Hiroyasu.

    1995-01-01

    Generally, the underground circumstance where radioactive wastes are to be processed is in high pH and highly ionized state due to ingredients leached out of cement of a concrete pit and solidifying products. A refilling material for underground disposal are demanded to adsorb radioactive nuclides such as 137 Cs even in such a state. As the refilling material, a mixture of bentonite and sintered vermiculite, preferably, comprising 10 to 40wt% of vermiculite is used. The refilling material has a high water hold out barrier performance of bentonite and a high radioactive nuclide adsorbing performance of vermiculite. In a state of highly ionized state when the adsorbing performance of bentonite is reduced, the nuclide-absorbing performance is improved by vermiculite and since the content of the vermiculite is not more than 40wt%, the water hold out barrier performance of the bentonite is not deteriorated. (N.H.)

  11. Think Before You Ink: Are Tattoos Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Consumer Updates Think Before You Ink: Are Tattoos Safe? Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... I be concerned about unsafe practices, or the tattoo ink itself? Both. While you can get serious ...

  12. 21 CFR 1306.22 - Refilling of prescriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refilling of prescriptions. 1306.22 Section 1306.22 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRESCRIPTIONS Controlled... 75 FR 16308, Mar. 31, 2010, § 1306.22 was revised, effective June 1, 2010. For the convenience of the...

  13. Catalytic microcontact printing without ink

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, X.; Péter, M.; Huskens, Jurriaan; Reinhoudt, David

    2003-01-01

    A novel microcontact printing technique is described that does not require ink. Patterns were created by direct contact of oxidized PDMS stamps with silyl ether-derivatized, acid-labile SAMs on gold. The surface of the stamps was oxidized by oxygen plasma to give a layer of silicon oxide. These

  14. The switch to refillable bottled water in Indonesia: a serious health risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komarulzaman, A.; Jong, E. de; Smits, J.P.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the consumption of refillable bottled water has increased considerably in emerging countries. However, the quality of this water is often questionable, as authorities lack the capacity to properly check refilling depots. Given that refillable bottled water not only replaces

  15. Changes in lens stiffness due to capsular opacification in accommodative lens refilling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nibourg, Lisanne M.; Sharma, Prashant K.; van Kooten, Theo G.; Koopmans, Steven A.

    Accommodation may be restored to presbyopic lenses by refilling the lens capsular bag with a soft polymer. After this accommodative lens refilling prevention of capsular opacification is a requirement, since capsular opacification leads to a decreased clarity of the refilled lens. It has been

  16. Relation between injected volume and optical parameters in refilled isolated porcine lenses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, SA; Terwee, T; Haitjema, HJ; Deuring, H; van Aarle, S; Kooijman, AC

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: This study was performed to elucidate the correlation between added lens refill material and enhanced lens power as well as the correlation between lens refilling volume and accommodative amplitude as determined by equatorial stretching of ex vivo refilled pigs' lenses. Methods: Nine

  17. UV curable palm oil based ink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mek Zah Salleh; Mohd Hilmi Mahmood; Khairul Zaman Mohd Dahlan; Rosley Che Ismail

    2002-01-01

    UV curable inks are useful for their instant drying, energy saving and high productivity properties. The basic materials for formulating UV curable inks consist of prepolymer, monomers, photoinitiators, pigments and other additives. The percentage composition and ingredients depend very much on the types of inks to be produced. Palm oil is one of the main raw materials available in the country. Hence, the diversification of palm oil derivatives into new products has been given priority. The current focus of the present work is to evaluate the use of palm oil urethane acrylate (POBUA) as a prepolymer in the UV ink system. A study was conducted on the use of POBUA with other materials in ink formulation. These include the types and concentration of photoinitiators, monomers and commercial urethane acrylates. The evaluation of the ink properties such as curing, adhesion, color density have been carried out. It was found that POBUA could be introduced in the UV ink system. (Author)

  18. UV curable palm oil based inks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mek Zah Salleh; Hilmi Mahmood

    2002-01-01

    UV curable inks are useful for their instant drying, energy saving and high productivity properties. The basic materials for formulating UV curable inks consist of prepolymer, monomers, photoinitiators, pigments and other additives. The percentage composition and ingredients depend very much on the types of inks to be produced. Palm oil is one of the main raw materials available in the country. Hence, the diversification of palm oil derivatives into new products has been given priority. The current focus of the present work is to evaluate the use of palm oil based urethane acrylate (POBUA) as a prepolymer in the UV inks system. A study was conducted on the use of POBUA with other materials in ink formulation. These include the types and concentration of photoinitiators, monomers and commercial urethane acrylates. The evaluation of the ink properties such as curing, adhesion, color density have been carried out. It was found that POBUA could be introduced in the UV ink system. (Author)

  19. Disparities in the Use of Internet and Telephone Medication Refills among Linguistically Diverse Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Gerardo; Lin, Elizabeth H; Chang, Eva; Johnson, Ron L; Berthoud, Heidi; Solomon, Cam C; Morales, Leo S

    2016-03-01

    Health systems are increasingly implementing remote telephone and Internet refill systems to enhance patient access to medication refills. Remote refill systems may provide an effective approach for improving medication non-adherence, but more research is needed among patients with limited English proficiency with poor access to remote refill systems. To compare the use of remote medication refill systems among limited-English-proficiency (LEP) and English-proficient (EP) patients with chronic conditions. Cross-sectional survey in six languages/dialects (English, Cantonese, Mandarin, Korean, Vietnamese, and Spanish) of 509 adults with diabetes, hypertension, or hyperlipidemia. Primary study outcomes were self-reported use of 1) Internet refills, 2) telephone refills, and 3) any remote refill system. LEP was measured by patient self-identification of a primary language other than English and a claims record of use of an interpreter. Other measures were age, gender, education, years in the U.S., insurance, health status, chronic conditions, and number of prescribed medications. Analyses included multivariable logistic regression weighted for survey non-response. Overall, 33.1 % of patients refilled their medications by telephone and 31.6 % by Internet. Among LEP patients (n = 328), 31.5 % refilled by telephone and 21.2 % by Internet, compared with 36.7 % by telephone and 52.7 % by Internet among EP patients (n = 181). Internet refill by language groups were as follows: English (52.7 %), Cantonese (34.9 %), Mandarin (17.4 %), Korean (16.7 %), Vietnamese (24.4 %), and Spanish (12.6 %). Compared to EP patients, LEP patients had lower use of any remote refill system (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.18; p use any remote medication refill system. Increased reliance on current systems for remote medication refills may increase disparities in health outcomes affecting LEP patients with poor access to telephone and Internet medication refills.

  20. Hydrodynamics of writing with ink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungchul; Moon, Myoung-Woon; Lee, Kwang-Ryeol; Mahadevan, L; Kim, Ho-Young

    2011-12-23

    Writing with ink involves the supply of liquid from a pen onto a porous hydrophilic solid surface, paper. The resulting linewidth depends on the pen speed and the physicochemical properties of the ink and paper. Here we quantify the dynamics of this process using a combination of experiment and theory. Our experiments are carried out using a minimal pen, a long narrow tube that serves as a reservoir of liquid, which can write on a model of paper, a hydrophilic micropillar array. A minimal theory for the rate of wicking or spreading of the liquid is given by balancing the capillary force that drives the liquid flow and the resistance associated with flow through the porous substrate. This allows us to predict the shape of the front and the width of the line laid out by the pen, with results that are corroborated by our experiments.

  1. Energy contribution of sugar-sweetened beverage refills at fast-food restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breck, Andrew; Cantor, Jonathan H; Elbel, Brian

    2017-09-01

    To identify demographic and consumer characteristics associated with refilling a soft drink at fast-food restaurants and the estimated energy content and volume of those refills. Logistic and linear regression with cross-sectional survey data. Data include fast-food restaurant receipts and consumer surveys collected from restaurants in New York City (all boroughs except Staten Island), and Newark and Jersey City, New Jersey, during 2013 and 2014. Fast-food restaurant customers (n 11795) from ninety-eight restaurants. Thirty per cent of fast-food customers ordered a refillable soft drink. Nine per cent of fast-food customers with a refillable soft drink reported refilling their beverage (3 % of entire sample). Odds of having a beverage refill were higher among respondents with a refillable soft drink at restaurants with a self-serve refill kiosk (adjusted OR (aOR)=7·37, Prestaurant (aOR=4·45, P<0·001). KFC (aOR=2·18, P<0·001) and Wendy's (aOR=0·41, P<0·001) customers had higher and lower odds, respectively, of obtaining a refill, compared with Burger King customers. Respondents from New Jersey (aOR=1·47, P<0·001) also had higher odds of refilling their beverage than New York City customers. Customers who got a refill obtained on average 29 more 'beverage ounces' (858 ml) and 250 more 'beverage calories' (1046 kJ) than customers who did not get a refill. Refilling a beverage was associated with having obtained more beverage calories and beverage ounces. Environmental cues, such as the placement and availability of self-serve beverage refills, may influence consumer beverage choice.

  2. Trace element ink spiking for signature authentication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatzistavros, V.S.; Kallithrakas-Kontos, N.G.

    2008-01-01

    Signature authentication is a critical question in forensic document examination. Last years the evolution of personal computers made signature copying a quite easy task, so the development of new ways for signature authentication is crucial. In the present work a commercial ink was spiked with many trace elements in various concentrations. Inorganic and organometallic ink soluble compounds were used as spiking agents, whilst ink retained its initial properties. The spiked inks were used for paper writing and the documents were analyzed by a non destructive method, the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence. The thin target model was proved right for quantitative analysis and a very good linear relationship of the intensity (X-ray signal) against concentration was estimated for all used elements. Intensity ratios between different elements in the same ink gave very stable results, independent on the writing alterations. The impact of time both to written document and prepared inks was also investigated. (author)

  3. Properties of conductive thick-film inks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtze, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    Ten different conductive inks used in the fabrication of thick-film circuits were evaluated for their physical and handling properties. Viscosity, solid contents, and spectrographic analysis of the unfired inks were determined. Inks were screened on ceramic substrates and fired for varying times at specified temperatures. Selected substrates were given additional firings to simulate the heat exposure received if thick-film resistors were to be added to the same substrate. Data are presented covering the (1) printing characteristics, (2) solderability using Sn-63 and also a 4 percent silver solder, (3) leach resistance, (4) solder adhesion, and (5) wire bonding properties. Results obtained using different firing schedules were compared. A comparison was made between the various inks showing general results obtained for each ink. The changes in firing time or the application of a simulated resistor firing had little effect on the properties of most inks.

  4. Criticality safety evaluation report for K Basin filter cartridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwinkendorf, K.N.

    1995-01-01

    A criticality safety evaluation of the K Basin filter cartridge assemblies has been completed to support operations without a criticality alarm system. The results show that for normal operation, the filter cartridge assembly is far below the safety limit of k eff = 0.95, which is applied to plutonium systems at the Hanford Site. During normal operating conditions, uranium, plutonium, and fission and corrosion products in solution are continually accumulating in the available void spaces inside the filter cartridge medium. Currently, filter cartridge assemblies are scheduled to be replaced at six month intervals in KE Basin, and at one year intervals in KW Basin. According to available plutonium concentration data for KE Basin and data for the U/Pu ratio, it will take many times the six-month replacement time for sufficient fissionable material accumulation to take place to exceed the safety limit of k eff = 0.95, especially given the conservative assumption that the presence of fission and corrosion products is ignored. Accumulation of sludge with a composition typical of that measured in the sand filter backwash pit will not lead to a k eff = 0.95 value. For off-normal scenarios, it would require at least two unlikely, independent, and concurrent events to take place before the k eff = 0.95 limit was exceeded. Contingencies considered include failure to replace the filter cartridge assemblies at the scheduled time resulting in additional buildup of fissionable material, the loss of geometry control from the filter cartridge assembly breaking apart and releasing the individual filter cartridges into an optimal configuration, and concentrations of plutonium at U/Pu ratios less than measured data for KE Basin, typically close to 400 according to extensive measurements in the sand filter backwash pit and plutonium production information

  5. Microfluidic impact printer with interchangeable cartridges for versatile non-contact multiplexed micropatterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yuzhe; Huang, Eric; Lam, Kit S; Pan, Tingrui

    2013-05-21

    Biopatterning has been increasingly used for well-defined cellular microenvironment, patterned surface topology, and guided biological cues; however, it meets challenges on biocompatibility, thermal and chemical sensitivity, as well as limited availability of reagents. In this paper, we aim at combining the desired features from non-contact inkjet printing and dot-matrix impact printing to establish a versatile multiplexed micropatterning platform, referred to as Microfluidic Impact Printer (MI-Printer), for emerging biomedical applications. Using this platform, we can achieve the distinct features of no cross-contamination, sub-microliter ink loading with a minimal dead volume, high-throughput printing, biocompatible non-contact processing, sequential patterning with self-alignment, wide adaptability for complex media (e.g., cell suspension or colloidal solutions), interchangeable/disposable cartridge design, and simple assembly and configuration, all highly desirable towards laboratory-based research and development. Specifically, the printing resolution of the MI-printer platform has been experimentally characterized and theoretically analysed. Optimal printing resolution of 80 μm has been repeatedly obtained. Furthermore, two useful functions of the MI-printer, multiplexed printing and combinatorial printing, have been experimentally demonstrated with less than 10 μm misalignment. Moreover, molecular and biological patterning, utilizing the multiplexed and combinatorial printing, has been implemented to illustrate the utility of this versatile printing technique for emerging biomedical applications.

  6. Adsorbent cartridge for the exhaust of diazo process machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michlin, N.; Thies, E.J.

    1982-01-01

    A disposable cartridge filled with a chemical composition that acts as an adsorbent for ammonia vapor is adapted to be used in connection with a diazo process printing machine having a vacuum exhausted chamber. Exhaust from the chamber is passed through the cartridge to remove the noxious ammonia vapors and then is vented into the atmosphere. The cartridge is housed in an elongated rectangular cardboard box having three end flaps formed at each of its opposed open ends. Two opposed flaps of each set are formed with central holes and a plastic screen section adhered between these flaps to retain and allow access to the center section of the box which contains the adsorbent chemical. The center end flaps have knock-outs or tear strips that allow holes to be formed in their centers. These center end flaps cover the screens during shipment and when the cartridge is ready for use the center sections of these end flaps are knocked-out to allow the machine exhaust to be vented into and out of the cartridge

  7. Uptake of water via branches helps timberline conifers refill embolized xylem in late winter

    OpenAIRE

    Schmid, Peter; Laur, Joan; Rosner, Sabine; Charra-Vaskou, Katline; Daemon, Birgit; Hacke, Uwe G.

    2014-01-01

    Xylem embolism is a limiting factor for woody species worldwide. Conifers at the alpine timberline are exposed to drought and freeze-thaw stress during winter, which induce potentially lethal embolism. Previous studies indicated that timberline trees survive by xylem refilling. In this study on Picea abies, refilling was monitored during winter and spring seasons and analyzed in the laboratory and in situ experiments, based on hydraulic, anatomical, and histochemical methods. Refilling starte...

  8. Nanoclays for polymer nanocomposites, paints, inks, greases

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... rheological modifier for paints, inks and greases, drug delivery vehicle for controlled release of therapeutic agents, and nanoclays for industrial waste water as well as potable water treatment to make further step into green environment. A little amount of nanoclay can alter the entire properties of polymers, paints, inks and ...

  9. Non-aqueous pigmented inkjet inks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEROOVER, GEERT; Bernaerts, Katrien; HOOGMARTENS, IVAN

    2009-01-01

    A non-aqueous inkjet ink comprises a benzimidazolone pigment and a polymeric dispersant according to Formula (I): wherein, T represents hydrogen or a polymerization terminating group; Z represents theA non-aqueous inkjet ink comprises a benzimidazolone pigment and a polymeric dispersant according to

  10. N -Ink Printer Characterization With Barycentric Subdivision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaei, Vahid; Hersch, Roger D

    2016-07-01

    Printing with a large number of inks, also called N -ink printing, is a challenging task. The challenges comprise spectral modeling of the printer, color separation, halftoning, and limitations of the amount of inks. Juxtaposed halftoning, a perfectly dot-off-dot halftoning method, has proved to be useful to address some of these challenges. However, for juxtaposed halftones, prediction of colors as a function of ink area coverages has not yet been fully investigated. The goal of this paper is to introduce a spectral prediction model for N -ink juxtaposed-halftone prints. As the area-coverage domain of juxtaposed inks forms a simplex, we propose a cellular subdivision of the area-coverage domain using the barycentric subdivision of simplexes. The barycentric subdivision provides algorithmically straightforward means to design and implement an N -ink color prediction model. Within the subdomain cells, the Yule-Nielsen spectral Neugebauer model is used for the spectral prediction. Our proposed model is highly accurate for prints with a large number of inks while requiring a relatively low number of calibration samples.

  11. Chromatographic and electrophoretic approaches in ink analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotnick, J A; Smith, F P

    1999-10-15

    Inks are manufactured from a wide variety of substances that exhibit very different chemical behaviors. Inks designed for use in different writing instruments or printing methods have quite dissimilar components. Since the 1950s chromatographic and electrophoretic methods have played important roles in the analysis of inks, where compositional information may have bearing on the investigation of counterfeiting, fraud, forgery, and other crimes. Techniques such as paper chromatography and electrophoresis, thin-layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, gel electrophoresis, and the relatively new technique of capillary electrophoresis have all been explored as possible avenues for the separation of components of inks. This paper reviews the components of different types of inks and applications of the above separation methods are reviewed.

  12. Uptake of water via branches helps timberline conifers refill embolized xylem in late winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Stefan; Schmid, Peter; Laur, Joan; Rosner, Sabine; Charra-Vaskou, Katline; Dämon, Birgit; Hacke, Uwe G

    2014-04-01

    Xylem embolism is a limiting factor for woody species worldwide. Conifers at the alpine timberline are exposed to drought and freeze-thaw stress during winter, which induce potentially lethal embolism. Previous studies indicated that timberline trees survive by xylem refilling. In this study on Picea abies, refilling was monitored during winter and spring seasons and analyzed in the laboratory and in situ experiments, based on hydraulic, anatomical, and histochemical methods. Refilling started in late winter, when the soil was frozen and soil water not available for the trees. Xylem embolism caused up to 86.2% ± 3.1% loss of conductivity and was correlated with the ratio of closed pits. Refilling of xylem as well as recovery in shoot conductance started in February and corresponded with starch accumulation in secondary phloem and in the mesophyll of needles, where we also observed increasing aquaporin densities in the phloem and endodermis. This indicates that active, cellular processes play a role for refilling even under winter conditions. As demonstrated by our experiments, water for refilling was thereby taken up via the branches, likely by foliar water uptake. Our results suggest that refilling is based on water shifts to embolized tracheids via intact xylem, phloem, and parenchyma, whereby aquaporins reduce resistances along the symplastic pathway and aspirated pits facilitate isolation of refilling tracheids. Refilling must be taken into account as a key process in plant hydraulics and in estimating future effects of climate change on forests and alpine tree ecosystems.

  13. Transdermal nicotine absorption handling e-cigarette refill liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, Giovanni; Castagnoli, Carlotta; Passini, Valter; Crosera, Matteo; Adami, Gianpiero; Mauro, Marcella; Filon, Francesca Larese

    2016-02-01

    The concentrated nicotine in e-cigarette refill liquids can be toxic if inadvertently ingested or absorbed through the skin. Reports of poisonings due to accidental ingestion of nicotine on refill liquids are rapidly increasing, while the evaluation of nicotine dermally absorbed still lacks. For that reason we studied transdermal nicotine absorption after the skin contamination with e-liquid. Donor chambers of eight Franz diffusion cells were filled with 1 mL of 0.8 mg/mL nicotine e-liquid for 24 h. The concentration of nicotine in the receiving phase was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (LOD:0.1 μg/mL). Nicotine was detectable in receiving solution 2 h after the start of exposure and increased progressively. The medium flux calculated was 4.82 ± 1.05 μg/cm(2)/h with a lag time of 3.9 ± 0.1 h. After 24 h, the nicotine concentration in the receiving compartment was 101.02 ± 22.35 μg/cm(2) corresponding to 3.04 mg of absorbed nicotine after contamination of a skin surface of 100 cm(2). Skin contamination with e-liquid can cause nicotine skin absorption: caution must be paid when handling refill e-liquids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Prediction of LOFT core fluid conditions during blowdown and refill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grush, W.H.; White, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    One of the primary objectives of the LOFT (Loss-of-Fluid Test) Program is to provide data required to evaluate and improve the analytical methods currently used to predict the LOCA (Loss-of-Coolant Accident) response of large pressurized water reactors. The purpose of the paper is to describe the computer modeling methods used in predicting the fluid conditions in the LOFT core during the blowdown and refill phases of a nuclear LOCE (Loss-of-Coolant Experiment). Prediction results for a LOFT nonnuclear isothermal LOCE are compared to the experimental data to illustrate the validity of the modeling choices

  15. Magazine Influence on Cartridge Case Ejection Patterns with Glock Pistols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkhoff, Wim; Alberink, Ivo; Mattijssen, Erwin J A T

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the cartridge case ejection patterns of six different Glock model pistols (one specimen per model) were compared under three conditions: firing with a loaded magazine, an empty magazine, and without magazine. The distances, covered by the ejected cartridge cases given these three conditions, were compared for each of the six models. A significant difference was found between the groups of data for each of the tested specimens. This indicates that it is important that, to reconstruct a shooting scene incident based on the ejection patterns of a pistol, test shots are fired with the same pistol type and under the correct magazine condition. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  16. Studies of Ink Trapping III Direct Detection of Small Air Bubbles in Ink Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikuo Naito

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Ink trappings were studied by using polyethylene terephthalate (PET film with black inks for offset proofing and synthetic paper. By observing printed matter from reverse side through the PET film, we detected many air bubbles in the ink layer and between the ink layer and the PET film. They are classified roughly to two groups, small number of large ones (φ = 2 - 5 μm and many small ones (φ = 0.5 - 1.0 μm. The former ones were fixed air bubbles during the trapping. The latter ones decreased according to increase the amount of ink trapped (y. Because number of the air bubbles (Nair bubble increased with increasing the ink distribution time, they seemed to be yielded by suspension of air into the ink layer during ink distribution. By observing printed surface, we also detected many ink peaks (immediately after the trapping and pinholes (at 24 h. The numbers of the ink peaks and pinholes (Nink peak and Npinhole, respectively decreased also with increasing the y value and increased with increasing the ink distribution time. We studied effects of nip width on these values (distribution time = 2 min.; nip width = 2, 3 and 4 mm. The Nair bubble value decreased with increasing nip width contrary to increase the Nink peak and Npinhole values. The effects can be represented by differences in the values of 2 and 4 mm nip widths. At y = 2 gm-2, the difference in the Nair bubble value is about one third (synthetic paper ink or a half (offset proofing ink of the difference in the Nink peak values.

  17. Bio rapid prototyping by extruding/aspirating/refilling thermoreversible hydrogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwami, K; Noda, T; Ishida, K; Umeda, N; Morishima, K; Nakamura, M

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a method for rapid prototyping of cell tissues, which is based on a system that extrudes, aspirates and refills a mixture of cells and thermoreversible hydrogel as a scaffold. In the extruding mode, a cell-mixed scaffold solution in the sol state is extruded from a cooled micronozzle into a temperature-controlled substrate, which keeps the scaffold in the gel state. In the aspiration mode, the opposite process is performed by Bernoulli suction. In the refilling mode, the solution is extruded into a groove created in the aspiration mode. The minimum width of extruded hydrogel pattern is 114 ± 15 μm by employing a nozzle of diameter 100 μm, and that of aspirated groove was 355 ± 10 μm using a 500 μm-diameter nozzle. Gum arabic is mixed with the scaffold solution to avoid peeling-off of the gel pattern from the substrate. Patterning of Sf-9 cell tissue is demonstrated, and the stability of the patterned cell is investigated. This system offers a procedure for rapid prototyping and local modification of cell scaffolds for tissue engineering.

  18. Terahertz pulse generation from metal nanoparticle ink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Kosaku; Takano, Keisuke; Tadokoro, Yuzuru; Phan, Thanh Nhat Khoa; Nakajima, Makoto

    2016-11-01

    Terahertz pulse generation from metallic nanostructures irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses is of interest because the conversion efficiency from laser pulses to terahertz waves is increased by the local field enhancement resulting from the plasmon oscillation. In this talk we present our recent study on terahertz generation from metal nanoparticle ink. We baked a silver nanoparticle ink spin-coated onto a glass coverslip in various temperatures. On the surface of the baked ink, bumpy nanostructures are spontaneously formed, and the average size of bumps depends on the baking temperature. These structures are expected to lead to local field enhancement and then large nonlinear polarizations on the surface. The baked ink was irradiated by the output of regeneratively amplified Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser at an incidence angle of 45°. Waveforms of generated terahertz pulses are detected by electro-optical sampling. The generation efficiency was high when the average diameter of bumps was around 100 nm, which is realized when the ink is baked in 205 to 235°C in our setup. One of our next research targets is terahertz wave generation from micro-patterned metallic nanoparticle ink. It is an advantage of the metal nanoparticle ink that by using inkjet printers one can fabricate various patterns with micrometer scales, in which terahertz waves have a resonance. Combination of microstructures made by a printer and nanostructure spontaneously formed in the baking process will provide us terahertz emitters with unique frequency characteristics.

  19. 76 FR 51055 - In the Matter of Certain Inkjet Ink Cartridges with Printheads and Components Thereof; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... investigation. The complaint named the following entities as respondents: MicroJet Technology Co., Ltd. of Hsinchu City, Taiwan (``MicroJet''); Asia Pacific Microsystems, Inc. of Hsinchu City, Taiwan (``APM... the investigation. Respondent MicroJet defaulted. Respondent PTC did not participate in the hearing...

  20. 42 CFR 84.194 - Filters used with chemical cartridges; location; replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...; replacement. 84.194 Section 84.194 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...; replacement. (a) Particulate matter filters used in conjunction with a chemical cartridge shall be located on... replacement on the cartridge. ...

  1. Changes in spherical aberration after lens refilling with a silicone oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong, Kwok-Hoi; Koopmans, Steven A.; Terwee, Thom; Kooijman, Aart C.

    PURPOSE. It may be possible to restore accommodation to presbyopic human eyes by refilling the lens capsular bag with a soft polymer. In the present study, optical changes were measured that occurred in a pig eye model after the refilling of the capsular bag. METHODS. The optical power and spherical

  2. The switch to refillable bottled water in Indonesia: a serious health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarulzaman, Ahmad; de Jong, Eelke; Smits, Jeroen

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, the consumption of refillable bottled water has increased considerably in emerging countries. However, the quality of this water is often questionable, as authorities lack the capacity to properly check refilling depots. Given that refillable bottled water not only replaces unimproved water sources, but also better-quality sources, like piped and branded bottled water, its increasing use poses a major health risk. We investigate the motives behind the decision to switch to refillable bottled water in Indonesia. Findings indicate that this switch is driven by lifestyle motives, as well as by cost and availability considerations. It is mostly the young affluent households who switch from piped and 'other' sources to refillable bottled water. In rural areas, the tendency to make this switch is negatively affected by availability problems and the higher price of refillable bottled water. Availability and cost also influence the switch from branded bottled to refillable bottled water, but here it is the poorer households who have a higher propensity to switch. Further exploration of the lifestyle motive and affordability issues, as well as better monitoring of the refilling depots, are needed to improve the quality of drinking water in Indonesia and other emerging countries.

  3. An intelligence ink for photocatalytic films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Andrew; Wang, Jishun; Lee, Soo-Keun; Simonsen, Morten

    2005-06-07

    An ink is described which, when printed or coated onto a photocatalyst film, changes colour irreversibly and rapidly upon UV activation of the photocatalyst film and at a rate commensurate with its activity.

  4. Tattoo inks in general usage contain nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgsberg, T; Löschner, Katrin; Löf, D

    2011-01-01

    the particle sizes in tattoo inks in general usage. Methods The particle size was measured by laser diffraction, electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Results The size of the pigments could be divided into three main classes. The black pigments were the smallest, the white pigments the largest...... in general usage is new and may contribute to the understanding of tattoo ink kinetics. How the body responds to NP tattoo pigments should be examined further....

  5. Electric treatment for hydrophilic ink deinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaotang; Hsieh, Jeffery S

    2017-09-01

    Hydrophilic inks have been widely used due to higher printing speed, competitive cost and being healthy non-organic solvents. However, they cause problems in both product quality and process runnability due to their hydrophilic surface wettability, strong negative surface charge and sub-micron size. Electric treatment was shown to be able to increase the ink sizes from 60 nm to 700 nm through electrocoagulation and electrophoresis. In addition, electric treatment assisted flotation could reduce effective residual ink concentration (ERIC) by 90 ppm, compared with only 20 ppm by traditional flotation. Furthermore, the effect of electric treatment alone on ink separation was investigated by two anode materials, graphite and stainless steel. Both of them could remove hydrophilic inks with less than 1% yield loss via electroflotation and electrophoresis. But graphite is a better material as the anode because graphite reduced ERIC by an additional 100 ppm. The yield loss of flotation following electric treatment was also lower by 17% if graphite was the anode material. The difference between the two electrode materials resulted from electrocoagulation and ink redeposition during electric treatment. An electric pretreatment-flotation-hyperwashing process was conducted to understand the deinking performance in conditions similar to a paper mill, and the ERIC was reduced from 950 ppm to less than 400 ppm.

  6. An automated quasi-continuous capillary refill timing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaxter, L L; Morris, D E; Crowe, J A; Hayes-Gill, B R; Henry, C; Hill, S; Sharkey, D; Vyas, H

    2016-01-01

    Capillary refill time (CRT) is a simple means of cardiovascular assessment which is widely used in clinical care. Currently, CRT is measured through manual assessment of the time taken for skin tone to return to normal colour following blanching of the skin surface. There is evidence to suggest that manually assessed CRT is subject to bias from ambient light conditions, a lack of standardisation of both blanching time and manually applied pressure, subjectiveness of return to normal colour, and variability in the manual assessment of time. We present a novel automated system for CRT measurement, incorporating three components: a non-invasive adhesive sensor incorporating a pneumatic actuator, a diffuse multi-wavelength reflectance measurement device, and a temperature sensor; a battery operated datalogger unit containing a self contained pneumatic supply; and PC based data analysis software for the extraction of refill time, patient skin surface temperature, and sensor signal quality. Through standardisation of the test, it is hoped that some of the shortcomings of manual CRT can be overcome. In addition, an automated system will facilitate easier integration of CRT into electronic record keeping and clinical monitoring or scoring systems, as well as reducing demands on clinicians. Summary analysis of volunteer (n  =  30) automated CRT datasets are presented, from 15 healthy adults and 15 healthy children (aged from 5 to 15 years), as their arms were cooled from ambient temperature to 5°C. A more detailed analysis of two typical datasets is also presented, demonstrating that the response of automated CRT to cooling matches that of previously published studies. (paper)

  7. Chemical Composition and Evaluation of Nicotine, Tobacco Alkaloids, pH and Selected Flavors in e-Cigarette Cartridges and Refill Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisko, Joseph G.; Tran, Hang; Stanfill, Stephen B.; Blount, Benjamin C.; Watson, Clifford H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing dramatically in developed countries, but little is known about these rapidly evolving products. This study analyzed and evaluated the chemical composition including nicotine, tobacco alkaloids, pH and flavors in 36 e-liquids brands from four manufacturers. Methods We determined the concentrations of nicotine, alkaloids, and select flavors and measured pH in solutions used in e-cigarettes. E-cigarette products were chosen based upon favorable consumer approval ratings from online review websites. Quantitative analyses were performed using strict quality assurance/quality control (QC) validated methods previously established by our lab for the measurement of nicotine, alkaloids, pH and flavors. Results Three-quarters of the products contained lower measured nicotine levels than the stated label values (6% - 42% by concentration). The pH for e-liquids ranged from 5.1 – 9.1. Minor tobacco alkaloids were found in all samples containing nicotine, and their relative concentrations varied widely among manufacturers. A number of common flavor compounds were analyzed in all e-liquids. Conclusions Free nicotine levels calculated from the measurement of pH correlated with total nicotine content. The direct correlation between the total nicotine concentration and pH suggests that the alkalinity of nicotine drives the pH of e-cigarette solutions. A higher percentage of nicotine exists in the more absorbable free form as total nicotine concentration increases. A number of products contained tobacco alkaloids at concentrations that exceed U.S. Pharmacopeia limits for impurities in nicotine used in pharmaceutical and food products. PMID:25636907

  8. Chemical Composition and Evaluation of Nicotine, Tobacco Alkaloids, pH, and Selected Flavors in E-Cigarette Cartridges and Refill Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisko, Joseph G; Tran, Hang; Stanfill, Stephen B; Blount, Benjamin C; Watson, Clifford H

    2015-10-01

    Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing dramatically in developed countries, but little is known about these rapidly evolving products. This study analyzed and evaluated the chemical composition including nicotine, tobacco alkaloids, pH, and flavors in 36 e-liquids brands from 4 manufacturers. We determined the concentrations of nicotine, alkaloids, and select flavors and measured pH in solutions used in e-cigarettes. E-cigarette products were chosen based upon favorable consumer approval ratings from online review websites. Quantitative analyses were performed using strict quality assurance/quality control validated methods previously established by our lab for the measurement of nicotine, alkaloids, pH, and flavors. Three-quarters of the products contained lower measured nicotine levels than the stated label values (6%-42% by concentration). The pH for e-liquids ranged from 5.1-9.1. Minor tobacco alkaloids were found in all samples containing nicotine, and their relative concentrations varied widely among manufacturers. A number of common flavor compounds were analyzed in all e-liquids. Free nicotine levels calculated from the measurement of pH correlated with total nicotine content. The direct correlation between the total nicotine concentration and pH suggests that the alkalinity of nicotine drives the pH of e-cigarette solutions. A higher percentage of nicotine exists in the more absorbable free form as total nicotine concentration increases. A number of products contained tobacco alkaloids at concentrations that exceed U.S. pharmacopeia limits for impurities in nicotine used in pharmaceutical and food products. © Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  9. 77 FR 11586 - Certain Toner Cartridges and Components Thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ...., Ltd., d/b/a Huebon Co., Limited, d/b/a Ink-Tank, 3/F, No. 1 Industrial Building, Pingdong 2 Road....V., Avenida del Parque 1175, Monterrey Technology Park, Cienega de Flores, Nuevo Leon, Mexico 65550...., 7611 Green Meadows Drive, Lewis Center, OH 43035. Discount Office Items, Inc., 302 Industrial Drive...

  10. Sensitivity analysis overlaps of friction elements in cartridge seals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žmindák Milan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cartridge seals are self-contained units consisting of a shaft sleeve, seals, and gland plate. The applications of mechanical seals are numerous. The most common example of application is in bearing production for automobile industry. This paper deals with the sensitivity analysis of overlaps friction elements in cartridge seal and their influence on the friction torque sealing and compressive force. Furthermore, it describes materials for the manufacture of sealings, approaches usually used to solution of hyperelastic materials by FEM and short introduction into the topic wheel bearings. The practical part contains one of the approach for measurement friction torque, which results were used to specifying the methodology and precision of FEM calculation realized by software ANSYS WORKBENCH. This part also contains the sensitivity analysis of overlaps friction elements.

  11. Combustible Cartridge Cases: Current Status and Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-01

    and presents new models of combustible cartridge case burning . Following a summary of experimental data, it concludes with proposals for further...UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED SAR NSN 7540-01-280-5500 Standard Form 298 (Rev 2-89) Precribed by ANSI Std Z39-19 IWFENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK...7 3.3 In-Depth Burning Model ........................................ 7 3.3.1 M odel A ................................................ 9 3.3.2

  12. CONSUMER SEGMENTATION OF REFILLED DRINKING WATER IN PADANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awisal Fasyni

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to analyze consumer segmentation of refilled drinking water based on their behavior and to recommend strategies for increased sales of Salju depot. The study was conducted using a survey of family and non-family consumers in Nanggalo, North Padang, West and East Padang. The respondent selection technique is using a convenience sampling, which is based on the availability of elements and easiness of obtaining these samples. The analysis used for segmentation is cluster analysis and CHAID. The results showed that there were five segments in family consumer and four segments in non-family consumer. Each family segment was different in terms of usage and consumption level, while non-family segments differ in terms of consumption duration and consumption level. Salju depot could aim market segments that provide benefits, specifically segments with high consumption levels both in family and nonfamily consumers, maintain the price and quality of the product and show the best performance in serving customers, set the open hours and optimize the messaging services.Keywords: refilled drinking water, segmentation, Padang, CHAIDABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan menganalisis segmentasi konsumen air minum isi ulang berdasarkan perilakunya dan merekomendasikan strategi peningkatan penjualan bagi depot Salju. Penelitian dilakukan dengan metode survei terhadap konsumen keluarga dan konsumen nonkeluarga di Kecamatan Nanggalo, Kecamatan Padang Utara, Kecamatan Padang Barat dan Kecamatan Padang Timur Kota Padang. Teknik pemilihan responden menggunakan convenience sampling, yaitu berdasarkan ketersediaan elemen dan kemudahan mendapatkan sampel tersebut. Analisis yang digunakan untuk segmentasi adalah analisis cluster dan CHAID Hasil penelitian menunjukkan terdapat lima segmen konsumen keluarga dan empat segmen konsumen nonkeluarga. Masing-masing segmen keluarga berbeda dalam hal penggunaan dan tingkat konsumsi, sedangkan segmen

  13. Refillable and magnetically actuated drug delivery system using pear-shaped viscoelastic membrane

    KAUST Repository

    So, Hongyun; Seo, Young Ho; Pisano, Albert P.

    2014-01-01

    We report a refillable and valveless drug delivery device actuated by an external magnetic field for on-demand drug release to treat localized diseases. The device features a pear-shaped viscoelastic magnetic membrane inducing asymmetrical

  14. Ink-Jet Printer Forms Solar-Cell Contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Paul, Jr.; Vest, R. W.; Binford, Don A.; Tweedell, Eric P.

    1988-01-01

    Contacts formed in controllable patterns with metal-based inks. System forms upper metal contact patterns on silicon photovoltaic cells. Uses metallo-organic ink, decomposes when heated, leaving behind metallic, electrically conductive residue in printed area.

  15. Challenges in automated estimation of capillary refill time in dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cugmas, Blaž; Spigulis, Janis

    2018-02-01

    Capillary refill time (CRT) is a part of the cardiorespiratory examination in dogs. Changes in CRT can reflect pathological conditions like shock or anemia. Visual CRT estimation has low repeatability; therefore, optical systems for automated estimation have recently appeared. Since existing systems are unsuitable for use in dogs, we designed a simple, small and portable device, which could be easily used at veterinary clinic. The device was preliminarily tested on several measurement sites in two dogs. Not all measurement sites were suitable for CRT measurements due to underlying tissue optical and mechanical properties. The CRT measurements were possible on the labial mucosa, above the sternum and on the digit where CRT was in the range of values, retrieved from the color video of the visual CRT measurement. It seems that light penetration predominantly governs tissue optical response when the pressure is applied. Therefore, it is important to select a proper light, which reaches only superficial capillaries and does not penetrate deeper. Blue or green light is probably suitable for light skin or mucosa, on the other hand, red or near-infrared might be used for skin with pigmented or thick epidermis. Additionally, further improvements of the device design are considered, like adding a calibrated spring, which would insure application of consistent pressure.

  16. Improved verification methods for OVI security ink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Paul G.; Markantes, Tom

    2000-04-01

    Together, OVP Security Pigment in OVI Security Ink, provide an excellent method of overt banknote protection. The effective use of overt security feature requires an educated public. The rapid rise in computer-generated counterfeits indicates that consumers are not as educate das to banknote security features as they should be. To counter the education issue, new methodologies have been developed to improve the validation of banknotes using the OVI ink feature itself. One of the new methods takes advantage of the overt nature of the product's optically variable effect. Another method utilizes the unique optical interference characteristics provided by the OVP platelets.

  17. Dynamic Colour Possibilities and Functional Properties of Thermochromic Printing Inks

    OpenAIRE

    Rahela Kulcar; Marta Klanjsek Gunde; Nina Knesaurek

    2012-01-01

    Thermochromic printing inks change their colour regarding the change in temperature and they are one of the major groups of colour-changing inks. One of the most frequently used thermochromic material in printing inks are leuco dyes. The colour of thermochromic prints is dynamic, it is not just temperature-dependent, but it also depends on thermal history. The effect is described by colour hysteresis. This paper aims at discussing general aspects of thermochromic inks, dynamic colorimetric pr...

  18. Bacterial hand contamination and transfer after use of contaminated bulk-soap-refillable dispensers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapka, Carrie A; Campbell, Esther J; Maxwell, Sheri L; Gerba, Charles P; Dolan, Michael J; Arbogast, James W; Macinga, David R

    2011-05-01

    Bulk-soap-refillable dispensers are prone to extrinsic bacterial contamination, and recent studies demonstrated that approximately one in four dispensers in public restrooms are contaminated. The purpose of this study was to quantify bacterial hand contamination and transfer after use of contaminated soap under controlled laboratory and in-use conditions in a community setting. Under laboratory conditions using liquid soap experimentally contaminated with 7.51 log(10) CFU/ml of Serratia marcescens, an average of 5.28 log(10) CFU remained on each hand after washing, and 2.23 log(10) CFU was transferred to an agar surface. In an elementary-school-based field study, Gram-negative bacteria on the hands of students and staff increased by 1.42 log(10) CFU per hand (26-fold) after washing with soap from contaminated bulk-soap-refillable dispensers. In contrast, washing with soap from dispensers with sealed refills significantly reduced bacteria on hands by 0.30 log(10) CFU per hand (2-fold). Additionally, the mean number of Gram-negative bacteria transferred to surfaces after washing with soap from dispensers with sealed-soap refills (0.06 log(10) CFU) was significantly lower than the mean number after washing with contaminated bulk-soap-refillable dispensers (0.74 log(10) CFU; P soap (P soap from bulk-soap-refillable dispensers can increase the number of opportunistic pathogens on the hands and may play a role in the transmission of bacteria in public settings.

  19. Optimization of Graphene Conductive Ink with 73 wt% Graphene Contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chang-Yan; Shi, Xiao-Mei; Guo, Lu; Wang, Xi; Wang, Xin-Yi; Li, Jian-Yu

    2018-06-01

    With the pace of development accelerating in printed electronics, the fabrication and application of conductive ink have been brought into sharp focus in recent years. The discovery of graphene also unfolded a vigorous research campaign. In this paper, we prepared graphene conductive ink and explored the feasibility of applying the ink to flexible paper-based circuit. Since experimental study concentrating upon ink formulation was insufficient, orthogonal test design was used in the optimization of preparation formula of conductive ink for the first time. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of constituent dosage on conductivity of graphene conductive ink, so as to obtain the optimized formula and prepare graphene conductive ink with good conductivity. Characterization of optimized graphene conductive ink we fabricated showed good adhesion to substrate and good resistance to acid and water. The graphene concentration of the optimized ink reached 73.17 wt% solid content. Particle size distribution of graphene conductive ink was uniform, which was about 1940 nm. Static surface tension was 28.9 mN/m and equilibrium contact angle was 23°, demonstrating that conductive ink had good wettability. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis was also investigated, moreover, the feasibility of lightening a light-emitting diode (LED) light was verified. The graphene conductive ink with optimized formula can be stored for almost eight months, which had potential applications in flexible paper-based circuit in the future.

  20. Dynamic Colour Possibilities and Functional Properties of Thermochromic Printing Inks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahela Kulcar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Thermochromic printing inks change their colour regarding the change in temperature and they are one of the major groups of colour-changing inks. One of the most frequently used thermochromic material in printing inks are leuco dyes. The colour of thermochromic prints is dynamic, it is not just temperature-dependent, but it also depends on thermal history. The effect is described by colour hysteresis. This paper aims at discussing general aspects of thermochromic inks, dynamic colorimetric properties of leuco dye-based thermochromic inks, their stability and principle of variable-temperature colour measurement. Thermochromic material is protected in round-shaped capsules. They are much larger than pigments in conventional inks. The polymer envelopes of pigment capsules are more stable against oxidation than the binder. If these envelopes are damaged, the dynamic colour is irreversibly lost. Our aim is to analyse the colorimetric properties of several reversible screen-printed UV-curing leuco dye thermochromic inks with different activation temperatures printed on paper. A small analysis of irreversible thermochromic inks will be presented for comparison with reversible thermochromic inks. Moreover, so as to show interesting possibilities, a combination of different inks was made, an irreversible thermochromic ink was printed on top of the red and blue reversible thermochromic inks. Special attention was given to the characterization of colour hysteresis and the meaning of activation temperature.

  1. Does switching contraceptive from oral to a patch or vaginal ring change the likelihood of timely prescription refill?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Amy; Lee, Yi-Chien; Gorritz, Magdaliz; Plouffe, Leo

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluated contraceptive refill patterns of women insured commercially in the US who switched from oral contraceptives (OCs) to the patch or vaginal ring and assessed if switching contraceptive methods changes refill patterns. Women aged 15-44 with ≥2 patch or ring prescriptions and ≥2 OC prescriptions before the first patch/ring prescription were identified from the MarketScan® Commercial database (1/1/2002-6/30/2011). Refill patterns 1-year pre- and postindex date (first patch/ring prescription) were evaluated, and women were categorized as timely or delayed refillers on OCs and patch/ring. Regression modeling was used to investigate the association between refill patterns and contraceptive methods and switching effects on refill patterns. Of 17,814 women identified, 7901 switched to the patch, and 9913 switched to the ring. Among timely OC refillers, the percentage of timely refills decreased (patch: 95.6% to 79.4%, pcontraceptive efficacy by simply switching to the patch or ring. The impact on timely refills of switching from OCs to either the patch or ring is complex and varies depending on the pattern of timely refills on OCs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Towards conducting inks: polypyrrole-silver colloids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Omastová, M.; Bober, Patrycja; Morávková, Zuzana; Peřinka, N.; Kaplanová, M.; Syrový, T.; Hromádková, Jiřina; Trchová, Miroslava; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 122, 10 March (2014), s. 296-302 ISSN 0013-4686 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE01020022; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00270S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : conducting inks * polypyrrole * colloids Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 4.504, year: 2014

  3. Electron Beam curing of intaglio inks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, T.

    1984-01-01

    Press trials conducted by the US Bureau of Engraving and Printing at the National Bank of Denmark in September 8-21, 1982, clearly indicated the feasibility of Electron Beam (EB) curing for web intaglio printing. These trials, some at continuous press runs of up to six hours, gave positive results for virtually all our requirements including: print quality, press speeds, ability to print both sides of the web on one pass through a press, acceptable ink curing at one megarad or less, and minimum substrate deterioration or loss of moisture. In addition, these trials demonstrated many advantages over thermal curing which is the only other alternative to two sided printing in one pass through the press. These advantages can be found in product quality, a cleaner environment, and in economics. This development program is still in progress with efforts now directed towards adapting EB ink technology to the latest developments in intaglio printing, i.e. aqueous cylinder wiping which requires EB inks to be water dispersable. Also the stability of materials in contact with EB inks is being investigated

  4. Electron beam curing of intaglio inks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, T.

    1985-01-01

    Press trials conducted by the U.S. Bureau of Engraving and Printing at the National Bank of Denmark clearly indicated the feasibility of Electron Beam (E.B.) curing for web intaglio printing . These trials, some at continuous press runs of up to six hours, gave positive results for virtually all our requirements including: print quality, press speeds, ability to print both sides of the web on one pass through a press, acceptable ink curing at one megarad or less, and minimum substrate deterioration or loss of moisture. In addition, these trials demonstrated many advantages over thermal curing which is the only other alternative to two sided printing in one pass through the press. These advantages can be found in product quality, a cleaner environment, and in economics. This development program is still in progress with efforts now directed towards adapting E.B. ink technology to the latest developments in intaglio printing, i.e. aqueous cylinder wiping which requires E.B. inks to be water dispersable. Also the stability of materials in contact with E.B. inks is being investigated. (author)

  5. Soft and probe lithography without ink transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huskens, Jurriaan; Li, X.; Péter, M.; Reinhoudt, David

    2004-01-01

    Microcontact printing (mCP) and dip-pen nanolithography (DPN) are versatile techniques for the creation of patterned surfaces. They commonly employ the transfer of an ink (e.g. a thiol) onto a surface (e.g. a gold-coated substrate) thus forming a self-assembled monolayer (SAM). Resolution of these

  6. Analysis of iron gall inks by PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budnar, Milos [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, p.p. 3000, SI-1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia)]. E-mail: milos.budnar@ijs.si; Ursic, Mitja [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, p.p. 3000, SI-1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Simcic, Jure [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, p.p. 3000, SI-1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Pelicon, Primoz [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, p.p. 3000, SI-1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kolar, Jana [National University Library, Turjaska 1, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Selih, Vid Simon [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Askerceva 5, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Strlic, Matija [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Askerceva 5, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2006-02-15

    Micro- or non-destructive analytical approach is an imperative when analysing historical artefacts. Due to its practically non-destructive character, proton induced X-ray spectrometry (PIXE) has become a method of choice for the study of historical documents. In the present paper, use of in-air PIXE method for analysis of iron gall inks applied at handwriting of documents is evaluated. The errors arising from the non-uniform ink deposit, proton penetration depth and size of the proton beam versus width of ink lines, effects of surface roughness, as well as the importance of the PIXE set-up geometry on the accuracy of the results are discussed. It follows that the main problems can be attributed to the fact that PIXE is a surface technique and that the analysis is limited to a small amount of material, while ink deposit on the paper is usually non-uniform in depth as well as on the paper surface. Despite possible systematic uncertainties when applying the PIXE method, good correlation between determinations obtained by PIXE and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) on model samples clearly demonstrate that the errors are well within a reasonable limit of a few percents.

  7. Analysis of iron gall inks by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budnar, Milos; Ursic, Mitja; Simcic, Jure; Pelicon, Primoz; Kolar, Jana; Selih, Vid Simon; Strlic, Matija

    2006-01-01

    Micro- or non-destructive analytical approach is an imperative when analysing historical artefacts. Due to its practically non-destructive character, proton induced X-ray spectrometry (PIXE) has become a method of choice for the study of historical documents. In the present paper, use of in-air PIXE method for analysis of iron gall inks applied at handwriting of documents is evaluated. The errors arising from the non-uniform ink deposit, proton penetration depth and size of the proton beam versus width of ink lines, effects of surface roughness, as well as the importance of the PIXE set-up geometry on the accuracy of the results are discussed. It follows that the main problems can be attributed to the fact that PIXE is a surface technique and that the analysis is limited to a small amount of material, while ink deposit on the paper is usually non-uniform in depth as well as on the paper surface. Despite possible systematic uncertainties when applying the PIXE method, good correlation between determinations obtained by PIXE and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) on model samples clearly demonstrate that the errors are well within a reasonable limit of a few percents

  8. NON-AQUEOUS PIGMENTED INKJET INKS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEROOVER, GEERT; Bernaerts, Katrien; HOOGMARTENS, IVAN

    2010-01-01

    A non-aqueous inkjet ink includes a benzimidazolone pigment and a polymeric dispersant according to Formula (I): wherein, T represents hydrogen or a polymerization terminating group; Z represents the residue of polyethyleneimine having a number-average molecular weight of at least 100; A represents

  9. Non-aqueous pigmented inkjet inks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HOOGMARTENS, IVAN; Bernaerts, Katrien; DEROOVER, GEERT

    2008-01-01

    A non-aqueous inkjet ink comprising C.I. Pigment Yellow 150 and a polymeric dispersant according to Formula (I): wherein, T represents hydrogen or a polymerization terminating group; Z represents the residue of polyethyleneimine having a number-average molecular weight of at least 100; A represents

  10. Direct laser printing using viscous printer's ink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasibov, A S; Bagramov, V G; Berezhnoi, K V

    2006-01-01

    The results of experiments on direct laser printing using viscous printer's ink with the help of a copper vapour laser (CVL)-based device are presented. The highly reflecting CVL cavity mirror was replaced by a spatial mirror modulator (SMM). Viscous printer's ink was used for printing. A pressure pulse produced at the boundary (on which an intensified and diminished image of the SMM was projected) between the ink and a transparency was used for transferring the ink to the plastic card. It was shown that the use of a CVL allowed a maximum printing speed of ∼80 cm 2 s -1 , a resolution of 625 dpi and up to 15 gradations. The dependence of the emission intensity of the element being projected (pixel) on its diameter is studied. It is shown that an increase in the brightness of this element with decreasing its size is caused by the summation of the laser and amplified radiation. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  11. Impact of electronic-cigarette refill liquid on rat testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Golli, N; Rahali, D; Jrad-Lamine, A; Dallagi, Y; Jallouli, M; Bdiri, Y; Ba, N; Lebret, M; Rosa, J P; El May, M; El Fazaa, S

    2016-07-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are becoming the fashionable alternative to decrease tobacco smoking, although their impact on health has not been fully assessed yet. The present study was designed to compare the impact of e-cigarette refill liquid (e-liquid) without nicotine to e-liquid with nicotine on rat testis. For this purpose, e-liquid with nicotine and e-liquid without nicotine (0.5 mg/kg of body weight) were administered to adult male Wistar rats via the intraperitoneally route during four weeks. Results showed that e-liquid with or without nicotine leads to diminished sperm density and viability, such as a decrease in testicular lactate dehydrogenase activity and testosterone level. Furthermore, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis identified a reduction in cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (P450 scc) and 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17βHSD) mRNA level, two key enzymes of steroidogenesis. Following e-liquid exposure, histopathological examination showed alterations in testis tissue marked by germ cells desquamation, disorganization of the tubular contents of testis and cell deposits in seminiferous tubules. Finally, analysis of oxidative stress status pointed an outbreak of antioxidant enzyme activities such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and gluthatione-S-transferase, as well as an important increase in sulfhydril group content. Taken together, these results indicate that e-liquid per se induces toxicity in Wistar rat testis, similar to e-liquid with nicotine, by disrupting oxidative balance and steroidogenesis.

  12. A randomized control trial evaluating fluorescent ink versus dark ink tattoos for breast radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landeg, Steven J; Kirby, Anna M; Lee, Steven F; Bartlett, Freddie; Titmarsh, Kumud; Donovan, Ellen; Griffin, Clare L; Gothard, Lone; Locke, Imogen; McNair, Helen A

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this UK study was to evaluate interfraction reproducibility and body image score when using ultraviolet (UV) tattoos (not visible in ambient lighting) for external references during breast/chest wall radiotherapy and compare with conventional dark ink. In this non-blinded, single-centre, parallel group, randomized control trial, patients were allocated to receive either conventional dark ink or UV ink tattoos using computer-generated random blocks. Participant assignment was not masked. Systematic (∑) and random (σ) setup errors were determined using electronic portal images. Body image questionnaires were completed at pre-treatment, 1 month and 6 months to determine the impact of tattoo type on body image. The primary end point was to determine that UV tattoo random error (σ setup ) was no less accurate than with conventional dark ink tattoos, i.e. tattoos. 45 patients completed treatment (UV: n = 23, dark: n = 22). σ setup for the UV tattoo group was tattoo group compared with the dark ink group at 1 month [56% (13/23) vs 14% (3/22), respectively] and 6 months [52% (11/21) vs 38% (8/21), respectively]. UV tattoos were associated with interfraction setup reproducibility comparable with conventional dark ink. Patients reported a more favourable change in body image score up to 6 months following treatment. Advances in knowledge: This study is the first to evaluate UV tattoo external references in a randomized control trial.

  13. Characteristics of a cartridge NEG (St101 Zr-Al)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hisamatsu, Hiromi; Shimamoto, Masayuki; Kanazawa, Ken-ichi; Ishimaru, Hajime

    1990-01-01

    The report addresses the application of a non-evaporable getter (NEG) pump to an accelerator (storage ring). Tests are performed to determine major characteristics of the non-evaporable getter pump in an effort to provide a method for its efficient use. Test results show that with an St101 cartridge NEG pump, it is possible to produce an ultrahigh vacuum in a system with a surface area of about 10 4 cm 2 through baking at 410K for two hours. Once activated at 1000K, a NEG pump recovers a pumping performance in a subsequent test run at 723K, though the pumping speed decreases by several tens of percent. The St-101 cartridge type NEG pump is at least 2 Pam 3 in pumping capacity for carbon monoxide. The pumping speed decreases with an increasing amount of occluded carbon monoxide. Upon activation, most of the occluded carbon monoxide diffuses into the pump while only little of it is released into the gas phase. Its diffusion through the surface of the NEG pump can occur even at room temperature, indicating that if a leak takes place, the pump would absorb the gas continuously. Thus, if a leak occurs during activation, the pump would occlude a large amount of gas and therefore, activation should be carried out with careful checking for a leak. (N.K.)

  14. Bubble Jet agent release cartridge for chemical single cell stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangler, N; Welsche, M; Blazek, M; Blessing, M; Vervliet-Scheebaum, M; Reski, R; Müller, C; Reinecke, H; Steigert, J; Roth, G; Zengerle, R; Paust, N

    2013-02-01

    We present a new method for the distinct specific chemical stimulation of single cells and small cell clusters within their natural environment. By single-drop release of chemical agents with droplets in size of typical cell diameters (d agent release cartridge with integrated fluidic structures and integrated agent reservoirs are shown, tested, and compared in this publication. The single channel setup features a fluidic structure fabricated by anisotropic etching of silicon. To allow for simultaneous release of different agents even though maintaining the same device size, the second type comprises a double channel fluidic structure, fabricated by photolithographic patterning of TMMF. Dispensed droplet volumes are V = 15 pl and V = 10 pl for the silicon and the TMMF based setups, respectively. Utilizing the agent release cartridges, the application in biological assays was demonstrated by hormone-stimulated premature bud formation in Physcomitrella patens and the individual staining of one single L 929 cell within a confluent grown cell culture.

  15. Tattoo ink nanoparticles in skin tissue and fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Colin A; Twigg, Peter C; Baker, Richard; Tobin, Desmond J

    2015-01-01

    Tattooing has long been practised in various societies all around the world and is becoming increasingly common and widespread in the West. Tattoo ink suspensions unquestionably contain pigments composed of nanoparticles, i.e., particles of sub-100 nm dimensions. It is widely acknowledged that nanoparticles have higher levels of chemical activity than their larger particle equivalents. However, assessment of the toxicity of tattoo inks has been the subject of little research and ink manufacturers are not obliged to disclose the exact composition of their products. This study examines tattoo ink particles in two fundamental skin components at the nanometre level. We use atomic force microscopy and light microscopy to examine cryosections of tattooed skin, exploring the collagen fibril networks in the dermis that contain ink nanoparticles. Further, we culture fibroblasts in diluted tattoo ink to explore both the immediate impact of ink pigment on cell viability and also to observe the interaction between particles and the cells.

  16. PIXE analysis of Italian ink drawings of the XVI century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchiatti, A.; Climent-Font, A.; Enguita, O.; Fernandez-Jimenez, M.T.; Finaldi, G.; Garrido, C.; Matillas, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    The composition of inks in a group of 24 drawings of ten XVI century Italian painters, has been determined by PIXE at the external micro-beam line of the Centro de Micro Analisis de Materiales of the Universidad Autonoma de Madrid. Ink elemental thicknesses have been determined by comparison with a set of certified thin standards. A comprehensive comparison of inks has also been performed by renormalisation of spectra and definition of an ink-to-ink distance. The elemental compositions and the ink-to-ink distances give consistent results that are generally in line with the appearance of the drawings and add relevant instrumental information to the stylistic observation, revealing for example the presence of retouches and additions in different parts of a drawing. Cluster analysis performed on a subgroup of 13 artefacts from the Genoese painter Luca Cambiaso and his school has revealed a partition that separates neatly the work of the master from that of his followers

  17. Tattoo ink nanoparticles in skin tissue and fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin A. Grant

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Tattooing has long been practised in various societies all around the world and is becoming increasingly common and widespread in the West. Tattoo ink suspensions unquestionably contain pigments composed of nanoparticles, i.e., particles of sub-100 nm dimensions. It is widely acknowledged that nanoparticles have higher levels of chemical activity than their larger particle equivalents. However, assessment of the toxicity of tattoo inks has been the subject of little research and ink manufacturers are not obliged to disclose the exact composition of their products. This study examines tattoo ink particles in two fundamental skin components at the nanometre level. We use atomic force microscopy and light microscopy to examine cryosections of tattooed skin, exploring the collagen fibril networks in the dermis that contain ink nanoparticles. Further, we culture fibroblasts in diluted tattoo ink to explore both the immediate impact of ink pigment on cell viability and also to observe the interaction between particles and the cells.

