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Sample records for referential ambiguity time

  1. Sensitivity to Referential Ambiguity in Discourse: The Role of Attention, Working Memory, and Verbal Ability.

    Boudewyn, Megan A; Long, Debra L; Traxler, Matthew J; Lesh, Tyler A; Dave, Shruti; Mangun, George R; Carter, Cameron S; Swaab, Tamara Y

    2015-12-01

    The establishment of reference is essential to language comprehension. The goal of this study was to examine listeners' sensitivity to referential ambiguity as a function of individual variation in attention, working memory capacity, and verbal ability. Participants listened to stories in which two entities were introduced that were either very similar (e.g., two oaks) or less similar (e.g., one oak and one elm). The manipulation rendered an anaphor in a subsequent sentence (e.g., oak) ambiguous or unambiguous. EEG was recorded as listeners comprehended the story, after which participants completed tasks to assess working memory, verbal ability, and the ability to use context in task performance. Power in the alpha and theta frequency bands when listeners received critical information about the discourse entities (e.g., oaks) was used to index attention and the involvement of the working memory system in processing the entities. These measures were then used to predict an ERP component that is sensitive to referential ambiguity, the Nref, which was recorded when listeners received the anaphor. Nref amplitude at the anaphor was predicted by alpha power during the earlier critical sentence: Individuals with increased alpha power in ambiguous compared with unambiguous stories were less sensitive to the anaphor's ambiguity. Verbal ability was also predictive of greater sensitivity to referential ambiguity. Finally, increased theta power in the ambiguous compared with unambiguous condition was associated with higher working-memory span. These results highlight the role of attention and working memory in referential processing during listening comprehension.

  2. Pragmatic Failure and Referential Ambiguity when Attorneys Ask Child Witnesses "Do You Know/Remember" Questions.

    Evans, Angela D; Stolzenberg, Stacia N; Lyon, Thomas D

    2017-05-01

    "Do you know" and "Do you remember" (DYK/R) questions explicitly ask whether one knows or remembers some information while implicitly asking for that information. This study examined how 104 4- to 9-year-old children testifying in child sexual abuse cases responded to DYK/R wh- and yes/no questions. When asked DYK/R questions containing an implicit wh- question requesting information, children often provided unelaborated "Yes" responses. Attorneys' follow-up questions suggested that children usually misunderstood the pragmatics of the questions. When DYK/R questions contained an implicit yes/no question, unelaborated "Yes" or "No" responses could be responding to the explicit or the implicit questions resulting in referentially ambiguous responses. Children often provided referentially ambiguous responses and attorneys usually failed to disambiguate children's answers. Although pragmatic failure following DYK/R wh- questions decreased with age, the likelihood of referential ambiguity following DYK/R yes/no questions did not. The results highlight the risks of serious miscommunications caused by pragmatic misunderstanding and referential ambiguity when children testify.

  3. Pragmatic Failure and Referential Ambiguity when Attorneys Ask Child Witnesses “Do You Know/Remember” Questions

    Evans, Angela D.; Stolzenberg, Stacia N.; Lyon, Thomas D.

    2016-01-01

    “Do you know” and “Do you remember” (DYK/R) questions explicitly ask whether one knows or remembers some information while implicitly asking for that information. This study examined how 104 4- to 9-year-old children testifying in child sexual abuse cases responded to DYK/R wh- and yes/no questions. When asked DYK/R questions containing an implicit wh- question requesting information, children often provided unelaborated “Yes” responses. Attorneys’ follow-up questions suggested that children usually misunderstood the pragmatics of the questions. When DYK/R questions contained an implicit yes/no question, unelaborated “Yes” or “No” responses could be responding to the explicit or the implicit questions resulting in referentially ambiguous responses. Children often provided referentially ambiguous responses and attorneys usually failed to disambiguate children’s answers. Although pragmatic failure following DYK/R wh- questions decreased with age, the likelihood of referential ambiguity following DYK/R yes/no questions did not. The results highlight the risks of serious miscommunications caused by pragmatic misunderstanding and referential ambiguity when children testify. PMID:28652686

  4. Ambiguity

    Stein, Mari-Klara; Jensen, Tina Blegind

    Digitalization is changing the nature of work in knowledge professions in significant ways. One of the oft-observed, yet poorly understood, consequences of work digitalization in this context is increased ambiguity, frequently captured under the notion of blurred boundaries and paradoxes. While...... the introduction of ICTs is often credited with the potential to bring about ambiguity in a work context, we lack an in-depth understanding of how and why digitalization can introduce ambiguity, and what ambiguity actually means in this context. In this paper, we aim to further our current theorization...... of ambiguity in ICT-enabled work in knowledge professions. We offer a conceptual clarification of three related issues: (1) why does digitalization introduce ambiguity, (2) what kinds of ambiguities digitalization introduces, and (3) how workers act upon ambiguity....

  5. Referential Choices in a Collaborative Storytelling Task: Discourse Stages and Referential Complexity Matter.

    Fossard, Marion; Achim, Amélie M; Rousier-Vercruyssen, Lucie; Gonzalez, Sylvia; Bureau, Alexandre; Champagne-Lavau, Maud

    2018-01-01

    During a narrative discourse, accessibility of the referents is rarely fixed once and for all. Rather, each referent varies in accessibility as the discourse unfolds, depending on the presence and prominence of the other referents. This leads the speaker to use various referential expressions to refer to the main protagonists of the story at different moments in the narrative. This study relies on a new, collaborative storytelling in sequence task designed to assess how speakers adjust their referential choices when they refer to different characters at specific discourse stages corresponding to the introduction, maintaining, or shift of the character in focus, in increasingly complex referential contexts. Referential complexity of the stories was manipulated through variations in the number of characters (1 vs. 2) and, for stories in which there were two characters, in their ambiguity in gender (different vs. same gender). Data were coded for the type of reference markers as well as the type of reference content (i.e., the extent of the information provided in the referential expression). Results showed that, beyond the expected effects of discourse stages on reference markers (more indefinite markers at the introduction stage, more pronouns at the maintaining stage, and more definite markers at the shift stage), the number of characters and their ambiguity in gender also modulated speakers' referential choices at specific discourse stages, For the maintaining stage, an effect of the number of characters was observed for the use of pronouns and of definite markers, with more pronouns when there was a single character, sometimes replaced by definite expressions when two characters were present in the story. For the shift stage, an effect of gender ambiguity was specifically noted for the reference content with more specific information provided in the referential expression when there was referential ambiguity. Reference content is an aspect of referential marking

  6. Referential Choices in a Collaborative Storytelling Task: Discourse Stages and Referential Complexity Matter

    Marion Fossard

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available During a narrative discourse, accessibility of the referents is rarely fixed once and for all. Rather, each referent varies in accessibility as the discourse unfolds, depending on the presence and prominence of the other referents. This leads the speaker to use various referential expressions to refer to the main protagonists of the story at different moments in the narrative. This study relies on a new, collaborative storytelling in sequence task designed to assess how speakers adjust their referential choices when they refer to different characters at specific discourse stages corresponding to the introduction, maintaining, or shift of the character in focus, in increasingly complex referential contexts. Referential complexity of the stories was manipulated through variations in the number of characters (1 vs. 2 and, for stories in which there were two characters, in their ambiguity in gender (different vs. same gender. Data were coded for the type of reference markers as well as the type of reference content (i.e., the extent of the information provided in the referential expression. Results showed that, beyond the expected effects of discourse stages on reference markers (more indefinite markers at the introduction stage, more pronouns at the maintaining stage, and more definite markers at the shift stage, the number of characters and their ambiguity in gender also modulated speakers' referential choices at specific discourse stages, For the maintaining stage, an effect of the number of characters was observed for the use of pronouns and of definite markers, with more pronouns when there was a single character, sometimes replaced by definite expressions when two characters were present in the story. For the shift stage, an effect of gender ambiguity was specifically noted for the reference content with more specific information provided in the referential expression when there was referential ambiguity. Reference content is an aspect of

  7. Inevitable ambiguity in perturbation around flat space-time

    Ichinose, S.; Kaminaga, Y.

    1989-01-01

    Perturbation of general-relativistic predictions around flat geometry, in general, introduces inevitable ambiguity. The ambiguity reflects the geometrical nature of general relativity and is never a difficulty of it. We explain it by taking a concrete example of the radar-echo experiment

  8. Analytical study on optically measured surface profiles of referential geometry using a finite-difference time-domain method

    Fujii, A; Hayashi, S; Fujii, S; Yanagi, K

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the functional performance of optical surface texture measuring instruments on the market. It is well known that their height response curves against certain referential geometry are not always identical to each other. So, a more precise study on the optical instrument's characteristics is greatly needed. Firstly, we developed a new simulation tool using a finite-difference time-domain technique, which enables the prediction of the height response curve against the fundamental surface geometry in the case of the confocal laser scanning microscope. Secondly, by utilizing this new simulation tool, measurement results, including outliers, were compared with the analytical simulation results. The comparison showed the consistency, which indicates that necessary conditions of surface measurement standards for verifying the instrument performance can be established. Consequently, we suggest that the maximum measurable slope angle must be added to evaluation subjects as significant metrological characteristics of measuring instruments, along with the lateral period limit. Finally, we propose a procedure to determine the lateral period limit in an ISO standard. (paper)

  9. Stability of referential signalling across time and locations: testing alarm calls of Australian magpies (Gymnorhina tibicen in urban and rural Australia and in Fiji

    Gisela Kaplan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In many avian species, vocal repertoire expands and changes throughout life as new syllables are added and sounds adapted to neighbours and circumstances. Referential signals, on the other hand, demand stability and lack of variation so that their meaning can be understood by conspecifics at all times. It is not known how stable such signals may be when the context is changed entirely but the point of reference remains unchanged. We investigated these questions in a rare case of forced translocation of an avian species, the Australian magpie (Gymnorhina tibicen, from Australia to the remote Fijian island of Taveuni decades ago. By using playbacks of vocalisations to 45 magpie groups in Australia, we first established that magpies use functionally referential signals in their alarm call repertoire signalling aerial danger (measured as looking up in response to a specific alarm call even though the speakers were on the ground. With these results in hand, we then used the same playbacks to magpie groups on the island of Taveuni. Our results showed that the meaning of one specific call (eagle alarm call is stable and maintained even in populations that have been isolated from Australian conspecifics over many (at least 10 generations. To our knowledge, this is the first time such a stability of a referential signal has been shown in the natural habitat.

  10. Self-referential emotions.

    Zinck, Alexandra

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine a special subgroup of emotion: self-referential emotions such as shame, pride and guilt. Self-referential emotions are usually conceptualized as (i) essentially involving the subject herself and as (ii) having complex conditions such as the capacity to represent others' thoughts. I will show that rather than depending on a fully fledged 'theory of mind' and an explicit language-based self-representation, (i) pre-forms of self-referential emotions appear at early developmental stages already exhibiting their characteristic structure of the intentional object of the emotion being identical with or intricately related to the subject experiencing the emotional state and that (ii) they precede and substantially contribute to the development of more complex representations and to the development of a self-concept, to social interaction and to ways of understanding of other minds.

  11. Ambiguities in the Lagrangians formalism: the time-dependent case

    Moreira, D.T.

    1986-01-01

    An intrinsic formulation of the equivalence problem for time-dependent Lagrangians is given. A new demostration of a theorem derived by Henneaux (1982) is obtained. The relationship to transformation groups is discussed. (Author) [pt

  12. Embracing the Ambiguity: Twelve Considerations for Holistic Time Management

    Bresciani, Marilee J.; Duncan, Allison J.; Cao, Liu Hui

    2010-01-01

    Many people feel overwhelmed by the seemingly never-ending demands of their professional and personal lives. Thinking of one's life as an ongoing journey promotes flexibility and allows one to focus on a current task, while knowing there will be time in the future to complete other tasks or meet other goals later. Research has also shown that…

  13. Referential Zero Point

    Matjaž Potrč

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Perhaps the most important controversy in which ordinary language philosophy was involved is that of definite descriptions, presenting referential act as a community-involving communication-intention endeavor, thereby opposing the direct acquaintance-based and logical proper names inspired reference aimed at securing truth conditions of referential expression. The problem of reference is that of obtaining access to the matters in the world. This access may be forthcoming through the senses, or through descriptions. A review of how the problem of reference is handled shows though that one main practice is to indulge in relations of acquaintance supporting logical proper names, demonstratives, indexicals and causal or historical chains. This testifies that the problem of reference involves the zero point, and with it phenomenology of intentionality. Communication-intention is but one dimension of rich phenomenology that constitutes an agent’s experiential space, his experiential world. Zero point is another constitutive aspect of phenomenology involved in the referential relation. Realizing that the problem of reference is phenomenology based opens a new perspective upon the contribution of analytical philosophy in this area, reconciling it with continental approach, and demonstrating variations of the impossibility related to the real. Chromatic illumination from the cognitive background empowers the referential act, in the best tradition of ordinary language philosophy.

  14. Untangling the Space-Time Ambiguity of Auroral Emissions

    Gjerloev, J. W.; Humberset, B.; Michell, R. G.; Samara, M.; Mann, I. R.

    2012-12-01

    In this paper we address the spatiotemporal characteristics of the magnetosphere-ionosphere (M-I) system as observed by an all-sky imager (ASI). We utilize 557.7 nm images obtained by a ground based ASI located under the dark ionosphere (~22 MLT) at Poker Flat, Alaska. The 19 min movie was recorded at 3.31 Hz during continuous moderately intense auroral activity driven by a southward IMF Bz of about -5 nT. We analyze this movie using a simple, yet robust, 2D FFT technique that allows us to determine the scale size dependent variability. When plotting the correlation pattern as a function of scale size and time separation we find a pattern with distinct regions of high and low correlation. Larger scale sizes are found to have longer duration. We interpret this remarkable result as indicative of a M-I system that uses repeatable solutions to transfer energy and momentum from the magnetosphere to the ionosphere. Our findings support the characteristics of the field-aligned currents as determined from multi-point satellite observations (ST-5, Gjerloev et al., Annales Geophysicae, 2011). Two different electromagnetic parameters, auroral emissions and field-aligned currents, display similar characteristics supporting our conclusion that this is indicative of a fundamental behavior of the M-I system.

  15. Constant resolution of time-dependent Hartree--Fock phase ambiguity

    Lichtner, P.C.; Griffin, J.J.; Schultheis, H.; Schultheis, R.; Volkov, A.B.

    1978-01-01

    The customary time-dependent Hartree--Fock problem is shown to be ambiguous up to an arbitrary function of time additive to H/sub HF/, and, consequently, up to an arbitrary time-dependent phase for the solution, PHI(t). The ''constant'' (H)'' phase is proposed as the best resolution of this ambiguity. It leads to the following attractive features: (a) the time-dependent Hartree--Fock (TDHF) Hamiltonian, H/sub HF/, becomes a quantity whose expectation value is equal to the average energy and, hence, constant in time; (b) eigenstates described exactly by determinants, have time-dependent Hartree--Fock solutions identical with the exact time-dependent solutions; (c) among all possible TDHF solutions this choice minimizes the norm of the quantity (H--i dirac constant delta/delta t) operating on the ket PHI, and guarantees optimal time evolution over an infinitesimal period; (d) this choice corresponds both to the stationary value of the absolute difference between (H) and (i dirac constant delta/delta t) and simultaneously to its absolute minimal value with respect to choice of the time-dependent phase. The source of the ambiguity is discussed. It lies in the time-dependent generalization of the freedom to transform unitarily among the single-particle states of a determinant at the (physically irrelevant for stationary states) cost of altering only a factor of unit magnitude

  16. Micro-Doppler Ambiguity Resolution Based on Short-Time Compressed Sensing

    Jing-bo Zhuang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available When using a long range radar (LRR to track a target with micromotion, the micro-Doppler embodied in the radar echoes may suffer from ambiguity problem. In this paper, we propose a novel method based on compressed sensing (CS to solve micro-Doppler ambiguity. According to the RIP requirement, a sparse probing pulse train with its transmitting time random is designed. After matched filtering, the slow-time echo signals of the micromotion target can be viewed as randomly sparse sampling of Doppler spectrum. Select several successive pulses to form a short-time window and the CS sensing matrix can be built according to the time stamps of these pulses. Then performing Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP, the unambiguous micro-Doppler spectrum can be obtained. The proposed algorithm is verified using the echo signals generated according to the theoretical model and the signals with micro-Doppler signature produced using the commercial electromagnetic simulation software FEKO.

  17. Ambiguity attitudes

    Trautmann, Stefan; van de Kuilen, Gijs; Keren, Gideon; Wu, George

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reviews the experimental literature on ambiguity attitudes, focusing on three topics. First, it considers various approaches to operationalize ambiguity in experiments. Second, the chapter reviews basic findings in the field regarding the prevalence of ambiguity aversion and ambiguity

  18. On the impact of GNSS ambiguity resolution: geometry, ionosphere, time and biases

    Khodabandeh, A.; Teunissen, P. J. G.

    2018-06-01

    Integer ambiguity resolution (IAR) is the key to fast and precise GNSS positioning and navigation. Next to the positioning parameters, however, there are several other types of GNSS parameters that are of importance for a range of different applications like atmospheric sounding, instrumental calibrations or time transfer. As some of these parameters may still require pseudo-range data for their estimation, their response to IAR may differ significantly. To infer the impact of ambiguity resolution on the parameters, we show how the ambiguity-resolved double-differenced phase data propagate into the GNSS parameter solutions. For that purpose, we introduce a canonical decomposition of the GNSS network model that, through its decoupled and decorrelated nature, provides direct insight into which parameters, or functions thereof, gain from IAR and which do not. Next to this qualitative analysis, we present for the GNSS estimable parameters of geometry, ionosphere, timing and instrumental biases closed-form expressions of their IAR precision gains together with supporting numerical examples.

  19. FAST INTEGER AMBIGUITY RESOLUTION IN GPS KINEMATIC POSITIONING USING LEFT NULL SPACE AND MULTI-TIME (INVERSE PAIRED CHOLESKY DECORRELATION

    Rong Duan

    Full Text Available Aiming at the problems that huge amount of computation in ambiguity resolution with multiple epochs and high-order matrix inversion occurred in the GPS kinematic relative positioning, a modified algorithm for fast integer ambiguity resolution is proposed. Firstly, Singular Value Decomposition (SVD is applied to construct the left null space matrix in order to eliminate the baselines components, which is able to separate ambiguity parameters from the position parameters efficiently. Kalman filter is applied only to estimate the ambiguity parameters so that the real-time ambiguity float solution is obtained. Then, sorting and multi-time (inverse paired Cholesky decomposition are adopted for decorrelation of ambiguity. After diagonal elements preprocessing and diagonal elements sorting according to the results of Cholesky decomposition, the efficiency of decomposition and decorrelation is improved. Lastly, the integer search algorithm implemented in LAMBDA method is used for searching the integer ambiguity. To verify the validity and efficacy of the proposed algorithm, static and kinematic tests are carried out. Experimental results show that this algorithm has good performance of decorrelation and precision of float solution, with computation speed also increased effectively. The final positioning accuracy result with static baseline error less than 1 cm and kinematic error less than 2 cm, which indicates that it can be used for fast kinematic positioning of high precision carrier.

  20. Ambiguous walls

    Mody, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) in the built environment has encouraged myriad applications, often embedded in surfaces as an integrated part of the architecture. Thus the wall as responsive luminous skin is becoming, if not common, at least familiar. Taking into account how walls...... have encouraged architectural thinking of enclosure, materiality, construction and inhabitation in architectural history, the paper’s aim is to define new directions for the integration of LEDs in walls, challenging the thinking of inhabitation and program. This paper introduces the notion...... of “ambiguous walls” as a more “critical” approach to design [1]. The concept of ambiguous walls refers to the diffuse status a lumious and possibly responsive wall will have. Instead of confining it can open up. Instead of having a static appearance, it becomes a context over time. Instead of being hard...

  1. FRESCO: Referential compression of highly similar sequences.

    Wandelt, Sebastian; Leser, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    In many applications, sets of similar texts or sequences are of high importance. Prominent examples are revision histories of documents or genomic sequences. Modern high-throughput sequencing technologies are able to generate DNA sequences at an ever-increasing rate. In parallel to the decreasing experimental time and cost necessary to produce DNA sequences, computational requirements for analysis and storage of the sequences are steeply increasing. Compression is a key technology to deal with this challenge. Recently, referential compression schemes, storing only the differences between a to-be-compressed input and a known reference sequence, gained a lot of interest in this field. In this paper, we propose a general open-source framework to compress large amounts of biological sequence data called Framework for REferential Sequence COmpression (FRESCO). Our basic compression algorithm is shown to be one to two orders of magnitudes faster than comparable related work, while achieving similar compression ratios. We also propose several techniques to further increase compression ratios, while still retaining the advantage in speed: 1) selecting a good reference sequence; and 2) rewriting a reference sequence to allow for better compression. In addition,we propose a new way of further boosting the compression ratios by applying referential compression to already referentially compressed files (second-order compression). This technique allows for compression ratios way beyond state of the art, for instance,4,000:1 and higher for human genomes. We evaluate our algorithms on a large data set from three different species (more than 1,000 genomes, more than 3 TB) and on a collection of versions of Wikipedia pages. Our results show that real-time compression of highly similar sequences at high compression ratios is possible on modern hardware.

  2. Properties of Ambiguity Functions

    Mulcahy-Stanislawczyk, John

    2014-01-01

    The use of ambiguity functions in radar signal design and analysis is very common. Understanding the various properties and meanings of ambiguity functions allow a signal designer to understand the time delay and doppler shift properties of a given signal. Through the years, several different versions of the ambiguity function have been used. Each of these functions essentially have the same physical meaning; however, the use of different functions makes it difficult to be sure that certai...

  3. Ambiguous Loss, Family Stress, and Infant Attachment during Times of War

    Gorman, Lisa A.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the interdependent nature of infants and their parents who are experiencing wartime deployment and reunion. Research supports the contention that the cumulative effects of stress place families at risk; the experience of ambiguous loss changes as family roles change throughout the cycle of deployment; and parental absence has…

  4. Ambiguous chair

    Manelius, Anne-Mette

    2011-01-01

    Bidrag til gør-det-selv bog, hvor det beskrives i udførlige tegninger, hvordan man bygger sin egen 'Ambiguous Chair', en tekstilforskallet stol.......Bidrag til gør-det-selv bog, hvor det beskrives i udførlige tegninger, hvordan man bygger sin egen 'Ambiguous Chair', en tekstilforskallet stol....

  5. Disclosure, Ambiguity and Risk Reduction in Real-Time Dating Sites

    Handel, Mark; Shklovski, Irina

    2012-01-01

    While social network capabilities are proliferating on many online services, research has focused on just a few popular social network sites. In this note, we consider a different kind of social network site, explicitly designed to support particular types of risky sexual activity among men who...... have sex with men (MSM). We consider the role of ambiguity built into the interface in how users manage self-disclosure and its association with articulating more friends- only or sexual connections on the site. Despite the site’s explicit orientation toward risky sexual practices, we find indications...

  6. Potential Ambiguity Translation Performances within Legal Language Institutional Nomenclature

    Oţăt Diana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by a paradoxical corollary of ambiguities in legal documents and especially in contract texts, the current paper underpins a dichotomy approach to unintended ambiguities aiming to establish a referential framework for the occurrence rate of translation ambiguities within the legal language nomenclature. The research focus is on a twofold situation since ambiguities may. on the one hand, arise dining the translation process, generated by the translator’s lack of competence, i.e. inadequate use of English regarding the special nature of legal language, or. on the other hand, they may be simply transferred from the source language into the target language without even noticing the potential ambiguous situation, i.e. culture-bound ambiguities. Hence, the paper proposes a contrastive analysis in order to localize the occurrence of lexical, structural, and socio-cultural ambiguities triggered by the use of the term performance and its Romanian equivalents in a number of sales contracts.

  7. Context-dependent lexical ambiguity resolution: MEG evidence for the time-course of activity in left inferior frontal gyrus and posterior middle temporal gyrus.

    Mollo, Giovanna; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Cornelissen, Piers; Gennari, Silvia P

    An MEG study investigated the role of context in semantic interpretation by examining the comprehension of ambiguous words in contexts leading to different interpretations. We compared high-ambiguity words in minimally different contexts (to bowl, the bowl) to low-ambiguity counterparts (the tray, to flog). Whole brain beamforming revealed the engagement of left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) and posterior middle temporal gyrus (LPMTG). Points of interest analyses showed that both these sites showed a stronger response to verb-contexts by 200 ms post-stimulus and displayed overlapping ambiguity effects that were sustained from 300 ms onwards. The effect of context was stronger for high-ambiguity words than for low-ambiguity words at several different time points, including within the first 100 ms post-stimulus. Unlike LIFG, LPMTG also showed stronger responses to verb than noun contexts in low-ambiguity trials. We argue that different functional roles previously attributed to LIFG and LPMTG are in fact played out at different periods during processing. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Ambiguous Intimacy

    Houmøller, Kathrin

    2015-01-01

    relations and intimacy is riddled with inevitability and precarity. Here, it is argued, intimacy is ambiguous: allowed and resisted, longed for and feared - simultaneously encompassing practices of closeness and distance, connecting and disconnecting. To make a life in this particular place sometimes...

  9. Ambiguous Adaptation

    Møller Larsen, Marcus; Lyngsie, Jacob

    and reciprocal adaptation of informal governance structure create ambiguity in situations of contingencies, which, subsequently, increases the likelihood of premature relationship termination. Using a large sample of exchange relationships in the global service provider industry, we find support for a hypothesis...

  10. Ambiguous Adaptation

    Møller Larsen, Marcus; Lyngsie, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the connection between contract duration, relational mechanisms, and premature relationship termination. Based on an analysis of a large sample of exchange relationships in the global service-provider industry, we argue that investments in either longer contract duration or more in...... ambiguous reference points for adaption and thus increase the likelihood of premature termination by restricting the parties' set of adaptive actions....

  11. Ambiguous Genitalia

    ... that respond to testosterone. 5a-reductase deficiency. This enzyme defect impairs normal male hormone production. Ambiguous genitalia can also be a feature of certain rare, complex syndromes that affect many organ systems. Risk factors Family history may play a role in the development of ...

  12. Do domestic dogs learn words based on humans' referential behaviour?

    Sebastian Tempelmann

    Full Text Available Some domestic dogs learn to comprehend human words, although the nature and basis of this learning is unknown. In the studies presented here we investigated whether dogs learn words through an understanding of referential actions by humans rather than simple association. In three studies, each modelled on a study conducted with human infants, we confronted four word-experienced dogs with situations involving no spatial-temporal contiguity between the word and the referent; the only available cues were referential actions displaced in time from exposure to their referents. We found that no dogs were able to reliably link an object with a label based on social-pragmatic cues alone in all the tests. However, one dog did show skills in some tests, possibly indicating an ability to learn based on social-pragmatic cues.

  13. Referential processing: reciprocity and correlates of naming and imaging.

    Paivio, A; Clark, J M; Digdon, N; Bons, T

    1989-03-01

    To shed light on the referential processes that underlie mental translation between representations of objects and words, we studied the reciprocity and determinants of naming and imaging reaction times (RT). Ninety-six subjects pressed a key when they had covertly named 248 pictures or imaged to their names. Mean naming and imagery RTs for each item were correlated with one another, and with properties of names, images, and their interconnections suggested by prior research and dual coding theory. Imagery RTs correlated .56 (df = 246) with manual naming RTs and .58 with voicekey naming RTs from prior studies. A factor analysis of the RTs and of 31 item characteristics revealed 7 dimensions. Imagery and naming RTs loaded on a common referential factor that included variables related to both directions of processing (e.g., missing names and missing images). Naming RTs also loaded on a nonverbal-to-verbal factor that included such variables as number of different names, whereas imagery RTs loaded on a verbal-to-nonverbal factor that included such variables as rated consistency of imagery. The other factors were verbal familiarity, verbal complexity, nonverbal familiarity, and nonverbal complexity. The findings confirm the reciprocity of imaging and naming, and their relation to constructs associated with distinct phases of referential processing.

  14. NRGC: a novel referential genome compression algorithm.

    Saha, Subrata; Rajasekaran, Sanguthevar

    2016-11-15

    Next-generation sequencing techniques produce millions to billions of short reads. The procedure is not only very cost effective but also can be done in laboratory environment. The state-of-the-art sequence assemblers then construct the whole genomic sequence from these reads. Current cutting edge computing technology makes it possible to build genomic sequences from the billions of reads within a minimal cost and time. As a consequence, we see an explosion of biological sequences in recent times. In turn, the cost of storing the sequences in physical memory or transmitting them over the internet is becoming a major bottleneck for research and future medical applications. Data compression techniques are one of the most important remedies in this context. We are in need of suitable data compression algorithms that can exploit the inherent structure of biological sequences. Although standard data compression algorithms are prevalent, they are not suitable to compress biological sequencing data effectively. In this article, we propose a novel referential genome compression algorithm (NRGC) to effectively and efficiently compress the genomic sequences. We have done rigorous experiments to evaluate NRGC by taking a set of real human genomes. The simulation results show that our algorithm is indeed an effective genome compression algorithm that performs better than the best-known algorithms in most of the cases. Compression and decompression times are also very impressive. The implementations are freely available for non-commercial purposes. They can be downloaded from: http://www.engr.uconn.edu/~rajasek/NRGC.zip CONTACT: rajasek@engr.uconn.edu. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Implicit Referential Meaning with Reference to English Arabic Translation

    Al-Zughoul, Basem

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how English implicit referential meaning is translated into Arabic by analyzing sentences containing implicit referential meanings found in the novel "Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban". The analysis shows that the translation of English implicit referential meaning into Arabic can be…

  16. "Pinch the Giraffe with the Glove" - Syntactic Ambiguity Resolution in Young Children

    Young, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Previous research in language development focusing on the comprehension of ambiguous sentences has found that children are unable to use top-down information, such as referential context, to resolve the ambiguity. The present study aimed to discover whether children were also insensitive to a different form of top-down processing (the prior question). To do so, we conducted an experiment with 5- and 7-year-olds which involved playing with toys on a stage whilst listening to sound files which ...

  17. Issues in the formal semantics of referentiality

    Roberta Pires de Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available On October 21st, and 22nd, 2013, during the Conference “On Referentiality”, which took place in Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil, the papers that compose this issue were first discussed. The conference is one of the activities of the Cooperation Project CAPES-NUFFIC, between universities in Brazil and the Netherlands, entitled 'The Effects of Modification on Referentiality '(CAPES process number 040/12. The aim of this project is to investigate the effects of modification in the licensing and blocking of nominal phrases. The project’s main hypothesis is that “modification” introduces a feature of referentiality, precisely the notion the conference aimed at clarifying.

  18. Risk, ambiguity, and diversification

    Sautua, Santiago-Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Attitudes toward risk influence the decision to diversify among uncertain options. Yet, because in most situations the options are ambiguous, attitudes toward ambiguity may also play an important role. I conduct a laboratory experiment to investigate the effect of ambiguity on the decision to diversify. I find that diversification is more prevalent and more persistent under ambiguity than under risk. Moreover, excess diversification under ambiguity is driven by participants who stick with a s...