  18. Alterations in a Unique Class of Cortical Chandelier Cell Axon Cartridges in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocco, Brad R; DeDionisio, Adam M; Lewis, David A; Fish, Kenneth N

    2017-07-01

    The axons of chandelier cells (ChCs) target the axon initial segment of pyramidal neurons, forming an array of boutons termed a cartridge. In schizophrenia, the density of cartridges detectable by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) membrane transporter 1 immunoreactivity is lower, whereas the density of axon initial segments detectable by immunoreactivity for the α2 subunit of the GABA A receptor is higher in layers 2/superficial 3 of the prefrontal cortex. These findings were interpreted as compensatory responses to lower GABA levels in ChCs. However, we recently found that in schizophrenia, ChC cartridge boutons contain normal levels of the 67 kDa isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD67) protein, the enzyme responsible for GABA synthesis in these boutons. To understand these findings we quantified the densities of ChC cartridges immunoreactive for vesicular GABA transporter (vGAT+), which is present in all cartridge boutons, and the subset of cartridges that contain calbindin (CB+). Prefrontal cortex tissue sections from 20 matched pairs of schizophrenia and unaffected comparison subjects were immunolabeled for vGAT, GAD67, and CB. The mean density of vGAT+/CB+ cartridges was 2.7-fold higher, exclusively in layer 2 of schizophrenia subjects, whereas the density of vGAT+/CB- cartridges did not differ between subject groups. Neither vGAT, CB, or GAD67 protein levels per ChC bouton nor the number of boutons per cartridge differed between subject groups. Our findings of a greater density of CB+ ChC cartridges in prefrontal cortex layer 2 from schizophrenia subjects suggests that the normal developmental pruning of these cartridges is blunted in the illness. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. AMO's [Association of Municipalities of Ontario] policy on refillable beverage containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    The policy of the Association of Municipalities of Ontario (AMO) regarding refillable beverage containers is explained, and a response is made to the Ontario Soft Drink Association (OSDA's) top-up offer to municipalities. A background and overview is presented of current and historical policy on beverage containers, including measures enacted by other provinces and countries. AMO strongly urges the provincial government to increase the presence of refillable containers, first because reuse is preferrable to recycling, and second because Ontario's current recycling systems are not self-sufficient or sustainable in their present form. Refillable plastic bottles offer an opportunity for change in waste management similar to the Blue Box recycling initiative. It is recommended that the entire beverage industry voluntarily, or legislated by the provincial government, provide refillable containers as a consumer option and institute a deposit system to collect these containers. This system will promote full-cost accounting. OSDA's offer to top up Blue Box operating costs is rejected with the caveat of short-term financial agreements. The refillable concept should also be expanded to other packaged products. 2 tabs.

  20. Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy: Getting the Capillary Refill Test Under One's Thumb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henricson, Joakim; Toll John, Rani; Anderson, Chris D; Björk Wilhelms, Daniel

    2017-12-02

    The capillary refill test was introduced in 1947 to help estimate circulatory status in critically ill patients. Guidelines commonly state that refill should occur within 2 s after releasing 5 s of firm pressure (e.g., by the physician's finger) in the normal healthy supine patient. A slower refill time indicates poor skin perfusion, which can be caused by conditions including sepsis, blood loss, hypoperfusion, and hypothermia. Since its introduction, the clinical usefulness of the test has been debated. Advocates point out its feasibility and simplicity and claim that it can indicate changes in vascular status earlier than changes in vital signs such as heart rate. Critics, on the other hand, stress that the lack of standardization in how the test is performed and the highly subjective nature of the naked eye assessment, as well as the test's susceptibility to ambient factors, markedly lowers the clinical value. The aim of the present work is to describe in detail the course of the refill event and to suggest potentially more objective and exact endpoint values for the capillary refill test using diffuse polarization spectroscopy.

  1. Transdermal power transfer for recharging implanted drug delivery devices via the refill port.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Allan T; Chiravuri, Srinivas; Gianchandani, Yogesh B

    2010-04-01

    This paper describes a system for transferring power across a transdermal needle into a smart refill port for recharging implantable drug delivery systems. The device uses a modified 26 gauge (0.46 mm outer diameter) Huber needle with multiple conductive elements designed to couple with mechanical springs in the septum of the refill port of a drug delivery device to form an electrical connection that can sustain the current required to recharge a battery during a reservoir refill session. The needle is fabricated from stainless steel coated with Parylene, and the refill port septum is made from micromachined stainless steel contact springs and polydimethylsiloxane. The device properties were characterized with dry and wet ambient conditions. The needle and port pair had an average contact resistance of less than 2 Omega when mated in either environment. Electrical isolation between the system, the liquid in the needle lumen, and surrounding material has been demonstrated. The device was used to recharge a NiMH battery with currents up to 500 mA with less than 15 degrees C of resistive heating. The system was punctured 100 times to provide preliminary information with regard to device longevity, and exhibited about 1 Omega variation in contact resistance. The results suggest that this needle and refill port system can be used in an implant to enable battery recharging. This allows for smaller batteries to be used and ultimately increases the volume efficiency of an implantable drug delivery device.

  2. The endoplasmic reticulum, not the pH gradient, drives calcium refilling of lysosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrity, Abigail G; Wang, Wuyang; Collier, Crystal MD; Levey, Sara A; Gao, Qiong; Xu, Haoxing

    2016-01-01

    Impaired homeostasis of lysosomal Ca2+ causes lysosome dysfunction and lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs), but the mechanisms by which lysosomes acquire and refill Ca2+ are not known. We developed a physiological assay to monitor lysosomal Ca2+ store refilling using specific activators of lysosomal Ca2+ channels to repeatedly induce lysosomal Ca2+ release. In contrast to the prevailing view that lysosomal acidification drives Ca2+ into the lysosome, inhibiting the V-ATPase H+ pump did not prevent Ca2+ refilling. Instead, pharmacological depletion or chelation of Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Ca2+ prevented lysosomal Ca2+ stores from refilling. More specifically, antagonists of ER IP3 receptors (IP3Rs) rapidly and completely blocked Ca2+ refilling of lysosomes, but not in cells lacking IP3Rs. Furthermore, reducing ER Ca2+ or blocking IP3Rs caused a dramatic LSD-like lysosome storage phenotype. By closely apposing each other, the ER may serve as a direct and primary source of Ca2+for the lysosome. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15887.001 PMID:27213518

  3. Economical and ecological comparison of granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorber refill strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Peter; Heuer, Edda; Karl, Ute; Finkel, Michael

    2005-05-01

    Technical constraints can leave a considerable freedom in the design of a technology, production or service strategy. Choosing between economical or ecological decision criteria then characteristically leads to controversial solutions of ideal systems. For the adaptation of granular-activated carbon (GAC) fixed beds, various technical factors determine the adsorber volume required to achieve a desired service life. In considering carbon replacement and recycling, a variety of refill strategies are available that differ in terms of refill interval, respective adsorber volume, and time-dependent use of virgin, as well as recycled GAC. Focusing on the treatment of contaminant groundwater, we compare cost-optimal reactor configurations and refill strategies to the ecologically best alternatives. Costs and consumption of GAC are quantified within a technical-economical framework. The emissions from GAC production out of hard coal, transport and recycling are equally derived through a life cycle impact assessment. It is shown how high discount rates lead to a preference of small fixed-bed volumes, and accordingly, a high number of refills. For fixed discount rates, the investigation reveals that both the economical as well as ecological assessment of refill strategies are especially sensitive to the relative valuation of virgin and recycled GAC. Since recycling results in economic and ecological benefits, optimized systems thus may differ only slightly.

  4. The Dynamics of Embolism Refilling in Abscisic Acid (ABA-Deficient Tomato Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Secchi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants are in danger of embolism formation in xylem vessels when the balance between water transport capacity and transpirational demand is compromised. To maintain this delicate balance, plants must regulate the rate of transpiration and, if necessary, restore water transport in embolized vessels. Abscisic acid (ABA is the dominant long-distance signal responsible for plant response to stress, and it is possible that it plays a role in the embolism/refilling cycle. To test this idea, a temporal analysis of embolism and refilling dynamics, transpiration rate and starch content was performed on ABA-deficient mutant tomato plants. ABA-deficient mutants were more vulnerable to embolism formation than wild-type plants, and application of exogenous ABA had no effect on vulnerability. However, mutant plants treated with exogenous ABA had lower stomatal conductance and reduced starch content in the xylem parenchyma cells. The lower starch content could have an indirect effect on the plant’s refilling activity. The results confirm that plants with high starch content (moderately stressed mutant plants were more likely to recover from loss of water transport capacity than plants with low starch content (mutant plants with application of exogenous ABA or plants experiencing severe water stress. This study demonstrates that ABA most likely does not play any direct role in embolism refilling, but through the modulation of carbohydrate content, it could influence the plant’s capacity for refilling.

  5. 42 CFR 84.1155 - Filters used with canisters and cartridges; location; replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...; location; replacement. 84.1155 Section 84.1155 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1155 Filters used with canisters and cartridges; location; replacement. (a) Particulate matter filters used in conjunction with a canister or cartridge...

  6. Non-Newtonian ink transfer in gravure-offset printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghadiri, Fatemeh; Ahmed, Dewan Hasan; Sung, Hyung Jin; Shirani, Ebrahim

    2011-01-01

    The inks used in gravure-offset printing are non-Newtonian fluids with higher viscosities and lower surface tensions than Newtonian fluids. This paper examines the transfer of a non-Newtonian ink between a flat plate and a groove when the plate is moved upward with a constant velocity while the groove is held fixed. Numerical simulations were carried out with the Carreau model to explore the behavior of this non-Newtonian ink in gravure-offset printing. The volume of fluid (VOF) method was implemented to capture the interface during the ink transfer process. The effects of varying the contact angle of the ink on the flat plate and groove walls and geometrical parameters such as the groove angle and the groove depth on the breakup time of the liquid filament that forms between the plate and the groove and the ink transfer ratio were determined. Our results indicate that increasing the groove contact angle and decreasing the flat plate contact angle enhance the ink transfer ratio and the breakup time. However, increasing the groove depth and the groove angle decreases the transfer ratio and the breakup time. By optimizing these parameters, it is possible to achieve an ink transfer from the groove to the flat plate of approximately 92%. Moreover, the initial width and the vertical velocity of the neck of the ink filament have significant influences on the ink transfer ratio and the breakup time.

  7. One-Bath Pretreatment for Enhanced Color Yield of Ink-Jet Prints Using Reactive Inks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ma

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to facilely increase the color yield of ink-jet prints using reactive inks, one-bath pretreatment of cotton fabrics with pretreatment formulation containing sodium alginate, glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride (GTA, sodium hydroxide, and urea is designed for realizing sizing and cationization at the same time. The pretreatment conditions, including the concentrations of GTA and alkali, baking temperature, and time are optimized based on the result of thecolor yield on cationic cotton for magenta ink. The mechanism for color yield enhancement on GTA-modified fabrics is discussed and the stability of GTA in the print paste is investigated. Scanning electron microscopey, tear strength, and thermogravimetric analysis of the modified and unmodified cotton are studied and compared. Using the optimal pretreatment conditions, color yield on the cationic cotton for magenta, cyan, yellow, and black reactive inks are increased by 128.7%, 142.5%, 71.0%, and 38.1%, respectively, compared with the corresponding color yield on the uncationized cotton. Much less wastewater is produced using this one-bath pretreatment method. Colorfastness of the reactive dyes on the modified and unmodified cotton is compared and boundary clarity between different colors is evaluated by ink-jet printing of colorful patterns.

  8. A novel imaging technique to measure capillary-refill time: improving diagnostic accuracy for dehydration in young children with gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavit, Itai; Brant, Rollin; Nijssen-Jordan, Cheri; Galbraith, Roger; Johnson, David W

    2006-12-01

    Assessment of dehydration in young children currently depends on clinical judgment, which is relatively inaccurate. By using digital videography, we developed a way to assess capillary-refill time more objectively. Our goal was to determine whether digitally measured capillary-refill time assesses the presence of significant dehydration (> or = 5%) in young children with gastroenteritis more accurately than conventional capillary refill and overall clinical assessment. We prospectively enrolled children with gastroenteritis, 1 month to 5 years of age, who were evaluated in a tertiary-care pediatric emergency department and judged by a triage nurse to be at least mildly dehydrated. Before any treatment, we measured the weight and digitally measured capillary-refill time of these children. Pediatric emergency physicians determined capillary-refill time by using conventional methods and degree of dehydration by overall clinical assessment by using a 7-point Likert scale. Postillness weight gain was used to estimate fluid deficit; beginning 48 hours after assessment, children were reweighed every 24 hours until 2 sequential weights differed by no more than 2%. We compared the accuracy of digitally measured capillary-refill time with conventional capillary refill and overall clinical assessment by determining sensitivities, specificities, likelihood ratios, and area under the receiver operator characteristic curves. A total of 83 patients were enrolled and had complete follow-up; 13 of these patients had significant dehydration (> or = 5% of body weight). The area under the receiver operator characteristic curves for digitally measured capillary-refill time and overall clinical assessment relative to fluid deficit ( or = 5%) were 0.99 and 0.88, respectively. Positive likelihood ratios were 11.7 for digitally measured capillary-refill time, 4.5 for conventional capillary refill, and 4.1 for overall clinical assessment. Results of this prospective cohort study suggest

  9. Inkjet printed electronics using copper nanoparticle ink

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Jin Sung; Kim, Hak Sung; Ryu, Jongeun; Thomas Hahn, H.; Jang, Seonhee; Joung, Jae Woo

    2010-01-01

    Inkjet printing of electrode using copper nanoparticle ink is presented. Electrode was printed on a flexible glass epoxy composite substrate using drop on demand piezoelectric dispenser and was sintered at 200 °C of low temperature in N2 gas condition. The printed electrodes were made with various widths and thickness. In order to control the thickness of the printed electrode, number of printing was varied. Resistivity of printed electrode was calculated from the cross-sectional area measure...

  10. Advanced verification methods for OVI security ink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Paul G.; McCaffery, Shaun F.; Markantes, Tom

    2006-02-01

    OVI security ink +, incorporating OVP security pigment* microflakes, enjoys a history of effective document protection. This security feature provides not only first-line recognition by the person on the street, but also facilitates machine-readability. This paper explores the evolution of OVI reader technology from proof-of-concept to miniaturization. Three different instruments have been built to advance the technology of OVI machine verification. A bench-top unit has been constructed which allows users to automatically verify a multitude of different banknotes and OVI images. In addition, high speed modules were fabricated and tested in a state of the art banknote sorting machine. Both units demonstrate the ability of modern optical components to illuminate and collect light reflected from the interference platelets within OVI ink. Electronic hardware and software convert and process the optical information in milliseconds to accurately determine the authenticity of the security feature. Most recently, OVI ink verification hardware has been miniaturized and simplified providing yet another platform for counterfeit protection. These latest devices provide a tool for store clerks and bank tellers to unambiguously determine the validity of banknotes in the time period it takes the cash drawer to be opened.

  11. Bacterial Hand Contamination and Transfer after Use of Contaminated Bulk-Soap-Refillable Dispensers▿†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapka, Carrie A.; Campbell, Esther J.; Maxwell, Sheri L.; Gerba, Charles P.; Dolan, Michael J.; Arbogast, James W.; Macinga, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Bulk-soap-refillable dispensers are prone to extrinsic bacterial contamination, and recent studies demonstrated that approximately one in four dispensers in public restrooms are contaminated. The purpose of this study was to quantify bacterial hand contamination and transfer after use of contaminated soap under controlled laboratory and in-use conditions in a community setting. Under laboratory conditions using liquid soap experimentally contaminated with 7.51 log10 CFU/ml of Serratia marcescens, an average of 5.28 log10 CFU remained on each hand after washing, and 2.23 log10 CFU was transferred to an agar surface. In an elementary-school-based field study, Gram-negative bacteria on the hands of students and staff increased by 1.42 log10 CFU per hand (26-fold) after washing with soap from contaminated bulk-soap-refillable dispensers. In contrast, washing with soap from dispensers with sealed refills significantly reduced bacteria on hands by 0.30 log10 CFU per hand (2-fold). Additionally, the mean number of Gram-negative bacteria transferred to surfaces after washing with soap from dispensers with sealed-soap refills (0.06 log10 CFU) was significantly lower than the mean number after washing with contaminated bulk-soap-refillable dispensers (0.74 log10 CFU; P soap (P soap from bulk-soap-refillable dispensers can increase the number of opportunistic pathogens on the hands and may play a role in the transmission of bacteria in public settings. PMID:21421792

  12. Theoretical Study on the Flow of Refilling Stage in a Safety Injection Tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jun Sang [Halla Univ. Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-10-15

    In this study, a theoretical analysis was performed to the flow of refilling stage in a safety injection tank, which is the core cooling system of nuclear power plant in an emergency. A theoretical model was proposed with a nonlinear governing equation defining on the flow of the refilling process of the coolant. Utilizing the Taylor-series expansion, the 1st - order approximation flow equation was obtained, along with its analytic solution of closed type, which could predict accurately the variations of free surface height and flow rate of the coolant. The availability of theoretical result was confirmed by comparing with previous experimental results.

  13. Improving Refill Adherence in Medicare Patients With Tailored and Interactive Mobile Text Messaging: Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Erwin W; Feger, Erin; Noble, Harmony K; Kmiec, Magdalen; Prayaga, Ram S

    2018-01-01

    Background Nonadherence is a major concern in the management of chronic conditions such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes where patients may discontinue or interrupt their medication for a variety of reasons. Text message reminders have been used to improve adherence. However, few programs or studies have explored the benefits of text messaging with older populations and at scale. In this paper, we present a program design using tailored and interactive text messaging to improve refill rates of partially adherent or nonadherent Medicare members of a large integrated health plan. Objective The aim of this 3-month program was to gain an understanding of whether tailored interactive text message dialogues could be used to improve medication refills in Medicare patients with one or more chronic diseases. Methods We used the mPulse Mobile interactive text messaging solution with partially adherent and nonadherent Medicare patients (ie, over age 65 years or younger with disabilities) of Kaiser Permanente Southern California (KP), a large integrated health plan, and compared refill rates of the text messaging group (n=12,272) to a group of partially adherent or nonadherent Medicare patients at KP who did not receive text messages (nontext messaging group, n=76,068). Both groups were exposed to other forms of refill and adherence outreach including phone calls, secure emails, and robo-calls from December 2016 to February 2017. Results The text messaging group and nontext messaging group were compared using an independent samples t test to test difference in group average of refill rates. There was a significant difference in medication refill rates between the 2 groups, with a 14.07 percentage points higher refill rate in the text messaging group (Pimprove medication refill rates among Medicare patients. These findings also support using interactive text messaging as a cost-effective, convenient, and user-friendly solution for patient engagement

  14. Non-destructive study of iron gall inks in manuscripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duh, Jelena; Krstić, Dragica; Desnica, Vladan; Fazinić, Stjepko

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this research is to establish an effective procedure of iron gall ink characterization using complementary non-destructive methods. By this, it is possible to better understand correlation of chemical composition of the inks and the state of preservation of iron gall ink manuscripts, as well as the effects of conservation treatment performed upon them. This study was undertaken on a bound 16th century manuscript comprised of different types of paper and ink from the National and University Library in Zagreb. Analytical methods used included Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF). Paper fibers were identified by optical microscopy and the degradation state, as well as ink differentiation, transit metal migrations and detection of stains, with ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) photography. The techniques applied on original writing materials gave important information about paper and ink composition, its preservation state and efficiency of conservation treatment performed upon them.

  15. Graphene Ink Film Based Electrochemical Detector for Paracetamol Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Fu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphene ink is a commercialized product in the graphene industry with promising potential application in electronic device design. However, the limitation of the graphene ink is its low electronic performance due to the ink preparation protocol. In this work, we proposed a simple post-treatment of graphene ink coating via electrochemical oxidation. The electronic conductivity of the graphene ink coating was enhanced as expected after the treatment. The proposed electrochemical oxidation treatment also exposes the defects of graphene and triggered an electrocatalytic reaction during the sensing of paracetamol (PA. The overpotential of redox is much lower than conventional PA redox potential, which is favorable for avoiding the interference species. Under optimum conditions, the graphene ink-based electrochemical sensor could linearly detect PA from 10 to 500 micro molar (μM, with a limit of detection of 2.7 μM.

  16. Antibacterial Activity of Melanin from Cuttlefish and Squid Ink

    OpenAIRE

    Yuspihana Fitrial; Iin Khusnul Khotimah

    2017-01-01

    Marine environment comprises of many organism which are known to posses bioactive compound as a common means of self-defense or for the protection of eggs and embryos. Class Cephalopods (such as squidand cuttlefish) are notable for their defences, such as jetting escape movements, changes in colouration, toxic venom and inking.This study aims to compare the antibacterial activity of melanin from cuttlefish ink (Sepia sp.) with squid ink (Loligo sp.) against E. coli. Extraction and purificatio...

  17. Tintas Ink-Jet para Decoracion 3D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spain S.A., Ferro

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A new set of different ink-jet inks to be apply as a 3D object and extrafine layers to protect the decoration made by ink-jet technology. These new inks are obtained through the development of new frits based on monophasic crystal vitro structures that allows ceramic effects obtained via digital decoration. The new inks improve the ability of application by ink-jet heads in order to achieve aesthetics and decorative effects than those obtained with conventional decoration.

    Se han desarrollado un conjunto de diferentes tintas ink-jet, para aplicar como objeto 3D y capas extrafinas con el fin de proteger la decoración realizada mediante tecnología ink-jet. Estas nuevas tintas se obtienen a través del desarrollo de nuevas fritas basadas en estructuras vitro cristalinas monofásicas que permiten obtener efectos cerámicos mediante decoración digital. Las nuevas tintas mejoran la capacidad de aplicación mediante cabezales ink-jet con el fin de conseguir efectos estéticos y decorativos superiores a los obtenidos con la decoración convencional.

  18. Problems with ink skin markings for radiation field setups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endoh, Masaru; Saeki, Mituaki; Ishida, Yusei

    1982-01-01

    Ink skin markings are used in radiation therapy to aid in reproduction of treatment field setups or to indelibly outline field markings or tumors. We reported two cases of indelible ink skin for radiation field septa with minimal discomfort and dermatitis have been experienced for 6 months and above since end of radiotherapy. These indelible ink skin markings look like tattoo that will be big problems in the case of young female. We improved these problems by using of 10 percent silver nitrate instead of habitual skin ink. (author)

  19. New Yellow Synergist for Stable Pigment Dispersion of Inkjet Ink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Gihyun; Lee, Hayoon; Jung, Hyocheol; Kang, Seokwoo; Park, Jongwook

    2018-02-01

    Minimizing ink droplet and self-dispersed pigment mixture are becoming hot issues for high resolution of inkjet printing. New synergist including sulfonic acid group of PY-74 was suggested and synthesized. Pigment itself did not show water solubility but new synergist, SY-11 exhibited good solubility in water and organic solvents such as DMSO and DMF. When aqueous pigment ink was prepared with SY-11, storage stability of the ink has been remained for 7 days under periodically repeated heating and cooling conditions. Particle size of formulated ink was around 150 nm.

  20. Rapid laser sintering of metal nano-particles inks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermak, Oleg; Zenou, Michael; Toker, Gil Bernstein; Ankri, Jonathan; Shacham-Diamand, Yosi; Kotler, Zvi

    2016-09-23

    Fast sintering is of importance in additive metallization processes and especially on sensitive substrates. This work explores the mechanisms which set limits to the laser sintering rate of metal nano-particle inks. A comparison of sintering behavior of three different ink compositions with laser exposure times from micro-seconds to seconds reveals the dominant factor to be the organic content (OC) in the ink. With a low OC silver ink, of 2% only, sintering time falls below 100 μs with resistivity <×4 bulk silver. Still shorter exposure times result in line delamination and deformation with a similar outcome when the OC is increased.

  1. Evaluation and comparison of a national made dental cartridge with two foreign made

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Hashemi H

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Several factories produce dental cartridge in the world. In Iran, Daroupakhsh company is responsible for this task. The aim of this study was evaluate some properties of daroupakhsh cartridge and compare them with two imported ones: Ecocaine (made in Italy and Septodont (made in France. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 70 healthy patients from maxillofacial clinic of Shariaty hospital were selected. After obtaining informed consent, 0.1 cc of each carpule was injected to the patients' frontal region and the extent of anesthesia was measured at different time intervals. Also the quality of injections was evaluated by 11 surgeons. The dimensions of the three cartridges were also measured and compared together. Data were analyzed by repeated measure ANOVA and Friedman with p<0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: There was no significant difference in extent and duration of anesthesia among the studied cartridges. Surgeons were equally satisfied of all three kinds of cartridges. All of the cartridges were aspirable. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, the three studied cartridges had similar properties.

  2. Airflow obstruction among street vendors who refill cigarette lighters with liquefied petroleum gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moitra, S; Blanc, P D; Brashier, B B

    2014-09-01

    Manual cigarette lighter refilling with butane/propane admixed liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is a common low-income occupation in India. This practice may cause adverse health effects from LPG exposure among such workers. To assess respiratory status among LPG-exposed workers and non-exposed controls. We quantified the exposure and evaluated respiratory symptoms and lung function among 113 LPG refilling workers (aged 41.9±9.9 years) and 79 controls (aged 40.8±7.2 years). We used multiple linear regression analysis to estimate the LPG exposure response within the group of refilling workers, adjusting for age, height and smoking status. Compared to the controls, the LPG-exposed lighter refillers manifested a 190 ml decrement in 1-second forced expiratory volume (FEV1) (2.55±0.4 vs. 2.26±0.3 l) and a 6% decrement in FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) (both P decrements. This adverse effect may be relevant to other occupational groups heavily exposed to volatile hydrocarbons, especially those in marginal employment sectors.

  3. Effect of infusion bottle height on lens power after lens refilling with and without a plug

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, SA; Terwee, T; Haitjema, HJ; Kooijman, AC; Barkhof, J

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the influence of intraoperative infusion bottle height on the power of refilled pig lenses. Setting: Research Laboratory, Pharmacia Intraocular Lens Manufacturing Plant, Groningen, The Netherlands. Methods: This study comprised 2 groups of pig eyes. In 1 group, the lens was

  4. 40 CFR 165.65 - Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide products in refillable containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... formula that is required under FIFRA section 3. (c) What information must I develop? For each pesticide... its confidential statement of formula that is required under FIFRA section 3. (ii) If the refilling..., metal fatigue, damaged threads or closures, or other significant defects. (iii) The container has cracks...

  5. A granular refillable filter for glas-flows contaminated by radioactive impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonn, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    Description is given of a granular charcoal refillable filter adapted to adsorb the radioactive impurities of a gaseous flow. That flow comprises a number of filtering layers, the consumed charcoal of which can be discharged by a pneumatic device without exposing the personnel to radioactivity. This can be applied to emergency devices in nuclear facilities [fr

  6. Comparison of various measures for assessing medication refill adherence using prescription data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, N. M.; Klungel, O. H.; Stolk, R. P.; Denig, P.

    Background Several measures using prescription data have been developed for estimating medication refill adherence. Few Studies have made direct comparisons, and little is known about the accuracy of these measures in patients oil a multiple-drug regimen. Purpose To compare different calculation

  7. Digital decoration by continuous ink jet system for ceramic products based in water inks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colores Ceramicos, S. A.; Talleres Foro, S. L.

    2010-01-01

    A new continuous ink jet system for digital ceramic decoration using water based dispersed ceramic pigment has been developed, that increases drastically the sustainability of the process. During the development of this work, different equipment for any application and the consumables and design tools have been also developed. (Author)

  8. A magnetic nano-particle ink for tunable microwave applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffar, Farhan A.; Vaseem, Mohammad; Shamim, Atif

    2016-01-01

    fully printed multilayer fabrication process is demonstrated where the substrate is also realized through printing. A novel Fe2O3 based magnetic ink is used as a substrate while an in-house silver organo complex (SOC) ink is developed for metallic layers

  9. Nanoparticle separation with a miniaturized asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation cartridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, David; Cattaneo, Stefano; Meier, Florian; Welz, Roland; deMello, Andrew

    2015-07-01

    Asymmetrical Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (AF4) is a separation technique applicable to particles over a wide size range. Despite the many advantages of AF4, its adoption in routine particle analysis is somewhat limited by the large footprint of currently available separation cartridges, extended analysis times and significant solvent consumption. To address these issues, we describe the fabrication and characterization of miniaturized AF4 cartridges. Key features of the scale-down platform include simplified cartridge and reagent handling, reduced analysis costs and higher throughput capacities. The separation performance of the miniaturized cartridge is assessed using certified gold and silver nanoparticle standards. Analysis of gold nanoparticle populations indicates shorter analysis times and increased sensitivity compared to conventional AF4 separation schemes. Moreover, nanoparticulate titanium dioxide populations exhibiting broad size distributions are analyzed in a rapid and efficient manner. Finally, the repeatability and reproducibility of the miniaturized platform are investigated with respect to analysis time and separation efficiency.

  10. Surface Patterning Using Diazonium Ink Filled Nanopipette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Min; Yu, Yun; Blanchard, Pierre-Yves; Mirkin, Michael V

    2015-11-03

    Molecular grafting of diazonium is a widely employed surface modification technique. Local electrografting of this species is a promising approach to surface doping and related properties tailoring. The instability of diazonium cation complicates this process, so that this species was generated in situ in many reported studies. In this Article, we report the egress transfer of aryl diazonium cation across the liquid/liquid interface supported at the nanopipette tip that can be used for controlled delivery this species to the external aqueous phase for local substrate patterning. An aryl diazonium salt was prepared with weakly coordinating and lipophilic tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate anion stable as a solid and soluble in low polarity media. The chemically stable solution of this salt in 1,2-dichloroethane can be used as "diazonium ink". The ink-filled nanopipette was employed as a tip in the scanning electrochemical microscope (SECM) for surface patterning with the spatial resolution controlled by the pipette orifice radius and a few nanometers film thickness. The submicrometer-size grafted spots produced on the HOPG surface were located and imaged with the atomic force microscope (AFM).

  11. A magnetic nano-particle ink for tunable microwave applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffar, Farhan A.

    2016-12-19

    Inkjet printing or printing for realization of inexpensive and large area electronics has unearthed as an attractive fabrication technique. Though at present, mostly the metallic inks are printed on regular microwave substrates. In this paper, a fully printed multilayer fabrication process is demonstrated where the substrate is also realized through printing. A novel Fe2O3 based magnetic ink is used as a substrate while an in-house silver organo complex (SOC) ink is developed for metallic layers. Complete magnetostatic and microwave characterization of the ink is presented. At the end, a tunable patch antenna is shown as an application using the magnetic ink as the substrate. The antenna shows a tuning range of 12.5 % for a magnetic field strength of 3 kOe.

  12. The Diagnostic Value of Capillary Refill Time for Detecting Serious Illness in Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Susannah; Gill, Peter; Jones, Caroline; Taylor, James A.; Van den Bruel, Ann; Heneghan, Carl; Roberts, Nia; Thompson, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Importance Capillary refill time (CRT) is widely recommended as part of the routine assessment of unwell children. Objective To determine the diagnostic value of capillary refill time for a range of serious outcomes in children. Methods We searched Medline, Embase and CINAHL from inception to June 2014. We included studies that measured both capillary refill time and a relevant clinical outcome such as mortality, dehydration, meningitis, or other serious illnesses in children aged up to 18 years of age. We screened 1,265 references, of which 24 papers were included in this review. Where sufficient studies were available, we conducted meta-analysis and constructed hierarchical summary ROC curves. Results Meta-analysis on the relationship between capillary refill time and mortality resulted in sensitivity of 34.6% (95% CI 23.9 to 47.1%), specificity 92.3% (88.6 to 94.8%), positive likelihood ratio 4.49 (3.06 to 6.57), and negative likelihood ratio 0.71 (0.60 to 0.84). Studies of children attending Emergency Departments with vomiting and diarrhea showed that capillary refill time had specificity of 89 to 94% for identifying 5% dehydration, but sensitivity ranged from 0 to 94%. This level of heterogeneity precluded formal meta-analysis of this outcome. Meta-analysis was not possible for other outcomes due to insufficient data, but we found consistently high specificity for a range of outcomes including meningitis, sepsis, admission to hospital, hypoxia, severity of illness and dengue. Conclusions Our results show that capillary refill time is a specific sign, indicating that it can be used as a “red-flag”: children with prolonged capillary refill time have a four-fold risk of dying compared to children with normal capillary refill time. The low sensitivity means that a normal capillary refill time should not reassure clinicians. PMID:26375953

  13. Respiratory failure following delayed intrathecal morphine pump refill: a valuable, but costly lesson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Xiulu; Couch, J Patrick; Liu, HaiNan; Shah, Rinoo V; Wang, Frank; Chiravuri, Srinivas

    2010-01-01

    Spinal analgesia, mediated by opioid receptors, requires only a fraction of the opioid dose that is needed systemically. By infusing a small amount of opioid into the cerebrospinal fluid in close proximity to the receptor sites in the spinal cord, profound analgesia may be achieved while sparing some of the side effects due to systemic opioids. Intraspinal drug delivery (IDD) has been increasingly used in patients with intractable chronic pain, when these patients have developed untoward side effects with systemic opioid usage. The introduction of intrathecal opioids has been considered one of the most important breakthroughs in pain management in the past three decades. A variety of side effects associated with the long-term usage of IDD have been recognized. Among them, respiratory depression is the most feared. To describe a severe adverse event, i.e., respiratory failure, following delayed intrathecal morphine pump refill. A 65-year-old woman with intractable chronic low back pain, due to degenerative disc disease, and was referred to our clinic for an intraspinal drug delivery evaluation, after failing to respond to multidisciplinary pain treatment. Following a psychological evaluation confirming her candidacy, she underwent an outpatient patient-controlled continuous epidural morphine infusion trial. The infusion trial lasted 12 days and was beneficial in controlling her pain. The patient reported more than 90% pain reduction with improved distance for ambulation. She subsequently consented and was scheduled for permanent intrathecal morphine pump implantation. The intrathecal catheter was inserted at right paramedian L3-L4, with catheter tip advanced to L1, confirmed under fluoroscopy. Intrathecal catheter placement was confirmed by positive CSF flow and by myelogram. A non-programmable Codman 3000 constant-flow rate infusion pump was placed in the right mid quandrant between right rib cage and right iliac crest. The intrathecal infusion consisted of

  14. The indicating FTA elute cartridge a solid sample carrier to detect high-risk HPV and high-grade cervical lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bie, R.P. de; Schmeink, C.E.; Bakkers, J.M.J.E.; Snijders, P.J.L.M.; Quint, W.G.V.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Bekkers, R.L.M.; Melchers, W.J.G.

    2011-01-01

    The clinically validated high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) and GP5+/6+-PCR assays were analyzed on an Indicating FTA Elute cartridge (FTA cartridge). The FTA cartridge is a solid dry carrier that allows safe transport of cervical samples. FTA cartridge samples were

  15. Forensic examination of ink by high-performance thin layer chromatography--the United States Secret Service Digital Ink Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Cedric; Ramotowski, Robert; Genessay, Thibault

    2011-05-13

    Forensic examinations of ink have been performed since the beginning of the 20th century. Since the 1960s, the International Ink Library, maintained by the United States Secret Service, has supported those analyses. Until 2009, the search and identification of inks were essentially performed manually. This paper describes the results of a project designed to improve ink samples' analytical and search processes. The project focused on the development of improved standardization procedures to ensure the best possible reproducibility between analyses run on different HPTLC plates. The successful implementation of this new calibration method enabled the development of mathematical algorithms and of a software package to complement the existing ink library. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of biometric DNA ink for authentication security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiyada, Masaki

    2004-10-01

    Among the various types of biometric personal identification systems, DNA provides the most reliable personal identification. It is intrinsically digital and unchangeable while the person is alive, and even after his/her death. Increasing the number of DNA loci examined can enhance the power of discrimination. This report describes the development of DNA ink, which contains synthetic DNA mixed with printing inks. Single-stranded DNA fragments encoding a personalized set of short tandem repeats (STR) were synthesized. The sequence was defined as follows. First, a decimal DNA personal identification (DNA-ID) was established based on the number of STRs in the locus. Next, this DNA-ID was encrypted using a binary, 160-bit algorithm, using a hashing function to protect privacy. Since this function is irreversible, no one can recover the original information from the encrypted code. Finally, the bit series generated above is transformed into base sequences, and double-stranded DNA fragments are amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to protect against physical attacks. Synthesized DNA was detected successfully after samples printed in DNA ink were subjected to several resistance tests used to assess the stability of printing inks. Endurance test results showed that this DNA ink would be suitable for practical use as a printing ink and was resistant to 40 hours of ultraviolet exposure, performance commensurate with that of photogravure ink. Copyright 2004 Tohoku University Medical Press

  17. Electron beam hardening type copper plate printing ink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Eiji; Inoue, Mitsuo; Kusaki, Satoichiro

    1989-01-01

    Copper plate printing is the printing method of filling ink in the parts of concave printing elements on a type area, and transferring the ink to a base, and it is the feature that the ink in the printing element parts of a print rises. Copper plate prints show profound feeling, in addition, its effect of preventing forgery is high. This method is generally called engraving printing, and is used frequently for printing various bills and artistic prints. The electron beam irradiation apparatus installed in the laboratory of the Printing Bureau, Ministry of Finance, is an experimental machine of area beam type, and is so constructed as to do batch conveyance and web conveyance. As the ink in printing element parts rises, the offset at the delivery part of a printing machine becomes a problem. Electron beam is superior in its transparency, and can dry instantaneously to the inside of opaque ink. At 200 kV of acceleration voltage, the ink of copper plate prints can be hardened by electron beam irradiation. The dilution monomers as the vehicle for ink were tested for their dilution capability and the effect of electron beam hardening. The problem in the utilization of electron beam is the deterioration of papers, and the counter-measures were tested. (K.I.)

  18. PIXE analysis of Italian ink drawings of the XVI century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchiatti, A.; Climent-Font, A.; Enguita, O.; Fernandez-Jimenez, M. T.; Finaldi, G.; Garrido, C.; Matillas, J. M.

    2005-10-01

    The composition of inks in a group of 24 drawings of ten XVI century Italian painters, has been determined by PIXE at the external micro-beam line of the Centro de Micro Análisis de Materiales of the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid. Ink elemental thicknesses have been determined by comparison with a set of certified thin standards. A comprehensive comparison of inks has also been performed by renormalisation of spectra and definition of an ink-to-ink distance. The elemental compositions and the ink-to-ink distances give consistent results that are generally in line with the appearance of the drawings and add relevant instrumental information to the stylistic observation, revealing for example the presence of retouches and additions in different parts of a drawing. Cluster analysis performed on a subgroup of 13 artefacts from the Genoese painter Luca Cambiaso and his school has revealed a partition that separates neatly the work of the master from that of his followers.

  19. Microbial status and product labelling of 58 original tattoo inks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høgsberg, T; Saunte, D M; Frimodt-Møller, N; Serup, J

    2013-01-01

    European Council resolutions on tattoo ink introduce sterility and preservation of inks to protect customers. Inks used in Denmark are typically purchased over the internet from international suppliers and manufacturers from the US and the UK. In Denmark tattoo inks are regulated and labelled according to REACH as if they were plain chemicals. The objective of this study was to check the microbial product safety of unopened and opened tattoo ink stock bottles. Packaging, labelling, preservation, sterility and contamination with micro-organisms were studied. Physical inspection and culture of bacteria and fungi. Six of 58 unopened stock bottles (10%) were contaminated with bacteria and one of six samples (17%) of previously used stock bottles was contaminated. The bacterial species represented bacteria considered pathogenic in humans as well as non-pathogenic environmental bacteria. Yeast or moulds were detected in none of the samples. A total of 31% of the manufacturers informed only about the brand name. No information about content, sterility, risks or expiry date was indicated on the label. A total of 42% claimed sterility of their inks. A total of 54% labelled a maximum period of durability of typically 2-3 years. The physical sealing was leaking in 28% of the products. The European Council resolutions regarding safety of tattoo inks are not effective. Stock bottles of tattoo ink may contain bacteria pathogenic to humans and environmental bacteria, and packaging, labelling and preservation of inks are of inadequate quality. Claim of sterility can be erroneous. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2011 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  20. Bacterial Hand Contamination and Transfer after Use of Contaminated Bulk-Soap-Refillable Dispensers▿†

    OpenAIRE

    Zapka, Carrie A.; Campbell, Esther J.; Maxwell, Sheri L.; Gerba, Charles P.; Dolan, Michael J.; Arbogast, James W.; Macinga, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Bulk-soap-refillable dispensers are prone to extrinsic bacterial contamination, and recent studies demonstrated that approximately one in four dispensers in public restrooms are contaminated. The purpose of this study was to quantify bacterial hand contamination and transfer after use of contaminated soap under controlled laboratory and in-use conditions in a community setting. Under laboratory conditions using liquid soap experimentally contaminated with 7.51 log10 CFU/ml of Serratia marcesc...

  1. Compact and Robust Refilling and Connectorization of Hollow Core Photonic Crystal Fiber Gas Reference Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poberezhskiy, Ilya Y.; Meras, Patrick; Chang, Daniel H.; Spiers, Gary D.

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews a method for refilling and connectorization of hollow core photonic crystal fiber gas reference cells. Thees hollow-core photonic crystal fiber allow optical propagation in air or vacuum and are for use as gas reference cell is proposed and demonstrated. It relies on torch-sealing a quartz filling tube connected to a mechanical splice between regular and hollow-core fibers.

  2. 40 CFR 447.10 - Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash ink subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-base solvent wash ink subcategory. 447.10 Section 447.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...-Base Solvent Wash Ink Subcategory § 447.10 Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash ink...-base ink where the tank washing system uses solvents. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations...

  3. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of squid ink powder

    OpenAIRE

    Fatimah Zaharah, M.Y.; Rabeta, M.S.

    2017-01-01

    Economic development in Malaysia has led to increasing quantity and complexity of generated waste or by-product. The main objective of this study is to investigate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of squid ink powder. The squid ink was collected from fresh squid and dried using freeze dryer before it was ground into powder. The yield of squid ink was 22.82% after freeze-drying which was 69.37g in amount. Proximate composition analysis as well as two total antioxidant activity assa...

  4. Analysis of Printing Substrate, Ink Age and Number of IR Drying Influence on Electrical Resistance of Conductive Inks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Jerić

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available As a result of availability of new technologies, functional printing as a segment has become one of the most interesting directions of research and development in graphic technology. Conductive inks are not a novelty and they already have broad possibilities in production of everyday products. There is still a big market for the broadening of their use, as well as a possibility of further enhancing their properties. This paper analyzes the influence of printing substrate, age of ink and the number of IR drying on the electrical resistance of the conductive inks. In the paper, subject of analysis was the change of electrical resistance in the line that was 9 cm long and 10 typographic points wide. The semi-automated screen-printing machine was used for printing. Three types of printing substrates were used; uncoated, coated and recycled paper. Two types of inks were used; newly opened ink and ink that was out of date for half year. After the printing, prints were dried using the IR dryer. Prints were dried once, and then additional three times. After the first and last drying, multimeter was used to measure electrical resistance of the lines. Analysis of the data shows that the older ink produces prints with higher electrical resistance. There are also notable differences in the electrical resistance based on the printing substrate.

  5. Synthesis of IGZO ink and study of ink-jet printed IGZO thin films with different Ga concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Y. K.; Liu, Z.; Wang, X. L.; Ma, W. K.; Chen, Z. H.; Chen, T. P.; Zhang, H. Y.

    2017-12-01

    By dissolving gallium chloride (GaCl3), indium chloride (InCl3), zinc acetate dihydrate [Zn(OAc)2·2H2O] and monoethanolamine (MEA) into a solvent of 2-methoxyethanol, the IGZO ink was synthesized. Five types of IGZO ink were prepared with different molar ratios of In:Ga:Zn, which can be used for ink-jet printing process. The thermal behaviors of IGZO ink with different formulas were investigated and the ideal annealing temperature for film formation was found to be ∼450 °C. Based on the prepared ink, amorphous IGZO thin films were directly printed on the glass substrate with a FujiFilm Dimatix ink-jet printer, followed by a thermal annealing at 450 °C for 1 h. The surface morphology, crystal structure, optical transmittance, electron mobility and carrier concentration were characterized and investigated. The ink-jet printed amorphous IGZO thin films fabricated in this work can be used as switching medium in flexible resistive random access memory devices.

  6. Investigation of effective forensic cleaning methods for bullet and cartridge case samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuherk, Cassie Marie

    Bullet and cartridge case evidence may potentially link weapons and crimes through the comparison of toolmark patterns. This analysis relies on the clarity of the toolmarks and the ability of the examiner to identify patterns on the evidence. These patterns may be distorted by debris such as soil, blood, cyanoacrylate, and construction materials. Despite the potential importance of bullet and cartridge case evidence, few investigations of proper cleaning methods have been conducted. The present study was designed to examine the effects of various cleaning solutions and application methods on copper and brass bullets and cartridge cases. Additionally, this research investigated the efficacy of these cleaning protocols on the common evidence contaminants blood and cyanoacrylate. No cleaning method was found to be universally effective on both contaminant types and nondestructive to the metal surface. Ultrasonication was the most efficient application method employed when used in conjunction with an appropriate cleaning solution. Acetone proved to be safe and successful at removing heavy cyanoacrylate deposits from brass cartridge cases without damaging the metal. Although sulfuric acid removed most of the cyanoacrylate from the brass cartridge case, ultrasonication of the fumed cartridge cases in sulfuric acid caused the nickel-plated primer caps to turn black. Additionally, etching occurred when sulfuric acid was allowed to dry on the cartridge case surface. Citric acid, salt-flour-vinegar paste, TergazymeRTM, and water did not effectively remove the cyanoacrylate from the cartridge cases, but the solutions were safe to use on the brass and sometimes resulted in a shinier surface. Regardless of the cleaning method employed, the bloodstained bullets retained most or all of the underlying brown tarnish. Ultrasonication with sulfuric acid was successful at removing some blood-initiated tarnishing; however, the removal of residues was not complete, making it difficult

  7. Ink dating part II: Interpretation of results in a legal perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Koenig, Agnès; Weyermann, Céline

    2018-01-01

    The development of an ink dating method requires an important investment of resources in order to step from the monitoring of ink ageing on paper to the determination of the actual age of a questioned ink entry. This article aimed at developing and evaluating the potential of three interpretation models to date ink entries in a legal perspective: (1) the threshold model comparing analytical results to tabulated values in order to determine the maximal possible age of an ink entry, (2) the tre...

  8. A self-contained fully-enclosed microfluidic cartridge for lab on a chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yobas, Levent; Cheow, Lih Feng; Tang, Kum-Cheong; Yong, Shien-Eit; Ong, Eleana Kye-Zheng; Wong, Lionel; Teo, William Cheng-Yong; Ji, Hongmiao; Rafeah, Siti; Yu, Chen

    2009-12-01

    We describe a self-contained fully-enclosed cartridge for lab-on-a-chip applications where sample and reagents can be applied sequentially as is performed in a heterogeneous immunoassay, or nucleic acid extraction. Both the self-contained and fully-enclosed features of the cartridge are sought to ensure its safe use in the field by unskilled staff. Simplicity in cartridge design and operation is obtained via adopting a valveless concept whereby reagents are stored and used in the form of liquid plugs isolated by air spacers around a fluidic loop. Functional components integrated in the loop include a microfluidic chip specific to the target application, a novel peristaltic pump to displace the liquid plugs, and a pair of removable tubing segments where one is used to introduce biological sample and while the other is to collect eluant. The novel pump is fabricated through soft-lithography technique and works by pinching a planar channel under stainless-steel ball bearings that have been magnetically loaded. The utility of the cartridge is demonstrated for automated extraction and purification of nucleic acids (DNA) from a cell lysate on a battery-operated portable system. The cartridge shown here can be further extended to sample-in-answer-out diagnostic tests.

  9. Microfluidic cartridges for DNA purification and genotyping processed in standard laboratory instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focke, Maximilian; Mark, Daniel; Stumpf, Fabian; Müller, Martina; Roth, Günter; Zengerle, Roland; von Stetten, Felix

    2011-06-01

    Two microfluidic cartridges intended for upgrading standard laboratory instruments with automated liquid handling capability by use of centrifugal forces are presented. The first microfluidic cartridge enables purification of DNA from human whole blood and is operated in a standard laboratory centrifuge. The second microfluidic catridge enables genotyping of pathogens by geometrically multiplexed real-time PCR. It is operated in a slightly modified off-the-shelf thermal cycler. Both solutions aim at smart and cost-efficient ways to automate work flows in laboratories. The DNA purification cartridge automates all liquid handling steps starting from a lysed blood sample to PCR ready DNA. The cartridge contains two manually crushable glass ampoules with liquid reagents. The DNA yield extracted from a 32 μl blood sample is 192 +/- 30 ng which corresponds to 53 +/- 8% of a reference extraction. The genotyping cartridge is applied to analyse isolates of the multi-resistant Staphyloccus aureus (MRSA) by real-time PCR. The wells contain pre-stored dry reagents such as primers and probes. Evaluation of the system with 44 genotyping assays showed a 100% specificity and agreement with the reference assays in standard tubes. The lower limit of detection was well below 10 copies of DNA per reaction.

  10. Batch fabrication of polymer microfluidic cartridges for QCM sensor packaging by direct bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandström, Niklas; Zandi Shafagh, Reza; Gylfason, Kristinn B.; Haraldsson, Tommy; van der Wijngaart, Wouter

    2017-12-01

    Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensing is an established technique commonly used in laboratory based life-science applications. However, the relatively complex, multi-part design and multi-step fabrication and assembly of state-of-the-art QCM cartridges make them unsuited for disposable applications such as point-of-care (PoC) diagnostics. In this work, we present the uncomplicated manufacturing of QCMs in polymer microfluidic cartridges. Our novel approach comprises two key innovations: the batch reaction injection molding of microfluidic parts; and the integration of the cartridge components by direct, unassisted bonding. We demonstrate molding of batches of 12 off-stoichiometry thiol-ene epoxy polymer (OSTE+) polymer parts in a single molding cycle using an adapted reaction injection molding process; and the direct bonding of the OSTE+  parts to other OSTE+  substrates, to printed circuit boards, and to QCMs. The microfluidic QCM OSTE+  cartridges were successfully evaluated in terms of liquid sealing as well as electrical properties, and the sensor performance characteristics are on par with those of a commercially available QCM biosensor cartridge. The simplified manufacturing of QCM sensors with maintained performance potentializes novel application areas, e.g. as disposable devices in a point of care setting. Moreover, our results can be extended to simplifying the fabrication of other microfluidic devices with multiple heterogeneously integrated components.

  11. Hazard classification test of the cartridge, 120-mm, APFSDS-T, XM829

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooker, C.D.; Hadlock, D.E.; Mishima, J.; Gilchrist, R.L.

    1983-11-01

    Research was conducted to determine the behavior of the ammunition XM829 when subjected to detonation of an adjacent XM829 cartridge, and a sustained hot fire. It was concluded that the functioning of an XM829 cartridge, in one shipping container, will not cause immediate functioning of XM829 cartridges in adjacent containers. However, if a fire results and is sustained, adjacent cartridges may ignite, resulting in some scattering of debris within a maximum radius of 40 feet. Further, the XM829 cartridge can be expected to remain in a kinetic controlled regime with vigorous oxidation occurring early in such a fire but dropping off as the temperature cools toward ambient. Mass balance analyses data indicated a recovery of at least 80% in the 1982 external heat; in the 1983 test, the recovery percentage was improved to approximately 100% of the original depleted uranium weight volume. Therefore, it may be concluded that a significant airborne release of the depleted uranium material did not occur.

  12. The isolation of water-soluble radionuclides from deteriorating spent nuclear fuel in zeolite cartridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, N.M.; Thompson, M.C.

    1996-01-01

    A method of isolating water-soluble radionuclides leaching from deteriorating spent nuclear fuel by ion-exchange in zeolite cartridges has been studied. Design calculations of two zeolite cartridges to be incorporated in typical spent fuel storage bundle have been provided. Equilibrium exchange data obtained at several temperatures have shown that the maximum exchange capacity of total cesium in sodium titanium aluminosilicate was 114 mg/g zeolite and the capacity at 95% exchange for radioactive isotope Cs-137 was calculated as 55.2 mg/g zeolite. The kinetic data suggest that the rate of exchange of Cs + in sodium titanium aluminosilicate zeolite takes place by a fast initial exchange step followed by slow diffusion of cesium cations. Design calculations based on the equilibrium exchange data show that water-soluble radionuclides leaching from Mk 31 slugs can be isolated using two zeolite cartridges, each 3.7 inches in inside diameter and 2.5 inches in length. The cartridges are designed to isolate 95% of the Cs + leaching from the spent fuel storage bundle. The results from the thermal induced convective flow tests indicate that the system will provide necessary cooling to the spent fuel by convective currents while isolating the Cs + leaching from spent fuel storage bundle in the cartridges

  13. Determining Service Life of Respirator Cartridges Using a Simple and Practical Method: Case Study in a Car Manufacturing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M Rashidi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: For ensuring about proper performance of air-purifying respirators in providing protection against workplace contaminants, it is necessary to change the respirator cartridges before the end of their service life. The aim of this study was determination of service life of organic vapor cartridges using a simple and practical method in a spray painting booth of a car manufacturing industry.   Methods: NIOSH MultiVapor software was used for estimating service life of respirator cartridges based on workplace conditions and cartridge specifications. Efficiency of determined service life was investigated using an apparatus for field testing of cartridges in the workplace.   Results: The results showed that existing schedule for changing the respirator cartridges is not effective and no longer provide adequate protection for sprayers against organic contaminants while working in a painting booth. It is necessary to change the cartridges before their estimated service life (every 4 hours.   Conclusion: NIOSH MultiVapor has acceptable efficiency for determining respirator cartridges service life and could be used as a simple and practical method in the workplace. Moreover, Service life estimated by this software was confirmed by cartridge field test apparatus.

  14. InkTag: Secure Applications on an Untrusted Operating System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Owen S; Kim, Sangman; Dunn, Alan M; Lee, Michael Z; Witchel, Emmett

    2013-01-01

    InkTag is a virtualization-based architecture that gives strong safety guarantees to high-assurance processes even in the presence of a malicious operating system. InkTag advances the state of the art in untrusted operating systems in both the design of its hypervisor and in the ability to run useful applications without trusting the operating system. We introduce paraverification , a technique that simplifies the InkTag hypervisor by forcing the untrusted operating system to participate in its own verification. Attribute-based access control allows trusted applications to create decentralized access control policies. InkTag is also the first system of its kind to ensure consistency between secure data and metadata, ensuring recoverability in the face of system crashes.

  15. Versatile Molecular Silver Ink Platform for Printed Flexible Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kell, Arnold J; Paquet, Chantal; Mozenson, Olga; Djavani-Tabrizi, Iden; Deore, Bhavana; Liu, Xiangyang; Lopinski, Gregory P; James, Robert; Hettak, Khelifa; Shaker, Jafar; Momciu, Adrian; Ferrigno, Julie; Ferrand, Olivier; Hu, Jian Xiong; Lafrenière, Sylvie; Malenfant, Patrick R L

    2017-05-24

    A silver molecular ink platform formulated for screen, inkjet, and aerosol jet printing is presented. A simple formulation comprising silver neodecanoate, ethyl cellulose, and solvent provides improved performance versus that of established inks, yet with improved economics. Thin, screen-printed traces with exceptional electrical (molecular ink platform enables an aerosol jet-compatible ink that yields conductive features on glass with 2× bulk resistivity and strong adhesion to various plastic substrates. An inkjet formulation is also used to print top source/drain contacts and demonstrate printed high-mobility thin film transistors (TFTs) based on semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes. TFTs with mobility values of ∼25 cm 2 V -1 s -1 and current on/off ratios >10 4 were obtained, performance similar to that of evaporated metal contacts in analogous devices.

  16. Fire-retardant decorative inks for aircraft interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Nir, Z.; Mikroyannidis, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Commercial and experimental fire retardants were screened as potential fire retardants for acrylic printing inks used on aircraft interior sandwich panels. The fire retardants are selected according to their physical properties and their thermostabilities. A criterion for selecting a more stable fire retardant is established. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) are used to determine thermostabilities. Results show that the fire retardant formulations are more thermally stable than the acrylic ink control. It is determined that an ink formulation containing a brominated phenol and carboxy-terminated butadiene acrylonitrile which has been modified with a brominated polymeric additive (BPA), yields the highest limiting oxygen index (LOI) of all the compounds tested. All of the fire-retardant formulations have a higher oxygen index than the baseline acrylic ink.

  17. Study of inks on paper engravings using portable EDXRF spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrero, J.L.; Roldan, C.; Juanes, D.; Carballo, J.; Pereira, J.; Ardid, M.; Lluch, J.L.; Vives, R.

    2004-01-01

    The prints are fragile and delicate art objects that need for its examination a suitable technique for 'in situ', non-destructive and rapid analyses. The energy dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry with portable instrumentation offers these analytical properties. In this work we present the EDXRF analyses of eight engravings elaborated with different techniques (etching and heliogravure) from the 17th to 20th centuries. The characterization of the paper is directly done from its EDXRF spectra, whereas the inks are characterized by the ink plus paper analysis after subtracting the background from the paper spectrum. Inorganic components of the paper engravings and inks have been identified from the EDXRF spectra and the results are discussed. Also, we present EDXRF analyses for the identification of inorganic components from six samples of modern inks

  18. InkTag: Secure Applications on an Untrusted Operating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Owen S.; Kim, Sangman; Dunn, Alan M.; Lee, Michael Z.; Witchel, Emmett

    2014-01-01

    InkTag is a virtualization-based architecture that gives strong safety guarantees to high-assurance processes even in the presence of a malicious operating system. InkTag advances the state of the art in untrusted operating systems in both the design of its hypervisor and in the ability to run useful applications without trusting the operating system. We introduce paraverification, a technique that simplifies the InkTag hypervisor by forcing the untrusted operating system to participate in its own verification. Attribute-based access control allows trusted applications to create decentralized access control policies. InkTag is also the first system of its kind to ensure consistency between secure data and metadata, ensuring recoverability in the face of system crashes. PMID:24429939

  19. Intramantle Inking: A Stress Behavior in Octopus bimaculoides (Mollusca: Cephalopoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, Ronald B

    2011-01-01

    Several Pacific 2-spot octopuses (Octopus bimaculoides) shipped from California and held in a recirculating seawater system at Illinois College exhibited an unusual postshipping stress behavior not previously documented in the literature. Ink, normally ejected into the surrounding seawater, was uncharacteristically retained in the mantle cavity. We describe the resulting behaviors, discuss successful resuscitation efforts, and briefly consider the possible role(s) that ink may have played in the death of one octopus. PMID:22330791

  20. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of squid ink powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Zaharah, M.Y.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Economic development in Malaysia has led to increasing quantity and complexity of generated waste or by-product. The main objective of this study is to investigate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of squid ink powder. The squid ink was collected from fresh squid and dried using freeze dryer before it was ground into powder. The yield of squid ink was 22.82% after freeze-drying which was 69.37g in amount. Proximate composition analysis as well as two total antioxidant activity assays named 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP assay, and antimicrobial analysis were done on the powdered squid ink. The proximate results of squid ink powder were 4.43 ± 0.29% moisture, 62.46 ± 0.62% protein, 3.96 ± 0.08% fat, and 9.29 ± 0.05% ash. Results of DPPH assay showed that water extraction of squid ink powder has the highest 94.87 ± 4.87%, followed by ethanol 67.57 ± 7.55%, and hexane extract 2.10 ± 1.18%. FRAP assay result presented the same trend with water extraction had the highest value of 929.67 ± 2.31 μmol Fe (II / g of sample extract, followed by ethanol extract 201.00 ± 26.29 μmol Fe (II per gram sample and hexane 79.67 ± 12.66 μmol Fe (II / g of sample extract. Both water and ethanol extract showed antimicrobial properties with inhibition range of 7 to 15 mm, respectively. Fresh squid ink had 1.254 × 103 colony forming unit per gram of sample of microbial content. Squid ink powder had protein as major compound and microbial content was below from standard value of fisheries products as stated in Food Act 1983 and Regulation 1985.

  1. Optically Variable Inks (OVI): versatility in formulation and usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degott, Pierre

    2000-04-01

    Optically Variable Inks (OVI) are printing inks containing high precision, multi-layer interference filters as their constituent pigment. They display a strong and unique color change form a normal to an angled viewing position. During the last 10 years OVI has gained wide acceptance as an overt protection for numerous value documents including banknotes and ID cards. Meanwhile, continuous improvement has taken place over the last two years in a variety of areas.

  2. Degradation of inkjet ink by greensand and ultrasonic sonification

    OpenAIRE

    Mirela Rožić; Marina Vukoje; Kristinka Vinković; Nives Galić; Mirela Jukić

    2017-01-01

    The study describes the degradation of inkjet ink at low frequency ultrasound (US) and greensand to compare their reactivity. Environmental sonochemistry is a rapidly growing area and an example of the advanced oxidation process (AOP) that deals with the destruction of organic species in aqueous solutions. Greensand is a granular material coated with a thin layer of manganese dioxide (MnO2) which is among the strongest natural oxidants. In our study magenta inkjet water-based printing ink was...

  3. Antibacterial Activity of Melanin from Cuttlefish and Squid Ink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuspihana Fitrial

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Marine environment comprises of many organism which are known to posses bioactive compound as a common means of self-defense or for the protection of eggs and embryos. Class Cephalopods (such as squidand cuttlefish are notable for their defences, such as jetting escape movements, changes in colouration, toxic venom and inking.This study aims to compare the antibacterial activity of melanin from cuttlefish ink (Sepia sp. with squid ink (Loligo sp. against E. coli. Extraction and purification studies were carried out on Sepia and Loligo melanin using a hydrochloric acid 0,5M treatment under mechanical.The melanins were obtained and further evaluated their activity by direct contact methods between melanin and E. coli in nutrient broth.Total microbes was counted by total plate count.Both inks also was tested their activity against E. coli. The results showed that melanin from cuttlefish and squid inks had inhibitory activity at concentrations of 10 mg / ml and 20 mg / mL, respectively reaching 99.99% against E. coli.The inks of both Cephalopods at the same concentration as melanin, did not show any inhibitory activity against E. coli.  The melanin of Sepia sp. have a higher antibacterial activity than the melanin of Loligo sp.

  4. Ink for Ink-Jet Printing of Electrically Conductive Structures on Flexible Substrates with Low Thermal Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mościcki, A.; Smolarek-Nowak, A.; Felba, J.; Kinart, A.

    2017-07-01

    The development of new technologies in electronics related to flexible polymeric substrates forces the industry to introduce suitable tools (special type of dispensers) and modern conductive materials for printing electronic circuits. Moreover, due to the wide use of inexpensive polymeric foils (polyethene, PE, or poly(ethylene terephthalate), PET), there is a need to develop materials with the lowest possible processing temperatures. The present paper presents the selection criteria of suitable components and their preparation for obtaining electrically conductive ink with a special nanosilver base. In the case of the discussed solution, all components allow to make circuits in relatively low sintering temperature (even below 130°C). Additionally, the authors show the most significant ink parameters that should be taken into consideration during Research and Development (R&D) works with electrically conductive inks. Moreover, ink stability parameters are discussed and some examples of printed circuits are presented.