  19. Treatment decisions under ambiguity.

    Berger, Loïc; Bleichrodt, Han; Eeckhoudt, Louis

    2013-05-01

    Many health risks are ambiguous in the sense that reliable and credible information about these risks is unavailable. In health economics, ambiguity is usually handled through sensitivity analysis, which implicitly assumes that people are neutral towards ambiguity. However, empirical evidence suggests that people are averse to ambiguity and react strongly to it. This paper studies the effects of ambiguity aversion on two classical medical decision problems. If there is ambiguity regarding the diagnosis of a patient, ambiguity aversion increases the decision maker's propensity to opt for treatment. On the other hand, in the case of ambiguity regarding the effects of treatment, ambiguity aversion leads to a reduction in the propensity to choose treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Ambiguous Belongings

    Pallesen, Cecil Marie

    and work in the new place and at the same time shallowly enough for them to be able to move on. Not least do they secure that ‘the crown’, which may signify ‘the culture’ or ‘Indianness’, is not buried underneath the soil. Fragarian practices allow the Indians to live transnationally while at the same time...... of ethnographic fieldwork in Moshi, Tanzania, and in London, UK, I explore and analyze intersections of local and transnational belonging, purity, citizenship strategies, networks, and claims for recognition as ‘good citizens’. Arguing that the uncertainty, which has been a fundamental condition for the Indians...

  1. Property Analysis of the Real-Time Uncalibrated Phase Delay Product Generated by Regional Reference Stations and Its Influence on Precise Point Positioning Ambiguity Resolution

    Yong Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The real-time estimation of the wide-lane and narrow-lane Uncalibrated Phase Delay (UPD of satellites is realized by real-time data received from regional reference station networks; The properties of the real-time UPD product and its influence on real-time precise point positioning ambiguity resolution (RTPPP-AR are experimentally analyzed according to real-time data obtained from the regional Continuously Operating Reference Stations (CORS network located in Tianjin, Shanghai, Hong Kong, etc. The results show that the real-time wide-lane and narrow-lane UPD products differ significantly from each other in time-domain characteristics; the wide-lane UPDs have daily stability, with a change rate of less than 0.1 cycle/day, while the narrow-lane UPDs have short-term stability, with significant change in one day. The UPD products generated by different regional networks have obvious spatial characteristics, thus significantly influencing RTPPP-AR: the adoption of real-time UPD products employing the sparse stations in the regional network for estimation is favorable for improving the regional RTPPP-AR up to 99%; the real-time UPD products of different regional networks slightly influence PPP-AR positioning accuracy. After ambiguities are successfully fixed, the real-time dynamic RTPPP-AR positioning accuracy is better than 3 cm in the plane and 8 cm in the upward direction.

  2. Image Ambiguity and Fluency

    Jakesch, Martina; Leder, Helmut; Forster, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Ambiguity is often associated with negative affective responses, and enjoying ambiguity seems restricted to only a few situations, such as experiencing art. Nevertheless, theories of judgment formation, especially the “processing fluency account”, suggest that easy-to-process (non-ambiguous) stimuli are processed faster and are therefore preferred to (ambiguous) stimuli, which are hard to process. In a series of six experiments, we investigated these contrasting approaches by manipulating fluency (presentation duration: 10ms, 50ms, 100ms, 500ms, 1000ms) and testing effects of ambiguity (ambiguous versus non-ambiguous pictures of paintings) on classification performance (Part A; speed and accuracy) and aesthetic appreciation (Part B; liking and interest). As indicated by signal detection analyses, classification accuracy increased with presentation duration (Exp. 1a), but we found no effects of ambiguity on classification speed (Exp. 1b). Fifty percent of the participants were able to successfully classify ambiguous content at a presentation duration of 100 ms, and at 500ms even 75% performed above chance level. Ambiguous artworks were found more interesting (in conditions 50ms to 1000ms) and were preferred over non-ambiguous stimuli at 500ms and 1000ms (Exp. 2a - 2c, 3). Importantly, ambiguous images were nonetheless rated significantly harder to process as non-ambiguous images. These results suggest that ambiguity is an essential ingredient in art appreciation even though or maybe because it is harder to process. PMID:24040172

  3. Noun complement clauses as referential modifiers

    Carlos de Cuba

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of recent analyses propose that so-called noun complement clauses should be analyzed as a type of relative clause. In this paper, I present a number of complications for any analysis that equates noun complement clauses to relative clauses, and conclude that this type of analysis is on the wrong track. I present cross-linguistic evidence showing that the syntactic behavior of noun complement clauses does not pattern with relative clauses. Patterns of complementizer choice and complementizer drop as well as patterns involving main clause phenomena and extraction differ in the two constructions, which I argue is unexpected under a relative clause analysis that involves operator movement. Instead I present an alternative analysis in which I propose that the referentiality of a noun complement clause is linked to its syntactic behavior. Following recent work, I claim that referential clauses have a syntactically truncated left-periphery, and this truncation can account for the lack of main clause phenomena in noun complement clauses. I argue that the truncation analysis is also able to accommodate complementizer data patterns more easily than relative clause analyses that appeal to operator movement.

  4. Young Children Create Partner-Specific Referential Pacts with Peers

    Köymen, Bahar; Schmerse, Daniel; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In 2 studies, we investigated how peers establish a "referential pact" to call something, for example, a "cushion" versus a "pillow" (both equally felicitous). In Study 1, pairs of 4-and 6-year-old German-speaking peers established a referential pact for an artifact, for example, a "woman's shoe," in a…

  5. Risk, ambiguity and sovereign rating

    Di Caro, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Decisions of investing in sovereign assets involve both risk and ambiguity. Ambiguity arises from unknown elements characterizing the value of a generic sovereign. In presence of ambiguity, ambiguity-averse investors are prone to pay for obtaining summary information such as ratings which reduces ambiguity. Ambiguity-neutral and ambiguity-averse investors, then, make decisions on the basis of different informative sources. By presenting a simple model of sovereign rating under ambiguity, thre...

  6. SAR Ambiguity Study for the Cassini Radar

    Hensley, Scott; Im, Eastwood; Johnson, William T. K.

    1993-01-01

    The Cassini Radar's synthetic aperture radar (SAR) ambiguity analysis is unique with respect to other spaceborne SAR ambiguity analyses owing to the non-orbiting spacecraft trajectory, asymmetric antenna pattern, and burst mode of data collection. By properly varying the pointing, burst mode timing, and radar parameters along the trajectory this study shows that the signal-to-ambiguity ratio of better than 15 dB can be achieved for all images obtained by the Cassini Radar.

  7. SELF-REFERENTIALITY AND INTER-REFERENTIALITY IN ROMANIAN CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY (1964–2012

    MARIN CONSTANTIN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The bibliographic retrospective of the practice of cultural anthropology in Romania is significant for the actuality of a process of changing and renewing the scientific interest and the inquest “field” of Romanian researchers. More precisely, the self-referential or “intra-cultural” knowledge about Romanian communities or groups of population currently appears to be turned into a inter-referential knowledge, with a cross-cultural content. It is through such theoretical and methodological metamorphosis that the study of minority ethno-linguistic communities in Romania takes part to a contextualized understanding of Romanian cultural identities in relation to the groups of Magyars, Germans, Roma, Russian-speaking Lipovans, Turks, Croatians etc. As a result, my text attempts to evaluate the inner dynamics of Romanian cultural anthropology in terms of a critical synthesis of the local specialized literature, in the context of anthropological disciplinary evolution in Central and Southeastern Europe

  8. Ambiguity effects of rhyme and meter.

    Wallot, Sebastian; Menninghaus, Winfried

    2018-04-23

    Previous research has shown that rhyme and meter-although enhancing prosodic processing ease and memorability-also tend to make semantic processing more demanding. Using a set of rhymed and metered proverbs, as well as nonrhymed and nonmetered versions of these proverbs, the present study reveals this hitherto unspecified difficulty of comprehension to be specifically driven by perceived ambiguity. Roman Jakobson was the 1st to propose this hypothesis, in 1960. He suggested that "ambiguity is an intrinsic, inalienable feature" of "parallelistic" diction of which the combination of rhyme and meter is a pronounced example. Our results show that ambiguity indeed explains a substantial portion of the rhyme- and meter-driven difficulty of comprehension. Longer word-reading times differentially reflected ratings for ambiguity and comprehension difficulty. However, the ambiguity effect is not "inalienable." Rather, many rhymed and metered sentences turned out to be low in ambiguity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Measuring higher order ambiguity preferences.

    Baillon, Aurélien; Schlesinger, Harris; van de Kuilen, Gijs

    2018-01-01

    We report the results from an experiment designed to measure attitudes towards ambiguity beyond ambiguity aversion. In particular, we implement recently-proposed model-free preference conditions of ambiguity prudence and ambiguity temperance. Ambiguity prudence has been shown to play an important role in precautionary behavior and the mere presence of ambiguity averse agents in markets. We observe that the majority of individuals' decisions are consistent with ambiguity aversion, ambiguity prudence and ambiguity temperance. This finding confirms the prediction of many popular (specifications of) ambiguity models and has important implications for models of prevention behavior.

  10. Effective ambiguity checking in biosequence analysis

    Giegerich Robert

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ambiguity is a problem in biosequence analysis that arises in various analysis tasks solved via dynamic programming, and in particular, in the modeling of families of RNA secondary structures with stochastic context free grammars. Several types of analysis are invalidated by the presence of ambiguity. As this problem inherits undecidability (as we show here from the namely problem for context free languages, there is no complete algorithmic solution to the problem of ambiguity checking. Results We explain frequently observed sources of ambiguity, and show how to avoid them. We suggest four testing procedures that may help to detect ambiguity when present, including a just-in-time test that permits to work safely with a potentially ambiguous grammar. We introduce, for the special case of stochastic context free grammars and RNA structure modeling, an automated partial procedure for proving non-ambiguity. It is used to demonstrate non-ambiguity for several relevant grammars. Conclusion Our mechanical proof procedure and our testing methods provide a powerful arsenal of methods to ensure non-ambiguity.

  11. Vignettes of Ambiguity

    Gotz, Ignacio L.

    2010-01-01

    This article is an exploration of ambiguity as it appears in various guises in philosophical, social, political, and educational situations. Among these situations is the experience of exile. The exploration is conducted by means of literary anecdotes and real-life instances, hence the use of vignettes. The suggestion is made that ambiguity can be…

  12. Determinants of translation ambiguity

    Degani, Tamar; Prior, Anat; Eddington, Chelsea M.; Arêas da Luz Fontes, Ana B.; Tokowicz, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    Ambiguity in translation is highly prevalent, and has consequences for second-language learning and for bilingual lexical processing. To better understand this phenomenon, the current study compared the determinants of translation ambiguity across four sets of translation norms from English to Spanish, Dutch, German and Hebrew. The number of translations an English word received was correlated across these different languages, and was also correlated with the number of senses the word has in English, demonstrating that translation ambiguity is partially determined by within-language semantic ambiguity. For semantically-ambiguous English words, the probability of the different translations in Spanish and Hebrew was predicted by the meaning-dominance structure in English, beyond the influence of other lexical and semantic factors, for bilinguals translating from their L1, and translating from their L2. These findings are consistent with models postulating direct access to meaning from L2 words for moderately-proficient bilinguals. PMID:27882188

  13. The Ethics of Ambiguity

    Ronald E. Domen MD

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding and embracing uncertainty are critical for effective teacher–learner relationships as well as for shared decision-making in the physician–patient relationship. However, ambiguity has not been given serious consideration in either the undergraduate or graduate medical curricula or in the role it plays in patient-centered care. In this article, the author examines the ethics of ambiguity and argues for a pedagogy that includes education in the importance of, and tolerance of, ambiguity that is inherent in medical education and practice. Common threads running through the ethics of ambiguity are the virtue of respect, and the development of a culture of respect is required for the successful understanding and implementation of a pedagogy of ambiguity.

  14. The Ethics of Ambiguity

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and embracing uncertainty are critical for effective teacher–learner relationships as well as for shared decision-making in the physician–patient relationship. However, ambiguity has not been given serious consideration in either the undergraduate or graduate medical curricula or in the role it plays in patient-centered care. In this article, the author examines the ethics of ambiguity and argues for a pedagogy that includes education in the importance of, and tolerance of, ambiguity that is inherent in medical education and practice. Common threads running through the ethics of ambiguity are the virtue of respect, and the development of a culture of respect is required for the successful understanding and implementation of a pedagogy of ambiguity. PMID:28725771

  15. Measuring higher order ambiguity preferences

    A. Baillon (Aurélien); Schlesinger, H. (Harris); G. van de Kuilen (Gijs)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractWe report the results from an experiment designed to measure attitudes towards ambiguity beyond ambiguity aversion. In particular, we implement recently-proposed model-free preference conditions of ambiguity prudence and ambiguity temperance. Ambiguity prudence has been shown to play an

  16. Vocal learning in the functionally referential food grunts of chimpanzees.

    Watson, Stuart K; Townsend, Simon W; Schel, Anne M; Wilke, Claudia; Wallace, Emma K; Cheng, Leveda; West, Victoria; Slocombe, Katie E

    2015-02-16

    One standout feature of human language is our ability to reference external objects and events with socially learned symbols, or words. Exploring the phylogenetic origins of this capacity is therefore key to a comprehensive understanding of the evolution of language. While non-human primates can produce vocalizations that refer to external objects in the environment, it is generally accepted that their acoustic structure is fixed and a product of arousal states. Indeed, it has been argued that the apparent lack of flexible control over the structure of referential vocalizations represents a key discontinuity with language. Here, we demonstrate vocal learning in the acoustic structure of referential food grunts in captive chimpanzees. We found that, following the integration of two groups of adult chimpanzees, the acoustic structure of referential food grunts produced for a specific food converged over 3 years. Acoustic convergence arose independently of preference for the food, and social network analyses indicated this only occurred after strong affiliative relationships were established between the original subgroups. We argue that these data represent the first evidence of non-human animals actively modifying and socially learning the structure of a meaningful referential vocalization from conspecifics. Our findings indicate that primate referential call structure is not simply determined by arousal and that the socially learned nature of referential words in humans likely has ancient evolutionary origins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Localizing Expression of Ambiguity

    Bear, John; Hobbs, Sr, Jerry R

    1987-01-01

    In this paper we describe an implemented program for localizing the expression of many types of syntactic ambiguity, in the logical forms of sentences, in a manner convenient for subsequent inferential processing...

  18. Exploring ambiguous realms

    Clemensen, Nana

    2016-01-01

    In Hang'ombe Village in rural Zambia, the relative lack of physical boundaries between the activities of family members allow children to observe the actions and discussions of adults on close hand, exposing them to the ambiguities of daily life. Children explore these ambiguities in their intera...... in their interactions, testing social roles and conventions. This article explores the vigilance and creative agency displayed by Hang'ombe children, in an environment spurring their acquisition of distinct social and discursive skills.......In Hang'ombe Village in rural Zambia, the relative lack of physical boundaries between the activities of family members allow children to observe the actions and discussions of adults on close hand, exposing them to the ambiguities of daily life. Children explore these ambiguities...

  19. Risk, Ambiguity, and Insurance.

    1984-10-01

    California felt that once a severe earthquake occurs, it is le likely to occur in the near future (Kunreuther et al., 1978). When probabilities are...psychological model of how people assess probabilities In ambiguous circumstances. This model is based on three principles : (1) In assessing an ambiguous...TECHNICAL REPORTS DISTRIBUTION LIST 050 Department of the Navy CAPT Paul R. Chatelier Dr. Andrew Rachnitser Office of the Deputy Under Secretary Office of

  20. Referential calls coordinate multi-species mobbing in a forest bird community.

    Suzuki, Toshitaka N

    2016-01-01

    Japanese great tits ( Parus minor ) use a sophisticated system of anti-predator communication when defending their offspring: they produce different mobbing calls for different nest predators (snake versus non-snake predators) and thereby convey this information to conspecifics (i.e. functionally referential call system). The present playback experiments revealed that these calls also serve to coordinate multi-species mobbing at nests; snake-specific mobbing calls attracted heterospecific individuals close to the sound source and elicited snake-searching behaviour, whereas non-snake mobbing calls attracted these birds at a distance. This study demonstrates for the first time that referential mobbing calls trigger different formations of multi-species mobbing parties.

  1. Positive fEMG Patterns with Ambiguity in Paintings.

    Jakesch, Martina; Goller, Juergen; Leder, Helmut

    2017-01-01

    Whereas ambiguity in everyday life is often negatively evaluated, it is considered key in art appreciation. In a facial EMG study, we tested whether the positive role of visual ambiguity in paintings is reflected in a continuous affective evaluation on a subtle level. We presented ambiguous (disfluent) and non-ambiguous (fluent) versions of Magritte paintings and found that M. Zygomaticus major activation was higher and M. corrugator supercilii activation was lower for ambiguous than for non-ambiguous versions. Our findings reflect a positive continuous affective evaluation to visual ambiguity in paintings over the 5 s presentation time. We claim that this finding is indirect evidence for the hypothesis that visual stimuli classified as art, evoke a safe state for indulging into experiencing ambiguity, challenging the notion that processing fluency is generally related to positive affect.

  2. Collective Referential Intentionality in the Semantics of Dialogue

    Jacquette Dale

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The concept of a dialogue is considered in general terms from the standpoint of its referential presuppositions. The semantics of dialogue implies that dialogue participants must generally have a collective intentionality of agreed-upon references that is minimally sufficient for them to be able to disagree about other things, and ideally for outstanding disagreements to become clearer at successive stages of the dialogue. These points are detailed and illustrated in a fictional dialogue, in which precisely these kinds of referential confusions impede progress in shared understanding. It is only through a continuous exchange of question and answer in this dialogue case study that the meanings of key terms and anaphorical references are disambiguated, and a relevantly complete collective intentionality of shared meaning between dialogue participants is achieved. The importance of a minimally shared referential semantics for the terms entering into reasoning and argument in dialogue contexts broadly construed cannot be over-estimated. Where to draw the line between referential agreement and disagreement within any chosen dialogue, as participants work toward better mutual understanding in clearing up referential incongruities, is sometimes among the dialogue’s main points of dispute.

  3. Sensory memory for ambiguous vision.

    Pearson, Joel; Brascamp, Jan

    2008-09-01

    In recent years the overlap between visual perception and memory has shed light on our understanding of both. When ambiguous images that normally cause perception to waver unpredictably are presented briefly with intervening blank periods, perception tends to freeze, locking into one interpretation. This indicates that there is a form of memory storage across the blank interval. This memory trace codes low-level characteristics of the stored stimulus. Although a trace is evident after a single perceptual instance, the trace builds over many separate stimulus presentations, indicating a flexible, variable-length time-course. This memory shares important characteristics with priming by non-ambiguous stimuli. Computational models now provide a framework to interpret many empirical observations.

  4. Phonological loop affects children's interpretations of explicit but not ambiguous questions: Research on links between working memory and referent assignment.

    Meng, Xianwei; Murakami, Taro; Hashiya, Kazuhide

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the referent of other's utterance by referring the contextual information helps in smooth communication. Although this pragmatic referential process can be observed even in infants, its underlying mechanism and relative abilities remain unclear. This study aimed to comprehend the background of the referential process by investigating whether the phonological loop affected the referent assignment. A total of 76 children (43 girls) aged 3-5 years participated in a reference assignment task in which an experimenter asked them to answer explicit (e.g., "What color is this?") and ambiguous (e.g., "What about this?") questions about colorful objects. The phonological loop capacity was measured by using the forward digit span task in which children were required to repeat the numbers as an experimenter uttered them. The results showed that the scores of the forward digit span task positively predicted correct response to explicit questions and part of the ambiguous questions. That is, the phonological loop capacity did not have effects on referent assignment in response to ambiguous questions that were asked after a topic shift of the explicit questions and thus required a backward reference to the preceding explicit questions to detect the intent of the current ambiguous questions. These results suggest that although the phonological loop capacity could overtly enhance the storage of verbal information, it does not seem to directly contribute to the pragmatic referential process, which might require further social cognitive processes.

  5. Phonological loop affects children's interpretations of explicit but not ambiguous questions: Research on links between working memory and referent assignment.

    Xianwei Meng

    Full Text Available Understanding the referent of other's utterance by referring the contextual information helps in smooth communication. Although this pragmatic referential process can be observed even in infants, its underlying mechanism and relative abilities remain unclear. This study aimed to comprehend the background of the referential process by investigating whether the phonological loop affected the referent assignment. A total of 76 children (43 girls aged 3-5 years participated in a reference assignment task in which an experimenter asked them to answer explicit (e.g., "What color is this?" and ambiguous (e.g., "What about this?" questions about colorful objects. The phonological loop capacity was measured by using the forward digit span task in which children were required to repeat the numbers as an experimenter uttered them. The results showed that the scores of the forward digit span task positively predicted correct response to explicit questions and part of the ambiguous questions. That is, the phonological loop capacity did not have effects on referent assignment in response to ambiguous questions that were asked after a topic shift of the explicit questions and thus required a backward reference to the preceding explicit questions to detect the intent of the current ambiguous questions. These results suggest that although the phonological loop capacity could overtly enhance the storage of verbal information, it does not seem to directly contribute to the pragmatic referential process, which might require further social cognitive processes.

  6. Ontology: ambiguity and accuracy

    Marcelo Schiessl

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Ambiguity is a major obstacle to information retrieval. It is source of several researches in Information Science. Ontologies have been studied in order to solve problems related to ambiguities. Paradoxically, “ontology” term is also ambiguous and it is understood according to the use by the community. Philosophy and Computer Science seems to have the most accentuated difference related to the term sense. The former holds undisputed tradition and authority. The latter, in despite of being quite recent, holds an informal sense, but pragmatic. Information Science acts ranging from philosophical to computational approaches so as to get organized collections based on balance between users’ necessities and available information. The semantic web requires informational cycle automation and demands studies related to ontologies. Consequently, revisiting relevant approaches for the study of ontologies plays a relevant role as a way to provide useful ideas to researchers maintaining philosophical rigor, and convenience provided by computers.

  7. Lexical ambiguity resolution

    Small, S.; Cottrell, G.; Tanenhaus, M.

    1987-01-01

    This book collects much of the best research currently available on the problem of lexical ambiguity resolution in the processing of human language. When taken out of context, sentences are usually ambiguous. When actually uttered in a dialogue or written in text, these same sentences often have unique interpretations. The inherent ambiguity of isolated sentences, becomes obvious in the attempt to write a computer program to understand them. Different views have emerged on the nature of context and the mechanisms by which it directs unambiguous understanding of words and sentences. These perspectives are represented and discussed. Eighteen original papers from a valuable source book for cognitive scientists in AI, psycholinguistics, neuropsychology, or theoretical linguistics.

  8. Referential communication in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Dahlgren, Svenolof; Sandberg, Annika Dahlgren

    2008-07-01

    Referential communication was studied in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) including children with autism and Asperger syndrome. The aim was to study alternative explanations for the children's communicative problems in such situations. Factors studied were theory of mind, IQ, verbal ability and memory. The main results demonstrated diminished performance in children with autism spectrum disorder, mirroring performance in everyday life, in comparison to verbal IQ and mental age matched typically developing children. Among children with autism spectrum disorders, there was a positive relationship between performance in referential communication and theory of mind. Memory capacity also proved to play a role in success in the task.

  9. Are ambiguity aversion and ambiguity intolerance identical? A neuroeconomics investigation.

    Tanaka, Yusuke; Fujino, Junya; Ideno, Takashi; Okubo, Shigetaka; Takemura, Kazuhisa; Miyata, Jun; Kawada, Ryosaku; Fujimoto, Shinsuke; Kubota, Manabu; Sasamoto, Akihiko; Hirose, Kimito; Takeuchi, Hideaki; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Murai, Toshiya; Takahashi, Hidehiko

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, there has been growing interest in understanding a person's reaction to ambiguous situations, and two similar constructs related to ambiguity, "ambiguity aversion" and "ambiguity intolerance," are defined in different disciplines. In the field of economic decision-making research, "ambiguity aversion" represents a preference for known risks relative to unknown risks. On the other hand, in clinical psychology, "ambiguity intolerance" describes the tendency to perceive ambiguous situations as undesirable. However, it remains unclear whether these two notions derived from different disciplines are identical or not. To clarify this issue, we combined an economic task, psychological questionnaires, and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of structural brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a sample of healthy volunteers. The individual ambiguity aversion tendency parameter, as measured by our economic task, was negatively correlated with agreeableness scores on the self-reported version of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory. However, it was not correlated with scores of discomfort with ambiguity, one of the subscales of the Need for Closure Scale. Furthermore, the ambiguity aversion tendency parameter was negatively correlated with gray matter (GM) volume of areas in the lateral prefrontal cortex and parietal cortex, whereas ambiguity intolerance was not correlated with GM volume in any region. Our results suggest that ambiguity aversion, described in decision theory, may not necessarily be identical to ambiguity intolerance, referred to in clinical psychology. Cautious applications of decision theory to clinical neuropsychiatry are recommended.

  10. Constraints and Ambiguity

    Dove, Graham; Biskjær, Michael Mose; Lundqvist, Caroline Emilie

    2017-01-01

    groups of students building three models each. We studied groups building with traditional plastic bricks and also using a digital environment. The building tasks students undertake, and our subsequent analysis, are informed by the role constraints and ambiguity play in creative processes. Based...

  11. Ambiguity in urban belonging

    Koefoed, Lasse Martin; Simonsen, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    mapping of life as an ethnic minority in the city. It revolves around three issues. First, it focuses on the narrators’ experiences of exclusions and blockages in everyday life. This is followed by a focus on urban belonging emphasizing its differential character. Finally, the ambiguity of experiences...

  12. Confronting Ambiguity in Science

    Emery, Katherine; Harlow, Danielle; Whitmer, Ali; Gaines, Steven

    2015-01-01

    People are regularly confronted with environmental and science-related issues presented to them in newspapers, on television, or even in their own doctor's office. Often the information they use to inform their decisions on matters of science may be ambiguous and contradictory. This article presents an activity that investigates how students deal…

  13. High-speed and high-ratio referential genome compression.

    Liu, Yuansheng; Peng, Hui; Wong, Limsoon; Li, Jinyan

    2017-11-01

    The rapidly increasing number of genomes generated by high-throughput sequencing platforms and assembly algorithms is accompanied by problems in data storage, compression and communication. Traditional compression algorithms are unable to meet the demand of high compression ratio due to the intrinsic challenging features of DNA sequences such as small alphabet size, frequent repeats and palindromes. Reference-based lossless compression, by which only the differences between two similar genomes are stored, is a promising approach with high compression ratio. We present a high-performance referential genome compression algorithm named HiRGC. It is based on a 2-bit encoding scheme and an advanced greedy-matching search on a hash table. We compare the performance of HiRGC with four state-of-the-art compression methods on a benchmark dataset of eight human genomes. HiRGC takes compress about 21 gigabytes of each set of the seven target genomes into 96-260 megabytes, achieving compression ratios of 217 to 82 times. This performance is at least 1.9 times better than the best competing algorithm on its best case. Our compression speed is also at least 2.9 times faster. HiRGC is stable and robust to deal with different reference genomes. In contrast, the competing methods' performance varies widely on different reference genomes. More experiments on 100 human genomes from the 1000 Genome Project and on genomes of several other species again demonstrate that HiRGC's performance is consistently excellent. The C ++ and Java source codes of our algorithm are freely available for academic and non-commercial use. They can be downloaded from https://github.com/yuansliu/HiRGC. jinyan.li@uts.edu.au. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  14. Referential Communication in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Dahlgren, Svenolof; Sandberg, Annika Dahlgren

    2008-01-01

    Referential communication was studied in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) including children with autism and Asperger syndrome. The aim was to study alternative explanations for the children's communicative problems in such situations. Factors studied were theory of mind, IQ, verbal ability and memory. The main results demonstrated…

  15. Discourse Model Representation of Referential and Attributive Descriptions.

    Onishi, Kristine H.; Murphy, Gregory L.

    2002-01-01

    Manipulated shared knowledge and focus on specific entities, the verb in the sentence, and whether the description was definite or indefinite. Each factor influenced interpretation of the description. Confirmed that changing verbs alone affected reference choice. Indicated that both referentially and attributively introduced entities are…

  16. Precise Point Positioning with Partial Ambiguity Fixing.

    Li, Pan; Zhang, Xiaohong

    2015-06-10

    Reliable and rapid ambiguity resolution (AR) is the key to fast precise point positioning (PPP). We propose a modified partial ambiguity resolution (PAR) method, in which an elevation and standard deviation criterion are first used to remove the low-precision ambiguity estimates for AR. Subsequently the success rate and ratio-test are simultaneously used in an iterative process to increase the possibility of finding a subset of decorrelated ambiguities which can be fixed with high confidence. One can apply the proposed PAR method to try to achieve an ambiguity-fixed solution when full ambiguity resolution (FAR) fails. We validate this method using data from 450 stations during DOY 021 to 027, 2012. Results demonstrate the proposed PAR method can significantly shorten the time to first fix (TTFF) and increase the fixing rate. Compared with FAR, the average TTFF for PAR is reduced by 14.9% for static PPP and 15.1% for kinematic PPP. Besides, using the PAR method, the average fixing rate can be increased from 83.5% to 98.2% for static PPP, from 80.1% to 95.2% for kinematic PPP respectively. Kinematic PPP accuracy with PAR can also be significantly improved, compared to that with FAR, due to a higher fixing rate.

  17. Recommendations for reducing ambiguity in written procedures.

    Matzen, Laura E.

    2009-11-01

    Previous studies in the nuclear weapons complex have shown that ambiguous work instructions (WIs) and operating procedures (OPs) can lead to human error, which is a major cause for concern. This report outlines some of the sources of ambiguity in written English and describes three recommendations for reducing ambiguity in WIs and OPs. The recommendations are based on commonly used research techniques in the fields of linguistics and cognitive psychology. The first recommendation is to gather empirical data that can be used to improve the recommended word lists that are provided to technical writers. The second recommendation is to have a review in which new WIs and OPs and checked for ambiguities and clarity. The third recommendation is to use self-paced reading time studies to identify any remaining ambiguities before the new WIs and OPs are put into use. If these three steps are followed for new WIs and OPs, the likelihood of human errors related to ambiguity could be greatly reduced.

  18. Ambiguity aversion is not universal

    Kocher, M.G.; Lahno, Amrei; Trautmann, Stefan

    Assuming universal ambiguity aversion, an extensive theoretical literature studies how ambiguity can account for market anomalies from the perspective of expected utility-based theories. We provide a systematic experimental assessment of ambiguity attitudes in different likelihood ranges, and in the

  19. Ways of thinking: an essay on referential coordination

    Clarke, H. H. P.

    2016-01-01

    Referential coordination occurs when a thinker is rational in treating her thoughts as being about the same thing. This is manifested primarily in the thinker’s dispositions to make inferences, paradigmatically the disposition to infer an existential generalisation conjoining two or more properties without recourse to an additional premise concerning an identity. It therefore presents an indispensable way for identity to figure in thought. This topic is often addressed in the form of discussi...

  20. Referential communication abilities in children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    Van Den Heuvel, Ellen; ReuterskiöLd, Christina; Solot, Cynthia; Manders, Eric; Swillen, Ann; Zink, Inge

    2017-10-01

    This study describes the performance on a perspective- and role-taking task in 27 children, ages 6-13 years, with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS). A cross-cultural design comparing Dutch- and English-speaking children with 22q11.2DS explored the possibility of cultural differences. Chronologically age-matched and younger typically developing (TD) children matched for receptive vocabulary served as control groups to identify challenges in referential communication. The utterances of children with 22q11.2DS were characterised as short and simple in lexical and grammatical terms. However, from a language use perspective, their utterances were verbose, ambiguous and irrelevant given the pictured scenes. They tended to elaborate on visual details and conveyed off-topic, extraneous information when participating in a barrier-game procedure. Both types of aberrant utterances forced a listener to consistently infer the intended message. Moreover, children with 22q11.2DS demonstrated difficulty selecting correct speech acts in accordance with contextual cues during a role-taking task. Both English- and Dutch-speaking children with 22q11.2DS showed impoverished information transfer and an increased number of elaborations, suggesting a cross-cultural syndrome-specific feature.

  1. Referential communication abilities and Theory of Mind development in preschool children.

    Resches, Mariela; Pérez Pereira, Miguel

    2007-02-01

    This work aims to analyse the specific contribution of social abilities (here considered as the capacity for attributing knowledge to others) in a particular communicative context. 74 normally developing children (aged 3;4 to 5;9, M = 4.6) were given two Theory of Mind (ToM) tasks, which are considered to assess increasing complexity levels of epistemic state attribution: Attribution of knowledge-ignorance (Pillow, 1989; adapted by Welch-Ross, 1997) and Understanding of False-belief (Baron Cohen, Leslie & Frith, 1985). Subjects were paired according to their age and level of performance in ToM tasks. These dyads participated in a referential communication task specially designed for this research. The resulting communicative interchanges were analysed using a three-level category system (pragmatic functions, descriptive accuracy, and ambiguity of messages). The results showed significant differences among subjects with different levels of social comprehension regarding the type of communicative resources used by them in every category level. In particular, understanding of false belief seems to be the most powerful predictor of changes in the children's development of communicative competence.

  2. Source memory that encoding was self-referential: the influence of stimulus characteristics.

    Durbin, Kelly A; Mitchell, Karen J; Johnson, Marcia K

    2017-10-01

    Decades of research suggest that encoding information with respect to the self improves memory (self-reference effect, SRE) for items (item SRE). The current study focused on how processing information in reference to the self affects source memory for whether an item was self-referentially processed (a source SRE). Participants self-referentially or non-self-referentially encoded words (Experiment 1) or pictures (Experiment 2) that varied in valence (positive, negative, neutral). Relative to non-self-referential processing, self-referential processing enhanced item recognition for all stimulus types (an item SRE), but it only enhanced source memory for positive words (a source SRE). In fact, source memory for negative and neutral pictures was worse for items processed self-referentially than non-self-referentially. Together, the results suggest that item SRE and source SRE (e.g., remembering an item was encoded self-referentially) are not necessarily the same across stimulus types (e.g., words, pictures; positive, negative). While an item SRE may depend on the overall likelihood the item generates any association, the enhancing effects of self-referential processing on source memory for self-referential encoding may depend on how embedded a stimulus becomes in one's self-schema, and that depends, in part, on the stimulus' valence and format. Self-relevance ratings during encoding provide converging evidence for this interpretation.

  3. New Times, New Heroes : Ambiguity, Socio-Political Issues and Post Modernism in Frank Miller's Graphic Novel The Dark Knight Returns

    Axelsson, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Frank Miller’s The Dark Knight Returns is one of the first graphic novels to redraw the map for this kind of literature but perhaps first and foremost for the characteristics of superheroes and villains. It is a story which we have read before in the sense that Batman, the eternal crime fighter, chases his arch enemies Two Face and the Joker, but it is also a new story in which we meet an ambiguous and complex superhero. Batman has become an old man tormented by his past, in which his side ki...

  4. Negative self-referential processing is associated with genetic variation in the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR): Evidence from two independent studies.

    Dainer-Best, Justin; Disner, Seth G; McGeary, John E; Hamilton, Bethany J; Beevers, Christopher G

    2018-01-01

    The current research examined whether carriers of the short 5-HTTLPR allele (in SLC6A4), who have been shown to selectively attend to negative information, exhibit a bias towards negative self-referent processing. The self-referent encoding task (SRET) was used to measure self-referential processing of positive and negative adjectives. Ratcliff's diffusion model isolated and extracted decision-making components from SRET responses and reaction times. Across the initial (N = 183) and replication (N = 137) studies, results indicated that short 5-HTTLPR allele carriers more easily categorized negative adjectives as self-referential (i.e., higher drift rate). Further, drift rate was associated with recall of negative self-referential stimuli. Findings across both studies provide further evidence that genetic variation may contribute to the etiology of negatively biased processing of self-referent information. Large scale studies examining the genetic contributions to negative self-referent processing may be warranted.

  5. Self-referential cognition and empathy in autism.

    Michael V Lombardo

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with autism spectrum conditions (ASC have profound impairments in the interpersonal social domain, but it is unclear if individuals with ASC also have impairments in the intrapersonal self-referential domain. We aimed to evaluate across several well validated measures in both domains, whether both self-referential cognition and empathy are impaired in ASC and whether these two domains are related to each other.Thirty adults aged 19-45, with Asperger Syndrome or high-functioning autism and 30 age, sex, and IQ matched controls participated in the self-reference effect (SRE paradigm. In the SRE paradigm, participants judged adjectives in relation to the self, a similar close other, a dissimilar non-close other, or for linguistic content. Recognition memory was later tested. After the SRE paradigm, several other complimentary self-referential cognitive measures were taken. Alexithymia and private self-consciousness were measured via self-report. Self-focused attention was measured on the Self-Focus Sentence Completion task. Empathy was measured with 3 self-report instruments and 1 performance measure of mentalizing (Eyes test. Self-reported autistic traits were also measured with the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ. Although individuals with ASC showed a significant SRE in memory, this bias was decreased compared to controls. Individuals with ASC also showed reduced memory for the self and a similar close other and also had concurrent impairments on measures of alexithymia, self-focused attention, and on all 4 empathy measures. Individual differences in self-referential cognition predicted mentalizing ability and self-reported autistic traits. More alexithymia and less self memory was predictive of larger mentalizing impairments and AQ scores regardless of diagnosis. In ASC, more self-focused attention is associated with better mentalizing ability and lower AQ scores, while in controls, more self-focused attention is associated with

  6. An ambiguous relationship

    Søndergaard Larsen, Lene; Hedegaard Larsen, Birte; Birkelund, Regner

    was sometimes depressing and troublesome. Really understanding and caring for fellow patients was painful. Conclusion: The patients’ interaction is characterized as ambiguous, because interaction between the patients holds both resources and strains. The patient as a care provider may cause curiosity among......Background: The significance of social interaction is commonly discussed and intensively studied as a substantial concept in the nursing profession. Social research conducted in hospital settings has prioritised to examine interaction between patients and doctors, patients and nurses and patients....... Too much information from fellow patients might rock patients’ confidence and hope for own recovery 3) a care provider; the patients’ community was characterized by compassion where they either received care from, or provided care to a fellow patient. Interacting with and supporting fellow patients...

  7. An ambiguous relationship

    Søndergaard Larsen, Lene; Hedegaard Larsen, Birte; Birkelund, Regner

    2013-01-01

    to qualitative data analysis. Results:  The qualitative meta-synthesis resulted in the heading An Ambiguous Relationship under which three core categories illustrate the hospitalized patients’ different interaction roles. The core categories were as follows: (i) the fellow patient experienced as an enforced......Aim:  The aim of this study was to provide a clear view of the existing knowledge regarding patients’ significance to fellow patients during hospitalization. Method:  Sandelowski and Barroso’s approach to qualitative meta-synthesis was selected and systematically used for collecting and assessing...... findings from qualitative studies. Data consisted of seven qualitative studies published as one book, four scientific articles and two doctoral theses from Scotland, UK, Norway and Denmark. The analysis and synthesis were conducted with inspiration from both Sandelowski and Barroso and Ian Dey’s approach...

  8. Motion discrimination under uncertainty and ambiguity.

    Kalisvaart, J.P.; Klaver, I.; Goossens, J.

    2011-01-01

    Speed and accuracy of visual motion discrimination depend systematically on motion strength. This behavior is traditionally explained by diffusion models that assume accumulation of sensory evidence over time to a decision bound. However, how does the brain decide when sensory evidence is ambiguous,

  9. Electrocortical Reactivity During Self-referential Processing in Female Youth With Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Auerbach, Randy P; Tarlow, Naomi; Bondy, Erin; Stewart, Jeremy G; Aguirre, Blaise; Kaplan, Cynthia; Yang, Wenhui; Pizzagalli, Diego A

    2016-07-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is debilitating, and theoretical models have postulated that cognitive-affective biases contribute to the onset and maintenance of BPD symptoms. Despite advances, our understanding of BPD pathophysiology in youth is limited. The present study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to identify cognitive-affective processes that underlie negative self-referential processing in BPD youth. Healthy females ( n = 33) and females with BPD ( n = 26) 13 to 22 years of age completed a self-referential encoding task while 128-channel electroencephalography data were recorded to examine early (i.e., P1 and P2) and late (late positive potential [LPP]) ERP components. Whole-brain standardized low-resolution electromagnetic tomography explored intracortical sources underlying significant scalp ERP effects. Compared to healthy females, participants with BPD endorsed, recalled, and recognized fewer positive and more negative words. Moreover, unlike the healthy group, females with BPD had faster reaction times to endorse negative versus positive words. In the scalp ERP analyses, the BPD group had greater P2 and late LPP positivity to negative as opposed to positive words. For P2 and late LPP, whole-brain standardized low-resolution electromagnetic tomography analyses suggested that females with BPD overrecruit frontolimbic circuitry in response to negative stimuli. Collectively, these findings show that females with BPD process negative self-relevant information differently than healthy females. Clinical implications and future directions are discussed.

  10. Ambiguity aversion in rhesus macaques

    Benjamin eHayden

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available People generally prefer risky options, which have fully specified outcome probabilities, to ambiguous options, which have unspecified probabilities. This preference, formalized in economics, is strong enough that people will reliably prefer a risky option to an ambiguous option with a greater expected value. Explanations for ambiguity aversion often invoke uniquely human faculties like language, self-justification, or a desire to avoid public embarrassment. Challenging these ideas, here we demonstrate that a preference for unambiguous options is shared with rhesus macaques. We trained four monkeys to choose between pairs of options that both offered explicitly cued probabilities of large and small juice outcomes. We then introduced occasional trials where one of the options was obscured and examined their resulting preferences; we ran humans in a parallel experiment on a nearly identical task. We found that monkeys reliably preferred risky options to ambiguous ones, even when this bias was costly, closely matching the behavior of humans in the analogous task. Notably, ambiguity aversion varied parametrically with the extent of ambiguity. As expected, ambiguity aversion gradually declined as monkeys learned the underlying probability distribution of rewards. These data indicate that ambiguity aversion reflects fundamental cognitive biases shared with other animals rather than uniquely human factors guiding decisions.

  11. Eliminating ambiguity in digital signals

    Weber, W. J., III

    1979-01-01

    Multiamplitude minimum shift keying (mamsk) transmission system, method of differential encoding overcomes problem of ambiguity associated with advanced digital-transmission techniques with little or no penalty in transmission rate, error rate, or system complexity. Principle of method states, if signal points are properly encoded and decoded, bits are detected correctly, regardless of phase ambiguities.

  12. The Ethics of Strategic Ambiguity.

    Paul, Jim; Strbiak, Christy A.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the concept of strategic ambiguity in communication, and addresses the ethics of strategic ambiguity from an intrapersonal perspective that considers the congruity of communicators' espoused-ethics, ethics-in-use, and behavior, where ethical judgements are based on the congruity between espoused-ethics and actual behavior. Poses questions…

  13. Reactive agents and perceptual ambiguity

    Dartel, M. van; Sprinkhuizen-Kuyper, I.G.; Postma, E.O.; Herik, H.J. van den

    2005-01-01

    Reactive agents are generally believed to be incapable of coping with perceptual ambiguity (i.e., identical sensory states that require different responses). However, a recent finding suggests that reactive agents can cope with perceptual ambiguity in a simple model (Nolfi, 2002). This paper

  14. ERGC: an efficient referential genome compression algorithm.

    Saha, Subrata; Rajasekaran, Sanguthevar

    2015-11-01

    Genome sequencing has become faster and more affordable. Consequently, the number of available complete genomic sequences is increasing rapidly. As a result, the cost to store, process, analyze and transmit the data is becoming a bottleneck for research and future medical applications. So, the need for devising efficient data compression and data reduction techniques for biological sequencing data is growing by the day. Although there exists a number of standard data compression algorithms, they are not efficient in compressing biological data. These generic algorithms do not exploit some inherent properties of the sequencing data while compressing. To exploit statistical and information-theoretic properties of genomic sequences, we need specialized compression algorithms. Five different next-generation sequencing data compression problems have been identified and studied in the literature. We propose a novel algorithm for one of these problems known as reference-based genome compression. We have done extensive experiments using five real sequencing datasets. The results on real genomes show that our proposed algorithm is indeed competitive and performs better than the best known algorithms for this problem. It achieves compression ratios that are better than those of the currently best performing algorithms. The time to compress and decompress the whole genome is also very promising. The implementations are freely available for non-commercial purposes. They can be downloaded from http://engr.uconn.edu/∼rajasek/ERGC.zip. rajasek@engr.uconn.edu. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Gene name ambiguity of eukaryotic nomenclatures.

    Chen, Lifeng; Liu, Hongfang; Friedman, Carol

    2005-01-15

    With more and more scientific literature published online, the effective management and reuse of this knowledge has become problematic. Natural language processing (NLP) may be a potential solution by extracting, structuring and organizing biomedical information in online literature in a timely manner. One essential task is to recognize and identify genomic entities in text. 'Recognition' can be accomplished using pattern matching and machine learning. But for 'identification' these techniques are not adequate. In order to identify genomic entities, NLP needs a comprehensive resource that specifies and classifies genomic entities as they occur in text and that associates them with normalized terms and also unique identifiers so that the extracted entities are well defined. Online organism databases are an excellent resource to create such a lexical resource. However, gene name ambiguity is a serious problem because it affects the appropriate identification of gene entities. In this paper, we explore the extent of the problem and suggest ways to address it. We obtained gene information from 21 organisms and quantified naming ambiguities within species, across species, with English words and with medical terms. When the case (of letters) was retained, official symbols displayed negligible intra-species ambiguity (0.02%) and modest ambiguities with general English words (0.57%) and medical terms (1.01%). In contrast, the across-species ambiguity was high (14.20%). The inclusion of gene synonyms increased intra-species ambiguity substantially and full names contributed greatly to gene-medical-term ambiguity. A comprehensive lexical resource that covers gene information for the 21 organisms was then created and used to identify gene names by using a straightforward string matching program to process 45,000 abstracts associated with the mouse model organism while ignoring case and gene names that were also English words. We found that 85.1% of correctly retrieved mouse

  16. Sampling experience reverses preferences for ambiguity

    Ert, E.; Trautmann, S.T.

    People often need to choose between alternatives with known probabilities (risk) and alternatives with unknown probabilities (ambiguity). Such decisions are characterized by attitudes towards ambiguity, which are distinct from risk attitudes. Most studies of ambiguity attitudes have focused on the

  17. Genuine eye contact elicits self-referential processing.

    Hietanen, Jonne O; Hietanen, Jari K

    2017-05-01

    The effect of eye contact on self-awareness was investigated with implicit measures based on the use of first-person singular pronouns in sentences. The measures were proposed to tap into self-referential processing, that is, information processing associated with self-awareness. In addition, participants filled in a questionnaire measuring explicit self-awareness. In Experiment 1, the stimulus was a video clip showing another person and, in Experiment 2, the stimulus was a live person. In both experiments, participants were divided into two groups and presented with the stimulus person either making eye contact or gazing downward, depending on the group assignment. During the task, the gaze stimulus was presented before each trial of the pronoun-selection task. Eye contact was found to increase the use of first-person pronouns, but only when participants were facing a real person, not when they were looking at a video of a person. No difference in self-reported self-awareness was found between the two gaze direction groups in either experiment. The results indicate that eye contact elicits self-referential processing, but the effect may be stronger, or possibly limited to, live interaction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Tone of voice guides word learning in informative referential contexts.

    Reinisch, Eva; Jesse, Alexandra; Nygaard, Lynne C

    2013-06-01

    Listeners infer which object in a visual scene a speaker refers to from the systematic variation of the speaker's tone of voice (ToV). We examined whether ToV also guides word learning. During exposure, participants heard novel adjectives (e.g., "daxen") spoken with a ToV representing hot, cold, strong, weak, big, or small while viewing picture pairs representing the meaning of the adjective and its antonym (e.g., elephant-ant for big-small). Eye fixations were recorded to monitor referent detection and learning. During test, participants heard the adjectives spoken with a neutral ToV, while selecting referents from familiar and unfamiliar picture pairs. Participants were able to learn the adjectives' meanings, and, even in the absence of informative ToV, generalize them to new referents. A second experiment addressed whether ToV provides sufficient information to infer the adjectival meaning or needs to operate within a referential context providing information about the relevant semantic dimension. Participants who saw printed versions of the novel words during exposure performed at chance during test. ToV, in conjunction with the referential context, thus serves as a cue to word meaning. ToV establishes relations between labels and referents for listeners to exploit in word learning.

  19. Hippocampal Processing of Ambiguity Enhances Fear Memory.

    Amadi, Ugwechi; Lim, Seh Hong; Liu, Elizabeth; Baratta, Michael V; Goosens, Ki A

    2017-02-01

    Despite the ubiquitous use of Pavlovian fear conditioning as a model for fear learning, the highly predictable conditions used in the laboratory do not resemble real-world conditions, in which dangerous situations can lead to unpleasant outcomes in unpredictable ways. In the current experiments, we varied the timing of aversive events after predictive cues in rodents and discovered that temporal ambiguity of aversive events greatly enhances fear. During fear conditioning with unpredictably timed aversive events, pharmacological inactivation of the dorsal hippocampus or optogenetic silencing of cornu ammonis 1 cells during aversive negative prediction errors prevented this enhancement of fear without affecting fear learning for predictable events. Dorsal hippocampal inactivation also prevented ambiguity-related enhancement of fear during auditory fear conditioning under a partial-reinforcement schedule. These results reveal that information about the timing and occurrence of aversive events is rapidly acquired and that unexpectedly timed or omitted aversive events generate hippocampal signals to enhance fear learning.

  20. Quantization ambiguity, ergodicity and semiclassics

    Kaplan, Lev

    2002-01-01

    It is well known that almost all eigenstates of a classically ergodic system are individually ergodic on coarse-grained scales. This has important implications for the quantization ambiguity in ergodic systems: the difference between alternative quantizations is suppressed compared with the O( h-bar 2 ) ambiguity in the integrable or regular case. For two-dimensional ergodic systems in the high-energy regime, individual eigenstates are independent of the choice of quantization procedure, in contrast with the regular case, where even the ordering of eigenlevels is ambiguous. Surprisingly, semiclassical methods are shown to be much more precise in any dimension for chaotic than for integrable systems

  1. Self-Referential Processing in Adolescents: Stability of Behavioral and Event-Related Potential Markers

    Auerbach, Randy P.; Bondy, Erin; Stanton, Colin H.; Webb, Christian A.; Shankman, Stewart A.; Pizzagalli, Diego A.

    2016-01-01

    The self-referential encoding task (SRET)—an implicit measure of self-schema—has been used widely to probe cognitive biases associated with depression, including among adolescents. However, research testing the stability of behavioral and electrocortical effects is sparse. Therefore, the current study sought to evaluate the stability of behavioral markers and event-related potentials (ERP) elicited from the SRET over time in healthy, female adolescents (n = 31). At baseline, participants were administered a diagnostic interview and a self-report measure of depression severity. In addition, they completed the SRET while 128-channel event-related potential (ERP) data were recorded to examine early (P1) and late (late positive potential [LPP]) ERPs. Three months later, participants were re-administered the depression self-report measure and the SRET in conjunction with ERPs. Results revealed that healthy adolescents endorsed, recalled, and recognized more positive and fewer negative words at each assessment, and these effects were stable over time (rs = 0.44–0.83). Similarly, they reported a faster reaction time when endorsing self-relevant positive words, as opposed to negative words, at both the initial and follow-up assessment (r = 0.82). Second, ERP responses, specifically potentiated P1 and late LPP positivity to positive versus negative words, were consistent over time (rs = 0.56–0.83), and the internal reliability of ERPs were robust at each time point (rs = 0.52–0.80). As a whole, these medium-to-large effects suggest that the SRET is a reliable behavioral and neural probe of self-referential processing. PMID:27302282

  2. A Referential Communication Demonstration versus a Lecture-Only Control: Learning Benefits

    Balch, William R.

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate a demonstration involving active and cooperative learning, 40 students in a cognitive psychology course and 132 students in an introductory psychology course completed a brief multiple-choice pretest on referential communication. Two days later, randomly assigned students either participated in a classroom referential communication…

  3. Ambiguity in the Acquisition of Lexical Information

    Vanderwende, Lucy

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to the automatic identification of lexical information in on-line dictionaries. This approach uses bootstrapping techniques, specifically so that ambiguity in the dictionary text can be treated properly. This approach consists of processing an on-line dictionary multiple times, each time refining the lexical information previously acquired and identifying new lexical information. The strength of this approach is that lexical information can be acquired from de...

  4. Semantic Ambiguity Effects in L2 Word Recognition.

    Ishida, Tomomi

    2018-06-01

    The present study examined the ambiguity effects in second language (L2) word recognition. Previous studies on first language (L1) lexical processing have observed that ambiguous words are recognized faster and more accurately than unambiguous words on lexical decision tasks. In this research, L1 and L2 speakers of English were asked whether a letter string on a computer screen was an English word or not. An ambiguity advantage was found for both groups and greater ambiguity effects were found for the non-native speaker group when compared to the native speaker group. The findings imply that the larger ambiguity advantage for L2 processing is due to their slower response time in producing adequate feedback activation from the semantic level to the orthographic level.

  5. Alcohol reduces aversion to ambiguity

    Tadeusz eTyszka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Several years ago, Cohen, Dearnaley, and Hansel [1] demonstrated that under the influence of alcohol drivers became more risk prone, although their risk perception remained unchanged. Research shows that ambiguity aversion is to some extent positively correlated with risk aversion, though not very highly [2]. The question addressed by the present research is whether alcohol reduces ambiguity aversion. Our research was conducted in a natural setting (a restaurant bar, where customers with differing levels of alcohol intoxication were offered a choice between a risky and an ambiguous lottery. We found that alcohol reduced ambiguity aversion and that the effect occurred in men but not women. We interpret these findings in terms of the risk-as-value hypothesis, according to which, people in Western culture tend to value risk, and suggest that alcohol consumption triggers adherence to socially and culturally valued patterns of conduct different for men and women.

  6. Alcohol reduces aversion to ambiguity.

    Tyszka, Tadeusz; Macko, Anna; Stańczak, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    Several years ago, Cohen et al. (1958) demonstrated that under the influence of alcohol drivers became more risk prone, although their risk perception remained unchanged. Research shows that ambiguity aversion is to some extent positively correlated with risk aversion, though not very highly (Camerer and Weber, 1992). The question addressed by the present research is whether alcohol reduces ambiguity aversion. Our research was conducted in a natural setting (a restaurant bar), where customers with differing levels of alcohol intoxication were offered a choice between a risky and an ambiguous lottery. We found that alcohol reduced ambiguity aversion and that the effect occurred in men but not women. We interpret these findings in terms of the risk-as-value hypothesis, according to which, people in Western culture tend to value risk, and suggest that alcohol consumption triggers adherence to socially and culturally valued patterns of conduct different for men and women.

  7. Symptom-specific self-referential cognitive processes in bipolar disorder: a longitudinal analysis.

    Pavlickova, H; Varese, F; Turnbull, O; Scott, J; Morriss, R; Kinderman, P; Paykel, E; Bentall, R P

    2013-09-01

    Although depression and mania are often assumed to be polar opposites, studies have shown that, in patients with bipolar disorder, they are weakly positively correlated and vary somewhat independently over time. Thus, when investigating relationships between specific psychological processes and specific symptoms (mania and depression), co-morbidity between the symptoms and changes over time must be taken into account. Method A total of 253 bipolar disorder patients were assessed every 24 weeks for 18 months using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD), the Bech-Rafaelsen Mania Assessment Scale (MAS), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Questionnaire (RSEQ), the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale (DAS), the Internal, Personal and Situational Attributions Questionnaire (IPSAQ) and the Personal Qualities Questionnaire (PQQ). We calculated multilevel models using the xtreg module of Stata 9.1, with psychological and clinical measures nested within each participant. Mania and depression were weakly, yet significantly, associated; each was related to distinct psychological processes. Cross-sectionally, self-esteem showed the most robust associations with depression and mania: depression was associated with low positive and high negative self-esteem, and mania with high positive self-esteem. Depression was significantly associated with most of the other self-referential measures, whereas mania was weakly associated only with the externalizing bias of the IPSAQ and the achievement scale of the DAS. Prospectively, low self-esteem predicted future depression. The associations between different self-referential thinking processes and different phases of bipolar disorder, and the presence of the negative self-concept in both depression and mania, have implications for therapeutic management, and also for future directions of research.

  8. Referential first mention in narratives by mildly mentally retarded adults.

    Kernan, K T; Sabsay, S

    1987-01-01

    Referential first mentions in narrative reports of a short film by 40 mildly mentally retarded adults and 20 nonretarded adults were compared. The mentally retarded sample included equal numbers of male and female, and black and white speakers. The mentally retarded speakers made significantly fewer first mentions and significantly more errors in the form of the first mentions than did nonretarded speakers. A pattern of better performance by black males than by other mentally retarded speakers was found. It is suggested that task difficulty and incomplete mastery of the use of definite and indefinite forms for encoding old and new information, rather than some global type of egocentrism, accounted for the poorer performance by mentally retarded speakers.

  9. Linguistic measures of the referential process in psychodynamic treatment: the English and Italian versions.

    Mariani, Rachele; Maskit, Bernard; Bucci, Wilma; De Coro, Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    The referential process is defined in the context of Bucci's multiple code theory as the process by which nonverbal experience is connected to language. The English computerized measures of the referential process, which have been applied in psychotherapy research, include the Weighted Referential Activity Dictionary (WRAD), and measures of Reflection, Affect and Disfluency. This paper presents the development of the Italian version of the IWRAD by modeling Italian texts scored by judges, and shows the application of the IWRAD and other Italian measures in three psychodynamic treatments evaluated for personality change using the Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure (SWAP-200). Clinical predictions based on applications of the English measures were supported.

  10. Hierarchical Morphological Structure and Ambiguity

    Vikner, Carl; Vikner, Sten

    2008-01-01

    English has a number of adjectives of the type unXable, adjectives that contain the prefix un- and the adjectivising suffix -able, e.g. unlockable or undoable. Many of these adjectives are ambiguous. If a door is unlockable, it may either mean that it cannot be locked (it is not lockable), as exp......English has a number of adjectives of the type unXable, adjectives that contain the prefix un- and the adjectivising suffix -able, e.g. unlockable or undoable. Many of these adjectives are ambiguous. If a door is unlockable, it may either mean that it cannot be locked (it is not lockable...

  11. Symbol in View of Ambiguity

    Mohamad reza Yousefi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Symbol from the perspective of rhetorical word, is phrase or sentence that apparent meaning, also inspires to reader a wide range of semantic.Since exploring the complex social and political ideas in the most mysticalway and indirectreflectionsocial and political thoughts symbolically is easier, so the symbol and symbolism especially in Persian literatureespeciallyin the realm of Persian poetry, has a special appearance.In addition to the factors mentioned in the contemporary literature, according familiar in literature and the emergence of particular schools interest toambiguoussymbolization has spreadfurther, especially the symbol has all the features of art ambiguity in the poem and it isone the major factors causing uncertainty.Thus, the precise definitions and symbols of contemporary poetry could be dominant in the unwinding ambiguous symbol detection of cryptic allusions and metaphors that matches the cursor symbol to help readers.  In the literature, especially language poetry, the inability of language toreflecting obscure mystical ideas, avoid to directexpression of political and social concerns of the reader in the course of participate to creation ambiguous literary works is the main motivation towards symbol and symbolization.According widespread use of symbol and its different of species can be viewed from different perspectives.The creation of ambiguity is the main purposes of using symbols (especially in poetry, so many poets have tried to achieve this goal have to formation of similar symbols and the explanation and resolution of this issue can open new window for understanding the poetry in front of an audience.  In this paper examines the ambiguity of symbols in terms of its precise boundaries are reviewed. Ambiguity is one of the important processes and also is the key Iranian poetry its means is today poetry. In such poetry ambiguity is a need to explore the new world from a different perspective, or explore this

  12. Combined GPS/GLONASS Precise Point Positioning with Fixed GPS Ambiguities

    Pan, Lin; Cai, Changsheng; Santerre, Rock; Zhu, Jianjun

    2014-01-01

    Precise point positioning (PPP) technology is mostly implemented with an ambiguity-float solution. Its performance may be further improved by performing ambiguity-fixed resolution. Currently, the PPP integer ambiguity resolutions (IARs) are mainly based on GPS-only measurements. The integration of GPS and GLONASS can speed up the convergence and increase the accuracy of float ambiguity estimates, which contributes to enhancing the success rate and reliability of fixing ambiguities. This paper presents an approach of combined GPS/GLONASS PPP with fixed GPS ambiguities (GGPPP-FGA) in which GPS ambiguities are fixed into integers, while all GLONASS ambiguities are kept as float values. An improved minimum constellation method (MCM) is proposed to enhance the efficiency of GPS ambiguity fixing. Datasets from 20 globally distributed stations on two consecutive days are employed to investigate the performance of the GGPPP-FGA, including the positioning accuracy, convergence time and the time to first fix (TTFF). All datasets are processed for a time span of three hours in three scenarios, i.e., the GPS ambiguity-float solution, the GPS ambiguity-fixed resolution and the GGPPP-FGA resolution. The results indicate that the performance of the GPS ambiguity-fixed resolutions is significantly better than that of the GPS ambiguity-float solutions. In addition, the GGPPP-FGA improves the positioning accuracy by 38%, 25% and 44% and reduces the convergence time by 36%, 36% and 29% in the east, north and up coordinate components over the GPS-only ambiguity-fixed resolutions, respectively. Moreover, the TTFF is reduced by 27% after adding GLONASS observations. Wilcoxon rank sum tests and chi-square two-sample tests are made to examine the significance of the improvement on the positioning accuracy, convergence time and TTFF. PMID:25237901

  13. Combined GPS/GLONASS Precise Point Positioning with Fixed GPS Ambiguities

    Lin Pan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Precise point positioning (PPP technology is mostly implemented with an ambiguity-float solution. Its performance may be further improved by performing ambiguity-fixed resolution. Currently, the PPP integer ambiguity resolutions (IARs are mainly based on GPS-only measurements. The integration of GPS and GLONASS can speed up the convergence and increase the accuracy of float ambiguity estimates, which contributes to enhancing the success rate and reliability of fixing ambiguities. This paper presents an approach of combined GPS/GLONASS PPP with fixed GPS ambiguities (GGPPP-FGA in which GPS ambiguities are fixed into integers, while all GLONASS ambiguities are kept as float values. An improved minimum constellation method (MCM is proposed to enhance the efficiency of GPS ambiguity fixing. Datasets from 20 globally distributed stations on two consecutive days are employed to investigate the performance of the GGPPP-FGA, including the positioning accuracy, convergence time and the time to first fix (TTFF. All datasets are processed for a time span of three hours in three scenarios, i.e., the GPS ambiguity-float solution, the GPS ambiguity-fixed resolution and the GGPPP-FGA resolution. The results indicate that the performance of the GPS ambiguity-fixed resolutions is significantly better than that of the GPS ambiguity-float solutions. In addition, the GGPPP-FGA improves the positioning accuracy by 38%, 25% and 44% and reduces the convergence time by 36%, 36% and 29% in the east, north and up coordinate components over the GPS-only ambiguity-fixed resolutions, respectively. Moreover, the TTFF is reduced by 27% after adding GLONASS observations. Wilcoxon rank sum tests and chi-square two-sample tests are made to examine the significance of the improvement on the positioning accuracy, convergence time and TTFF.