  5. Validation of a cartridge method for the quality control determination of 99Tcm-HMPAO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandos, G.; Penglis, S.; Tsopelas, C.; Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, SA

    1999-01-01

    Full text: The manufacturer's method for assessing the radiochemical purity (RCP) of ±-HMPAO requires the use of three solvent types on two different stationary phases, and is time-consuming (∼ 15 min) in consideration of the short shelf-life (30 min). An impetus to develop a rapid quality control procedure for this product has led to the use of a single strip Whatman 17 chromatography system using ethyl acetate as the developing solvent. This popular Whatman paper system was previously validates against the manufacturer's method. We have developed a new method to successfully determine the % RCP of ±-HMPAO, which employs a disposable, inexpensive and reusable Amprep C-18 cartridge with normal saline as a non-organic mobile phase. The Whatman paper system separates the primary lipophilic 99 Tc m -HMPAO complex from 99 Tc m O-2, 99 Tc m O 4 and secondary 99 Tc m -HMPAO complex at the origin. By comparison, the lipophilic portion was retained on the cartridge and the hydrophilic impurities were found in saline eluent with the cartridge method. Whatman 17 paper system results showed 95.1 ± I.7% 99 Tc m -HMPAO after 5 min and the cartridge method gave 95.5 ± 1.5% 99 Tc m -HMPAO (n = 8) after 3 min. The % 99 Tc m O 2 levels in 99 Tc m -HMPAO were insignificant. When a failed kit was assessed for RCP at 2.5 h post-reconstitution, the Whatman paper system and the cartridge method correlated well, resulting in 63.1 ± 2.7% and 62.9±2.1% 99 Tc m -HMPAO (n=3) respectively. Although the cartridge method may slightly overestimate the % RCP of 99 Tc m -HMPAO, it was found to be simple, rapid and reliable for the quality control analysis of routine 99 Tc m -HMPAO preparations

  6. Ballpoint pen inks: characterization by positive and negative ion-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for the forensic examination of writing inks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Lay-Keow; Lafontaine, Pierre; Brazeau, Luc

    2002-11-01

    A method based on profiling of dye components by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI/MS) is described for the characterization of ballpoint pen inks. The method involves benzyl alcohol (30 microL) extraction of ink from paper. The extracts of ink lines 1 and 5 mm in length are used for direct ESI/MS analysis in positive and negative modes, respectively. The instrumental analysis takes 3 min. Basic and acid dyes in the inks are detected in the positive and negative modes, respectively, with each dye yielding one or two characteristic ion peaks. The mass spectrum, which is mainly a compositional signature of the dyes in the ink, was not affected by the type of paper from which the ink was extracted, or by natural ageing of the ink on document in the absence of light. However, exposure to fluorescent illumination caused dealkylation of polyalkylated basic dyes and resulted in changes in the homologous distribution of the dyes. In this study, a total of 44 blue inks, 23 black inks, and 10 red inks have been analyzed, and the mass spectra were used to establish a searchable library. ESI/MS analysis provides a simple and fast way to compare ink specimens and in combination with on-line library search permits rapid screening of inks for forensic document investigations.

  7. Development of a New Stretchable and Screen Printable Conductive Ink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Anwar A.

    Stretchable conductive ink is a key enabler for stretchable electronics. This thesis research focuses on the development of a new stretchable and screen printable conductive ink. After print and cure, this ink would be capable of being stretched by at least 500 cycles at 20% strain without increasing its resistance by more than 30 times the original resistance, while maintaining electrical and mechanical integrity. For a stretchable and screen-printable conductive ink, the correct morphology of the metal powder selected and the ability of the binder to be stretched after the sintering process, are both indispensable. This research has shown that a bi-modal mixture of fine and large-diameter silver flakes will improve stretchability. While the smaller flakes increase the conductivity and lower the sintering temperature, the larger flake particles promote ohmic connectivity during stretching. The bi-modal flake distribution increases connection points while enhancing packing density and lowering the thermal activation barrier. The polymer binder phase plays a crucial role in offering stretchability to the stretchable conductive inks. The silver flakes by themselves are not stretchable but they are contained within a stretchable binder system. The research demonstrates that commonly used printable ink binder when combined with large-chain polymers through a process known as 'elastomeric chain polymerization' will enable the conductive ink to become more stretchable. This research has shown that the new stretchable and screen printable silver conductive ink developed based upon the two insights mentioned above; (1) bi modal flakes to improve ohmic connectivity during stretching and (2) elastomeric chain polymerized binder system which could stretch even after the ink is sintered to the substrate, can exhibit an ink stretchability of at least 500 cycles at 20% strain while increasing the resistance by less than 30 times the original resistance. Wavy print patterns can

  8. Dopant ink composition and method of fabricating a solar cell there from

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loscutoff, Paul; Wu, Kahn; Molesa, Steven Edward

    2017-10-25

    Dopant ink compositions and methods of fabricating solar cells there from are described. A dopant ink composition may include a cross-linkable matrix precursor, a bound dopant species, and a solvent. A method of fabricating a solar cell may include delivering a dopant ink composition to a region above a substrate. The dopant ink composition includes a cross-linkable matrix precursor, a bound dopant species, and a solvent. The method also includes baking the dopant ink composition to remove a substantial portion of the solvent of the dopant ink composition, curing the baked dopant ink composition to cross-link a substantial portion of the cross-linkable matrix precursor of the dopant ink composition, and driving dopants from the cured dopant ink composition toward the substrate.

  9. Dopant ink composition and method of fabricating a solar cell there from

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loscutoff, Paul; Wu, Kahn; Molesa, Steven Edward

    2015-03-31

    Dopant ink compositions and methods of fabricating solar cells there from are described. A dopant ink composition may include a cross-linkable matrix precursor, a bound dopant species, and a solvent. A method of fabricating a solar cell may include delivering a dopant ink composition to a region above a substrate. The dopant ink composition includes a cross-linkable matrix precursor, a bound dopant species, and a solvent. The method also includes baking the dopant ink composition to remove a substantial portion of the solvent of the dopant ink composition, curing the baked dopant ink composition to cross-link a substantial portion of the cross-linkable matrix precursor of the dopant ink composition, and driving dopants from the cured dopant ink composition toward the substrate.

  10. Failure to refill essential prescription medications for asthma among pediatric Medicaid beneficiaries with persistent asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaidya V

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Varun Vaidya,1 Renuka Gupte,2 Rajesh Balkrishnan31Pharmacy Health Care Administration, Department of Pharmacy Practice, University of Toledo College of Pharmacy, Toledo, OH, USA; 2Private Practice, Sylvania, OH, USA; 3Department of Clinical, Social and Administrative Sciences, Pharmacy, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USAAbstract: The problem of patients not taking medications as prescribed, also known as "lack of medication adherence," is widely discussed as an issue related to suboptimal outcomes and excess health care expenditure. Although medication adherence is defined as patients not taking medications as prescribed, there are two elements to it: first, those who fail to follow the medication regimen by skipping a dose or not following the instructions, resulting in poor adherence with prescribed medicines; and, second, the patient who does not take the medication at all or stops after the initial fill. The existing literature contains a lot of studies on the first element, but very little is known about those who stop taking their medication after the initial fill or do not take it at all. In this study, our focus is on identifying patients who fail to refill a prescription for essential medicines, such as asthma-controlling drugs. Using Medicaid claims datasets, this study analyzed a pediatric population diagnosed with persistent asthma that discontinued an essential controlling medication after the initial fill. We found that more than half of this population did not continue their medication after the first fill. While there might be many reasons behind the failure to refill such medications, our data indicate that race/ethnicity, comorbid illness, and type of Medicaid plan are potentially associated with such behavior. Future research is warranted to understand this issue further and identify specific factors causing such behavior, such that strategies may be formulated by which poor adherence can be minimized

  11. A Digital Language Divide? The Relationship between Internet Medication Refills and Medication Adherence among Limited English Proficient (LEP) Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casillas, Alejandra; Moreno, Gerardo; Grotts, Jonathan; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Morales, Leo S

    2018-03-29

    Use of an Internet portal to refill medicines positively affects medication adherence among English-speakers. No prior studies, however, have specifically examined the relationship between Internet refills and medication adherence among patients who are limited English proficient (LEP). (1) Examine the relationship between Internet medication refill system use and medication adherence among linguistically diverse patients with chronic conditions and (2) compare this relationship between LEP and English-proficient (EP) patients. We analyzed 2013-2014 cross-sectional data from 509 surveyed adults in the Group Health Cooperative. Surveys were merged with plan enrollment, claims data, and electronic medical records. Medication adherence was calculated by the "Continuous Measure of Medication Gaps" (CMG) method. For Internet refill system use, patients were asked, "Have you used the health systems Internet site to refill any medications in the last 12 months?" LEP status was captured in the electronic medical record by a non-English primary language and a claims record of interpreter use in at least one clinical encounter between 2005 and 2012. We used multivariate linear regression models to examine Internet refill system use and medication adherence and compared the association between LEP and EP patients. Three hundred eighty-four patients (75%) had a calculable CMG: 134 EP and 250 LEP in the adherence analyses. In unadjusted analyses, LEP patients had lower use of the Internet refill system (p < .001) and lower adherence versus the EP group (p < .001). In multivariate analyses, LEP status (β = - 0.022, p = .047) was negatively associated with adherence, while use of the Internet refill system (β = 0.030, p = .002) was positively associated. In stratified models, use of Internet refills was positively associated with adherence, even when examining LEP (β = 0.029, p = .003) and EP patients (β = 0.027, p = .049) separately

  12. Microbiological evaluation of open and sealed tattoo inks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Bonadonna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Introduction of tattoo inks in the skin has been associated with a potential entry of a great number of microorganisms including bacteria, virus and fungi. Contaminated pigments, diluents and instruments represent primary infection risk factors as well as inadequacy of hygienic measures during this practice. However, the evaluation of the infectious risk for public health due to tattoo ink use is actually not feasible cause of the low efficiency of health surveillance and the lack of specific regulation in this area.Materials and Methods. A survey was carried out to test the microbial product safety of some tattoo inks available in Italian tattoo parlours. Physical packaging and labelling of the collected inks were also examined. Newly acquired sealed stock bottles, open ink bottles and tattoo-correlated instruments (needles, spikes and grips were collected and tested for different microbiological parameters. Results. Both from opened and sealed inks a variety of potentially pathogenic organisms were isolated and identified including Gram positive rods and cocci, Gram negative bacteria and fungi. Different species of Bacillus and Staphylococcus genera were identified, among which S. haemolyticus; Cronobacter sakazaki, Enterobacter intermedius and Sphingomonas paucimobilis were also identified while no atypical mycobacteria were isolated. Needles, spikes and grips tested for sterility were aseptic.Conclusions. Microbial contamination of opened samples suggest inefficacy of preservatives and additives in maintaining inks hygienic quality, and inadequacy of hygienic procedures during the tattooing operations, while the occurrence of microorganisms in unopened samples put in doubt the effectiveness of the sterilization technology applied to this type of product.

  13. BWR Refill-Reflood Program, Task 4.7 - model development: TRAC-BWR component models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, Y.K.; Parameswaran, V.; Shaug, J.C.

    1983-09-01

    TRAC (Transient Reactor Analysis Code) is a computer code for best-estimate analysis for the thermal hydraulic conditions in a reactor system. The development and assessment of the BWR component models developed under the Refill/Reflood Program that are necessary to structure a BWR-version of TRAC are described in this report. These component models are the jet pump, steam separator, steam dryer, two-phase level tracking model, and upper-plenum mixing model. These models have been implemented into TRAC-B02. Also a single-channel option has been developed for individual fuel-channel analysis following a system-response calculation

  14. Toxicological and analytical assessment of e-cigarette refill components on airway epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jasjot; Luquet, Emilie; Smith, David P T; Potgieter, Herman J; Ragazzon, Patricia

    2016-12-01

    There are over 2.6 million users of e-cigarettes in the United Kingdom alone as they have been promoted as a safer alternative to traditional cigarettes. The addition of flavours and aromas has also proven to be popular with younger generations. In this review, we survey the range of studies in the short timeframe since e-cigarettes reached the market to draw attention to the health associated risks and benefits of their introduction. We complement this review with a case study reporting on the composition of selected e-cigarette refills with particular emphasis on the toxicological activity of its components on lung cells.

  15. Microfluidic cartridges for automated, point-of-care blood cell counting

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, Suzanne

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Disposable, low-cost microfluidic cartridges for automated blood cell counting applications are presented in this article. The need for point-of-care medical diagnostic tools is evident, particularly in low-resource and rural settings, and a full...

  16. Optimal stapler cartridge selection according to the thickness of the pancreas in distal pancreatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hongbeom; Jang, Jin-Young; Son, Donghee; Lee, Seungyeoun; Han, Youngmin; Shin, Yong Chan; Kim, Jae Ri; Kwon, Wooil; Kim, Sun-Whe

    2016-08-01

    Stapling is a popular method for stump closure in distal pancreatectomy (DP). However, research on which cartridges are suitable for different pancreatic thickness is lacking. To identify the optimal stapler cartridge choice in DP according to pancreatic thickness.From November 2011 to April 2015, data were prospectively collected from 217 consecutive patients who underwent DP with 3-layer endoscopic staple closure in Seoul National University Hospital, Korea. Postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) was graded according to International Study Group on Pancreatic Fistula definitions. Staplers were grouped based on closed length (CL) (Group I: CL ≤ 1.5 mm, II: 1.5 mm 17 mm. With pancreatic thickness <12 mm, the POPF rate was lowest with Group II (I: 50%, II: 27.6%, III: 69.2%, P = 0.035).The optimal stapler cartridges with pancreatic thickness <12 mm were those in Group II (Gold, CL: 1.8 mm). There was no suitable cartridge for thicker pancreases. Further studies are necessary to reduce POPF in thick pancreases.

  17. 3D-Printed Paper Spray Ionization Cartridge with Integrated Desolvation Feature and Ion Optics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salentijn, G Ij; Oleschuk, R D; Verpoorte, E

    2017-01-01

    In this work we present the application of 3D-printing for the miniaturization and functionalization of an ion source for (portable) mass spectrometry (MS). Two versions of a 3D-printed cartridge for paper spray ionization (PSI) are demonstrated, assessed, and compared. We first focus on the use of

  18. Rapid monitoring particulate radiocesium with nonwoven fabric cartridge filter and application to field monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Hideki; Yasutaka, Tetsuo; Kondo, Yoshihiko; Kawashima, Shoji

    2013-01-01

    A method for rapid monitoring particulate radiocesium using a nonwoven fabric cartridge filter was developed, which needs no further preprocessing before served to a detector. By a performance test, more than 98% of suspended solid (SS) was collected. This method showed the same radioactivity measurement accuracy as filtration by membrane filter and more rapid extraction capability of SS. (author)

  19. Transparent Conductive Ink for Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patlan, X. J.; Rolin, T. D.

    2017-01-01

    NASA analyzes, tests, packages, and fabricates electrical, electronic, and electromechanical (EEE) parts. Nanotechnology is listed in NASA's Technology Roadmap as a key area to invest for further development.1 This research project focused on using nanotechnology to improve electroluminescent lighting in terms of additive manufacturing and to increase energy efficiency. Specifically, this project's goal was to produce a conductive but transparent printable ink that can be sprayed on any surface for use as one of the electrodes in electroluminescent device design. This innovative work is known as thick film dielectric electroluminescent (TDEL) technology. TDEL devices are used for "backlighting, illumination, and identification due to their tunable color output, scalability, and efficiency" (I.K. Small, T.D. Rolin, and A.D. Shields, "3D Printed Electroluminescent Light Panels," NASA Fiscal Year 2017 Center Innovation Fund Proposal, unpublished data, 2017). These devices use a 'front-to-back' printing method, where the substrate is the transparent layer, and the dielectric and phosphor are layered on top. This project is a first step in the process of creating a 3D printable 'back-to-front' electroluminescent device. Back-to-front 3D-printed devices are beneficial because they can be printed onto different substrates and embedded in different surfaces, and the substrate is not required to be transparent, all because the light is emitted from the top surface through the transparent conductor. Advances in this area will help further development of printing TDEL devices on an array of different surfaces. Figure 1 demonstrates the layering of the two electrodes that are aligned in a parallel plate capacitor structure (I.K. Small, T.D. Rolin, and A.D. Shields, "3D Printed Electroluminescent Light Panels," NASA Fiscal Year 2017 Center Innovation Fund Proposal, unpublished data, 2017). Voltage is applied across the device, and the subsequent electron excitation results in

  20. The Use of Conductive Ink in Antenna Education and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, David W.

    Conductive ink from a printer allows for the fabrication of conductive material with tight tolerances without the cost and time of chemical etching. This paper explores the use of AGIC printable conductive ink on a paper substrate as design tool for antennas as well as classroom use in antenna education. The antenna designs satisfy the requirements of a compact Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) antenna while showing a competitive performance within the current market. One best design is shown along with three other structures. These antennas consist of a bowtie cross-dipole over a reflective disc with conductive-ink grounded structures. In addition to the GNSS antennas, a linear elliptical dipole over a reflective disc with conductive grounded structures is presented. This elliptical antenna design attempts to find the maximum impedance bandwidth beyond the GNSS band. The inexpensive nature of conductive ink allows for its use in a classroom to demonstrate antenna behavior as part of antenna education. An inexpensive approach to the patch antenna using conductive ink is described and paired with a system made of off-the-shelf parts. The system is capable of measuring the power of the received signal. The received signal measurement is not as accurate as using a anechoic chamber but pattern details are visible. This is used to demonstrate aspects of the Friis transmission equation such as distance, polarization, radiation pattern shape, and loss.

  1. Photocytotoxicity in human dermal fibroblasts elicited by permanent makeup inks containing titanium dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamer, Wayne G; Yin, Jun-Jie

    2011-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a pigment widely used in decorative tattoo and permanent makeup inks. However, little is known about the risks associated with its presence in these products. We have developed an in vitro assay to identify inks containing TiO2 that are cytotoxic and/or photocytotoxic. The presence of TiO2 in ten permanent makeup inks was established by X-ray fluorescence. Using X-ray diffraction, we found that seven inks contained predominately TiO2 (anatase), the more photocatalytically active crystalline form of TiO2. The remaining inks contained predominately TiO2 (rutile). To identify cytotoxic and/or photocytotoxic inks, human dermal fibroblasts were incubated for 18 h in media containing inks or pigments isolated from inks. Fibroblasts were then irradiated with 10 J/cm2 UVA radiation combined with 45 J/cm2 visible light for determining photocytotoxicity, or kept in the dark for determining cytotoxicity. Toxicity was assessed as inhibition of colony formation. No inks were cytotoxic. However eight inks, and the pigments isolated from these inks, were photocytotoxic. Using ESR, we found that most pigments from photocytotoxic inks generated hydroxyl radicals when photoexcited with UV radiation. Therefore, the possibility of photocytotoxicity should be considered when evaluating the safety of permanent makeup inks containing TiO2.

  2. Par Pond phytoplankton in association with refilling of the pond: Final Report for sampling from February 1995 -- September 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilde, E.W.; Johnson, M.A.; Cody, W.C.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the results of phytoplankton analyses from Par Pond samples collected between February 1995 and September 1996. The principal objective of the study was to determine the effect of refilling of Par Pond following repair of the dam on the phytoplankton community. Algal blooms are often responsible for fish kills and other detrimental effects in ponds and lakes, and it was postulated that decaying vegetation from formerly exposed sediments might trigger algal blooms that could result in fish kills in Par Pond following the refill. Sporadic algal blooms involving blue-green algae were detected, especially during the summer of 1996. However, the data derived from the study demonstrates that overall, the refilling effort caused no significant negative impact to the pond attributable to phytoplankton dynamics

  3. Par Pond phytoplankton in association with refilling of the pond: Final Report for sampling from February 1995 -- September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilde, E.W.; Johnson, M.A.; Cody, W.C.

    1996-12-31

    This report describes the results of phytoplankton analyses from Par Pond samples collected between February 1995 and September 1996. The principal objective of the study was to determine the effect of refilling of Par Pond following repair of the dam on the phytoplankton community. Algal blooms are often responsible for fish kills and other detrimental effects in ponds and lakes, and it was postulated that decaying vegetation from formerly exposed sediments might trigger algal blooms that could result in fish kills in Par Pond following the refill. Sporadic algal blooms involving blue-green algae were detected, especially during the summer of 1996. However, the data derived from the study demonstrates that overall, the refilling effort caused no significant negative impact to the pond attributable to phytoplankton dynamics.

  4. Ink composition for making a conductive silver structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Steven B.; Lewis, Jennifer A.

    2016-10-18

    An ink composition for making a conductive silver structure comprises a silver salt and a complex of (a) a complexing agent and a short chain carboxylic acid or (b) a complexing agent and a salt of a short chain carboxylic acid, according to one embodiment. A method for making a silver structure entails combining a silver salt and a complexing agent, and then adding a short chain carboxylic acid or a salt of the short chain carboxylic acid to the combined silver salt and a complexing agent to form an ink composition. A concentration of the complexing agent in the ink composition is reduced to form a concentrated formulation, and the silver salt is reduced to form a conductive silver structure, where the concentrated formulation and the conductive silver structure are formed at a temperature of about 120.degree. C. or less.

  5. Print Quality of Ink Jet Printed PVC Foils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemanja Kašiković

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Digital printing technique is used for a wide variety of substrates, one of which are PVC foils. Samples used in this research were printed by digital ink jet printing technique using Mimaki JV22 printing machine and J-Eco Subly Nano inks. As printing substrates, two different types of materials were used (ORACAL 640 - Print Vinyl and LG Hausys LP2712. A test card consisting of fields of CMYK colours was created and printed, varying the number of ink layers applied. Samples were exposed to light after the printing process. Spectrophotometric measurements were conducted before and after the light treatment. Based on spectrophotometricaly obtained data, colour differences ΔE2000 were calculated. Results showed that increasing number of layers, as well as the right choice of substrates, can improve the behaviour of printed product during exploitation.

  6. Silver nanoparticle ink technology: state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajan K

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Krishna Rajan, Ignazio Roppolo, Annalisa Chiappone, Sergio Bocchini, Denis Perrone, Alessandro Chiolerio Center for Space Human Robotics, Italian Institute of Technology, Turin, Italy Abstract: Printed electronics will bring to the consumer level great breakthroughs and unique products in the near future, shifting the usual paradigm of electronic devices and circuit boards from hard boxes and rigid sheets into flexible thin layers and bringing disposable electronics, smart tags, and so on. The most promising tool to achieve the target depends upon the availability of nanotechnology-based functional inks. A certain delay in the innovation-transfer process to the market is now being observed. Nevertheless, the most widely diffused product, settled technology, and the highest sales volumes are related to the silver nanoparticle-based ink market, representing the best example of commercial nanotechnology today. This is a compact review on synthesis routes, main properties, and practical applications. Keywords: silver nanoparticles, surface plasmon resonance, nanocomposites, inks, printed electronics

  7. A Potential Adjuvant Agent of Chemotherapy: Sepia Ink Polysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangping Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sepia ink polysaccharide (SIP isolated from squid and cuttlefish ink is a kind of acid mucopolysaccharide that has been identified in three types of primary structures from squid (Illex argentinus and Ommastrephes bartrami, cuttlefish Sepiella maindroni, and cuttlefish Sepia esculenta ink. Although SIP has been proved to be multifaceted, most of the reported evidence has illuminated its chemopreventive and antineoplastic activities. As a natural product playing a role in cancer treatment, SIP may be used as chemotherapeutic ancillary agent or functional food. Based on the current findings on SIP, we have summarized four topics in this review, including: chemopreventive, antineoplastic, chemosensitive, and procoagulant and anticoagulant activities, which are correlative closely with the actions of anticancer agents on cancer patients, such as anticancer, toxicity and thrombogenesis, with the latter two actions being common causes of death in cancer cases exposed to chemotherapeutic agents.

  8. Ink Penetration of Uncoated Inkjet Paper and Impact on Printing Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren'ai Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated ink penetration through imaging technology, first by gray and contour mapping and then calculating the ink penetration depth by programing. Next, a series of further analyses were carried out, including average ink permeability, ink distributions, and printability of different uncoated inkjet paper with different parameters. The impact on ink penetration of the microstructure and hydrophilicity of the uncoated paper was also studied. The experimental results indicated that paper specimens with sizing agent were resistant to the ink, resulting in a slow and shallow ink penetration. Paper containing filler had a more hydrophilic surface and porous structure, leading to a faster and deeper ink penetration. However, the calendering operation could make the paper structure more compact and reduce the porosity and penetration depth. When an appropriate combination of sizing agent, filler content, and the calendering process was utilized, a more stable hue could be produced with improvements in optical density, saturation, and color.

  9. External PIXE analysis of old inks and papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanzadeh, A.; Lamehi-Rachti, M.; Oliaiy, P.; Rahighi, J.; Shokouhi, F.

    1999-01-01

    Proton Induced X-ray Emission, PIXE is a very well established analytical method. This technique of analysis can equally be applied both in vacuum, internal PIXE, and in atmosphere, external PIXE. External PIXE has been applied to material analysis in Van de Graaff laboratory at AEOI using filters and funny filters. Advantages of using these filters have been studied when analysing ancient written documents such as envelopes, inks, and newspapers. This technique clearly demonstrated the differences between new and old inks and papers. More data is needed to show other features of this technique. (author)

  10. Microbial status and product labelling of 58 original tattoo inks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgsberg, T; Saunte, D M; Frimodt-møller, Niels

    2011-01-01

    and labelled according to REACH as if they were plain chemicals. Objective  The objective of this study was to check the microbial product safety of unopened and opened tattoo ink stock bottles. Packaging, labelling, preservation, sterility and contamination with micro-organisms were studied. Methods  Physical......-pathogenic environmental bacteria. Yeast or moulds were detected in none of the samples. A total of 31% of the manufacturers informed only about the brand name. No information about content, sterility, risks or expiry date was indicated on the label. A total of 42% claimed sterility of their inks. A total of 54% labelled...

  11. Pigments and oligomers for inks - moving towards the best combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, I.; Smith, S.; Grierson, W.; Devine, E.

    1999-01-01

    The formulation of UV curable printing inks depends on several complex factors. If the individual components of the ink are not complementary, then performance problems can arise. One critical combination is that between the pigment and the oligomer. In a new approach to improve understanding of pigment/oligomer interactions, the resources of a pigment manufacturer and an oligomer manufacturer have been combined to investigate the problem. Initial screening of process yellow pigments and several oligomer types highlighted performance variations which were then examined in more detail

  12. Simplified quality control of radioactive seeds in sterile cartridge for prostate brachytherapy using an imaging plate and a collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saze, T.; Miyoshi, H.; Maezawa, H.; Kubota, M.; Furutani, S.; Nishitani, H.; Kawaguchi, Y.; Nakayama, S.; Ito, S.; Nishizawa, K.

    2008-01-01

    Image analyzer system and collimator has been successfully applied to calibrate simultaneously multiple 125 I seeds in a sterile cartridge. Seeds within the cartridge were placed on an imaging plate, and the imaging plate irradiated. To remove scatter radiation, and improve spatial resolution of seed images, this study used a specially designed collimator. The irradiated imaging plate was scanned using an image analyzer system, and radioactivity intensities of seed images were given in counts. Counts could be translated to profiles, and each seed within the cartridge was analyzed. It is observed that a good correlation between counts and total radioactivity of the seeds within the cartridge. Thus, using a least-squares line, it was possible to calibrate a seed with unknown apparent activity. By analyzing the profiles, it was possible not only to detect a mis calibrated seed in the cartridge from its relative difference in counts, but also to identify its position in the cartridge. Using an imaging analyzer system, all seeds in a cartridge could be calibrated in a sterile environment. (author)

  13. 49 CFR 173.173 - Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.173 Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins. (a) When..., paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins must be packaged as follows: (1) As prescribed in...

  14. Applicability of surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering for the direct discrimination of ballpoint pen inks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seifar, R.M.; Verheul, J.M.; Ariese, F.; Brinkman, U.A.T.; Gooijer, C.

    2001-01-01

    In situ surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy (SERRS) with excitation at 685 nm is suitable for the direct discrimination of blue and black ballpoint pen inks on paper. For black inks, shorter excitation wavelengths can also be used. For blue inks, SERRS at 514.5 and 457.9 nm does not

  15. Refilling process in the plasmasphere: a 3-D statistical characterization based on Cluster density observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lointier

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Cluster mission offers an excellent opportunity to investigate the evolution of the plasma population in a large part of the inner magnetosphere, explored near its orbit's perigee, over a complete solar cycle. The WHISPER sounder, on board each satellite of the mission, is particularly suitable to study the electron density in this region, between 0.2 and 80 cm−3. Compiling WHISPER observations during 1339 perigee passes distributed over more than three years of the Cluster mission, we present first results of a statistical analysis dedicated to the study of the electron density morphology and dynamics along and across magnetic field lines between L = 2 and L = 10. In this study, we examine a specific topic: the refilling of the plasmasphere and trough regions during extended periods of quiet magnetic conditions. To do so, we survey the evolution of the ap index during the days preceding each perigee crossing and sort out electron density profiles along the orbit according to three classes, namely after respectively less than 2 days, between 2 and 4 days, and more than 4 days of quiet magnetic conditions (ap ≤ 15 nT following an active episode (ap > 15 nT. This leads to three independent data subsets. Comparisons between density distributions in the 3-D plasmasphere and trough regions at the three stages of quiet magnetosphere provide novel views about the distribution of matter inside the inner magnetosphere during several days of low activity. Clear signatures of a refilling process inside an expended plasmasphere in formation are noted. A plasmapause-like boundary, at L ~ 6 for all MLT sectors, is formed after 3 to 4 days and expends somewhat further after that. In the outer part of the plasmasphere (L ~ 8, latitudinal profiles of median density values vary essentially according to the MLT sector considered rather than according to the refilling duration. The shape of these density profiles indicates that magnetic flux tubes are not

  16. 77 FR 12325 - Certain Toner Cartridges and Components Thereof Corrected Notice of Institution of Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ...., Ltd., d/b/a Huebon Co., Limited, d/b/a Ink-Tank, 3/F, No. 1 Industrial Building, Pingdong 2 Road....V., Avenida del Parque 1175, Monterrey Technology Park, Cienega de Flores, Nuevo Leon, Mexico 65550...., 7611 Green Meadows Drive, Lewis Center, OH 43035. Discount Office Items, Inc., 302 Industrial Drive...

  17. ALGORITHM OF DETERMINATION OF POWER AND ENERGY INDEXES OF SCREW INTENSIFIER ON THE BULLDOZER WORKING EQUIPMENT AT TRENCH REFILLINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KROL R. N.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. A bulldozer work at trench refilings is conducted by cyclic, machine shuttle motions that increases a right-of-way; increasing of time charges, fuel and labour by the side of the continuous refilling method. Besides the indicated defects gets worse also the quality of the trench refilling: the uneven soil output into a trench with large portions results the damages of pipes isolation and emptinesses formation, in consequence  settling and washing of soil. A bulldozer with the screw intensifier (SI, is deprived lacks of an odinary bulldozer  moving along a trench, it moves the loose soil that does not fall on a pipeline, but rolles on it. Thus the circuitous speed of a cutting edge of SI exceeds the speed of the base machine moving that provides the strong soil treatment (before dispersion before output into a trench. Purpose. The algorithm development of the rotational moment determination on the SI driveshaft, the consumable energy, the energy intensity and the working process productivity of the reverse trench refillings depending on physical and mechanical properties of soil, geometrical parameters of SI and bulldozer optimal speed. Conclusion. The developed algorithm allows to define that at the fixed value of the rotational speed the rotational moment and indicated efficiency of SI at the optimum speed increasing of the base machine change on a linear law; the optimum speed change of the base machine practically does not influence on the energy intensity at the considered change of the rotational speed .

  18. Clinic Attendance for Medication Refills and Medication Adherence amongst an Antiretroviral Treatment Cohort in Uganda: A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setor Kunutsor

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Regular clinic attendance for antiretroviral (ARV drug refills is important for successful clinical outcomes in HIV management. Methods. Clinic attendance for ARV drug refills and medication adherence using a clinic-based pill count in 392 adult patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART in a district hospital in Uganda were prospectively monitored over a 28-week period. Results. Of the 2267 total scheduled clinic visits, 40 (1.8% were missed visits. Among the 392 clients, 361 (92% attended all appointments for their refills (regular attendance. Clinic attendance for refills was statistically significantly associated with medication adherence with regular attendant clients having about fourfold greater odds of achieving optimal (≥95% medication adherence [odds ratio (OR=3.89, 95% CI: 1.48 to 10.25, exact P=.013]. In multivariate analysis, clients in age category 35 years and below were less likely to achieve regular clinic attendance. Conclusion. Monitoring of clinic attendance may be an objective and effective measure and could be a useful adjunct to an adherence measure such as pill counting in resource-constrained settings. Where human resource constraints do not allow pill counts or other time-consuming measures, then monitoring clinic attendance and acting on missed appointments may be an effective proxy measure.

  19. The Power of Flash Mob Research Conducting a Nationwide Observational Clinical Study on Capillary Refill Time in a Single Day

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsma, Jelmer; van Saase, Jan L. C. M.; Nanayakkara, Prabath W. B.; Schouten, W. E. M. Ineke; Baten, Anique; Bauer, Martijn P.; Holleman, Frits; Ligtenberg, Jack J. M.; Stassen, Patricia M.; Kaasjager, Karin H. A. H.; Haak, Harm R.; Bosch, Frank H.; Schuit, Stephanie C. E.

    BACKGROUND: Capillary refill time (CRT) is a clinical test used to evaluate the circulatory status of patients; various methods are available to assess CRT. Conventional clinical research often demands large numbers of patients, making it costly, labor-intensive, and time-consuming. We studied the

  20. Writer identification using directional ink-trace width measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, A. A.; Smit, J.; Bulacu, M. L.; Schomaker, L. R. B.

    As suggested by modern paleography, the width of ink traces is a powerful source of information for off-line writer identification, particularly if combined with its direction. Such measurements can be computed using simple, fast and accurate methods based on pixel contours, the combination of which

  1. Rheological behavior of silver nanowire conductive inks during screen printing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmati, Shohreh; Barkey, Dale P., E-mail: dpb@unh.edu; Gupta, Nivedita [University of New Hampshire, Department of Chemical Engineering (United States)

    2016-08-15

    The rheological behavior of silver nanowire (AgNW) suspensions adapted for screen printing inks was investigated. Aqueous silver nanowire inks consisting of AgNW (length of 30 μm, and diameter of 40 and 90 nm), dispersant and binder were formulated. The effect of AgNW content on the rheological behavior of the ink and the build-up of ink structure after screen printing were examined as they depend on applied shear and temperature. Rheological measurements under conditions that mimic the screen printing process were done to assess viscoelastic properties induced by flow alignment of the wires and the subsequent recovery of the low shear structure. The Stretched Exponential model (SEmo) was used to model the recovery process after screen printing to obtain the characteristic time of the recovery or build-up process. The characteristic time was determined at several temperatures to obtain the activation energy of recovery. The domination of Brownian motion or non-Brownian motion behavior can be characterized by a Peclet number, which is the ratio of shear rate to the rotational diffusion coefficient. The Peclet number and the dimensionless concentration of wires were used to assess the recovery mechanism. The steady viscosity at low and high shear rates was also treated by an activation energy analysis.

  2. Antifungal and Antihepatotoxic Effects of Sepia Ink Extract against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There is a great need for novel strategies to overcome the high mortality associated with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in immunocompromised patients. To evaluate the antifungal and antihepatotoxic potentials of Sepia ink extract, its effect on liver oxidative stress levels was analyzed against IPA in ...

  3. Rheological behavior of silver nanowire conductive inks during screen printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, Shohreh; Barkey, Dale P.; Gupta, Nivedita

    2016-08-01

    The rheological behavior of silver nanowire (AgNW) suspensions adapted for screen printing inks was investigated. Aqueous silver nanowire inks consisting of AgNW (length of 30 μm, and diameter of 40 and 90 nm), dispersant and binder were formulated. The effect of AgNW content on the rheological behavior of the ink and the build-up of ink structure after screen printing were examined as they depend on applied shear and temperature. Rheological measurements under conditions that mimic the screen printing process were done to assess viscoelastic properties induced by flow alignment of the wires and the subsequent recovery of the low shear structure. The Stretched Exponential model (SEmo) was used to model the recovery process after screen printing to obtain the characteristic time of the recovery or build-up process. The characteristic time was determined at several temperatures to obtain the activation energy of recovery. The domination of Brownian motion or non-Brownian motion behavior can be characterized by a Peclet number, which is the ratio of shear rate to the rotational diffusion coefficient. The Peclet number and the dimensionless concentration of wires were used to assess the recovery mechanism. The steady viscosity at low and high shear rates was also treated by an activation energy analysis.

  4. Rheological behavior of silver nanowire conductive inks during screen printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemmati, Shohreh; Barkey, Dale P.; Gupta, Nivedita

    2016-01-01

    The rheological behavior of silver nanowire (AgNW) suspensions adapted for screen printing inks was investigated. Aqueous silver nanowire inks consisting of AgNW (length of 30 μm, and diameter of 40 and 90 nm), dispersant and binder were formulated. The effect of AgNW content on the rheological behavior of the ink and the build-up of ink structure after screen printing were examined as they depend on applied shear and temperature. Rheological measurements under conditions that mimic the screen printing process were done to assess viscoelastic properties induced by flow alignment of the wires and the subsequent recovery of the low shear structure. The Stretched Exponential model (SEmo) was used to model the recovery process after screen printing to obtain the characteristic time of the recovery or build-up process. The characteristic time was determined at several temperatures to obtain the activation energy of recovery. The domination of Brownian motion or non-Brownian motion behavior can be characterized by a Peclet number, which is the ratio of shear rate to the rotational diffusion coefficient. The Peclet number and the dimensionless concentration of wires were used to assess the recovery mechanism. The steady viscosity at low and high shear rates was also treated by an activation energy analysis.

  5. In search of the rainbow: Colored inks in surgical pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandralekha Tampi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although surgical pathologists are aware of the multiple advantages that coloured inks contribute to surgical pathology practice, these coloured inks are not available in India and importing them is not a viable proposition. A systematic search for locally available coloring agents was done, and resulted in identifying specific shades within a popular set of children′s hobby colors of a particular brand. They retain their bright distinct colors on paraffin blocks and sections. These paints are available all over India, and are cheap, safe, and easy to use. Coloring gross specimen excision margins with different colors, adds precision to margin examination. It allows three-dimensional microscopic reconstruction of the tumor vis-a-vis its various neighboring anatomic structures. It allows postoperative comparison of tissue planes predicted by preoperative imaging. It maintains orientation of grossed and dissected specimens, enabling the pathologist to re-visit the grossed specimen, if required, and confidently allows further sampling if necessary. Aim: A systematic search for indigenous coloring agents was carried out, which included the dyes used in the histopathology laboratory, gelatin, commercially available paints, including acrylic paints and inks. Results: The study identified specific shades within a brand of acrylic colors that are easily available and simple to use, with good results on microscopic examination. Conclusion: Colored inks lend precision to margin examination. A set of easily procurable colors are available in our country, which are easy to use, with distinct bright colors, safe, and reliable.

  6. The Sneaky Sneaker Spies and the Mysterious Black Ink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savran, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the process of making "The Sneaky Sneaker Spies and the Mysterious Black Ink," a six-minute animation starring five art students who form a detective club. This animation is available online for art teachers to use in their own classrooms. After showing this video in class, art teachers could have students try…

  7. Radiation cure technology used in inks and coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravijst, J.-P.

    1995-01-01

    The radiation cure technology in inks and coatings by ultraviolet light (UV) and electron beam (EB) was introduced. The technology is the only one which meets the 3-E rules. An advantage of this technology is that a wide range of substrates can be printed such as paper, card, metal and even heat sensitive plastics

  8. Ridge Width Correlations between Inked Prints and Powdered Latent Fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Alcaraz-Fossoul, Josep; Barrot-Feixat, Carme; Zapico, Sara C; Mancenido, Michelle; Broatch, Jennifer; Roberts, Katherine A; Carreras-Marin, Clara; Tasker, Jack

    2017-10-03

    A methodology to estimate the time of latent fingerprint deposition would be of great value to law enforcement and courts. It has been observed that ridge topography changes as latent prints age, including the widths of ridges that could be measured as a function of time. Crime suspects are commonly identified using fingerprint databases that contain reference inked tenprints (flat and rolled impressions). These can be of interest in aging studies as they provide baseline information relating to the original (nonaged) ridges' widths. In practice, the age of latent fingerprints could be estimated following a comparison process between the evidentiary aged print and the corresponding reference inked print. The present article explores possible correlations between inked and fresh latent fingerprints deposited on different substrates and visualized with TiO 2 . The results indicate that the ridge width of flat inked prints is most similar to fresh latent fingerprints , and these should be used as the comparison standard for future aging studies. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  9. INK AND CLEANER WASTE REDUCTION EVALUATION FOR FLEXOGRAPHIC PRINTERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report describes the technical and economic effects incurred by a flexographic label printer who changed the type of ink and cleaning agent used in its print shop. The changes were incurred as the best way to eliminate all hazardous materials. The company's corporate managem...

  10. Ink and Wash Painting for Children with Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Chih-Ming; Chao, Hsin-Yi

    2010-01-01

    Five children with visual impairments received instruction in drawing, using ink and wash painting and calligraphy techniques. A special system developed by a blind Taiwanese Chinese calligrapher, Tsann-Cherng Liaw, was used to help the children orient and refine their work. Children's performance on simple drawing tasks was compared before and…

  11. Optical thermal sensor based on cholesteric film refilled with mixture of toluene and ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Liu, Yanjun; Luo, Dan

    2017-10-16

    We demonstrate an optical thermal sensor based on cholesteric film refilled with mixture of toluene and ethanol. The thermal response mechanism is mainly based on the thermal expansion effect induce by toluene, where the ethanol is used for refractive index adjustment to determine the initial refection band position of cholesteric film. The ethanol-toluene mixture was used to adjust the color tunability with the temperature in relation with the habits of people (blue as cold, green as safe and red as hot). A broad temperature range of 86 °C and highly sensitivity of 1.79 nm/ °C are achieved in proposed thermal sensor, where the reflective color red-shifts from blue to red when environmental temperature increases from -6 °C to 80 °C. This battery-free thermal sensor possesses features including simple fabrication, low-cost, and broad temperature sensing range, showing potential application in scientific research and industry.

  12. Refillable and magnetically actuated drug delivery system using pear-shaped viscoelastic membrane

    KAUST Repository

    So, Hongyun

    2014-07-01

    We report a refillable and valveless drug delivery device actuated by an external magnetic field for on-demand drug release to treat localized diseases. The device features a pear-shaped viscoelastic magnetic membrane inducing asymmetrical deflection and consecutive touchdown motion to the bottom of the dome-shaped drug reservoir in response to a magnetic field, thus achieving controlled discharge of the drug. Maximum drug release with 18 ± 1.5 μg per actuation was achieved under a 500 mT magnetic flux density, and various controlled drug doses were investigated with the combination of the number of accumulated actuations and the strength of the magnetic field.

  13. Microstructure and failure mechanisms of refill friction stir spot welded 7075-T6 aluminum alloy joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Zhikang; Yang, Xinqi; Zhang, Zhaohua; Cui, Lei; Li, Tielong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► There is a correlation between the void in the weld and the joint strength. ► The preferable mechanical properties can be obtained by lowering rotational speed. ► The alclad has an adverse effect on the mechanical properties. -- Abstract: In this paper, the microstructure and mechanical properties of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy joints joined by refill friction stir spot welding (RFSSW) were investigated. The keyhole was refilled successfully, and the microstructure of the weld exhibited variations in the grain sizes in the width and the thickness directions. There existed defects (hook, voids, bonding ligament, etc.) associated to the material flow in the weld. Mechanical properties of the joint have been investigated in terms of hardness and tensile/shear and cross-tension test, and the fracture mechanisms were observed by SEM (scanning electron microscope). The hardness profile of the weld exhibited a W-shaped appearance in the macroscopic level, which reached the minimum at the boundary of the sleeve and the clamping ring. The variation laws between tensile/shear and cross-tension strength and processing parameters were rather complicated. The void in the weld played an important role in determining the strength of the joint. On the whole, the preferable strength can be obtained at lower rotational speed. Shear fracture mode was observed under tensile–shear loadings, and nugget debonding, plug type fracture (on the upper sheet) and plug type fracture (on the lower sheet) modes were observed under cross-tension loadings. It was also observed that the main feature affecting the mechanical properties of the joint is the alclad between the upper and lower sheets and the connecting qualities between the stir zone and thermo-mechanically affected zone.

  14. Forensic medical evaluation of deaths resulting from inhalation of cigarette lighter refill fuel in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Erdinç; Eş, Hüseyin; Demir, Muhammet; Üzün, İbrahim

    2017-01-01

    Voluntary inhalation/abuse of volatile substances is an important public health problem which especially affects adolescent and young populations worldwide and may be encountered in all socioeconomic and cultural levels. Lighter gas abuse-related death is still an important health problem in Turkey. In this study, 25,265 case files and final reports submitted to the Institute of Forensic Medicine of the First Specialization Board between January 2011 and December 2015 were evaluated retrospectively. In 56 of these cases, lighter gas inhalation (n-butane, propane, isobutane) was recorded as the cause of death. All subjects were male with a mean age of 16.8years. According to eyewitness and crime scene investigation reports, in 48 (85.7%) of the cases, a lighter refill container was found at the scene. It was determined that 21.4% of the cases used a plastic bag to increase the effects of lighter gas and 76.8% inhaled the lighter gas via their mouth and nose. The toxicological analysis of the samples taken while hospitalized showed no lighter refill components (n-butane, propane, isobutane) in 66% of the cases, n-butane in 32.1% of the cases, and n-butane+propane+isobutane in 1.9% of the cases. The importance of lighter gas inhalation-related deaths in Turkey has been increasing. Strict measures against the abuse of these very dangerous substances should be undertaken by the mutual efforts of medical specialists and legislators. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Fluiddynamic effects in the fuel element top nozzle area during refilling and reflooding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawighorst, A.; Kroening, H.; Mewes, D.; Spatz, R.; Mayinger, F.

    1985-01-01

    During the refilling and reflooding phase following a hypothetical loss of coolant accident in lightwater cooled nuclear reactors, there will be countercurrent flow between discharging steam and the feed of emergency core cooling water. It was the objective of this research project to contribute to a better physical understanding of the fluiddynamic processes in the area of the fuel element top nozzle and so to improve emergency core cooling calculations. Therefore, experimental and theoretical investigations about the entrainment and countercurrent behaviour of gas/liquid flows have been implemented within this project. Fluiddynamic processes in the fuel element top nozzle area were simulated during the reflooding and refilling phase. Based on special internals as single and multiple-hole orifices, basic phenomena of fluidynamics were studied first with air-water. Subsequently, investigations of the system steam/water were conducted. The reactor geometry was approximated step by step, until a complete reactor fuel assembly top nozzle was constituted. The system pressure was 4.8 bars (abs), in accordance with the conditions in the reactor pressure vessel at the end of the blowdown phase. The water was initially fed in at saturation temperature, then, as a second step, fed in at subcooled condition relative to the steam temperature, in order to be able to study condensation effects as well. First, investigations on gas/liquid countercurrent flows in the fluid system air/water are presented. Then one studies countercurrent flow in the system steam/water, including the investigation of condensation effects. Finally, a detailed description of the research on droplet size determination is given

  16. 76 FR 60871 - In the Matter of Certain Toner Cartridges and Components Thereof; Notice of Commission Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ...-Toner''); Alpha Image Tech of South El Monte, California (``Alpha Image''); ACM Technologies, Inc. of Corona, California (``ACM''); Virtual Imaging Products Inc. of North York, Ontario; Acecom Inc.--San... Image, Copy Tech, LTT, C&R, ACM, Ink Master, Direct Billing, Ink Tech, QCI, IJSS, Acecom, Ninestar Tech...

  17. Do insulin cartridges really provide a lower risk of potential diabetes complications than traditional vials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sharayri, Mohammad G; Aljbori, Tariq M; Migdadi, Qusai M; Al-Omoush, Marwa B; Jaarah, Ayman R

    2014-09-01

    Recently, many publicly funded healthcare organizations suffered from an economical crisis. This forced some organizations to utilize less costly alternatives where possible. Insulin cartridges and vials are examples. Many patients are questioning the difference between the two alternatives as they contain the same active ingredient. To find out if insulin cartridges really provide a lower risk of potential diabetes complications than traditional vials. A questionnaire was used to ask two random samples of diabetic patients about the development of some diabetes complications. The first sample (n = 41) consisted of patients using cartridges; the second sample (n = 40) consisted of patients using vials. Patients were randomly selected from the endocrine clinic and the out-patient pharmacy in Al-Hussein Hospital in King Hussein Medical Center in Amman- Jordan. 44% of respondents in the first sample did not suffer from any complication; on the other hand, the percentage was only 15% of respondents in the second sample. All respondents (100%) in the first sample suffered from only 2 complications or less; however, 25% of the respondents in the second sample suffered from 3 or more complications. Nephropathy complications, were slightly higher in the first sample; 22% compared to 15% in the second sample. On the other hand, all complications reported in the second sample were higher; 30% for neuropathy, 65% for retinopathy complications and 42.5% for extremities damage compared to only 9.7%, 7.3% and 26.8% respectively in the first sample. In general, respondents who were using cartridges reported a lesser incidence of diabetes complications. Although many organizations suffered from an economical crisis, the cost-effectiveness aspect should be taken into consideration when purchasing medical alternatives. This will provide higher quality of life for patients and eventually lower hidden and future costs for the organizations.

  18. Safety limits of half-mask cartridge respirators for organic solvent vapors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    Recent studies of the effective service life (safety limits) for typical half-mask cartridge respirators have shown these devices to be unsuitable for certain organic vapors, e.g., methanol, methylamine, vinyl chloride, and dichloromethane, because the effective service life is too short. For these vapors other forms of protection such as air-supplied respirators are recommended. The experimentally determined service life for many vapors is shorter--sometimes significantly shorter--than predicted by adsorption theory

  19. Characterization of cartridge filters from the IEA-R1 Nuclear Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The management of radioactive waste ensures safety to human health and the environment nowadays and for the future, without overwhelming the upcoming generations. The primary characterization of radioactive waste is one of the main steps in the management of radioactive waste. This step permits to choose the best treatment for the radioactive waste before forwarding it to its final disposal. The aim of the present work is the primary characterization of cartridge filters from the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor utilizing gamma-ray spectrometry, and the method of Monte Carlo for calibration. The IEA-R1 is located in the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN - CNEN) in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Cartridge filters are used for purification of the cooling water that is pumped through the core of the pool type nuclear research reactors. Once worn out, these filters are replaced and then become radioactive waste. Determination of the radioactive inventory is of paramount importance in the management of such radioactive waste, and one of the main methods for doing so is the gamma-ray spectrometry, which can identify and quantify high energy photon emitters. The technique chosen for the characterization of radioactive waste in the present work is the gamma-ray spectrometry with High purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors. From the energy identified in the experimental spectrum, three radioisotopes were identified in the cartridge filter: 108m Ag, 110m Ag, 60 Co. For the estimated activity of the filter, the calibration in efficiency was made utilizing the MCNP4C code of the Monte Carlo method. Such method was chosen because there is no standard source available in the same geometry of the cartridge filter, therefore a simulation had to be developed in order to reach a calibration equation, necessary to estimate the activity of the radioactive waste. The results presented an activity value in the order of MBq for all radioisotopes. (authors)

  20. Characterization of cartridge filters from the IEA-R1 Nuclear Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-01

    The management of radioactive waste ensures safety to human health and the environment nowadays and for the future, without overwhelming the upcoming generations. The primary characterization of radioactive waste is one of the main steps in the management of radioactive waste. This step permits to choose the best treatment for the radioactive waste before forwarding it to its final disposal. The aim of the present work is the primary characterization of cartridge filters from the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor utilizing gamma-ray spectrometry, and the method of Monte Carlo for calibration. The IEA-R1 is located in the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN - CNEN) in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Cartridge filters are used for purification of the cooling water that is pumped through the core of the pool type nuclear research reactors. Once worn out, these filters are replaced and then become radioactive waste. Determination of the radioactive inventory is of paramount importance in the management of such radioactive waste, and one of the main methods for doing so is the gamma-ray spectrometry, which can identify and quantify high energy photon emitters. The technique chosen for the characterization of radioactive waste in the present work is the gamma-ray spectrometry with High purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors. From the energy identified in the experimental spectrum, three radioisotopes were identified in the cartridge filter: {sup 108m}Ag, {sup 110m}Ag, {sup 60}Co. For the estimated activity of the filter, the calibration in efficiency was made utilizing the MCNP4C code of the Monte Carlo method. Such method was chosen because there is no standard source available in the same geometry of the cartridge filter, therefore a simulation had to be developed in order to reach a calibration equation, necessary to estimate the activity of the radioactive waste. The results presented an activity value in the order of MBq for all radioisotopes. (authors)

  1. RPA using a multiplexed cartridge for low cost point of care diagnostics in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ereku, Luck Tosan; Mackay, Ruth E; Craw, Pascal; Naveenathayalan, Angel; Stead, Thomas; Branavan, Manorharanehru; Balachandran, Wamadeva

    2018-04-15

    A point of care device utilising Lab-on-a-Chip technologies that is applicable for biological pathogens was designed, fabricated and tested showing sample in to answer out capabilities. The purpose of the design was to develop a cartridge with the capability to perform nucleic acid extraction and purification from a sample using a chitosan membrane at an acidic pH. Waste was stored within the cartridge with the use of sodium polyacrylate to solidify or gelate the sample in a single chamber. Nucleic acid elution was conducted using the RPA amplification reagents (alkaline pH). Passive valves were used to regulate the fluid flow and a multiplexer was designed to distribute the fluid into six microchambers for amplification reactions. Cartridges were produced using soft lithography of silicone from 3D printed moulds, bonded to glass substrates. The isothermal technique, RPA is employed for amplification. This paper shows the results from two separate experiments: the first using the RPA control nucleic acid, the second showing successful amplification from Chlamydia Trachomatis. Endpoint analysis conducted for the RPA analysis was gel electrophoresis that showed 143 base pair DNA was amplified successfully for positive samples whilst negative samples did not show amplification. End point analysis for Chlamydia Trachomatis samples was fluorescence detection that showed successful detection of 1 copy/μL and 10 copies/μL spiked in a MES buffer. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Behavioral response and pain perception to computer controlled local anesthetic delivery system and cartridge syringe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T D Yogesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study evaluated and compared the pain perception, behavioral response, physiological parameters, and the role of topical anesthetic administration during local anesthetic administration with cartridge syringe and computer controlled local anesthetic delivery system (CCLAD. Design: A randomized controlled crossover study was carried out with 120 children aged 7-11 years. They were randomly divided into Group A: Receiving injection with CCLAD during first visit; Group B: Receiving injection with cartridge syringe during first visit. They were further subdivided into three subgroups based on the topical application used: (a 20% benzocaine; (b pressure with cotton applicator; (c no topical application. Pulse rate and blood pressure were recorded before and during injection procedure. Objective evaluation of disruptive behavior and subjective evaluation of pain were done using face legs activity cry consolability scale and modified facial image scale, respectively. The washout period between the two visits was 1-week. Results: Injections with CCLAD produced significantly lesser pain response, disruptive behavior (P < 0.001, and pulse rate (P < 0.05 when compared to cartridge syringe injections. Application of benzocaine produced lesser pain response and disruptive behavior when compared to the other two subgroups, although the result was not significant. Conclusion: Usage of techniques which enhance behavioral response in children like injections with CCLAD can be considered as a possible step toward achieving a pain-free pediatric dental practice.

  3. Motion-Based pH Sensing Based on the Cartridge-Case-like Micromotor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yajun; Ge, Ya; Liu, Limei; Zhang, Lina; Liu, Mei; Sun, Yunyu; Zhang, Hui; Dong, Bin

    2016-02-17

    In this paper, we report a novel cartridge-case-like micromotor. The micromotor, which is fabricated by the template synthesis method, consists of a gelatin shell with platinum nanoparticles decorating its inner surface. Intriguingly, the resulting cartridge-case-like structure exhibits a pH-dependent "open and close" feature, which originates from the pH responsiveness of the gelatin material. On the basis of the catalytic activity of the platinum nanoparticle inside the gelatin shell, the resulting cartridge-case-like structure is capable of moving autonomously in the aqueous solution containing the hydrogen peroxide fuel. More interestingly, we find out that the micromotor can be utilized as a motion-based pH sensor over the whole pH range. The moving velocity of the micromotor increases monotonically with the increase of pH of the analyte solution. Three different factors are considered to be responsible for the proportional relation between the motion speed and pH of the analyte solution: the peroxidase-like and oxidase-like catalytic behavior of the platinum nanoparticle at low and high pH, the volumetric decomposition of the hydrogen peroxide under the basic condition and the pH-dependent catalytic activity of the platinum nanoparticle caused by the swelling/deswelling behavior of the gelatin material. The current work highlights the impact of the material properties on the motion behavior of a micromotor, thus paving the way toward its application in the motion-based sensing field.

  4. Change in muzzle velocity due to freezing and water immersion of .22, long rifle, K.F. cartridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauhari, M; Chatterjee, S M; Ghosh, P K

    1975-01-01

    A study of change in muzzle velocity due to freezing and water immersion of .22, long rifle, K. F. cartridges has been presented. A statistical criterion has been formulated to ascertain whether or not a cartridge undergoes a change in muzzle velocity due to a particular treatment. The muzzle velocity data of .22, long rifle, K. F. cartridges, obtained by an electronic timer before and after the various treatments, have been analyzed in the light of this criterion. These cartridges have generally been found to suffer considerable loss in muzzle velocity when immersed in water for three weeks and also when immersed in water for three days and simultaneously cooled to 0 degrees C. The forensic significance of this loss in muzzle velocity has been discussed.

  5. Characterization of printed pigment-based inks on ink-jet media using cross-sectional electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, P. de; Pataki, T.; Peeters, D.; Roost, C. van

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on the microscopic assessment of representative specimen cross-sections prepared by microtomy and ultramicrotomy with emphasis in structure-property information using optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, namely, the absolute optical density δ, the measured effective printing coverage C-tilde, the averaged pigment-based ink layer thickness t-bar, and the morphology at 100% nominal printing coverage. This work shows that for different test patches printed at the same nominal printing coverage a number of different printing schemes yield a pre-defined absolute optical density δ which basically depends on the measured effective printing coverage C-tilde and the type of pigment-based inks used (spectral absorptivity m≠∞) and therefore on the averaged pigment-based ink layer thickness t-bar. A method for estimating the spectral absorptivity m is presented which combines the absolute optical density δ of the test patch and the averaged pigment-based ink layer thickness t-bar as measured from cross-sectional electron microscopy

  6. Capillary refill time is an unreliable indicator of cardiovascular status in term neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeFlore, Judy L; Engle, William D

    2005-06-01

    Decisions regarding the need for volume replacement in neonates often are made in the immediate newborn period. Capillary refill time (CRT) is used as an indicator of circulatory status; however, recent data show that CRT varies considerably with age, ambient and skin temperature, anatomical site of measurement, and duration of pressure. The purpose of this study was to (1) examine the relationship between CRT and heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) in term neonates, and (2) evaluate the differences among CRT values measured at 3 body sites and with varying duration of cutaneous pressure. This was a prospective, cross-sectional, correlational study. Subjects Forty-two appropriate-weight-for-gestational-age (AGA) neonates with birthweights, (M = 3407; SD = +/- 540 g), gestational ages (M = 39 weeks; SD = +/- 1 week), and sex (21 males, 21 females). Infants had no history of perinatal distress or maternal chorioamnionitis. Each neonate was studied prospectively 1 to 4 hours after birth. The infants were clothed with only a diaper and evaluated on a radiant warmer bed set to achieve an axillary temperature of 36.5 degrees to 37.0 degrees C. Capillary refill time was measured with a digital stopwatch at 3 sites: volar surface of finger (F), plantar surface of heel (H), and lower sternum (St), using brief (1- to 2-second) and extended (3- to 4-second) pressure. Heart rate was auscultated and counted for 60 seconds, and BP was measured by oscillometry. Relationships among variables were assessed by Pearson correlation coefficient, analysis of variance, and multiple regression analysis. The Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons was applied. Capillary refill time, blood pressure, and heart rate. There was no significant site variation for CRT for either brief (2.4 +/- 0.6 to 2.9 +/- 1.0 seconds) or extended (3.8 +/- 0.8 to 4.3 +/- 0.8 seconds) pressure. However, regardless of site, CRT was greater when extended versus brief pressure was used (P correlations

  7. Black Ink and Red Ink (BIRI) Testing: A Testing Method to Evaluate Both Recall and Recognition Learning in Accelerated Adult-Learning Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Joseph Lee; Rodgers, Jacci L.