  14. Spectral Ambiguity of Allan Variance

    Greenhall, C. A.

    1996-01-01

    We study the extent to which knowledge of Allan variance and other finite-difference variances determines the spectrum of a random process. The variance of first differences is known to determine the spectrum. We show that, in general, the Allan variance does not. A complete description of the ambiguity is given.

  15. Origin of the Gribov ambiguity

    Takahashi, Y.; Kobayashi, M.

    1978-01-01

    It is pointed out that the Gribov ambiguity for the non-abelian transverse gauge field has the same origin as the Johnson-Sudarshan problem for the spin-3/2 field as well as the propagation problem discovered by Velo and Zwanziger. (Auth.)

  16. Bank risk, bailouts and ambiguity

    Nijskens, R.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    The theoretical analysis in the second part investigates the effect of liquidity assistance and bailouts on bank risk taking and liquidity choice. Furthermore, it explores the possibilities for central banks to create ambiguity about liquidity assistance, thereby influencing bank choices. The

  17. Crichton's phase-shift ambiguity

    Atkinson, D.; Johnson, P.W.; Mehta, N.; Roo, M. de

    1973-01-01

    A re-examination of the SPD phase-shift ambiguity is made with a view to understanding certain singular features of the elastic unitarity constraint. An explicit solution of Crichton's equations is presented, and certain features of this solution are displayed graphically. In particular, it is shown

  18. Theory-Based Evaluation Meets Ambiguity

    Dahler-Larsen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    As theory-based evaluation (TBE) engages in situations where multiple stakeholders help develop complex program theory about dynamic phenomena in politically contested settings, it becomes difficult to develop and use program theory without ambiguity. The purpose of this article is to explore...... ambiguity as a fruitful perspective that helps TBE face current challenges. Literatures in organization theory and political theory are consulted in order to cultivate the concept of ambiguity. Janus variables (which work in two ways) and other ambiguous aspects of program theories are classified...... and exemplified. Stances towards ambiguity are considered, as are concrete steps that TBE evaluators can take to identify and deal with ambiguity in TBE....

  19. 2.5-year-olds use cross-situational consistency to learn verbs under referential uncertainty.

    Scott, Rose M; Fisher, Cynthia

    2012-02-01

    Recent evidence shows that children can use cross-situational statistics to learn new object labels under referential ambiguity (e.g., Smith & Yu, 2008). Such evidence has been interpreted as support for proposals that statistical information about word-referent co-occurrence plays a powerful role in word learning. But object labels represent only a fraction of the vocabulary children acquire, and arguably represent the simplest case of word learning based on observations of world scenes. Here we extended the study of cross-situational word learning to a new segment of the vocabulary, action verbs, to permit a stronger test of the role of statistical information in word learning. In two experiments, on each trial 2.5-year-olds encountered two novel intransitive (e.g., "She's pimming!"; Experiment 1) or transitive verbs (e.g., "She's pimming her toy!"; Experiment 2) while viewing two action events. The consistency with which each verb accompanied each action provided the only source of information about the intended referent of each verb. The 2.5-year-olds used cross-situational consistency in verb learning, but also showed significant limits on their ability to do so as the sentences and scenes became slightly more complex. These findings help to define the role of cross-situational observation in word learning. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Negative evaluation bias for positive self-referential information in borderline personality disorder.

    Dorina Winter

    Full Text Available Previous research has suggested that patients meeting criteria for borderline personality disorder (BPD display altered self-related information processing. However, experimental studies on dysfunctional self-referential information processing in BPD are rare. In this study, BPD patients (N = 30 and healthy control participants (N = 30 judged positive, neutral, and negative words in terms of emotional valence. Referential processing was manipulated by a preceding self-referential pronoun, an other-referential pronoun, or no referential context. Subsequently, patients and participants completed a free recall and recognition task. BPD patients judged positive and neutral words as more negative than healthy control participants when the words had self-reference or no reference. In BPD patients, these biases were significantly correlated with self-reported attributional style, particularly for negative events, but unrelated to measures of depressive mood. However, BPD patients did not differ from healthy control participants in a subsequent free recall task and a recognition task. Our findings point to a negative evaluation bias for positive, self-referential information in BPD. This bias did not affect the storage of information in memory, but may be related to self-attributions of negative events in everyday life in BPD.

  1. The Peace System - As a self-referential communication system

    Gorm Harste

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Peace communication as diplomatic communication is an often neglected phenomenon in social and political theory that concerns problems of international order, justice and peace. Political philosophy seldom embarks on the theme with more than a few comments. Yet, throughout history, diplomacy has a strong record not only for negotiations but also for social learning processes about communication codes. Many codes of respect, trust, expression and listening have a top-down history from aristocratic circles to broader social layers. However, the article argues that communication codes of peace developed in opposition to violence and war exactly when they transgress dividing lines allowing for cross-cultural and even cross-stratified communication. The article’s main point is to describe how such communication codes about peace and diplomacy can be described in recent social theory of communication, and to get some added value in this respect, Niklas Luhmann’s theory of self-referential communication systems has been applied.

  2. Assessment of predation risk through referential communication in incubating birds

    Suzuki, Toshitaka N.

    2015-05-01

    Parents of many bird species produce alarm calls when they approach and deter a nest predator in order to defend their offspring. Alarm calls have been shown to warn nestlings about predatory threats, but parents also face a similar risk of predation when incubating eggs in their nests. Here, I show that incubating female Japanese great tits, Parus minor, assess predation risk by conspecific alarm calls given outside the nest cavity. Tits produce acoustically discrete alarm calls for different nest predators: “jar” calls for snakes and “chicka” calls for other predators such as crows and martens. Playback experiments revealed that incubating females responded to “jar” calls by leaving their nest, whereas they responded to “chicka” calls by looking out of the nest entrance. Since snakes invade the nest cavity, escaping from the nest helps females avoid snake predation. In contrast, “chicka” calls are used for a variety of predator types, and therefore, looking out of the nest entrance helps females gather information about the type and location of approaching predators. These results show that incubating females derive information about predator type from different types of alarm calls, providing a novel example of functionally referential communication.

  3. Domestic dogs and puppies can use human voice direction referentially.

    Rossano, Federico; Nitzschner, Marie; Tomasello, Michael

    2014-06-22

    Domestic dogs are particularly skilled at using human visual signals to locate hidden food. This is, to our knowledge, the first series of studies that investigates the ability of dogs to use only auditory communicative acts to locate hidden food. In a first study, from behind a barrier, a human expressed excitement towards a baited box on either the right or left side, while sitting closer to the unbaited box. Dogs were successful in following the human's voice direction and locating the food. In the two following control studies, we excluded the possibility that dogs could locate the box containing food just by relying on smell, and we showed that they would interpret a human's voice direction in a referential manner only when they could locate a possible referent (i.e. one of the boxes) in the environment. Finally, in a fourth study, we tested 8-14-week-old puppies in the main experimental test and found that those with a reasonable amount of human experience performed overall even better than the adult dogs. These results suggest that domestic dogs' skills in comprehending human communication are not based on visual cues alone, but are instead multi-modal and highly flexible. Moreover, the similarity between young and adult dogs' performances has important implications for the domestication hypothesis.

  4. Neural Mechanisms Underlying Risk and Ambiguity Attitudes.

    Blankenstein, Neeltje E; Peper, Jiska S; Crone, Eveline A; van Duijvenvoorde, Anna C K

    2017-11-01

    Individual differences in attitudes to risk (a taste for risk, known probabilities) and ambiguity (a tolerance for uncertainty, unknown probabilities) differentially influence risky decision-making. However, it is not well understood whether risk and ambiguity are coded differently within individuals. Here, we tested whether individual differences in risk and ambiguity attitudes were reflected in distinct neural correlates during choice and outcome processing of risky and ambiguous gambles. To these ends, we developed a neuroimaging task in which participants ( n = 50) chose between a sure gain and a gamble, which was either risky or ambiguous, and presented decision outcomes (gains, no gains). From a separate task in which the amount, probability, and ambiguity level were varied, we estimated individuals' risk and ambiguity attitudes. Although there was pronounced neural overlap between risky and ambiguous gambling in a network typically related to decision-making under uncertainty, relatively more risk-seeking attitudes were associated with increased activation in valuation regions of the brain (medial and lateral OFC), whereas relatively more ambiguity-seeking attitudes were related to temporal cortex activation. In addition, although striatum activation was observed during reward processing irrespective of a prior risky or ambiguous gamble, reward processing after an ambiguous gamble resulted in enhanced dorsomedial PFC activation, possibly functioning as a general signal of uncertainty coding. These findings suggest that different neural mechanisms reflect individual differences in risk and ambiguity attitudes and that risk and ambiguity may impact overt risk-taking behavior in different ways.

  5. A method of undifferenced ambiguity resolution for GPS+GLONASS precise point positioning.

    Yi, Wenting; Song, Weiwei; Lou, Yidong; Shi, Chuang; Yao, Yibin

    2016-05-25

    Integer ambiguity resolution is critical for achieving positions of high precision and for shortening the convergence time of precise point positioning (PPP). However, GLONASS adopts the signal processing technology of frequency division multiple access and results in inter-frequency code biases (IFCBs), which are currently difficult to correct. This bias makes the methods proposed for GPS ambiguity fixing unsuitable for GLONASS. To realize undifferenced GLONASS ambiguity fixing, we propose an undifferenced ambiguity resolution method for GPS+GLONASS PPP, which considers the IFCBs estimation. The experimental result demonstrates that the success rate of GLONASS ambiguity fixing can reach 75% through the proposed method. Compared with the ambiguity float solutions, the positioning accuracies of ambiguity-fixed solutions of GLONASS-only PPP are increased by 12.2%, 20.9%, and 10.3%, and that of the GPS+GLONASS PPP by 13.0%, 35.2%, and 14.1% in the North, East and Up directions, respectively.

  6. Predicting the Alpha Comae Berenices Time of Eclipse: How 3 Ambiguous Measurements Out of 609 Caused a 26 Year Binary’s Eclipse to be Missed

    2015-11-01

    56862.52 0.0906 12.2 0.00127 1.41 Horch et al. (2015) 56862.52 0.0908 12.2 0.00127 1.41 Horch et al. (2015) 57038.4870368 0.04553 192.85 0.00081 1.02...from Speckle Interferometry (originally published in Horch et al. 2015, with uncertainties as assigned in that work, with the time in Modified Julian...G. 1989, AJ, 98, 1014 Hoffleit, D. 1996, JAVSO, 24, 105 Horch , E. P., van Altena, W. F., Demarque, P., et al. 2015, AJ, 149, 151 Mason, B. D., Wycoff

  7. Productive Ambiguity in the Learning of Mathematics

    Foster, Colin

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I take a positive view of ambiguity in the learning of mathematics. Following Grosholz (2007), I argue that it is not only the arts which exploit ambiguity for creative ends but science and mathematics too. By enabling the juxtaposition of multiple conflicting frames of reference, ambiguity allows novel connections to be made. I…

  8. Generative Learning: Adults Learning within Ambiguity

    Nicolaides, Aliki

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the extent to which ambiguity can serve as a catalyst for adult learning. The purpose of this study is to understand learning that is generated when encountering ambiguity agitated by the complexity of liquid modernity. "Ambiguity," in this study, describes an encounter with an appearance of reality that is at first…

  9. Flexible taxonomic assignment of ambiguous sequencing reads

    Jansson Jesper

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To characterize the diversity of bacterial populations in metagenomic studies, sequencing reads need to be accurately assigned to taxonomic units in a given reference taxonomy. Reads that cannot be reliably assigned to a unique leaf in the taxonomy (ambiguous reads are typically assigned to the lowest common ancestor of the set of species that match it. This introduces a potentially severe error in the estimation of bacteria present in the sample due to false positives, since all species in the subtree rooted at the ancestor are implicitly assigned to the read even though many of them may not match it. Results We present a method that maps each read to a node in the taxonomy that minimizes a penalty score while balancing the relevance of precision and recall in the assignment through a parameter q. This mapping can be obtained in time linear in the number of matching sequences, because LCA queries to the reference taxonomy take constant time. When applied to six different metagenomic datasets, our algorithm produces different taxonomic distributions depending on whether coverage or precision is maximized. Including information on the quality of the reads reduces the number of unassigned reads but increases the number of ambiguous reads, stressing the relevance of our method. Finally, two measures of performance are described and results with a set of artificially generated datasets are discussed. Conclusions The assignment strategy of sequencing reads introduced in this paper is a versatile and a quick method to study bacterial communities. The bacterial composition of the analyzed samples can vary significantly depending on how ambiguous reads are assigned depending on the value of the q parameter. Validation of our results in an artificial dataset confirm that a combination of values of q produces the most accurate results.

  10. Self-Referential Information Alleviates Retrieval Inhibition of Directed Forgetting Effects—An ERP Evidence of Source Memory

    Xinrui Mao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Directed forgetting (DF assists in preventing outdated information from interfering with cognitive processing. Previous studies pointed that self-referential items alleviated DF effects due to the elaboration of encoding processes. However, the retrieval mechanism of this phenomenon remains unknown. Based on the dual-process framework of recognition, the retrieval of self-referential information was involved in familiarity and recollection. Using source memory tasks combined with event-related potential (ERP recording, our research investigated the retrieval processes of alleviative DF effects elicited by self-referential information. The FN400 (frontal negativity at 400 ms is a frontal potential at 300–500 ms related to familiarity and the late positive complex (LPC is a later parietal potential at 500–800 ms related to recollection. The FN400 effects of source memory suggested that familiarity processes were promoted by self-referential effects without the modulation of to-be-forgotten (TBF instruction. The ERP results of DF effects were involved with LPCs of source memory, which indexed retrieval processing of recollection. The other-referential source memory of TBF instruction caused the absence of LPC effects, while the self-referential source memory of TBF instruction still elicited the significant LPC effects. Therefore, our neural findings suggested that self-referential processing improved both familiarity and recollection. Furthermore, the self-referential processing advantage which was caused by the autobiographical retrieval alleviated retrieval inhibition of DF, supporting that the self-referential source memory alleviated DF effects.

  11. Self-Referential Processing, Rumination, and Cortical Midline Structures in Major Depression

    Nejad, Ayna Baladi; Fossati, Philippe; Lemogne, Cédric

    2013-01-01

    Major depression is associated with a bias toward negative emotional processing and increased self-focus, i.e., the process by which one engages in self-referential processing. The increased self-focus in depression is suggested to be of a persistent, repetitive and self-critical nature, and is conceptualized as ruminative brooding. The role of the medial prefrontal cortex in self-referential processing has been previously emphasized in acute major depression. There is increasing evidence that self-referential processing as well as the cortical midline structures play a major role in the development, course, and treatment response of major depressive disorder. However, the links between self-referential processing, rumination, and the cortical midline structures in depression are still poorly understood. Here, we reviewed brain imaging studies in depressed patients and healthy subjects that have examined these links. Self-referential processing in major depression seems associated with abnormally increased activity of the anterior cortical midline structures. Abnormal interactions between the lateralized task-positive network, and the midline cortical structures of the default mode network, as well as the emotional response network, may underlie the pervasiveness of ruminative brooding. Furthermore, targeting this maladaptive form of rumination and its underlying neural correlates may be key for effective treatment. PMID:24124416

  12. Self-referential processing, rumination, and cortical midline structures in major depression

    Ayna Baladi Nejad

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Major depression is associated with a bias towards negative emotional processing and increased self-focus, i.e. the process by which one engages in self-referential processing. The increased self-focus in depression is suggested to be of a persistent, repetitive and self-critical nature and is conceptualised as ruminative brooding. The role of the medial prefrontal cortex in self-referential processing has been previously emphasised in acute major depression. There is increasing evidence that self-referential processing as well as the cortical midline structures play a major role in the development, course and treatment response of major depressive disorder. However, the links between self-referential processing, rumination, and the cortical midline structures in depression are still poorly understood. Here, we reviewed brain imaging studies in depressed patients and healthy subjects that have examined these links. The literature suggests that self-referential processing in major depression is associated with increased activity of the anterior cortical midline structures. Abnormal interactions between the lateralised task-positive network, and the midline cortical structures of the default mode network, as well as the emotional response network, may underlie the pervasiveness of ruminative brooding. Furthermore, targeting this maladaptive form of rumination and its underlying neural correlates may be key for effective treatment.

  13. Randomized controlled trial of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction versus aerobic exercise: effects on the self-referential brain network in social anxiety disorder

    Philippe eGoldin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD is characterized by distorted self-views. The goal of this study was to examine whether Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR alters behavioral and brain measures of negative and positive self-views. Methods: 56 adult patients with generalized SAD were randomly assigned to MBSR or a comparison aerobic exercise (AE program. A self-referential encoding task was administered at baseline and post-intervention to examine changes in behavioral and neural responses in the self-referential brain network during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Patients were cued to decide whether positive and negative social trait adjectives were self-descriptive or in upper case font. Results: Behaviorally, compared to AE, MBSR produced greater decreases in negative self-views, and equivalent increases in positive self-views. Neurally, during negative self vs. case, compared to AE, MBSR led to increased brain responses in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC. There were no differential changes for positive self vs. case. Secondary analyses showed that changes in endorsement of negative and positive self-views were associated with decreased social anxiety symptom severity for MBSR, but not AE. Additionally, MBSR-related increases in DMPFC activity during negative self-view vs. case were associated with decreased social anxiety-related disability and increased mindfulness. Analysis of neural temporal dynamics revealed MBSR-related changes in the timing of neural responses in the DMPFC and PCC for negative self-view vs. case.Conclusions: These findings suggest that MBSR attenuates maladaptive habitual self-views by facilitating automatic (i.e., uninstructed recruitment of cognitive and attention regulation neural networks. This highlights potentially important links between self-referential and cognitive-attention regulation systems and suggests that MBSR may enhance more adaptive social self-referential processes in

  14. The ambiguous challenge of intranets

    Thommesen, Jacob

    2003-01-01

    increases with tendencies to cooperate and communicate across organisational boundaries, mainly as a reaction to developments in markets and industrial knowledge base, but also due to the potential provided by computer network. In the third chapter I identify some characteristics of two fundamental intranet...... media, email and the web, partly in the perspective of media richness theory, partly compared with philosophical discussions of classical media. The fourth chapter presents an intranet in a global company, in which problems and challenges related to ambiguity have proven significant....

  15. Five-Year-Olds’ and Adults’ Use of Paralinguistic Cues to Overcome Referential Uncertainty

    Justine M. Thacker

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available An eye-tracking methodology was used to explore adults’ and children’s use of two utterance-based cues to overcome referential uncertainty in real time. Participants were first introduced to two characters with distinct color preferences. These characters then produced fluent (“Look! Look at the blicket.” or disfluent (“Look! Look at thee, uh, blicket.” instructions referring to novel objects in a display containing both talker-preferred and talker-dispreferred colored items. Adults (Expt 1, n = 24 directed a greater proportion of looks to talker-preferred objects during the initial portion of the utterance (“Look! Look at…”, reflecting the use of indexical cues for talker identity. However, they immediately reduced consideration of an object bearing the talker’s preferred color when the talker was disfluent, suggesting they infer disfluency would be more likely as a talker describes dispreferred objects. Like adults, 5-year-olds (Expt 2, n = 27 directed more attention to talker-preferred objects during the initial portion of the utterance. Children’s initial predictions, however, were not modulated when disfluency was encountered. Together, these results demonstrate that adults, but not 5-year-olds, can act on information from two talker-produced cues within an utterance, talker preference, and speech disfluencies, to establish reference.

  16. Public vs. Banking Sector Accounting - How Far Is Romania from International Referential?

    Cristina Stefanescu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our paper is to identify the level of accounting harmonization in Romania for both public and banking sector with international referential (IPSAS and IFRS focusing on financial reporting requirements, by providing both vertical and horizontal analysis beginning with the year 2001 up to present. Unlike prior studies conducted on the same topic, which measure the general accounting harmonization for private sector, our paper is focused on specific economic fields – public vs. banking sector – thus providing a different approach of accounting harmonization. The research methodology used for achieving our goal was based on both static and dynamic analysis of the degree of similarity and dissimilitude between national and international accounting frameworks, by using appropriate statistical tools (e.g. Euclidian distance, Jaccard and Spearman coefficients. Our results reveal continuous improvements in accounting regulations in both sectors along time, but banking sector was always much closer to international standards than the public one. Considering the controversies between cash and accrual basis accounting which affected harmonization in public sector, as well as the latest challenges for banking sector due to IFRS adoption, we appreciate the overview image of accounting development in Romania provided by our empirical results as valuable for a wide range of users: academics, researchers, practitioners for both public and banking sector.

  17. Looking at a contrast object before speaking boosts referential informativeness, but is not essential.

    Davies, Catherine; Kreysa, Helene

    2017-07-01

    Variation in referential form has traditionally been accounted for by theoretical frameworks focusing on linguistic and discourse features. Despite the explosion of interest in eye tracking methods in psycholinguistics, the role of visual scanning behaviour in informative reference production is yet to be comprehensively investigated. Here we examine the relationship between speakers' fixations to relevant referents and the form of the referring expressions they produce. Overall, speakers were fully informative across simple and (to a lesser extent) more complex displays, providing appropriately modified referring expressions to enable their addressee to locate the target object. Analysis of contrast fixations revealed that looking at a contrast object boosts but is not essential for full informativeness. Contrast fixations which take place immediately before speaking provide the greatest boost. Informative referring expressions were also associated with later speech onsets than underinformative ones. Based on the finding that fixations during speech planning facilitate but do not fully predict informative referring, direct visual scanning is ruled out as a prerequisite for informativeness. Instead, pragmatic expectations of informativeness may play a more important role. Results are consistent with a goal-based link between eye movements and language processing, here applied for the first time to production processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Referential shift in Nicaraguan Sign Language: a transition from lexical to spatial devices.

    Kocab, Annemarie; Pyers, Jennie; Senghas, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Even the simplest narratives combine multiple strands of information, integrating different characters and their actions by expressing multiple perspectives of events. We examined the emergence of referential shift devices, which indicate changes among these perspectives, in Nicaraguan Sign Language (NSL). Sign languages, like spoken languages, mark referential shift grammatically with a shift in deictic perspective. In addition, sign languages can mark the shift with a point or a movement of the body to a specified spatial location in the three-dimensional space in front of the signer, capitalizing on the spatial affordances of the manual modality. We asked whether the use of space to mark referential shift emerges early in a new sign language by comparing the first two age cohorts of deaf signers of NSL. Eight first-cohort signers and 10 second-cohort signers watched video vignettes and described them in NSL. Narratives were coded for lexical (use of words) and spatial (use of signing space) devices. Although the cohorts did not differ significantly in the number of perspectives represented, second-cohort signers used referential shift devices to explicitly mark a shift in perspective in more of their narratives. Furthermore, while there was no significant difference between cohorts in the use of non-spatial, lexical devices, there was a difference in spatial devices, with second-cohort signers using them in significantly more of their narratives. This suggests that spatial devices have only recently increased as systematic markers of referential shift. Spatial referential shift devices may have emerged more slowly because they depend on the establishment of fundamental spatial conventions in the language. While the modality of sign languages can ultimately engender the syntactic use of three-dimensional space, we propose that a language must first develop systematic spatial distinctions before harnessing space for grammatical functions.

  19. Social inference and social anxiety: evidence of a fear-congruent self-referential learning bias.

    Button, Katherine S; Browning, Michael; Munafò, Marcus R; Lewis, Glyn

    2012-12-01

    Fears of negative evaluation characterise social anxiety, and preferential processing of fear-relevant information is implicated in maintaining symptoms. Little is known, however, about the relationship between social anxiety and the process of inferring negative evaluation. The ability to use social information to learn what others think about one, referred to here as self-referential learning, is fundamental for effective social interaction. The aim of this research was to examine whether social anxiety is associated with self-referential learning. 102 Females with either high (n = 52) or low (n = 50) self-reported social anxiety completed a novel probabilistic social learning task. Using trial and error, the task required participants to learn two self-referential rules, 'I am liked' and 'I am disliked'. Participants across the sample were better at learning the positive rule 'I am liked' than the negative rule 'I am disliked', β = -6.4, 95% CI [-8.0, -4.7], p learning positive self-referential information was strongest in the lowest socially anxious and was abolished in the most symptomatic participants. Relative to the low group, the high anxiety group were better at learning they were disliked and worse at learning they were liked, social anxiety by rule interaction β = 3.6; 95% CI [+0.3, +7.0], p = 0.03. The specificity of the results to self-referential processing requires further research. Healthy individuals show a robust preference for learning that they are liked relative to disliked. This positive self-referential bias is reduced in social anxiety in a way that would be expected to exacerbate anxiety symptoms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Descriptive and discourse-referential modifiers in a layered model of the noun phrase

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that adnominal modifiers in a layered model of the noun phrase can be divided into two major subcategories: descriptive modifiers and discourse-referential modifiers. Whereas descriptive modifiers can be subdivided into classifying, qualifying, quantifying and localizing...... modifiers (section 2), discourse-referential modifiers in the noun phrase are concerned with the status of entities as referents in the world of discourse (section 3). I will pay particular attention to three issues: (i) formal reflections of the layered, semantic structure of the noun phrase (section 4...

  1. Book review: ALMOG, J. Referential Mechanics: Direct Reference and the Foundations of Semantics (Oxford University Press, 2014

    Filipe Martone

    Full Text Available Abstract: In this review I discuss Joseph Almog's book "Referential Mechanics". The book discusses direct reference as conceived by three of its founding fathers, Kripke, Kaplan and Donnellan, and introduces Almog's ambitious project of providing a referential semantics to all subject-phrases. I offer a brief overview of its four chapters and point out some of their virtues and shortcomings.

  2. Renormalon ambiguities in NRQCD operator matrix elements

    Bodwin, G.T.; Chen, Y.

    1999-01-01

    We analyze the renormalon ambiguities that appear in factorization formulas in QCD. Our analysis contains a simple argument that the ambiguities in the short-distance coefficients and operator matrix elements are artifacts of dimensional-regularization factorization schemes and are absent in cutoff schemes. We also present a method for computing the renormalon ambiguities in operator matrix elements and apply it to a computation of the ambiguities in the matrix elements that appear in the NRQCD factorization formulas for the annihilation decays of S-wave quarkonia. Our results, combined with those of Braaten and Chen for the short-distance coefficients, provide an explicit demonstration that the ambiguities cancel in the physical decay rates. In addition, we analyze the renormalon ambiguities in the Gremm-Kapustin relation and in various definitions of the heavy-quark mass. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  3. Analyzing Ambiguity of Context-Free Grammars

    Brabrand, Claus; Giegerich, Robert; Møller, Anders

    2010-01-01

    It has been known since 1962 that the ambiguity problem for context-free grammars is undecidable. Ambiguity in context-free grammars is a recurring problem in language design and parser generation, as well as in applications where grammars are used as models of real-world physical structures. We...... observe that there is a simple linguistic characterization of the grammar ambiguity problem, and we show how to exploit this by presenting an ambiguity analysis framework based on conservative language approximations. As a concrete example, we propose a technique based on local regular approximations...

  4. AMBIGUOUS JANUS OF MODERN DEMOCRACY

    Volodymyr V. Khmil

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of the research is to analyze ambiguous concept of  democracy as a phenomenon of political and social formation based on political and instrumental approach. As a result, some deep fundamentals of  human social existence and values as social life basis are blurred. Task. The task of  this investigation is to reveal the concept of democracy in its invariative philosophical  meaning and find the consequences of global social transformations towards social entropy. Methods of investigation. To implement the task an activity approach has been used with further possibility to single out two approaches - politological and philosophical. The focus on democracy from philosophic point of view makes possible to anticipate negative entropic processes that lead  to future ambiguity. Subject matter. Chaotic social processes can result in  ruined family, spiritual, legal and moral formations. Regulatory and legal paradigms are becoming less effective and entail disintegration of spiritual and value constituents of worldview causing necessary conditions for social entropy. Originality and Findings. Possible threats for human freedom that hinder the way to targeted  prospects of mankind have been considered in the paper. Thus, taking into account all positive aspects of democracy, it is simultaneously becoming the tool of continuous differentiation of society into tiny autonomous communities similar to nomadic atomization of society. The concept based on moral substantial existence basis as in “axis time” by K. Jaspers that can prevent social entropy resulting in world anthropologic catastrophes has been grounded in the present research.

  5. Kwelders en schorren in de Kaderrichtlijn Water; ontwikkeling van potentiële referenties en van potentiële goede ecologische toestanden

    Dijkema, K.S.; Jong, de D.J.; Vreeken-Buijs, M.J.; Duin, van W.E.

    2005-01-01

    Ten behoeve van maatlatontwikkeling worden in dit document twee parameters ontwikkeld voor de Nederlandse kwelders. En wel: een areaal-referentie (deze studie gaat uit van historische referenties over bedijkingen; soms is het huidige areaal als referentie of als goede ecologische toestand gebruikt)

  6. The Development of Preschoolers' Appreciation of Communicative Ambiguity

    Nilsen, Elizabeth S.; Graham, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    Using a longitudinal design, preschoolers' appreciation of a listener's knowledge of the location of a hidden sticker after the listener was provided with an ambiguous or unambiguous description was assessed. Preschoolers (N = 34) were tested at 3 time points, each 6 months apart (4, 4 1/2, and 5 years). Eye gaze measures demonstrated that…

  7. Semantic ambiguity effects on traditional Chinese character naming: A corpus-based approach.

    Chang, Ya-Ning; Lee, Chia-Ying

    2017-11-09

    Words are considered semantically ambiguous if they have more than one meaning and can be used in multiple contexts. A number of recent studies have provided objective ambiguity measures by using a corpus-based approach and have demonstrated ambiguity advantages in both naming and lexical decision tasks. Although the predictive power of objective ambiguity measures has been examined in several alphabetic language systems, the effects in logographic languages remain unclear. Moreover, most ambiguity measures do not explicitly address how the various contexts associated with a given word relate to each other. To explore these issues, we computed the contextual diversity (Adelman, Brown, & Quesada, Psychological Science, 17; 814-823, 2006) and semantic ambiguity (Hoffman, Lambon Ralph, & Rogers, Behavior Research Methods, 45; 718-730, 2013) of traditional Chinese single-character words based on the Academia Sinica Balanced Corpus, where contextual diversity was used to evaluate the present semantic space. We then derived a novel ambiguity measure, namely semantic variability, by computing the distance properties of the distinct clusters grouped by the contexts that contained a given word. We demonstrated that semantic variability was superior to semantic diversity in accounting for the variance in naming response times, suggesting that considering the substructure of the various contexts associated with a given word can provide a relatively fine scale of ambiguity information for a word. All of the context and ambiguity measures for 2,418 Chinese single-character words are provided as supplementary materials.

  8. Lexical ambiguity resolution during sentence processing in Parkinson's disease: An event-related potential study.

    Anthony J Angwin

    Full Text Available Event-related potentials (ERPs were recorded to investigate lexical ambiguity resolution during sentence processing in 16 people with Parkinson's disease (PD and 16 healthy controls. Sentences were presented word-by-word on computer screen, and participants were required to decide if a subsequent target word was related to the meaning of the sentence. The task consisted of related, unrelated and ambiguous trials. For the ambiguous trials, the sentence ended with an ambiguous word and the target was related to one of the meanings of that word, but not the one captured by the sentence context (e.g., 'He dug with the spade', Target 'ACE'. Both groups demonstrated slower reaction times and lower accuracy for the ambiguous condition relative to the unrelated condition, however accuracy was impacted by the ambiguous condition to a larger extent in the PD group. These results suggested that PD patients experience increased difficulties with contextual ambiguity resolution. The ERP results did not reflect increased ambiguity resolution difficulties in PD, as a similar N400 effect was evident for the unrelated and ambiguous condition in both groups. However, the magnitude of the N400 for these conditions was correlated with a measure of inhibition in the PD group, but not the control group. The ERP results suggest that semantic processing may be more compromised in PD patients with increased response inhibition deficits.

  9. De sterktebepaling van drie monocomponent insulines ten opzichte van het Europese Referentie Preparaat

    Hillen; F.C.; Jong; Y. de; Weick; G.

    1986-01-01

    Drie monocomponent insulines werden geijkt tegen de Europese Referentie Standaar. Van iedere insuline-soort (humaan-, varken-, en runderinsulines) werden drie ijkingen uitgevoerd als 2 x 2 punts- kuisijking bij konijnen met de bloedglucose-verlaging methode. De gecombineerde sterktes waren

  10. Effects of Target Attributes on Children's Patterns of Referential Under- and Overspecification

    Charest, Monique; Johnston, Judith R.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of object attributes on children's descriptive patterns in a referential communication task. Thirty preschoolers described object pairs that were selected by the experimenter. The targets were defined by shared size or colour, and differed on the non-target dimension in half of the trials. The children also completed a…

  11. Early referential context effects in sentence processing: Evidence from event-related brain potentials

    Berkum, J.J.A. van; Brown, C.M.; Hagoort, P.

    1999-01-01

    An event-related brain potentials experiment was carried out to examine the interplay of referential and structural factors during sentence processing in discourse. Subjects read (Dutch) sentences beginning like “David told the girl that … ” in short story contexts that had introduced either one or

  12. Referential Communication Skills of Children with Williams Syndrome: Understanding when Messages Are Not Adequate

    John, Angela E.; Rowe, Melissa L.; Mervis, Carolyn B.

    2009-01-01

    Although children with Williams syndrome have relatively good structural language and concrete vocabulary abilities, they have difficulty with pragmatic aspects of language. To investigate the impact of pragmatic difficulties on listener-role referential communication, we administered a picture placement task designed to measure ability to…

  13. Role Conflict and Ambiguity as Predictors of Job Satisfaction in High School Counselors

    Cervoni, Annemarie; DeLucia-Waack, Janice

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between role conflict and role ambiguity, and percentage of time spent on ASCA recommended duties (counseling, coordination, consultation, and large group guidance); and job satisfaction of high school counselors. The Role Conflict and Role Ambiguity Scale and the Job Descriptive Index were…

  14. Li Shangyin and the Art of Poetic Ambiguity

    Maja Lavrač

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Li Shangyin (813–858, one of the most respected, mysterious, ambiguous and provocative of Chinese poets, lived during the late Tang period, when the glorious Tang dynasty was beginning to decline. It was a time of social riots, political division and painful general insecurity. Li Shangyin is famous as a highly original and committed poet who developed a unique style full of vague allusions and unusual images derived from the literary past (the traditional canon, myths and legends as well as from nature and personal experience. The second important feature of his poetry is a mysteriousness which finally leads to ambiguity. Ambiguity plays an essential role in most of his renowned poems, and he uses it to superbly connect present and past, reality and fantasy, and history and mythology. Thus, ambiguity and obscurity, respectively, often engender different interpretations among Chinese critics. These interpretations reflect the poems’ imaginative qualities, hypotheses and contradictions. Since each interpretive direction emphasizes but a single aspect of the poet’s character, it is more fitting to understand his ambiguous poems in symbolic terms. Such understanding entails that the meaning of the poem is not limited to one interpretation; rather, the poem’s poetic landscape opens itself up to various interpretations. Li Shangyin is actually most popular for his melancholic love poetry that reveals his ambiguous attitude to love. In this poetry, love is shrouded in a secret message. On the one hand, we can sense his moral disapproval of a secret but hopeless love; on the other, we can sense his passion. This leads to a paradox: the pleasing temptations of an illicit romance also exact a high price. In these love poems Li investigates various aspects of the worlds of passion which stoke in him feelings of rapture, satisfaction, joy and hope as well as feelings of doubt, frustration, despair and even thoughts of death.

  15. A New Block Processing Algorithm of LLL for Fast High-dimension Ambiguity Resolution

    LIU Wanke

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to high dimension and precision for the ambiguity vector under GNSS observations of multi-frequency and multi-system, a major problem to limit computational efficiency of ambiguity resolution is the longer reduction time when using conventional LLL algorithm. To address this problem, it is proposed a new block processing algorithm of LLL by analyzing the relationship between the reduction time and the dimensions and precision of ambiguity. The new algorithm reduces the reduction time to improve computational efficiency of ambiguity resolution, which is based on block processing ambiguity variance-covariance matrix that decreased the dimensions of single reduction matrix. It is validated that the new algorithm with two groups of measured data. The results show that the computing efficiency of the new algorithm increased by 65.2% and 60.2% respectively compared with that of LLL algorithm when choosing a reasonable number of blocks.

  16. Clock ambiguity and the emergence of physical laws

    Albrecht, Andreas; Iglesias, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    The process of identifying a time variable in time-reparameterization invariant theories results in great ambiguities about the actual laws of physics described by a given theory. A theory set up to describe one set of physical laws can equally well be interpreted as describing any other laws of physics by making a different choice of time variable or clock. In this article we demonstrate how this 'clock ambiguity' arises and then discuss how one might still hope to extract specific predictions about the laws of physics even when the clock ambiguity is present. We argue that a requirement of quasiseparability should play a critical role in such an analysis. As a step in this direction, we compare the Hamiltonian of a local quantum field theory with a completely random Hamiltonian. We find that any random Hamiltonian (constructed in a sufficiently large space) can yield a 'good enough' approximation to a local field theory. Based on this result we argue that theories that suffer from the clock ambiguity may in the end provide a viable fundamental framework for physics in which locality can be seen as a strongly favored (or predicted) emergent behavior. We also speculate on how other key aspects of known physics such as gauge symmetries and Poincare invariance might be predicted to emerge in this framework.

  17. Ambiguity and Volatility : Asset Pricing Implications

    Pataracchia, B.

    2011-01-01

    Using a simple dynamic consumption-based asset pricing model, this paper explores the implications of a representative investor with smooth ambiguity averse preferences [Klibano¤, Marinacci and Mukerji, Econometrica (2005)] and provides a comparative analysis of risk aversion and ambiguity aversion.

  18. The Communicative Function of Ambiguity in Language

    Piantadosi, Steven T.; Tily, Harry; Gibson, Edward

    2012-01-01

    We present a general information-theoretic argument that all efficient communication systems will be ambiguous, assuming that context is informative about meaning. We also argue that ambiguity allows for greater ease of processing by permitting efficient linguistic units to be re-used. We test predictions of this theory in English, German, and…

  19. Crichton ambiguities with infinitely many partial waves

    Atkinson, D.; Kok, L.P.; de Roo, M.

    1978-01-01

    We construct families of spinless two-particle unitary cross sections that possess a nontrivial discrete phase-shift ambiguity, with in general an infinite number of nonvanishing partial waves. A numerical investigation reveals that some of the previously known finite Crichton ambiguities are merely special cases of the newly constructed examples

  20. Ambiguity attitudes in decisions for others

    König-Kersting, Christian; Trautmann, Stefan

    We probe the pattern of ambiguity aversion for moderate-likelihood gain prospects, and ambiguity seeking for low-likelihood gain prospects, if people make decisions not for themselves but as agents for others. We confirm the pattern both with and without accountability.

  1. Processing subject-object ambiguities in Dutch

    Kaan, Edith

    1997-01-01

    Various clause types in Dutch and German are at least temporarily ambiguous with respect to the order of subject and object. A number of previous studies regarding the processing of such subject-object ambiguities have reported a preference for a subject-object interpretation. This order preference

  2. Crichton ambiguities with infinitely many partial waves

    Atkinson, D.; Kok, L.P.; de Roo, M.

    We construct families of spin less two-particle unitary cross sections that possess a nontrivial discrete phase-shift ambiguity, with in general an infinite number of nonvanishing partial waves. A numerical investigation reveals that some of the previously known finite Crichton ambiguities are

  3. Decreased medial prefrontal cortex activation during self-referential processing in bipolar mania.

    Herold, Dorrit; Usnich, Tatiana; Spengler, Stephanie; Sajonz, Bastian; Bauer, Michael; Bermpohl, Felix

    2017-09-01

    Patients with bipolar disorder in mania exhibit symptoms pointing towards altered self-referential processing, such as decreased self-focus, flight of ideas and high distractibility. In depression, the opposite pattern of symptoms has been connected to increased activation of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) during self-referential processing. In this study, we hypothesized that (1) patients with mania will exhibit decreased activation in the mPFC during self-referential processing and (2) will be more alexithymic and that levels of alexithymia will correlate negatively with mPFC activation. The neural response to standardized pictures was compared in 14 patients with bipolar I disorder in mania to 14 healthy controls using blood oxygen level dependent contrast magnetic resonance imaging. Participants were asked to indicate with button press during the scanning session for each picture whether the pictures personally related to them or not. Toronto alexithymia scale (TAS) scores were recorded from all participants. In the group analysis, patients with mania exhibited decreased activation in a predefined region of interest in the mPFC during self-referential processing compared to healthy controls. Patients with mania showed significantly higher levels of alexithymia, attributable to difficulties in identifying and describing emotions. Activation in the mPFC correlated negatively with levels of alexithymia. Results presented here should be replicated in a larger group, potentially including unmedicated patients. The finding of decreased mPFC activation during self-referential processing in mania may reflect decreased self-focus and high distractibility. Support for this view comes from the negative correlation between higher alexithymia scores and decreased mPFC activation. These findings represent an opposite clinical and neuroimaging pattern to findings in depression. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Nobiletin improves emotional and novelty recognition memory but not spatial referential memory.

    Kang, Jiyun; Shin, Jung-Won; Kim, Yoo-Rim; Swanberg, Kelley M; Kim, Yooseung; Bae, Jae Ryong; Kim, Young Ki; Lee, Jinwon; Kim, Soo-Yeon; Sohn, Nak-Won; Maeng, Sungho

    2017-01-01

    How to maintain and enhance cognitive functions for both aged and young populations is a highly interesting subject. But candidate memory-enhancing reagents are tested almost exclusively on lesioned or aged animals. Also, there is insufficient information on the type of memory these reagents can improve. Working memory, located in the prefrontal cortex, manages short-term sensory information, but, by gaining significant relevance, this information is converted to long-term memory by hippocampal formation and/or amygdala, followed by tagging with space-time or emotional cues, respectively. Nobiletin is a product of citrus peel known for cognitive-enhancing effects in various pharmacological and neurodegenerative disease models, yet, it is not well studied in non-lesioned animals and the type of memory that nobiletin can improve remains unclear. In this study, 8-week-old male mice were tested using behavioral measurements for working, spatial referential, emotional and visual recognition memory after daily administration of nobiletin. While nobiletin did not induce any change of spontaneous activity in the open field test, freezing by fear conditioning and novel object recognition increased. However, the effectiveness of spatial navigation in the Y-maze and Morris water maze was not improved. These results mean that nobiletin can specifically improve memories of emotionally salient information associated with fear and novelty, but not of spatial information without emotional saliency. Accordingly, the use of nobiletin on normal subjects as a memory enhancer would be more effective on emotional types but may have limited value for the improvement of episodic memories.

  5. Acute leukemias of ambiguous lineage.

    Béné, Marie C; Porwit, Anna

    2012-02-01

    The 2008 edition of the WHO Classification of Tumors of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues recognizes a special category called "leukemias of ambiguous lineage." The vast majority of these rare leukemias are classified as mixed phenotype acute leukemia (MPAL), although acute undifferentiated leukemias and natural killer lymphoblastic leukemias are also included. The major immunophenotypic markers used by the WHO 2008 to determine the lineage for these proliferations are myeloperoxidase, CD19, and cytoplasmic CD3. However, extensive immunophenotyping is necessary to confirm that the cells indeed belong to 2 different lineages or coexpress differentiation antigens of more than 1 lineage. Specific subsets of MPAL are defined by chromosomal anomalies such as the t(9;22) Philadelphia chromosome BCR-ABL1 or involvement of the MLL gene on chromosome 11q23. Other MPAL are divided into B/myeloid NOS, T/myeloid NOS, B/T NOS, and B/T/myeloid NOS. MPAL are usually of dire prognosis, respond variably to chemotherapy of acute lymphoblastic or acute myeloblastic type, and benefit most from rapid allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

  6. An ambiguity in fermionic string perturbation theory

    Atick, J.J.; Rabin, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Recent investigation by Verlinde and Verlinde has shown that the fermionic string loop amplitudes change by a total derivative term in the moduli space under a change of basis of the supermoduli. This ambiguity is addressed in the context of the heterotic string theory, and shown to be a consequence of an inherent ambiguity in defining integration over the variables of a Grassmann algebra - in this case the Grassmann-valued coordinates of the supermoduli space. A resolution of this ambiguity in genus-two within this formalism is also presented. (orig.)

  7. Gauge-fixing ambiguity and monopole number

    Hioki, S.; Miyamura, O.

    1991-01-01

    Gauge-fixing ambiguities of lattice SU(2) QCD are studied in the maximally abelian and unitary gauges. In the former, we find local maxima of a gauge-fixing function which may correspond to Gribov copies. There is a definite anti-correlation between the number of monopoles and the value of the function. Errors of measured quantities coming from the ambiguity are found to be less than inherent dispersion in the ensemble average. No ambiguity is found in the unitary gauges. (orig.)

  8. Analyzing Ambiguity of Context-Free Grammars

    Brabrand, Claus; Giegerich, Robert; Møller, Anders

    2007-01-01

    It has been known since 1962 that the ambiguity problem for context-free grammars is undecidable. Ambiguity in context-free grammars is a recurring problem in language design and parser generation, as well as in applications where grammars are used as models of real-world physical structures. We...... observe that there is a simple linguistic characterization of the grammar ambiguity problem, and we show how to exploit this to conservatively approximate the problem based on local regular approximations and grammar unfoldings. As an application, we consider grammars that occur in RNA analysis...

  9. Perturbative ambiguities in Coulomb gauge QCD

    Doust, P.

    1987-01-01

    The naive Coulomb gauge Feynman rules in non-abelian gauge theory give rise to ambiguous integrals, in addition to the usual ultraviolet divergences. Generalizing the work of Cheng and Tsai, these ambiguities are resolved to all orders in perturbation theory, by defining a gauge that interpolates smoothly between the Feynman gauge and the Coulomb gauge. The extra terms V 1 +V 2 of Christ and Lee are identified with certain two-loop ambiguous terms. However, there still seem to be unsolved problems connected with renormalisation. copyright 1987 Academic Press, Inc

  10. Equity Trading under Heterogeneity in Ambiguity

    Alonso, Irasema; Prado, Mauricio

    -relevant, but hard-to-interpret information: a situation like that during the onset of the recent crisis in financial markets. During this episode, market participants appeared unsure of the values of a variety of assets, trading all but stopped. Ambiguity aversion, it appears to us, offers a tractable way......-participation - a drastic form of trading less - in the ambiguity-ridden market by certain agents (here we have in mind those with higher levels of ambiguity). This endogenous limited participation on the market also has implications for the relative wealth of agents in an economy. The dynamics of the wealth distribution...

  11. Ambiguity and violence in adolescent dating relationships.

    Draucker, Claire Burke; Martsolf, Donna; Stephenson, Pam Shockey

    2012-08-01

    Little is known about dyadic processes that lead to adolescent dating violence. The purpose of this study was to examine the phenomenon of relationship ambiguity in adolescent dating relationships to better understand how ambiguity contributes to violence and aggression between dating partners. Data were drawn from 88 narratives of young adults who had participated in a study on adolescent dating violence. Interpretive phenomenology was used to produce an in-depth description of the phenomenon of relationship ambiguity. Relationship ambiguity results in differing expectations between partners regarding closeness and intimacy, fidelity, and obligation. These differences lead to conflicts that set the stage for violence and aggression in adolescent dating relationships. A series of recommendations for clinicians working with adolescents are presented. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Clarity and ambiguity in strategic corporate communication

    Gulbrandsen, Ib Tunby

    2017-01-01

    as they are decoupled from the strategy itself. Research limitations/implications – As the findings are based on a study of the understanding and practice of corporate communication strategy in one concrete organization, the study points to the need for additional explorations and examinations of ambiguity in strategic...... how they perceived the writing, reading and enactment of their organization’s new corporate communication strategy. Findings – The analysis reveals the presence of both clarity and ambiguity in the employees’ understanding of the strategy. Both in terms of formulation and implementation. For instance...... corporate communication. Originality/value – Despite numerous studies on the presence of ambiguity in strategy making in the neighbouring field of strategic management, the majority of strategic corporate communication literature largely treats ambiguity as something that should be absent. This has caused...

  13. Clarity and ambiguity in strategic corporate communication

    Gulbrandsen, Ib Tunby

    2018-01-01

    as they are decoupled from the strategy itself. Research limitations/implications – As the findings are based on a study of the understanding and practice of corporate communication strategy in one concrete organization, the study points to the need for additional explorations and examinations of ambiguity in strategic...... how they perceived the writing, reading and enactment of their organization’s new corporate communication strategy. Findings – The analysis reveals the presence of both clarity and ambiguity in the employees’ understanding of the strategy. Both in terms of formulation and implementation. For instance...... corporate communication. Originality/value – Despite numerous studies on the presence of ambiguity in strategy making in the neighbouring field of strategic management, the majority of strategic corporate communication literature largely treats ambiguity as something that should be absent. This has caused...

  14. Risk Management and Insurance Decisions under Ambiguity

    Martínez-Correa, Jimmy

    I study the impact of ambiguity on insurance decisions and the optimality of insurance contracts. My tractable approach allows me to study the interaction between risk and ambiguity attitudes. When insurance decisions are made independently of other assets, for a given increase in wealth, both risk...... portfolio theory that assumes Subjective Expected Utility theory; however, it provides hints to a possible solution of the under-diversification puzzle of households. I also identify conditions under which more risk or ambiguity aversion decreases the demand for coinsurance. Additionally, I show...... a counterexample to a classical result in insurance economics where an insurance contract with straight deductible is dominated by a coinsurance contract. Finally, I find that a modified Borch rule characterizes the optimal insurance contract with bilateral risk and ambiguity attitudes and heterogeneity in beliefs....

  15. The material realization of science from Habermas to experimentation and referential realism

    Radder, Hans

    2012-01-01

    This book develops a conception of science as a multi-dimensional practice, which includes experimental action and production, conceptual-theoretical interpretation, and formal-mathematical work. On this basis, it addresses the topical issue of scientific realism and expounds a detailed, referentially realist account of the natural sciences. This account is shown to be compatible with the frequent occurrence of conceptual discontinuities in the historical development of the sciences. Referential realism exploits several fruitful ideas of Jürgen Habermas, especially his distinction between objectivity and truth; it builds on a in-depth analysis of scientific experiments, including their material realization; and it is developed through an extensive case study in the history and philosophy of quantum mechanics. The new postscript explains how the book relates to several important issues in recent philosophy of science and science studies.

  16. Good luck, bad luck, and ambiguity aversion

    Briony D. Pulford; Poonam Gill

    2014-01-01

    We report a series of experiments investigating the influence of feeling lucky or unlucky on people's choice of known-risk or ambiguous options using the traditional Ellsberg Urns decision-making task. We induced a state of feeling lucky or unlucky in subjects by using a rigged wheel-of-fortune game, which just missed either the bankrupt or the jackpot outcome. In the first experiment a large reversal of the usual ambiguity aversion effect was shown, indicating that feeling ...

  17. A Lexical Analysis Tool with Ambiguity Support

    Quesada, Luis; Berzal, Fernando; Cortijo, Francisco J.

    2012-01-01

    Lexical ambiguities naturally arise in languages. We present Lamb, a lexical analyzer that produces a lexical analysis graph describing all the possible sequences of tokens that can be found within the input string. Parsers can process such lexical analysis graphs and discard any sequence of tokens that does not produce a valid syntactic sentence, therefore performing, together with Lamb, a context-sensitive lexical analysis in lexically-ambiguous language specifications.

  18. Relation between nonlinear models and gauge ambiguities

    Balachandran, A.P.; Ramachandran, R.; Rupertsberger, H.; Skagerstam, B.S.

    1980-01-01

    We show that the solutions of a class of nonlinear models also generate gauge ambiguities in the vacuum sector of Yang-Mills theories. Our results extend known connections between gauge ambiguities and certain nonlinear sigma-models, and clarify the underlying group theory. For many nonlinear models, we also give a simple, intrinsic parametrization of physical fields (which have values in a homogeneous space of a group). (orig.)

  19. On the ambiguity in relativistic tidal deformability

    Gralla, Samuel E.

    2018-04-01

    The LIGO collaboration recently reported the first gravitational-wave constraints on the tidal deformability of neutron stars. I discuss an inherent ambiguity in the notion of relativistic tidal deformability that, while too small to affect the present measurement, may become important in the future. I propose a new way to understand the ambiguity and discuss future prospects for reliably linking observed gravitational waveforms to compact object microphysics.

  20. De morseir syndrome presenting as ambiguous genitalia

    Anubhav Thukral; S Chitra; Partho P Chakraborty; Ajitesh Roy; Soumik Goswami; Rana Bhattacharjee; Deep Dutta; Indira Maisnam; Sujoy Ghosh; Satinath Mukherjee; Subhankar Chowdhury

    2012-01-01

    Background: A 10-year-old boy presented with genital ambiguity, poor linear growth, and delayed milestones. The aim and to highlight that although rare but congenital, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism may rarely present as ambiguity. Materials and Methods: The patient was found to have bilateral cryptorchidism with proximal penile hypospadias, microphallus with a proportionate dwarfism with mildly delayed bone age, and karyotype 46XY. Euthyroid with normal steroid axis, growth hormone insufficie...

  1. Functionally referential and intentional communication in the domestic dog: effects of spatial and social contexts.

    Gaunet, Florence; Deputte, Bertrand L

    2011-11-01

    In apes, four criteria are set to explore referential and intentional communication: (1) successive visual orienting between a partner and distant targets, (2) the presence of apparent attention-getting behaviours, (3) the requirement of an audience to exhibit the behaviours, and (4) the influence of the direction of attention of an observer on the behaviours. The present study aimed at identifying these criteria in behaviours used by dogs in communicative episodes with their owner when their toy is out of reach, i.e. gaze at a hidden target or at the owner, gaze alternation between a hidden target and the owner, vocalisations and contacts. In this study, an additional variable was analysed: the position of the dog in relation to the location of the target. Dogs witnessed the hiding of a favourite toy, in a place where they could not get access to. We analysed how dogs engaged in communicative deictic behaviours in the presence of their owner; four heights of the target were tested. To control for the motivational effects of the toy on the dogs' behaviour and for the referential nature of the behaviours, observations were staged where only the toy or only the owner was present, for one of the four heights. The results show that gazing at the container and gaze alternation were used as functionally referential and intentional communicative behaviours. Behavioural patterns of dog position, the new variable, fulfilled the operational criteria for functionally referential behaviour and a subset of operational criteria for intentional communication: the dogs used their own position as a local enhancement signal. Finally, our results suggest that the dogs gazed at their owner at optimal locations in the experimental area, with respect to the target height and their owner's (or their own) line of gaze. © Springer-Verlag 2011

  2. Probability judgments under ambiguity and conflict.

    Smithson, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Whether conflict and ambiguity are distinct kinds of uncertainty remains an open question, as does their joint impact on judgments of overall uncertainty. This paper reviews recent advances in our understanding of human judgment and decision making when both ambiguity and conflict are present, and presents two types of testable models of judgments under conflict and ambiguity. The first type concerns estimate-pooling to arrive at "best" probability estimates. The second type is models of subjective assessments of conflict and ambiguity. These models are developed for dealing with both described and experienced information. A framework for testing these models in the described-information setting is presented, including a reanalysis of a multi-nation data-set to test best-estimate models, and a study of participants' assessments of conflict, ambiguity, and overall uncertainty reported by Smithson (2013). A framework for research in the experienced-information setting is then developed, that differs substantially from extant paradigms in the literature. This framework yields new models of "best" estimates and perceived conflict. The paper concludes with specific suggestions for future research on judgment and decision making under conflict and ambiguity.

  3. An experimental investigation of referential looking in free-ranging Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus).

    Roberts, Sam G B; McComb, Karen; Ruffman, Ted

    2008-02-01

    The authors examined looking behavior between 15 Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus) infants and their mothers in the presence of a rubber snake (experimental period) and in the absence of the snake (control period). Two of the 15 infants looked referentially at their mother in the experimental period. Including both referential and nonreferential looks, the six older infants (aged 5 to 12 months) displayed a higher frequency of looks to mother than nine younger infants (aged 3 to 4.5 months) in the experimental period, but not in the control period. Older infants looked more to the mother in the experimental condition, whereas the younger infants looked more to the mother in the control condition, or looked equally in the two conditions. These results suggest that age is an important factor in determining looking behavior to mother in situations of uncertainty. Compared to hand-reared chimpanzees or human infants tested in standard social referencing paradigms, the infant macaques displayed a low rate of referential looking. Possible explanations for this are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Referential communication in children with ADHD: challenges in the role of a listener.

    Nilsen, Elizabeth S; Mangal, Leilani; Macdonald, Kristi

    2013-04-01

    Successful communication requires that listeners accurately interpret the meaning of speakers' statements. The present work examined whether children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) differ in their ability to interpret referential statements (i.e., phrases that denote objects or events) from speakers. Children (6 to 9 years old), diagnosed with ADHD (n = 27) and typically developing (n = 26), took part in an interactive task in which they were asked by an adult speaker to retrieve objects from a display case. Children interpreted the referential statements in contexts that either did or did not require perspective-taking. Children's eye movements and object choices were recorded. Parents completed questionnaires assessing their child's frequency of ADHD symptoms and pragmatic communicative abilities. Behavioral and eye movement measures revealed that children with ADHD made more interpretive errors and were less likely to consider target referents across the 2 communicative conditions. Furthermore, ADHD symptoms related to children's performance on the communicative task and to parental report of the child's pragmatic skills. Children with ADHD are less accurate in their interpretations of referential statements. Such difficulties would lead to greater occurrences of miscommunication.

  5. Triple-frequency GPS precise point positioning with rapid ambiguity resolution

    Geng, Jianghui; Bock, Yehuda

    2013-05-01

    At present, reliable ambiguity resolution in real-time GPS precise point positioning (PPP) can only be achieved after an initial observation period of a few tens of minutes. In this study, we propose a method where the incoming triple-frequency GPS signals are exploited to enable rapid convergences to ambiguity-fixed solutions in real-time PPP. Specifically, extra-wide-lane ambiguity resolution can be first achieved almost instantaneously with the Melbourne-Wübbena combination observable on L2 and L5. Then the resultant unambiguous extra-wide-lane carrier-phase is combined with the wide-lane carrier-phase on L1 and L2 to form an ionosphere-free observable with a wavelength of about 3.4 m. Although the noise of this observable is around 100 times the raw carrier-phase noise, its wide-lane ambiguity can still be resolved very efficiently, and the resultant ambiguity-fixed observable can assist much better than pseudorange in speeding up succeeding narrow-lane ambiguity resolution. To validate this method, we use an advanced hardware simulator to generate triple-frequency signals and a high-grade receiver to collect 1-Hz data. When the carrier-phase precisions on L1, L2 and L5 are as poor as 1.5, 6.3 and 1.5 mm, respectively, wide-lane ambiguity resolution can still reach a correctness rate of over 99 % within 20 s. As a result, the correctness rate of narrow-lane ambiguity resolution achieves 99 % within 65 s, in contrast to only 64 % within 150 s in dual-frequency PPP. In addition, we also simulate a multipath-contaminated data set and introduce new ambiguities for all satellites every 120 s. We find that when multipath effects are strong, ambiguity-fixed solutions are achieved at 78 % of all epochs in triple-frequency PPP whilst almost no ambiguities are resolved in dual-frequency PPP. Therefore, we demonstrate that triple-frequency PPP has the potential to achieve ambiguity-fixed solutions within a few minutes, or even shorter if raw carrier-phase precisions are

  6. Resolving the range ambiguity in OFDR using digital signal processing

    Riesen, Nicolas; Lam, Timothy T-Y; Chow, Jong H

    2014-01-01

    A digitally range-gated variant of optical frequency domain reflectometry is demonstrated which overcomes the beat note ambiguity when sensing beyond a single frequency sweep. The range-gating is achieved using a spread spectrum technique involving time-stamping of the optical signal using high-frequency pseudorandom phase modulation. The reflections from different sections of fiber can then be isolated in the time domain by digitally inverting the phase modulation using appropriately-delayed copies of the pseudorandom noise code. Since the technique overcomes the range ambiguity in OFDR, it permits high sweep repetition rates without sacrificing range, thus allowing for high-bandwidth sensing over long lengths of fiber. This is demonstrated for the case of quasi-distributed sensing. (paper)

  7. A motion-based integer ambiguity resolution method for attitude determination using the global positioning system (GPS)

    Wang, Bo; Deng, Zhihong; Wang, Shunting; Fu, Mengyin

    2010-01-01

    Loss of the satellite signal and noise disturbance will cause cycle slips to occur in the carrier phase observation of the attitude determination system using the global positioning system (GPS), especially in the dynamic situation. Therefore, in order to reject the error by cycle slips, the integer ambiguity should be re-computed. A motion model-based Kalman predictor is used for the ambiguity re-computation in dynamic applications. This method utilizes the correct observation of the last step to predict the current ambiguities. With the baseline length as a constraint to reject invalid values, we can solve the current integer ambiguity and the attitude angles, by substituting the obtained ambiguities into the constrained LAMBDA method. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is more efficient in the dynamic situation, which takes less time to obtain new fixed ambiguities with a higher mean success rate

  8. Causal anomalies and the case for a preferred referential frame

    Martins, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    A theoretical argument supporting the idea that in some physical situations compatible with the general theory of relativity one may have very good reasons for choosing one particular reference frame in a locally Minkowskian space-time-that is, in a case where special relativity is supposed to hold, is described. (L.C.) [pt

  9. Context sensitivity and ambiguity in component-based systems design

    Bespalko, S.J.; Sindt, A.