    2011-01-01

    We propose, develop, and evaluate the black ink-red ink (BIRI) method of testing. This approach uses two different methods within the same test administration setting, one that matches recognition learning and the other that matches recall learning. Students purposively define their own tradeoff between the two approaches. Evaluation of the method…

  8. The effect of sampling methods on the apparent constituents of ink from the squid Sepioteuthis australis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madaras, F; Gerber, J P; Peddie, F; Kokkinn, M J

    2010-11-01

    Results of experiments conducted on ink recovered from the squid Sepioteuthis australis indicate that there is no epinephrine or protein naturally present in the ink as it would be ejected in vivo. Protein content was effectively zero when ink was syringed from the duct end of the ink sac of freshly killed animals. By contrast, there were proteins in samples collected from dead specimens where ink was collected by a stripping method. From these samples, a single large molecular weight protein was identified as having tyrosinase activity. Digestion of syringed ink did not yield signs of melanin-bound proteins. Analysis of supernatants after centrifugation of squid ink consistently revealed the presence of DOPA, dopamine, and taurine, whereas epinephrine and nor-epinephrine were recorded from what was believed to be contaminated ink. Histological investigations of the ink sac revealed a compartmentalised glandular structure distal to the duct end. Closer observation of the glandular tissue showed that compartments increased in size as they matured and moved further into the lumen. It was concluded that the presence of epinephrine and tyrosinase (or a related protein) in the ink of S. australis could be attributed to rupturing of basal glandular compartments or contamination from other sources during the extraction process.

  9. Effect of Hyperbranched Polymers on Curing Behavior of UV Curable Inks in Inkjet Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samane Jafarifard

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A high quality and high resolution printing can be rapidly created by inkjet printing technology. Inkjet printing is one of the most economic printing methods and ink waste in this technique is very low. Inkjet process provides printing on any type of substrates. The UV curable inks are special types of printing inks that have been widely used in the last decades. The use of UV curable inks is more attractive in inkjet printing technology in comparison to other methods of printing. The most important advantage of UV curable inks in this method is that they are VOC-free and compatible and have good adhesion on many types of substrates. In this research, the effect of hyperbranched polymers on the curing behavior of UV curable inks was investigated. Two types of hyperbranched polymers with hydroxyl and fatty acid chain terminal groups were used in ink formulations. The effect of hyperbranched polymers on the curing behavior of UV curable ink was investigated by real-time FTIR analysis. The results showed that the hyperbranched polymers could improve curing process by increasing the conversion rate of the third curing stage. All ink formulations containing hyperbranched polymers showed higher conversion than a neat sample. The highest conversion was 77 % for the blend containing a hyperbranched polymer with hydroxyl end groups while the neat sample showed a final conversion of 55%. UV curable inks in inkjet process containing hyperbranched polymers with hydroxyl end groups showed a higher final conversion than neat sample.

  10. 77 FR 4362 - Certain Toner Cartridges and Components Thereof; Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    .../b/a Image Toner) of GA; E-Max Group, Inc. (d/b/a Databazaar.com ) of FL; Green Project, Inc. of CA; GreenLine Paper Company, Inc. of PA; IJSS Inc. (d/b/a TonerZone.com (d/b/a InkJetSuperstore.com )) of CA... health and welfare in the United States, competitive conditions in the United States economy, the...

  11. MR scanning, tattoo inks, and risk of thermal burn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alsing, K. K.; Johannesen, H. H.; Hvass Hansen, R.

    2017-01-01

    : Magnetic resonance imaging effects on 3 commonly used commercial ink stock products marketed for cosmetic tattooing was studied. A main study tested 22 formulations based on 11 pigment raw materials, for example, one line of 11 called pastes and another called dispersions. Samples were spread in petri...... dishes and tested with a 0.97 T neodymium solid magnet to observe visual magnetic behavior. Before MRI, the surface temperature of the ink was measured using an infrared probe. Samples were placed in a clinical 3T scanner. Two scans were performed, that is, one in the isocenter and one 30 cm away from...... the center. After scanning, the surface temperature was measured again. Chemical analysis of samples was performed by mass spectroscopy. Results: Mean temperature increase measured in the isocenter ranged between 0.14 and 0.26°C (P

  12. Atmospheric pressure DBD gun and its application in ink printability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Qiang; Zhang Yuefei; Han Erli; Ge Yuanjing

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a plasma source discharging at atmospheric pressure and its characterization diagnosed by a Langmuir probe and a digital camera are presented. As an application the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) gun modifying an ultraviolet cured resin surface for ink printability is reported. The results from the digital camera indicate the uniformity and homogeneity of the plasma generated from the gun in the downstream but depending on the input power, diameter of electrodes, gas flow rates and the distance between the substrates and the nozzle. The contact angle measurement proves the efficiency of gun during the surface modification. The ink printability following DBD gun processing described here was significantly improved. The performed surface analysis using Fourier transform infrared indicates that the polarity of surface grafted in plasma is responsible for the film printability

  13. Effect of hydrophobic microstructured surfaces on conductive ink printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seunghwan; Kang, Hyun Wook; Lee, Kyung Heon; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2011-01-01

    Conductive ink was printed on various microstructured substrates to measure the printing quality. Poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates were used to test the printability of the hydrophobic surface material. Microstructured arrays of 10 µm regular PDMS cubes were prepared using the MEMS fabrication technique. The gap distance between the cubes was varied from 10 to 40 µm. The printing wettability of the microstructured surfaces was determined by measuring the contact angle of a droplet of silver conductive ink. Screen-printing methods were used in the conductive line printing experiment. Test line patterns with finely varying widths (30–250 µm) were printed repeatedly, and the conductivity of the printed lines was measured. The printability, which was defined as the ratio of the successfully printed patterns to the total number of printed patterns, was analyzed as a function of the linewidth and the gap distance of the microstructured surfaces

  14. Direct ink write fabrication of transparent ceramic gain media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ivy Krystal; Seeley, Zachary M.; Cherepy, Nerine J.; Duoss, Eric B.; Payne, Stephen A.

    2018-01-01

    Solid-state laser gain media based on the garnet structure with two spatially distinct but optically contiguous regions have been fabricated. Transparent gain media comprised of a central core of Y2.97Nd0.03Al5.00O12.00 (Nd:YAG) and an undoped cladding region of Y3Al5O12 (YAG) were fabricated by direct ink write and transparent ceramic processing. Direct ink write (DIW) was employed to form the green body, offering a general route to preparing functionally structured solid-state laser gain media. Fully-dense transparent optical ceramics in a "top hat" geometry with YAG/Nd:YAG have been fabricated by DIW methods with optical scatter at 1064 nm of <3%/cm.

  15. Powder ink coatings in nuclear medicine and nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunze, S.; Schlautek, H.

    1996-01-01

    Powder ink coatings are being used more and more frequently to protect the surfaces of movable objects of metal, such as machines, equipment, furniture, shelves, because this solvent-free coating technique, which produces almost no residues, helps to keep the environment clean. The white and grey baking coatings so far tested for decontaminability are presented in the article. Powder ink coatings of different shades and with different binders were tested for their ability to meet future standards. All systems under examination demonstrated excellent decontaminability before and after gamma exposure to 0.3 MGy. The same performance was obtained also after exposure to 3 MGy (ten times the level required for coatings in nuclear installations according to DIN 55991 Part 1), with the exception of one polyester metallic coating. After having been exposed to chemicals and decontamination solutions, all specimens showed only permissible discoloration. (orig.) [de

  16. Inkjet printing technology and conductive inks synthesis for microfabrication techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, Mau Chien; Dung Dang, Thi My; Fribourg-Blanc, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Inkjet printing is an advanced technique which reliably reproduces text, images and photos on paper and some other substrates by desktop printers and is now used in the field of materials deposition. This interest in maskless materials deposition is coupled with the development of microfabrication techniques for the realization of circuits or patterns on flexible substrates for which printing techniques are of primary interest. This paper is a review of some results obtained in inkjet printing technology to develop microfabrication techniques at Laboratory for Nanotechnology (LNT). Ink development, in particular conductive ink, study of printed patterns, as well as application of these to the realization of radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags on flexible substrates, are presented. (paper)

  17. Inkjet printing of silver citrate conductive ink on PET substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nie Xiaolei [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology of Ministry of Education, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Wang Hong, E-mail: hongwang@tju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology of Ministry of Education, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zou Jing [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology of Ministry of Education, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A direct synthesis method of silver conductive film on PET substrate was presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A stable particle-free conductive ink was prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Formation of silver-amine complex reduced the thermal decomposition temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conductive patterns for flexible electronics were fabricated by inkjet printing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silver film on PET substrate possessed highest adhesion rating even without polymer. - Abstract: Direct synthesis of silver conductive film on PET substrate by inkjet printing silver citrate conductive ink was presented in this paper. This kind of conductive ink contained silver citrate as silver precursor, 1,2-diaminopropane as complex agent dissolving the silver salt and methanol and isopropanol as a media adjusting the viscosity and surface tension. The formation of silver-amine complex reduced the decomposition temperature from 180 Degree-Sign C to 135 Degree-Sign C, thus the ink could be cured at relatively low temperature. The film reached the lowest resistivity of 17 {mu}{Omega} cm after cured at 150 Degree-Sign C for 50 min, 3.1 {mu}{Omega} cm at 230 Degree-Sign C and possessed high reflection and excellent adhesive property. Electrical conductivity, surface morphology and composition were investigated by four-point probe method, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). It is demonstrated how the cured condition affects the silver film. Moreover, radio-frequency identification (RFID) antenna was fabricated by inkjet printing, which opens up routes for the flexible electronics fabrication.

  18. Mod silver metallization: Screen printing and ink-jet printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vest, R. W.; Vest, G. M.

    1985-01-01

    Basic material efforts have proven to be very successful. Adherent and conductive films were achieved. A silver neodecanoate/bismuth 2-ethylhexanoate mixture has given the best results in both single and double layer applications. Another effort is continuing to examine the feasibility of applying metallo-organic deposition films by use of an ink jet printer. Direct line writing would result in a saving of process time and materials. So far, some well defined lines have been printed.

  19. Inkjet printing of silver citrate conductive ink on PET substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie Xiaolei; Wang Hong; Zou Jing

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A direct synthesis method of silver conductive film on PET substrate was presented. ► A stable particle-free conductive ink was prepared. ► Formation of silver-amine complex reduced the thermal decomposition temperature. ► Conductive patterns for flexible electronics were fabricated by inkjet printing. ► Silver film on PET substrate possessed highest adhesion rating even without polymer. - Abstract: Direct synthesis of silver conductive film on PET substrate by inkjet printing silver citrate conductive ink was presented in this paper. This kind of conductive ink contained silver citrate as silver precursor, 1,2-diaminopropane as complex agent dissolving the silver salt and methanol and isopropanol as a media adjusting the viscosity and surface tension. The formation of silver-amine complex reduced the decomposition temperature from 180 °C to 135 °C, thus the ink could be cured at relatively low temperature. The film reached the lowest resistivity of 17 μΩ cm after cured at 150 °C for 50 min, 3.1 μΩ cm at 230 °C and possessed high reflection and excellent adhesive property. Electrical conductivity, surface morphology and composition were investigated by four-point probe method, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). It is demonstrated how the cured condition affects the silver film. Moreover, radio-frequency identification (RFID) antenna was fabricated by inkjet printing, which opens up routes for the flexible electronics fabrication.

  20. Coagulation and Adsorption Treatment of Printing Ink Wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Klančnik, Maja

    2014-01-01

    The intention of the study was to improve the efficiency of total organic carbon (TOC) and colour removal from the wastewater samples polluted with flexographic printing ink following coagulation treatments with further adsorption onto activated carbons and ground orange peel. The treatment efficiencies were compared to those of further flocculation treatments and of coagulation and adsorption processes individually. Coagulation was a relatively effective single-treatment method, removing 99...

  1. Advanced Methods for Direct Ink Write Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compel, W. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Lewicki, J. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2018-01-24

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is one of the world’s premier labs for research and development of additive manufacturing processes. Out of these many processes, direct ink write (DIW) is arguably one of the most relevant for the manufacture of architected polymeric materials, components and hardware. However, a bottleneck in this pipeline that has largely been ignored to date is the lack of advanced software implementation with respect to toolpath execution. There remains to be a convenient, automated method to design and produce complex parts that is user-friendly and enabling for the realization of next generation designs and structures. For a material to be suitable as a DIW ink it must possess the appropriate rheological properties for this process. Most importantly, the material must exhibit shear-thinning in order to extrude through a print head and have a rapid recovery of its static shear modulus. This makes it possible for the extrudate to be self-supporting upon exiting the print head. While this and other prerequisites narrow the scope of ‘offthe- shelf’ printable materials directly amenable to DIW, the process still tolerates a wide range of potential feedstock materials. These include metallic alloys, inorganic solvent borne dispersions, polymeric melts, filler stabilized monomer compositions, pre-elastomeric feedstocks and thermoset resins each of which requires custom print conditions tailored to the individual ink. As such, an ink perfectly suited for DIW may be prematurely determined to be undesirable for the process if printed under the wrong conditions. Defining appropriate print conditions such as extrusion rate, layer height, and maximum bridge length is a vital first step in validating an ink’s DIW capability.

  2. Rapid, efficient and selective preconcentration of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) by molecularly imprinted composite cartridge and HPLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Çorman, Mehmet Emin, E-mail: mecorman@sinop.edu.tr [Hacettepe University, Department of Chemistry, Ankara (Turkey); Sinop University, Department of Bioengineering, Sinop (Turkey); Armutcu, Canan [Hacettepe University, Department of Chemistry, Ankara (Turkey); Uzun, Lokman, E-mail: lokman@hacettepe.edu.tr [Hacettepe University, Department of Chemistry, Ankara (Turkey); Denizli, Adil [Hacettepe University, Department of Chemistry, Ankara (Turkey)

    2017-01-01

    In this study, cryogel-based molecularly imprinted composite cartridges were designed for the rapid, efficient, and selective preconcentration of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) from water samples. First, a BaP-imprinted poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-N-methacryloyl-(L)-phenylalanine) composite cartridge was synthesized under semi-frozen conditions and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and swelling tests. After the optimization of preconcentration parameters, i.e., pH and initial BaP concentration, the selectivity and preconcentration efficiency, and reusability of these cartridges were also evaluated. In selectivity experiments, BaP imprinted composite cartridge exhibited binding capacities 3.09, 9.52, 8.87, and 8.77-fold higher than that of the non-imprinted composite cartridge in the presence of competitors, such as benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF), benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF), indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene (IcdP), and 1-naphthol, respectively. The method detection limit (MDL), relative standard deviation (RSD) and preconcentration efficiency (PE) of the synthesized composite cartridge were calculated as 24.86 μg/L, 1.60%, and 349.6%, respectively. - Highlights: • Cryogel based molecularly imprinted composite cartridges as solid-phase extraction sorbents • Combination unique structural features of cryogels with MIP • An excellent ability to recognize the BaP molecule even if single-run contact • Rapid, efficient, selective and cost-friendly PAH preconcentration • Hydrophobic interactions via N-methacryloyl-(L)-phenylalanine.

  3. 3D Printing by Multiphase Silicone/Water Capillary Inks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Sangchul; Parekh, Dishit P; Bharti, Bhuvnesh; Stoyanov, Simeon D; Velev, Orlin D

    2017-08-01

    3D printing of polymers is accomplished easily with thermoplastics as the extruded hot melt solidifies rapidly during the printing process. Printing with liquid polymer precursors is more challenging due to their longer curing times. One curable liquid polymer of specific interest is polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). This study demonstrates a new efficient technique for 3D printing with PDMS by using a capillary suspension ink containing PDMS in the form of both precured microbeads and uncured liquid precursor, dispersed in water as continuous medium. The PDMS microbeads are held together in thixotropic granular paste by capillary attraction induced by the liquid precursor. These capillary suspensions possess high storage moduli and yield stresses that are needed for direct ink writing. They could be 3D printed and cured both in air and under water. The resulting PDMS structures are remarkably elastic, flexible, and extensible. As the ink is made of porous, biocompatible silicone that can be printed directly inside aqueous medium, it can be used in 3D printed biomedical products, or in applications such as direct printing of bioscaffolds on live tissue. This study demonstrates a number of examples using the high softness, elasticity, and resilience of these 3D printed structures. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Ag–graphene hybrid conductive ink for writing electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, L Y; Yang, G Y; Jing, H Y; Han, Y D; Wei, J

    2014-01-01

    With the aim of preparing a method for the writing of electronics on paper by the use of common commercial rollerball pens loaded with conductive ink, hybrid conductive ink composed of Ag nanoparticles (15 wt%) and graphene–Ag composite nanosheets (0.15 wt%) formed by depositing Ag nanoparticles (∼10 nm) onto graphene sheets was prepared for the first time. Owing to the electrical pathway effect of graphene and the decreased contact resistance of graphene junctions by depositing Ag nanoparticles (NPs) onto graphene sheets, the concentration of Ag NPs was significantly reduced while maintaining high conductivity at a curing temperature of 100 ° C. A typical resistivity value measured was 1.9 × 10 −7  Ω m, which is 12 times the value for bulk silver. Even over thousands of bending cycles or rolling, the resistance values of writing tracks only increase slightly. The stability and flexibility of the writing circuits are good, demonstrating the promising future of this hybrid ink and direct writing method. (paper)

  5. Inkjet printing of silver citrate conductive ink on PET substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xiaolei; Wang, Hong; Zou, Jing

    2012-11-01

    Direct synthesis of silver conductive film on PET substrate by inkjet printing silver citrate conductive ink was presented in this paper. This kind of conductive ink contained silver citrate as silver precursor, 1,2-diaminopropane as complex agent dissolving the silver salt and methanol and isopropanol as a media adjusting the viscosity and surface tension. The formation of silver-amine complex reduced the decomposition temperature from 180 °C to 135 °C, thus the ink could be cured at relatively low temperature. The film reached the lowest resistivity of 17 μΩ cm after cured at 150 °C for 50 min, 3.1 μΩ cm at 230 °C and possessed high reflection and excellent adhesive property. Electrical conductivity, surface morphology and composition were investigated by four-point probe method, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). It is demonstrated how the cured condition affects the silver film. Moreover, radio-frequency identification (RFID) antenna was fabricated by inkjet printing, which opens up routes for the flexible electronics fabrication.

  6. Coagulation and Adsorption Treatment of Printing Ink Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Klančnik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The intention of the study was to improve the efficiency of total organic carbon (TOC and colour removal from the wastewater samples polluted with flexographic printing ink following coagulation treatments with further adsorption onto activated carbons and ground orange peel. The treatment efficiencies were compared to those of further flocculation treatments and of coagulation and adsorption processes individually. Coagulation was a relatively effective single-treatment method, removing 99.7% of the colour and 86.9% of the organic substances (TOC from the printing ink wastewater samples. Further flocculation did not further eliminate organic pollutants, whereas subsequent adsorption with 7 g/l of granular activated carbon further reduced organic substances by 35.1%, and adsorption with 7 g/l of powdered activated carbon further reduced organic substances by 59.3%. Orange peel was an inappropriate adsorbent for wastewater samples with low amounts of pollution, such as water that had been treated by coagulation. However, in highly polluted printing ink wastewater samples, the adsorption treatment with ground orange peel achieved efficiencies comparable to those of the granular activated carbon treatments.

  7. Occurrence of heterotrophic and coliform bacteria in liquid hand soaps from bulk refillable dispensers in public facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattman, Marisa; Gerba, Sheri L; Maxwell, Charles P

    2011-03-01

    The goal of the study discussed in this article was to determine the occurrence of heterotrophic and coliform bacteria in liquid soap from bulk refillable dispensers, obtained from restrooms in a variety of public facilities. A total of 541 samples was collected from five U.S. cities. Liquid soap from dispensers in public areas was found to contain heterotrophic and coliform bacterial numbers averaging more than 106 CFU/mL in 24.8% of the dispensers.

  8. The refilling of pores in cement mortars treated by chemicals and desiccation at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menéndez Pazos, Ignacio

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available Bases under the law of solubility product, the pores of the cement mortar are refilled by impregnation with two salts that form another insoluble salt. The number of treatments to be underdone and the drying temperatures more suitable in each case. The calcium salts like impregnants and urea sodium oxalate and sugar like precipitates are employed, obtained in each case the corresponding pores are occupied, which depends generally on the number of treatments and in particular the drier temperature.

    Basados en los principios del producto de solubilidad, se rellenan los poros de las probetas de mortero de cemento por impregnación con dos sales que forman otra insoluble. Se determina el número de tratamientos a realizar y las temperaturas de secado más idóneas en cada caso. Se emplean sales cálcicas como impregnantes, y urea, oxalato sódico y azúcar como precipitantes, obteniéndose en cada caso las correspondientes ocupaciones de poros que dependen, por lo general, del número de tratamientos y, en particular, de la temperatura de secado.

  9. A new refillable Cobalt-57 flood phantom to measure camera uniformity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias-Neto, A.; Silva, C.P.G. da; Osso, J.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: The system uniformity of a scintillation camera is assessed using an extended Tc-99m source: a well constructed flood phantom, filled with a solution of Tc-99m pertechnetate, that does not bulge and is well mixed. A convenient substitute is a commercial solid Co-57 sheet source, which is expensive (5k-10k USS), has a relative short life-span (1,5 - 2 years), and, may not be quite uniform. As an alternative, an inexpensive fillable Co-57 flood source is presented. For pilot testing, a plastic flood phantom was filled with a solution of Co-57 chloride produced by IPEN's cyclotron. Special filling plugs with O-rings were used to avoid any leakage. High count uniformity images, using a low-energy high-resolution collimator and 15% energy windows, were obtained with the fillable Co-57 source, a commercial Co-57 sheet source, and a Tc-99 source. The data were compared visually and quantified with the NEMA uniformity parameters. The fillable Co-57 source compared favourably with the other sources. A shock-proof flood phantom is at present under development. This phantom is intended to be refilled annually with Co-57, at a fraction of the cost of a commercial sheet source. (authors)

  10. Effects of ion temperature anisotropy on the interhemispheric plasma transport during plasmaspheric refilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, N.; Torr, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    Effects of temperature anisotropies on the early stage refilling of the outer plasmasphere are studied by solving an appropriate set of hydrodynamic equations. The anisotropies result from the supersonic outflows from the conjugate ionospheres and from the perpendicular ion heating in the equatorial region. The equatorial ion heating affected by wave-particle interaction is included phenomenologically. Even for the equatorial heating associated with moderate wave levels, the mirror force on the flows severely limits the interhemispheric plasma exchange. The temporal evolution of the flow developing in an empty flux tube is characterized by: (1) supersonic plasma outflows from the conjugate ionospheres, (2) reflections of the flows by the mirror force as they begin to penetrate into the opposite hemispheres, (3) formation of shocks in the reflection region and (4) propagations of the shocks to the ionospheres of the origins of the flows. In the quasi-steady state when flow completely subsides, the density distribution in the flux tube shows distinctive large-scale features, determined by the balance between electric, pressure and anisotropy forces. The latter force becomes significant in a broad equatorial region where T t >> T p and also at relatively high geomagnetic latitudes where T t p ; T t and T p are the perpendicular and parallel ion temperatures, respectively

  11. Mobile phone use for a social strategy to improve antiretroviral refill experience at a low-resource HIV clinic: patient responses from Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adetunji, Adedotun A; Muyibi, Sufiyan A; Imhansoloeva, Martins; Ibraheem, Olusola M; Sunmola, Adegbenga; Kolawole, Olubunmi O; Akinrinsola, Oluwasina O; Ojo-Osagie, James O; Mosuro, Olusola A; Abiolu, Josephine O; Irabor, Achiaka E; Okonkwo, Prosper; Adewole, Isaac F; Taiwo, Babafemi O

    2017-05-01

    In sub-Saharan African areas where antiretroviral (ARV) drugs are not available through community pharmacies, clinic-based pharmacies are often the primary source of ARV drug refills. Social pressure is mounting on treatment providers to adjust ARV refill services towards user-friendly approaches which prioritize patients' convenience and engage their resourcefulness. By this demand, patients may be signalling dissatisfaction with the current provider-led model of monthly visits to facility-based pharmacies for ARV refill. Mobile phones are increasingly popular in sub-Saharan Africa, and have been used to support ARV treatment goals in this setting. A patient-centred response to on-going social pressure requires treatment providers to view ARV refill activities through the eyes of patients who are negotiating the challenges of day-to-day life while contemplating their next refill appointment. Using focus groups of five categories of adult patients receiving combination ARV therapy, we conducted this cross-sectional qualitative study to provide insight into modifiable gaps between patients' expectations and experiences of the use of mobile phones in facility-based ARV refill service at a public HIV clinic in Nigeria. A notable finding was patients' preference for harnessing informal social support (through intermediaries with mobile phones) to maintain adherence to ARV refill appointments when they could not present in person. This evolving social support strategy also has the potential to enhance defaulter tracking. Our study findings may inform the development of ARV refill strategies and the design of future qualitative studies on client-provider communication by mobile phones in under-resourced HIV treatment programmes.

  12. Detection and quantitative determination of heavy metals in electronic cigarette refill liquids using Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamilari, Eleni; Farsalinos, Konstantinos; Poulas, Konstantinos; Kontoyannis, Christos G; Orkoula, Malvina G

    2018-06-01

    Electronic cigarettes are considered healthier alternatives to conventional cigarettes containing tobacco. They produce vapor through heating of the refill liquids (e-liquids) which consist of propylene glycol, vegetable glycerin, nicotine (in various concentrations), water and flavoring agents. Heavy metals may enter the refill liquid during the production, posing a risk for consumer's health due to their toxicity. The objective of the present study was the development of a methodology for the detection and quantitative analysis of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), arsenic (As) and chromium (Cr), employing Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (TXRF) as an alternative technique to ICP-MS or ICP-OES commonly used for this type of analysis. TXRF was chosen due to its advantages, which include short analysis time, promptness, simultaneous multi-element analysis capability and minimum sample preparation, low purchase and operational cost. The proposed methodology was applied to a large number of electronic cigarette liquids commercially available, as well as their constituents, in order to evaluate their safety. TXRF may be a valuable tool for probing heavy metals in electronic cigarette refill liquids to serve for the protection of human health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Novel materials for electronic device fabrication using ink-jet printing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumashiro, Yasushi; Nakako, Hideo; Inada, Maki; Yamamoto, Kazunori; Izumi, Akira; Ishihara, Masamichi

    2009-01-01

    Novel materials and a metallization technique for the printed electronics were studied. Insulator inks and conductive inks were investigated. For the conductive ink, the nano-sized copper particles were used as metallic sources. These particles were prepared from a copper complex by a laser irradiation process in the liquid phase. Nano-sized copper particles were consisted of a thin copper oxide layer and a metal copper core wrapped by the layer. The conductive ink showed good ink-jettability. In order to metallize the printed trace of the conductive ink on a substrate, the atomic hydrogen treatment was carried out. Atomic hydrogen was generated on a heated tungsten wire and carried on the substrate. The temperature of the substrate was up to 60 deg. C during the treatment. After the treatment, the conductivity of a copper trace was 3 μΩ cm. It was considered that printed wiring boards can be easily fabricated by employing the above materials.

  14. Drying characteristics of hui ink at 25 °C and 35 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yang; Yao, Yao; Liu, Le; Wang, Fengwen; Yang, Shuyun

    2018-05-01

    Temperature and humidity are the main factors affecting the drying of Hui ink. For the experiment, fresh Hui ink billets from two big ink industries were selected. We tried to find the fast and efficient drying conditions of Hui ink and calculate effective diffusion coefficient by performing manual control of temperature and relative humidity (RH). Several dry kinetic models were fitted. A constant temperature incubator was utilized for temperature control, while humidification and dehumidification were implemented accordingly for RH control. Setups of 25 °C and 35 °C were designed, and a relative humidity of 60%, 65%, 70%, and 75% was applied for each temperature. The process of ink drying was recorded, and the drying effect of Hui ink was estimated through expert decision. The appropriate drying temperature and humidity of the Jinbuhuan(J) and Huangshansongyan(H) ink billets from Lao Hu Kai Wen Ink Industry are at (31.99 ± 1.41) °C and (55.84 ± 10.38)% RH, whereas those of the Songyantanhei(ST), Chunyouyan(CY), and Quansongyan(QS) ink billets from Ju Mo Tang Ink Industry are at (23.70 ± 2.19) °C and (60.56 ± 2.16)% RH or (34.56 ± 2.37) °C and (59.16 ± 6.38)% RH; Initial moisture content of Hui ink has great influence on the water loss in the drying process; The effective diffusion coefficient of the ink lump ranges from 8.41538E-07 to 1.95891E-06 m2·s-1, and increases mainly with the temperature's rising; Logarithmic model fits best of the chosen models.

  15. INK4 proteins, a family of mammalian CDK inhibitors with novel biological functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cánepa, Eduardo T; Scassa, María E; Ceruti, Julieta M; Marazita, Mariela C; Carcagno, Abel L; Sirkin, Pablo F; Ogara, María F

    2007-07-01

    The cyclin D-Cdk4-6/INK4/Rb/E2F pathway plays a key role in controlling cell growth by integrating multiple mitogenic and antimitogenic stimuli. The members of INK4 family, comprising p16(INK4a), p15(INK4b), p18(INK4c), and p19(INK4d), block the progression of the cell cycle by binding to either Cdk4 or Cdk6 and inhibiting the action of cyclin D. These INK4 proteins share a similar structure dominated by several ankyrin repeats. Although they appear to be structurally redundant and equally potent as inhibitors, the INK4 family members are differentially expressed during mouse development. The striking diversity in the pattern of expression of INK4 genes suggested that this family of cell cycle inhibitors might have cell lineage-specific or tissue-specific functions. The INK4 proteins are commonly lost or inactivated by mutations in diverse types of cancer, and they represent established or candidate tumor suppressors. Apart from their capacity to arrest cells in the G1-phase of the cell cycle they have been shown to participate in an increasing number of cellular processes. Given their emerging roles in fundamental physiological as well as pathological processes, it is interesting to explore the diverse roles for the individual INK4 family members in different functions other than cell cycle regulation. Extensive studies, over the past few years, uncover the involvement of INK4 proteins in senescence, apoptosis, DNA repair, and multistep oncogenesis. We will focus the discussion here on these unexpected issues.

  16. A stretchable and screen-printable conductive ink for stretchable electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Anwar; Pecht, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Stretchable electronics can offer an added degree of design freedom and generate products with unprecedented capabilities. Stretchable conductive ink serving as interconnect, is a key enabler for stretchable electronics. This paper focuses on the development of a stretchable and screen printable conductive ink which could be stretched more than 500 cycles at 20% strain while maintaining electrical and mechanical integrity. The screen printable and stretchable conductive ink developed in this paper marks an important milestone for this nascent technology.

  17. Electrical and Physical Property Characterization of Single Walled Carbon Nanotube Ink for Flexible Printed Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    accurately can the 2 ink be printed? How well does the ink adhere to its substrate? How does the substrate affect the adhesion properties? In what...physical characteristics, some of which may be incompatible with inkjet printing, or the Dimatix DMP 2800 specifically. 3.2.1.2 Ink Solvent...The tape test is conducted by applying a flexible adhesive -backed polymer to the fully-dried printed circuit. The tape is then removed and analyzed

  18. Thermal Analysis of Braille Formed by Using Screen Printing and Inks with Thermo Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svіtlana HAVENKO

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the integration of blind people into society, suitable conditions should be provided for them. The expansion of Braille (BR use could serve the purpose. Depending on the materials used for Braille, it can be formed or printed in different ways: embossing, screen printing, thermoforming, digital printing. The aim of this research is to determine the effect of thermal properties of screen printing inks and inks with thermo-powder on the qualitative parameters of Braille. Screen printing inks and inks with thermo-powder were chosen for the research. Carrying out the qualitative analysis of printouts with Braille, the thermal stability was evaluated by analyzing the thermograms obtained with derivatograph Q-1500. This paper presents the findings of the thermogravimetric (TG, differential thermogravimetric (DTG and differential thermal analysis (DTA of printouts printed on paperboard Plike and using traditional screen printing inks and screen printing inks with thermo-powder. Based on the testing findings it is determined that thermal stability of printouts printed with thermo-powder ink is higher than printed with screen printing inks. It is determined that the appropriate temperature range of screen printing inks with thermo-powder drying is 98 ºC – 198 ºC because in this case better relief of Braille dots is obtained.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.1.5702

  19. Analysis of writing inks on paper using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Roger W; McClelland, John F

    2013-09-10

    Ink analysis is central to questioned document examination. We applied direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART MS) to ballpoint, gel, and fluid writing ink analysis. DART MS acquires the mass spectrum of an ink while it is still on a document without altering the appearance of the document. Spectra were acquired from ink on a variety of papers, and the spectrum of the blank paper could be subtracted out to produce a cleanly isolated ink spectrum in most cases. Only certain heavy or heavily processed papers interfered. The time since an ink is written on paper has a large effect on its spectrum. DART spectra change radically during the first few months after an ink is written as the more volatile components evaporate, but the spectra stabilize after that. A library-search study involving 166 well-aged inks assessed the ability to identify inks from their DART spectra. The aggregate success rate was 92%. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Investigation into the Friction and Roughness Properties of Prints Using Conventional and UV Inks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giedrė Giraitytė

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article experimentally investigates the properties of offset print friction and determines static and kinetic coeffi­cients of friction. Conventional and UV inks have been found to increase the static friction coefficient and re­duce the kinetic friction coefficient between paper and print. The roughness pro­perties of two different types of paper and prints using conventional and UV inks have been examined and compared thus determining that conventional inks strongly increase the roughness of print surface and that the influence of UV inks depend on the type of paper.

  1. Development of black ink for calligraphy purpose in the production of Al-quran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, F. F. A.; Jai, J.; Hamzah, F.; Bakar, N. F. A.

    2018-03-01

    Commercialised calligraphy inks are currently formulated for general purposes and is not to be practiced solely for the writings of Al-Quran. Thus the usage on Al-Quran is uncertain due to the unknown ingredients used. The virtue of this work is to develop halal and genuine formulations of black inks for calligraphy purpose in the production of Al-Quran manuscript. The black ink produced is required to have few properties; rich solid black, soft handling, fast drying time, non-lifting, non-feathering and waterproof. Pigment used include graphene, charcoal and lampblack. The binders are shellac and acrylic emulsion while solvent used are glycerol and ethanol. From the chosen pigments, binders and solvent, 19 formulation of inks were developed by manipulating the type and amount of each element. Evaluation of all 19 inks produced were done by an expert calligrapher using a professional scale. From the evaluation, one ink was chosen to have the best characteristics of an ink (ink code S9) with formulation of 0.3 g lampblack and 13 mL shellac. The produced black ink has fulfilled the requirement by the calligraphy expert.

  2. Self-reduction of a copper complex MOD ink for inkjet printing conductive patterns on plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farraj, Yousef; Grouchko, Michael; Magdassi, Shlomo

    2015-01-31

    Highly conductive copper patterns on low-cost flexible substrates are obtained by inkjet printing a metal complex based ink. Upon heating the ink, the soluble complex, which is composed of copper formate and 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol, decomposes under nitrogen at 140 °C and is converted to pure metallic copper. The decomposition process of the complex is investigated and a suggested mechanism is presented. The ink is stable in air for prolonged periods, with no sedimentation or oxidation problems, which are usually encountered in copper nanoparticle based inks.

  3. Hyperspectral imaging technology for revealing the original handwritings covered by the same inks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Lian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript presents a preliminary investigation on the applicability of hyperspectral imaging technology for nondestructive and rapid analysis to reveal covered original handwritings. The hyperspectral imager Nuance-Macro was used to collect the reflected light signature of inks from the overlapping parts. The software Nuance1p46 was used to analyze the reflected light signature of inks which shows the covered original handwritings. Different types of black/blue ballpoint pen inks and black/blue gel pen inks were chosen for sample preparation. From the hyperspectral images examined, the covered original handwritings of application were revealed in 90.5%, 69.1%, 49.5%, and 78.6% of the cases. Further, the correlation between the revealing effect and spectral characteristics of the reflected light of inks at the overlapping parts was interpreted through theoretical analysis and experimental verification. The results indicated that when the spectral characteristics of the reflected light of inks at the overlapping parts were the same or very similar to that of the ink that was used to cover the original handwriting, the original handwriting could not be shown. On the contrary, when the spectral characteristics of the reflected light of inks at the overlapping parts were different to that of the ink that was used to cover the original handwriting, the original handwriting was revealed.

  4. Different types of inks having certain medicolegal importance: Deciphering the faded and physically erased handwriting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal Abd-ElAziz Abd-ElZaher

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Disappearing ink is a type of ink which could be used to forge documents as it will fade away without any trace within 40–65 h. Erasable ink is another type of ink easily removed by certain rubbers incorporated in each pen. Both types of inks were applied separately on different types of papers (checks, standard white foolscap, and plain white A4 paper. For vanishing ink, it was observed visually in the first 6 h and then every 6 h. It was found that the vanishing ink disappeared completely within 2 h on checks, 36 h on standard white foolscap paper, and 40 h on plain white A4 paper. For erasable ink, the written strokes were manipulated manually using the incorporated eraser. Deciphering the faded writing failed by the conventional methods, but oblique light can reveal the indentation marks. The faded writing became visible when treated with weak alkaline (NaOH solutions. Erasable ink was deciphered with the aid of infra-red radiation combined with VSC-6000 as clear white traces against red fluorescence. It was concluded that the use of a weak (NaOH solution is an effective method for revealing the faded writing, and the infra-red illumination is also effective.

  5. Assessing Ink Transfer Performance of Gravure-Offset Fine-Line Circuitry Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hsien-Chie; Chen, You-Wei; Chen, Wen-Hwa; Lu, Su-Tsai; Lin, Shih-Ming

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the printing mechanism and performance of gravure-offset fine-line circuitry printing technology are investigated in terms of key printing parameters through experimental and theoretical analyses. First, the contact angles of the ink deposited on different substrates, blankets, and gravure metal plates are experimentally determined; moreover, their temperature and solvent content dependences are analyzed. Next, the ink solvent absorption and evaporation behaviors of the blankets at different temperatures, times, and numbers of printing repetitions are characterized by conducting experiments. In addition, while printing repeatedly, the surface characteristics of the blankets, such as the contact angle, vary with the amount of absorbed ink solvent, further affecting the ink transfer performance (ratio) and printing quality. Accordingly, the surface effect of the blanket due to ink solvent absorption on the ink contact angle is analyzed. Furthermore, the amount of ink transferred from the gravure plate to the blanket in the "off process" and from the blanket to the substrate in the "set process" is evaluated by conducting a simplified plate-to-plate experiment. The influences of loading rate (printing velocity), temperature, and solvent content on the ink transfer performance are addressed. Finally, the ink transfer mechanism is theoretically analyzed for different solvent contents using Surface Evolver. The calculation results are compared with those of the experiment.

  6. On-cartridge derivatisation using matrix solid phase dispersion for the determination of cyclamate in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jianjun; Liu, Yun; Liu, Qianping; Hui, Junfeng; Liu, Yangzi

    2017-01-01

    A novel method for determination of sodium cyclamate in foods was developed. In this method, a syringe was loaded with the homogeneous mixture of the sample, KMnO 4 powder and silica dispersant and used as a matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) reactor. As the reactor was infiltrated with small amounts of concentrated HCl, cyclamate was converted to 2-chlorocyclohexanone quickly and effectively within 5 min and determined by HPLC on a reversed-phase column using UV detection at a wavelength of 310 nm. Comparing with the traditional derivatisation in solution, the better clean-up was provided using on-cartridge derivatisation of MSPD, and much time, labor, and expense were saved. The results showed good linearity (r 2  = 0.9998) over the concentration range of 1–500 mg/L. The limit of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) of the cyclamate were 0.3 mg/L and 1 mg/L respectively. The recoveries ranged from 91.6% to 101.3% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) in the range of 2.5%–4.3%. - Highlights: • A novel method was developed for the determination of cyclamate in foods. • On cartridge derivatisation, using matrix solid phase dispersion, was developed. • A new derivatisation reaction for cyclamate conversion to 2-chlorocyclohexanone was developed. • The method was rapid, simple, inexpensive, effective.

  7. Thermal enhancement cartridge heater modified (TECH Mod) tritium hydride bed development, Part 1 - Design and fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, J.E.; Estochen, E.G. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-03-15

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) tritium facilities have used first generation (Gen1) LaNi{sub 4.25}Al{sub 0.75} (LANA0.75) metal hydride storage beds for tritium absorption, storage, and desorption. The Gen1 design utilizes hot and cold nitrogen supplies to thermally cycle these beds. Second and third generation (Gen2 and Gen3) storage bed designs include heat conducting foam and divider plates to spatially fix the hydride within the bed. For thermal cycling, the Gen2 and Gen3 beds utilize internal electric heaters and glovebox atmosphere flow over the bed inside the bed external jacket for cooling. The currently installed Gen1 beds require replacement due to tritium aging effects on the LANA0.75 material, and cannot be replaced with Gen2 or Gen3 beds due to different designs of these beds. At the end of service life, Gen1 bed desorption efficiencies are limited by the upper temperature of hot nitrogen supply. To increase end-of-life desorption efficiency, the Gen1 bed design was modified, and a Thermal Enhancement Cartridge Heater Modified (TECH Mod) bed was developed. Internal electric cartridge heaters in the new design to improve end-of-life desorption, and also permit in-bed tritium accountability (IBA) calibration measurements to be made without the use of process tritium. Additional enhancements implemented into the TECH Mod design are also discussed. (authors)

  8. On-cartridge derivatisation using matrix solid phase dispersion for the determination of cyclamate in foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jianjun, E-mail: bootan12@126.com [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of Ministry of Education, Northwest University, Xi' an 710069 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Miniaturized Detection Systems, Xi' an 710069 (China); Liu, Yun [College of Food Engineering and Nutritional Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Liu, Qianping [National Engineering Research Center for Miniaturized Detection Systems, Xi' an 710069 (China); Hui, Junfeng [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of Ministry of Education, Northwest University, Xi' an 710069 (China); Liu, Yangzi [National Engineering Research Center for Miniaturized Detection Systems, Xi' an 710069 (China)

    2017-06-15

    A novel method for determination of sodium cyclamate in foods was developed. In this method, a syringe was loaded with the homogeneous mixture of the sample, KMnO{sub 4} powder and silica dispersant and used as a matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) reactor. As the reactor was infiltrated with small amounts of concentrated HCl, cyclamate was converted to 2-chlorocyclohexanone quickly and effectively within 5 min and determined by HPLC on a reversed-phase column using UV detection at a wavelength of 310 nm. Comparing with the traditional derivatisation in solution, the better clean-up was provided using on-cartridge derivatisation of MSPD, and much time, labor, and expense were saved. The results showed good linearity (r{sup 2} = 0.9998) over the concentration range of 1–500 mg/L. The limit of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) of the cyclamate were 0.3 mg/L and 1 mg/L respectively. The recoveries ranged from 91.6% to 101.3% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) in the range of 2.5%–4.3%. - Highlights: • A novel method was developed for the determination of cyclamate in foods. • On cartridge derivatisation, using matrix solid phase dispersion, was developed. • A new derivatisation reaction for cyclamate conversion to 2-chlorocyclohexanone was developed. • The method was rapid, simple, inexpensive, effective.

  9. Synthesis of O-(2-[18F]fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine based on a cartridge purification method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Dirk; Klette, Ingo; Kalb, Fabrizia; Baum, Richard P.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: O-(2-[ 18 F]fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine (FET) is widely used as a positron emission tomography tracer for brain tumors. Usually, a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) purification at the end of the two-step synthesis is applied. In this work, we report an automatic radiosynthesis of FET with a purification procedure based on standard cartridges. Methods: O-(2-[ 18 F]fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine was prepared by [ 18 F]fluoroethylation of L-tyrosine by a two-step synthesis using a modified [ 11 C]methionine module (Nuclear Interface). In the first reaction step, we synthesized [ 18 F]fluoroethyltosylate starting from [ 18 F]fluoride. After a purification step, L-tyrosine was [ 18 F]fluoroethylated with [ 18 F]fluoroethyltosylate. The final reaction mixture was purified by means of solid phase extraction. The FET was trapped on an SCX cartridge, eluted with saline solution and trapped again on an HRX cartridge. For a second purification step, the FET was eluted from the HRX cartridge with ammonium acetate buffer and collected on two SCX cartridges followed by a washing step with water. The final product was eluted with saline solution and neutralised with 450 μl NaHCO 3 solution (8.4%). Results: The synthesis was finished after 50 min and delivered the FET in a range of 3-16 GBq. The synthesis typically yielded 41% (21 experiments) of FET (d.c.) without an HPLC purification step. The radiochemical purity ranged between 97% and 100%. Conclusion: We present a radiosynthesis of FET where the usually used HPLC purification procedure has been substituted by a purification step based on standard cartridges. This method is useful for automatic modules without an expensive HPLC purification unit and for the routine production of FET.

  10. Effects of upper plenum injection on thermo-hydrodynamic behavior under refill and reflood phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamura, Takamichi; Sobajima, Makoto; Abe, Yutaka; Adachi, Hiromichi; Ohnuki, Akira; Osakabe, Masahiro

    1984-12-01

    In order to investigate the thermo-hydrodynamic behavior in core under simultaneous ECC water injection into the upper plenum and the intact cold leg during the refill and reflood phases of a PWR-LOCA, Tests S1-SH3 and S1-SH4 were performed by using Slab Core Test Facility (SCTF) with the injection of saturated and 67K subcooled water into the upper plenum, respectively, under the same cold leg injection condition. The following major findings were obtained by examining these test results. (1) Although the core was cooled by the fall back water from the upper plenum into the core during the period of high injection rate into the upper plenum, the core was cooled mainly by the bottom flooding after the BOCREC (Bottom of core recovery). (2) The possible fall back flow rate estimated with a CCFL correlation rapidly decreased after the BOCREC because of the increase of steam generation rate in core. (3) Continuous fall back of subcooled water was not observed even under the condition with large upper plenum injection rate of subcooled water and with steam outflow through the lower plenum into the downcomer. The fall back was intermittently limited by the rapid increase of upward steam flow which was generated in the core due to the evaporation of the fall back water. (4) The rising of liquid level in the lower plenum was suppressed by the pressurization in core due to the evaporation of fall back water before the BOCREC and therefore the beginning of bottom reflood was delayed. Some selected data from Tests S1-SH3 and S1-SH4 are also included in this report. (author)

  11. Computer-Aided-Design of the Hydraulic System of Three-Dimensional Cartridge Valve Blocks (Selected Articles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-21

    sectional representation of the spatial figure can be correctly determined. 6 The AutoLisp language system in the AutoCAD software provides the most...softwares are developed on the 32-bit machines and little progress has been reported for the 16-bit machines. Even the AutoCAD is a two-ard-a-half... AutoCAD software as the basis, developed the design package of 3-D cartridge valve blocks on IM PC/AT. To realize the 3-D displaying of cartridge valves

  12. Ink dating part II: Interpretation of results in a legal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Agnès; Weyermann, Céline

    2018-01-01

    The development of an ink dating method requires an important investment of resources in order to step from the monitoring of ink ageing on paper to the determination of the actual age of a questioned ink entry. This article aimed at developing and evaluating the potential of three interpretation models to date ink entries in a legal perspective: (1) the threshold model comparing analytical results to tabulated values in order to determine the maximal possible age of an ink entry, (2) the trend tests that focusing on the "ageing status" of an ink entry, and (3) the likelihood ratio calculation comparing the probabilities to observe the results under at least two alternative hypotheses. This is the first report showing ink dating interpretation results on a ballpoint be ink reference population. In the first part of this paper three ageing parameters were selected as promising from the population of 25 ink entries aged during 4 to 304days: the quantity of phenoxyethanol (PE), the difference between the PE quantities contained in a naturally aged sample and an artificially aged sample (R NORM ) and the solvent loss ratio (R%). In the current part, each model was tested using the three selected ageing parameters. Results showed that threshold definition remains a simple model easily applicable in practice, but that the risk of false positive cannot be completely avoided without reducing significantly the feasibility of the ink dating approaches. The trend tests from the literature showed unreliable results and an alternative had to be developed yielding encouraging results. The likelihood ratio calculation introduced a degree of certainty to the ink dating conclusion in comparison to the threshold approach. The proposed model remains quite simple to apply in practice, but should be further developed in order to yield reliable results in practice. Copyright © 2017 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Chemical composition of felt-tip pen inks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germinario, Giulia; Garrappa, Silvia; D'Ambrosio, Valeria; van der Werf, Inez Dorothé; Sabbatini, Luigia

    2018-01-01

    Felt-tip pens are frequently used for the realization of sketches, drawings, architectural projects, and other technical designs. The formulations of these inks are usually rather complex and may be associated to those of modern paint materials where, next to the binding medium and pigments/dyes, solvents, fillers, emulsifiers, antioxidants, plasticizers, light stabilizers, biocides, and so on are commonly added. Felt-tip pen inks are extremely sensitive to degradation and especially exposure to light may cause chromatic changes and fading. In this study, we report on the complete chemical characterization of modern felt-tip pen inks that are commercially available and commonly used for the realization of artworks. Three brands of felt-tip pens (Faber-Castell, Edding, and Stabilo) were investigated with complementary analytical techniques such as thin-layer chromatography (TLC), VIS-reflectance spectroscopy, μ-Raman spectroscopy, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS), GC-MS, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The use of TLC proved to be very powerful in the study of complex mixtures of synthetic dyes. First derivatives of the reflectance spectra acquired on the TLC spots were useful in the preliminary identification of the dye, followed by Raman spectroscopy and SERS, which allowed for the unambiguous determination of the chemical composition of the pigments (phthalocyanines, dioxazines, and azo pigments) and dyes (azo dyes, triarylmethanes, xanthenes). FTIR spectroscopy was used especially for the detection of additives, as well as for confirming the nature of solvents and dyes/pigments. Finally, (Py-)GC-MS data provided information on the binders (styrene-acrylic resins, plant gums), solvents, and additives, as well as on pigments and dyes.

  14. Screen-printing ink transfer in a sexual assault case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amick, Janeice F; Beheim, Chris W

    2002-05-01

    Yellow plastic-like particles were discovered on the clothing and body of a sexual assault victim. These particles were later associated to an athletic jersey with flaking yellow screen-printed numbers and letters, worn by the suspect. Depending on its intended substrate, screen-print ink can vary in color and composition. Particles dislodged from screen-printed garments may exhibit fabric impressions. Screen-printed clothing, commonly encountered in forensic casework, should be viewed as a potential source of trace evidence.

  15. Functional inks and printing of two-dimensional materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guohua; Kang, Joohoon; Ng, Leonard W T; Zhu, Xiaoxi; Howe, Richard C T; Jones, Christopher G; Hersam, Mark C; Hasan, Tawfique

    2018-05-08

    Graphene and related two-dimensional materials provide an ideal platform for next generation disruptive technologies and applications. Exploiting these solution-processed two-dimensional materials in printing can accelerate this development by allowing additive patterning on both rigid and conformable substrates for flexible device design and large-scale, high-speed, cost-effective manufacturing. In this review, we summarise the current progress on ink formulation of two-dimensional materials and the printable applications enabled by them. We also present our perspectives on their research and technological future prospects.

  16. Determining the coating speed limitations for organic photovoltaic inks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakubka, Florian; Heyder, Madeleine; Machui, Florian

    2013-01-01

    To determine the output capability of present organic photovoltaic (OPV) materials, it is important to know the theoretical maximum coating speeds of the used semiconductor formulations. Here, we present a comprehensive investigation of the coating stability window of several prototype organic...... semiconductor inks relevant for organic solar cells. The coating stability window was first determined experimentally by a sheet to sheet coater at velocities of up to 10 m/min. A numerical simulation model based on the Coating Window Suite 2010 software was established to give insight into the coating...

  17. A comparison of different silver inks for printing of conductive tracks on paper substrates for rapid prototyping of electronic circuits

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bezuidenhout, PH

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the performance between two commercially-available electrically conductive silver inks, Harima NPS-J nanopaste and the NBSIJ-FD02 Mitsubishi conductive ink, used in rapid prototyping of electronic circuits. The comparative...

  18. Detection and genotyping of human papillomavirus in self-obtained cervicovaginal samples by using the FTA cartridge: new possibilities for cervical cancer screening.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenselink, C.H.; Bie, R.P. de; Hamont, D. van; Bakkers, J.M.J.E.; Quint, W.G.V.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Bekkers, R.L.M.; Melchers, W.J.G.

    2009-01-01

    This study assesses human papillomavirus (HPV) detection and genotyping in self-sampled genital smears applied to an indicating FTA elute cartridge (FTA cartridge). The study group consisted of 96 women, divided into two sample sets. All samples were analyzed by the HPV SPF(10)-Line Blot 25. Set 1

  19. Bioanalytical evidence that chemicals in tattoo ink can induce adaptive stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Peta A; Stalter, Daniel; Tang, Janet Y M; Escher, Beate I

    2015-10-15

    Tattooing is becoming increasingly popular, particularly amongst young people. However, tattoo inks contain a complex mixture of chemical impurities that may pose a long-term risk for human health. As a first step towards the risk assessment of these complex mixtures we propose to assess the toxicological hazard potential of tattoo ink chemicals with cell-based bioassays. Targeted modes of toxic action and cellular endpoints included cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and adaptive stress response pathways. The studied tattoo inks, which were extracted with hexane as a proxy for the bioavailable fraction, caused effects in all bioassays, with the red and yellow tattoo inks having the greatest response, particularly inducing genotoxicity and oxidative stress response endpoints. Chemical analysis revealed the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the tested black tattoo ink at concentrations twice the recommended level. The detected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons only explained 0.06% of the oxidative stress response of the black tattoo ink, thus the majority of the effect was caused by unidentified components. The study indicates that currently available tattoo inks contain components that induce adaptive stress response pathways, but to evaluate the risk to human health further work is required to understand the toxicokinetics of tattoo ink chemicals in the body. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Making innovative tattoo ink products with improved safety: possible and impossible ingredients in practical usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Today's tattoo inks are no longer just simple solids in liquid suspension. Nowadays, these inks are high-tech dispersions made from finely spread pigments in a binder-solvent mixture. These so-called colour dispersions must follow the modern standards of tattooing, which are increasing every year. They must be rich in chromophoric pigments and yet fluid, they must not dry rapidly, and there should be no occurrence of any sedimentation, even during longer tattoo seasons. An innovative tattoo ink should enable long-lasting, brilliant tattoos without a negative impact on the artist's workflow and of course without endangering the consumer. The high standard in tattoos, regarding the motives and techniques, that is witnessed today could not be achieved by the artists without quality tools and modern tattoo ink. This article will give the reader a brief overview of the different ingredients of tattoo ink and of the function of binding agents and solvents in modern tattoo ink as well as describe what additives are used to achieve the desired behaviour during application. Furthermore, the article will take a look into the pigments that are used in tattoo ink and show why certain pigments are not suited for tattoo ink. The differences, advantages and disadvantages of organic and inorganic pigments will be explained. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Model compounds of iron gall inks – a Mössbauer study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerf, A.; Wagner, F. E.

    2016-01-01

    Ferrogallic inks were used for at least two millennia before they became obsolete in the 20 th century. The chemistry of such inks is, however, still largely unclear. Today it is of particular interest for the conservation of old manuscripts. 57 Fe Mössbauer spectra of the ink on historical documents showed the presence of Fe(II) oxalate and of Fe(III) sites presumably representing iron oxihydroxides. To obtain more information on the behaviour of ink on paper we have performed Mössbauer studies at 300 and 4.2 K on iron gall inks prepared from FeSO 4 ⋅7H 2 O and tannin. These inks were either written on paper or isolated as a precipitate by centrifugation. In the dried precipitate there is still a strong contribution of the FeSO 4 ⋅7H 2 O which is absent in the same ink written on paper, for which a broad ferrous component with a quadrupole splitting (QS) of about 2.5 mm/s was found. The dominant Fe(III) site present in all inks on paper with QS ≈ 0.82 mm/s is not Fe(III) gallate and different from the precipitates. We propose that nanoparticulate oxidic clusters or molecular composites covered by a shell of polymerized oxidation products of the phenols are formed on the paper.

  2. Silver-organo-complex ink with high conductivity and inkjet stability

    KAUST Repository

    Vaseem, Mohammad

    2017-06-22

    A robust formulation of silver-organo-complex (SOC) ink and method of making same are provided. In an aspect, the complexing molecules act as reducing agents. The silver loaded ink can be printed and sintered on a wide range of substrates with uniform surface morphology and excellent adhesion.

  3. A fully printed ferrite nano-particle ink based tunable antenna

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffar, Farhan A.; Vaseem, Mohammad; Shamim, Atif

    2016-01-01

    on conventional microwave substrates. In order to have a fully printed fabrication process, the substrate also need to be printed. In this paper, a fully printed multi-layer process utilizing custom Fe2O3 based magnetic ink and a silver organic complex (SOC) ink

  4. Model compounds of iron gall inks – a Mössbauer study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerf, A. [Bavarian Academy of Sciences, Walther Meißner Institute (Germany); Wagner, F. E., E-mail: fwagner@tum.de [Technical University of Munich, Physics Department E15 (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    Ferrogallic inks were used for at least two millennia before they became obsolete in the 20{sup th} century. The chemistry of such inks is, however, still largely unclear. Today it is of particular interest for the conservation of old manuscripts. {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectra of the ink on historical documents showed the presence of Fe(II) oxalate and of Fe(III) sites presumably representing iron oxihydroxides. To obtain more information on the behaviour of ink on paper we have performed Mössbauer studies at 300 and 4.2 K on iron gall inks prepared from FeSO{sub 4}⋅7H{sub 2}O and tannin. These inks were either written on paper or isolated as a precipitate by centrifugation. In the dried precipitate there is still a strong contribution of the FeSO{sub 4}⋅7H{sub 2}O which is absent in the same ink written on paper, for which a broad ferrous component with a quadrupole splitting (QS) of about 2.5 mm/s was found. The dominant Fe(III) site present in all inks on paper with QS ≈ 0.82 mm/s is not Fe(III) gallate and different from the precipitates. We propose that nanoparticulate oxidic clusters or molecular composites covered by a shell of polymerized oxidation products of the phenols are formed on the paper.

  5. Nucleophilic stabilization of water-based reactive ink for titania-based thin film inkjet printing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gadea, Christophe; Marani, Debora; Esposito, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    Drop on demand deposition (DoD) of titanium oxide thin films (<500 nm) is performed via a novel titanium-alkoxide-based solution that is tailored as a reactive ink for inkjet printing. The ink is developed as water-based solution by a combined use of titanium isopropoxide and n-methyldiethanolami...

  6. Application of cellulose nanofibers to remove water-based flexographic inks from wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balea, Ana; Monte, M Concepción; de la Fuente, Elena; Negro, Carlos; Blanco, Ángeles

    2017-02-01

    Water-based or flexographic inks in paper and plastic industries are more environmentally favourable than organic solvent-based inks. However, their use also creates new challenges because they remain dissolved in water and alter the recycling process. Conventional deinking technologies such as flotation processes do not effectively remove them. Adsorption, coagulation/flocculation, biological and membrane processes are either expensive or have negative health impacts, making the development of alternative methods necessary. Cellulose nanofibers (CNF) are biodegradable, and their structural and mechanical properties are useful for wastewater treatment. TEMPO-oxidised CNF have been evaluated for the decolourisation of wastewaters that contained copper phthalocyanine blue, carbon black and diarlyide yellow pigments. CNF in combination with a cationic polyacrylamide (cPAM) has also been tested. Jar-test methodology was used to evaluate the efficiency of the different treatments and cationic/anionic demand, turbidity and ink concentration in waters were measured. Results show that dual-component system for ink removal has a high potential as an alternative bio-based adsorbent for the removal of water-based inks. In addition, experiments varying CNF and cPAM concentrations were performed to optimise the ink-removal process. Ink concentration reductions of 100%, 87.5% and 83.3% were achieved for copper phthalocyanine blue, carbon black and diarlyide yellow pigments, respectively. Flocculation studies carried out show the decolourisation mechanism during the dual-component treatment of wastewaters containing water-based inks.

  7. Ink jet technology for large area organic light-emitting diode and organic photovoltaic applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, M.; Gorter, H.; Michels, J.; Andriessen, R.

    2011-01-01

    Due to its flexibility and ease of patterning, ink jet printing has become a popular technique for the noncontact deposition of liquids, solutions, and melts on a variety of substrates at lateral resolutions down to 10 μm. This article presents a study of ink jet printing of homogeneous layers of

  8. Silver-organo-complex ink with high conductivity and inkjet stability

    KAUST Repository

    Vaseem, Mohammad; McKerricher, Garret; Shamim, Atif

    2017-01-01

    A robust formulation of silver-organo-complex (SOC) ink and method of making same are provided. In an aspect, the complexing molecules act as reducing agents. The silver loaded ink can be printed and sintered on a wide range of substrates with uniform surface morphology and excellent adhesion.

  9. Description of development of an analytical method for measurement of PAA in tattoo ink and PMU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Pia

    This review gives a background on azo pigments and primary aromatic amines (PAA) and describe how to develop a robust method for analyzing these in tattoo ink.......This review gives a background on azo pigments and primary aromatic amines (PAA) and describe how to develop a robust method for analyzing these in tattoo ink....

  10. Iron Oxide Nanoparticle-Based Magnetic Ink Development for Fully Printed Tunable Radio-Frequency Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Vaseem, Mohammad

    2018-01-30

    The field of printed electronics is still in its infancy and most of the reported work is based on commercially available nanoparticle-based metallic inks. Although fully printed devices that employ dielectric/semiconductor inks have recently been reported, there is a dearth of functional inks that can demonstrate controllable devices. The lack of availability of functional inks is a barrier to the widespread use of fully printed devices. For radio-frequency electronics, magnetic materials have many uses in reconfigurable components but rely on expensive and rigid ferrite materials. A suitable magnetic ink can facilitate the realization of fully printed, magnetically controlled, tunable devices. This report presents the development of an iron oxide nanoparticle-based magnetic ink. First, a tunable inductor is fully printed using iron oxide nanoparticle-based magnetic ink. Furthermore, iron oxide nanoparticles are functionalized with oleic acid to make them compatible with a UV-curable SU8 solution. Functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles are successfully embedded in the SU8 matrix to make a magnetic substrate. The as-fabricated substrate is characterized for its magnetostatic and microwave properties. A frequency tunable printed patch antenna is demonstrated using the magnetic and in-house silver-organo-complex inks. This is a step toward low-cost, fully printed, controllable electronic components.