    1997-10-01

    Designers of components-based, real-time systems need to guarantee to correctness of soft-ware and its output. Complexity of a system, and thus the propensity for error, is best characterized by the number of states a component can encounter. In many cases, large numbers of states arise where the processing is highly dependent on context. In these cases, states are often missed, leading to errors. The following are proposals for compactly specifying system states which allow the factoring of complex components into a control module and a semantic processing module. Further, the need for methods that allow for the explicit representation of ambiguity and uncertainty in the design of components is discussed. Presented herein are examples of real-world problems which are highly context-sensitive or are inherently ambiguous.

  10. Neural Correlates of Decision-Making Under Ambiguity and Conflict.

    Pushkarskaya, Helen; Smithson, Michael; Joseph, Jane E; Corbly, Christine; Levy, Ifat

    2015-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS We use a simple gambles design in an fMRI study to compare two conditions: ambiguity and conflict.Participants were more conflict averse than ambiguity averse.Ambiguity aversion did not correlate with conflict aversion.Activation in the medial prefrontal cortex correlated with ambiguity level and ambiguity aversion.Activation in the ventral striatum correlated with conflict level and conflict aversion. Studies of decision making under uncertainty generally focus on imprecise information about outcome probabilities ("ambiguity"). It is not clear, however, whether conflicting information about outcome probabilities affects decision making in the same manner as ambiguity does. Here we combine functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a simple gamble design to study this question. In this design the levels of ambiguity and conflict are parametrically varied, and ambiguity and conflict gambles are matched on expected value. Behaviorally, participants avoided conflict more than ambiguity, and attitudes toward ambiguity and conflict did not correlate across participants. Neurally, regional brain activation was differentially modulated by ambiguity level and aversion to ambiguity and by conflict level and aversion to conflict. Activation in the medial prefrontal cortex was correlated with the level of ambiguity and with ambiguity aversion, whereas activation in the ventral striatum was correlated with the level of conflict and with conflict aversion. These novel results indicate that decision makers process imprecise and conflicting information differently, a finding that has important implications for basic and clinical research.

  11. RELATION OF COACHING BEHAVIOR AND ROLE AMBIGUITY

    Karamousalidis G.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between coaching behavior and role ambiguity in defensive responsibilities using interdependent Greek sport teams. Athlete perceptions of role ambiguity (defense were assessed using a questionnaire developed by Beauchamp, Bray, Eys and Carron (2002 andcoaching behavior was assessed using the Coaching Behavior Questionnaire, (Williams, et. al., 2003. The sample consisted of 409 athletes of basketball, volleyball, handball and soccer. Confirmatory factor analysis provided the construct validity of the questionnaires and correlations among the scales confirmed construct validity. The implications of the results are discussed and future research should continue to investigate the multidimensional models of both coaching behavior and role ambiguity in sport settings.

  12. De morseir syndrome presenting as ambiguous genitalia.

    Thukral, Anubhav; Chitra, S; Chakraborty, Partho P; Roy, Ajitesh; Goswami, Soumik; Bhattacharjee, Rana; Dutta, Deep; Maisnam, Indira; Ghosh, Sujoy; Mukherjee, Satinath; Chowdhury, Subhankar

    2012-12-01

    A 10-year-old boy presented with genital ambiguity, poor linear growth, and delayed milestones. The aim and to highlight that although rare but congenital, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism may rarely present as ambiguity. The patient was found to have bilateral cryptorchidism with proximal penile hypospadias, microphallus with a proportionate dwarfism with mildly delayed bone age, and karyotype 46XY. Euthyroid with normal steroid axis, growth hormone insufficient as suggested by auxology, low IGF1, and poor response to clonidine stimulation. MRI brain shows hypoplastic corpus callosum, hypoplastic anterior pituitary, and ectopic posterior pituitary bright spot. The patient underwent laparoscopic removal of right intrabdominal testis and orchidoplexy was performed on the left one. Testicular biopsy revealed no malignancy and growth hormone replacement was initiated. The patient awaits definitive repair of hypospadias. As a provisional diagnosis of combined growth hormone and gonadotropin deficiency, most probable diagnosis is septo-optic dysplasia or de moseir syndrome leading to genital ambiguity.

  13. Resolution of ambiguities in perturbative QCD

    Nakkagawa, Hisao; Niegawa, Akira.

    1984-01-01

    In the perturbative QCD analyses of the deeply inelastic processes, the coupling constant depends on at least two mass-scales, the renormalization scale and the factorization scale. By integrating the coupled renormalization group equations with respect to these two mass-scales, the running coupling constant is defined. A perturbative approximation then introduces a new ambiguity, the integration-path dependence, into the theory. We show that the problem of this new ambiguity is resolved by imposing Stevenson's principle of minimal sensitivity. Together with the analogous analysis of the operator matrix element or the cut vertex, we can completely solve the problem of getting an unambiguous perturbative QCD prediction. (author)

  14. Inherent ambiguities in the determination of phase-shifts

    Atkinson, D.

    1975-01-01

    The observables in an elastic scattering process are unchanged if all the scattering amplitudes are multiplied by the same angle-dependent phase. The non-spin-flip and spin-flip amplitudes remain unchanged by the substitution: g(cos theta)→g(cos theta)exp[i phi(cos theta)] and h(cos theta)→h(cos theta)exp[i phi(cos theta)]. Unless some extra and hoc assumption is made, there is a continuum ambiguity, which has been explored some time ago, with specific models for the phase phi by members of the Birmingham group. In the ordinary quantum mechanics of scattering, one writes a wave-function asymptotically as psi(r - ) approximately esup(ikr costheta)+f(cos theta)esup(ikr)/r where f is the scattering amplitude. The ambiguity which is a change in the phase of the scattering amplitude, and thus of the scattered part of the wavefunction, but with no change of the first term in (the unscattered plane wave coming along the z-axis is discussed in detail. Preliminary results in the energy-range 1550-1750 MeV cm and their implications are given. Argand plots of ambiguities at various energies are presented. (K.B.)

  15. Visual working memory contents bias ambiguous structure from motion perception.

    Lisa Scocchia

    Full Text Available The way we perceive the visual world depends crucially on the state of the observer. In the present study we show that what we are holding in working memory (WM can bias the way we perceive ambiguous structure from motion stimuli. Holding in memory the percept of an unambiguously rotating sphere influenced the perceived direction of motion of an ambiguously rotating sphere presented shortly thereafter. In particular, we found a systematic difference between congruent dominance periods where the perceived direction of the ambiguous stimulus corresponded to the direction of the unambiguous one and incongruent dominance periods. Congruent dominance periods were more frequent when participants memorized the speed of the unambiguous sphere for delayed discrimination than when they performed an immediate judgment on a change in its speed. The analysis of dominance time-course showed that a sustained tendency to perceive the same direction of motion as the prior stimulus emerged only in the WM condition, whereas in the attention condition perceptual dominance dropped to chance levels at the end of the trial. The results are explained in terms of a direct involvement of early visual areas in the active representation of visual motion in WM.

  16. Symbol in Point View of Ambiguity

    Dr. M. R. Yousefi

    Full Text Available Symbol from the perspective of rhetorical word, is phrase or sentence that apparent meaning, also inspires to reader a wide range of semantic.Since exploring the complex social and political ideas in the most mysticalway and indirectreflectionsocial and political thoughts symbolically is easier, so the symbol and symbolism especially in Persian literatureespeciallyin the realm of Persian poetry, has a special appearance.In addition to the factors mentioned in the contemporary literature, according familiar in literature and the emergence of particular schools interest toambiguoussymbolization has spreadfurther, especially the symbol has all the features of art ambiguity in the poem and it isone the major factors causing uncertainty.Thus, the precise definitions and symbols of contemporary poetry could be dominant in the unwinding ambiguous symbol detection of cryptic allusions and metaphors that matches the cursor symbol to help readers.In the literature, especially language poetry, the inability of language toreflecting obscure mystical ideas, avoid to directexpression of political and social concerns of the reader in the course of participate to creation ambiguous literary works is the main motivation towards symbol and symbolization.According widespread use of symbol and its different of species can be viewed from different perspectives.The creation of ambiguity is the main purposes of using symbols (especially in poetry, so many poets have tried to achieve this goal have to formation of similar symbols and the explanation and resolution of this issue can open new window for understanding the poetry in front of an audience.In this paper examines the ambiguity of symbols in terms of its precise boundaries are reviewed. Ambiguity is one of the important processes and also is the key Iranian poetry; its means is today poetry. In such poetry ambiguity is a need to explore the new world from a different perspective, or explore this complex world

  17. Overview of the health care system in Hong Kong and its referential significance to mainland China.

    Kong, Xiangyi; Yang, Yi; Gao, Jun; Guan, Jian; Liu, Yang; Wang, Renzhi; Xing, Bing; Li, Yongning; Ma, Wenbin

    2015-10-01

    Hong Kong's health system was established within the framework of a perfect market-oriented economic matrix, where there are wide-ranging social security and medical service systems. There are many differences in the economic foundations, social systems, and ideologies between Hong Kong and mainland China, therefore, it would probably be entirely impossible to copy Hong Kong's health care system mode. However, under the framework of one country, two systems, the referential significance of relevant concepts of Hong Kong's medical service system to mainland China cannot be ignored, and merits further study. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  18. Toward Self-Referential Autonomous Learning of Object and Situation Models.

    Damerow, Florian; Knoblauch, Andreas; Körner, Ursula; Eggert, Julian; Körner, Edgar

    2016-01-01

    Most current approaches to scene understanding lack the capability to adapt object and situation models to behavioral needs not anticipated by the human system designer. Here, we give a detailed description of a system architecture for self-referential autonomous learning which enables the refinement of object and situation models during operation in order to optimize behavior. This includes structural learning of hierarchical models for situations and behaviors that is triggered by a mismatch between expected and actual action outcome. Besides proposing architectural concepts, we also describe a first implementation of our system within a simulated traffic scenario to demonstrate the feasibility of our approach.

  19. Exploring Situated Ambiguity in Students' Entrepreneurial Learning

    Kubberød, Elin; Pettersen, Inger Beate

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Building on entrepreneurial learning research, the purpose of this paper is to argue that the students participating in foreign entrepreneurial education programmes can have realistic entrepreneurial learning experiences. This research addresses two specific questions: how situated ambiguity induced by a foreign culture may contribute to…

  20. The Ambiguous Role of Constraints in Creativity

    Biskjær, Michael Mose; Onarheim, Balder; Wiltschnig, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between creativity and constraints is often described in the literature either in rather imprecise, general concepts or in relation to very specific domains. Cross-domain and cross-disciplinary takes on how the handling of constraints influences creative activities are rare. In t......-disciplinary research into the ambiguous role of constraints in creativity....

  1. Ambiguous diagnosis, futile treatments and temporary recovery ...

    Ambiguous diagnosis, futile treatments and temporary recovery: Meanings of medical treatment among HIV/AIDS family caregivers providing care without ARVs. ... to understand unstable treatment outcomes; and policy makers should strengthen home-based care by developing policies that integrate palliative care into HIV ...

  2. Regularization ambiguities in loop quantum gravity

    Perez, Alejandro

    2006-01-01

    One of the main achievements of loop quantum gravity is the consistent quantization of the analog of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation which is free of ultraviolet divergences. However, ambiguities associated to the intermediate regularization procedure lead to an apparently infinite set of possible theories. The absence of an UV problem--the existence of well-behaved regularization of the constraints--is intimately linked with the ambiguities arising in the quantum theory. Among these ambiguities is the one associated to the SU(2) unitary representation used in the diffeomorphism covariant 'point-splitting' regularization of the nonlinear functionals of the connection. This ambiguity is labeled by a half-integer m and, here, it is referred to as the m ambiguity. The aim of this paper is to investigate the important implications of this ambiguity. We first study 2+1 gravity (and more generally BF theory) quantized in the canonical formulation of loop quantum gravity. Only when the regularization of the quantum constraints is performed in terms of the fundamental representation of the gauge group does one obtain the usual topological quantum field theory as a result. In all other cases unphysical local degrees of freedom arise at the level of the regulated theory that conspire against the existence of the continuum limit. This shows that there is a clear-cut choice in the quantization of the constraints in 2+1 loop quantum gravity. We then analyze the effects of the ambiguity in 3+1 gravity exhibiting the existence of spurious solutions for higher representation quantizations of the Hamiltonian constraint. Although the analysis is not complete in 3+1 dimensions - due to the difficulties associated to the definition of the physical inner product - it provides evidence supporting the definitions quantum dynamics of loop quantum gravity in terms of the fundamental representation of the gauge group as the only consistent possibilities. If the gauge group is SO(3) we find

  3. The tell-tale heart: physiological reactivity during resolution of ambiguity in youth anxiety.

    Rozenman, Michelle; Vreeland, Allison; Iglesias, Marisela; Mendez, Melissa; Piacentini, John

    2018-03-01

    In the past decade, cognitive biases and physiological arousal have each been proposed as mechanisms through which paediatric anxiety develops and is maintained over time. Preliminary studies have found associations between anxious interpretations of ambiguity, physiological arousal, and avoidance, supporting theories that link cognition, psychophysiology, and behaviour. However, little is known about the relationship between youths' resolutions of ambiguity and physiological arousal during acute stress. Such information may have important clinical implications for use of verbal self-regulation strategies and cognitive restructuring during treatments for paediatric anxiety. In this brief report, we present findings suggesting that anxious, but not typically developing, youth select avoidant goals via non-threatening resolution of ambiguity during a stressor, and that this resolution of ambiguity is accompanied by physiological reactivity (heart rate, heart rate variability, and respiratory sinus arrhythmia). We propose future empirical research on the interplay between interpretation bias, psychophysiology, and child anxiety, as well as clinical implications.

  4. Five-year-olds do not show ambiguity aversion in a risk and ambiguity task with physical objects.

    Li, Rosa; Roberts, Rachel C; Huettel, Scott A; Brannon, Elizabeth M

    2017-07-01

    Ambiguity aversion arises when a decision maker prefers risky gambles with known probabilities over equivalent ambiguous gambles with unknown probabilities. This phenomenon has been consistently observed in adults across a large body of empirical work. Evaluating ambiguity aversion in young children, however, has posed methodological challenges because probabilistic representations appropriate for adults might not be understood by young children. Here, we established a novel method for representing risk and ambiguity with physical objects that overcomes previous methodological limitations and allows us to measure ambiguity aversion in young children. We found that individual 5-year-olds exhibited consistent choice preferences and, as a group, exhibited no ambiguity aversion in a task that evokes ambiguity aversion in adults. Across individuals, 5-year-olds exhibited greater variance in ambiguity preferences compared with adults tested under similar conditions. This suggests that ambiguity aversion is absent during early childhood and emerges over the course of development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Referential values of certain roentgenometric indices of the humerus diaphysis in newborn infants

    Georgieva, P.G.; Georgiev, I.G.

    1985-01-01

    A roentgenometric study was made on two indicies of the humerus diaphysis in the corpses of newborn infants: 1) the transverse diameter of the medullar canal in the centre of the diaphysis after Svadkovski; 2) the transverse diameter of the diaphysis at the level of the same bone after Spencer. The statistical processing of the data established had to take into consideration the fact that Gauss's distribution is not often found in biological indices. This complicates the determination of referntial values. That is why a combined method was applied which was worked out by the authors and ensures orderliness and precision. A similar mathematical-statistical apparatus has not been used by other authors. The studies made and the processing of the data obtained contribute to the following inferences on the transverse diameter of the medullar canal in the centre of the humerus diaphysis and the transverse diameter of the diaphysis at the same level of the same bone in newborn infants: 1) their referential values have Gauss's distribution; 2) sex dimorphism does not exist as an objective law; 3) their referential intervals have been determined

  6. Identity, causality, and pronoun ambiguity.

    Sagi, Eyal; Rips, Lance J

    2014-10-01

    This article looks at the way people determine the antecedent of a pronoun in sentence pairs, such as: Albert invited Ron to dinner. He spent hours cleaning the house. The experiment reported here is motivated by the idea that such judgments depend on reasoning about identity (e.g., the identity of the he who cleaned the house). Because the identity of an individual over time depends on the causal-historical path connecting the stages of the individual, the correct antecedent will also depend on causal connections. The experiment varied how likely it is that the event of the first sentence (e.g., the invitation) would cause the event of the second (the house cleaning) for each of the two individuals (the likelihood that if Albert invited Ron to dinner, this would cause Albert to clean the house, versus cause Ron to clean the house). Decisions about the antecedent followed causal likelihood. A mathematical model of causal identity accounted for most of the key aspects of the data from the individual sentence pairs. Copyright © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  7. Can the Pro-Drop Parameter Account for All the Errors in the Acquisition of Non-Referential "It" in L2 English?

    Antonova-Ünlü, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies, examining the acquisition of non-referential it in [-pro-drop] English by learners of [+pro-drop] languages, have revealed that their participants omit non-referential subjects in English if their L1 allows null-subject position. However, due to the specificity of their focus, these studies have not considered other difficulties…

  8. Measuring ambiguity in HLA typing methods.

    Vanja Paunić

    Full Text Available In hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, donor selection is based primarily on matching donor and patient HLA genes. These genes are highly polymorphic and their typing can result in exact allele assignment at each gene (the resolution at which patients and donors are matched, but it can also result in a set of ambiguous assignments, depending on the typing methodology used. To facilitate rapid identification of matched donors, registries employ statistical algorithms to infer HLA alleles from ambiguous genotypes. Linkage disequilibrium information encapsulated in haplotype frequencies is used to facilitate prediction of the most likely haplotype assignment. An HLA typing with less ambiguity produces fewer high-probability haplotypes and a more reliable prediction. We estimated ambiguity for several HLA typing methods across four continental populations using an information theory-based measure, Shannon's entropy. We used allele and haplotype frequencies to calculate entropy for different sets of 1,000 subjects with simulated HLA typing. Using allele frequencies we calculated an average entropy in Caucasians of 1.65 for serology, 1.06 for allele family level, 0.49 for a 2002-era SSO kit, and 0.076 for single-pass SBT. When using haplotype frequencies in entropy calculations, we found average entropies of 0.72 for serology, 0.73 for allele family level, 0.05 for SSO, and 0.002 for single-pass SBT. Application of haplotype frequencies further reduces HLA typing ambiguity. We also estimated expected confirmatory typing mismatch rates for simulated subjects. In a hypothetical registry with all donors typed using the same method, the entropy values based on haplotype frequencies correspond to confirmatory typing mismatch rates of 1.31% for SSO versus only 0.08% for SBT. Intermediate-resolution single-pass SBT contains the least ambiguity of the methods we evaluated and therefore the most certainty in allele prediction. The presented measure

  9. Measuring Ambiguity in HLA Typing Methods

    Madbouly, Abeer; Freeman, John; Maiers, Martin

    2012-01-01

    In hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, donor selection is based primarily on matching donor and patient HLA genes. These genes are highly polymorphic and their typing can result in exact allele assignment at each gene (the resolution at which patients and donors are matched), but it can also result in a set of ambiguous assignments, depending on the typing methodology used. To facilitate rapid identification of matched donors, registries employ statistical algorithms to infer HLA alleles from ambiguous genotypes. Linkage disequilibrium information encapsulated in haplotype frequencies is used to facilitate prediction of the most likely haplotype assignment. An HLA typing with less ambiguity produces fewer high-probability haplotypes and a more reliable prediction. We estimated ambiguity for several HLA typing methods across four continental populations using an information theory-based measure, Shannon's entropy. We used allele and haplotype frequencies to calculate entropy for different sets of 1,000 subjects with simulated HLA typing. Using allele frequencies we calculated an average entropy in Caucasians of 1.65 for serology, 1.06 for allele family level, 0.49 for a 2002-era SSO kit, and 0.076 for single-pass SBT. When using haplotype frequencies in entropy calculations, we found average entropies of 0.72 for serology, 0.73 for allele family level, 0.05 for SSO, and 0.002 for single-pass SBT. Application of haplotype frequencies further reduces HLA typing ambiguity. We also estimated expected confirmatory typing mismatch rates for simulated subjects. In a hypothetical registry with all donors typed using the same method, the entropy values based on haplotype frequencies correspond to confirmatory typing mismatch rates of 1.31% for SSO versus only 0.08% for SBT. Intermediate-resolution single-pass SBT contains the least ambiguity of the methods we evaluated and therefore the most certainty in allele prediction. The presented measure objectively evaluates HLA

  10. Nonlinear Suppression of Range Ambiguity in Pulse Doppler Radar

    Anderson, Jon

    2001-01-01

    ... ambiguities in Doppler and range. First introduced by Palermo in 1962 using two conjugate LFM pulses, the primary nonlinear suppression objective involves reducing range ambiguity, given the waveform is nominally unambiguous...

  11. Consequences of Team Job Demands: Role Ambiguity Climate, Affective Engagement, and Extra-Role Performance

    Mañas, Miguel A.; Díaz-Fúnez, Pedro; Pecino, Vicente; López-Liria, Remedios; Padilla, David; Aguilar-Parra, José M.

    2018-01-01

    In the absence of clearly established procedures in the workplace, employees will experience a negative affective state. This situation influences their well-being and their intention to behave in ways that benefit the organization beyond their job demands. This impact is more relevant on teamwork where members share the perception of ambiguity through emotional contagion (role ambiguity climate). In the framework of the job demands-resources model, the present study analyzes how high levels of role ambiguity climate can have such an effect to reduce employee affective engagement. Over time it has been associated with negative results for the organization due to a lack of extra-role performance. The sample included 706 employees from a multinational company, who were divided into 11 work teams. In line with the formulated hypotheses, the results confirm the negative influence of the role ambiguity climate on extra-role performance, and the mediated effect of affective engagement in the relationship between the role ambiguity climate and extra-role performance. These findings indicate that the role ambiguity climate is related to the adequate or inadequate functioning of employees within a work context. PMID:29375424

  12. Consequences of Team Job Demands: Role Ambiguity Climate, Affective Engagement, and Extra-Role Performance

    Miguel A. Mañas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the absence of clearly established procedures in the workplace, employees will experience a negative affective state. This situation influences their well-being and their intention to behave in ways that benefit the organization beyond their job demands. This impact is more relevant on teamwork where members share the perception of ambiguity through emotional contagion (role ambiguity climate. In the framework of the job demands-resources model, the present study analyzes how high levels of role ambiguity climate can have such an effect to reduce employee affective engagement. Over time it has been associated with negative results for the organization due to a lack of extra-role performance. The sample included 706 employees from a multinational company, who were divided into 11 work teams. In line with the formulated hypotheses, the results confirm the negative influence of the role ambiguity climate on extra-role performance, and the mediated effect of affective engagement in the relationship between the role ambiguity climate and extra-role performance. These findings indicate that the role ambiguity climate is related to the adequate or inadequate functioning of employees within a work context.

  13. Consequences of Team Job Demands: Role Ambiguity Climate, Affective Engagement, and Extra-Role Performance.

    Mañas, Miguel A; Díaz-Fúnez, Pedro; Pecino, Vicente; López-Liria, Remedios; Padilla, David; Aguilar-Parra, José M

    2017-01-01

    In the absence of clearly established procedures in the workplace, employees will experience a negative affective state. This situation influences their well-being and their intention to behave in ways that benefit the organization beyond their job demands. This impact is more relevant on teamwork where members share the perception of ambiguity through emotional contagion (role ambiguity climate). In the framework of the job demands-resources model, the present study analyzes how high levels of role ambiguity climate can have such an effect to reduce employee affective engagement. Over time it has been associated with negative results for the organization due to a lack of extra-role performance. The sample included 706 employees from a multinational company, who were divided into 11 work teams. In line with the formulated hypotheses, the results confirm the negative influence of the role ambiguity climate on extra-role performance, and the mediated effect of affective engagement in the relationship between the role ambiguity climate and extra-role performance. These findings indicate that the role ambiguity climate is related to the adequate or inadequate functioning of employees within a work context.

  14. Discrete ambiguities in CP-violating asymmetries in B decays

    London, David

    1998-01-01

    The CP-angles α, β and γ can be extracted from CP-violating asymmetries in the B system, but only up to discrete ambiguities. These discrete ambiguities make it difficult to determine with certainty whether or not new physics is present. I show that, if the condition α+β+γ=π is imposed, there remains a twofold ambiguity in the CP-angle set (α,β,γ), and I discuss ways to cleanly resolve this final discrete ambiguity

  15. Optimal observables and phase-space ambiguities

    Nachtmann, O.; Nagel, F.

    2005-01-01

    Optimal observables are known to lead to minimal statistical errors on parameters for a given normalised event distribution of a physics reaction. Thereby all statistical correlations are taken into account. Therefore, on the one hand they are a useful tool to extract values on a set of parameters from measured data. On the other hand one can calculate the minimal constraints on these parameters achievable by any data-analysis method for the specific reaction. In case the final states can be reconstructed without ambiguities optimal observables have a particularly simple form. We give explicit formulae for the optimal observables for generic reactions in case of ambiguities in the reconstruction of the final state and for general parameterisation of the final-state phase space. (orig.)

  16. Learning, Teaching and Ambiguity in Virtual Worlds

    Carr, Diane; Oliver, Martin; Burn, Andrew

    What might online communities and informal learning practices teach us about virtual world pedagogy? In this chapter we describe a research project in which learning practices in online worlds such as World of Warcraft and Second LifeTM (SL) were investigated. Working within an action research framework, we employed a range of methods to investigate how members of online communities define the worlds they encounter, negotiate the terms of participation, and manage the incremental complexity of game worlds. The implications of such practices for online pedagogy were then explored through teaching in SL. SL eludes simple definitions. Users, or "residents", of SL partake of a range of pleasures and activities - socialising, building, creating and exhibiting art, playing games, exploring, shopping, or running a business, for instance. We argue that the variable nature of SL gives rise to degrees of ambiguity. This ambiguity impacts on inworld social practices, and has significant implications for online teaching and learning.

  17. Auditory motion capturing ambiguous visual motion

    Arjen eAlink

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is demonstrated that moving sounds have an effect on the direction in which one sees visual stimuli move. During the main experiment sounds were presented consecutively at four speaker locations inducing left- or rightwards auditory apparent motion. On the path of auditory apparent motion, visual apparent motion stimuli were presented with a high degree of directional ambiguity. The main outcome of this experiment is that our participants perceived visual apparent motion stimuli that were ambiguous (equally likely to be perceived as moving left- or rightwards more often as moving in the same direction than in the opposite direction of auditory apparent motion. During the control experiment we replicated this finding and found no effect of sound motion direction on eye movements. This indicates that auditory motion can capture our visual motion percept when visual motion direction is insufficiently determinate without affecting eye movements.

  18. Sibling jealousy and aesthetic ambiguity in Austen's Pride and Prejudice.

    Hanly, Margaret Ann Fitzpatrick

    2009-04-01

    Jane Austen's most popular novel, Pride and Prejudice (1813), illuminates and is illuminated by psychoanalytic aesthetics. When Austen dramatizes unconscious oedipal/sibling rivalries, irony acts as a type of aesthetic ambiguity (E. Kris 1952). A psychoanalytic perspective shows that Austen uses a grammar of negatives (negation, denial, minimization) to achieve the dual meanings of irony, engaging the reader's unconscious instinctual satisfactions, while at the same time protecting the reader from unpleasant affects. Austen's plot, which portrays regressions driven by sibling jealousy, reveals that a new tolerance of remorse and depression in her heroine and hero leads to psychic growth.

  19. CSR and the Mediated Emergence of Strategic Ambiguity

    Guthey, Eric; Morsing, Mette

    2014-01-01

    expect CSR to conform to varying degrees of both formal and substantive rationality. These diverse expectations conflict with each other and change over time. A content analysis of press coverage in Denmark suggests that the business media reflect and amplify the ambiguity generated by these shifting......, not from the direct intentions of individual stakeholders. Our framework suggests that CSR is best understood not as a clear or consistent agenda, but rather as a forum for sensemaking, diversity of opinion, and debate over the conflicting social norms and expectations attached to corporate activity....

  20. An Investigation into Ambiguity Tolerance in Iranian Senior EFL Undergraduates

    Marzban, Amin; Barati, Hossein; Moinzadeh, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to explore how tolerant of ambiguity Iranian EFL learners at university level are and if gender plays a role in this regard. To this end, upon filling in the revised SLTAS scale of ambiguity tolerance 194 male and female Iranian teacher trainees were assigned to three ambiguity tolerance groups; namely, high, moderate and…

  1. A Neural Signature Encoding Decisions under Perceptual Ambiguity.

    Sun, Sai; Yu, Rongjun; Wang, Shuo

    2017-01-01

    People often make perceptual decisions with ambiguous information, but it remains unclear whether the brain has a common neural substrate that encodes various forms of perceptual ambiguity. Here, we used three types of perceptually ambiguous stimuli as well as task instructions to examine the neural basis for both stimulus-driven and task-driven perceptual ambiguity. We identified a neural signature, the late positive potential (LPP), that encoded a general form of stimulus-driven perceptual ambiguity. In addition to stimulus-driven ambiguity, the LPP was also modulated by ambiguity in task instructions. To further specify the functional role of the LPP and elucidate the relationship between stimulus ambiguity, behavioral response, and the LPP, we employed regression models and found that the LPP was specifically associated with response latency and confidence rating, suggesting that the LPP encoded decisions under perceptual ambiguity. Finally, direct behavioral ratings of stimulus and task ambiguity confirmed our neurophysiological findings, which could not be attributed to differences in eye movements either. Together, our findings argue for a common neural signature that encodes decisions under perceptual ambiguity but is subject to the modulation of task ambiguity. Our results represent an essential first step toward a complete neural understanding of human perceptual decision making.

  2. Does ambiguity aversion survive in experimental asset markets?

    Füllbrunn, Sascha; Rau, Holger A.; Weitzel, Utz

    2014-01-01

    Although a number of theoretical studies explain empirical puzzles in finance with ambiguity aversion, it is not a given that individual ambiguity attitudes survive in markets. In fact, despite ample evidence of ambiguity aversion in individual decision making, most studies find no or only limited

  3. Portfolio Management with Stochastic Interest Rates and Inflation Ambiguity

    Munk, Claus; Rubtsov, Alexey Vladimirovich

    2014-01-01

    prices. The investor is ambiguous about the inflation model and prefers a portfolio strategy which is robust to model misspecification. Ambiguity about the inflation dynamics is shown to affect the optimal portfolio fundamentally different than ambiguity about the price dynamics of traded assets...