  11. On quantification of residual ink content and deinking efficiency in recycling of mixed office waste paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo Li; Gaosheng Wang; Kefu Chen; David W. Vahey; Junyong Zhu

    2011-01-01

    Although (flotation) deinking has been a common industry practice for several decades, true residual ink content and deinking efficiency have never been quantified. Paper brightness and ERIC (Effective Residual Ink Concentration), based on measurements of the absorption coefficient of deinked pulp, have been used to determine performance of flotation deinking processes...

  12. Microbiological survey of commercial tattoo and permanent makeup inks available in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nho, S W; Kim, S-J; Kweon, O; Howard, P C; Moon, M S; Sadrieh, N K; Cerniglia, C E

    2018-05-01

    Tattooing and use of permanent makeup (PMU) has dramatically increased over the last decade, with a concomitant increase in ink-related infections. The aim of this study was to determine whether micro-organisms are present, and if so, the number and their identification in the commercial tattoo and PMU inks available in the United States. We surveyed 85 unopened tattoo and PMU inks, purchased from 13 companies. We incubated 100 μl of ink samples on trypticase soy agar plates for bacterial growth, 7H10 Middlebrook medium for mycobacterial growth, and Sabouraud dextrose medium for fungal growth. In total, 42 inks were contaminated with micro-organisms (49%). Thirty-three inks were contaminated with bacteria, 2 inks with fungi, and 7 inks had both bacterial and fungal growth. Mycobacteria were not detected in any of the examined tattoo and PMU inks. In 26 inks, microbial concentrations ranged between 10 1 and 10 3 CFU per ml, but higher counts (>10 3 CFU per ml) were recorded in 16 inks. We identified 83 bacteria by their 16S rDNA sequences, including 20 genera and 49 species. Strains of Bacillus spp. (53%) were dominant, followed by Lysinibacillus fusiformis (7%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (5%). Thirty-four (41%) possibly clinically relevant strains were identified, including P. aeruginosa, Dermacoccus barathri and Roseomonas mucosa, some of which have been previously reported to be associated with human skin infections. The results indicate that commercial tattoo and PMU inks on the US market surveyed in this study contain a wide range of micro-organisms, including pathogenic bacteria. Microbial contaminants in tattoo and PMU inks are an emerging safety concern for public health. This study provides evidence that microbial contamination of tattoo and PMU inks available in the United States is more common than previously thought and highlights the importance of monitoring these products for potentially pathogenic micro-organisms. Published 2018. This article is a U

  13. Disposable cartridge extraction of retinol and alpha-tocopherol from fatty samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, C F; Ciba, N

    1988-01-01

    A new approach is proposed for liquid/solid extraction of retinol and alpha-tocopherol from samples, using a disposable kieselguhr cartridge. The substitution of the mixture methanol-ethanol-n-butanol (4 + 3 + 1) for methanol in the alkaline hydrolysis solution makes it now possible to process fatty samples. Methanol is necessary to solubilize the antioxidant ascorbic acid, and a linear chain alcohol such as n-butanol is necessary to reduce the size of soap micelles so that they can penetrate into the kieselguhr pores. In comparisons of the proposed method with conventional methods on mineral premixes and fatty feedstuffs, recovery and accuracy are at least as good by the proposed method. Advantages are increased rate of determinations and the ability to hydrolyze and extract retinol and alpha-tocopherol together from the same sample.

  14. A Modified Electrostatic Adsorption Apparatus for Latent Fingerprint Development on Unfired Cartridge Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingyang; Zhang, Ziyuan; Zheng, Xiaochun; Bond, John W

    2017-05-01

    Visualization of latent fingerprints on metallic surfaces by the method of applying electrostatic charging and adsorption is considered as a promising chemical-free method, which has the merit of nondestruction, and is considered to be effective for some difficult situations such as aged fingerprint deposits or those exposed to environmental extremes. In fact, a portable electrostatic generator can be easily accessible in a local forensic technology laboratory, which is already widely used in the visualization of footwear impressions. In this study, a modified version of this electrostatic apparatus is proposed for latent fingerprint development and has shown great potential in visualizing fingerprints on metallic surfaces such as cartridge cases. Results indicate that this experimental arrangement can successfully develop aged latent fingerprints on metal surfaces, and we demonstrate its effectiveness compared with existing conventional fingerprint recovery methods. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  15. Permanent disposal of radioactive particulate waste in cartridge containing ferromagnetic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troy, M.

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes a cartridge for permanent disposal of solid radioactive particulate waste, comprising; a liquid impervious casing having an upper end cover, a lower end cover and a side wall extending between the covers, the casing enclosing a waste storage region; ferromagnetic fibrous material defining a waste retaining matrix and filling a major portion of the waste storage region; means defining an inlet conduit extending through the upper end cover and axially of the casing through the waste storage region, and opening into the waste storage region in the vicinity of the lower and end cover; and means defining first and second outlet conduits extending through the upper end cover and opening into the waste storage region in the vicinity of the upper end cover

  16. Rapid purification of radioiodinated peptides with Sep-Pak reversed phase cartridges and HPLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.J.; Schultz, G.S.; Levy, R.S.

    1984-01-01

    A simple, rapid method is described for the purification of radioiodinated peptides for use in radioimmuno- and in radioreceptor assays. Iodinated reaction mixtures are applied directly onto Sep-Pak disposable, reversed phase cartridges equilibrated with phosphate buffer. Unreacted 125-iodide and other non-peptide reaction components are eluted with buffer. The peptide fraction is then eluted with 70% buffer:30% acetonitrile. The peptide fraction is further purified by reversed phase high pressure liquid chromatography to separate the native peptide and the mono- and diiodo-derivatives. In this study the method is used to prepare 125-iodide-labeled monoiodo-leucine enkephalin and monoiodo-angiotensin II, which are free of the parent peptides and diiodo-derivatives and are of maximum obtainable specific radioactivity. The usefulness of these labeled peptides in radioimmuno- and radioreceptor assays is demonstrated by their binding to specific antibodies and receptors, respectively. (author)

  17. Identifying persistent and characteristic features in firearm tool marks on cartridge cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Daniel; Soons, Johannes; Thompson, Robert; Song, John

    2017-12-01

    Recent concerns about subjectivity in forensic firearm identification have motivated the development of algorithms to compare firearm tool marks that are imparted on ammunition and to generate quantitative measures of similarity. In this paper, we describe an algorithm that identifies impressed tool marks on a cartridge case that are both consistent between firings and contribute strongly to a surface similarity metric. The result is a representation of the tool mark topography that emphasizes both significant and persistent features across firings. This characteristic surface map is useful for understanding the variability and persistence of the tool marks created by a firearm and can provide improved discrimination between the comparison scores of samples fired from the same firearm and the scores of samples fired from different firearms. The algorithm also provides a convenient method for visualizing areas of similarity that may be useful in providing quantitative support for visual comparisons by trained examiners.

  18. A new screening method for amphetamine and methamphetamine using dansyl chloride derivatization and cartridge fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, H; Ikeda-Wada, S; Oguri, K

    1998-07-01

    A new screening method for amphetamines was developed. It consists of derivatization with dansyl chloride, extraction of the derivative using a Sep-Pak C18 or a Bond Elut C18, solid phase extraction columns, and visualization of the fluorescence of the cartridge. A control test using drug-free urine showed no fluorescence. Amphetamine, methamphetamine and the methylenedioxy derivatives exhibited strong fluorescence, while related compounds, such as N-ethylamphetamine and fenetylline, were negative or weakly positive. The disadvantage of the present method is that it is a multi-step procedure and 20-30 min is required for screening. However, since it has a different specificity from the widely used immunochemical technique, it is suggested to be a useful screen for amphetamines.

  19. The analysis of ink jet printed eco-font efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastko Milošević

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of eco-font for office printing is one of sustainable, “green” printing concepts, which besides obvious economic benefits, as a result has a certain effect on environmental sustainability as well. The fundamental problem that this practice faces is decreased quality of text printed using eco-fonts comparing to those printed with regular fonts. The aim of this research is eco-font efficiency estimation, i.e. determination of toner usage reduction level of ink jet printed documents typed with this font type, as well as estimation of the extent humans perceive differences between text printed with eco-font and the one printed by its „non-eco“ equivalent. Combining instrumental measuring method and digital image analysis, it was found that this simple principle (eco-font utilization enables substantial toner usage reduction for an ink jet printing system, while visual test showed that visual experience of text printed using eco-font is sufficient. In addition, awareness of benefits that eco-font utilization brings, change users’ attitude towards eco-font quality.

  20. Microvalve-based bioprinting - process, bio-inks and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wei Long; Lee, Jia Min; Yeong, Wai Yee; Win Naing, May

    2017-03-28

    Bioprinting is an emerging research field that has attracted tremendous attention for various applications; it offers a highly automated, advanced manufacturing platform for the fabrication of complex bioengineered constructs. Different bio-inks comprising multiple types of printable biomaterials and cells are utilized during the bioprinting process to improve the homology to native tissues and/or organs in a highly reproducible manner. This paper, presenting a first-time comprehensive yet succinct review of microvalve-based bioprinting, provides an in-depth analysis and comparison of different drop-on-demand bioprinting systems and highlights the important considerations for microvalve-based bioprinting systems. This review paper reports a detailed analysis of its printing process, bio-ink properties and cellular components on the printing outcomes. Lastly, this review highlights the significance of drop-on-demand bioprinting for various applications such as high-throughput screening, fundamental cell biology research, in situ bioprinting and fabrication of in vitro tissue constructs and also presents future directions to transform the microvalve-based bioprinting technology into imperative tools for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  1. Emulsion Inks for 3D Printing of High Porosity Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Nicholas A; Dhavalikar, Prachi S; Cosgriff-Hernandez, Elizabeth M

    2016-08-01

    Photocurable emulsion inks for use with solid freeform fabrication (SFF) to generate constructs with hierarchical porosity are presented. A high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) templating technique was utilized to prepare water-in-oil emulsions from a hydrophobic photopolymer, surfactant, and water. These HIPEs displayed strong shear thinning behavior that permitted layer-by-layer deposition into complex shapes and adequately high viscosity at low shear for shape retention after extrusion. Each layer was actively polymerized with an ultraviolet cure-on-dispense (CoD) technique and compositions with sufficient viscosity were able to produce tall, complex scaffolds with an internal lattice structure and microscale porosity. Evaluation of the rheological and cure properties indicated that the viscosity and cure rate both played an important role in print fidelity. These 3D printed polyHIPE constructs benefit from the tunable pore structure of emulsion templated material and the designed architecture of 3D printing. As such, these emulsion inks can be used to create ultra high porosity constructs with complex geometries and internal lattice structures not possible with traditional manufacturing techniques. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Causes and Recommendations for Unanticipated Ink Retention Following Tattoo Removal Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cynthia L.; Desai, Alpesh; Desai, Tejas

    2013-01-01

    While placement of ink into the skin is a long-standing tradition, patients are now seeking tattoo removal on a more frequent basis. Once considered acceptable removal options, tattoo ink removal via physical destruction included dermabrasion, chemical destruction, salabrasion, thermal destruction, and cryotherapy. Now these options are used extremely infrequently. These modalities provided unpredictable results and often required prolonged healing times and left patients with skin discoloration, pain, scarring, and ink retention. Even the widely adopted use of lasers, now considered the gold standard method, offers some level of unpredictability surrounding the natural progression of ink resolution. Multiple factors need to be taken into consideration when successfully removing tattoo pigment including the modalities used, number and frequency of treatments, proper device technique, and physiological barriers to tattoo removal. This paper serves to elucidate the common causes of ink retention following tattoo removal treatment with recommendations on how best to address this relatively common occurrence. PMID:23882312

  3. Identification of inks and structural characterization of contemporary artistic prints by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oujja, M.; Vila, A.; Rebollar, E.; Garcia, J.F.; Castillejo, M.

    2005-01-01

    Identification of the inks used in artistic prints and the order in which different ink layers have been applied on a paper substrate are important factors to complement the classical stylistic aspects for the authentication of this type of objects. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is investigated to determine the chemical composition and structural distribution of the constituent materials of model prints made by applying one or two layers of several blue and black inks on an Arches paper substrate. By using suitable laser excitation conditions, identification of the inks was possible by virtue of emissions from key elements present in their composition. Analysis of successive spectra on the same spot allowed the identification of the order in which the inks were applied on the paper. The results show the potential of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for the chemical and structural characterization of artistic prints

  4. Analysis of spatial and temporal dynamics of xylem refilling in Acer rubrum L. using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Andrzej Zwieniecki

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We report results of an analysis of embolism formation and subsequent refilling observed in stems of Acer rubrum L. using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. MRI is one of the very few techniques that can provide direct non-destructive observations of the water content within opaque biological materials at a micrometer resolution. Thus, it has been used to determine temporal dynamics and water distributions within xylem tissue. In this study, we found good agreement between MRI measures of pixel brightness to assess xylem liquid water content and the percent loss in hydraulic conductivity (PLC in response to water stress (P50 values of 2.51 and 2.70 for MRI and PLC, respectively. These data provide strong support that pixel brightness is well correlated to PLC and can be used as a proxy of PLC even when single vessels cannot be resolved on the image. Pressure induced embolism in moderately stressed plants resulted in initial drop of pixel brightness. This drop was followed by brightness gain over 100 minutes following pressure application suggesting that plants can restore water content in stem after induced embolism. This recovery was limited only to current year wood ring; older wood did not show signs of recovery within the length of experiment (16 hours. In vivo MRI observations of the xylem of moderately stressed (~-0.5 MPa A. rubrum stems revealed evidence of a spontaneous embolism formation followed by rapid refilling (~30 minutes. Spontaneous (not induced embolism formation was observed only once, despite over 60 hours of continuous MRI observations made on several plants. Thus this observation provide evidence for presence of naturally occurring embolism-refilling cycle in A. rubrum, but it is impossible to infer any conclusions in relation to its frequency in nature.

  5. Analysis of spatial and temporal dynamics of xylem refilling in Acer rubrum L. using magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwieniecki, Maciej A; Melcher, Peter J; Ahrens, Eric T

    2013-01-01

    We report results of an analysis of embolism formation and subsequent refilling observed in stems of Acer rubrum L. using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI is one of the very few techniques that can provide direct non-destructive observations of the water content within opaque biological materials at a micrometer resolution. Thus, it has been used to determine temporal dynamics and water distributions within xylem tissue. In this study, we found good agreement between MRI measures of pixel brightness to assess xylem liquid water content and the percent loss in hydraulic conductivity (PLC) in response to water stress (P50 values of 2.51 and 2.70 for MRI and PLC, respectively). These data provide strong support that pixel brightness is well correlated to PLC and can be used as a proxy of PLC even when single vessels cannot be resolved on the image. Pressure induced embolism in moderately stressed plants resulted in initial drop of pixel brightness. This drop was followed by brightness gain over 100 min following pressure application suggesting that plants can restore water content in stem after induced embolism. This recovery was limited only to current-year wood ring; older wood did not show signs of recovery within the length of experiment (16 h). In vivo MRI observations of the xylem of moderately stressed (~-0.5 MPa) A. rubrum stems revealed evidence of a spontaneous embolism formation followed by rapid refilling (~30 min). Spontaneous (not induced) embolism formation was observed only once, despite over 60 h of continuous MRI observations made on several plants. Thus this observation provide evidence for the presence of naturally occurring embolism-refilling cycle in A. rubrum, but it is impossible to infer any conclusions in relation to its frequency in nature.

  6. Determining the effect of cartridge case coatings on GSR using post-fire priming cup residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Molly; Fookes, Barry; Bridge, Candice M

    2017-07-01

    Ammunition is typically composed of a lead-based priming mixture which contributes to the characteristics most commonly used for the identification of gunshot residue (GSR). Due to the health risks often associated with lead, the use of lead-free primers in ammunitions is becoming more popular. Thus, the presence of GSR is becoming more difficult to discern based on the traditional means, i.e. the presence of lead (Pb), barium (Ba), and antimony (Sb). While research has been conducted on the differences between lead-based and lead-free muzzle discharge residue, few have researched other components of ammunition which may lead to other means of characterizing GSR. This research, therefore, covers that gap by focusing on the priming cup present in ammunition and the residue which may originate from it, that can contribute to muzzle discharge residue. In this study, a lead-based and a lead-free ammunition from four different manufacturers were chosen. The cartridges were fired using a Glock 17, 9mm Parabellum, collected post-fire, and subsequently de-primed resulting in the removal of the anvil. The GSR present on the anvils and cups was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDX). The data was then processed using unit vector analysis for normalization and analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). This data was then used to determine the components of the cartridge case which contribute to GSR and develop a method of characterization between lead-free and lead-based ammunition. Such a method will improve the detection of GSR by strengthening the criteria of identification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization of filter cartridges from the IEA-R1 reactor by radiochemical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraldo, Bianca; Vicente, Roberto; Ferreira, Robson J.; Goes, Marcos M.; Marumo, Julio T.

    2015-01-01

    The filter cartridges used in water purification system of research nuclear reactor IEA-R1 are considered radioactive wastes after their useful life. The characterization of these wastes is one of the stages of management, which aims to identify and quantify the radionuclides present, including those known as 'difficult to measure' (DTM) radionuclides. Establish a radiochemical analysis methodology for this type of waste is a difficult job, not only by the application of these techniques, but also by the amount of radionuclides that should be analyzed. In the waste produced in a nuclear reactor, the most important radionuclides are fission products, activation products and transuranic elements. Since these radionuclides emit gamma radiation not measurable in its decay process and consequently are difficult to measure, their concentrations can be estimated by indirect methods such as scale factors. This method is used to evaluate the DTM concentration, which is represented by alpha and beta nuclides using the correlation between them and the radionuclide key, a gamma emitter. The objective of this work is to describe a radiochemical analysis methodology for gamma emitter nuclides, present in the filter cartridges, evaluating the activity and concentrations by destructive assays. At the same time, two studies have been performed by non-destructive assays, the first one based on dose rates and the point kernel method to correlate the results and the second one based on calibration efficiency with Monte Carlo method. These studies belong to the radioactive waste characterization program that has been conducted at the Waste Management Laboratory of Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP. (author)

  8. Characterization of filter cartridges from the IEA-R1 reactor by radiochemical method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraldo, Bianca; Vicente, Roberto; Ferreira, Robson J.; Goes, Marcos M.; Marumo, Julio T., E-mail: bgeraldo@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The filter cartridges used in water purification system of research nuclear reactor IEA-R1 are considered radioactive wastes after their useful life. The characterization of these wastes is one of the stages of management, which aims to identify and quantify the radionuclides present, including those known as 'difficult to measure' (DTM) radionuclides. Establish a radiochemical analysis methodology for this type of waste is a difficult job, not only by the application of these techniques, but also by the amount of radionuclides that should be analyzed. In the waste produced in a nuclear reactor, the most important radionuclides are fission products, activation products and transuranic elements. Since these radionuclides emit gamma radiation not measurable in its decay process and consequently are difficult to measure, their concentrations can be estimated by indirect methods such as scale factors. This method is used to evaluate the DTM concentration, which is represented by alpha and beta nuclides using the correlation between them and the radionuclide key, a gamma emitter. The objective of this work is to describe a radiochemical analysis methodology for gamma emitter nuclides, present in the filter cartridges, evaluating the activity and concentrations by destructive assays. At the same time, two studies have been performed by non-destructive assays, the first one based on dose rates and the point kernel method to correlate the results and the second one based on calibration efficiency with Monte Carlo method. These studies belong to the radioactive waste characterization program that has been conducted at the Waste Management Laboratory of Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP. (author)

  9. Ways of increasing of efficiency of the use of chemical gazogene cartridges at the mining of facing raw material

    OpenAIRE

    Кальчук, Сергій Володимирович; Лукащук, Олександр Вікторович

    2016-01-01

    The analysis and theoretical generalizations of influencing of the known methods of separation to the stone on the array of breeds is executed. Certain backlogs of increase of the OIR use of chemical gazogene cartridges. Offered ways of determination of optimum parameters of most effective their applications on the deposits of facing stone.

  10. 9 CFR 316.5 - Branding ink; to be furnished by official establishments; approval by Program; color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Branding ink; to be furnished by... THEIR CONTAINERS § 316.5 Branding ink; to be furnished by official establishments; approval by Program... purpose shall be used to apply ink brands bearing official marks to carcasses of cattle, sheep, swine, or...

  11. INK128 Exhibits Synergy with Azoles against Exophiala spp. and Fusarium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lujuan; Sun, Yi; He, Chengyan; Li, Ming; Zeng, Tongxiang; Lu, Qiaoyun

    2016-01-01

    Infections of Exophiala spp. and Fusarium spp. are often chronic and recalcitrant. Systemic disseminations, which mostly occur in immunocompromised patients, are often refractory to available antifungal therapies. The conserved target of rapamycin (TOR) orchestrates cell growth and proliferation in response to nutrients and growth factors, which are important for pathogenicity and virulence. INK128 is a second-generation ATP-competitive TOR inhibitor, which binds the TOR catalytic domain and selectively inhibits TOR. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro activities of INK128 alone and the interactions of INK128 with conventional antifungal drugs including itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, and amphotericin B against 18 strains of Exophiala spp. and 10 strains of Fusarium spp. via broth microdilution checkerboard technique system adapted from Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute broth microdilution method M38-A2. INK128 alone was inactive against all isolates tested. However, favorable synergistic effects between INK128 and voriconazole were observed in 61% Exophiala strains and 60% Fusarium strains, despite Fusarium strains exhibited high MIC values (4-8 μg/ml) against voriconazole. In addition, synergistic effects of INK128/itraconazole were shown in 33% Exophiala strains and 30% Fusarium strains, while synergy of INK128/posaconazole were observed in 28% Exophiala strains and 30% Fusarium strains. The effective working ranges of INK128 were 0.125-2 μg/ml and 1-4 μg/ml against Exophiala isolates and Fusarium isolates, respectively. No synergistic effect was observed when INK128 was combined with amphotericin B. No antagonism was observed in all combinations. In conclusion, INK128 could enhance the in vitro antifungal activity of voriconazole, itraconazole and posaconazole against Exophiala spp. and Fusarium spp., suggesting that azoles, especially voriconazole, combined with TOR kinase inhibitor might provide a potential strategy to

  12. Copper Nanowires as Conductive Ink for Low-Cost Draw-On Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason, Naveen Noah; Shen, Wei; Cheng, Wenlong

    2015-08-05

    This work tackles the complicated problem of clump formation and entanglement of high aspect ratio copper nanowires, due to which a well dispersed solution for use as a true ink for drawable electronics has not been made until now. Through rheology studies even a hard to use material like copper nanowires was tailored to be made into a highly efficient conductive ink with only 2 vol % or 18.28 wt % loading which is far lower than existing nanoparticle based inks. This versatile ink can be applied onto various substrates such as paper, PET, PDMS and latex. By using the ink in a roller ball pen, a bending sensor device was simply drawn on paper, which demonstrated detection of various degrees of convex bending and was highly durable as shown in the 10,000 bending cycling test. A highly sensitive strain sensor which has a maximum gauge factor of 54.38 was also fabricated by simply painting the ink onto latex rubber strip using a paintbrush. Finally a complex conductive pattern depicting the Sydney Opera House was painted on paper to demonstrate the versatility and robustness of the ink. The use of Cu NWs is highly economical in terms of the conductive filler loading in the ink and the cost of copper itself as compared to other metal NPs, CNT, and graphene-based inks. The demonstrated e-ink, devices, and facile device fabrication methods push the field one step closer to truly creating cheap and highly reliable skin like devices "on the fly".

  13. Enhanced dispersibility and dispersion stability of dodecylamine-protected silver nanoparticles by dodecanethiol for ink-jet conductive inks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Xueqin; Li, Wei; Wu, Meilan; Tang, Shen; Liu, Dongzhi

    2014-01-01

    This work studied dodecylamine-protected silver nanoparticles modified by a small amount of dodecanethiol as the co-protective agent. Contents of the dodecanethiol and the protective agent capping on the surface of silver nanoparticles were analyzed using the method of oxygen flask combustion and a thermogravimetric analysis instrument. Results of electrical property determination and transmission electron microscopy indicate that certain amount of capping dodecanethiol can slow down the spontaneous sintering process of silver nanoparticles. When capping DDT content of silver nanoparticles is 1.70 wt%, 10 wt% suspensions are stable under −18 °C and can be stored stably at room temperature as long as 120 days. Furthermore, the silver nanoparticle concentration could be increased to 20 wt% with a stable storage time of 60 days at room temperature. Finally, stable polymer-free conductive inks with the silver nanoparticle concentration of 20 wt% were produced to fabricate patterns by ink-jet printing. The resistivity of the PI-supported patterns having been annealed at 130 °C for 10 min is 7.2 μΩ cm.

  14. Implementation of Geographical Information System for Bacteriological Contamination Analysis on Refill Drinking Water Depot (Study in Tembalang District)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmitha, Amelia; Utami, Endang Sri; Sitohang, Marya Yenita

    2018-02-01

    People used refilled-drinking-water for household and food stall because its efficient and low cost. Based on Indonesian Health Ministry regulation, it should not have any coliform bacteria. This study aimed to describe the bacteriological contamination of refilled drinking water using geographical information system (GIS). In this research, it was used an analytic observational method. The samples were from all available (37) depots in Tembalang district, one form each depot took used a sterile bottle. Contamination of bacteria was identified by Most Probable Number (MPN) method lactose broth media, Mac Conkey media, and IMVIC media. The depot samples were then plotted on (GIS). This study showed 95% samples were not feasible to consume since they contamined coliform. All sub-district had one that contaminated by coliform, 75% sub-districts had depots that contaminated Escherichia coli, while 55% sub-districts had depots that contaminated with other bacteria. The internal risk factors of the contamination were the absence of hygiene-sanitation worthy certificate (95%), depots location near to pollution sources (5%), and the misused of UV light. The external risk factor was lack of quality control that was not as the sterilization from office health Semarang city. Policy reinforcement should be done to all of the depots.

  15. Effect of Sleeve Plunge Depth on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Refill Friction Stir Spot Welding of 2198 Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Yumei; Shi, Yao; Ji, Shude; Wang, Yue; Li, Zhengwei

    2017-10-01

    Refill friction stir spot welding (RFSSW) is a new spot welding technology, by which spot joint without keyhole can be obtained. In this work, RFSSW was used to join 2-mm-thick 2198-T8 aluminum alloy sheets and effects of the sleeve plunge depth on microstructure and lap shear properties of the joints were mainly discussed. Results showed that when using small plunge depths of 2.4 and 2.6 mm, joints showed good formation and no defects were observed. Incomplete refilling defect was observed with increasing plunge depth due to material loss during welding. Size of the grains at sleeve-affected zone (SAZ) is smaller than that at the pin-affected zone, and the size becomes bigger with increasing the plunge depth. More secondary phase particles can be observed at SAZ with increasing the sleeve plunge depth. The lap shear failure load firstly increased and then decreased with increasing the sleeve plunge depth. The maximum failure load of 9819 N was attained with plug fracture mode when using 2.6 mm. Fracture morphologies show ductile fracture mode.

  16. Assessing medication adherence in inflammatory bowel diseases. A comparison between a self-administered scale and a pharmacy refill index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, María Luisa; Sanromán, Luciano; Martín, Alicia; Figueira, Montserrat; Martínez, Noemi; Hernández, Vicent; Del Campo, Victor; Pineda, Juan R; Martínez-Cadilla, Jesús; Pereira, Santos; Rodríguez Prada, José Ignacio

    2017-08-01

    Medication non-adherence in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has a negative impact on disease outcome. Different tools have been proposed to assess non-adherence. We aimed to compare a self-administered scale and a pharmacy refill index as a reliable measure of medication adherence and to determine what factors are related to adherence. Consecutive non-active IBD outpatients were asked to fill in the self-reported Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) and the Beliefs about Medication Questionnaire (BMQ). Pharmacy refill data were reviewed from the previous three or six months and the medication possession ratio (MPR) was calculated. Non-adherence was defined as MMAS-8 scores harm of medication were significantly associated with MPR non-adherence (p = 0.01). The accuracy of MMAS-8 to identify medication non-adherence in inactive IBD outpatients in our setting is poor due to a low specificity and a negative predictive value. Psychosocial factors such as beliefs about medication seem to be related to IBD non-adherence.

  17. Impact of late-to-refill reminder calls on medication adherence in the Medicare Part D population: evaluation of a randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taitel MS

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Michael S Taitel, Ying Mu, Angshuman Gooptu, Youbei Lou Health Analytics, Research & Reporting, Walgreen Co., Deerfield, IL, USA Objectives: This study evaluates a nationwide pharmacy chain’s late-to-refill (LTR reminder program that entails local pharmacists placing reminder calls to Medicare Part D patients. Methods: We conducted a randomized controlled study among 735,218 patients who exhibited nonadherent behavior by not refilling a maintenance medication 3 days from an expected refill date. Patients were randomly assigned to an intervention group who received LTR reminder calls or to a control group. We used Walgreens pharmaceutical claims data from 2015 to estimate the impact of LTR calls on short-term and annual adherence. Results: The initial refill rate within the first 14 days of the expected refill date significantly increased in the intervention group by 22.8% (6.09 percentage points compared to the control group (P<0.001. The proportion of days covered (PDC in the intervention group increased significantly by 1.5% (0.856 percentage points relative to the control group (P<0.001 over 365 days. Patients in the intervention group were significantly more adherent (PDC ≥80% by 3% (0.97 percentage points compared to the control group (P<0.001. Over a 270-day follow-up period, persistence significantly increased by 2.15 days in the intervention group (P<0.001. Conclusion: Results from this study suggest that LTR reminder calls increased adherence for Medicare Part D patients who are late in refilling their medications and therefore have the potential to reduce their risk for hospitalization and health care costs. Additionally, the intervention increased the number of patients with PDC ≥80% by ~3%, positively impacting Medicare Part D plan quality rating. Keywords: reminder system, tailored intervention, Medicare Part D, adherence, persistence

  18. Characterization of Printing Inks Using DART-Q-TOF-MS and Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) FTIR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Rhett; Raeva, Anna; Almirall, Jose R

    2016-05-01

    The rise in improved and widely accessible printing technology has resulted in an interest to develop rapid and minimally destructive chemical analytical techniques that can characterize printing inks for forensic document analysis. Chemical characterization of printing inks allows for both discrimination of inks originating from different sources and the association of inks originating from the same source. Direct analysis in real-time mass spectrometry (DART-MS) and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) were used in tandem to analyze four different classes of printing inks: inkjets, toners, offset, and intaglio. A total of 319 samples or ~ 80 samples from each class were analyzed directly on a paper substrate using the two methods. DART-MS was found to characterize the semi-volatile polymeric vehicle components, while ATR-FTIR provided chemical information associated with the bulk components of these inks. Complimentary data results in improved discrimination when both techniques are used in succession resulting in >96% discrimination for all toners, 95% for all inkjets, >92% for all offset, and >54% for all intaglio inks. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  19. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR Spectroscopy with Chemometric Techniques for the Classification of Ballpoint Pen Inks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Naeim Mohamad Asri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available FTIR spectroscopic techniques have been shown to possess good abilities to analyse ballpoint pen inks. These in-situ techniques involve directing light onto ballpoint ink samples to generate an FTIR spectrum, providing “molecular fingerprints” of the ink samples thus allowing comparison by direct visual comparison. In this study, ink from blue (n=15 and red (n=15 ballpoint pens of five different brands: Kilometrico®, G-Soft®, Stabilo®, Pilot® and Faber Castell® was analysed using the FTIR technique with the objective of establishing a distinctive differentiation according to the brand. The resulting spectra were first compared and grouped manually. Due to the similarities in terms of colour and shade of the inks, distinctive differentiation could not be achieved by means of direct visual comparison. However, when the same spectral data was analysed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA software, distinctive grouping of the ballpoint pen inks was achieved. Our results demonstrate that PCA can be used objectively to investigate ballpoint pen inks of similar colour and more importantly of different brands.

  20. Influence of the Substrate Properties on the Offset Printing ink Colour Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Blayo

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The printing industry has been using computerised ink colour matching for a long time. The problem of ink formulation is to match a given standard colour with only three or four inks from a basis of about twelve inks.This is generally achieved by calculations based on the well-known Kubelka-Munk turbid media theory, which gives excellent results in many industrial situations. However, some hypotheses are necessary to apply the Kubelka-Munk model and corrections to the measured reflectance are often required (Saunderson’s correction coefficients, for example.One limitation in the resolution of this method of formulation may arise from the fact that the characterisation of the basic inks is made on one standard substrate, which may differ a lot from the real printing substrate.The aim of this work is precisely to study the contribution of the substrate to the colour matching procedure. The properties of the substrate which intervene in the process are physical properties (thickness, absorbency… and optical properties (brightness and gloss. Five different papers were chosen to make the characterisations of the basic offset inks. The reflectance measurements were performed with spectrophotometer X-Rite with the D/0° geometry, specular excluded or included, coupled with a coloured matching software (X-Rite Inkmaster. A special emphasis was put on the influence on the calculation of the ink film thickness, estimated for the different substrates, and on the choice of the correction coefficients for the Kubelka-Munk theory.

  1. Fast and Simple Forensic Red Pen Ink Analysis Using Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, L.C.; Ying, S.L.; Wan Nur Syazwani Wan Mohamad Fuad; Ab Aziz Ishak; Khairul Osman

    2016-01-01

    Ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) is more effective than high performance liquid chromatography in terms of analysis speed and sensitivity. This paper presents a feasibility study on forensic red pen inks analysis using UPLC. A total of 12 varieties of red ball point pen inks were purchased from selected stationary shop. For each variety, four different individual pens were sampled to provide intra-variability within a particular variety of pen. The proposed approach is very simple that it only involved limited analysis step and chemicals. A total of 144 chromatograms were obtained from red ink entries extracted with 1.5 mL 80 % (v/v) acetonitrile. Peaks originated from pen inks were determined by comparing the chromatograms of both blank paper and blank solvent against that of ink samples. Subsequently, one-way ANOVA was conducted to discriminate all 66 possible pairs for red pen inks. Results showed that the proposed approach giving discriminating power of 95.45 %. The outcome of the study indicates that UPLC could be a fast and simple approach to red ball point pen inks analysis. (author)

  2. Cosmic Ink: Fragments from the Past on Journal Pages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrino, A.; Gargano, M.; Gasperini, A.

    2015-04-01

    This contribution describes an editorial project started in 2012 to enhance the cultural heritage of the Italian observatories. It includes a regular column Cieli di inchiostro (Cosmic ink) devoted to promoting the astronomical historical archives and published in the Giornale di astronomia, a journal of the Società Astronomica Italiana. In every issue of the journal, a significant historical artifact is presented and described. This can be a letter, a diary page, a photograph, a map, a drawing, or another type of item pulled out of the archival folders to bring its history to light. The column is intended to invite historians, amateurs, and students to search and use the documents kept in the archives of the observatories.

  3. Plasmonic laser printing for ink-free color decoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xiaolong; Vannahme, Christoph; Højlund-Nielsen, Emil

    2016-01-01

    Here we show a method of color printing on nanoimprinted plasmonic metasurfaces [1] using laser post-writing. Laser pulses induce transient local heat generation that leads to melting and reshaping of the imprinted nanostructures [2]. This leads to melting and reshaping of the imprinted 20nm Al...... also be used on a larger scale to personify products such as mobile phones with unique decorations, names, etc‥ This laser technology may create environmentally sound color printing solutions and simplify the production for consumer products....... structures embedded in plastics. Depending on the laser pulse energy density, different surface morphologies that support different plasmonic resonances leading to different color appearances can be created. Color printing by this technology has several advantages over dye technology: ink/toner-free, sub...

  4. Ultrafast Paper Thermometers Based on a Green Sensing Ink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xinglei; Jia, Hanyu; He, Yonglin; Liao, Shenglong; Wang, Yapei

    2017-03-24

    With the use of an ionic liquid as the ultrathermosensitive fluid, a paper thermometer is successfully developed with intrinsic ability of ultrafast response and high stability upon temperature change. The fluidic nature allows the ionic liquid to be easily deposited on paper by pen writing or inkjet printing, affording great promise for large-scale fabrication of low-cost paper sensors. Owing to the advantages of nonvolatilization, excellent continuity and deformability, the thermosensitive ink trapped within the cellulose fibers of paper matrix has no leakage or evaporation at open states, ensuring the excellent stability and repeatability of thermal sensing against arbitrary bending and folding operation. By shortening the heat exchange distance between ionic liquid and samples, it takes only 8 s for the thermometer to reach an electrical equilibrium at a given temperature. Moreover, the paper thermometer can be applied to remotely monitor temperature change with the combination of a wireless communication technology.

  5. Phytoremediation of arsenic-contaminated groundwater using arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L.: effects of frond harvesting regimes and arsenic levels in refill water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Seenivasan; Stamps, Robert H; Ma, Lena Q; Saha, Uttam K; Hernandez, Damaris; Cai, Yong; Zillioux, Edward J

    2011-01-30

    A large-scale hydroponic system to phytoremediate arsenic-contaminated groundwater using Pteris vittata (Chinese brake fern) was successfully tested in a field. In this 30-wk study, three frond-harvesting regimes (all, mature, and senescing fronds) and two water-refilling schemes to compensate for evapotranspiration (high-As water of 140-180 μg/L and low-As water of arsenic-contaminated groundwater and 32 ferns. During Cycle 1 and with initial As of 140 μg/L, As in tanks refilled with low-As water was reduced to phytoremediation. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Detection and identification of dyes in blue writing inks by LC-DAD-orbitrap MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiran; Luo, Yiwen; Yang, Xu; Xiang, Ping; Shen, Min

    2016-04-01

    In the field of forensic questioned document examination, to identify dyes detected in inks not only provides a solid foundation for ink discrimination in forged contents identification, but also facilitates the investigation of ink origin or the study regarding ink dating. To detect and identify potential acid and basic dyes in blue writing inks, a liquid chromatography-diode array detection-Orbitrap mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-Orbitrap MS) method was established. Three sulfonic acid dyes (Acid blue 1, Acid blue 9 and Acid red 52) and six triphenylmethane basic dyes (Ethyl violet, Crystal violet, Methyl violet 2B, Basic blue 7, Victoria blue B and Victoria blue R) were employed as reference dyes for method development. Determination of the nine dyes was validated to evaluate the instrument performance, and it turned out to be sensitive and stable enough for quantification. The method was then applied in the screening analysis of ten blue roller ball pen inks and twenty blue ballpoint pen inks. As a result, including TPR (a de-methylated product of Crystal violet), ten known dyes and four unknown dyes were detected in the inks. The latter were further identified as a de-methylated product of Victoria blue B, Acid blue 104, Acid violet 49 and Acid blue 90, through analyzing their characteristic precursor and product ions acquired by Orbitrap MS with good mass accuracy. The results showed that the established method is capable of detecting and identifying potential dyes in blue writing inks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. STUDY OF INK LAYER BY METHOD OF ATTENUATED TOTAL REFLECTANCE SPECTROSCOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Fatkhullina

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. Researchresults of thickness distribution of an ink layer smearedon a glass surface are presented. The orange ink which is used as a coloring pigment in writing instrument (highlighter is selectedasan object of study. Method. Researches were carried out by the method of attenuated total reflectance(ATR spectroscopy. The spectral setup fitted up on the basis of monochromator MDR-204 was usedin the experiment. The peculiarity of the measurement scheme is the applicationofhigh-resolution camera as a radiation detector and information storage as an images package. Researches allowed receivingexperimental data in the form of ink ATR spectra arrayfor studied areas of layer surface in a given spectral range. Main Results. The estimation of ink layer thickness was done, that gives the possibilityto visualize its distribution over the surface using three-dimensional modeling capabilities. The thickness of the ink layer is not more than 0.12 microns and arithmetic mean of the thickness is0.06 microns. The local areas are observed in an ink distribution, they have a maximum layer thickness (0.07-0.12 microns or areas with the ink thickness less then 0.03 microns. Variation of the ink layer thicknessbetween the local areas is smooth. Practical Relevance. The proposed measuring scheme, the sequence of registration and processing of experimental data can be used to studyink distribution within the thickness of a surface layer of other materials,for example, in analysis of signs performed by an ink on paper medium in order to identify them in such areas of science as forensic science andstudy of art.

  8. Black Ink of Activated Carbon Derived From Palm Kernel Cake (PKC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selamat, M. H.; Ahmad, A. H.

    2009-06-01

    Recycling the waste from natural plant to produce useful end products will benefit many industries and help preserve the environment. The research reported in this paper is an investigation on the use of the natural waste of palm kernel cake (PKC) to produce carbon residue as a black carbon for pigment source by using pyrolysis process. The activated carbons (AC) is produced in powder form using ball milling process. Rheological spectra in ink is one of quality control process in determining its performance properties. Findings from this study will help expand the scientific knowledge-base for black ink production and formulation base on PKC. Various inks with different weight percentage compositions of AC will be made and tested against its respective rheological properties in order to determine ideal ink printing system. The items in the formulation used comprised of organic and bio-waste materials with added additive to improve the quality of the black ink. Modified Polyurethane was used as binder. The binder's properties highlighted an ideal vehicle to be applied for good black ink opacity performance. The rheological behaviour is a general foundation for ink characterization where the wt% of AC-PKC resulted in different pseudoplastic behaviors, including the Newtonian behavior. The result found that Newtonian field was located in between 2 wt% and 10 wt% of AC-PKC composition with binder. Mass spectroscopy results shown that the carbon content in PKC is high and very suitable for black performance. In the ageing test, the pigment of PKC perform fairly according to the standard pigment of Black carbon (CB) of ferum oxide pigment. The contact angle for substrate's wettability of the ink system shown a good angle proven to be a water resistive coating on paper subtrates; an advantage of the PKC ink pigment performance.

  9. Degradation of inkjet ink by greensand and ultrasonic sonification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Rožić

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The study describes the degradation of inkjet ink at low frequency ultrasound (US and greensand to compare their reactivity. Environmental sonochemistry is a rapidly growing area and an example of the advanced oxidation process (AOP that deals with the destruction of organic species in aqueous solutions. Greensand is a granular material coated with a thin layer of manganese dioxide (MnO2 which is among the strongest natural oxidants. In our study magenta inkjet water-based printing ink was dissolved in distilled water and the solutions obtained after degradation were analysed in terms of total organic compound (TOC and absorption curves in the visible spectra. Also used for the process monitoring was high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The efficiency of discoloration is significantly affected by the effluent pH. The efficiency of discolouration was higher when the pH of initial solution was 2 with respect to the initial solution pH of 5.5. In all solutions, irrespective of the initial pH value and the processing method the oxidation of polyhydric alcohols occurs. Although the decomposition is significant, surface peaks resulting from HPLC analysis are very small. Decolourization is closely related to the cleavage of the – C=C and -N=N- bonds, and oxidation of polyhydric alcohol to the formation of monosaccharides, carboxylic acids or other low molecular weight compounds with a lesser number of unsaturated double bonds. These compounds have low UV absorbance or they absorb below 200 nm and therefore their detection is impossible. Thus, the obtained total organic compound results indicate a small degree of mineralization. The effectiveness of the low-frequency ultrasound (20 kHz oxidation is similar to the effectiveness of oxidation by greendsand.

  10. The indicating FTA elute cartridge a solid sample carrier to detect high-risk HPV and high-grade cervical lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bie, Roosmarie P; Schmeink, Channa E; Bakkers, Judith M J E; Snijders, Peter J F; Quint, Wim G V; Massuger, Leon F A G; Bekkers, Ruud L M; Melchers, Willem J G

    2011-07-01

    The clinically validated high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) and GP5+/6+-PCR assays were analyzed on an Indicating FTA Elute cartridge (FTA cartridge). The FTA cartridge is a solid dry carrier that allows safe transport of cervical samples. FTA cartridge samples were compared with liquid-based samples for hrHPV and high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) detection. One cervical sample was collected in a liquid-based medium, and one was applied to the FTA cartridge. DNA was eluted directly from the FTA cartridge by a simple elution step. HC2 and GP5+/6+-PCR assays were performed on both the liquid-based and the FTA-eluted DNA of 88 women. Overall agreement between FTA and liquid-based samples for the presence of hrHPV was 90.9% with GP5+/6+-PCR and 77.3% with HC2. The sensitivity for high-grade CIN of hrHPV testing on the FTA cartridges was 84.6% with GP5+/6+-PCR and only 53.8% with HC2. By comparison, these sensitivities on liquid-based samples were 92.3% and 100% for GP5+/6+-PCR and HC2, respectively. Therefore, the FTA cartridge shows reasonably good overall agreement for hrHPV detection with liquid-based media when using GP5+/6+-PCR but not HC2 testing. Even with GP5+/6+-PCR, the FTA cartridge is not yet capable of detecting all high-grade CIN lesions. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. PKL/K9, Refill and Reflood Experiment in a Simulated PWR Primary System (PKL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    1 - Description of test facility: PKL-facility simulates the essential primary system components of a typical West German 1300 PWR with regard to their thermohydraulic behaviour. The facility essentially consists of the pressure vessel with the heated bundle, the downcomer simulator, the primary loops with the components steam generator and pump simulator, the injection devices, the break geometry simulator, as well as the separators connected thereto, and the test containment to maintain a back-pressure at the location of break which is expected to be typical for emergency conditions. The number of heater rods and the cross-sections of the testing plant are on a reduced scale 1:134 in comparison with a typical German PWR. The elevations and locations are essentially full scale. Pressure vessel: The space between the pressure vessel and the inner core casing is sealed from the core region and the upper and lower plenum and connected with the upper plenum only by a pressure equalization line. The rod bundle surrounded by the inner core casing consists of 340 rods, 337 of which are indirect electrically heated. The test bundle cross-section as well as a heater element with the measuring elevations, the original-KWU-spacers and the axial power profile (7 power steps) are described. Downcomer: The downcomer is simulated by the downcomer nozzle region and the downcomer U-tube. The cold leg injection takes place both directly in the downcomer nozzle region and in the lines of t he intact single and double loop near to the downcomer nozzle region. A cylindrical insertion and repulsing metal sheets are installed in the downcomer nozzle region in order to avoid the emergency injection points into the broken loop. 2 - Description of test: Test K 9 out of a series PKL-IB was conducted on May 30, 1979 by Kraftwerk Union (KWU) at Erlangen (Germany). The objective of the integral cold leg injection test K 9 (double-ended 200%-break) was to investigate after a LOCA the refill and

  12. Effectiveness of India ink as a long-term colonic mucosal marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennerty, M B; Sampliner, R E; Hixson, L J; Garewal, H S

    1992-01-01

    We prospectively studied the use of India ink as a long-term or "permanent" mucosal marker as part of a study investigating the natural history of diminutive distal colorectal polyps. Twenty-six patients had 32 India ink tatoos implanted. The tatoo sites of the 19 patients who were followed at least 6 months continued to display intensely stained mucosa at the original sites. No side effects or complications were encountered. India ink appears to be a safe and effective long-term marker for colonic mucosal lesions.

  13. Relationship between medication beliefs, self-reported and refill adherence, and symptoms in patients with asthma using inhaled corticosteroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Steenis MNA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available MNA Van Steenis,1 JA Driesenaar,2 JM Bensing,2,3 R Van Hulten,4 PC Souverein,4 L Van Dijk,2,4 PAGM De Smet,5 AM Van Dulmen2,6,71Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands; 2NIVEL (Netherlands institute for health services research, Utrecht, The Netherlands; 3Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands; 4Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Clinical Pharmacology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands; 5IQ Healthcare, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; 6Department of Primary and Community Care, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; 7Department of Health Sciences, Buskerud University College, Drammen, NorwayBackground: Beliefs play a crucial role in medication adherence. Interestingly, the relationship between beliefs and adherence varies when different adherence measures are used. How adherence, in turn, is related to asthma symptoms is still unclear. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between beliefs (ie, necessities and concerns about inhaled corticosteroids (ICS and subjectively as well as objectively measure adherence and the agreement between these measures. Further, the relationship between adherence and asthma symptoms was examined.Methods: A total of 280 patients aged 18–80 years who filled at least two ICS prescriptions in the preceding year were recruited to complete a questionnaire. The questionnaire included the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire to assess necessity beliefs and concerns about ICS, four questions about ICS use to measure self-reported adherence, and the Asthma Control Questionnaire to assess asthma symptoms. Proportion of days covered was used to determine pharmacy refill adherence.Results: Data from 93 patients with asthma were analyzed. Necessities were positively related to self-reported adherence (P = 0.01. No other

  14. Pharmacy refill adherence compared with CD4 count changes for monitoring HIV-infected adults on antiretroviral therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory P Bisson

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available World Health Organization (WHO guidelines for monitoring HIV-infected individuals taking combination antiretroviral therapy (cART in resource-limited settings recommend using CD4(+ T cell (CD4 count changes to monitor treatment effectiveness. In practice, however, falling CD4 counts are a consequence, rather than a cause, of virologic failure. Adherence lapses precede virologic failure and, unlike CD4 counts, data on adherence are immediately available to all clinics dispensing cART. However, the accuracy of adherence assessments for predicting future or detecting current virologic failure has not been determined. The goal of this study therefore was to determine the accuracy of adherence assessments for predicting and detecting virologic failure and to compare the accuracy of adherence-based monitoring approaches with approaches monitoring CD4 count changes.We conducted an observational cohort study among 1,982 of 4,984 (40% HIV-infected adults initiating non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based cART in the Aid for AIDS Disease Management Program, which serves nine countries in southern Africa. Pharmacy refill adherence was calculated as the number of months of cART claims submitted divided by the number of complete months between cART initiation and the last refill prior to the endpoint of interest, expressed as a percentage. The main outcome measure was virologic failure defined as a viral load > 1,000 copies/ml (1 at an initial assessment either 6 or 12 mo after cART initiation and (2 after a previous undetectable (i.e., 0.5. In addition, adherence levels assessed 3 mo prior to viral load assessments were as accurate for virologic failure occurring approximately 3 mo later as were CD4 count changes calculated from cART initiation to the actual time of the viral load assessments, indicating the potential utility of adherence assessments for predicting future, rather than simply detecting current, virologic failure. Moreover

  15. Coagulation measurement from whole blood using vibrating optical fiber in a disposable cartridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaraş, Yusuf Samet; Gündüz, Ali Bars; Sağlam, Gökhan; Ölçer, Selim; Civitçi, Fehmi; Baris, İbrahim; Yaralioğlu, Göksenin; Urey, Hakan

    2017-11-01

    In clinics, blood coagulation time measurements are performed using mechanical measurements with blood plasma. Such measurements are challenging to do in a lab-on-a-chip (LoC) system using a small volume of whole blood. Existing LoC systems use indirect measurement principles employing optical or electrochemical methods. We developed an LoC system using mechanical measurements with a small volume of whole blood without requiring sample preparation. The measurement is performed in a microfluidic channel where two fibers are placed inline with a small gap in between. The first fiber operates near its mechanical resonance using remote magnetic actuation and immersed in the sample. The second fiber is a pick-up fiber acting as an optical sensor. The microfluidic channel is engineered innovatively such that the blood does not block the gap between the vibrating fiber and the pick-up fiber, resulting in high signal-to-noise ratio optical output. The control plasma test results matched well with the plasma manufacturer's datasheet. Activated-partial-thromboplastin-time tests were successfully performed also with human whole blood samples, and the method is proven to be effective. Simplicity of the cartridge design and cost of readily available materials enable a low-cost point-of-care device for blood coagulation measurements. (2017) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  16. Unsuitability of using the DNPH-coated solid sorbent cartridge for determination of airborne unsaturated carbonyls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Ho, K. F.; Liu, W. D.; Lee, S. C.; Dai, W. T.; Cao, J. J.; Ip, H. S. S.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of aldehydes and ketones are typically conducted by derivatization using sorbent cartridges coated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH). The collected samples are eluted with acetonitrile and analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled with an ultra-violet detector (HPLC/UV). This paper intends to examine artifacts about its suitability in identification of unsaturated carbonyls. Kinetic tests for acrolein, crotonaldehyde, methacrolein and methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) showed formations of carbonyl-DNP-hydrazone during sampling, which could further react with DNPH, resulting in undesired UV absorption products [e.g., carbonyl-DNP-hydrazone-DNPH (dimer) and 2(carbonyl-DNP-hydrazone)-DNPH (trimer)]. The dimerization and trimerization occurred for acrolein and MVK whereas only dimerization for crotonaldehyde and methacrolein. The polymerization products undoubtedly affect the integrity of the chromatogram, leading to misidentification and inaccurate quantification. Whether precautions taken during sampling and/or sample treatment could avoid or minimize this artifact has not been thoughtfully investigated. More often, such artifacts are usually overlooked by scientists when the data are reported.

  17. Double versus single cartridge of 4% articaine infiltration into the retro-molar area for lower third molar surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawang, Kamonpun; Chaiyasamut, Teeranut; Kiattavornchareon, Sirichai; Pairuchvej, Verasak; Bhattarai, Bishwa Prakash; Wongsirichat, Natthamet

    2017-06-01

    There are no studies regarding 4% articaine infiltration injection into the retro-molar area for an impacted lower third molar (LITM) surgery. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of infiltration using 1.7 ml (single cartridge: SC) of 4% articaine versus 3.4 ml (double cartridges: DC) of 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine in LITM surgery. This study involved 30 healthy patients with symmetrical LITM. The patients were assigned to receive either a DC or SC of 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine as a local anesthetic for each operation. Onset, duration, profoundness, need for additional anesthetic administration, total volume of anesthetic used, vitality of the tooth, and pain score during operation were recorded. The DC of 4 % articaine had a significantly higher success rate (83.3%) than did the SC (53.3%; P molar region can be an alternative anesthetic for LITM surgery.

  18. The security management of spent filter cartridge in Qinshan phase 3 (heavy water reactor) nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Dahai

    2005-01-01

    Qinshan phase 3 nuclear power plant is the first CANDU plant that China fetched in from Canada, and both two units operate under well condition up to now. The radioactive wastes produced during the unit operation mainly include technical waste, spent resin, and spent filter cartridge. The spent filter cartridge is one important part both in the volume and radioactivity of the radioactive waste, and it is the important content of radioactive waste management. Different from PWR, part of high radioactive spent filter in CANDU unit comes from heavy water system such as moderator system. It has to be dried through blowing before replaced from the system. But this working procedure result the filtrate dreg become flexible, and it can bring on the risk of internal or external exposure. It is very important to pay high attention to control the contamination spread during spent filter inside transfer. (authors)

  19. Characteristics of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) nanoparticle ink-coated layers recycled from ITO scraps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Seung-Jae; Hong, Sung-Jei; Lee, Jae Yong

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates the characteristics of an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) ink layer that includes nanoparticles synthesized from ITO target scraps. The particle size of the ITO nanoparticle was less than 15 nm, and the crystal structure was cubic with a (222) preferred orientation. Also, the composition ratio of In to Sn was 92.7 to 7.3 in weight. The ITO nanoparticles were well dispersed in the ink solvent to formulate a 20-wt% ITO nanoparticle ink. Furthermore, the ITO nanoparticle ink was coated onto a glass substrate, followed by heat-treatment at 600 °C. The layer showed good sheet resistances below 400 Ω/□ and optical transmittances higher than 88% at 550 nm. Thus, we can conclude that the characteristics of the layer make it highly applicable to a transparent conductive electrode.

  20. Methodology and technological aspects of the flexible substrate preparation for ink-jet printing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarapata, Grzegorz; Marzecki, Michał

    2013-10-01

    The ink-jet printing technology becomes especially promising for wide volume of production of cheap sensors, consumable electronics and other dedicated applications of everyday life like smart packaging, smart textiles, smart labels, etc. To achieve this goal new materials compatible with ink-jet printing should be developed. Currently on the market there is a growing number of inks with different properties, but their use requires many tests related to its printability and their interaction with other materials. The paper presents technological problems that are encountered by people associated with fabrication of various devices with using of inkjet printing techniques. Results presented in the paper show the influence of surface preparation techniques on the quality of achieved shapes, the impact of other materials already deposited and the impact of another external factors. During carried out experiments the printer Dimatix DMP 2831 and several inks base on nanosilver or dielectric UV curable was used.

  1. Colored inks analysis and differentiation: A first step in artistic contemporary prints discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vila, Anna; Ferrer, Nuria; Garcia, Jose F.

    2007-01-01

    Prints are the most popular artistic technique. Due to their manufacturing procedure, they are also one of the most frequently falsified types of artwork. In terms of their economic and historic value, the chemical analysis and characterisation of coloured inks and their principal constituent materials (pigments), together with the historical and aesthetic information available in the Catalogues Raisonees, are important tools in distinguishing originals from non-original prints. The chemical characterisation and discrimination of coloured inks has test in this study. Analysis using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) has been done on blue pigments and inks, due to this colour is one of the most representative for the presence of organic and inorganic materials in their composition. Conclusion obtained for this colour would demonstrate the capability of the approach when it is applied to any other coloured set of inks

  2. Ink jet assisted metallization for low cost flat plate solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, K. F.; Vest, R. W.

    1987-01-01

    Computer-controlled ink-jet-assisted metallization of the front surface of solar cells with metalorganic silver inks offers a maskless alternative method to conventional photolithography and screen printing. This method can provide low cost, fine resolution, reduced process complexity, avoidance of degradation of the p-n junction by firing at lower temperature, and uniform line film on rough surface of solar cells. The metallization process involves belt furnace firing and thermal spiking. With multilayer ink jet printing and firing, solar cells of about 5-6 percent efficiency without antireflection (AR) coating can be produced. With a titanium thin-film underlayer as an adhesion promoter, solar cells of average efficiency 8.08 percent without AR coating can be obtained. This efficiency value is approximately equal to that of thin-film solar cells of the same lot. Problems with regard to lower inorganic content of the inks and contact resistance are noted.

  3. A facile approach to a silver conductive ink with high performance for macroelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yu; Tao, Yuxiao; Wang, Biaobing; Wang, Liuyang; Tai, Yanlong

    2013-06-01

    An unusual kind of transparent and high-efficiency organic silver conductive ink (OSC ink) was synthesized with silver acetate as silver carrier, ethanolamine as additive, and different kinds of aldehyde-based materials as reduction agents and was characterized by using a thermogravimetric analyzer, X-ray diffraction, a scanning electron microscope, and a four-point probe. The results show that different reduction agents all have an important influence on the conductive properties of the ink through a series of complex chemical reactions, and especially when formic acid or dimethylformamide was used as the reduction agent and sintered at 120°C for 30 s, the resistivity can be lowered to 6 to 9 μΩ·cm. Furthermore, formula mechanism, conductive properties, temperature, and dynamic fatigue properties were investigated systematically, and the feasibility of the OSC ink was also verified through the preparation of an antenna pattern.

  4. Digital holographic inspection for drying processes of paint films and ink dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, M.; Aoyama, F.

    2017-06-01

    Digital holographic techniques to investigate drying processes of both paint films and ink dot is presented. The proposed technique based on digital holographic interferometry can achieve both visualization of variations and analysis of dryness of paint films in the drying process by using phase changes between two subsequent reconstructed complex amplitudes of the reflected light from the film. To follow the drying processes, holograms are recorded at a constant time interval. Phase-shifting digital holography has been applied to analyze the dryness of commercial paints applied on the metal plate. For analysis of an ink dot having diameter of a few hundred micrometers, digital holographic microscopy is applied to evaluating the time history of dryness of ink dot in the drying process. This paper describes these holographic techniques applied to the commercially available paint and ink and presents some experimental results.

  5. Discrimination of Black Ball-point Pen Inks by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed Izzharif Abdul Halim; Norashikin Saim; Rozita Osman; Halila Jasmani; Nurul Nadhirah Zainal Abidin

    2013-01-01

    In this study, thirteen types of black ball-point pen inks of three major brands were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Separation of the ink components was achieved using Bondapak C-18 column with gradient elution using water, ethanol and ethyl acetate. The chromatographic data obtained at wavelength 254.8 nm was analyzed using agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC) and principle component analysis (PCA). AHC was able to group the inks into three clusters. This result was supported by PCA, whereby distinct separation of the three different brands was achieved. Therefore, HPLC in combination with chemometric methods may be a valuable tool for the analysis of black ball-point pen inks for forensic purposes. (author)

  6. A fully printed ferrite nano-particle ink based tunable antenna

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffar, Farhan A.

    2016-11-02

    Inkjet printing or printing in general has emerged as a very attractive method for the fabrication of low cost and large size electronic systems. However, most of the printed designs rely on nano-particle based metallic inks which are printed on conventional microwave substrates. In order to have a fully printed fabrication process, the substrate also need to be printed. In this paper, a fully printed multi-layer process utilizing custom Fe2O3 based magnetic ink and a silver organic complex (SOC) ink is demonstrated for tunable antennas applications. The ink has been characterized for high frequency and magnetostatic properties. Finally as a proof of concept, a microstrip patch antenna is realized using the proposed fabrication technique which shows a tuning range of 12.5 %.

  7. Effect of BaTiO3 Nanopowder Concentration on Rheological Behaviour of Ceramic Inkjet Inks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrpal, R.; Dulina, I.; Ragulya, A.

    2015-04-01

    The relationship between rheological properties of ceramic inkjet inks based on BaTiO3 nanopowder and solid phase concentration has been investigated. In the ink volume takes place the formation periodic colloidal structures (PCS). The determining factor of structure formation is powder-dispersant ratio. Structural constitution of in the system with the low pigment concentration represented as PCS2, that contains solid particles in deflocculated that stabilized by the presence of adsorption-solvate layers. Dilatant structure formation for such inks explained by constrained conditions of the interaction. Samples with high BaTiO3 concentration have been classified as PKS1. Dilatant properties of the PKS1 resulted in particles rearrangement under the influence of the flow. In the region of some values powder-dispersant ratio take place conversation PKS2 to PKS1 and ink structure transformation from monodisperse to aggregate state.

  8. Colored inks analysis and differentiation: A first step in artistic contemporary prints discrimination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vila, Anna [Department de Pintura, Conservacio-Restauracio, Facultat de Belles Arts, Universitat de Barcelona, C/Pau Gargallo 4, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: avila@sct.ub.es; Ferrer, Nuria [Serveis Cientificotecnics, Universitat de Barcelona, C/Lluis Sole i Sabaris 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: nferrer@sctub.es; Garcia, Jose F. [Department de Pintura, Conservacio-Restauracio, Facultat de Belles Arts, Universitat de Barcelona, C/Pau Gargallo 4, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: ifgarcia@ub.edu

    2007-04-04

    Prints are the most popular artistic technique. Due to their manufacturing procedure, they are also one of the most frequently falsified types of artwork. In terms of their economic and historic value, the chemical analysis and characterisation of coloured inks and their principal constituent materials (pigments), together with the historical and aesthetic information available in the Catalogues Raisonees, are important tools in distinguishing originals from non-original prints. The chemical characterisation and discrimination of coloured inks has test in this study. Analysis using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) has been done on blue pigments and inks, due to this colour is one of the most representative for the presence of organic and inorganic materials in their composition. Conclusion obtained for this colour would demonstrate the capability of the approach when it is applied to any other coloured set of inks.

  9. Randomized Comparison of Two Vaginal Self-Sampling Methods for Human Papillomavirus Detection: Dry Swab versus FTA Cartridge

    OpenAIRE

    Catarino, Rosa; Vassilakos, Pierre; Bilancioni, Aline; Vanden Eynde, Mathieu; Meyer-Hamme, Ulrike; Menoud, Pierre-Alain; Guerry, Fr?d?ric; Petignat, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) self-sampling (self-HPV) is valuable in cervical cancer screening. HPV testing is usually performed on physician-collected cervical smears stored in liquid-based medium. Dry filters and swabs are an alternative. We evaluated the adequacy of self-HPV using two dry storage and transport devices, the FTA cartridge and swab. Methods A total of 130 women performed two consecutive self-HPV samples. Randomization determined which of the two tests was performed f...

  10. Development and Preliminary Assessment of Hemoperfusion Cartridge with Tannic Acid for Toxic Proteins' Precipitation: An In Vitro Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valquíria Miwa Hanai Yoshida

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Charcoal hemoperfusion (CHP is one of the extracorporeal removal techniques that are used to remove toxins from the body. CHP generally is considered the preferred method for extracorporeal extraction of several toxins—toxins that are adsorbed by activated charcoal. Assessments of the tannic acid's protective effects on ophidian poisoning are associated with the toxic proteins' precipitation by tannic acid. The challenge in treating a snakebite lies in removing the injected poison with minimal damage to blood constituent proteins. An alternative is CHP, and this investigation proposed to develop a column for hemoperfuser cartridge, combining charcoal granules trapped between layers of polymeric material conjugated to tannic acid, using an in vitro model scaled to the Wistar rat, which can be tested in an animal model. The cartridge was evaluated using the 22 full factorial design, in duplicate, as a method to study the effects of granulated-charcoal size and tannic acid concentration on the hematologic profile (platelet and leukocyte counts and biochemical profile (total serum protein and albumin dosages of sheep blood. The results demonstrate that charcoal in hemoperfuser cartridge: (1 decreases the serum in sheep blood volume, as consequence, (2 increases the serum proteins' concentration, and (iii exerts slight influence on albumin. The inclusion of tannic acid in hemoperfuser column precipitates some of serum proteins and albumin, decreasing their concentrations in the plasma serum. In conclusion, based on these effects we can suggest the use of 0.02 g tannic acid concentration and 8–20 mesh granulated charcoal in hemoperfuser cartridge for precipitating toxic proteins from snake venoms.

  11. Therapeutic Significance of Loligo vulgaris (Lamarck, 1798) ink Extract: A Biomedical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadarajah, Sri Kumaran; Vijayaraj, Radha; Mani, Jayaprakashvel

    2017-01-01

    Background: The squid ink extract is well known for its biomedical properties. Objective: In this study, squid Loligo vulgaris was collected from Tuticorin costal water, Bay of Bengal, India. Materials and Methods: Proximate composition of the crude squid ink was studied and found to have protein as the major component over lipid and carbohydrates. Further, bioactive fractions of squid ink were extracted with ethanol, and therapeutic applications such as hemolytic, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and in vitro anti-inflammatory properties were analyzed using standard methods. Results: In hemolytic assay, the squid ink extract exhibited a maximum hemolytic activity of 128 hemolytic unit against tested erythrocytes. In DPPH assay, the ethanolic extract of squid ink has exhibited an antioxidant activity of 83.5%. The squid ink was found to be potent antibacterial agent against the pathogens tested. 200 μL of L. vulgaris ink extract showed remarkable antibacterial activity as zone of inhibition against Escherichia coli (28 mm), Klebsiella pneumoniae (22 mm), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (21 mm), and Staphylococcus aureus (24 mm). The 68.9% inhibition of protein denaturation by the squid ink extract indicated that it has very good in vitro anti-inflammatory properties. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis of the ethanolic extracts of the squid ink indicated the presence of functional groups such as 1° and 2° amines, amides, alkynes (terminal), alkenes, aldehydes, nitriles, alkanes, aliphatic amines, carboxylic acids, and alkyl halides, which complements the biochemical background of therapeutic applications. Conclusion: Hence, results of this study concluded that the ethanolic extract of L. vulgaris has many therapeutic applications such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. SUMMARY Squid ink is very high in a number of important nutrients. It’s particularly high in antioxidants for instance, which as well all know help to protect

  12. Influence Factors Regarding the Effectiveness of Automated Ballistic Comparison on 0.38 Special Caliber Bullets and Cartridge Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Lehi Sudy; Vieira Muterlle, Palloma

    2018-03-01

    Factors influencing effectiveness of automated comparisons, test-fired bullets, and cartridge cases from 0.38 Special revolvers were logged into the Evofinder ® Ballistic ID System. Tests were performed as follows: First test correlated test-fires of the same type, second test compared different types of ammunition components, third test replicated the second test in a larger database, and fourth test replicated the third test with students having no previous firearm identification experience. System effectiveness with projectiles in the first test was 0.89. With cartridge cases, effectiveness was 0.79 with combined results, but analysis of separate results by breech face and firing pin revealed low effectiveness by breech face (0.40). In the second, third, and fourth tests, effectiveness with projectiles were 0.61, 0.51, and 0.44. In addition, these tests had effectiveness with cartridge cases equivalent to 0.55, 0.43, and 0.44. Results are useful to establish routine protocols, system improvements, or comparative assessment of other electronic systems. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  13. A patterned abrasion caused by the impact of a cartridge case may simulate an atypical muzzle imprint mark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Lena; Nadjem, Hadi; Glardon, Matthieu; Kneubuehl, Beat P; Pollak, Stefan; Große Perdekamp, Markus; Pircher, Rebecca

    2016-05-01

    In contact shots, the muzzle imprint is an informative finding associated with the entrance wound. It typically mirrors the constructional components being in line with the muzzle or just behind. Under special conditions, other patterned skin marks located near a gunshot entrance wound may give the impression to be part of the muzzle imprint. A potential mechanism causing a patterned pressure abrasion in close proximity to the bullet entrance site is demonstrated on the basis of a suicidal shot to the temple. The skin lesion in question appeared as a ring-shaped excoriation with a diameter corresponding to that of the cartridge case. Two hypotheses concerning the causative mechanism were investigated by test shots: - After being ejected, the cartridge case ricocheted inside a confined space (car cabin in the particular case) and secondarily hit the skin near the gunshot entrance wound. - The ejection of the cartridge case failed so that the case became stuck in the ejection port and its mouth contacted the skin when the body collapsed after being hit.

  14. Agreement for HPV genotyping detection between self-collected specimens on a FTA cartridge and clinician-collected specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yaoyao; Gravitt, Patti E; Howard, Roslyn; Eby, Yolanda J; Wang, Shaoming; Li, Belinda; Feng, Changyan; Qiao, You-Lin; Castle, Philip E

    2013-04-01

    The current method of transporting self-collected cervicovaginal specimen for HPV DNA testing relies on liquid based medium, which is challenging and expensive to transport. A novel, dry storage and transportation device, Whatman indicating FTA™ Elute Cartridge, avoids some of the pitfalls of liquid-based medium. This method has been shown to be comparable to liquid-based collection medium, but relative performance of self-collected (SC) and clinician-collected (CC) samples onto FTA cards has not been reported. The objective of this study is to compare the analytic performance of self- and clinician-collected samples onto FTA cartridges for the detection of carcinogenic HPV using Linear Array. There was a 91% agreement, 69% positive agreement, and kappa of 0.75 between the clinician-collected and self-collected specimens for detection of any carcinogenic HPV genotype. When the HPV results were categorized hierarchically according to cervical cancer risk, there was no difference in the distribution of the HPV results for the clinician- and self-collected specimens (p=0.7). This study concludes that FTA elute cartridge is a promising method of specimen transport for cervical cancer screening programs considering using self-collected specimen and HPV testing. Larger studies with clinical endpoints are now needed to assess the clinical performance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of the water filters cartridges from the iea-r1 reactor using the Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Priscila; Potiens Junior, Ademar J.

    2015-01-01

    Filter cartridges are part of the primary water treatment system of the IEA-R1 Research Reactor and, when saturated, they are replaced and become radioactive waste. The IEA-R1 is located at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN), in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The primary characterization is the main step of the radioactive waste management in which the physical, chemical and radiological properties are determined. It is a very important step because the information obtained in this moment enables the choice of the appropriate management process and the definition of final disposal options. In this paper, it is presented a non-destructive method for primary characterization, using the Monte Carlo method associated with the gamma spectrometry. Gamma spectrometry allows the identification of radionuclides and their activity values. The detection efficiency is an important parameter, which is related to the photon energy, detector geometry and the matrix of the sample to be analyzed. Due to the difficult to obtain a standard source with the same geometry of the filter cartridge, another technique is necessary to calibrate the detector. The technique described in this paper uses the Monte Carlo method for primary characterization of the IEA-R1 filter cartridges. (author)

  16. Agreement for HPV genotyping detection between self-collected specimens on a FTA cartridge and clinician-collected specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, YaoYao; Gravitt, Patti E.; Howard, Roslyn; Eby, Yolanda J.; Wang, Shaoming; Li, Belinda; Feng, Changyan; Qiao, You-Lin; Castle, Philip E.

    2016-01-01

    The current method of transporting self-collected cervicovaginal specimen for HPV DNA testing relies on liquid based medium, which is challenging and expensive to transport. A novel, dry storage and transportation device, Whatman indicating FTA™ Elute Cartridge, avoids some of the pitfalls of liquid-based medium. This method has been shown to be comparable to liquid-based collection medium, but relative performance of self-collected (SC) and clinician-collected (CC) samples onto FTA cards has not been reported. The objective of this study is to compare the analytic performance of self- and clinician-collected samples onto FTA cartridges for the detection of carcinogenic HPV using Linear Array. There was a 91% agreement, 69% positive agreement, and kappa of 0.75 between the clinician-collected and self-collected specimens for detection of any carcinogenic HPV genotype. When the HPV results were categorized hierarchically according to cervical cancer risk, there was no difference in the distribution of the HPV results for the clinician- and self-collected specimens (p = 0.7). This study concludes that FTA elute cartridge is a promising method of specimen transport for cervical cancer screening programs considering using self-collected specimen and HPV testing. Larger studies with clinical endpoints are now needed to assess the clinical performance. PMID:23370404

  17. Integration of an Optical Ring Resonator Biosensor into a Self-Contained Microfluidic Cartridge with Active, Single-Shot Micropumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Geidel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available While there have been huge advances in the field of biosensors during the last decade, their integration into a microfluidic environment avoiding external tubing and pumping is still neglected. Herein, we show a new microfluidic design that integrates multiple reservoirs for reagent storage and single-use electrochemical pumps for time-controlled delivery of the liquids. The cartridge has been tested and validated with a silicon nitride-based photonic biosensor incorporating multiple optical ring resonators as sensing elements and an immunoassay as a potential target application. Based on experimental results obtained with a demonstration model, subcomponents were designed and existing protocols were adapted. The newly-designed microfluidic cartridges and photonic sensors were separately characterized on a technical basis and performed well. Afterwards, the sensor was functionalized for a protein detection. The microfluidic cartridge was loaded with the necessary assay reagents. The integrated pumps were programmed to drive the single process steps of an immunoassay. The prototype worked selectively, but only with a low sensitivity. Further work must be carried out to optimize biofunctionalization of the optical ring resonators and to have a more suitable flow velocity progression to enhance the system’s reproducibility.

  18. Thermal Analysis of Braille Formed by Using Screen Printing and Inks with Thermo Powder

    OpenAIRE

    Svіtlana HAVENKO; Victoria KOCHUBEI; Marta LABETSKA; Svitlana KHADZHYNOVA; Edmundas KIBIRKŠTIS; Ingrida Venytė

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve the integration of blind people into society, suitable conditions should be provided for them. The expansion of Braille (BR) use could serve the purpose. Depending on the materials used for Braille, it can be formed or printed in different ways: embossing, screen printing, thermoforming, digital printing. The aim of this research is to determine the effect of thermal properties of screen printing inks and inks with thermo-powder on the qualitative parameters of Braille. Sc...

  19. Biomimetic Inks Based on Cellulose Nanofibrils and Cross-Linkable Xylans for 3D Printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markstedt, Kajsa; Escalante, Alfredo; Toriz, Guillermo; Gatenholm, Paul

    2017-11-22

    This paper presents a sustainable all-wood-based ink which can be used for 3D printing of constructs for a large variety of applications such as clothes, furniture, electronics, and health care products with a customized design and versatile gel properties. The 3D printing technologies where the material is dispensed in the form of liquids, so called inks, have proven suitable for 3D printing dispersions of cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) because of their unique shear thinning properties. In this study, novel inks were developed with a biomimetic approach where the structural properties of cellulose and the cross-linking function of hemicelluloses that are found in the plant cell wall were utilized. The CNF was mixed with xylan, a hemicellulose extracted from spruce, to introduce cross-linking properties which are essential for the final stability of the printed ink. For xylan to be cross-linkable, it was functionalized with tyramine at different degrees. Evaluation of different ink compositions by rheology measurements and 3D printing tests showed that the degree of tyramine substitution and the ratio of CNFs to xylan-tyramine in the prepared inks influenced the printability and cross-linking density. Both two-layered gridded structures and more complex 3D constructs were printed. Similarly to conventional composites, the interactions between the components and their miscibility are important for the stability of the printed and cross-linked ink. Thus, the influence of tyramine on the adsorption of xylan to cellulose was studied with a quartz crystal microbalance to verify that the functionalization had little influence on xylan's adsorption to cellulose. Utilizing xylan-tyramine in the CNF dispersions resulted in all-wood-based inks which after 3D printing can be cross-linked to form freestanding gels while at the same time, the excellent printing properties of CNFs remain intact.

  20. Effect of temperature on electrical conductance of inkjet-printed silver nanoparticle ink during continuous wave laser sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dae-Geon; Kim, Dong Keun; Moon, Yoon-Jae; Moon, Seung-Jae

    2013-01-01

    To determine the effect of temperature on the specific electrical conductance of inkjet-printed ink during continuous wave laser sintering, the temperature of the sintered ink was estimated. The ink, which contained 34 wt.% silver nanoparticles with an average size of approximately 50 nm, was inkjet-printed onto a liquid crystal display glass substrate. The printed ink was irradiated with a 532 nm continuous wave laser for 60 s with various laser intensities. During laser irradiation, the in-situ electrical conductance of the sintered ink was measured to estimate the transient thermal conductivity of the ink. The electrical conductance and thermal conductivity of the ink was coupled to obtain the transient temperature by applying the Wiedemann–Franz law to a two-dimensional transient heat conduction equation. The electrical conductance of laser-sintered ink was highly dependent on the sintering temperature of the ink. - Highlights: • The in-situ electrical conductance was measured during the laser sintering process. • Wiedemann–Franz law coupled the electrical conductance with transient temperature. • The transient temperature of the laser-sintered Ag nanoparticle ink was estimated

  1. Ultrastructural Comparison of Processing of Protein and Pigment in the Ink Gland of Four Species of Sea Hares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S. Prince

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The ink glands of four sea hare species (Aplysia californica, A. parvula, A. juliana, and Dolabrifera dolabrifera were compared to determine where ink protein is synthesized, how it is incorporated into protein storage vesicles, and the degree of variation in the structure of the ink gland. Ink protein was synthesized in RER cells and stored in amber and white vesicles. Lack of competent RER cells in the ink gland of D. dolabrifera was correlated with the absence of ink protein. Ink protein had similar characteristics in all three Aplysia species but, again, it was absent in D. dolabrifera. Its uptake involved pinocytosis by protein vesicle cell membranes. Granulate cells showed little variation in structure among the four species, the opposite was the case for RER cells. The conversion of the red algal pigment, phycoerythrin, to phycoerythrobilin (PEB occurs in the digestive gland but the change of PEB to aplysioviolin (APV, the form of pigment released by the ink gland, occurs in the ink gland itself by both granulate cells and pigment vesicles. The literature describes five types of vesicles based upon color and contents in the ink gland of these four species. We report only three types of vesicle: colored (purple, protein (white and amber, and transparent (includes clear vesicles.

  2. Domestic Preparedness: Phase 2 Sarin Vapor Challenge and Corn Oil Protection Factor (PF) Testing of Commercial Powered Air Purifying Respirator (PAPR) Systems and Cartridges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Campbell, Lee E; Lins, Ray; Pappas, Alex G

    2002-01-01

    .... Results indicate that cartridges provide complete penetration resistance against 200 mg/m3 GB challenge concentrations for 60 minutes, but that unacceptably high levels of GB vapor and corn oil...

  3. Combining cationic and anionic mixed-mode sorbents in a single cartridge to extract basic and acidic pharmaceuticals simultaneously from environmental waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Daniela; Borrull, Francesc; Fontanals, Núria; Marcé, Rosa Maria

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to broaden the applications of mixed-mode ion-exchange solid-phase extraction sorbents to extract both basic and acidic compounds simultaneously by combining the sorbents in a single cartridge and developing a simplified extraction procedure. Four different cartridges containing negative and positive charges in the same configuration were evaluated and compared to extract a group of basic, neutral, and acidic pharmaceuticals selected as model compounds. After a thorough optimization of the extraction conditions, the four different cartridges showed to be capable of retaining basic and acidic pharmaceuticals simultaneously through ionic interactions, allowing the introduction of a washing step with 15 mL methanol to eliminate interferences retained by hydrophobic interactions. Using the best combined cartridge, a method was developed, validated, and further applied to environmental waters to demonstrate that the method is promising for the extraction of basic and acidic compounds from very complex samples.

  4. Anti-osteoporotic therapy in Denmark-predictors and demographics of poor refill compliance and poor persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C; Pedersen, Birthe D.; Konradsen, H

    2013-01-01

    In this study of 100,949 new users of oral bisphosphonates age ≥35 years, "early quitters" were found to differ from others with poor refill compliance in terms of socioeconomic, demographic, and treatment-related characteristics. New risk factors for poor compliance and persistence were identified...... quitters" were associated with high household income, subjects' age 71.9-79 years, living in the countryside or village, prior treatment with analgesics and anti-parkinson drugs, and dementia. Differences concerning decreased risk of "early quitters" were associated with male, living in an apartment......, children living at home, living close to a university hospital, anti-osteoporotic therapy other than alendronate, number of drugs especially above three, pulmonary disease, collagen disease. CONCLUSION: The results suggest a need for improved support for patients to facilitate the interpretation...

  5. Texture Development and Material Flow Behavior During Refill Friction Stir Spot Welding of AlMgSc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Junjun; Lage, Sara B. M.; Suhuddin, Uceu F. H.; Bolfarini, Claudemiro; dos Santos, Jorge F.

    2018-01-01

    The microstructural evolution during refill friction stir spot welding of an AlMgSc alloy was studied. The primary texture that developed in all regions, with the exception of the weld center, was determined to be 〈110〉 fibers and interpreted as a simple shear texture with the 〈110〉 direction aligned with the shear direction. The material flow is mainly driven by two components: the simple shear acting on the horizontal plane causing an inward-directed spiral flow and the extrusion acting on the vertical plane causing an upward-directed or downward-directed flow. Under such a complex material flow, the weld center, which is subjected to minimal local strain, is the least recrystallized. In addition to the geometric effects of strain and grain subdivision, thermally activated high-angle grain boundary migration, particularly continuous dynamic recrystallization, drives the formation of refined grains in the stirred zone.

  6. Radiative transfer analysis of the effect of ink dot area on color phase in inkjet printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonome, Hiroki; Ishikawa, Yuki; Kono, Takahiro; Yamada, Jun

    2017-01-01

    This study discusses a mechanism of inkjet printing and investigates the effect of ink contrast on the color phase of the printed object. Inkjet printing is a popular printing method for home use, but its color repeatability is occasionally broken. To verify this problem, we calculated the radiative transfer equation on the surface of an object printed by an inkjet printer, and the color was quantitatively estimated. The ink dot area and spectral reflectance of the printed samples were measured. Furthermore, the spectral reflectance of the objects printed with different dot areas were theoretically calculated. By comparing the measured and calculated reflectance, we estimated the scattering coefficient of the paper and absorption coefficient of the ink. We quantitatively calculated the color with the HSV color system. The hue changed with dot area rate. It is considered that this is caused by the broad range of the spectral absorption coefficients of inks. We believe that this study will aid the development of ink without color change and improve the color repeatability of inkjet printers. - Highlights: • Radiative transfer on the surface of an object printed by an inkjet printer is modeled. • Spectral reflectance of the printed samples are measured and calculated. • The hue changes with dot area rate because of the broad range of the spectral absorption coefficients of inks.

  7. Forensic analysis of ballpoint pen inks using paper spray mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Ferreira, Priscila; Fernandes de Abreu e Silva, Débora; Augusti, Rodinei; Piccin, Evandro

    2015-02-07

    A novel analytical approach based on paper spray mass spectrometry (PS-MS) is developed for a fast and effective forensic analysis of inks in documents. Ink writings made in ordinary paper with blue ballpoint pens were directly analyzed under ambient conditions without any prior sample preparation. Firstly, the method was explored on a set of distinct pens and the results obtained in the positive ion mode, PS(+)-MS, demonstrated that pens from different brands provide typical profiles. Simple visual inspection of the PS(+)-MS led to the distinction of four different combinations of dyes and additives in the inks. Further discrimination was performed by using the concept of relative ion intensity (RII), owing to the large variability of dyes BV3 and BB26 regarding their demethylated homologues. Following screening and differentiation studies, the composition changes of ink entries subjected to light exposure were also monitored by PS-MS. The results of these tests revealed distinct degradation behaviors which were reflected on the typical chemical profiles of the studied inks, attesting that PS-MS may be also useful to verify the fading of dyes thus allowing the discrimination of entries on a document. As proof of concept experiments, PS-MS was successfully utilized for the analysis of archived documents and characterization of overlapped ink lines made on simulated forged documents.

  8. A New 3D Printing Strategy by Harnessing Deformation, Instability, and Fracture of Viscoelastic Inks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuk, Hyunwoo; Zhao, Xuanhe

    2018-02-01

    Direct ink writing (DIW) has demonstrated great potential as a multimaterial multifunctional fabrication method in areas as diverse as electronics, structural materials, tissue engineering, and soft robotics. During DIW, viscoelastic inks are extruded out of a 3D printer's nozzle as printed fibers, which are deposited into patterns when the nozzle moves. Hence, the resolution of printed fibers is commonly limited by the nozzle's diameter, and the printed pattern is limited by the motion paths. These limits have severely hampered innovations and applications of DIW 3D printing. Here, a new strategy to exceed the limits of DIW 3D printing by harnessing deformation, instability, and fracture of viscoelastic inks is reported. It is shown that a single nozzle can print fibers with resolution much finer than the nozzle diameter by stretching the extruded ink, and print various thickened or curved patterns with straight nozzle motions by accumulating the ink. A quantitative phase diagram is constructed to rationally select parameters for the new strategy. Further, applications including structures with tunable stiffening, 3D structures with gradient and programmable swelling properties, all printed with a single nozzle are demonstrated. The current work demonstrates that the mechanics of inks plays a critical role in developing 3D printing technology. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Sepia ink as a surrogate for colloid transport tests in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Gómez, Diego; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paula; López-Periago, J. Eugenio; Paradelo, Marcos

    2016-08-01

    We examined the suitability of the ink of Sepia officinalis as a surrogate for transport studies of microorganisms and microparticles in porous media. Sepia ink is an organic pigment consisted on a suspension of eumelanin, and that has several advantages for its use as a promising material for introducing the frugal-innovation in the fields of public health and environmental research: very low cost, non-toxic, spherical shape, moderate polydispersivity, size near large viruses, non-anomalous electrokinetic behavior, low retention in the soil, and high stability. Electrokinetic determinations and transport experiments in quartz sand columns and soil columns were done with purified suspensions of sepia ink. Influence of ionic strength on the electrophoretic mobility of ink particles showed the typical behavior of polystyrene latex spheres. Breakthrough curve (BTC) and retention profile (RP) in quartz sand columns showed a depth dependent and blocking adsorption model with an increase in adsorption rates with the ionic strength. Partially saturated transport through undisturbed soil showed less retention than in quartz sand, and matrix exclusion was also observed. Quantification of ink in leachate fractions by light absorbance is direct, but quantification in the soil profile with moderate to high organic matter content was rather cumbersome. We concluded that sepia ink is a suitable cheap surrogate for exploring transport of pathogenic viruses, bacteria and particulate contaminants in groundwater, and could be used for developing frugal-innovation related with the assessment of soil and aquifer filtration function, and monitoring of water filtration systems in low-income regions.

  10. Microstructural and Process Characterization of Conductive Traces Printed from Ag Particulate Inks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric MacDonald

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Conductive inks are key enablers for the use of printing techniques in the fabrication of electronic systems. Focus on the understanding of aspects controlling the electrical performance of conductive ink is paramount. A comparison was made between microparticle Ag inks and an Ag nanoparticle ink. The microstructures resulting from thermal cure processes were characterized morphologically and also in terms of their effect on the resistivity of printed traces. For microparticle inks, the variability of resistivity measurements between samples as defined by coefficient of variation (CV was greater than 0.1 when the resistivity was 10 to 50 times that of bulk Ag. When the resistivity was lower (~1.4 times that of bulk Ag the CV of sample sets was less than 0.1. In the case of the nanoparticle ink, resistivity was found to decrease by a factor ranging from 1.2 to 1.5 after doubling the amount of layers printed prior to curing though it was expected to remain the same. Increasing the amount of layers printed also enhanced the sintering process.

  11. Influence of Gloss and Surface Roughness of Coated Ink Jet Papers on Print Uniformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Jurič

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The final print quality depends on the quality of the digital image as well as the properties of the printing system, the inks and the paper used. One of the most widely used digital printing technologies is ink jet, where ink is ejected directly onto a substrate from a jet device driven by an electronic signal. Most ink jet inks have low viscosity and low surface tension, which pose high demands upon the surface properties of the paper. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of paper properties of commercially available papers suitable for ink jet printing on print mottle, non-uniformity. We used two high glossy, one glossy, one semi-glossy and two matte papers. For the assessment of the surface properties, we measured surface roughness with the portable Roughness Tester TR 200. We also measured surface gloss with QIP Glossmaster. To characterise the print mottle we used the image analysis method – Gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM. Print mottle was estimated according to five GLCM parameters: Contrast, Correlation, Entropy, Energy and Homogeneity. Results obtained in this paper showed that the surface properties of paper are not in any direct relation with print uniformity.

  12. Influence of Soap Characteristics and Food Service Facility Type on the Degree of Bacterial Contamination of Open, Refillable Bulk Soaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffner, Donald W; Jensen, Dane; Gerba, Charles P; Shumaker, David; Arbogast, James W

    2018-02-01

    Concern has been raised regarding the public health risks from refillable bulk-soap dispensers because they provide an environment for potentially pathogenic bacteria to grow. This study surveyed the microbial quality of open refillable bulk soap in four different food establishment types in three states. Two hundred ninety-six samples of bulk soap were collected from food service establishments in Arizona, New Jersey, and Ohio. Samples were tested for total heterotrophic viable bacteria, Pseudomonas, coliforms and Escherichia coli, and Salmonella. Bacteria were screened for antibiotic resistance. The pH, solids content, and water activity of all soap samples were measured. Samples were assayed for the presence of the common antibacterial agents triclosan and parachlorometaxylenol. More than 85% of the soap samples tested contained no detectable microorganisms, but when a sample contained any detectable microorganisms, it was most likely contaminated at a very high level (∼7 log CFU/mL). Microorganisms detected in contaminated soap included Klebsiella oxytoca, Serratia liquefaciens, Shigella sonnei, Enterobacter gergoviae, Serratia odorifera, and Enterobacter cloacae. Twenty-three samples contained antibiotic-resistant organisms, some of which were resistant to two or more antibiotics. Every sample containing less than 4% solids had some detectable level of bacteria, whereas no samples with greater than 14% solids had detectable bacteria. This finding suggests the use of dilution and/or low-cost formulations as a cause of bacterial growth. There was a statistically significant difference ( P = 0.0035) between the fraction of bacteria-positive samples with no detected antimicrobial agent (17%) and those containing an antimicrobial agent (7%). Fast food operations and grocery stores were more likely to have detectable bacteria in bulk-soap samples compared with convenience stores ( P food service establishments.

  13. Assessing medication adherence in inflammatory bowel diseases: a comparison between a self-administered scale and a pharmacy refill index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Luisa de-Castro

    Full Text Available Background: Medication non-adherence in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD has a negative impact on disease outcome. Different tools have been proposed to assess non-adherence. We aimed to compare a self-administered scale and a pharmacy refill index as a reliable measure of medication adherence and to determine what factors are related to adherence. Methods: Consecutive non-active IBD outpatients were asked to fill in the self-reported Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8 and the Beliefs about Medication Questionnaire (BMQ. Pharmacy refill data were reviewed from the previous three or six months and the medication possession ratio (MPR was calculated. Non-adherence was defined as MMAS-8 scores < 6 or MPR < 0.8. Results: Two-hundred and three patients were enrolled (60% ulcerative colitis, 40% Crohn's disease; 51% were men, and the mean age was 46.3 (14 years. Seventy-four per cent of patients were on monotherapy and 26% on combination therapy; altogether, 65% received mesalazine, 46% thiopurines and 16% anti-tumor necrosis factor alfa. Non-adherence rate assessed by MPR was 37% and 22.4% by MMAS-8. Receiver operator curve analysis using a MMAS-8 cut-off of six gave an area under the curve of 0.6 (95% CI 0.5-0.7, p = 0.001. This score had an 85% sensitivity and 34% specificity to predict medication non-adherence, with negative and positive predictive values of 57% and 70% respectively. High scores in the BMQ potential for harm of medication were significantly associated with MPR non-adherence (p = 0.01. Conclusion: The accuracy of MMAS-8 to identify medication non-adherence in inactive IBD outpatients in our setting is poor due to a low specificity and a negative predictive value. Psychosocial factors such as beliefs about medication seem to be related to IBD non-adherence.

  14. Detection and Genotyping of Human Papillomavirus in Self-Obtained Cervicovaginal Samples by Using the FTA Cartridge: New Possibilities for Cervical Cancer Screening ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenselink, Charlotte H.; de Bie, Roosmarie P.; van Hamont, Dennis; Bakkers, Judith M. J. E.; Quint, Wim G. V.; Massuger, Leon F. A. G.; Bekkers, Ruud L. M.; Melchers, Willem J. G.

    2009-01-01

    This study assesses human papillomavirus (HPV) detection and genotyping in self-sampled genital smears applied to an indicating FTA elute cartridge (FTA cartridge). The study group consisted of 96 women, divided into two sample sets. All samples were analyzed by the HPV SPF10-Line Blot 25. Set 1 consisted of 45 women attending the gynecologist; all obtained a self-sampled cervicovaginal smear, which was applied to an FTA cartridge. HPV results were compared to a cervical smear (liquid based) taken by a trained physician. Set 2 consisted of 51 women who obtained a self-sampled cervicovaginal smear at home, which was applied to an FTA cartridge and to a liquid-based medium. DNA was obtained from the FTA cartridges by simple elution as well as extraction. Of all self-obtained samples of set 1, 62.2% tested HPV positive. The overall agreement between self- and physician-obtained samples was 93.3%, in favor of the self-obtained samples. In sample set 2, 25.5% tested HPV positive. The overall agreement for high-risk HPV presence between the FTA cartridge and liquid-based medium and between DNA elution and extraction was 100%. This study shows that HPV detection and genotyping in self-obtained cervicovaginal samples applied to an FTA cartridge is highly reliable. It shows a high level of overall agreement with HPV detection and genotyping in physician-obtained cervical smears and liquid-based self-samples. DNA can be obtained by simple elution and is therefore easy, cheap, and fast. Furthermore, the FTA cartridge is a convenient medium for collection and safe transport at ambient temperatures. Therefore, this method may contribute to a new way of cervical cancer screening. PMID:19553570

  15. Detection and genotyping of human papillomavirus in self-obtained cervicovaginal samples by using the FTA cartridge: new possibilities for cervical cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenselink, Charlotte H; de Bie, Roosmarie P; van Hamont, Dennis; Bakkers, Judith M J E; Quint, Wim G V; Massuger, Leon F A G; Bekkers, Ruud L M; Melchers, Willem J G

    2009-08-01

    This study assesses human papillomavirus (HPV) detection and genotyping in self-sampled genital smears applied to an indicating FTA elute cartridge (FTA cartridge). The study group consisted of 96 women, divided into two sample sets. All samples were analyzed by the HPV SPF(10)-Line Blot 25. Set 1 consisted of 45 women attending the gynecologist; all obtained a self-sampled cervicovaginal smear, which was applied to an FTA cartridge. HPV results were compared to a cervical smear (liquid based) taken by a trained physician. Set 2 consisted of 51 women who obtained a self-sampled cervicovaginal smear at home, which was applied to an FTA cartridge and to a liquid-based medium. DNA was obtained from the FTA cartridges by simple elution as well as extraction. Of all self-obtained samples of set 1, 62.2% tested HPV positive. The overall agreement between self- and physician-obtained samples was 93.3%, in favor of the self-obtained samples. In sample set 2, 25.5% tested HPV positive. The overall agreement for high-risk HPV presence between the FTA cartridge and liquid-based medium and between DNA elution and extraction was 100%. This study shows that HPV detection and genotyping in self-obtained cervicovaginal samples applied to an FTA cartridge is highly reliable. It shows a high level of overall agreement with HPV detection and genotyping in physician-obtained cervical smears and liquid-based self-samples. DNA can be obtained by simple elution and is therefore easy, cheap, and fast. Furthermore, the FTA cartridge is a convenient medium for collection and safe transport at ambient temperatures. Therefore, this method may contribute to a new way of cervical cancer screening.

  16. Rapid and sensitive determination of phenylurea herbicides in water in the presence of their anilines by extraction with a Carbopack cartridge followed by liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Corcia, A; Marchetti, M

    1991-03-22

    A rapid and sensitive method for determining phenylurea herbicides in environmental aqueous samples in the presence of their anilines is described. The water sample is preconcentrated by passage at a flow-rate of ca. 150 ml/min through a 250-mg graphitized carbon black (Carbopack B) cartridge. After washing with 0.6 ml of methanol, the Carbopack B trap is connected with a cartridge containing a strong cation exchanger. Organics trapped by the Carbopack cartridge are eluted by passage of 6 ml of methylene chloride-methanol (95:5, v/v). Anilines and other basic compounds are quantitatively subtracted from the solvent system while flowing through the cation-exchange cartridge. After evaporation and redissolution, the sample is subjected to reversed-phase gradient elution high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection at 250 nm. Recoveries of phenylureas added to water at levels between 30 and 3000 ng/l were higher than 92%. The limit of detection was about 1 ng/l, for a 2-1 sample. With respect to an octadecyl (C18)-bonded silica cartridge, the Carbopack B cartridge had a far better extraction efficiency for polar phenylureas.

  17. On-Demand Production of Flow-Reactor Cartridges by 3D Printing of Thermostable Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Manfred; Radtke, Carsten P; Hubbuch, Jürgen; Niemeyer, Christof M; Rabe, Kersten S

    2018-05-04

    The compartmentalization of chemical reactions is an essential principle of life that provides a major source of innovation for the development of novel approaches in biocatalysis. To implement spatially controlled biotransformations, rapid manufacturing methods are needed for the production of biocatalysts that can be applied in flow systems. Whereas three-dimensional (3D) printing techniques offer high-throughput manufacturing capability, they are usually not compatible with the delicate nature of enzymes, which call for physiological processing parameters. We herein demonstrate the utility of thermostable enzymes in the generation of biocatalytic agarose-based inks for a simple temperature-controlled 3D printing process. As examples we utilized an esterase and an alcohol dehydrogenase from thermophilic organisms as well as a decarboxylase that was thermostabilized by directed protein evolution. We used the resulting 3D-printed parts for a continuous, two-step sequential biotransformation in a fluidic setup. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. A Limited Survey of Heavy Metal Concentrations in Fresh and Frozen Cuttlefish Ink and Mantle Used As Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conficoni, Daniele; Alberghini, Leonardo; Bissacco, Elisa; Contiero, Barbara; Giaccone, Valerio

    2018-02-01

    Cuttlefish ink is consumed as a delicacy worldwide. The current study is the first assessment of heavy metal concentrations in cuttlefish ink versus mantle under different storage methods. A total of 212 samples (64 of fresh mantle, 42 of frozen mantle, 64 of fresh ink, and 42 of frozen ink) were analyzed for the detection of the following heavy metals: arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and cadmium (Cd). The median As concentrations were 12.9 mg/kg for fresh mantle, 8.63 mg/kg for frozen mantle, 10.8 mg/kg for frozen ink, and 0.41 mg/kg for fresh ink. The median Cr concentrations were 0.06 mg/kg for fresh mantle and frozen ink, 0.03 mg/kg for frozen mantle, and below the limit of quantification (LOQ) for fresh ink. The median Fe concentrations were 4.08 mg/kg for frozen ink, 1.51 mg/kg for fresh mantle, 0.73 mg/kg for frozen mantle, and below the LOQ for fresh ink. The median Pb concentrations of almost all samples were below the LOQ; only two frozen ink, one fresh ink, one frozen mantle, and one fresh mantle sample exceeded the limit stipulated by the European Union. The Hg concentrations were statistically similar among the four categories of samples; the median Hg concentrations were below the LOQ, and the maximum concentrations were found in frozen ink, at 1.62 mg/kg. The median Cd concentrations were 0.69 mg/kg for frozen ink and 0.11 mg/kg for frozen mantle, fresh mantle and fresh ink concentrations were below the LOQ, and in 11.3% of the tested samples, Cd concentrations were higher than the European Union limit. The probability of samples having a Cd concentration above the legal limit was 35.75 times higher in frozen than in fresh products. Fresh ink had significantly lower concentrations of As, Cr, Fe, and Cd, but the concentrations of Hg and Pb were not significantly different from those of other products. Frozen ink had significantly higher concentrations of Cd, Cr, and Fe, but concentrations of As were lower than those in

  19. {sup 14}CO{sub 2} processing using an improved and robust molecular sieve cartridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wotte, Anja, E-mail: Anja.Wotte@uni-koeln.de [Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Wordell-Dietrich, Patrick [Thünen Institute of Climate-Smart Agriculture, Braunschweig (Germany); Wacker, Lukas [Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Don, Axel [Thünen Institute of Climate-Smart Agriculture, Braunschweig (Germany); Rethemeyer, Janet [Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany)

    2017-06-01

    Radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) analysis on CO{sub 2} can provide valuable information on the carbon cycle as different carbon pools differ in their {sup 14}C signature. While fresh, biogenic carbon shows atmospheric {sup 14}C concentrations, fossil carbon is {sup 14}C free. As shown in previous studies, CO{sub 2} can be collected for {sup 14}C analysis using molecular sieve cartridges (MSC). These devices have previously been made of plastic and glass, which can easily be damaged during transport. We thus constructed a robust MSC suitable for field application under tough conditions or in remote areas, which is entirely made of stainless steel. The new MSC should also be tight over several months to allow long sampling campaigns and transport times, which was proven by a one year storage test. The reliability of the {sup 14}CO{sub 2} results obtained with the MSC was evaluated by detailed tests of different procedures to clean the molecular sieve (zeolite type 13X) and for the adsorption and desorption of CO{sub 2} from the zeolite using a vacuum rig. We show that the {sup 14}CO{sub 2} results are not affected by any contamination of modern or fossil origin, cross contamination from previous samples, and by carbon isotopic fractionation. In addition, we evaluated the direct CO{sub 2} transfer from the MSC into the automatic graphitization equipment AGE with the subsequent {sup 14}C AMS analysis as graphite. This semi-automatic approach can be fully automated in the future, which would allow a high sample throughput. We obtained very promising, low blank values between 0.0018 and 0.0028 F{sup 14}C (equivalent to 50,800 and 47,200 yrs BP), which are within the analytical background and lower than results obtained in previous studies.

  20. "1"4CO_2 processing using an improved and robust molecular sieve cartridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wotte, Anja; Wordell-Dietrich, Patrick; Wacker, Lukas; Don, Axel; Rethemeyer, Janet

    2017-01-01

    Radiocarbon ("1"4C) analysis on CO_2 can provide valuable information on the carbon cycle as different carbon pools differ in their "1"4C signature. While fresh, biogenic carbon shows atmospheric "1"4C concentrations, fossil carbon is "1"4C free. As shown in previous studies, CO_2 can be collected for "1"4C analysis using molecular sieve cartridges (MSC). These devices have previously been made of plastic and glass, which can easily be damaged during transport. We thus constructed a robust MSC suitable for field application under tough conditions or in remote areas, which is entirely made of stainless steel. The new MSC should also be tight over several months to allow long sampling campaigns and transport times, which was proven by a one year storage test. The reliability of the "1"4CO_2 results obtained with the MSC was evaluated by detailed tests of different procedures to clean the molecular sieve (zeolite type 13X) and for the adsorption and desorption of CO_2 from the zeolite using a vacuum rig. We show that the "1"4CO_2 results are not affected by any contamination of modern or fossil origin, cross contamination from previous samples, and by carbon isotopic fractionation. In addition, we evaluated the direct CO_2 transfer from the MSC into the automatic graphitization equipment AGE with the subsequent "1"4C AMS analysis as graphite. This semi-automatic approach can be fully automated in the future, which would allow a high sample throughput. We obtained very promising, low blank values between 0.0018 and 0.0028 F"1"4C (equivalent to 50,800 and 47,200 yrs BP), which are within the analytical background and lower than results obtained in previous studies.

  1. Style-based classification of Chinese ink and wash paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Jiachuan; Jiang, Jianmin

    2013-09-01

    Following the fact that a large collection of ink and wash paintings (IWP) is being digitized and made available on the Internet, their automated content description, analysis, and management are attracting attention across research communities. While existing research in relevant areas is primarily focused on image processing approaches, a style-based algorithm is proposed to classify IWPs automatically by their authors. As IWPs do not have colors or even tones, the proposed algorithm applies edge detection to locate the local region and detect painting strokes to enable histogram-based feature extraction and capture of important cues to reflect the styles of different artists. Such features are then applied to drive a number of neural networks in parallel to complete the classification, and an information entropy balanced fusion is proposed to make an integrated decision for the multiple neural network classification results in which the entropy is used as a pointer to combine the global and local features. Evaluations via experiments support that the proposed algorithm achieves good performances, providing excellent potential for computerized analysis and management of IWPs.

  2. Expression of the p16{sup INK4a} tumor suppressor gene in rodent lung tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swafford, D.S.; Tesfaigzi, J.; Belinsky, S.A.

    1995-12-01

    Aberrations on the short arm of chromosome 9 are among the earliest genetic changes in human cancer. p16{sup INK4a} is a candidate tumor suppressor gene that lies within human 9p21, a chromosome region associated with frequent loss of heterozygosity in human lung tumors. The p16{sup INK4a} protein functions as an inhibitor of cyclin D{sub 1}-dependent kinases that phosphorylate the retinoblastoma (Rb) tumor suppressor gene product enabling cell-cycle progression. Thus, overexpression of cyclin D{sub 1}, mutation of cyclin-dependent kinase genes, or loss of p16{sup INK4a} function, can all result in functional inactivation of Rb. Inactivation of Rb by mutation or deletion can result in an increase in p16{sup INK4a} transcription, suggesting that an increased p16{sup INK4a} expression in a tumor cell signals dysfunction of the pathway. The p16{sup (INK4a)} gene, unlike some tumor suppressor genes, is rarely inactivated by mutation. Instead, the expression of this gene is suppressed in some human cancers by hypermethylation of the CpG island within the first exon or by homozygous deletion: 686. Chromosome losses have been observed at 9p21 syntenic loci in tumors of the mouse and rat, two species often used as animal models for pulmonary carcinogenesis. Expression of p16{sup INK4a} is lost in some mouse tumor cell lines, often due to homozygous deletion. These observations indicate that p16{sup INK4a} dysfunction may play a role in the development of neoplasia in rodents as well as humans. The purpose of the current investigation was to define the extent to which p16{sup INK4a} dysfunction contributes to the development of rodent lung tumors and to determine the mechanism of inactivation of the gene. There is no evidence to suggest a loss of function of the p16{sup INK4a} tumor suppressor gene in these primary murine lung tumors by mutation, deletion, or methylation.

  3. A diffusive ink transport model for lipid dip-pen nanolithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urtizberea, A.; Hirtz, M.

    2015-09-01

    Despite diverse applications, phospholipid membrane stacks generated by dip-pen nanolithography (DPN) still lack a thorough and systematic characterization that elucidates the whole ink transport process from writing to surface spreading, with the aim of better controlling the resulting feature size and resolution. We report a quantitative analysis and modeling of the dependence of lipid DPN features (area, height and volume) on dwell time and relative humidity. The ink flow rate increases with humidity in agreement with meniscus size growth, determining the overall feature size. The observed time dependence indicates the existence of a balance between surface spreading and the ink flow rate that promotes differences in concentration at the meniscus/substrate interface. Feature shape is controlled by the substrate surface energy. The results are analyzed within a modified model for the ink transport of diffusive inks. At any humidity the dependence of the area spread on the dwell time shows two diffusion regimes: at short dwell times growth is controlled by meniscus diffusion while at long dwell times surface diffusion governs the process. The critical point for the switch of regime depends on the humidity.Despite diverse applications, phospholipid membrane stacks generated by dip-pen nanolithography (DPN) still lack a thorough and systematic characterization that elucidates the whole ink transport process from writing to surface spreading, with the aim of better controlling the resulting feature size and resolution. We report a quantitative analysis and modeling of the dependence of lipid DPN features (area, height and volume) on dwell time and relative humidity. The ink flow rate increases with humidity in agreement with meniscus size growth, determining the overall feature size. The observed time dependence indicates the existence of a balance between surface spreading and the ink flow rate that promotes differences in concentration at the meniscus

  4. The nature of ancient Egyptian copper-containing carbon inks is revealed by synchrotron radiation based X-ray microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Christiansen , Thomas; Cotte , Marine; Loredo-Portales , René; Lindelof , Poul ,; Mortensen , Kell; Ryholt , Kim; Larsen , Sine

    2017-01-01

    International audience; For the first time it is shown that carbon black inks on ancient Egyptian papyri from different time periods and geographical regions contain copper. The inks have been investigated using synchrotron-based micro X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and micro X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy (XANES) at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). The composition of the copper-containing carbon inks showed no significant differences that could be related to t...

  5. Producing fluorescent digital printing ink: Investigating the effect of type and amount of coumarin derivative dyes on the quality of ink

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ataeefard, Maryam, E-mail: ataeefard-m@icrc.ac.ir [Department of Printing Science and Technology, Institute for Color Science and Technology, P.O. Box 16765-654, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nourmohammadian, Farahnaz, E-mail: nour@icrc.ac.ir [Centre of Excellence for Colour Science and Technology, Institute for Colour Science and Technology, P.O. Box 16765-654, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Organic Colorants, Institute for Colour Science and Technology, P.O. Box 16765-654, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    The aim of this work is to produce a composite powder as a fluorescent ink for digital electrophotographic printing. Three benzoxazolyl and benzimidazolyl coumarin derivative dyes are used as fluorescent dyes that are incorporated into poly (styrene-co-a crylic acid) using eco-friendly emulsion aggregation (EA) approaches in several amounts with final application of fluorescent laser printing ink called toner. Fluorescence and daylight spectrophotometry is used for investigating the emission and reflectance properties of fluorescent toner. It was found that the relations between emission of fluorescent toners and the amount of dyes are non-linear. Particle size analysis, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimeter and thermal gravimetric analysis were used to study the size, shape, morphology and thermal properties of fluorescent toner particles. Results verify that the polarity of the dyes and their compatibility with the environment could affect the shape of the fluorescent toner. In addition, the results show that the fluorescent toner produced by the EA method has appropriate characteristics comparing to an industrial toner. - Highlights: Fluorescent digital printing ink produced via emulsion aggregation technique. Fluorescent ink for produced for electrophotographic printing. The relations between fluorescent emission and the amount of dyes are non-linear. Different dyes, show different behavior.

  6. Producing fluorescent digital printing ink: Investigating the effect of type and amount of coumarin derivative dyes on the quality of ink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ataeefard, Maryam; Nourmohammadian, Farahnaz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to produce a composite powder as a fluorescent ink for digital electrophotographic printing. Three benzoxazolyl and benzimidazolyl coumarin derivative dyes are used as fluorescent dyes that are incorporated into poly (styrene-co-a crylic acid) using eco-friendly emulsion aggregation (EA) approaches in several amounts with final application of fluorescent laser printing ink called toner. Fluorescence and daylight spectrophotometry is used for investigating the emission and reflectance properties of fluorescent toner. It was found that the relations between emission of fluorescent toners and the amount of dyes are non-linear. Particle size analysis, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimeter and thermal gravimetric analysis were used to study the size, shape, morphology and thermal properties of fluorescent toner particles. Results verify that the polarity of the dyes and their compatibility with the environment could affect the shape of the fluorescent toner. In addition, the results show that the fluorescent toner produced by the EA method has appropriate characteristics comparing to an industrial toner. - Highlights: Fluorescent digital printing ink produced via emulsion aggregation technique. Fluorescent ink for produced for electrophotographic printing. The relations between fluorescent emission and the amount of dyes are non-linear. Different dyes, show different behavior

  7. Immunohistochemical study of p16 INK4A and survivin expressions in cervical squamous neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Geok

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer affecting Malaysian women. Despite the implementation of pap smear screening, many women are still diagnosed only in the advanced stage of cervical cancer. This could partly be due to failure of detection of its precursor lesions; hence the need to search for novel biomarkers to assist in the screening and diagnosis of cervical neoplasia. This study aims to determine the expression of p16INK4A and survivin as possible predictive biomarkers in cervical squamous neoplasm. Material and Methods: This is a retrospective study on 201 cases of cervical neoplasm comprising of 129 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN and 72 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC. All samples were evaluated by two independent observers using p16INK4A and survivin monoclonal antibodies. The p16 INK4A expression was graded as negative, focal and diffuse positivity. The intensity for survivin expression was graded as weak, moderate and intense. Results: It is seen that p16 INK4A expression in CIN 1, CIN 2 and CIN 3 were 25.4%, 42.9% and 95.9% respectively. Majority of SCC (98.6% showed p16 INK4A expression. Survivin expressions in CIN 1, CIN 2, CIN 3 and SCC were 56.7%, 33.4%, 87.5% and 98.6%. There was a linear relationship between increasing grade of CIN and p16 INK4A expressions. Conclusion: Our study showed that p16 INK4A expressions correlate well with the increasing grade of CIN. Although survivin does not correlate well to the increasing grade of CIN, it could be useful in differentiating CIN 3 from SCC.

  8. Expression of p16(INK4A) gene in human pituitary tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machiavelli, Gloria; Cotignola, Javier; Danilowicz, Karina; Carbonara, Carolina; Paes de Lima, Andrea; Basso, Armando; Bruno, Oscar Domingo; Szijan, Irene

    2008-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas comprise 10-15% of primary intracranial tumours but the mechanisms leading to tumour development are yet to be clearly established. The retinoblastoma pathway, which regulates the progression through the cell cycle, is often deregulated in different types of tumours. We studied the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16(INK4A) gene expression at mRNA level in human pituitary adenomas. Forty-six tumour specimens of different subtypes, 21 clinically non-functioning, 12 growth hormone-secreting, 6 prolactin-secreting, 6 adrenocorticotropin-secreting, and 1 thyrotropin-secreting tumours were studied. All clinically non-functioning and most of the hormone-secreting tumours were macroadenomas (38/46). The RT-PCR assay and electrophoresis of the PCR-products showed that p16(INK4A) mRNA was undetectable in: 62% of non-functioning, 8% of growth hormone-secreting, 17% of prolactin-secreting and 17% of adrenocorticotropin-secreting adenomas. Forty percent of all macroadenomas and 25% of microadenomas had negative p16(INK4A) mRNA, the latter results suggest that the absence of p16(INK4A) product might be an early event in tumours with no expression of this suppressor gene. Within the non-functioning adenomas 63% were "null cell" and 37% were positive for some hormone, both subgroups showed similar percentage of cases with absence of p16(INK4A) mRNA. Our results show that clinically non-functioning macroadenomas have impaired p16(INK4A) expression in a clearly higher proportion than any other pituitary tumour subtype investigated. Other regulatory pathways may be implicated in the development of tumours with positive p16(INK4A) expression.

  9. Systematic study of terahertz time-domain spectra of historically informed black inks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardon, Tiphaine; May, Robert K; Taday, Philip F; Strlič, Matija

    2013-09-07

    The potential of terahertz-time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) as a diagnostic tool for studies of inks in historical documents is investigated in this paper. Transmission mode THz-TDS was performed on historically informed model writing and drawing inks. Carbon black, bistre and sepia inks show featureless spectra between 5 and 75 cm(-1) (0.15-2.25 THz); however, their analysis still provided useful information on the interaction of terahertz radiation with amorphous materials. On the other hand, THz-TDS can be used to distinguish different iron gall inks with respect to the amount of iron(II) sulfate contained, as sharp spectral features are observed for inks containing different ratios of iron(II) sulfate to tannic or gallic acid. Additionally, copper sulfate was found to modify the structure of iron(II) precipitate. Furthermore, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) applied to THz-TDS spectra, highlights changes in iron gall inks during thermal degradation, during which a decrease in the sharp spectral bands associated with iron(II) sulfate is observed. ATR-FTIR spectroscopy combined with THz-TDS of dynamically heated ink samples indicate that this phenomenon is due to dehydration of iron(II) sulfate heptahydrate. While this research demonstrates the potential of THz-TDS to improve monitoring of the chemical state of historical documents, the outcomes go beyond the heritage field, as it also helps to develop the theoretical knowledge on interactions between terahertz radiation and matter, particularly in studies of long-range symmetry (polymorphism) in complex molecular structures and the role played by the surrounding matrix, and also indicates the potential of THz-TDS for the optimization of contrast in terahertz imaging.

  10. Role of the Digestive Gland in Ink Production in Four Species of Sea Hares: An Ultrastructural Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S. Prince

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The ultrastructure of the digestive gland of several sea hare species that produce different colored ink (Aplysia californica produces purple ink, A. juliana white ink, A. parvula both white and purple ink, while Dolabrifera dolabrifera produces no ink at all was compared to determine the digestive gland’s role in the diet-derived ink production process. Rhodoplast digestive cells and their digestive vacuoles, the site of digestion of red algal chloroplast (i.e., rhodoplast in A. californica, were present and had a similar ultrastructure in all four species. Rhodoplast digestive cell vacuoles either contained a whole rhodoplast or fragments of one or were empty. These results suggest that the inability to produce colored ink in some sea hare species is not due to either an absence of appropriate digestive machinery, that is, rhodoplast digestive cells, or an apparent failure of rhodoplast digestive cells to function. These results also propose that the digestive gland structure described herein occurred early in sea hare evolution, at least in the common ancestor to the genera Aplysia and Dolabrifera. Our data, however, do not support the hypothesis that the loss of purple inking is a synapomorphy of the white-ink-producing subgenus Aplysia.

  11. Ultraviolet and electron-beam curing of printing inks. January 1980-August 1987 (Citations from World Surface Coatings Abstracts). Report for January 1980-August 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning methods, techniques, and applications for the ultraviolet and electron-beam curing of printing inks. Topics include ink compositions, curing methods and equipment, cured-ink evaluations, screen printing inks, photoinitiators, and ink binders. The pollution and safety problems, and future trends of UV- and E-beam-cured printing inks are considered. Applications in screen printing on polyethylene or polypropylene bottles, and decorative printing of glass are also examined. (This updated bibliography contains 237 citations, 63 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  12. Surface modification of indium tin oxide for direct writing of silver nanoparticulate ink micropatterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vunnam, Swathi; Ankireddy, Krishnamraju; Kellar, Jon; Cross, William

    2013-01-01

    Surface treatment techniques were deployed to alter the surface of indium tin oxide (ITO) samples to attain a favorable interface between printed nano-inks and ITO surface. Surface free energy components of treated ITO substrates were calculated for each treatment using the van Oss–Chaudhury–Good method. The surface treatments of ITO changed the Lifshitz–van der Waals and Lewis acid–base components, and contact angle hysteresis significantly. Among all the surface treatments, air plasma treated samples showed high polar in nature, whereas dodecyltrichlorosilane self-assembled monolayer treated sample showed the lowest. In addition to the polarity and homogeneity, the surface roughness of the ITO was studied with respect to the surface treatment. Silver nanoparticulate ink was printed on treated ITO surfaces using aerosol jet printing system. Printed silver nano-ink line width and morphology strongly depended on the surface treatment of the ITO, ink properties and printing parameters. - Highlights: ► Surface treatments on indium tin oxide (ITO) altered its surface free energy. ► Surface free energies were studied in terms of acid–base components. ► ITO surface morphology and roughness were changed with the surface treatment. ► Silver ink was printed on treated ITO samples using aerosol jet printing system. ► Line widths of printed patterns clearly depended on the surface free energy of ITO

  13. Surface modification of indium tin oxide for direct writing of silver nanoparticulate ink micropatterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vunnam, Swathi, E-mail: swathi.vunnam@mines.sdsmt.edu [Nanoscience and Nanoengineering Department, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD-57701 (United States); Ankireddy, Krishnamraju; Kellar, Jon; Cross, William [Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD-57701 (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Surface treatment techniques were deployed to alter the surface of indium tin oxide (ITO) samples to attain a favorable interface between printed nano-inks and ITO surface. Surface free energy components of treated ITO substrates were calculated for each treatment using the van Oss–Chaudhury–Good method. The surface treatments of ITO changed the Lifshitz–van der Waals and Lewis acid–base components, and contact angle hysteresis significantly. Among all the surface treatments, air plasma treated samples showed high polar in nature, whereas dodecyltrichlorosilane self-assembled monolayer treated sample showed the lowest. In addition to the polarity and homogeneity, the surface roughness of the ITO was studied with respect to the surface treatment. Silver nanoparticulate ink was printed on treated ITO surfaces using aerosol jet printing system. Printed silver nano-ink line width and morphology strongly depended on the surface treatment of the ITO, ink properties and printing parameters. - Highlights: ► Surface treatments on indium tin oxide (ITO) altered its surface free energy. ► Surface free energies were studied in terms of acid–base components. ► ITO surface morphology and roughness were changed with the surface treatment. ► Silver ink was printed on treated ITO samples using aerosol jet printing system. ► Line widths of printed patterns clearly depended on the surface free energy of ITO.

  14. Atmospheric pressure MALDI for the noninvasive characterization of carbonaceous ink from Renaissance documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Giuseppe; Calcagno, Marzia; Rapisarda, Alessandro; D'Agata, Roberta; Spoto, Giuseppe

    2017-06-01

    The analytical methods that are usually applied to determine the compositions of inks from ancient manuscripts usually focus on inorganic components, as in the case of iron gall ink. In this work, we describe the use of atmospheric pressure/matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry (AP/MALDI-MS) as a spatially resolved analytical technique for the study of the organic carbonaceous components of inks used in handwritten parts of ancient books for the first time. Large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (L-PAH) were identified in situ in the ink of XVII century handwritten documents. We prove that it is possible to apply MALDI-MS as a suitable microdestructive diagnostic tool for analyzing samples in air at atmospheric pressure, thus simplifying investigations of the organic components of artistic and archaeological objects. The interpretation of the experimental MS results was supported by independent Raman spectroscopic investigations. Graphical abstract Atmospheric pressure/MALDI mass spectrometry detects in situ polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the carbonaceous ink of XVII century manuscripts.

  15. Radiative transfer analysis of the effect of ink dot area on color phase in inkjet printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonome, Hiroki; Ishikawa, Yuki; Kono, Takahiro; Yamada, Jun

    2017-06-01

    This study discusses a mechanism of inkjet printing and investigates the effect of ink contrast on the color phase of the printed object. Inkjet printing is a popular printing method for home use, but its color repeatability is occasionally broken. To verify this problem, we calculated the radiative transfer equation on the surface of an object printed by an inkjet printer, and the color was quantitatively estimated. The ink dot area and spectral reflectance of the printed samples were measured. Furthermore, the spectral reflectance of the objects printed with different dot areas were theoretically calculated. By comparing the measured and calculated reflectance, we estimated the scattering coefficient of the paper and absorption coefficient of the ink. We quantitatively calculated the color with the HSV color system. The hue changed with dot area rate. It is considered that this is caused by the broad range of the spectral absorption coefficients of inks. We believe that this study will aid the development of ink without color change and improve the color repeatability of inkjet printers.