  4. A mixture approach to vagueness and ambiguity.

    Steven Verheyen

    Full Text Available When asked to indicate which items from a set of candidates belong to a particular natural language category inter-individual differences occur: Individuals disagree which items should be considered category members. The premise of this paper is that these inter-individual differences in semantic categorization reflect both ambiguity and vagueness. Categorization differences are said to be due to ambiguity when individuals employ different criteria for categorization. For instance, individuals may disagree whether hiking or darts is the better example of sports because they emphasize respectively whether an activity is strenuous and whether rules apply. Categorization differences are said to be due to vagueness when individuals employ different cut-offs for separating members from non-members. For instance, the decision to include hiking in the sports category or not, may hinge on how strenuous different individuals require sports to be. This claim is supported by the application of a mixture model to categorization data for eight natural language categories. The mixture model can identify latent groups of categorizers who regard different items likely category members (i.e., ambiguity with categorizers within each of the groups differing in their propensity to provide membership responses (i.e., vagueness. The identified subgroups are shown to emphasize different sets of category attributes when making their categorization decisions.

  5. Evaluation of ambiguous genitalia with MR imaging

    Secaf, E.; Nuruddin, R.; Hricak, H.; Conte, F.A.

    1989-01-01

    To assess the potential of MR imaging in the evaluation of patients with ambiguous genitalia. Twenty-three consecutive patients with ambiguous genitalia at birth or phenotypic anomalies at puberty were included in this study. MR imaging was performed on a 1.5-T unit using T1- (600/30) and T2- (2,500/70) weighted sequences. In patients aged 5 years or less, 3-mm contiguous sagittal and transaxial sections were obtained. The same imaging planes at 5-mm intervals were obtained in older patients. MR findings were compared to those of surgery (n = 14) or biochemical assays (n = 9). Diagnoses included true hermaphroditism (n = 2), pseudohermaphroditism (n = 6), Turner syndrome (n = 2), testicular feminization (n = 2), adrenogenital syndrome (n = 3), vaginal agenesis (n = 3), cloacal abnormality (n = 2), microphallus (n = 2), and double phallus (n = 1. MR imaging correctly identified the presence or absence of the vagina (n = 10) and uterus (n = 9), thus helping in the diagnosis and management of patients with ambiguous genitalia. Demonstration of development of corpora cavernosa, corpora spongiosa, undescended testis, or partial vaginal agenesis assisted in the surgical approach

  6. De morseir syndrome presenting as ambiguous genitalia

    Anubhav Thukral

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A 10-year-old boy presented with genital ambiguity, poor linear growth, and delayed milestones. The aim and to highlight that although rare but congenital, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism may rarely present as ambiguity. Materials and Methods: The patient was found to have bilateral cryptorchidism with proximal penile hypospadias, microphallus with a proportionate dwarfism with mildly delayed bone age, and karyotype 46XY. Euthyroid with normal steroid axis, growth hormone insufficient as suggested by auxology, low IGF1, and poor response to clonidine stimulation. MRI brain shows hypoplastic corpus callosum, hypoplastic anterior pituitary, and ectopic posterior pituitary bright spot. Results: The patient underwent laparoscopic removal of right intrabdominal testis and orchidoplexy was performed on the left one. Testicular biopsy revealed no malignancy and growth hormone replacement was initiated. The patient awaits definitive repair of hypospadias. Conclusion: As a provisional diagnosis of combined growth hormone and gonadotropin deficiency, most probable diagnosis is septo-optic dysplasia or de moseir syndrome leading to genital ambiguity.

  7. Phonological ambiguity modulates resolution of semantic ambiguity during reading: An fMRI study of Hebrew.

    Bitan, Tali; Kaftory, Asaf; Meiri-Leib, Adi; Eviatar, Zohar; Peleg, Orna

    2017-10-01

    The current fMRI study examined the role of phonology in the extraction of meaning from print in each hemisphere by comparing homophonic and heterophonic homographs (ambiguous words in which both meanings have the same or different sounds respectively, e.g., bank or tear). The analysis distinguished between the first phase, in which participants read ambiguous words without context, and the second phase in which the context resolves the ambiguity. Native Hebrew readers were scanned during semantic relatedness judgments on pairs of words in which the first word was either a homophone or a heterophone and the second word was related to its dominant or subordinate meaning. In Phase 1 there was greater activation for heterophones in left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), pars opercularis, and more activation for homophones in bilateral IFG pars orbitalis, suggesting that resolution of the conflict at the phonological level has abolished the semantic ambiguity for heterophones. Reduced activation for all ambiguous words in temporo-parietal regions suggests that although ambiguity enhances controlled lexical selection processes in frontal regions it reduces reliance on bottom-up mapping processes. After presentation of the context, a larger difference between the dominant and subordinate meaning was found for heterophones in all reading-related regions, suggesting a greater engagement for heterophones with the dominant meaning. Altogether these results are consistent with the prominent role of phonological processing in visual word recognition. Finally, despite differences in hemispheric asymmetry between homophones and heterophones, ambiguity resolution, even toward the subordinate meaning, is largely left lateralized. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. An integer ambiguity resolution method for the global positioning system (GPS)-based land vehicle attitude determination

    Wang, Bo; Miao, Lingjuan; Wang, Shunting; Shen, Jun

    2009-01-01

    During attitude determination using a global positioning system (GPS), cycle slips occur due to the loss of lock and noise disturbance. Therefore, the integer ambiguity needs re-computation to isolate the error in carrier phase. This paper presents a fast method for integer ambiguity resolution for land vehicle application. After the cycle slips are detected, the velocity vector is utilized to obtain the rough baseline vector. The obtained baseline vector is substituted into carrier phase observation equations to solve the float ambiguity solution which can be used as a constraint to accelerate the integer ambiguity search procedure at next epochs. The probability of correct integer estimation in the expanded search space is analyzed. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method gives a fast approach to obtain new fixed ambiguities while the regular method takes longer time and sometimes results in incorrect solutions

  9. Improving Ambiguity Resolution for Medium Baselines Using Combined GPS and BDS Dual/Triple-Frequency Observations.

    Gao, Wang; Gao, Chengfa; Pan, Shuguo; Wang, Denghui; Deng, Jiadong

    2015-10-30

    The regional constellation of the BeiDou navigation satellite system (BDS) has been providing continuous positioning, navigation and timing services since 27 December 2012, covering China and the surrounding area. Real-time kinematic (RTK) positioning with combined BDS and GPS observations is feasible. Besides, all satellites of BDS can transmit triple-frequency signals. Using the advantages of multi-pseudorange and carrier observations from multi-systems and multi-frequencies is expected to be of much benefit for ambiguity resolution (AR). We propose an integrated AR strategy for medium baselines by using the combined GPS and BDS dual/triple-frequency observations. In the method, firstly the extra-wide-lane (EWL) ambiguities of triple-frequency system, i.e., BDS, are determined first. Then the dual-frequency WL ambiguities of BDS and GPS were resolved with the geometry-based model by using the BDS ambiguity-fixed EWL observations. After that, basic (i.e., L1/L2 or B1/B2) ambiguities of BDS and GPS are estimated together with the so-called ionosphere-constrained model, where the ambiguity-fixed WL observations are added to enhance the model strength. During both of the WL and basic AR, a partial ambiguity fixing (PAF) strategy is adopted to weaken the negative influence of new-rising or low-elevation satellites. Experiments were conducted and presented, in which the GPS/BDS dual/triple-frequency data were collected in Nanjing and Zhengzhou of China, with the baseline distance varying from about 28.6 to 51.9 km. The results indicate that, compared to the single triple-frequency BDS system, the combined system can significantly enhance the AR model strength, and thus improve AR performance for medium baselines with a 75.7% reduction of initialization time on average. Besides, more accurate and stable positioning results can also be derived by using the combined GPS/BDS system.

  10. Human Perception of Ambiguous Inertial Motion Cues

    Zhang, Guan-Lu

    2010-01-01

    Human daily activities on Earth involve motions that elicit both tilt and translation components of the head (i.e. gazing and locomotion). With otolith cues alone, tilt and translation can be ambiguous since both motions can potentially displace the otolithic membrane by the same magnitude and direction. Transitions between gravity environments (i.e. Earth, microgravity and lunar) have demonstrated to alter the functions of the vestibular system and exacerbate the ambiguity between tilt and translational motion cues. Symptoms of motion sickness and spatial disorientation can impair human performances during critical mission phases. Specifically, Space Shuttle landing records show that particular cases of tilt-translation illusions have impaired the performance of seasoned commanders. This sensorimotor condition is one of many operational risks that may have dire implications on future human space exploration missions. The neural strategy with which the human central nervous system distinguishes ambiguous inertial motion cues remains the subject of intense research. A prevailing theory in the neuroscience field proposes that the human brain is able to formulate a neural internal model of ambiguous motion cues such that tilt and translation components can be perceptually decomposed in order to elicit the appropriate bodily response. The present work uses this theory, known as the GIF resolution hypothesis, as the framework for experimental hypothesis. Specifically, two novel motion paradigms are employed to validate the neural capacity of ambiguous inertial motion decomposition in ground-based human subjects. The experimental setup involves the Tilt-Translation Sled at Neuroscience Laboratory of NASA JSC. This two degree-of-freedom motion system is able to tilt subjects in the pitch plane and translate the subject along the fore-aft axis. Perception data will be gathered through subject verbal reports. Preliminary analysis of perceptual data does not indicate that

  11. Ambiguities and conventions in the perception of visual art.

    Mamassian, Pascal

    2008-09-01

    Vision perception is ambiguous and visual arts play with these ambiguities. While perceptual ambiguities are resolved with prior constraints, artistic ambiguities are resolved by conventions. Is there a relationship between priors and conventions? This review surveys recent work related to these ambiguities in composition, spatial scale, illumination and color, three-dimensional layout, shape, and movement. While most conventions seem to have their roots in perceptual constraints, those conventions that differ from priors may help us appreciate how visual arts differ from everyday perception.

  12. Pricing risk and ambiguity: the effect of perspective taking.

    Trautmann, Stefan T; Schmidt, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    In the valuation of uncertain prospects, a difference is often observed between selling and buying perspectives. This paper distinguishes between risk (known probabilities) and ambiguity (unknown probabilities) in decisions under uncertainty and shows that the valuation disparity increases under ambiguity compared to risk. It is found that both the comparative versus noncomparative evaluation of risky and ambiguous prospects and the uniqueness of the valuation perspective (either seller or buyer) moderate this increase in the disparity under ambiguity. The finding is consistent with recent theoretical accounts of pricing under uncertainty. We discuss implications for market behaviour and for the ambiguity paradigm as a research tool.

  13. Talented football players' development of achievement motives, volitional components, and self-referential cognitions: A longitudinal study.

    Feichtinger, Philip; Höner, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is regarded as a key developmental phase in the course of talented football players' careers. The present study focuses on early adolescent players' development of achievement motives, volitional components, and self-referential cognitions. Based on the multidimensional and dynamic nature of talent, the development of multifaceted personality characteristics is an important issue in the context of sports talent research. According to previous findings in psychology, personality characteristics' development is defined by both stability and change, and the current study analyses four different types: differential stability (I), mean-level change (II), individual-level change (III), and structural stability (IV). The sample consists of 151 male players in the talent development programme of the German Football Association. Psychological diagnostics of the personality characteristics are implemented across longitudinal sections over a time period of three seasons, from the U12 to U14 age classes. The results reveal that the personality characteristics show (I) moderate test-retest correlations over one-year intervals (.43 ≤ rtt ≤ .62), and lower coefficients for a two-year period (.26 ≤ rtt ≤ .53). (II) Most of the personality characteristics' mean values differ significantly across the age classes with small effect sizes (.01 ≤ [Formula: see text] ≤ .03). (III) Only minor individual-level changes in the football players' development are found. (IV) The personality characteristics' associations within a two-factor structure do not stay invariant over time. From the results of the present study, conclusions are drawn regarding the talent identification and development process.

  14. Ambiguity Within Nursing Practice: An Evolutionary Concept Analysis.

    McMahon, Michelle A; Dluhy, Nancy M

    2017-02-01

    To analyze the concept of ambiguity in a nursing context. Ambiguity is inherent within nursing practice. As health care becomes increasingly complex, nurses must continue to successfully deal with greater amounts of clinical ambiguity. Although ambiguity is discussed in nursing, minimal concept refinement exists to capture the contextual intricacies from a nursing lens. Nurse perception of an ambiguous clinical event, in combination with nurse tolerance level for ambiguity, can impact nurse response. Yet, little is known about what constitutes ambiguity within nursing practice (AWNP). Rodgers evolutionary method was used to explore AWNP, with emphasis on nurse thinking during ambiguous clinical situations. Literature searches across multiple databases yielded 38 articles for analysis. Attributes of AWNP include (a) variations in cues/available information, (b) multiple interpretations, (c) novel/nonroutine presentations, and (d) unpredictable. Antecedents include (a) a context-specific, clinical situation with ambiguous features needing evaluation and (b) an individual to sense a knowledge gap or perceive ambiguity. Consequences include ranges of (a) emotional, (b) behavioral, and (c) cognitive clinician responses. Preliminary findings support AWNP as a distinct concept in which ambiguity perceived by the nurse likely affects judgment, decision making, and clinical interventions. AWNP is a clinically relevant concept requiring continued development.

  15. What is in a name?: The development of cross-cultural differences in referential intuitions.

    Li, Jincai; Liu, Longgen; Chalmers, Elizabeth; Snedeker, Jesse

    2018-02-01

    Past work has shown systematic differences between Easterners' and Westerners' intuitions about the reference of proper names. Understanding when these differences emerge in development will help us understand their origins. In the present study, we investigate the referential intuitions of English- and Chinese-speaking children and adults in the U.S. and China. Using a truth-value judgment task modeled on Kripke's classic Gödel case, we find that the cross-cultural differences are already in place at age seven. Thus, these differences cannot be attributed to later education or enculturation. Instead, they must stem from differences that are present in early childhood. We consider alternate theories of reference that are compatible with these findings and discuss the possibility that the cross-cultural differences reflect differences in perspective-taking strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The higher the farther: distance-specific referential gestures in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Gonseth, Chloe; Kawakami, Fumito; Ichino, Etsuko; Tomonaga, Masaki

    2017-11-01

    Referential signals, such as manual pointing or deictic words, allow individuals to efficiently locate a specific entity in the environment, using distance-specific linguistic and/or gestural units. To explore the evolutionary prerequisites of such deictic ability, the present study investigates the ability of chimpanzees to adjust their communicative signals to the distance of a referent. A food-request paradigm in which the chimpanzees had to request a close or distant piece of food on a table in the presence/absence of an experimenter was employed. Our main finding concerns the chimpanzees adjusting their requesting behaviours to the distance of the food such that higher manual gestures and larger mouth openings were used to request the distant piece of food. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that chimpanzees are able to use distance-specific gestures. © 2017 The Authors.

  17. Psychophsyiological reactivity during uncertainty and ambiguity processing in high and low worriers.

    Kirschner, Hans; Hilbert, Kevin; Hoyer, Jana; Lueken, Ulrike; Beesdo-Baum, Katja

    2016-03-01

    Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) has been linked to Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), but studies experimentally manipulating uncertainty have mostly failed to find differences between GAD patients and controls, possible due to a lack of distinction between uncertainty and ambiguity. This study therefore investigated reactivity to ambiguity in addition to uncertainty in high worriers (HW) and low worriers (LW). We hypothesized an interpretation bias between the groups during ambiguity tasks, while uncertainty would facilitate threat processing of subsequent aversive stimuli. HW (N = 23) and LW (N = 23) completed a paradigm comprising the anticipation and perception of pictures with dangerous, safe, or ambiguous content. Anticipatory cues were certain (always correct information about the following picture) or uncertain (no information). Subjective ratings, reaction times and skin conductance responses (SCRs) were recorded. HW rated particularly ambiguous pictures as more aversive and showed longer reaction times to all picture conditions compared to LW. SCRs were also larger in HW compared to LW, particularly during uncertain but also safe anticipation. No group differences were observed during perception of stimuli. All participants were female. HW was used as subclinical phenotype of GAD. Intolerance of ambiguity seems to be related to individual differences in worry and possibly to the development of GAD. Threat-related interpretations differentiating HW and LW occurred particularly for ambiguous pictures but were not accompanied by increased autonomic arousal during the picture viewing. This disparity between subjective rating and arousal may be the result of worrying in response to intolerance of uncertainty, restraining physiological responses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Children do not exhibit ambiguity aversion despite intact familiarity bias.

    Li, Rosa; Brannon, Elizabeth M; Huettel, Scott A

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon of ambiguity aversion, in which risky gambles with known probabilities are preferred over ambiguous gambles with unknown probabilities, has been thoroughly documented in adults but never measured in children. Here, we use two distinct tasks to investigate ambiguity preferences of children (8- to 9-year-olds) and a comparison group of adults (19- to 27-year-olds). Across three separate measures, we found evidence for significant ambiguity aversion in adults but not in children and for greater ambiguity aversion in adults compared to children. As ambiguity aversion in adults has been theorized to result from a preference to bet on the known and avoid the unfamiliar, we separately measured familiarity bias and found that children, like adults, are biased towards the familiar. Our findings indicate that ambiguity aversion emerges across the course of development between childhood and adolescence, while a familiarity bias is already present in childhood.

  19. Does ambiguity aversion influence the framing effect during decision making?

    Osmont, Anaïs; Cassotti, Mathieu; Agogué, Marine; Houdé, Olivier; Moutier, Sylvain

    2015-04-01

    Decision-makers present a systematic tendency to avoid ambiguous options for which the level of risk is unknown. This ambiguity aversion is one of the most striking decision-making biases. Given that human choices strongly depend on the options' presentation, the purpose of the present study was to examine whether ambiguity aversion influences the framing effect during decision making. We designed a new financial decision-making task involving the manipulation of both frame and uncertainty levels. Thirty-seven participants had to choose between a sure option and a gamble depicting either clear or ambiguous probabilities. The results revealed a clear preference for the sure option in the ambiguity condition regardless of frame. However, participants presented a framing effect in both the risk and ambiguity conditions. Indeed, the framing effect was bidirectional in the risk condition and unidirectional in the ambiguity condition given that it did not involve preference reversal but only a more extreme choice tendency.

  20. Self-referential and anxiety-relevant information processing in subclinical social anxiety: an fMRI study.

    Abraham, Anna; Kaufmann, Carolin; Redlich, Ronny; Hermann, Andrea; Stark, Rudolf; Stevens, Stephan; Hermann, Christiane

    2013-03-01

    The fear of negative evaluation is one of the hallmark features of social anxiety. Behavioral evidence thus far largely supports cognitive models which postulate that information processing biases in the face of socially relevant information are a key factor underlying this widespread phobia. So far only one neuroimaging study has explicitly focused on the fear of negative evaluation in social anxiety where the brain responses of social phobics were compared to healthy participants during the processing of self-referential relative to other-referential criticism, praise or neutral information. Only self-referential criticism led to stronger activations in emotion-relevant regions of the brain, such as the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortices (mPFC), in the social phobics. The objective of the current study was to determine whether these findings could be extended to subclinical social anxiety. In doing so, the specificity of this self-referential bias was also examined by including both social and non-social (physical illness-related) threat information as well as a highly health anxious control group in the experimental paradigm. The fMRI findings indicated that the processing of emotional stimuli was accompanied by activations in the amygdala and the ventral mPFC, while self-referential processing was associated with activity in regions such as the mPFC, posterior cingulate and temporal poles. Despite the validation of the paradigm, the results revealed that the previously reported behavioral and brain biases associated with social phobia could not be unequivocally extended to subclinical social anxiety. The divergence between the findings is explored in detail with reference to paradigm differences and conceptual issues.

  1. Nonparametric Information Geometry: From Divergence Function to Referential-Representational Biduality on Statistical Manifolds

    Jun Zhang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Divergence functions are the non-symmetric “distance” on the manifold, Μθ, of parametric probability density functions over a measure space, (Χ,μ. Classical information geometry prescribes, on Μθ: (i a Riemannian metric given by the Fisher information; (ii a pair of dual connections (giving rise to the family of α-connections that preserve the metric under parallel transport by their joint actions; and (iii a family of divergence functions ( α-divergence defined on Μθ x Μθ, which induce the metric and the dual connections. Here, we construct an extension of this differential geometric structure from Μθ (that of parametric probability density functions to the manifold, Μ, of non-parametric functions on X, removing the positivity and normalization constraints. The generalized Fisher information and α-connections on M are induced by an α-parameterized family of divergence functions, reflecting the fundamental convex inequality associated with any smooth and strictly convex function. The infinite-dimensional manifold, M, has zero curvature for all these α-connections; hence, the generally non-zero curvature of M can be interpreted as arising from an embedding of Μθ into Μ. Furthermore, when a parametric model (after a monotonic scaling forms an affine submanifold, its natural and expectation parameters form biorthogonal coordinates, and such a submanifold is dually flat for α = ± 1, generalizing the results of Amari’s α-embedding. The present analysis illuminates two different types of duality in information geometry, one concerning the referential status of a point (measurable function expressed in the divergence function (“referential duality” and the other concerning its representation under an arbitrary monotone scaling (“representational duality”.

  2. Electrodermal responses during appetitive conditioning are sensitive to contingency instruction ambiguity.

    van den Akker, Karolien; Nederkoorn, Chantal; Jansen, Anita

    2017-08-01

    Studies on human appetitive conditioning using food rewards can benefit from including psychophysiological outcome measures. The present study tested whether the skin conductance response can function as a measure of differential responding in an appetitive conditioning paradigm including an acquisition and extinction phase, and examined which time window during a trial is most sensitive to conditioning effects. As a secondary aim, the effects of ambiguous vs. non-ambiguous contingency instructions on conditioned responses (skin conductance responses, US expectancies, chocolate desires, and CS evaluations) were assessed. Results indicated differential skin conductance responses in an anticipatory time window and during unexpected omission of the US in early extinction. Interestingly however, anticipatory responses were only found for participants who received ambiguous contingency instructions - possibly indicating a call for additional processing resources in response to the ambiguous CS+. Further, ambiguous instructions slowed the extinction of US expectancies but did not influence chocolate desires and CS evaluations. It is concluded that skin conductance can function as a sensitive measure of differential responding in appetitive conditioning, though its sensitivity might depend on the specific task context. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Radiological Evaluation of Ambiguous Genitalia with Various Imaging Modalities

    Ravi, N.; Bindushree, Kadakola

    2012-07-01

    Disorders of sex development (DSDs) are congenital conditions in which the development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomic sex is atypical. These can be classified broadly into four categories on the basis of gonadal histologic features: female pseudohermaphroditism (46,XX with two ovaries); male pseudohermaphroditism (46,XY with two testes); true hermaphroditism (ovotesticular DSD) (both ovarian and testicular tissues); and gonadal dysgenesis, either mixed (a testis and a streak gonad) or pure (bilateral streak gonads). Imaging plays an important role in demonstrating the anatomy and associated anomalies. Ultrasonography is the primary modality for demonstrating internal organs and magnetic resonance imaging is used as an adjunct modality to assess for internal gonads and genitalia. Early and appropriate gender assignment is necessary for healthy physical and psychologic development of children with ambiguous genitalia. Gender assignment can be facilitated with a team approach that involves a pediatric endocrinologist, geneticist, urologist, psychiatrist, social worker, neonatologist, nurse, and radiologist, allowing timely diagnosis and proper management. We describe case series on ambiguous genitalia presented to our department who were evaluated with multiple imaging modalities.

  4. Ambiguity of Quality in Remote Sensing Data

    Lynnes, Christopher; Leptoukh, Greg

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the issues in quality of remote sensing data. Data "quality" is used in several different contexts in remote sensing data, with quite different meanings. At the pixel level, quality typically refers to a quality control process exercised by the processing algorithm, not an explicit declaration of accuracy or precision. File level quality is usually a statistical summary of the pixel-level quality but is of doubtful use for scenes covering large areal extents. Quality at the dataset or product level, on the other hand, usually refers to how accurately the dataset is believed to represent the physical quantities it purports to measure. This assessment often bears but an indirect relationship at best to pixel level quality. In addition to ambiguity at different levels of granularity, ambiguity is endemic within levels. Pixel-level quality terms vary widely, as do recommendations for use of these flags. At the dataset/product level, quality for low-resolution gridded products is often extrapolated from validation campaigns using high spatial resolution swath data, a suspect practice at best. Making use of quality at all levels is complicated by the dependence on application needs. We will present examples of the various meanings of quality in remote sensing data and possible ways forward toward a more unified and usable quality framework.

  5. Audiovisual Capture with Ambiguous Audiovisual Stimuli

    Jean-Michel Hupé

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Audiovisual capture happens when information across modalities get fused into a coherent percept. Ambiguous multi-modal stimuli have the potential to be powerful tools to observe such effects. We used such stimuli made of temporally synchronized and spatially co-localized visual flashes and auditory tones. The flashes produced bistable apparent motion and the tones produced ambiguous streaming. We measured strong interferences between perceptual decisions in each modality, a case of audiovisual capture. However, does this mean that audiovisual capture occurs before bistable decision? We argue that this is not the case, as the interference had a slow temporal dynamics and was modulated by audiovisual congruence, suggestive of high-level factors such as attention or intention. We propose a framework to integrate bistability and audiovisual capture, which distinguishes between “what” competes and “how” it competes (Hupé et al., 2008. The audiovisual interactions may be the result of contextual influences on neural representations (“what” competes, quite independent from the causal mechanisms of perceptual switches (“how” it competes. This framework predicts that audiovisual capture can bias bistability especially if modalities are congruent (Sato et al., 2007, but that is fundamentally distinct in nature from the bistable competition mechanism.

  6. Self-referential and social cognition in a case of autism and agenesis of the corpus callosum

    Lombardo Michael V

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While models of autism spectrum conditions (ASC are emerging at the genetic level of analysis, clear models at higher levels of analysis, such as neuroanatomy, are lacking. Here we examine agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC as a model at the level of neuroanatomy that may be relevant for understanding self-referential and social-cognitive difficulties in ASC. Methods We examined performance on a wide array of tests in self-referential and social-cognitive domains in a patient with both AgCC and a diagnosis of ASC. Tests included a depth-of-processing memory paradigm with self-referential and social-cognitive manipulations, self-report measures of self-consciousness, alexithymia, and empathy, as well as performance measures of first-person pronoun usage and mentalizing ability. The performance of the AgCC patient was compared to a group of individuals with ASC but without AgCC and with neurotypical controls. These comparison groups come from a prior study where group differences were apparent across many measures. We used bootstrapping to assess whether the AgCC patient exhibited scores that were within or outside the 95% bias-corrected and accelerated bootstrap confidence intervals observed in both comparison groups. Results Within the depth-of-processing memory paradigm, the AgCC patient showed decreased memory sensitivity that was more extreme than both comparison groups across all conditions. The patient’s most pronounced difficulty on this task emerged in the social-cognitive domain related to information-processing about other people. The patient was similar to the ASC group in benefiting less from self-referential processing compared to the control group. Across a variety of other self-referential (i.e. alexithymia, private self-consciousness and social-cognitive measures (i.e. self-reported imaginative and perspective-taking subscales of empathy, mentalizing, the AgCC patient also showed more extreme scores than

  7. The association between tolerance for ambiguity and fear of negative evaluation: A study of engineering technology capstone courses

    Dubikovsky, Sergey I.

    increase students' tolerance for ambiguity. Students with low tolerance have more problems with ambiguity, whereas students with high tolerance can more easily endure changes and find it easier to act in the absence of complete information. The third important finding was that exposure to ambiguity prior to capstone courses does affect tolerance for ambiguity while controlling for instructor and if exposure to ambiguity is included as a moderator. It was not in the scope of this study to explore the effect of instructor more deeply, but this provides a direction for future research, especially in this time of expanding implementation of project- and problem-based learning methods in technical curricula.

  8. Role conflict, role ambiguity and job satisfaction: Perceptions of the Brazilian controllers

    Marilu Nuñez Palomino

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT From early times to the present, accounting literature has recorded several situations involving role conflict and ambiguity that cause tension among controllers. The theoretical framework was comprised of the seminal work on Role Theory by Katz and Kahn (1970, and empirical evidence regarding the evolution of the role of controllers in the enterprises. In this study, we used the structural equations technique, which allowed for non-rejection of the two study hypotheses, thus providing evidence that role conflict and ambiguity adversely affect job satisfaction among Brazilian controllers. The sample was comprised of 114 controllers. An electronic questionnaire was used to collect the data, allowing information about the respondents to be captured, along with their perceptions regarding levels of role conflict and ambiguity and job satisfaction. For this, the tools developed by Rizzo, House, and Lirtzman (1970 were used, as well as the Job Satisfaction Index presented by Tarrant and Sabo (2010. The results indicated that Brazilian controllers perceive role conflict and role ambiguity while they perform their duties. Job satisfaction of the controllers isaffected more strongly by role ambiguity than by role conflict. However, despite perceiving these two tensions, executives are moderately satisfied with their current working conditions.

  9. Ambiguity aversion in schizophrenia: An fMRI study of decision-making under risk and ambiguity.

    Fujino, Junya; Hirose, Kimito; Tei, Shisei; Kawada, Ryosaku; Tsurumi, Kosuke; Matsukawa, Noriko; Miyata, Jun; Sugihara, Genichi; Yoshihara, Yujiro; Ideno, Takashi; Aso, Toshihiko; Takemura, Kazuhisa; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Murai, Toshiya; Takahashi, Hidehiko

    2016-12-01

    When making decisions in everyday life, we often have to choose between uncertain outcomes. Economic studies have demonstrated that healthy people tend to prefer options with known probabilities (risk) than those with unknown probabilities (ambiguity), which is referred to as "ambiguity aversion." However, it remains unclear how patients with schizophrenia behave under ambiguity, despite growing evidence of their altered decision-making under uncertainty. In this study, combining economic tools and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we assessed the attitudes toward risk/ambiguity and investigated the neural correlates during decision-making under risk/ambiguity in schizophrenia. Although no significant difference in attitudes under risk was observed, patients with schizophrenia chose ambiguity significantly more often than the healthy controls. Attitudes under risk and ambiguity did not correlate across patients with schizophrenia. Furthermore, unlike in the healthy controls, activation of the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex was not increased during decision-making under ambiguity compared to under risk in schizophrenia. These results suggest that ambiguity aversion, a well-established subjective bias, is attenuated in patients with schizophrenia, highlighting the need to distinguish between risk and ambiguity when assessing decision-making under these situations. Our findings, comprising important clinical implications, contribute to improved understanding of the mechanisms underlying altered decision-making in patients with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Global optimization applied to GPS positioning by ambiguity functions

    Baselga, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    Differential GPS positioning with carrier-phase observables is commonly done in a process that involves determination of the unknown integer ambiguity values. An alternative approach, named the ambiguity function method, was already proposed in the early days of GPS positioning. By making use of a trigonometric function ambiguity unknowns are eliminated from the functional model before the estimation process. This approach has significant advantages, such as ease of use and insensitivity to cycle slips, but requires such high accuracy in the initial approximate coordinates that its use has been practically dismissed from consideration. In this paper a novel strategy is proposed so that the need for highly accurate initial coordinates disappears: the application of a global optimization method to the ambiguity functions model. The use of this strategy enables the ambiguity function method to compete with the present prevailing approach of ambiguity resolution

  11. The space-time model according to dimensional continuous space-time theory

    Martini, Luiz Cesar

    2014-01-01

    This article results from the Dimensional Continuous Space-Time Theory for which the introductory theoretician was presented in [1]. A theoretical model of the Continuous Space-Time is presented. The wave equation of time into absolutely stationary empty space referential will be described in detail. The complex time, that is the time fixed on the infinite phase time speed referential, is deduced from the New View of Relativity Theory that is being submitted simultaneously with this article in this congress. Finally considering the inseparable Space-Time is presented the duality equation wave-particle.