  16. Synthesis of monodisperse silver nanoparticles for ink-jet printed flexible electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Zhiliang; Zhang Xingye; Xin Zhiqing; Deng Mengmeng; Wen Yongqiang; Song Yanlin, E-mail: zhangxy@iccas.ac.cn, E-mail: ylsong@iccas.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences (BNLMS), Key Lab of Organic Solids, Laboratory of New Materials, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2011-10-21

    In this study, monodisperse silver nanoparticles were synthesized with a new reduction system consisting of adipoyl hydrazide and dextrose at ambient temperature. By this facile and rapid approach, high concentration monodisperse silver nanoparticles were obtained on a large scale at low protectant/AgNO{sub 3} mass ratio which was highly beneficial to low cost and high conductivity. Based on the synthesized monodisperse silver nanoparticles, conductive inks were prepared with water, ethanol and ethylene glycol as solvents, and were expected to be more environmentally friendly. A series of electrocircuits were fabricated by ink-jet printing silver nanoparticle ink on paper substrate with a commercial printer, and they had low resistivity in the range of 9.18 x 10{sup -8}-8.76 x 10{sup -8} {Omega} m after thermal treatment at 160 {sup 0}C for 30 min, which was about five times that of bulk silver (1.586 x 10{sup -8} {Omega} m). Moreover, a radio frequency identification (RFID) antenna was fabricated by ink-jet printing, and 6 m wireless identification was realized after an Alien higgs-3 chip was mounted on the printed antenna by the flip-chip method. These flexible electrocircuits produced by ink-jet printing would have enormous potential for low cost electrodes and sensor devices.

  17. Ultrasonically spray coated silver layers from designed precursor inks for flexible electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchal, W.; Vandevenne, G.; D'Haen, J.; Almeida, A. Calmont de Andrade; Durand Sola, M. A., Jr.; van den Ham, E. J.; Drijkoningen, J.; Elen, K.; Deferme, W.; Van Bael, M. K.; Hardy, A.

    2017-05-01

    Integration of electronic circuit components onto flexible materials such as plastic foils, paper and textiles is a key challenge for the development of future smart applications. Therefore, conductive metal features need to be deposited on temperature sensitive substrates in a fast and straightforward way. The feasibility of these emerging (nano-) electronic technologies depends on the availability of well-designed deposition techniques and on novel functional metal inks. As ultrasonic spray coating (USSC) is one of the most promising techniques to meet the above requirements, innovative metal organic decomposition (MOD) inks are designed to deposit silver features on plastic foils. Various amine ligands were screened and their influence on the ink stability and the characteristics of the resulting metal depositions were evaluated to determine the optimal formulation. Eventually, silver layers with excellent performance in terms of conductivity (15% bulk silver conductivity), stability, morphology and adhesion could be obtained, while operating in a very low temperature window of 70 °C-120 °C. Moreover, the optimal deposition conditions were determined via an in-depth analysis of the ultrasonically sprayed silver layers. Applying these tailored MOD inks, the USSC technique enabled smooth, semi-transparent silver layers with a tunable thickness on large areas without time-consuming additional sintering steps after deposition. Therefore, this novel combination of nanoparticle-free Ag-inks and the USSC process holds promise for high throughput deposition of highly conductive silver features on heat sensitive substrates and even 3D objects.

  18. Synthesis of monodisperse silver nanoparticles for ink-jet printed flexible electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhiliang; Zhang Xingye; Xin Zhiqing; Deng Mengmeng; Wen Yongqiang; Song Yanlin

    2011-01-01

    In this study, monodisperse silver nanoparticles were synthesized with a new reduction system consisting of adipoyl hydrazide and dextrose at ambient temperature. By this facile and rapid approach, high concentration monodisperse silver nanoparticles were obtained on a large scale at low protectant/AgNO 3 mass ratio which was highly beneficial to low cost and high conductivity. Based on the synthesized monodisperse silver nanoparticles, conductive inks were prepared with water, ethanol and ethylene glycol as solvents, and were expected to be more environmentally friendly. A series of electrocircuits were fabricated by ink-jet printing silver nanoparticle ink on paper substrate with a commercial printer, and they had low resistivity in the range of 9.18 x 10 -8 -8.76 x 10 -8 Ω m after thermal treatment at 160 0 C for 30 min, which was about five times that of bulk silver (1.586 x 10 -8 Ω m). Moreover, a radio frequency identification (RFID) antenna was fabricated by ink-jet printing, and 6 m wireless identification was realized after an Alien higgs-3 chip was mounted on the printed antenna by the flip-chip method. These flexible electrocircuits produced by ink-jet printing would have enormous potential for low cost electrodes and sensor devices.

  19. A diffusive ink transport model for lipid dip-pen nanolithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urtizberea, A; Hirtz, M

    2015-10-14

    Despite diverse applications, phospholipid membrane stacks generated by dip-pen nanolithography (DPN) still lack a thorough and systematic characterization that elucidates the whole ink transport process from writing to surface spreading, with the aim of better controlling the resulting feature size and resolution. We report a quantitative analysis and modeling of the dependence of lipid DPN features (area, height and volume) on dwell time and relative humidity. The ink flow rate increases with humidity in agreement with meniscus size growth, determining the overall feature size. The observed time dependence indicates the existence of a balance between surface spreading and the ink flow rate that promotes differences in concentration at the meniscus/substrate interface. Feature shape is controlled by the substrate surface energy. The results are analyzed within a modified model for the ink transport of diffusive inks. At any humidity the dependence of the area spread on the dwell time shows two diffusion regimes: at short dwell times growth is controlled by meniscus diffusion while at long dwell times surface diffusion governs the process. The critical point for the switch of regime depends on the humidity.

  20. Commercial and industrial applications of color ink jet: a technological perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunand, Alain

    1996-03-01

    In just 5 years, color ink-jet has become the dominant technology for printing color images and graphics in the office and home markets. In commercial printing, the traditional printing processes are being influenced by new digital techniques. Color ink-jet proofing, and concepts such as computer to film/plate or digital processes are contributing to the evolution of the industry. In industrial color printing, the penetration of digital techniques is just beginning. All widely used conventional contact printing technologies involve mechanical printing forms including plates, screens or engraved cylinders. Such forms, which need to be newly created and set up for each job, increase costs. In our era of fast changing customer demands, growing needs for customization, and increasing use of digital exchange of information, the commercial and industrial printing markets represent an enormous potential for digital printing technologies. The adoption characteristics for the use of color ink-jet in these industries are discussed. Examples of color ink-jet applications in the fields of billboard printing, floor/wall covering decoration, and textile printing are described. The requirements on print quality, productivity, reliability, substrate compatibility, and color lead to the consideration of various types of ink-jet technologies. Key technical enabling factors and directions for future improvements are presented.

  1. Characterization of filters cartridges from the water polishing system of IEA-R1 reactor: radiometric methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tessaro, Ana Paula G.; Vicente, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The acceptance of radioactive waste in a repository depends primarily on knowledge of the radioisotopic inventory of the material, according to regulations established by regulatory agencies. The primary characterization is also a fundamental action to determine further steps in the management of the radioactive wastes. The aim of this work is to report the development of non-destructive methods for primary characterization of filters cartridges discarded as radioactive waste. The filters cartridges are used in the water polishing system of the IEA-R1 reactor retaining the particles in suspension in the reactor cooling water. The IEA-R1 is a pool type reactor with a thermal power of 5 MW, moderated and cooled with light water. It is located in the Energy and Nuclear Research Institute (IPEN-CNEN), in São Paulo, Brazil. The cartridge filters become radioactive waste when they are saturated and do not meet the required flow for the proper operation of the water polishing system. The activities of gamma emitters present in the filters are determined using gamma spectrometry, dose rate measurements and the Point Kernel Method to correlate results from both measurements. For the primary characterization, one alternative method is the radiochemical analysis of slices taken from each filter, what presents the disadvantage of higher exposures personnel and contamination risks. Another alternative method is the calibration of the measurement geometry of a gamma spectrometer, which requires the production of a standard filter. Both methods are necessary but can not be used in operational routine of radioactive waste management owing to cost and complexity. The method described can be used to determine routinely the radioactive inventory of these filters and other radioactive wastes, avoiding the necessity of destructive radiochemical analysis, or the necessity of calibrating the geometry of measurement. (author)

  2. A longitudinal evaluation of performance of automated BCR-ABL1 quantitation using cartridge-based detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enjeti, Anoop; Granter, Neil; Ashraf, Asma; Fletcher, Linda; Branford, Susan; Rowlings, Philip; Dooley, Susan

    2015-10-01

    An automated cartridge-based detection system (GeneXpert; Cepheid) is being widely adopted in low throughput laboratories for monitoring BCR-ABL1 transcript in chronic myelogenous leukaemia. This Australian study evaluated the longitudinal performance specific characteristics of the automated system.The automated cartridge-based system was compared prospectively with the manual qRT-PCR-based reference method at SA Pathology, Adelaide, over a period of 2.5 years. A conversion factor determination was followed by four re-validations. Peripheral blood samples (n = 129) with international scale (IS) values within detectable range were selected for assessment. The mean bias, proportion of results within specified fold difference (2-, 3- and 5-fold), the concordance rate of major molecular remission (MMR) and concordance across a range of IS values on paired samples were evaluated.The initial conversion factor for the automated system was determined as 0.43. Except for the second re-validation, where a negative bias of 1.9-fold was detected, all other biases fell within desirable limits. A cartridge-specific conversion factor and efficiency value was introduced and the conversion factor was confirmed to be stable in subsequent re-validation cycles. Concordance with the reference method/laboratory at >0.1-≤10 IS was 78.2% and at ≤0.001 was 80%, compared to 86.8% in the >0.01-≤0.1 IS range. The overall and MMR concordance were 85.7% and 94% respectively, for samples that fell within ± 5-fold of the reference laboratory value over the entire period of study.Conversion factor and performance specific characteristics for the automated system were longitudinally stable in the clinically relevant range, following introduction by the manufacturer of lot specific efficiency values.

  3. Sugar microanalysis by HPLC with benzoylation: improvement via introduction of a C-8 cartridge and a high efficiency ODS column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagi, Michiko; Yokoyama, Hirokazu; Hibi, Toshifumi

    2007-07-01

    An HPLC protocol for sugar microanalysis based on the formation of ultraviolet-absorbing benzoyl chloride derivatives was improved. Here, samples were prepared with a C-8 cartridge and analyzed with a high efficiency ODS column, in which porous spherical silica particles 3 microm in diameter were packed. These devices allowed us to simultaneously quantify multiple sugars and sugar alcohols up to 10 ng/ml and to provide satisfactory separations of some sugars, such as fructose and myo-inositol and sorbitol and mannitol. This protocol, which does not require special apparatuses, should become a powerful tool in sugar research.

  4. CSER 95-014: Criticality storage category for K Basin spent cartridge filters in ECOROK casks at central waste complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, E.M.

    1996-01-01

    This CSER justifies storing K Basin spent cartridge filters in ECOROK 25-11 casks with liners under the limits in an existing criticality prevention specification, CPS-SW-149-00002, Rev./Mod. B-1, because the worst case fissionable material inventory is less then 1/2 the CPS limit and the cask is larger than allowed containers, the cask and liner have adequate iron content to meet the CPS requirements, and the cask concrete walls are thick enough to isolate the fissionable contents of each cask from neutron interaction with fissionable material external to each cask

  5. The chromatin remodelling factor BRG1 is a novel binding partner of the tumor suppressor p16INK4a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mann Graham J

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CDKN2A/p16INK4a is frequently altered in human cancers and it is the most important melanoma susceptibility gene identified to date. p16INK4a inhibits pRb phosphorylation and induces cell cycle arrest, which is considered its main tumour suppressor function. Nevertheless, additional activities may contribute to the tumour suppressor role of p16INK4a and could help explain its specific association with melanoma predisposition. To identify such functions we conducted a yeast-two-hybrid screen for novel p16INK4a binding partners. Results We now report that p16INK4a interacts with the chromatin remodelling factor BRG1. We investigated the cooperative roles of p16INK4a and BRG1 using a panel of cell lines and a melanoma cell model with inducible p16INK4a expression and BRG1 silencing. We found evidence that BRG1 is not required for p16INK4a-induced cell cycle inhibition and propose that the p16INK4a-BRG1 complex regulates BRG1 chromatin remodelling activity. Importantly, we found frequent loss of BRG1 expression in primary and metastatic melanomas, implicating this novel p16INK4a binding partner as an important tumour suppressor in melanoma. Conclusion This data adds to the increasing evidence implicating the SWI/SNF chromatin remodelling complex in tumour development and the association of p16INK4a with chromatin remodelling highlights potentially new functions that may be important in melanoma predisposition and chemoresistance.

  6. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry study of the retention behavior of arsenic species on various solid phase extraction cartridges and its application in arsenic speciation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Chunhai; Cai Qiantao E-mail: qtcai@cawt.sui.com.sg; Guo Zhongxian; Yang Zhaoguang; Khoo, Soo Beng

    2003-07-18

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to investigate the retention behavior of arsenite, arsenate, monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), arsenobetaine (AsB), arsenocholine (AsC), trimethylarsine oxide (TMAO) and tetramethylarsonium ion (TMAI) on various silica-based solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridges. A method for arsenic speciation is then developed on the basis of selective SPE separation of arsenic species and highly sensitive ICP-MS detection. Factors affecting the retention and elution of arsenic species were examined. Results showed that the retention of arsenic species depended on the chemical characteristics of arsenic species and the types of sorbent materials. Change of pH in the range of 2.0-9.0 did not show significant effects on the retention of DMA, AsB, AsC, TMAI and TMAO on an ethylbenzene sulfonic acid-based strong cation exchange (SCX-3) cartridge. pH also did not influence the retention of AsB, AsC, TMAI and TMAO on a mixed-mode (M-M) cartridge containing non-polar, strong cation exchange and strong anion exchange (SAX) functional groups. However, the retentions of As(V) and MMA on the SAX and the M-M cartridge changed with pH. As(V) and MMA were completely retained on the SAX cartridge and sequentially selectively eluted with 1.0 mol l{sup -1} acetic acid (for MMA). DMA, AsB, AsC, TMAI and TMAO were completely retained on the SCX-3 cartridge and sequentially selectively eluted with 1.0 mol l{sup -1} HNO{sub 3} (for DMA). As(V), MMA, AsB, AsC, TMAI and TMAO were completely retained on the M-M cartridge. As(III) was not retained on either cartridge and remained in solution. Arsenic species in solution and those eluted from the cartridges were subsequently determined by ICP-MS. A detection limit of 8 ng l{sup -1} arsenic in water sample was obtained. This method was successfully applied to arsenic speciation in various sources of water samples (drinking water, waste water, raw water, etc.) and US

  7. Bad news about an old poison. A case of nicotine poisoning due to both ingestion and injection of the content of an electronic cigarette refill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Cervellin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available There are increasing concerns about the escalating use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes. In particular, smokers have been advised by important agencies such as the US Food and Drug Administration about the potential harm to the health of these products, being now considered as drug delivery devices. The leading issues supporting this statement include the repeated inhalation of propylene glycol that is used as a diluent in refills, accidental poisoning, as well as evidence that ecigarettes may promote continued smoking since their use may compromise quitting motivations. Some authors have minimized these risks, considering the potential advantages of these devices for public health. Here we describe the first case of nicotine poisoning due to both ingestion and intravenous injection of the content of an e-cigarette refill, incorrectly mixed with methadone, bottled in a generic vial.

  8. Evidence of refilled chamber gas pressure enhancing cooling rate during melt spinning of a Zr50Cu40Al10 alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-wang Yang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the refilled gas pressure on the glass forming behaviour of one of the best ternary glass forming alloys Zr50Cu40Al10 was studied for the melt spinning process. The amorphicity of as-quenched ribbons was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The refilled chamber atmospheric pressure is crucial to the cooling rate of melt spinning. At high vacuum, at pressure less than 0.0001 atm, fully crystalline fragments are obtained. Monolithic amorphous ribbons were only obtained at a gas pressure of 0.1 atm or higher. The extended contact length between thecribbons and the copper wheel contributes to the high cooling rate of melt spinning. Higher chamber gas pressure leads to more turbulence of liquid metal beneath the nozzle; therefore, lower pressure is preferable at practical melt spinning processes once glass forming conditions are fulfilled.

  9. Positive detection of exfoliated colon cancer cells on linear stapler cartridges was associated with depth of tumor invasion and preoperative bowel preparation in colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikehara, Kishiko; Endo, Shungo; Kumamoto, Kensuke; Hidaka, Eiji; Ishida, Fumio; Tanaka, Jun-Ichi; Kudo, Shin-Ei

    2016-08-31

    The aim of this study was to investigate exfoliated cancer cells (ECCs) on linear stapler cartridges used for anastomotic sites in colon cancer. We prospectively analyzed ECCs on linear stapler cartridges used for anastomosis in 100 colon cancer patients who underwent colectomy. Having completed the functional end-to-end anastomosis, the linear stapler cartridges were irrigated with saline, which was collected for cytological examination and cytological diagnoses were made by board-certified pathologists based on Papanicolaou staining. The detection rate of ECCs on the linear stapler cartridges was 20 %. Positive detection of ECCs was significantly associated with depth of tumor invasion (p = 0.012) and preoperative bowel preparation (p = 0.003). There were no marked differences between ECC-positive and ECC-negative groups in terms of the operation methods, tumor location, histopathological classification, and surgical margins. Since ECCs were identified on the cartridge of the linear stapler used for anastomosis, preoperative mechanical bowel preparation using polyethylene glycol solution and cleansing at anastomotic sites using tumoricidal agents before anastomosis may be necessary to decrease ECCs in advanced colon cancer.

  10. Degradation of Highly Alloyed Metal Halide Perovskite Precursor Inks: Mechanism and Storage Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dou, Benjia [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wheeler, Lance M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christians, Jeffrey A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Moore, David [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Harvey, Steven P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Berry, Joseph J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Van Hest, Marinus F [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Barnes, Frank S. [University of Colorado; Shaheen, Sean E. [University of Colorado

    2018-03-02

    Whereas the promise of metal halide perovskite (MHP) photovoltaics (PV) is that they can combine high efficiency with solution-processability, the chemistry occurring in precursor inks is largely unexplored. Herein, we investigate the degradation of MHP solutions based on the most widely used solvents, dimethylformamide (DMF) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). For the MHP inks studied, which contain formamidinium (FA+), methylammonium (MA+), cesium (Cs+), lead (Pb2+), bromide (Br-), and iodide (I-), dramatic compositional changes are observed following storage of the inks in nitrogen in the dark. We show that hydrolysis of DMF in the precursor solution forms dimethylammonium formate, which subsequently incorporates into the MHP film to compromise the ability of Cs+ and MA+ to stabilize FA+-based MHP. The changes in solution chemistry lead to a modification of the perovskite film stoichiometry, band gap, and structure. The solid precursor salts are stable when ball-milled into a powder, allowing for the storage of large quantities of stoichiometric precursor materials.

  11. Dip-pen nanopatterning of photosensitive conducting polymer using a monomer ink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ming; Aslam, Mohammed; Fu, Lei; Wu, Nianqiang; Dravid, Vinayak P.

    2004-05-01

    Controlled patterning of conducting polymers at a micro- or nanoscale is the first step towards the fabrication of miniaturized functional devices. Here, we introduce an approach for the nanopatterning of conducting polymers using an improved monomer "ink" in dip-pen nanolithography (DPN). The nominal monomer "ink" is converted, in situ, to its conducting solid-state polymeric form after patterned. Proof-of-concept experiments have been performed with acid-promoted polymerization of pyrrole in a less reactive environment (tetrahydrofuran). The ratios of reactants are optimized to give an appropriate rate to match the operation of DPN. A similar synthesis process for the same polymer in its bulk form shows a high conductance and crystalline structure. The miniaturized conducting polymer sensors with light detection ability are fabricated by DPN using the improved ink formula, and exhibit excellent response, recovery, and sensitivity parameters.

  12. Dip-pen nanopatterning of photosensitive conducting polymer using a monomer ink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Ming; Aslam, Mohammed; Fu Lei; Wu Nianqiang; Dravid, Vinayak P.

    2004-01-01

    Controlled patterning of conducting polymers at a micro- or nanoscale is the first step towards the fabrication of miniaturized functional devices. Here, we introduce an approach for the nanopatterning of conducting polymers using an improved monomer 'ink' in dip-pen nanolithography (DPN). The nominal monomer 'ink' is converted, in situ, to its conducting solid-state polymeric form after patterned. Proof-of-concept experiments have been performed with acid-promoted polymerization of pyrrole in a less reactive environment (tetrahydrofuran). The ratios of reactants are optimized to give an appropriate rate to match the operation of DPN. A similar synthesis process for the same polymer in its bulk form shows a high conductance and crystalline structure. The miniaturized conducting polymer sensors with light detection ability are fabricated by DPN using the improved ink formula, and exhibit excellent response, recovery, and sensitivity parameters

  13. Solar Cells Based on Inks of n-Type Colloidal Quantum Dots

    KAUST Repository

    Ning, Zhijun; Dong, Haopeng; Zhang, Qiong; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Sargent, Edward H.

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 American Chemical Society. New inorganic ligands including halide anions have significantly accelerated progress in colloidal quantum dot (CQD) photovoltaics in recent years. All such device reports to date have relied on halide treatment during solid-state ligand exchanges or on co-treatment of long-aliphatic-ligand-capped nanoparticles in the solution phase. Here we report solar cells based on a colloidal quantum dot ink that is capped using halide-based ligands alone. By judicious choice of solvents and ligands, we developed a CQD ink from which a homogeneous and thick colloidal quantum dot solid is applied in a single step. The resultant films display an n-type character, making it suitable as a key component in a solar-converting device. We demonstrate two types of quantum junction devices that exploit these iodide-ligand-based inks. We achieve solar power conversion efficiencies of 6% using this class of colloids.

  14. Silver Eco-Solvent Ink for Reactive Printing of Polychromatic SERS and SPR Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustov, Mavlavi; Golovina, Diana I; Polyakov, Alexander Yu; Goldt, Anastasia E; Eliseev, Andrei A; Kolesnikov, Efim A; Sukhorukova, Irina V; Shtansky, Dmitry V; Grünert, Wolfgang; Grigorieva, Anastasia V

    2018-02-09

    A new reactive ink based on a silver citrate complex is proposed for a photochemical route to surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy active substrates with controllable extinction spectra. The drop-cast test of the ink reveals homogeneous nucleation of silver and colloid particle growth originating directly from photochemical in situ reduction in droplets, while the following evaporation of the deposited ink produces small nano- and micron-size particles. The prepared nanostructures and substrates were accurately characterized by electron microscopy methods and optical extinction spectroscopy. Varying the duration of UV irradiation allows tuning the morphology of individual silver nanoparticles forming hierarchical ring structures with numerous "hot spots" for most efficient Raman enhancement. Raman measurements of probe molecules of rhodamine 6G and methylene blue reached the largest signal enhancement of 10⁶ by the resonance effects.

  15. Facile approach to prepare Pt decorated SWNT/graphene hybrid catalytic ink

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayavan, Sundar, E-mail: sundarmayavan@cecri.res.in [Centre for Innovation in Energy Research, CSIR–Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi 630006, Tamil Nadu (India); Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Mandalam, Aditya; Balasubramanian, M. [Centre for Innovation in Energy Research, CSIR–Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi 630006, Tamil Nadu (India); Sim, Jun-Bo [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sung-Min, E-mail: sungmin@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Pt NPs were in situ synthesized onto CNT–graphene support in aqueous solution. • The as-prepared material was used directly as a catalyst ink without further treatment. • Catalyst ink is active toward methanol oxidation. • This approach realizes both scalable and greener production of hybrid catalysts. - Abstract: Platinum nanoparticles were in situ synthesized onto hybrid support involving graphene and single walled carbon nanotube in aqueous solution. We investigate the reduction of graphene oxide, and platinum nanoparticle functionalization on hybrid support by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The as-prepared platinum on hybrid support was used directly as a catalyst ink without further treatment and is active toward methanol oxidation. This work realizes both scalable and greener production of highly efficient hybrid catalysts, and would be valuable for practical applications of graphene based fuel cell catalysts.

  16. PIXE studies on elemental characterization of offset printing ink tagged with rare-earth taggants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, D.; Saxena, A.; Choudhury, R.K.; Maind, S.D.

    2007-01-01

    Proton Induced X-ray Emission Technique (PIXE) has been used for elemental characterization of offset printing ink tagged with rare-earth taggants, with a proton beam of energy 4 MeV at Folded Tandem Ion Accelerator (FOTIA) at BARC, Trombay, Mumbai, India. The offset printing ink was tagged with rare-earth (La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu and Gd) thenoyltrifluoroacetonate chelates at about 1000 ppm level for each element separately. Small aliquots (approximately 20 mg) of tagged inks were coated on paper supports and then analyzed. Well-resolved rare-earth L X-rays were detected using a high resolution Si(Li) detector. Satisfactory results to identify and quantify the taggants were achieved. (author)

  17. Catalyst inks and method of application for direct methanol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenay, Piotr; Davey, John; Ren, Xiaoming; Gottesfeld, Shimshon; Thomas, Sharon C.

    2004-02-24

    Inks are formulated for forming anode and cathode catalyst layers and applied to anode and cathode sides of a membrane for a direct methanol fuel cell. The inks comprise a Pt catalyst for the cathode and a Pt--Ru catalyst for the anode, purified water in an amount 4 to 20 times that of the catalyst by weight, and a perfluorosulfonic acid ionomer in an amount effective to provide an ionomer content in the anode and cathode surfaces of 20% to 80% by volume. The inks are prepared in a two-step process while cooling and agitating the solutions. The final solution is placed in a cooler and continuously agitated while spraying the solution over the anode or cathode surface of the membrane as determined by the catalyst content.

  18. Recognizing Chinese characters in digital ink from non-native language writers using hierarchical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Hao; Zhang, Xi-wen

    2017-06-01

    While Chinese is learned as a second language, its characters are taught step by step from their strokes to components, radicals to components, and their complex relations. Chinese Characters in digital ink from non-native language writers are deformed seriously, thus the global recognition approaches are poorer. So a progressive approach from bottom to top is presented based on hierarchical models. Hierarchical information includes strokes and hierarchical components. Each Chinese character is modeled as a hierarchical tree. Strokes in one Chinese characters in digital ink are classified with Hidden Markov Models and concatenated to the stroke symbol sequence. And then the structure of components in one ink character is extracted. According to the extraction result and the stroke symbol sequence, candidate characters are traversed and scored. Finally, the recognition candidate results are listed by descending. The method of this paper is validated by testing 19815 copies of the handwriting Chinese characters written by foreign students.

  19. Leveling and thixotropic characteristics of concentrated zirconia inks for screen-printing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phair, John; Lundberg, Mats; Kaiser, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    of ethyl cellulose (binder) content upon the thixotropic and leveling characteristics of zirconia inks. While the yield stress (τ 0), extent of recovery R(%), and rate of recovery (K) increase with increasing binder content, so did the surface roughness and thickness of the screen-printed films. Increasing...... the binder content not only increases the network strength of the thick films but also leads to increased leveling time. As a result, rheological modifiers are proposed to be necessary to improve the leveling characteristics of zirconia inks without losing the green strength of the thick films......Screen-printing is a cost-effective method for the mass manufacture of zirconia-based solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and oxygen separation membranes. The present work outlines an investigation into the leveling, thixotropic, and screen-printing characteristics of concentrated zirconia inks...

  20. Solar Cells Based on Inks of n-Type Colloidal Quantum Dots

    KAUST Repository

    Ning, Zhijun

    2014-10-28

    © 2014 American Chemical Society. New inorganic ligands including halide anions have significantly accelerated progress in colloidal quantum dot (CQD) photovoltaics in recent years. All such device reports to date have relied on halide treatment during solid-state ligand exchanges or on co-treatment of long-aliphatic-ligand-capped nanoparticles in the solution phase. Here we report solar cells based on a colloidal quantum dot ink that is capped using halide-based ligands alone. By judicious choice of solvents and ligands, we developed a CQD ink from which a homogeneous and thick colloidal quantum dot solid is applied in a single step. The resultant films display an n-type character, making it suitable as a key component in a solar-converting device. We demonstrate two types of quantum junction devices that exploit these iodide-ligand-based inks. We achieve solar power conversion efficiencies of 6% using this class of colloids.

  1. Psychometric Evaluation of a Korean Version of the Adherence to Refills and Medications Scale (ARMS) in Adults With Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chun-Ja; Park, Eunyoung; Schlenk, Elizabeth A; Kim, Moonsun; Kim, Dae Jung

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the reliability and validity of the Adherence to Refills and Medications Scale-Korean (ARMS-K) among Korean adults with type 2 diabetes. The Korean translated ARMS-K was back-translated to ensure translation equivalency. A cross-sectional survey was used to evaluate the psychometric properties with exploratory factor analysis for validity and Cronbach's alpha coefficients for reliability. The factor analysis of construct validity identified 3 dimensions of the ARMS-K, explaining 54.7% of the total variance. The internal consistency reliability for the total instrument was acceptable with a Cronbach's alpha of .801. There was good correlation between the ARMS-K and 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale-Korean version (r = -0.698), indicating that these scales measure theoretically related constructs as evidence of convergent validity. As evidence of known groups validity, there was a significant association between the ARMS-K score and glycemic control (P = .048), indicating that the good glycemic controlled group was more likely to have a higher rate of adherence to refills and medications than the poor glycemic controlled group. These results support the cross-cultural applicability of the concepts underlying the ARMS-K. The ARMS-K can be used not only to assess adherence to refills and medications in Koreans with diabetes but also to examine the potential role of adherence to refills and medications in enhanced glycemic control of people with diabetes in a variety of clinical settings. © 2016 The Author(s).

  2. Bad news about an old poison. A case of nicotine poisoning due to both ingestion and injection of the content of an electronic cigarette refill

    OpenAIRE

    Gianfranco Cervellin; Michele Luci; Carlotta Bellini; Giuseppe Lippi

    2013-01-01

    There are increasing concerns about the escalating use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). In particular, smokers have been advised by important agencies such as the US Food and Drug Administration about the potential harm to the health of these products, being now considered as drug delivery devices. The leading issues supporting this statement include the repeated inhalation of propylene glycol that is used as a diluent in refills, accidental poisoning, as well as evidence that ecigare...

  3. Hybrid Ag-based inks for nanocomposite inkjet printed lines: RF properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiolerio, Alessandro [Center for Space Human Robotics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Corso Trento 21, 10129 Torino (Italy); Camarchia, Vittorio, E-mail: vittorio.camarchia@polito.it [Center for Space Human Robotics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Corso Trento 21, 10129 Torino (Italy); Electronics and Telecommunications Department, Politecnico di Torino Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Quaglia, Roberto; Pirola, Marco [Electronics and Telecommunications Department, Politecnico di Torino Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Pandolfi, Paolo [Politronica Inkjet Printing S.r.l., C/O i3p, Corso Castelfidardo 30/A, 10129 Torino (Italy); Pirri, Candido Fabrizio [Center for Space Human Robotics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Corso Trento 21, 10129 Torino (Italy); Applied Science and Technology Department, Politecnico di Torino Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • Polymer–silver nanocomposite conductive ink for RF fast prototyping. • Reduction of the sintering temperature. • Improved printing resolution. • State-of-the-art electrical conductivity. • Good RF performances. - Abstract: The development of highly conductive Ag nanoparticle (NP)-based inkjet printed (IP) connections is a fundamental process for the success of next-generation digitally printed electronics. This is true both at low frequency and at RF, considering the increasing integration of heterogeneous technologies and the use of flexible substrates. Ink-based technologies provide and form at liquid state the functional material that is then delivered to solid via a sintering process to achieve NP coalescence and electrical percolation. Sintering must be performed at very low temperatures (depending on the substrate choice) to be compatible with previous process steps, to preserve the geometry and fulfill the requirements in term of electrical conductivity, as well as to reduce production costs. While IP, as additive technology, is now well settled for DC or low frequency applications, few results on electrical characterization at RF or microwave frequencies are present due to low conductivity, poor geometry definition and low reproducibility. Hence, a good setup of ink formulation and technological realization is fundamental to enable system performance assessment in the high frequency regime. In this paper we propose a breakthrough: we present a nanocomposite ink, whose thermal and DC electrical properties are extremely interesting and competitive with pure-metallic ink systems. Introducing a copolymer in the formulation, we obtained a reduction of the overall sintering temperature, if compared to the pristine NP suspension, along with improved printing resolution together with very good electrical conductivity. The RF characterization has been performed in the range 1–6 GHz on geometries printed on sintered alumina and on a power

  4. Hybrid Ag-based inks for nanocomposite inkjet printed lines: RF properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiolerio, Alessandro; Camarchia, Vittorio; Quaglia, Roberto; Pirola, Marco; Pandolfi, Paolo; Pirri, Candido Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Polymer–silver nanocomposite conductive ink for RF fast prototyping. • Reduction of the sintering temperature. • Improved printing resolution. • State-of-the-art electrical conductivity. • Good RF performances. - Abstract: The development of highly conductive Ag nanoparticle (NP)-based inkjet printed (IP) connections is a fundamental process for the success of next-generation digitally printed electronics. This is true both at low frequency and at RF, considering the increasing integration of heterogeneous technologies and the use of flexible substrates. Ink-based technologies provide and form at liquid state the functional material that is then delivered to solid via a sintering process to achieve NP coalescence and electrical percolation. Sintering must be performed at very low temperatures (depending on the substrate choice) to be compatible with previous process steps, to preserve the geometry and fulfill the requirements in term of electrical conductivity, as well as to reduce production costs. While IP, as additive technology, is now well settled for DC or low frequency applications, few results on electrical characterization at RF or microwave frequencies are present due to low conductivity, poor geometry definition and low reproducibility. Hence, a good setup of ink formulation and technological realization is fundamental to enable system performance assessment in the high frequency regime. In this paper we propose a breakthrough: we present a nanocomposite ink, whose thermal and DC electrical properties are extremely interesting and competitive with pure-metallic ink systems. Introducing a copolymer in the formulation, we obtained a reduction of the overall sintering temperature, if compared to the pristine NP suspension, along with improved printing resolution together with very good electrical conductivity. The RF characterization has been performed in the range 1–6 GHz on geometries printed on sintered alumina and on a power

  5. Rare earth taggants in-printing ink - its potential in forensic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, Daisy; Chodhury, R.K.; Maind, Sandip

    2011-01-01

    Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) techniques were used for elemental characterization of offset printing ink tagged with rare-earth taggants. The offset printing ink was tagged with rare-earth (La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu and Gd) thenoyltrifluoroacetonate chelates at about 1000-ppm level for each element separately. Small aliquots (approximately 20 mg) of tagged inks were coated on paper supports in the form of small circles having diameter 10-15 mm each and then analyzed. In the case of PIXE, a proton beam of energy 4 MeV and in the case of EDXRF a radioisotope source of 241 Am (100 mCi) was used to excite the samples. The PIXE analysis showed well-resolved rare-earth LX-rays and EDXRF analysis showed the K X-rays of rare earths. The aim of this study is to see the efficacy of homogeneous mixing of inorganic taggants in offset printing ink with the objective to establish linear relation of intensity (signal) against concentrations/ amounts of taggant(s) and to derive the minimum detection limit, by EDXRF and PIXE. The feasibility study of determination of rare-earth elements in offset printing ink tagged with rare-earth thenoyltrifluoroacetonates was examined. In the present study, we have used the facility of Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) technique for identification of rare earths in tagged printing ink on paper support. Satisfactory results to identify and quantify the taggants were achieved. (author)

  6. Biomedical implementation of liquid metal ink as drawable ECG electrode and skin circuit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Conventional ways of making bio-electrodes are generally complicated, expensive and unconformable. Here we describe for the first time the method of applying Ga-based liquid metal ink as drawable electrocardiogram (ECG electrodes. Such material owns unique merits in both liquid phase conformability and high electrical conductivity, which provides flexible ways for making electrical circuits on skin surface and a prospective substitution of conventional rigid printed circuit boards (PCBs. METHODS: Fundamental measurements of impedance and polarization voltage of the liquid metal ink were carried out to evaluate its basic electrical properties. Conceptual experiments were performed to draw the alloy as bio-electrodes to acquire ECG signals from both rabbit and human via a wireless module developed on the mobile phone. Further, a typical electrical circuit was drawn in the palm with the ink to demonstrate its potential of implementing more sophisticated skin circuits. RESULTS: With an oxide concentration of 0.34%, the resistivity of the liquid metal ink was measured as 44.1 µΩ·cm with quite low reactance in the form of straight line. Its peak polarization voltage with the physiological saline was detected as -0.73 V. The quality of ECG wave detected from the liquid metal electrodes was found as good as that of conventional electrodes, from both rabbit and human experiments. In addition, the circuit drawn with the liquid metal ink in the palm also runs efficiently. When the loop was switched on, all the light emitting diodes (LEDs were lit and emitted colorful lights. CONCLUSIONS: The liquid metal ink promises unique printable electrical properties as both bio-electrodes and electrical wires. The implemented ECG measurement on biological surface and the successfully run skin circuit demonstrated the conformability and attachment of the liquid metal. The present method is expected to innovate future physiological measurement and

  7. Optimization of a Differential Ion Mobility Spectrometry-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method for High-Throughput Analysis of Nicotine and Related Compounds: Application to Electronic Cigarette Refill Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regueiro, Jorge; Giri, Anupam; Wenzl, Thomas

    2016-06-21

    Fast market penetration of electronic cigarettes is leading to an exponentially growing number of electronic refill liquids with different nicotine contents and an endless list of flavors. Therefore, rapid and simple methods allowing a fast screening of these products are necessary to detect harmful substances which can negatively impact the health of consumers. In this regard, the present work explores the capabilities of differential ion mobility spectrometry coupled to tandem mass spectrometry for high-throughput analysis of nicotine and 11 related compounds in commercial refill liquids for electronic cigarettes. The influence of main factors affecting the ion mobility separation, such as modifier types and concentration, separation voltage, and temperature, was systematically investigated. Despite small molecular weight differences among the studied compounds, a good separation was achieved in the ion mobility cell under the optimized conditions, which involved the use of ethanol as a polar gas-phase chemical modifier. Indeed, differential ion mobility was able to resolve (resolution >4) nicotine from its structural isomer anabasine without the use of any chromatographic separation. The quantitative performance of the proposed method was then evaluated, showing satisfactory precision (RSD ≤ 16%) and recoveries ranging from 85 to 100% for nicotine, and from 84 to 126% for the rest of the target analytes. Several commercial electronic cigarette refill liquids were analyzed to demonstrate the applicability of the method. In some cases, significant differences were found between labeled and measured levels of nicotine. Anatabine, cotinine, myosmine, and nornicotine were also found in some of the analyzed samples.

  8. The Study of the plasmaspheric refilling using the data from the ERG, the VAPs, the ground-based magnetometers and the IPE model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obana, Y.; Maruyama, N.; Masahito, N.; Matsuoka, A.; Teramoto, M.; Nomura, R.; Fujimoto, A.; Tanaka, Y.; Shinohara, M.; Kasahara, Y.; Matsuda, S.; Kumamoto, A.; Tsuchiya, F.; Yoshizumi, M.; Shinohara, I.

    2017-12-01

    Earth's inner magnetosphere is a complex dynamical region of geo space comprising plasma populations with wide energy ranges, the plasmasphere, ring current, and radiation belts. They form a closely coupled system, thus, the plasmasphere is the lowest energy population in the inner magnetosphere, but the accurate prediction of the evolution of the plasmasphere is critical in understanding the dynamics of the inner magnetosphere, which include even the highest energy population, the radiation belts. In this study, we study plasmaspheric refilling following geomagnetic storms using data from ERG-MGF, ERG-PWE, RBSP-EMFISIS and Ground-based magneto­meters. DC magnetic field data measured by ERG-MGF, RBSP-EMFISIS and ground-based magnetometers provides the frequency of the toroidal mode field line resonances. From this information, the equatorial plasma mass density is estimated by solving the MHD wave equation for suitable models of the magnetic field and the field line density distribution. ERG-PWE and RBSP-EMFISIS provide measurements of wave electric and magnetic field, thus we can estimate the local electron density from the plasma wave spectrograms by identifying narrow-band emission at the upper-hybrid resonance frequency. Furthermore, using Ionosphere Plasmasphere Electrodynamics Model (IPE), we calculate the plasmaspheric refilling rates and evaluate the relative contribution of various mechanisms (heating, neutral particle density, composition and wings, etc.) to the refilling rate.

  9. Optimized circuit design for flexible 8-bit RFID transponders with active layer of ink-jet printed small molecule semiconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kjellander, B.K.C.; Smaal, W.T.T.; Myny, K.; Genoe, J.; Dehaene, W.; Heremans, P.; Gelinck, G.H.

    2013-01-01

    We ink-jet print a blend of 6,13-bis(triisopropyl-silylethynyl)pentacene and polystyrene as the active layer for flexible circuits. The discrete ink-jet printed transistors exhibit a saturation mobility of 0.5 cm2 V -1 s-1. The relative spread in transistor characteristics can be very large. This

  10. Considerations on the ASTM standards 1789-04 and 1422-05 on the forensic examination of ink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Cedric; Margot, Pierre

    2010-09-01

    The ASTM standards on Writing Ink Identification (ASTM 1789-04) and on Writing Ink Comparison (ASTM 1422-05) are the most up-to-date guidelines that have been published on the forensic analysis of ink. The aim of these documents is to cover most aspects of the forensic analysis of ink evidence, from the analysis of ink samples, the comparison of the analytical profile of these samples (with the aim to differentiate them or not), through to the interpretation of the result of the examination of these samples in a forensic context. Significant evolutions in the technology available to forensic scientists, in the quality assurance requirements brought onto them, and in the understanding of frameworks to interpret forensic evidence have been made in recent years. This article reviews the two standards in the light of these evolutions and proposes some practical improvements in terms of the standardization of the analyses, the comparison of ink samples, and the interpretation of ink examination. Some of these suggestions have already been included in a DHS funded project aimed at creating a digital ink library for the United States Secret Service. © 2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  11. Purification of inkjet ink from water using liquid phase, electric discharge polymerization and cellulosic membrane filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Alexander T; Hsieh, Jeffery S; Lee, Daniel T

    2013-01-01

    A method to separate inkjet ink from water was developed using a liquid phase, electric discharge process. The liquid phase, electric discharge process with filtration or sedimentation was shown to remove 97% of inkjet ink from solutions containing between 0.1-0.8 g/L and was consistent over a range of treatment conditions. Additionally, particle size analysis of treated allyl alcohol and treated propanol confirmed the electric discharge treatment has a polymerization mechanism, and small molecule analysis of treated methanol using gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy confirmed the mechanism was free radical initiated polymerization.

  12. Combustion-Assisted Photonic Annealing of Printable Graphene Inks via Exothermic Binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secor, Ethan B; Gao, Theodore Z; Dos Santos, Manuel H; Wallace, Shay G; Putz, Karl W; Hersam, Mark C

    2017-09-06

    High-throughput and low-temperature processing of high-performance nanomaterial inks is an important technical challenge for large-area, flexible printed electronics. In this report, we demonstrate nitrocellulose as an exothermic binder for photonic annealing of conductive graphene inks, leveraging the rapid decomposition kinetics and built-in energy of nitrocellulose to enable versatile process integration. This strategy results in superlative electrical properties that are comparable to extended thermal annealing at 350 °C, using a pulsed light process that is compatible with thermally sensitive substrates. The resulting porous microstructure and broad liquid-phase patterning compatibility are exploited for printed graphene microsupercapacitors on paper-based substrates.

  13. A comparison of footprint indexes calculated from ink and electronic footprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urry, S R; Wearing, S C

    2001-04-01

    Pressure platforms offer the potential to measure and record electronic footprints rapidly; however, the accuracy of geometric indexes derived from these prints has not been investigated. A comparison of conventional ink footprints with simultaneously acquired electronic prints revealed significant differences in several geometric indexes. The contact area was consistently underestimated by the electronic prints and resulted in a significant change in the arch index. The long plantar angle was poorly correlated between techniques. This study demonstrated that electronic footprints, derived from a pressure platform, are not representative of the equivalent ink footprints and, consequently, should not be interpreted with reference to literature on conventional footprints.

  14. Directly deposited quantum dot solids using a colloidally stable nanoparticle ink

    KAUST Repository

    Fischer, Armin H.; Rollny, Lisa R.; Pan, Jun; Carey, Graham H.; Thon, Susanna; Hoogland, Sjoerd H.; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Zhitomirsky, David; Kim, Jinyoung; Bakr, Osman; Sargent, E. H.

    2013-01-01

    We develop a photovoltaic colloidal quantum dot ink that allows for lossless, single-step coating of large areas in a manufacturing-compatible process. Our materials strategy involves a solution-phase ligand exchange to transport compatible linkers that yield 1-thioglycerol-capped PbS quantum dots in dimethyl sulfoxide with a photoluminescence quantum yield of 24%. A proof-of-principle solar cell made from the ink exhibits 2.1% power conversion efficiency. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Directly deposited quantum dot solids using a colloidally stable nanoparticle ink

    KAUST Repository

    Fischer, Armin H.

    2013-08-12

    We develop a photovoltaic colloidal quantum dot ink that allows for lossless, single-step coating of large areas in a manufacturing-compatible process. Our materials strategy involves a solution-phase ligand exchange to transport compatible linkers that yield 1-thioglycerol-capped PbS quantum dots in dimethyl sulfoxide with a photoluminescence quantum yield of 24%. A proof-of-principle solar cell made from the ink exhibits 2.1% power conversion efficiency. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Effect of electron beam irradiation on forensic evidence. 2. Analysis of writing inks on porous surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramotowski, Robert S; Regen, Erin M

    2007-05-01

    The effect of electron beam irradiation on a series of different writing inks is described. As the anthrax-tainted letters were discovered in October 2001, the U.S. government began to experiment with the use of the electron beam irradiation process for destroying such biological agents. Plans initially considered a large-scale countrywide use of this technology. However, over time the scope of this plan as well as the radiation dosage were reduced, especially when some adverse consequences to mailed items subjected to this process were observed. Little data existed at the time to characterize what level of damage might be expected to occur with common items sent through the mail. This was especially important to museums and other institutions that routinely ship valuable and historic items through the mail. Although the Smithsonian Institution initiated some studies of the effect of electron beam irradiation on archived materials, little data existed on the effect that this process would have on forensic evidence. Approximately 97 different black, blue, red, green, and yellow writing inks were selected. Writing ink types included ballpoint, gel, plastic/felt tip, and rollerball. All noncontrol samples were subjected to standard mail irradiation conditions used by the U.S. Postal Service at the time this experiment was performed. A video spectral comparator and thin-layer chromatography (TLC) analysis were used to evaluate both the control and the irradiated samples. Some published studies reported changes in the presence/absence of dye bands in the chromatograms of irradiated writing inks. Some of these studies report the formation of additional dye bands on the chromatogram while others report missing dye bands. However, using standard testing guidelines and procedures, none of the 97 irradiated inks tested were found to show any significant optical or chemical differences from the control samples. In addition, random testing of some of the ink samples using a

  17. Thermal enhancement cartridge heater modified tritium hydride bed development, Part 2 - Experimental validation of key conceptual design features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heroux, K.J.; Morgan, G.A. [Savannah River Laboratory, Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-03-15

    The Thermal Enhancement Cartridge Heater Modified (TECH Mod) tritium hydride bed is an interim replacement for the first generation (Gen1) process hydride beds currently in service in the Savannah River Site (SRS) Tritium Facilities. 3 new features are implemented in the TECH Mod hydride bed prototype: internal electric cartridge heaters, porous divider plates, and copper foam discs. These modifications will enhance bed performance and reduce costs by improving bed activation and installation processes, in-bed accountability measurements, end-of-life bed removal, and He-3 recovery. A full-scale hydride bed test station was constructed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in order to evaluate the performance of the prototype TECH Mod hydride bed. Controlled hydrogen (H{sub 2}) absorption/ desorption experiments were conducted to validate that the conceptual design changes have no adverse effects on the gas transfer kinetics or H{sub 2} storage/release properties compared to those of the Gen1 bed. Inert gas expansions before, during, and after H{sub 2} flow tests were used to monitor changes in gas transfer rates with repeated hydriding/de-hydriding of the hydride material. The gas flow rates significantly decreased after initial hydriding of the material; however, minimal changes were observed after repeated cycling. The data presented herein confirm that the TECH Mod hydride bed would be a suitable replacement for the Gen1 bed with the added enhancements expected from the advanced design features. (authors)

  18. Fast and Easy Drying Method for the Preparation of Activated [{sup 18}F]Fluoride Using Polymer Cartridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jai Woong [Inha University, Inchon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byoung Se; Chi, Dae Yoon [FutureChem Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Ju [Sogang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Seung Jun [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    An efficient nucleophilic [{sup 18}F]fluorination has been studied to reduce byproducts and preparation time. Instead of conventional aqueous solution of K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-K{sub 222}, several organic solution containing inert organic salts were used to release [{sup 18}F]fluoride ion and anion bases captured in the polymer cartridge, concluding that methanol solution is the best choice. Comparing to azeotropic drying process, one min was sufficient to remove methanol completely, resulting in about 10% radioactivity saving by reducing drying time. The polymer cartridge, Chromafix (PS-HCO{sub 3}) was pretreated with several anion bases to displace pre-loaded bicarbonate base. Phosphate bases showed better results than carbonate bases in terms of lower basicity. tert-Butanol solvent used as a reaction media played another critical role in nucleophilic [{sup 18}F]fluorination by suppressing eliminated side product. Consequent [{sup 18}F]fluorination under the present condition afforded fast preparation of reaction solution and high radiochemical yields (98% radio-TLC, 84% RCY) with 94% of precursor remained.

  19. Identification of organic pigments in tattoo inks and permanent make-up using laser desorption ionisation mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederer, Markus; Hauri, Urs; Kroll, Lydia; Hohl, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, about 12% of the European and 20% of the US population are tattooed. Rising concerns regarding consumer safety, led to legal restrictions on tattoo and permanent make-up (PMU) inks. Restrictions also include bans on certain colourants. Both ink types use organic pigments for colour-giving, plus inorganic pigments for white and black and colour tones. Pigments are only sparingly soluble in common solvents and occur as suspended particles in the ink matrix. Their detection and identification therefore pose a major challenge for laboratories involved in monitoring the legal compliance of tattoo inks and PMU. We overcame this challenge by developing a direct laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry method, which included an easy sample clean up. The method proved to be capable of detecting and identifying organic pigments in almost all of the tested ink samples. Method validation and routine deployment during market surveys showed the method to be fit for purpose. Pigment screening of 396 tattoo inks and 55 PMU taken from the Swiss market between 2009 and 2017 lead to the following conclusions: Pigment variety is much greater in tattoo inks (18) than in PMU (10); four prohibited pigments (Pigment Green 7, Pigment Red 122, Pigment Violet 19 and 23) were found in both ink types; for PMU, these four pigments made up 12% of the pigment findings, compared to 32% for tattoo inks. Therefore, legal compliance of PMU was at a higher level. A comparison of pigments found with those declared on tattoo ink labels clearly showed that banned pigments are rarely declared, but rather masked by listing non present legal pigments and label forging; therefore, highlighting the urgency of widespread market controls.

  20. Ink-Jet Printing of Gluconobacter oxydans: Micropatterned Coatings As High Surface-to-Volume Ratio Bio-Reactive Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Fidaleo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We formulated a latex ink for ink-jet deposition of viable Gram-negative bacterium Gluconobacter oxydans as a model adhesive, thin, highly bio-reactive microstructured microbial coating. Control of G. oxydans latex-based ink viscosity by dilution with water allowed ink-jet piezoelectric droplet deposition of 30 × 30 arrays of two or three droplets/dot microstructures on a polyester substrate. Profilometry analysis was used to study the resulting dry microstructures. Arrays of individual dots with base diameters of ~233–241 µm were obtained. Ring-shaped dots with dot edges higher than the center, 2.2 and 0.9 µm respectively, were obtained when a one-to-four diluted ink was used. With a less diluted ink (one-to-two diluted, the microstructure became more uniform with an average height of 3.0 µm, but the ink-jet printability was more difficult. Reactivity of the ink-jet deposited microstructures following drying and rehydration was studied in a non-growth medium by oxidation of 50 g/L D-sorbitol to L-sorbose, and a high dot volumetric reaction rate was measured (~435 g·L−1·h−1. These results indicate that latex ink microstructures generated by ink-jet printing may hold considerable potential for 3D fabrication of high surface-to-volume ratio biocoatings for use as microbial biosensors with the aim of coating microbes as reactive biosensors on electronic devices and circuit chips.

  1. A Parametric Study of the Cold Plasma Refilling Rate on the Plasmasphere and Inner Magnetosphere Dynamics during the 17-March-2013 and 28-June-2013 Magnetic Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemon, C.; Bishop, R. L.; Coster, A. J.; Nikoukar, R.; Chen, M.; Turner, D. L.; Roeder, J. L.; Shumko, M.; Payne, C.; Bhatt, R.

    2017-12-01

    Magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling is a complex process, and researchers must consider a number of factors: particle transport in the electric and magnetic fields drives plasma from the high latitude tail to the mid-latitude inner magnetosphere; particle precipitation into the ionosphere, which is frequently driven by wave-particle interactions, enhances the ionospheric conductivities; feedback of the ionospheric conductivities on the electric fields determines how well the convection electric field penetrates to the mid-latitude ionosphere; and the erosion and refilling of cold plasma in the plasmasphere substantially determines the mass of plasma on magnetospheric field lines and the subsequent wave environment that drives particle precipitation. While we model all of these processes, in this presentation we focus on the role of the plasmasphere and its role in M-I coupling. We present RCM-E simulations in which particle transport through self-consistent fields controls the drainage of the plasmasphere, an outflow model determines the plasmasphere refilling rate, and electron and ion precipitation influences the electric field by enhancing the ionospheric conductivity. The plasmasphere significantly affects the spatial structure of the wave environment and electron precipitation rates. This impacts the dynamics of the sub-auroral polarization stream (SAPS) in the pre-midnight region equatorward of the auroral boundary, which itself drives erosion of the plasmasphere through strong westward electric fields near the plasmapause. We present comparisons with Van Allen Probes, THEMIS, the Plasmasphere Data Assimilation (PDA) model, and line-of-sight observations from Millstone Hill ISR and space-based GPS receivers, showing how our modeled plasmasphere compares with observational data during the 17-March-2013 and 28-June-2013 magnetic storms. To better understand refilling, we focus particular attention on densities in the recently-depleted flux tubes in the

  2. Development of a method for rapid and simultaneous monitoring of particulate and dissolved radiocesium in water with nonwoven fabric cartridge filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hideki Tsuji; Tetsuo Yasutaka; Yoshihiko Kondo; Yasukazu Suzuki

    2014-01-01

    A method for the rapid and simultaneous monitoring of particulate and dissolved 137 Cs concentration in water was developed. This method uses pleated polypropylene nonwoven fabric filter to collect particulate radiocesium, and nonwoven fabric impregnated with Prussian blue (PB) to absorb dissolved radiocesium. The fabric was placed into cylindrical plastic cartridges (SS-cartridge and PB-cartridge). Traditional monitoring methods, such as evaporative concentration, often require time for pre-processing. However, this method described requires much less pre-processing time before the detection. Experiments conducted with simulated river water demonstrated that almost all of the suspended solids weight was collected in the SS-cartridge, and that more than 92 % of dissolved 137 Cs was absorbed onto the two PB-cartridges by 2.5 L/min flow rate when the range of the pH was 6-8. This device was applied to monitor Abukuma River water at two locations and the results were compared with those obtained using the filtrating and evaporative concentration method. The suspended solids concentration in river water, calculated by weight gain of the SS-cartridge and by sediment weight after filtration with a 0.45-μm membrane filter, agreed well. The radioactivity of the particulate and dissolved 137 Cs also agreed well in one of the two replications of this method. In addition, the required time for pre-processing was reduced by 60 times that by filtrating and evaporative concentration method. This method can separately collect and concentrate particulate and dissolved radiocesium rapidly and simultaneously in the field. (author)

  3. Separation of V(V)-4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinolato complex from a large excess reagent using an ODS cartridge for high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Toru; Kaneko, Emiko; Yotsuyanagi, Takao

    2006-12-01

    A selective off-line preconcentration technique for the V(V) complex with 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol has been developed and successfully applied to the determination of V(V) in an air-borne sample. The target complex was separated from excess reagent using an ODS cartridge and water as the eluent. The complex was then concentrated on another ODS cartridge using tetrabutylammonium bromide and eluted with methanol; the eluate was applied to a one-drop concentration/HPLC. A detection limit as low as (6.05 +/- 0.82)x 10(-11) M (5 ppt) was achieved.

  4. Reactive inkjet printing and functional inks : a versatile route to new programmed materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delaney, J.T.

    2010-01-01

    Starting as an ink dispensing tool for documents and images, inkjet printing has emerged as an important instrument for delivering reactive fluids, into a means for creating new, programmed materials. Inkjet is a processing technology with some very unique capabilities, which allows the handling of

  5. Tuning the viscosity of halogen free bulk heterojunction inks for inkjet printed organic solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamont, C.A.; Eggenhuisen, T.M.; Coenen, M.J.J.; Slaats, T.W.L.; Andriessen, R.; Groen, P.

    2015-01-01

    For the solution processing of organic photovoltaics on an industrial scale, the exclusion of halogenated solvents is a necessity. However, the limited solubility of most semiconducting polymer/fullerene blends in non-halogenated solvents results in ink formulations with low viscosities which poses

  6. Preorganization of Nanostructured Inks for Roll-to-Roll-Coated Polymer Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C; Senkovskyy, Volodymyr; Kiriy, Anton

    2010-01-01

    , a preorganized ink was obtained that was used to make polymer solar cell modules in a full roll-to-roll coating and printing process operating in ambient air. The polymer solar cells were thus prepared by a mixture of slot die and flat-bed screen printing. Various polymer solar cell modules were prepared ranging...

  7. Effect of an entrained air bubble on the acoustics of an ink channel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurissen, R.J.M.; Jong, de J.; Reinten, H.; Berg, van den M.; Wijshoff, H.M.A.; Versluis, M.; Lohse, D.

    2008-01-01

    Piezo-driven inkjet systems are very sensitive to air entrapment. The entrapped air bubbles grow by rectified diffusion in the ink channel and finally result in nozzle failure. Experimental results on the dynamics of fully grown air bubbles are presented. It is found that the bubble counteracts the

  8. Chemistry under Your Skin? Experiments with Tattoo Inks for Secondary School Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckey, Marc; Eilks, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses a set of easy, hands-on experiments that inquire into and differentiate among tattoo inks of varying quality. A classroom scenario is described for integrating these experiments into secondary school chemistry classes. Initial experiences from the classroom are also presented.

  9. Monitoring by Control Technique - Compliant (Low/No VOC/HAP) Inks and Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stationary source emissions monitoring is required to demonstrate that a source is meeting the requirements in Federal or state rules. This page is about Compliant (Low/No VOC/HAP) Inks and Coatings control techniques used to reduce pollutant emissions.

  10. Observation of ionomer in catalyst ink of polymer electrolyte fuel cell using cryogenic transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Shinichi; Shimanuki, Junichi; Mashio, Tetsuya; Ohma, Atsushi; Tohma, Hajime; Ishihara, Ayumi; Ito, Yoshiko; Nishino, Yuri; Miyazawa, Atsuo

    2017-01-01

    Optimizing the catalyst layer structure is one of the key issues for improving performance despite lower platinum loading. The catalyst ink, consisting of platinum-loaded carbon particles and ionomer dispersed in an aqueous solvent, is a key factor for controlling the structure of the catalyst layer because the catalyst layer is prepared in a wet coating process. For that purpose, we visualized the nanostructure of the ionomer in the catalyst ink by cryogenic electron microscopy, especially cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). By cryo-TEM, it was revealed that ionomer molecules formed rod-like aggregates macro-homogeneously in the solvent, and a similar morphology was observed in a carbon-particle-containing solvent. In contrast, ionomer aggregates in the catalyst ink containing platinum nanoparticles loaded on carbon particles were denser in the vicinity of the platinum-loaded carbon particles. That can be attributed to strong interaction between platinum nanoparticles and sulfonic acid groups in the ionomer. It also implies that a good understanding of ionomer morphology in the catalyst ink can play an important role in controlling the catalyst layer microstructure for reducing platinum loading.

  11. Conductivity Enhancement of Binder-Based Graphene Inks by Photonic Annealing and Subsequent Compression Rolling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arapov, K.; Bex, G.; Hendriks, R.; Rubingh, E.; Abbel, R.; de With, G.; Friedrich, H.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a combination of photonic annealing and compression rolling to improve the conductive properties of printed binder-based graphene inks. High-density light pulses result in temperatures up to 500 °C that along with a decrease of resistivity lead to layer expansion. The structural

  12. Graphene Inks with Cellulosic Dispersants: Development and Applications for Printed Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secor, Ethan Benjamin

    Graphene offers promising opportunities for applications in printed and flexible electronic devices due to its high electrical and thermal conductivity, mechanical flexibility and strength, and chemical and environmental stability. However, scalable production and processing of graphene presents a critical technological challenge preventing the application of graphene for flexible electronic interconnects, electrochemical energy storage, and chemically robust electrical contacts. In this thesis, a promising and versatile platform for the production, patterning, and application of graphene inks is presented based on cellulosic dispersants. Graphene is produced from flake graphite using scalable liquid-phase exfoliation methods, using the polymers ethyl cellulose and nitrocellulose as multifunctional dispersing agents. These cellulose derivatives offer high colloidal stability and broadly tunable rheology for graphene dispersions, providing an effective and tunable platform for graphene ink development. Thermal or photonic annealing decomposes the polymer dispersant to yield high conductivity, flexible graphene patterns for various electronics applications. In particular, the chemical stability of graphene enables robust electrical contacts for ceramic, metallic, organic and electrolytic materials, validating the diverse applicability of graphene in printed electronics. Overall, the strategy for graphene ink design presented here offers a simple, efficient, and versatile method for integrating graphene in a wide range of printed devices and systems, providing both fundamental insight for nanomaterial ink development and realistic opportunities for practical applications.

  13. The exothermic reaction route of a self-heatable conductive ink for rapid processable printed electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong-Youn; Han, Jin Wook; Chun, Sangki

    2014-01-07

    We report the exothermic reaction route and new capability of a self-heatable conductive ink (Ag2O and silver 2,2-dimethyloctanoate) in order to achieve both a low sintering temperature and electrical resistivity within a short sintering time for flexible printed electronics and display appliances. Unlike conventional conductive ink, which requires a costly external heating instrument for rapid sintering, self-heatable conductive ink by itself is capable of generating heat as high as 312 °C when its exothermic reaction is triggered at a temperature of 180 °C. This intensive exothermic reaction is found to result from the recursive reaction of the 2,2-dimethyloctanoate anion, which is thermally dissociated from silver 2,2-dimethyloctanoate, with silver oxide microparticles. Through this recursive reaction, a massive number of silver atoms are supplied from silver oxide microparticles, and the nucleation of silver atoms and the fusion of silver nanoparticles become the major source of heat. This exothermic reaction eventually realizes the electrical resistivity of self-heatable conductive ink as low as 27.5 μΩ cm within just 40 s by combining chemical annealing, which makes it suitable for the roll-to-roll printable electronics such as a flexible touch screen panel.

  14. Screen-printable sol-gel enzyme-containing carbon inks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Pamidi, P V; Park, D S

    1996-08-01

    Enzymes usually cannot withstand the high-temperature curing associated with the thick-film fabrication process and require a separate immobilization step in connection with the production of single-use biosensors. We report on the development of sol-gel-derived enzyme-containing carbon inks that display compatibility with the screen-printing process. Such coupling of sol-gel and thick-film technologies offers a one-step fabrication of disposable enzyme electrodes, as it obviates the need for thermal curing. The enzyme-containing sol-gel carbon ink, prepared by dispersing the biocatalyst, along with the graphite powder and a binder, within the sol-gel precursors, is cured very rapidly (10 min) at low temperature (4 °C). The influence of the ink preparation conditions is explored, and the sensor performance is evaluated in connection with the incorporation of glucose oxidase or horseradish peroxidase. The resulting strips are stable for at least 3 months. Such sol-gel-derived carbon inks should serve as hosts for other heat-sensitive biomaterials in connection with the microfabrication of various thick-film biosensors.

  15. Local network effects on hygroscopic expansion in digital ink-jet printing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosco, E.; Peerlings, R.H.J.; Geers, M.G.D.

    2016-01-01

    Dimensional stability of paper is a key problem in the field of digital ink-jet printing. In the literature, this phenomenon is mostly approached through continuum models representing the overall response of paper. However, if the length scale of the applied wetting is comparable to the

  16. Beggars, Black Bears, and Butterflies: The Scientific Gaze and Ink Painting in Modern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Claypool

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The ink brushes of the painters Chen Shizeng (1876–1923, Liu Kuiling (1885–1967, and Gao Jianfu (1879–1951 were employed as tools of the nation in early twentieth-century China. Yet the expression of a radical idealism about the new republic in their ink paintings was tempered early on by a tentative and self-conscious exploration of new ways of seeing. By synthesizing a “universal” scientific gaze with their idiosyncratically trained vision as artists, they created pictures that encouraged their viewers to cross the boundaries and binaries that would come to define the discourse about guohua, or “national painting”: East versus West, oil versus ink, modernity versus tradition, painting versus graphic arts, and elite versus folk. This article explores that extended moment of synthesis and experimentation. It argues that it was through the scientific gaze of these brush-and-ink artists that idealism and learning came to cooperate, and through their paintings that possibilities for news ways of seeing the nation emerged.

  17. Emerging Carbon and Post-Carbon Nanomaterial Inks for Printed Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secor, Ethan B; Hersam, Mark C

    2015-02-19

    Carbon and post-carbon nanomaterials present desirable electrical, optical, chemical, and mechanical attributes for printed electronics, offering low-cost, large-area functionality on flexible substrates. In this Perspective, recent developments in carbon nanomaterial inks are highlighted. Monodisperse semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes compatible with inkjet and aerosol jet printing are ideal channels for thin-film transistors, while inkjet, gravure, and screen-printable graphene-based inks are better-suited for electrodes and interconnects. Despite the high performance achieved in prototype devices, additional effort is required to address materials integration issues encountered in more complex systems. In this regard, post-carbon nanomaterial inks (e.g., electrically insulating boron nitride and optically active transition-metal dichalcogenides) present promising opportunities. Finally, emerging work to extend these nanomaterial inks to three-dimensional printing provides a path toward nonplanar devices. Overall, the superlative properties of these materials, coupled with versatile assembly by printing techniques, offer a powerful platform for next-generation printed electronics.

  18. A benchmark study of commercially available copper nanoparticle inks for application in organic electronic devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polino, G.; Abbel, R.; Shanmugam, S.; Bex, G.J.P.; Hendriks, R.; Brunetti, F.; Di Carlo, A.; Andriessen, R.; Galagan, Y.

    2016-01-01

    A set of three commercial copper nanoparticle based inkjet inks has been benchmarked with respect to their potential to form conducting printed structures for future applications in organic electronic devices. Significant differences were observed in terms of jetting properties, spreading behaviour

  19. Fluoropolymer based composite with Ag particles as 3D printable conductive ink for stretchable electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; La, Thanh Giang; Li, Xinda; Chung, Hyun Joong

    The recent development of stretchable electronics expands the scope of wearable and healthcare applications. This creates a high demand in stretchy conductor that can maintain conductivity at high strain conditions. Here, we describe a simple fabrication pathway to achieve stretchable, 3D-printable and low-cost conductive composite ink. The ink is used to print complex stretchable patterns with high conductivity. The elastic ink is composed of silver(Ag) flakes, fluorine rubber, an organic solvent and surfactant. The surfactant plays multiple roles in in the composite. The surfactant promotes compatibility between silver flakes and fluorine rubber; at the same time, it affects the mechanical properties of the hosting fluoropolymers and adhesion properties of the composite. Based on experimental observations, we discuss the exact role of the surfactant in the composite. The resulting composite exhibits high conductivity value of 8.49 *10 4 S/m along with high reliability against repeated stretching/releasing cycles. Interesting examples of transfer printing of the printed ink and its applications in working devices, such as RFID tag and antennas, are also showcased.

  20. Security printing of covert quick response codes using upconverting nanoparticle inks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meruga, Jeevan M.; Cross, William M.; May, P. Stanley; Luu, QuocAnh; Crawford, Grant A.; Kellar, Jon J.

    2012-10-01

    Counterfeiting costs governments and private industries billions of dollars annually due to loss of value in currency and other printed items. This research involves using lanthanide doped β-NaYF4 nanoparticles for security printing applications. Inks comprised of Yb3+/Er3+ and Yb3+/Tm3+ doped β-NaYF4 nanoparticles with oleic acid as the capping agent in toluene and methyl benzoate with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as the binding agent were used to print quick response (QR) codes. The QR codes were made using an AutoCAD file and printed with Optomec direct-write aerosol jetting®. The printed QR codes are invisible under ambient lighting conditions, but are readable using a near-IR laser, and were successfully scanned using a smart phone. This research demonstrates that QR codes, which have been used primarily for information sharing applications, can also be used for security purposes. Higher levels of security were achieved by printing both green and blue upconverting inks, based on combinations of Er3+/Yb3+ and Tm3+/Yb3+, respectively, in a single QR code. The near-infrared (NIR)-to-visible upconversion luminescence properties of the two-ink QR codes were analyzed, including the influence of NIR excitation power density on perceived color, in term of the CIE 1931 chromaticity index. It was also shown that this security ink can be optimized for line width, thickness and stability on different substrates.

  1. The identification of a sensitizing component used in the manufacturing of an ink ribbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Stacey E.; Tapp, Loren; Durgam, Srinivas; Meade, B. Jean; Jackson, Laurel G.; Cohen, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Skin diseases including dermatitis constitute ≈ 30% of all occupational illnesses, with a high incidence in the printing industry. An outbreak of contact dermatitis among employees at an ink ribbon manufacturing plant was investigated by scientists from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Employees in the process areas of the plant were exposed to numerous chemicals and many had experienced skin rashes, especially after the introduction of a new ink ribbon product. To identify the causative agent(s) of the occupational dermatitis, the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) was used to identify the potential of the chemicals used in the manufacture of the ink ribbon to induce allergic contact dermatitis. Follow-up patch testing with the suspected allergens was conducted on exposed employees. Polyvinyl butyral, a chemical component used in the manufacture of the ink ribbon in question and other products, tested positive in the LLNA, with an EC3 of 3.6%, which identifies it as a potential sensitizer; however, no employees tested positive to this chemical during skin patch testing. This finding has implications beyond those described in this report because of occupational exposure to polyvinyl butyral outside of the printing industry. PMID:22375946

  2. Robust and Elastic Lunar and Martian Structures from 3D-Printed Regolith Inks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakus, Adam E.; Koube, Katie D.; Geisendorfer, Nicholas R.; Shah, Ramille N.

    2017-03-01

    Here, we present a comprehensive approach for creating robust, elastic, designer Lunar and Martian regolith simulant (LRS and MRS, respectively) architectures using ambient condition, extrusion-based 3D-printing of regolith simulant inks. The LRS and MRS powders are characterized by distinct, highly inhomogeneous morphologies and sizes, where LRS powder particles are highly irregular and jagged and MRS powder particles are rough, but primarily rounded. The inks are synthesized via simple mixing of evaporant, surfactant, and plasticizer solvents, polylactic-co-glycolic acid (30% by solids volume), and regolith simulant powders (70% by solids volume). Both LRS and MRS inks exhibit similar rheological and 3D-printing characteristics, and can be 3D-printed at linear deposition rates of 1-150 mm/s using 300 μm to 1.4 cm-diameter nozzles. The resulting LRS and MRS 3D-printed materials exhibit similar, but distinct internal and external microstructures and material porosity (~20-40%). These microstructures contribute to the rubber-like quasi-static and cyclic mechanical properties of both materials, with young’s moduli ranging from 1.8 to 13.2 MPa and extension to failure exceeding 250% over a range of strain rates (10-1-102 min-1). Finally, we discuss the potential for LRS and MRS ink components to be reclaimed and recycled, as well as be synthesized in resource-limited, extraterrestrial environments.

  3. The Skin We Ink: Tattoos, Literacy, and a New English Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, David E.

    2009-01-01

    David E. Kirkland turns our attention to the ways tattoos can represent "human" stories of literacy through the power of inked flesh, the self-portrait it creates, and the words and worlds that surround the body. The body, for Kirkland, is an important site of cultural production that represents the transformative, political, and personal terrains…

  4. WASTE REDUCTION EVALUATION OF SOY-BASED INK AT A SHEET-FED OFFSET PRINTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Waste Reduction Innovative Technology Evaluation (WRITE) project quantifies and compares wastes generated from the use of soy-based and petroleum-based inks in sheet-fed offset printing. Data were collected in a full-scale print run on a Miller TP104 Plus 6-color press in Ju...

  5. A new photoelectric ink based on nanocellulose/CdS quantum dots for screen-printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Aimin; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Qinwen; Chen, Ruisong; Liu, Wangyu; Fang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Lishi

    2016-09-05

    CdS quantum dots with excellent photoelectrical properties embedded in nanocellulose could be exploited for use in photoelectrical ink. In this work, nanocellulose/CdS quantum dot composites were fabricated by controlling the carboxylate content of the nanocellulose and the molar ratio of Cd(2+)/-COOH. New photoelectric inks were prepared based on the composites, in which the CdS quantum dots acted as the pigment and the nanocellulose as the binder. The results of the photocurrent of the composites showed that the photocurrent could be tailored by the carboxylate content and the molar ratio of Cd(2+)/-COOH. And the photocurrent could be as high as 2μA. The surface tension of the photoelectric ink was 27.80±0.03mN/m and its viscosity was 30.3mPas. The photoelectric ink was stable with excellent fluidity and rheology, it could therefore be applied to screen-printing and three-dimensional (3D) printing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Methods and principles of pigment dispersing to maximize ink opacity and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaeffer, W.R.

    1999-01-01

    Four classes of oligomers were evaluated for their pigment dispersing capabilities. These include and aliphatic urethanes, epoxy acrylates, polyesters and a novel class of acrylated resins. This will show that surface tension and chemical structure are major factors influencing pigment and final ink performance properties

  7. A comprehensive evaluation of the toxicology of monogram inks added to experimental cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Donna C; Wiecinski, Paige N; Coggins, Christopher R E; Banty, Tamara H; Oldham, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Cigarettes often have a small identifying mark (monogram) printed either on the cigarette paper toward the filter end of the cigarette or on the tipping paper. A battery of tests was used to compare the toxicology of mainstream smoke from experimental cigarettes manufactured with different monogram inks. Cigarettes with different concentrations of different pigments were compared with cigarettes without ink, and with a control ink. Smoke from each of the experimental cigarettes was evaluated using analytical chemistry and in vitro bacterial mutagenicity (Salmonella, five strains, ± S9) and cytotoxicity (neutral red uptake) assays. No differences were observed between experimental cigarettes printed with three different pigment loads of iron oxide-based Black pigment and non-printed cigarettes. In general, no dose response was observed. However, increases in certain smoke constituents were found to correlate with Pigment Yellow 14 (also known as benzidine yellow) and Pigment Blue 15 (copper phthalocyanine). Increases in bacterial mutagenicity were observed for high-level print of Pigment Yellow 14 in TA98 and TA1537 and the high-level print of Pigment Blue 15 in TA98. In vitro cytotoxicity of mainstream smoke was unaffected by the presence of monogram ink on cigarettes. Statistically significant dose-responsive constituent changes and an increase in mutagenicity were observed with inclusion of Pigment Yellow 14 and Pigment Blue 15. Other pigments showed minimal toxicological activity.

  8. Security printing of covert quick response codes using upconverting nanoparticle inks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meruga, Jeevan M; Cross, William M; Crawford, Grant A; Kellar, Jon J; Stanley May, P; Luu, QuocAnh

    2012-01-01

    Counterfeiting costs governments and private industries billions of dollars annually due to loss of value in currency and other printed items. This research involves using lanthanide doped β-NaYF 4 nanoparticles for security printing applications. Inks comprised of Yb 3+ /Er 3+ and Yb 3+ /Tm 3+ doped β-NaYF 4 nanoparticles with oleic acid as the capping agent in toluene and methyl benzoate with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as the binding agent were used to print quick response (QR) codes. The QR codes were made using an AutoCAD file and printed with Optomec direct-write aerosol jetting ® . The printed QR codes are invisible under ambient lighting conditions, but are readable using a near-IR laser, and were successfully scanned using a smart phone. This research demonstrates that QR codes, which have been used primarily for information sharing applications, can also be used for security purposes. Higher levels of security were achieved by printing both green and blue upconverting inks, based on combinations of Er 3+ /Yb 3+ and Tm 3+ /Yb 3+ , respectively, in a single QR code. The near-infrared (NIR)-to-visible upconversion luminescence properties of the two-ink QR codes were analyzed, including the influence of NIR excitation power density on perceived color, in term of the CIE 1931 chromaticity index. It was also shown that this security ink can be optimized for line width, thickness and stability on different substrates. (paper)

  9. Paper Spray Mass Spectrometry for the Forensic Analysis of Black Ballpoint Pen Inks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador, Victoria Silva; Pereira, Hebert Vinicius; Sena, Marcelo Martins; Augusti, Rodinei; Piccin, Evandro

    2017-09-01

    This article describes the use of paper spray mass spectrometry (PS-MS) for the direct analysis of black ink writings made with ballpoint pens. The novel approach was developed in a forensic context by first performing the classification of commercially available ballpoint pens according to their brands. Six of the most commonly worldwide utilized brands (Bic, Paper Mate, Faber Castell, Pentel, Compactor, and Pilot) were differentiated according to their characteristic chemical patterns obtained by PS-MS. MS on the negative ion mode at a mass range of m/ z 100-1000 allowed prompt discrimination just by visual inspection. On the other hand, the concept of relative ion intensity (RII) and the analysis at other mass ranges were necessary for the differentiation using the positive ion mode. PS-MS combined with partial least squares (PLS) was utilized to monitor changes on the ink chemical composition after light exposure (artificial aging studies). The PLS model was optimized by variable selection, which allowed the identification of the most influencing ions on the degradation process. The feasibility of the method on forensic investigations was also demonstrated in three different applications: (1) analysis of overlapped fresh ink lines, (2) analysis of old inks from archived documents, and (3) detection of alterations (simulated forgeries) performed on archived documents. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  10. Impact of e-cigarette refill liquid with or without nicotine on liver function in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Golli, Narges; Jrad-Lamine, Aicha; Neffati, Hajira; Rahali, Dalila; Dallagi, Yosra; Dkhili, Houssem; Ba, Nathalie; El May, Michele V; El Fazaa, Saloua

    2016-07-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of e-cigarette refill liquid administration alone or with nicotine on the antioxidant defense status, functional and histopathological changes in adult rat liver tissue. For this purpose, 32 rats were treated for 28 days as follows: control group was injected intra-peritoneally with physiological saline; e-cigarette 0% treated group received an intra-peritoneal injection of e-liquid without nicotine diluted in physiological saline, e-cigarette-treated group received an intra-peritoneal injection of e-liquid containing 0.5 mg of nicotine/kg of body weight/day diluted in physiological saline and nicotine-treated group received an intra-peritoneal injection of 0.5 mg of nicotine/kg of body weight/day diluted in physiological saline. In e-liquid without nicotine-exposed group, activities of the liver biomarkers aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase increase. Interestingly, oxidative stress indicators showed decreased total protein content, associated with a reduction in the antioxidant enzymes activities superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase, and an elevation in malondialdehyde content, highlighting the promotion of lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress. Histological studies identified inflammatory cells infiltration and cell death. Thus, e-liquid seems to promote oxidative tissue injuries, which in turn lead to the observed histopathological finding. In comparison, nicotine alone induced less oxidative stress and less histopathological disorders, whereas e-liquid with nicotine gave rise to more histopathological injuries. Thereby, e-liquid, per se, is able to induce hepatotoxicity and supplementation with nicotine worsens this state.

  11. In vitro human epidermal permeation of nicotine from electronic cigarette refill liquids and implications for dermal exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasch, H Frederick; Barbero, Ana M

    2017-11-01

    Nicotine plus flavorings in a propylene glycol (PG) vehicle are the components of electronic cigarette liquids (e-liquids), which are vaporized and inhaled by the user. Dermal exposure to nicotine and e-liquids may occur among workers in mixing and filling of e-cigarettes in the manufacturing process. Inadvertent skin contact among consumers is also a concern. In vitro nicotine permeation studies using heat-separated human epidermis were performed with surrogate and two commercial e-liquids, neat and aqueous nicotine donor formulations. Steady-state fluxes (J ss ), and lag times (t lag ) were measured for each formulation. In addition, transient (4 h) exposure and finite dose (1-10 μl/cm 2 ) experiments were undertaken using one commercial e-liquid. Average J ss (μg/cm 2 /h) from formulations were: nicotine in PG (24 mg/ml): 3.97; commercial e-liquid containing menthol (25 mg/ml nicotine): 10.2; commercial e-liquid containing limonene (25 mg/ml nicotine): 23.7; neat nicotine: 175. E-liquid lag times ranged from 5 to 10 h. Absorbed fraction of nicotine from finite doses was ≈0.3 at 48 h. The data were applied to transient exposure and finite dose dermal exposure assessment models and to a simple pharmacokinetic model. Three illustrative exposure scenarios demonstrate use of the data to predict systemic uptake and plasma concentrations from dermal exposure. The data demonstrate the potential for significant nicotine absorption through skin contact with e-cigarette refill solutions and the neat nicotine used to mix them.

  12. Forensic application of total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for elemental characterization of ink samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhara, Sangita; Misra, N.L.; Maind, S.D.; Kumar, Sanjukta A.; Chattopadhyay, N.; Aggarwal, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    The possibility of applying Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence for qualitative and quantitative differentiation of documents printed with rare earth tagged and untagged inks has been explored in this paper. For qualitative differentiation, a very small amount of ink was loosened from the printed documents by smoothly rubbing with a new clean blade without destroying the manuscript. 50 μL of Milli-Q water was put on this loose powder, on the manuscript, and was agitated by sucking and releasing the suspension two to three times with the help of a micropipette. The resultant dispersion was deposited on quartz sample support for Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence measurements. The Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence spectrum of tagged and untagged inks could be clearly differentiated. In order to see the applicability of Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence for quantitative determinations of rare earths and also to countercheck such determinations in ink samples, the amounts of rare earth in painted papers with single rare earth tagged inks were determined by digesting the painted paper in HNO 3 /HClO 4 , mixing this solution with the internal standard and recording their Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence spectra after calibration of the instrument. The results thus obtained were compared with those obtained by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry and were found in good agreement. The average precision of the Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence determinations was 5.5% (1σ) and the average deviation of Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence determined values with that of Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry was 7.3%. These studies have shown that Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence offers a promising and potential application in forensic work of this nature.

  13. From Technique of Tattooing to Biokinetics and Toxicology of Injected Tattoo Ink Particles and Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serup, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    Tattoo colourants are colourful nano- and microparticles, which are practically insoluble and thus permanent once installed in the dermis by the tattooist. Tattoo ink also has soluble ingredients and contaminants. Pigments can distribute via the lymph and possibly also directly to the blood, and a minute fraction may over time undergo metabolic breakdown and as hapten(s) induce allergic reactions of red tattoos. Carbon black of black tattoos has a tendency to agglomerate and form larger bodies that can elicit foreign body reactions in black tattoos and even granuloma formation with overlap to sarcoidosis in the clinic. Very little is known about the biokinetics and safety profile of the many tattoo pigments in use, and no specific pigment-related chemical of tattoo ink causing identified adverse reactions in humans has been depicted. Inks have many ingredients and contaminants. Insoluble and soluble ingredients of inks supposedly have very different characteristics of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion, with pigments being extremely slowly excreted, contrasting soluble ingredients with fast elimination. Tattoos are a single-dose exposure. Controlling the safety of tattoo inks by banning potentially critical chemicals hitherto has been unsuccessful due to lacking documentation of clinical and epidemiological relevance and because the tattoo industry is already internationally established, free, and in the ownership of the people. Doctors treating patients with tattoo complications consequently have a key role in identifying risk situations and local outbreaks, which needs clarification, therapy, and the intervention of authorities. In the treatment of complications, as seen in general practice and in other specialties, basic insight into the fate of tattoo pigments in the body is necessary. Tattoo complications are complicated and facetted with many entities and disease mechanisms; they are a new subspecialty in medicine and dermatology. © 2017 S

  14. Direct writing of flexible electronics through room temperature liquid metal ink.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunxia Gao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Conventional approaches of making a flexible circuit are generally complex, environment unfriendly, time and energy consuming, and thus expensive. Here, we describe for the first time the method of using high-performance GaIn(10-based electrical ink, a significantly neglected room temperature liquid metal, as both electrical conductors and interconnects, for directly writing flexible electronics via a rather easy going and cost effective way. METHODS: The new generation electric ink was made and its wettability with various materials was modified to be easily written on a group of either soft or rigid substrates such as epoxy resin board, glass, plastic, silica gel, paper, cotton, textiles, cloth and fiber etc. Conceptual experiments were performed to demonstrate and evaluate the capability of directly writing the electrical circuits via the invented metal ink. Mechanisms involved were interpreted through a series of fundamental measurements. RESULTS: The electrical resistivity of the fluid like GaIn(10-based material was measured as 34.5 µΩ·cm at 297 K by four point probe method and increased with addition of the oxygen quantity, which indicates it as an excellent metal ink. The conductive line can be written with features that are approximately 10 µm thick. Several functional devices such as a light emitting diode (LED array showing designed lighting patterns and electrical fan were made to work by directly writing the liquid metal on the specific flexible substrates. And satisfactory performances were obtained. CONCLUSIONS: The present method opens the way to directly and quickly writing flexible electronics which can be as simple as signing a name or drawing a picture on the paper. The unique merit of the GaIn(10-based liquid metal ink lies in its low melting temperature, well controlled wettability, high electrical conductivity and good biocompability. The new electronics writing strategy and basic principle has generalized

  15. Direct writing of flexible electronics through room temperature liquid metal ink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yunxia; Li, Haiyan; Liu, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Conventional approaches of making a flexible circuit are generally complex, environment unfriendly, time and energy consuming, and thus expensive. Here, we describe for the first time the method of using high-performance GaIn(10)-based electrical ink, a significantly neglected room temperature liquid metal, as both electrical conductors and interconnects, for directly writing flexible electronics via a rather easy going and cost effective way. The new generation electric ink was made and its wettability with various materials was modified to be easily written on a group of either soft or rigid substrates such as epoxy resin board, glass, plastic, silica gel, paper, cotton, textiles, cloth and fiber etc. Conceptual experiments were performed to demonstrate and evaluate the capability of directly writing the electrical circuits via the invented metal ink. Mechanisms involved were interpreted through a series of fundamental measurements. The electrical resistivity of the fluid like GaIn(10)-based material was measured as 34.5 µΩ·cm at 297 K by four point probe method and increased with addition of the oxygen quantity, which indicates it as an excellent metal ink. The conductive line can be written with features that are approximately 10 µm thick. Several functional devices such as a light emitting diode (LED) array showing designed lighting patterns and electrical fan were made to work by directly writing the liquid metal on the specific flexible substrates. And satisfactory performances were obtained. The present method opens the way to directly and quickly writing flexible electronics which can be as simple as signing a name or drawing a picture on the paper. The unique merit of the GaIn(10)-based liquid metal ink lies in its low melting temperature, well controlled wettability, high electrical conductivity and good biocompability. The new electronics writing strategy and basic principle has generalized purpose and can be extended to more industrial areas, even

  16. Therapeutic effect of Sepia ink extract against invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohair R. Fahmy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA is a life-threatening disease in immunocompromised patients that requires aggressive therapy. Because of the widespread use of antibiotics, corticosteroids, antitumor drugs, and immunosuppressive drugs, the morbidity of IPA is currently increasing. The ink secretion of molluscan species was identified as one of the novel sources of bioactive compounds. So the present study designed to investigate the antifungal and antioxidant effects of Sepia officinalis ink extract against IPA in mice. Eighty neutropenic infected mice were randomly assigned into four main groups (20 mice/group. The 1st group was treated with saline, neutropenic infected, the 2nd group was treated with ink (200 mg/kg and the 3rd group was treated with amphotericin B (150 mg/kg and the 4th group was treated with ink plus amphotericin B (Ink 200 mg/kg and AMB 150 mg/kg. Treatment was started at 24 h after fungal inoculation and was administered for 3 consecutive days. The present study demonstrated good in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity of IE against Aspergillus fumigatus. Compared with IPA group; IE-treated, AMB-treated, and AMB + IE-treated animals had a 67.80%, 83.41%, and 72.68% reduction in the pulmonary fungal burden, respectively. Treatment with IE and/or AMB for one and three days significantly decreased MDA and increased GSH and SOD levels in the lung tissues as compared with the infected untreated group. In conclusion, the results of our in vivo and in vitro studies demonstrate that IE has therapeutic effect against invasive pulmonary aspergillosis via reducing oxidative stress.

  17. Cu ion ink for a flexible substrate and highly conductive patterning by intensive pulsed light sintering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Byung-Yong; Yoo, Tae-Hee; Song, Yong-Won; Lim, Dae-Soon; Oh, Young-Jei

    2013-05-22

    Direct printing techniques that utilize nanoparticles to mitigate environmental pollution and reduce the processing time of the routing and formation of electrodes have received much attention lately. In particular, copper (Cu) nanoink using Cu nanoparticles offers high conductivity and can be prepared at low cost. However, it is difficult to produce homogeneous nanoparticles and ensure good dispersion within the ink. Moreover, Cu particles require a sintering process over an extended time at a high temperature due to high melting temperature of Cu. During this process, the nanoparticles oxidize quickly in air. To address these problems, the authors developed a Cu ion ink that is free of Cu particles or any other impurities. It consequently does not require separate dispersion stability. In addition, the developed ink is environmentally friendly and can be sintered even at low temperatures. The Cu ion ink was sintered on a flexible substrate using intense pulsed light (IPL), which facilitates large-area, high-speed calcination at room temperature and at atmospheric pressures. As the applied light energy increases, the Cu2O phase diminishes, leaving only the Cu phase. This is attributed to the influence of formic acid (HCOOH) on the Cu ion ink. Only the Cu phase was observed above 40 J cm(-2). The Cu-patterned film after sintering showed outstanding electrical resistivity in a range of 3.21-5.27 μΩ·cm at an IPL energy of 40-60 J cm(-2). A spiral-type micropattern with a line width of 160 μm on a PI substrate was formed without line bulges or coffee ring effects. The electrical resistivity was 5.27 μΩ·cm at an energy level of 40.6 J cm(-2).

  18. Two-step flash light sintering of copper nanoparticle ink to remove substrate warping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Chung-Hyeon; Joo, Sung-Jun [Department of Mechanical Convergence Engineering, Hanyang University, Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hak-Sung, E-mail: kima@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Convergence Engineering, Hanyang University, Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Nano Science and Technology, Hanyang University, Seoul, 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-30

    Highlights: • We performed the two-step flash light sintering for copper nanoparticle ink to remove substrate warping. • 12 J/cm{sup 2} of preheating and 7 J/cm{sup 2} of main sintering energies were determined as optimum conditions to sinter the copper nanoparticle ink. • The resistivity of two-step sintered copper nanoparticle ink was 3.81 μΩ cm with 5B adhesion level, 2.3 times greater than that of bulk copper. • The two-step sintered case showed a high conductivity without any substrate warping. - Abstract: A two-step flash light sintering process was devised to reduce the warping of polymer substrates during the sintering of copper nanoparticle ink. To determine the optimum sintering conditions of the copper nanoparticle ink, the flash light irradiation conditions (pulse power, pulse number, on-time, and off-time) were varied and optimized. In order to monitor the flash light sintering process, in situ resistance and temperature monitoring of copper nanoink were conducted during the flash light sintering process. Also, a transient heat transfer analysis was performed by using the finite-element program ABAQUS to predict the temperature changes of copper nanoink and polymer substrate. The microstructures of the sintered copper nanoink films were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Additionally, an X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the crystal phase change of the sintered copper nanoparticles. The resulting two-step flash light sintered copper nanoink films exhibited a low resistivity (3.81 μΩ cm, 2.3 times of that of bulk copper) and 5B level of adhesion strength without warping of the polymer substrate.

  19. Forensic application of total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for elemental characterization of ink samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhara, Sangita [Fuel Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Misra, N.L., E-mail: nlmisra@barc.gov.i [Fuel Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Maind, S.D. [NAA Unit of Central Forensic Science Laboratory Hyderabad at Analytical Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Kumar, Sanjukta A. [Analytical Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Chattopadhyay, N. [NAA Unit of Central Forensic Science Laboratory Hyderabad at Analytical Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Aggarwal, S.K. [Fuel Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2010-02-15

    The possibility of applying Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence for qualitative and quantitative differentiation of documents printed with rare earth tagged and untagged inks has been explored in this paper. For qualitative differentiation, a very small amount of ink was loosened from the printed documents by smoothly rubbing with a new clean blade without destroying the manuscript. 50 muL of Milli-Q water was put on this loose powder, on the manuscript, and was agitated by sucking and releasing the suspension two to three times with the help of a micropipette. The resultant dispersion was deposited on quartz sample support for Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence measurements. The Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence spectrum of tagged and untagged inks could be clearly differentiated. In order to see the applicability of Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence for quantitative determinations of rare earths and also to countercheck such determinations in ink samples, the amounts of rare earth in painted papers with single rare earth tagged inks were determined by digesting the painted paper in HNO{sub 3}/HClO{sub 4}, mixing this solution with the internal standard and recording their Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence spectra after calibration of the instrument. The results thus obtained were compared with those obtained by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry and were found in good agreement. The average precision of the Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence determinations was 5.5% (1sigma) and the average deviation of Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence determined values with that of Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry was 7.3%. These studies have shown that Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence offers a promising and potential application in forensic work of this nature.

  20. Investigation of p16(INK4a) as a prognostic biomarker in oral epithelial dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nankivell, Paul; Williams, Hazel; Webster, Keith; Pearson, David; High, Alec; MacLennan, Kenneth; Senguven, Burcu; McConkey, Christopher; Rabbitts, Pamela; Mehanna, Hisham

    2014-04-01

    Human papilloma virus is a risk factor for oropharyngeal cancer. Evidence for a similar aetiological role in the development of oral dysplasia or its transformation to oral cancer is not as clear. Meta-analyses estimate the prevalence of high-risk human papilloma virus (HPV) serotypes to be three times higher in pre-malignant lesions and cancer than in normal oral mucosa. However, this does not imply a causal relationship. Conflicting results are reported from the few studies examining the prognostic significance of HPV positivity in the development of oral cancer. We aimed to examine the ability of p16(INK4a) protein expression, a surrogate marker of HPV infection, to predict malignant progression in a large cohort of oral dysplasia patients. One hundred forty eight oral dysplasia cases underwent immunohistochemical analysis using a monoclonal antibody against p16(INK4a) . Clinical factors were also collated on each case. Slides were double scored independently by two trained observers. Univariate analyses using both logistic and Cox regression models were performed. Thirty nine of 148 cases progressed to cancer. Ten of 148 cases (7%) were p16(INK4a) positive. High grade of dysplasia (P = 0.0002) and lesion morphology (P = 0.03) were found to be prognostic of malignant progression. p16(INK4a) score was not prognostic in this cohort (P = 0.29). This did not change with a time to event analysis (P = 0.24). Few studies have assessed the aetiological role of HPV in cancer development from dysplastic lesions. Our study, using one of the largest cohorts of oral dysplasia, demonstrated a low rate of p16(INK4a) positivity and was unable to confirm a prognostic ability for this biomarker. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Forensic Analysis of Blue Ball point Pen Inks Using Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrometer and Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, L.C.; Shandu, K.T.S.; Nor Syahirah Mohamad Razi; Ab Aziz Ishak; Khairul Osman

    2015-01-01

    Twelve varieties of blue ball point pens were selected and analyzed using UV-Vis spectrometer and ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). The aim of the study was to determine discrimination power (DP) of these methods in differentiating pen inks collected from the market in Malaysia. Discrimination analysis of 66 possible pen-pair of blue ball point pens was carried out via one-way ANOVA based on obtained chromatogram and spectra. A total of 18 peaks were determined as coming from inks based on the chromatographic data extracted at three different wavelengths (279, 370 and 400 nm). While for the UV-Vis spectrometer analysis, presence of peaks at 303, 545, 577 and 584 nm wavelengths were recorded. UV-Vis spectral data were mainly produced by the colorant components (for example, dyes) found in inks and UPLC may detect ink components other than dyes, for example, additives. As conclusion, the DP for UV-Vis and UPLC were determined to be 72.12 % and 98.48 %, respectively. This manuscript demonstrates the potential of UPLC for discriminating pen inks based on non-dye components. Additionally, the dye components in inks do not seem to play important role in discrimination of pen inks. (author)

  2. Development of solvent-free offset ink using vegetable oil esters and high molecular-weight resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung Min; Kim, Young Han; Kim, Sung Bin

    2013-01-01

    In the development of solvent-free offset ink, the roles of resin molecular weight and used solvent on the ink performance were evaluated by examining the relationship between the various properties of resin and solvent and print quality. To find the best performing resin, the soy-oil fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) was applied to the five modified-phenolic resins having different molecular weights. It is found from the experimental results that the ink made of higher molecular weight and better solubility resin gives better printability and print quality. It is because larger molecular weight resin with better solubility gives higher rate of ink transfer. From the ink application of different esters to high molecular weight resin, the best printing performance was yielded from the soy-oil fatty acid butyl ester (FABE). It is due to its high kinematic viscosity resulting in the smallest change of ink transfer weight upon multiple number of printing, which improves the stability of ink quality.

  3. Construction of a mutagenesis cartridge for poliovirus genome-linked viral protein: isolation and characterization of viable and nonviable mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, R.J.; Tada, H.; Ypma-Wong, M.F.; Dunn, J.J.; Semler, B.L.; Wimmer, E.

    1988-01-01

    By following a strategy of genetic analysis of poliovirus, the authors have constructed a synthetic mutagenesis cartridge spanning the genome-linked viral protein coding region and flanking cleavage sites in an infectious cDNA clone of the type I (Mahoney) genome. The insertion of new restriction sites within the infectious clone has allowed them to replace the wild-type sequences with short complementary pairs of synthetic oligonucleotides containing various mutations. A set of mutations have been made that create methionine codons within the genome-linked viral protein region. The resulting viruses have growth characteristics similar to wild type. Experiments that led to an alteration of the tyrosine residue responsible for the linkage to RNA have resulted in nonviable virus. In one mutant, proteolytic processing assayed in vitro appeared unimpaired by the mutation. They suggest that the position of the tyrosine residue is important for genome-linked viral protein function(s)

  4. High Efficiency, Low Cost Solar Cells Manufactured Using 'Silicon Ink' on Thin Crystalline Silicon Wafers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniadis, H.

    2011-03-01

    Reported are the development and demonstration of a 17% efficient 25mm x 25mm crystalline Silicon solar cell and a 16% efficient 125mm x 125mm crystalline Silicon solar cell, both produced by Ink-jet printing Silicon Ink on a thin crystalline Silicon wafer. To achieve these objectives, processing approaches were developed to print the Silicon Ink in a predetermined pattern to form a high efficiency selective emitter, remove the solvents in the Silicon Ink and fuse the deposited particle Silicon films. Additionally, standard solar cell manufacturing equipment with slightly modified processes were used to complete the fabrication of the Silicon Ink high efficiency solar cells. Also reported are the development and demonstration of a 18.5% efficient 125mm x 125mm monocrystalline Silicon cell, and a 17% efficient 125mm x 125mm multicrystalline Silicon cell, by utilizing high throughput Ink-jet and screen printing technologies. To achieve these objectives, Innovalight developed new high throughput processing tools to print and fuse both p and n type particle Silicon Inks in a predetermined pat-tern applied either on the front or the back of the cell. Additionally, a customized Ink-jet and screen printing systems, coupled with customized substrate handling solution, customized printing algorithms, and a customized ink drying process, in combination with a purchased turn-key line, were used to complete the high efficiency solar cells. This development work delivered a process capable of high volume producing 18.5% efficient crystalline Silicon solar cells and enabled the Innovalight to commercialize its technology by the summer of 2010.

  5. [Effectiveness of FTA Elute® indicating cartridge in combination with hybrid capture 2 for cervical cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Zhang, Xi; Wang, Shaoming; Hu, Shangying; Chen, Wen; Zhao, Fanghui; He, Wei; Zhang, Yuqing; Qiao, Youlin

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of FTA Elute® Cartridge (GE healthcare, Kent, UK) in combination with hybrid capture 2 (HC2) testing for cervical cancer screening. From May to June 2012, 412 women aged 25 to 65 years in Jiangxi Tonggu were enrolled in the study. We used pathological outcome as the gold standard, and the accuracy of the FTA card in combination with HC2 testing was investigated from both physician- and self-sampling, respectively. Physician sampling using the FTA card in combination with HC2 testing showed a comparable sensitivity (12/13) with the liquid based medium, but a higher specificity 69.5% (266/383) vs (77.8%, 298/383) (P FTA card in combination with HC2 testing with liquid based medium was 10/13 vs 8/13(P = 0.625) and (62.3%, 238/382) vs (75.7%, 289/382) (P FTA and liquid-based sampling medium was 86.1% (340/395) and 79.5% (314/395). For physician-collected samples used for HC2 testing to detect CIN2+, the accuracy of the FTA card was superior to that of the liquid-based medium (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) = 0.898, 95%CI:0.838-0.958). FTA Elute® cartridge in combination with HC2 testing is a promising method of specimen transport for cervical cancer screening programs with a good precision.With further optimization, it could become an effective method for cervical cancer screening in various economic levels of areas.

  6. Printing and Curing of Conductive Ink Track on Fabric using Syringe Deposition System with DLP Projector and Hot Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khirotdin Rd. Khairilhijra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Printing is a technique to transfer ink onto substrates to create pattern and syringe deposition system has shown some great potential in printing due to its ability to produce filamentary bead tracks which is important concerning conductivity and easily adopted on conformal surfaces which could not be realized by conventional technique. Fabrics with integrated electrical features able to create intelligent articles and may potentially open up new perspective areas of application in textile printing. However, the applicability of this technique on fabrics remains unknown which the ink used has to meet certain requirements including high electrical conductivity, resistance to oxidation, dry out without clogging, good adhesion with suitable viscosity and surface tension. Thus, there is a need to do this study which is to determine the feasibility of syringe deposition system to print a conductive ink tracks using silver epoxy-based conductive ink on fabric substrate via lycra material. This study is also aim to investigate the feasibility of using DLP projector with hot plate as another source of heat to be used in curing the ink tracks on fabric. The effect of printing and curing parameters to the characteristics and conductivity of the ink track is investigated. Several mechanical and electrical tests were also administered to determine the cure, hardness, adhesion and resistance level of the ink tracks. The results obtained were as expected which higher printing speed and lower deposition height used, a narrower and thinner ink tracks were produced. Sample with 4 mm/s of printing speed and deposition height of 1 mm resulted in dimension closer to the targeted dimension. The longer curing time and higher temperature used, a lower resistance is produced. The lowest resistance achieved is 0.9 Ω cured at 150°C for 60 minutes. The conductivity of the ink track was affected by curing process and cross-sectional area of the ink track. It is proven

  7. The effectiveness of inking needle core prostate biopsies for preventing patient specimen identification errors: a technique to address Joint Commission patient safety goals in specialty laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raff, Lester J; Engel, George; Beck, Kenneth R; O'Brien, Andrea S; Bauer, Meagan E

    2009-02-01

    The elimination or reduction of medical errors has been a main focus of health care enterprises in the United States since the year 2000. Elimination of errors in patient and specimen identification is a key component of this focus and is the number one goal in the Joint Commission's 2008 National Patient Safety Goals Laboratory Services Program. To evaluate the effectiveness of using permanent inks to maintain specimen identity in sequentially submitted prostate needle biopsies. For a 12-month period, a grossing technician stained each prostate core with permanent ink developed for inking of pathology specimens. A different color was used for each patient, with all the prostate cores from all vials for a particular patient inked with the same color. Five colors were used sequentially: green, blue, yellow, orange, and black. The ink was diluted with distilled water to a consistency that allowed application of a thin, uniform coating of ink along the edges of the prostate core. The time required to ink patient specimens comprising different numbers of vials and prostate biopsies was timed. The number and type of inked specimen discrepancies were evaluated. The identified discrepancy rate for prostate biopsy patients was 0.13%. The discrepancy rate in terms of total number of prostate blocks was 0.014%. Diluted inks adhered to biopsy contours throughout tissue processing. The tissue showed no untoward reactions to the inks. Inking did not affect staining (histochemical or immunohistochemical) or pathologic evaluation. On average, inking prostate needle biopsies increases grossing time by 20%. Inking of all prostate core biopsies with colored inks, in sequential order, is an aid in maintaining specimen identity. It is a simple and effective method of addressing Joint Commission patient safety goals by maintaining specimen identity during processing of similar types of gross specimens. This technique may be applicable in other specialty laboratories and high

  8. Synthesis and Doping of Silicon Nanocrystals for Versatile Nanocrystal Inks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Nicolaas Johannes

    The impact of nanotechnology on our society is getting larger every year. Electronics are becoming smaller and more powerful, the "Internet of Things" is all around us, and data generation is increasing exponentially. None of this would have been possible without the developments in nanotechnology. Crystalline semiconductor nanoparticles (nanocrystals) are one of the latest developments in the field of nanotechnology. This thesis addresses three important challenges for the transition of silicon nanocrystals from the lab bench to the marketplace: A better understanding of the nanocrystal synthesis was obtained, the electronic properties of the nanocrystals were characterized and tuned, and novel silicon nanocrystal inks were formed and applied using simple coating technologies. Plasma synthesis of nanocrystals has numerous advantages over traditional solution-based synthesis methods. While the formation of nanoparticles in low pressure nonthermal plasmas is well known, the heating mechanism leading to their crystallization is poorly understood. A combination of comprehensive plasma characterization with a nanoparticle heating model presented here reveals the underlying plasma physics leading to crystallization. The model predicts that the nanoparticles reach temperatures as high as 900 K in the plasma as a result of heating reactions on the nanoparticle surface. These temperatures are well above the gas temperature and sufficient for complete nanoparticle crystallization. Moving the field of plasma nanoparticle synthesis to atmospheric pressures is important for lowering its cost and making the process attractive for industrial applications. The heating and charging model for silicon nanoparticles was adapted in Chapter 3 to study plasmas maintained over a wide range of pressures (10 -- 105 Pa). The model considers three collisionality regimes and determines the dominant contribution of each regime under various plasma conditions. Strong nanoparticle cooling at

  9. The exothermic reaction route of a self-heatable conductive ink for rapid processable printed electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong-Youn; Han, Jin Wook; Chun, Sangki

    2013-12-01

    We report the exothermic reaction route and new capability of a self-heatable conductive ink (Ag2O and silver 2,2-dimethyloctanoate) in order to achieve both a low sintering temperature and electrical resistivity within a short sintering time for flexible printed electronics and display appliances. Unlike conventional conductive ink, which requires a costly external heating instrument for rapid sintering, self-heatable conductive ink by itself is capable of generating heat as high as 312 °C when its exothermic reaction is triggered at a temperature of 180 °C. This intensive exothermic reaction is found to result from the recursive reaction of the 2,2-dimethyloctanoate anion, which is thermally dissociated from silver 2,2-dimethyloctanoate, with silver oxide microparticles. Through this recursive reaction, a massive number of silver atoms are supplied from silver oxide microparticles, and the nucleation of silver atoms and the fusion of silver nanoparticles become the major source of heat. This exothermic reaction eventually realizes the electrical resistivity of self-heatable conductive ink as low as 27.5 μΩ cm within just 40 s by combining chemical annealing, which makes it suitable for the roll-to-roll printable electronics such as a flexible touch screen panel.We report the exothermic reaction route and new capability of a self-heatable conductive ink (Ag2O and silver 2,2-dimethyloctanoate) in order to achieve both a low sintering temperature and electrical resistivity within a short sintering time for flexible printed electronics and display appliances. Unlike conventional conductive ink, which requires a costly external heating instrument for rapid sintering, self-heatable conductive ink by itself is capable of generating heat as high as 312 °C when its exothermic reaction is triggered at a temperature of 180 °C. This intensive exothermic reaction is found to result from the recursive reaction of the 2,2-dimethyloctanoate anion, which is thermally

  10. Refill adherence and persistence to lipid‐lowering medicines in patients with type 2 diabetes: A nation‐wide register‐based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hero, Christel; Eliasson, Björn; Franzén, Stefan; Svensson, Ann‐Marie; Miftaraj, Mervete; Gudbjörnsdottir, Soffia; Eeg‐Olofsson, Katarina; Andersson Sundell, Karolina

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Purpose This study aimed to describe and compare refill adherence and persistence to lipid‐lowering medicines in patients with type 2 diabetes by previous cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods We followed 97 595 patients (58% men; 23% with previous CVD) who were 18 years of age or older when initiating lipid‐lowering medicines in 2007–2010 until first fill of multi‐dose dispensed medicines, death, or 3 years. Using personal identity numbers, we linked individuals' data from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register, the Swedish National Diabetes Register, the National Patient Register, the Cause of Death Register, and the Longitudinal Integration Database for Health Insurance and Labour Market Studies. We assessed refill adherence using the medication possession ratio (MPR) and the maximum gap method, and measured persistence from initiation to discontinuation of treatment or until 3 years after initiation. We analyzed differences in refill adherence and persistence by previous CVD in multiple regression models, adjusted for socioeconomic status, concurrent medicines, and clinical characteristics. Results The mean age of the study population was 64 years, 80% were born in Sweden, and 56% filled prescriptions for diabetes medicines. Mean MPR was 71%, 39% were adherent according to the maximum gap method, and mean persistence was 758 days. Patients with previous CVD showed higher MPR (3%) and lower risk for discontinuing treatment (12%) compared with patients without previous CVD (P < 0.0001). Conclusions Patients with previous CVD were more likely to be adherent to treatment and had lower risk for discontinuation compared with patients without previous CVD. PMID:28799214

  11. Preparation of a New Adsorbent from Activated Carbon and Carbon Nanofiber (AC/CNF for Manufacturing Organic-Vacbpour Respirator Cartridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Jahangiri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study a composite of activated carbon and carbon nanofiber (AC/CNF was prepared to improve the performance of activated carbon (AC for adsorption of volatile organic compounds (VOCs and its utilization for respirator cartridges. Activated carbon was impregnated with a nickel nitrate catalyst precursor and carbonnanofibers (CNF were deposited directly on the AC surface using catalytic chemical vapor deposition. Deposited CNFs on catalyst particles in AC micropores, were activated by CO2 to recover the surface area and micropores.Surface and textural characterizations of the prepared composites were investigated using Brunauer, Emmett andTeller’s (BET technique and electron microscopy respectively. Prepared composite adsorbent was tested forbenzene, toluene and xylene (BTX adsorption and then employed in an organic respirator cartridge in granularform. Adsorption studies were conducted by passing air samples through the adsorbents in a glass column at an adjustable flow rate. Finally, any adsorbed species not retained by the adsorbents in the column were trapped in a charcoal sorbent tube and analyzed by gas chromatography. CNFs with a very thin diameter of about 10-20 nmwere formed uniformly on the AC/CNF. The breakthrough time for cartridges prepared with CO2 activated AC/CNF was 117 minutes which are significantly longer than for those cartridges prepared with walnut shell- based activated carbon with the same weight of adsorbents. This study showed that a granular form CO2 activated AC/CNF composite could be a very effective alternate adsorbent for respirator cartridges due to its larger adsorption capacities and lower weight.

  12. Time since discharge of 9mm cartridges by headspace analysis, part 1: Comprehensive optimisation and validation of a headspace sorptive extraction (HSSE) method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallidabino, M; Romolo, F S; Weyermann, C

    2017-03-01

    Estimating the time since discharge of spent cartridges can be a valuable tool in the forensic investigation of firearm-related crimes. To reach this aim, it was previously proposed that the decrease of volatile organic compounds released during discharge is monitored over time using non-destructive headspace extraction techniques. While promising results were obtained for large-calibre cartridges (e.g., shotgun shells), handgun calibres yielded unsatisfying results. In addition to the natural complexity of the specimen itself, these can also be attributed to some selective choices in the methods development. Thus, the present series of paper aimed to more systematically evaluate the potential of headspace analysis to estimate the time since discharge of cartridges through the use of more comprehensive analytical and interpretative techniques. Specifically, in this first part, a method based on headspace sorptive extraction (HSSE) was comprehensively optimised and validated, as the latter recently proved to be a more efficient alternative than previous approaches. For this purpose, 29 volatile organic compounds were preliminary selected on the basis of previous works. A multivariate statistical approach based on design of experiments (DOE) was used to optimise variables potentially involved in interaction effects. Introduction of deuterated analogues in sampling vials was also investigated as strategy to account for analytical variations. Analysis was carried out by selected ion mode, gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results showed good chromatographic resolution as well as detection limits and peak area repeatability. Application to 9mm spent cartridges confirmed that the use of co-extracted internal standards allowed for improved reproducibility of the measured signals. The validated method will be applied in the second part of this work to estimate the time since discharge of 9mm spent cartridges using multivariate models. Copyright

  13. Structures of Bordered Pits Potentially Contributing to Isolation of a Refilled Vessel from Negative Xylem Pressure in Stems of Morus australis Poir.: Testing of the Pit Membrane Osmosis and Pit Valve Hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooeda, Hiroki; Terashima, Ichiro; Taneda, Haruhiko

    2017-02-01

    Two hypotheses have been proposed to explain the mechanism preventing the refilling vessel water from being drained to the neighboring functional vessels under negative pressure. The pit membrane osmosis hypothesis proposes that the xylem parenchyma cells release polysaccharides that are impermeable to the intervessel pit membranes into the refilling vessel; this osmotically counteracts the negative pressure, thereby allowing the vessel to refill. The pit valve hypothesis proposes that gas trapped within intervessel bordered pits isolates the refilling vessel water from the surrounding functional vessels. Here, using the single-vessel method, we assessed these hypotheses in shoots of mulberry (Morus australis Poir.). First, we confirmed the occurrence of xylem refilling under negative pressure in the potted mulberry saplings. To examine the pit membrane osmosis hypothesis, we estimated the semi-permeability of pit membranes for molecules of various sizes and found that the pit membranes were not semi-permeable to polyethylene glycol of molecular mass osmosis mechanism in mulberry would be unrealistically large. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Sequential determination of nickel and cadmium in tobacco, molasses and refill solutions for e-cigarettes samples by molecular fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talio, María Carolina; Alesso, Magdalena; Acosta, Mariano; Wills, Verónica S; Fernández, Liliana P

    2017-11-01

    In this work, a new procedure was developed for separation and preconcentration of nickel(II) and cadmium(II) in several and varied tobacco samples. Tobacco samples were selected considering the main products consumed by segments of the population, in particular the age (youth) and lifestyle of the consumer. To guarantee representative samples, a randomized strategy of sampling was used. In the first step, a chemofiltration on nylon membrane is carried out employing eosin (Eo) and carbon nanotubes dispersed in sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) solution (phosphate buffer pH 7). In this condition, Ni(II) was selectively retained on the solid support. After that, the filtrate liquid with Cd(II) was re-conditioned with acetic acid /acetate buffer solution (pH 5) and followed by detection. A spectrofluorimetric determination of both metals was carried out, on the solid support and the filtered aqueous solution, for Ni(II) and Cd(II), respectively. The solid surface fluorescence (SSF) determination was performed at λ em = 545nm (λ ex = 515nm) for Ni(II)-Eo complex and the fluorescence of Cd(II)-Eo was quantified in aqueous solution using λ em = 565nm (λ ex = 540nm). The calibration graphs resulted linear in a range of 0.058-29.35μgL -1 for Ni(II) and 0.124-56.20μgL -1 for Cd(II), with detection limits of 0.019 and 0.041μgL -1 (S/N = 3). The developed methodology shows good sensitivity and adequate selectivity, and it was successfully applied to the determination of trace amounts of nickel and cadmium present in tobacco samples (refill solutions for e-cigarettes, snuff used in narguille (molasses) and traditional tobacco) with satisfactory results. The new methodology was validated by ICP-MS with adequate agreement. The proposed methodology represents a novel fluorescence application to Ni(II) and Cd(II) quantification with sensitivity and accuracy similar to atomic spectroscopies, introducing for the first time the quenching effect on SSF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B

  15. Ink-jet printed porous composite LiFePO4 electrode from aqueous suspension for microbatteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delannoy, P.-E.; Riou, B.; Brousse, T.; Le Bideau, J.; Guyomard, D.; Lestriez, B.

    2015-08-01

    This work demonstrates ink-jet printed LiFePO4-based composite porous electrodes for microbattery application. As binder and dispersant, we found that aqueous inks with more suitable rheological properties with respect to ink-jet printing are prepared with the low molecular weight poly-acrylic-co-maleic acid copolymer, rather than with the carboxymethyl cellulose standard binder of the lithium-ion technology. The ink-jet printed thin and porous electrode shows very high rate charge/discharge behavior, both in LiPF6/ethylene carbonate-dimethyl carbonate (LP30) and lithium bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonylimide salt (Li-TFSI) in N-methyl-N-propylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethane)suflonylimide ionic liquid (PYR13-TFSI) electrolytes, as well as good cyclability.

  16. Progress of alternative sintering approaches of inkjet-printed metal inks and their application for manufacturing of flexible electronic devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wünscher, S.; Abbel, R.; Perelaer, J.; Schubert, U.S.

    2014-01-01

    Well-defined high resolution structures with excellent electrical conductivities are key components of almost every electronic device. Producing these by printing metal based conductive inks on polymer foils represents an important step forward towards the manufacturing of plastic electronic

  17. Utilization of calcium carbonate particles from eggshell waste as coating pigments for ink-jet printing paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Sukjoon; Hsieh, Jeffery S; Zou, Peter; Kokoszka, John

    2009-12-01

    The effective treatment and utilization of biowaste have been emphasized in our society for environmental and economic concerns. Recently, the eggshell waste in the poultry industry has been highlighted because of its reclamation potential. This study presents an economical treatment process to recover useful bioproducts from eggshell waste and their utilization in commercial products. We developed the dissolved air floatation (DAF) separation unit, which successfully recovered 96% of eggshell membrane and 99% of eggshell calcium carbonate (ECC) particles from eggshell waste within 2 h of operation. The recovered ECC particles were utilized as coating pigments for ink-jet printing paper and their impact on the ink density and paper gloss were investigated. The addition of the ECC particles as coating pigments enhances the optical density of cyan, magenta and yellow inks while decreasing the black ink density and the gloss of the coated paper.

  18. Synthesis of non-ionic and ionic resins for BEP intaglio inks curing by electron-beam radiation. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, B.J.; Dickens, B.

    1992-01-01

    The inks currently used to print US postage stamps on web presses are dried by heat evaporation of solvents. Emission of solvents into the atmosphere is governed by Local and Federal Government Regulations. Reduction of these emissions to acceptable levels can be accomplished by either of two methods available to the BEP. The work was part of a continuing effort to produce resins for use in formulation of intaglio inks for the printing of postage stamps and security documents. The inks are to be cured by exposure to an electron beam. The uncured inks are cleaned from the roller and wiping blade by washing the wiping blade with neutral water or with caustic water. Laboratory scale work on the urethane/polyethylene oxide/methacrylate resins has now been concluded and information on the synthesis has been provided to BEP for patenting and scaleup. Some effort on nonionic resins continued into FY88

  19. Investigation of the chemical origin and evidential value of differences in the SERS spectra of blue gel inks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Yen Cheng; Lee, Wendy W Y; Bell, Steven E J

    2016-08-15

    Highly swellable polymer films doped with Ag nanoparticle aggregates (poly-SERS films) have been used to record very high signal : noise ratio, reproducible surface-enhanced (resonance) Raman (SER(R)S) spectra of in situ dried ink lines and their constituent dyes using both 633 and 785 nm excitation. These allowed the chemical origins of differences in the SERRS spectra of different inks to be determined. Initial investigation of pure samples of the 10 most common blue dyes showed that the dyes which had very similar chemical structures such as Patent Blue V and Patent Blue VF (which differ only by a single OH group) gave SERRS spectra in which the only indications that the dye structure had been changed were small differences in peak positions or relative intensities of the bands. SERRS studies of 13 gel pen inks were consistent with this observation. In some cases inks from different types of pens could be distinguished even though they were dominated by a single dye such as Victoria Blue B (Zebra Surari) or Victoria Blue BO (Pilot Acroball) because their predominant dye did not appear in other inks. Conversely, identical spectra were also recorded from different types of pens (Pilot G7, Zebra Z-grip) because they all had the same dominant Brilliant Blue G dye. Finally, some of the inks contained mixtures of dyes which could be separated by TLC and removed from the plate before being analysed with the same poly-SERS films. For example, the Pentel EnerGel ink pen was found to give TLC spots corresponding to Erioglaucine and Brilliant Blue G. Overall, this study has shown that the spectral differences between different inks which are based on chemically similar, but nonetheless distinct dyes, are extremely small, so very close matches between SERRS spectra are required for confident identification. Poly-SERS substrates can routinely provide the very stringent reproducibility and sensitivity levels required. This, coupled with the awareness of the reasons

  20. Forensic analysis of printing inks using tandem Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subedi, Kiran; Trejos, Tatiana; Almirall, José

    2015-01-01

    Elemental analysis, using either LA-ICP-MS or LIBS, can be used for the chemical characterization of materials of forensic interest to discriminate between source materials originating from different sources and also for the association of materials known to originate from the same source. In this study, a tandem LIBS/LA-ICP-MS system that combines the benefits of both LIBS and LA-ICP-MS was evaluated for the characterization of samples of printing inks (toners, inkjets, intaglio and offset.). The performance of both laser sampling methods is presented. A subset of 9 black laser toners, 10 colored (CMYK) inkjet samples, 12 colored (CMYK) offset samples and 12 intaglio inks originating from different manufacturing sources were analyzed to evaluate the discrimination capability of the tandem method. These samples were selected because they presented a very similar elemental profile by LA-ICP-MS. Although typical discrimination between different ink sources is found to be > 99% for a variety of inks when only LA-ICP-MS was used for the analysis, additional discrimination was achieved by combining the elemental results from the LIBS analysis to the LA-ICP-MS analysis in the tandem technique, enhancing the overall discrimination capability of the individual laser ablation methods. The LIBS measurements of the Ca, Fe, K and Si signals, in particular, improved the discrimination for this specific set of different ink samples previously shown to exhibit very similar LA-ICP-MS elemental profiles. The combination of these two techniques in a single setup resulted in better discrimination of the printing inks with two distinct fingerprint spectra, providing information from atomic/ionic emissions and isotopic composition (m/z) for each ink sample. - Highlights: • The optimization of the parameters for LA-ICP-MS and LIBS in a tandem experiment are presented. • The analytical figures of merit for the tandem experiment for data collected simultaneously, are presented. • A