  12. Ambiguity, Ambivalence and Extravagance in The Hunger Games

    Oliver, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    I argue that Katniss Everdeen from The Hunger Games is an emblem of what Julia Kristeva calls the “extravagant girl” who wants to have it all and to be the best at everything. Katniss has an ambiguous gender identity, both masculine and feminine, paternal and maternal. And she has ambivalent desires. I conclude that this ambiguity and ambivalence open up new possibilities for girls and initiate an aesthetics of ambiguity.

  13. Ambiguity resolution in systems using Omega for position location

    Frenkel, G.; Gan, D. G.

    1974-01-01

    The lane ambiguity problem prevents the utilization of the Omega system for many applications such as locating buoys and balloons. The method of multiple lines of position introduced herein uses signals from four or more Omega stations for ambiguity resolution. The coordinates of the candidate points are determined first through the use of the Newton iterative procedure. Subsequently, a likelihood function is generated for each point, and the ambiguity is resolved by selecting the most likely point. The method was tested through simulation.

  14. Micro-Doppler Ambiguity Resolution for Wideband Terahertz Radar Using Intra-Pulse Interference.

    Yang, Qi; Qin, Yuliang; Deng, Bin; Wang, Hongqiang; You, Peng

    2017-04-29

    Micro-Doppler, induced by micro-motion of targets, is an important characteristic of target recognition once extracted via parameter estimation methods. However, micro-Doppler is usually too significant to result in ambiguity in the terahertz band because of its relatively high carrier frequency. Thus, a micro-Doppler ambiguity resolution method for wideband terahertz radar using intra-pulse interference is proposed in this paper. The micro-Doppler can be reduced several dozen times its true value to avoid ambiguity through intra-pulse interference processing. The effectiveness of this method is proved by experiments based on a 0.22 THz wideband radar system, and its high estimation precision and excellent noise immunity are verified by Monte Carlo simulation.

  15. Finding Home: Landmark Ambiguity in Human Navigation

    Simon Jetzschke

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Memories of places often include landmark cues, i.e., information provided by the spatial arrangement of distinct objects with respect to the target location. To study how humans combine landmark information for navigation, we conducted two experiments: To this end, participants were either provided with auditory landmarks while walking in a large sports hall or with visual landmarks while walking on a virtual-reality treadmill setup. We found that participants cannot reliably locate their home position due to ambiguities in the spatial arrangement when only one or two uniform landmarks provide cues with respect to the target. With three visual landmarks that look alike, the task is solved without ambiguity, while audio landmarks need to play three unique sounds for a similar performance. This reduction in ambiguity through integration of landmark information from 1, 2, and 3 landmarks is well modeled using a probabilistic approach based on maximum likelihood estimation. Unlike any deterministic model of human navigation (based e.g., on distance or angle information, this probabilistic model predicted both the precision and accuracy of the human homing performance. To further examine how landmark cues are integrated we introduced systematic conflicts in the visual landmark configuration between training of the home position and tests of the homing performance. The participants integrated the spatial information from each landmark near-optimally to reduce spatial variability. When the conflict becomes big, this integration breaks down and precision is sacrificed for accuracy. That is, participants return again closer to the home position, because they start ignoring the deviant third landmark. Relying on two instead of three landmarks, however, goes along with responses that are scattered over a larger area, thus leading to higher variability. To model the breakdown of integration with increasing conflict, the probabilistic model based on a

  16. Measurement of sin2β in Tree Dominated B0 Decays and Ambiguity Removal

    Lacker, H.

    2007-01-01

    The most recent results from the B-factories on the time-dependent CP asymmetries measured in B 0 -decays mediated by b→cc-bar s quark-transitions are reviewed. The Standard Model interpretation of the results in terms of the parameter sin2β leads to a four-fold ambiguity on the unitarity triangle β which can be reduced to a two-fold ambiguity by measuring the sign of the parameter cos2β. The results on cos2β obtained so far are reviewed

  17. Robust portfolio choice with ambiguity and learning about return predictability

    Larsen, Linda Sandris; Branger, Nicole; Munk, Claus

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the optimal stock-bond portfolio under both learning and ambiguity aversion. Stock returns are predictable by an observable and an unobservable predictor, and the investor has to learn about the latter. Furthermore, the investor is ambiguity-averse and has a preference for investment...... strategies that are robust to model misspecifications. We derive a closed-form solution for the optimal robust investment strategy. We find that both learning and ambiguity aversion impact the level and structure of the optimal stock investment. Suboptimal strategies resulting either from not learning...... or from not considering ambiguity can lead to economically significant losses....

  18. Ambiguous science and the visual representation of the real

    Newbold, Curtis Robert

    The emergence of visual media as prominent and even expected forms of communication in nearly all disciplines, including those scientific, has raised new questions about how the art and science of communication epistemologically affect the interpretation of scientific phenomena. In this dissertation I explore how the influence of aesthetics in visual representations of science inevitably creates ambiguous meanings. As a means to improve visual literacy in the sciences, I call awareness to the ubiquity of visual ambiguity and its importance and relevance in scientific discourse. To do this, I conduct a literature review that spans interdisciplinary research in communication, science, art, and rhetoric. Furthermore, I create a paradoxically ambiguous taxonomy, which functions to exploit the nuances of visual ambiguities and their role in scientific communication. I then extrapolate the taxonomy of visual ambiguity and from it develop an ambiguous, rhetorical heuristic, the Tetradic Model of Visual Ambiguity. The Tetradic Model is applied to a case example of a scientific image as a demonstration of how scientific communicators may increase their awareness of the epistemological effects of ambiguity in the visual representations of science. I conclude by demonstrating how scientific communicators may make productive use of visual ambiguity, even in communications of objective science, and I argue how doing so strengthens scientific communicators' visual literacy skills and their ability to communicate more ethically and effectively.

  19. Written production of learners of Portuguese as an additional foreign language: referentiation as a sociocognitive processing resource

    Lucia Rottava

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses referentiation in texts written by learners of Portuguese as an additional foreign language. Referentiation consists of construction and reconstruction of discourse objects, a product that results from cognitive and interactive activity. Among forms of interaction, written production is an interactive process as meanings derive from the interaction between writer/reader and text in complex and multifaceted experiences that involve prior experiences and/or knowledge, besides the interlocutor’s discursive purpose. Therefore, the text is the result of an action ‘under construction’ made possible through the use of language. Data for this article come from written production developed in classes of Portuguese as a foreign language. The findings reveal learners’ textual processing and its peculiarities resulting from the learners’ proficiency levels and the requirements of the type and theme of the specified task.

  20. Hemispheric resource limitations in comprehending ambiguous pictures.

    White, H; Minor, S W

    1990-03-01

    Ambiguous pictures (Roschach inkblots) were lateralized for 100 msec vs. 200 msec to the right and left hemispheres (RH and LH) of 32 normal right-handed males who determined which of two previously presented words (an accurate or inaccurate one) better described the inkblot. Over the first 32 trials, subjects receiving each stimulus exposure duration were less accurate when the hemisphere receiving the stimulus also controlled the hand used to register a keypress response (RH-left hand and LH-right hand trials) than when hemispheric resources were shared, i.e., when one hemisphere controlled stimulus processing and the other controlled response programming. These differences were eliminated when the 32 trials were repeated.

  1. Integration, differentiation and ambiguity in safety cultures

    Richter, Anne; Koch, Christian

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses safety cultures, drawing on the differentiation, integration and ambiguity-scheme introduced by scholars of organizational culture. An ethnographic approach has been applied in the study of meaning and symbols relating to work, hazards, occupational accidents and prevention....... The application of this approach is demonstrated through a multifacetted analysis of safety cultures. Case studies in Danish manufacturing show that it usually is necessary to differentiate between several safety cultures dispersed throughout the shop floor and other parts of the manufacturing organization....... Although some common elements are present across cultures, they are indeed a multiple configuration of cultures. The article illustrates this by providing one case showing a configuration of three cultures, metaphorically labelled Production, Welfare and Master. For example, the former views risk...

  2. Decreasing Ambiguity of the Safety Culture Concept

    Inoue, Shiichiro; Hosoda, Satoshi; Suganuma, Takashi; Monta, Kazuo; Kameda, Akiyuki

    2001-01-01

    The status of the concept of ''safety culture'' is reviewed. It has not sufficiently taken root. One cause for this is the abstract nature of the concept. Organizations must become aware of the necessity of improving safety and have sufficient power to promote this. The culture of safety must be instilled in each employee, so that each of them will feel responsible for identifying weak points in plant safety. The authors devised a tool for a self-assessment of the safety culture. The tool will bring to light information divides, communication gaps, etc. Recognizing the vulnerabilities of the organization by themselves and discussing these weak points among them is the first step to decrease the ambiguity of the safety culture. The next step is to make these gaps known along with agreed-upon countermeasures. The concept of safety culture will be greatly clarified in this way and lead to safer nuclear power plants

  3. Length Matters: Informational Load in Ambiguity Resolution

    Barbara Hemforth

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we will compare prosodic and pragmatic approaches to the role of constituent length in attachment ambiguities. Lengthening a constituent affects its informativity: longer constituents are usually less predictable (Levy & Florian, 2007 and demand a higher processing load than shorter ones (Almor, 1999. Following neo-Gricean accounts (Levinson, 1987 and 1991, increased informational load needs to be justified. This justification is achieved more easily when the long constituent conveys new information and when it relates to central elements of the utterance. Informational load is, however, not a simple question of length in numbers of characters or syllables but more likely a question of amount of information. In three off-line experiments using a cloze task, we will compare the effect of lengthening ambiguous prepositional phrases as in [1a/b/c] either by lengthening a city name or by adding information about the city. We will show that only lengthening by adding information increases attachment to a more central element of the utterance. These results will be discussed based on prosodic and pragmatic factors explaining the role of constituent length for attachment ambiguities.[1] Peter met the doctor of the lawyer from a. Apt. / b. Aix-en-Provence / c. the beautiful city of Apt.Dans cet article, nous comparons une approche prosodique avec une approche pragmatique pour rendre compte des effets de la longueur des constituants dans les ambigüités d’attachement. Augmenter la longueur d’un constituant a des conséquences sur l’information qu’il véhicule : plus un constituant est long et moins il est prédictible (Levy et Florian, 2007 et plus son coût de traitement augmente (Almor, 1999. Suivant les principes néo-gricéens (Levinson, 1987 et 1991, augmenter le poids informationnel doit être justifié. Cette justification est plus facilement satisfaite lorsqu’un constituant long véhicule une information

  4. Gribov ambiguity, perturbation theory, and confinement

    Greensite, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    The generating functional proposed for gauge theories by Bender, Eguchi, and Pagels (BEP) is shown to be equivalent to a truncated form of the functional integral, in which only one field configuration from each gauge-equivalent Gribov set contributes to the functional integration. The standard perturbation technique provides a method of realizing this truncation condition. It is shown that any gauge-covariant quantity (such as the quark N-point functions), evaluated by perturbating around a field configuration gauge-equivalent to A = 0, is related by a gauge transformation to the same quantity evaluated perturbatively around the trivial vacuum. It follows that, contrary to the conclusion of BEP, the existence of degeneracies in the Coulomb gauge-fixing condition (the Gribov ambiguity) is not directly related to the physics of confinement

  5. Resolving deconvolution ambiguity in gene alternative splicing

    Hubbell Earl

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For many gene structures it is impossible to resolve intensity data uniquely to establish abundances of splice variants. This was empirically noted by Wang et al. in which it was called a "degeneracy problem". The ambiguity results from an ill-posed problem where additional information is needed in order to obtain an unique answer in splice variant deconvolution. Results In this paper, we analyze the situations under which the problem occurs and perform a rigorous mathematical study which gives necessary and sufficient conditions on how many and what type of constraints are needed to resolve all ambiguity. This analysis is generally applicable to matrix models of splice variants. We explore the proposal that probe sequence information may provide sufficient additional constraints to resolve real-world instances. However, probe behavior cannot be predicted with sufficient accuracy by any existing probe sequence model, and so we present a Bayesian framework for estimating variant abundances by incorporating the prediction uncertainty from the micro-model of probe responsiveness into the macro-model of probe intensities. Conclusion The matrix analysis of constraints provides a tool for detecting real-world instances in which additional constraints may be necessary to resolve splice variants. While purely mathematical constraints can be stated without error, real-world constraints may themselves be poorly resolved. Our Bayesian framework provides a generic solution to the problem of uniquely estimating transcript abundances given additional constraints that themselves may be uncertain, such as regression fit to probe sequence models. We demonstrate the efficacy of it by extensive simulations as well as various biological data.

  6. Film as a Lens for Teaching Culture: Balancing Concepts, Ambiguity, and Paradox.

    Mallinger, Mark; Rossy, Gerard

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how to apply dimensions of an integrated cultural framework (ability to influence, comfort with ambiguity, achievement orientation, individualism/collectivism, time orientation, space orientation) to analysis of films as part of the study of culture. Gives an application example and selection guidelines and discusses limitations. (SK)

  7. Processos de Referenciação Na Produção Discursiva Referential processes in discourse production

    Ingedore Villaça KOCH

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Este ensaio analisa algumas das estratégias pelas quais se realizam os processos referenciais na produção do texto oral. Trata de explicar como os referentes são introduzidos, conduzidos, retomados, apontados e identificados no texto. A relevância desta investigação está diretamente ligada à essencialidade do sistema referencial na coesividade e organização tópica do texto. Justamente por isso, Sanford e Garrod (1982:100 julgam importante a resolução do processo referencial para a própria compreensão textual.In this paper, we discuss some of the strategies responsable for the accomplishment of referential processes in spoken language. Our aim is to elucidate how referents are introduced, maintained, retrieved, indicated and identified in the text. The relevance of this investigation is directly connected with the essenciality of referential system for the connexity and tropical organization of texts and with the conviction that the resolution of referential processes is the basis for text comprehension.

  8. The response of guide dogs and pet dogs (Canis familiaris) to cues of human referential communication (pointing and gaze).

    Ittyerah, Miriam; Gaunet, Florence

    2009-03-01

    The study raises the question of whether guide dogs and pet dogs are expected to differ in response to cues of referential communication given by their owners; especially since guide dogs grow up among sighted humans, and while living with their blind owners, they still have interactions with several sighted people. Guide dogs and pet dogs were required to respond to point, point and gaze, gaze and control cues of referential communication given by their owners. Results indicate that the two groups of dogs do not differ from each other, revealing that the visual status of the owner is not a factor in the use of cues of referential communication. Both groups of dogs have higher frequencies of performance and faster latencies for the point and the point and gaze cues as compared to gaze cue only. However, responses to control cues are below chance performance for the guide dogs, whereas the pet dogs perform at chance. The below chance performance of the guide dogs may be explained by a tendency among them to go and stand by the owner. The study indicates that both groups of dogs respond similarly in normal daily dyadic interaction with their owners and the lower comprehension of the human gaze may be a less salient cue among dogs in comparison to the pointing gesture.

  9. The Investigation of Youth Religiosity, with the Emphasis on Self Referential Religiosity (Using Grounded Theory

    Arash Hassan pour

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Religiosity has been pluralized and diversified at present era. This study, accepted this presupposition that religiosity as a varied, diverse and instable issue is out of duality of being religiousness or not. By accepting this presupposition we study and interpret one type of religiosity among youth in Isfahan. To achieve the given purpose, by review the previous studies, in interpretive approach, qualitative method framework, Grounded Theory tradition, interview and Simmel theory about religiosity, data is collected. Based on the findings of the study, and with criteria of “self-recognition” we discovered and identified Self referential religiosity. Also, the results of the qualitative data reveal that religiosity of Youth change to: individual, non-compulsory, private, dispositional, and selective, based on self- Intellection, non-accepting heteronomy of religious institution and tend to contingency, hedonistic Phenomena. Finally In this study we also tried to offer, describe and illustrate paradigmatic model of qualitative data in frame of casual, contextual, consequential circumstances about advent and influence this type of religiosity.

  10. Dispositional Mindfulness and Depressive Symptomatology: Correlations with Limbic and Self-Referential Neural Activity during Rest

    Way, Baldwin M.; Creswell, J. David; Eisenberger, Naomi I.; Lieberman, Matthew D.

    2010-01-01

    To better understand the relationship between mindfulness and depression, we studied normal young adults (n=27) who completed measures of dispositional mindfulness and depressive symptomatology, which were then correlated with: a) Rest: resting neural activity during passive viewing of a fixation cross, relative to a simple goal-directed task (shape-matching); and b) Reactivity: neural reactivity during viewing of negative emotional faces, relative to the same shape-matching task. Dispositional mindfulness was negatively correlated with resting activity in self-referential processing areas, while depressive symptomatology was positively correlated with resting activity in similar areas. In addition, dispositional mindfulness was negatively correlated with resting activity in the amygdala, bilaterally, while depressive symptomatology was positively correlated with activity in the right amygdala. Similarly, when viewing emotional faces, amygdala reactivity was positively correlated with depressive symptomatology and negatively correlated with dispositional mindfulness, an effect that was largely attributable to differences in resting activity. These findings indicate that mindfulness is associated with intrinsic neural activity and that changes in resting amygdala activity could be a potential mechanism by which mindfulness-based depression treatments elicit therapeutic improvement. PMID:20141298

  11. Self-referential forces are sufficient to explain different dendritic morphologies

    Heraldo eMemelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic morphology constrains brain activity, as it determines first which neuronal circuits are possible and second which dendritic computations can be performed over a neuron's inputs. It is known that a range of chemical cues can influence the final shape of dendrites during development. Here, we investigate the extent to which self-referential influences, cues generated by the neuron itself, might influence morphology. To this end, we developed a phenomenological model and algorithm to generate virtual morphologies, which are then compared to experimentally reconstructed morphologies. In the model, branching probability follows a Galton-Watson process, while the geometry is determined by "homotypic forces" exerting influence on the direction of random growth in a constrained space. We model three such homotypic forces, namely an inertial force based on membrane stiffness, a soma-oriented tropism, and a force of self avoidance, as directional biases in the growth algorithm. With computer simulations we explored how each bias shapes neuronal morphologies. We show that based on these principles, we can generate realistic morphologies of several distinct neuronal types. We discuss the extent to which homotypic forces might influence real dendritic morphologies, and speculate about the influence of other environmental cues on neuronal shape and circuitry.

  12. Self-referential forces are sufficient to explain different dendritic morphologies

    Memelli, Heraldo; Torben-Nielsen, Benjamin; Kozloski, James

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic morphology constrains brain activity, as it determines first which neuronal circuits are possible and second which dendritic computations can be performed over a neuron's inputs. It is known that a range of chemical cues can influence the final shape of dendrites during development. Here, we investigate the extent to which self-referential influences, cues generated by the neuron itself, might influence morphology. To this end, we developed a phenomenological model and algorithm to generate virtual morphologies, which are then compared to experimentally reconstructed morphologies. In the model, branching probability follows a Galton–Watson process, while the geometry is determined by “homotypic forces” exerting influence on the direction of random growth in a constrained space. We model three such homotypic forces, namely an inertial force based on membrane stiffness, a soma-oriented tropism, and a force of self-avoidance, as directional biases in the growth algorithm. With computer simulations we explored how each bias shapes neuronal morphologies. We show that based on these principles, we can generate realistic morphologies of several distinct neuronal types. We discuss the extent to which homotypic forces might influence real dendritic morphologies, and speculate about the influence of other environmental cues on neuronal shape and circuitry. PMID:23386828

  13. Ambiguous genitalia, gender-identity problems, and sex reassignment.

    Dittmann, R W

    1998-01-01

    This article discusses general issues with regard to gender-identity problems, sex reassignment, and clinical management in patients with ambiguous genitalia, based on a detailed case history of a patient with penile agenesis who has been followed more than 20 years. After initial uncertainty, the patient began to grow up as a boy, lived from the fourth year of life as a girl and young woman, and lived from late puberty on as a man. Over his lifetime he experienced extensive corrective surgery plus hormonal substitution therapy. Pre- and perinatal hormonal conditions, phenomenology of the genitalia, sex of rearing, timing of sex reassignment and corrective surgery, for example, appear to be important components for the development of gender-role behavior, gender identity, and sexual orientation of intersex patients. Findings and retrospective considerations for this patient suggest the need for careful differential activities in diagnostic workup, approaches to sex assignment and possible reassignment, and the clinical management of patients and families.

  14. Three-frequency BDS precise point positioning ambiguity resolution based on raw observables

    Li, Pan; Zhang, Xiaohong; Ge, Maorong; Schuh, Harald

    2018-02-01

    All BeiDou navigation satellite system (BDS) satellites are transmitting signals on three frequencies, which brings new opportunity and challenges for high-accuracy precise point positioning (PPP) with ambiguity resolution (AR). This paper proposes an effective uncalibrated phase delay (UPD) estimation and AR strategy which is based on a raw PPP model. First, triple-frequency raw PPP models are developed. The observation model and stochastic model are designed and extended to accommodate the third frequency. Then, the UPD is parameterized in raw frequency form while estimating with the high-precision and low-noise integer linear combination of float ambiguity which are derived by ambiguity decorrelation. Third, with UPD corrected, the LAMBDA method is used for resolving full or partial ambiguities which can be fixed. This method can be easily and flexibly extended for dual-, triple- or even more frequency. To verify the effectiveness and performance of triple-frequency PPP AR, tests with real BDS data from 90 stations lasting for 21 days were performed in static mode. Data were processed with three strategies: BDS triple-frequency ambiguity-float PPP, BDS triple-frequency PPP with dual-frequency (B1/B2) and three-frequency AR, respectively. Numerous experiment results showed that compared with the ambiguity-float solution, the performance in terms of convergence time and positioning biases can be significantly improved by AR. Among three groups of solutions, the triple-frequency PPP AR achieved the best performance. Compared with dual-frequency AR, additional the third frequency could apparently improve the position estimations during the initialization phase and under constraint environments when the dual-frequency PPP AR is limited by few satellite numbers.

  15. Degenerate gauge conditions, generalized Gribov's ambiguity and BRST symmetry

    Fabbrichesi, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    The BFS-BRST approach to gauge theories is considered. It is argued that the BRST-invariant boundary conditions ordinarily used do not maintain the necessary degeneracy in the gauge fixing. As a by-product of this discussion, the existence of a generalized Gribov-like ambiguity is suggested. This ambiguity is however shown to be just a particular BRST transformation

  16. Examining English-German Translation Ambiguity Using Primed Translation Recognition

    Eddington, Chelsea M.; Tokowicz, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    Many words have more than one translation across languages. Such "translation-ambiguous" words are translated more slowly and less accurately than their unambiguous counterparts. We examine the extent to which word context and translation dominance influence the processing of translation-ambiguous words. We further examine how these factors…

  17. Top-Down Influence in Young Children's Linguistic Ambiguity Resolution

    Rabagliati, Hugh; Pylkkanen, Liina; Marcus, Gary F.

    2013-01-01

    Language is rife with ambiguity. Do children and adults meet this challenge in similar ways? Recent work suggests that while adults resolve syntactic ambiguities by integrating a variety of cues, children are less sensitive to top-down evidence. We test whether this top-down insensitivity is specific to syntax or a general feature of children's…

  18. Children's Comprehension of Two Types of Syntactic Ambiguity

    Zimmer, Elly Jane

    2017-01-01

    This study asks whether children accept both interpretations of ambiguous sentences with contexts supporting each option. Twenty-six 3- to 5-year-old English-speaking children and a control group of 30 English-speaking adults participated in a truth value judgment task. As a step towards evaluating the complexity of syntactic ambiguity, the…

  19. On ambiguities in the exponentiation of large QCD perturbative corrections

    Chyla, Jiri

    1986-01-01

    Ambiguities and some practical questions connected with the exponentiation of higher-order QCD perturbative corrections are discussed for the case of deep inelastic lepton-hadron scattering in the non-singlet channel. The importance of still higher-order calculations for resolving these ambiguities is stressed. (author)

  20. Discriminating Between Models of Ambiguity Attitude : A Qualitative Test

    Cubitt, Robin; van de Kuilen, Gijs; Mukerji, Sujoy

    The exchange between Epstein (2010) and Klibanoff et al. (2012) identified a behavioral issue that sharply distinguishes between two classes of models of ambiguity sensitivity, exemplified by the 훼- MEU model and the smooth ambiguity model, respectively. The issue in question is whether a subject’s

  1. U.S./Arab Reflections on Our Tolerance for Ambiguity

    Bright, Larry K.; Mahdi, Ghada S.

    2012-01-01

    As the authors, a Midwestern American educational administration professor and a Middle Eastern Iraqi doctoral candidate, have continued to interact over the past 3 years, both have come to appreciate the importance of increasing their tolerance for ambiguity--ambiguities in examining cultural, linguistic, and religious customs and complexities in…

  2. The Learning Teacher: Role of Ambiguity in Education

    Suzawa, Gilbert S.

    2013-01-01

    Life is full of ambiguities, but as teachers we generally try to teach our students in a manner that sanitizes knowledge of all of its ambiguities. In doing so, we create an educational environment which forces students to learn in a rather meaningless fashion and this in turn leads to a lack of vitality and relevance within the academy. This need…

  3. Ambiguity Tolerance and Perceptual Learning Styles of Chinese EFL Learners

    Li, Haishan; He, Qingshun

    2016-01-01

    Ambiguity tolerance and perceptual learning styles are the two influential elements showing individual differences in EFL learning. This research is intended to explore the relationship between Chinese EFL learners' ambiguity tolerance and their preferred perceptual learning styles. The findings include (1) the learners are sensitive to English…

  4. Cognitive Flexibility Supports Preschoolers' Detection of Communicative Ambiguity

    Gillis, Randall; Nilsen, Elizabeth S.

    2014-01-01

    To become successful communicators, children must be sensitive to the clarity/ambiguity of language. Significant gains in children's ability to detect communicative ambiguity occur during the early school-age years. However, little is known about the cognitive abilities that support this development. Relations between cognitive flexibility and…

  5. Ambiguity in Speaking Chemistry and Other STEM Content: Educational Implications

    Isaacson, Mick D.; Michaels, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Ambiguity in speech is a possible barrier to the acquisition of knowledge for students who have print disabilities (such as blindness, visual impairments, and some specific learning disabilities) and rely on auditory input for learning. Chemistry appears to have considerable potential for being spoken ambiguously and may be a barrier to accessing…

  6. Quantization ambiguity and the Aharanov-Bohm effect

    Kunstatter, G.

    1983-01-01

    A brief review is given of the role of quantization ambiguity in both quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. The author points out that quantization ambiguity is not relevant to discussions of physical experiments designed to test the Aharanov-Bohm effect. A recent proposal for such an experiment involving Aharanov-Bohm currents in thin superconducting cylinders is mentioned. (Auth.)

  7. High energy collisions and the proton structure: an ambiguity

    Franca, H.M.

    1980-01-01

    It is pointed out an ambiguity in the determination of the sign of the imaginary part of the proton-proton elastic-scattering amplitude for ]t]>]t min . Some implications of such and ambiguity concerning the proton structure are discussed and finally, an experimental analysis which could solve it is suggested. (L.C.) [pt

  8. Effective potential for bilocal composite fields and its ambiguity

    Muta, T.

    1988-01-01

    It is discussed that an ambiguity exists in the definition of the effective potential for bilocal composite fields which is an indispensable tool to discuss dynamical symmetry breaking. The ambiguity gives warning to arguments on the stability of ground states based on the curvature of the effective potential

  9. Children's Understanding of Ambiguous Idioms and Conversational Perspective-Taking

    Le Sourn-Bissaoui, Sandrine; Caillies, Stephanie; Bernard, Stephane; Deleau, Michel; Brule, Lauriane

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that conversational perspective-taking is a determinant of unfamiliar ambiguous idiom comprehension. We investigated two types of ambiguous idiom, decomposable and nondecomposable expressions, which differ in the degree to which the literal meanings of the individual words contribute to the overall…

  10. Quantification Scope Ambiguity Resolution: Evidence from Persian and English

    Asadollahfam, Hassan; Lotfi, Ahmad Reza

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the interpretation of scopally ambiguous sentences containing noun phrases with double quantified constituents from a processing perspective. The questions this study tried to answer were: whether or not the preferred interpretation for doubly quantified ambiguous sentences in English was influenced by English learners' L1…

  11. Ambiguous sets of partial wave amplitudes can intersect

    Kok, L.P.; Roo, M. de

    1976-01-01

    Continuation in energy as a method to resolve ambiguities in phase-shift analysis is discussed. It is shown that continuity in energy is not in all cases sufficient to resolve ambiguities, and examples are given of such cases for both spin 0 - spin 0 and spin 0 - spin 1/2 scattering. (author)

  12. Ambiguity and Nominal Group Multiple Post modification in the ...

    Administrator

    students of The Federal Polytechnic, Ede, Nigeria offering. English courses as .... “a piece of land along a river” or “a place for keeping money and valuables”. ... ambiguity. Attachment ambiguity occurs when a modifier may be logically or ...

  13. Surgical aspects of ambiguous genitalia associated with congenital ...

    Aim The aim of the study was to review the current approach to manage ambiguous genitalia caused by CAH. Methods This was a retrospective study of 30 patientswith CAH and ambiguous genitalia treated over 10 years. Age at presentation, degree of verilization, preoperative diagnostic studies, operative technique, ...

  14. Computational Humour : Utilizing Cross-Reference Ambiguity for Conversational Jokes

    Tinholt, Hans Wim; Nijholt, Anton; Masulli, Francesco; Mitra, Sushmita; Pasi, Gabriella

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a computer implementation that utilizes cross-reference ambiguity in utterances for simple conversational jokes. The approach is based on the SSTH. Using a simple script representation, it is shown that cross-reference ambiguities always satisfy the SSTH requirement for script

  15. Ambiguity aversion and household portfolio choice puzzles: Empirical evidence.

    Dimmock, Stephen G; Kouwenberg, Roy; Mitchell, Olivia S; Peijnenburg, Kim

    2016-03-01

    We test the relation between ambiguity aversion and five household portfolio choice puzzles: nonparticipation in equities, low allocations to equity, home-bias, own-company stock ownership, and portfolio under-diversification. In a representative US household survey, we measure ambiguity preferences using custom-designed questions based on Ellsberg urns. As theory predicts, ambiguity aversion is negatively associated with stock market participation, the fraction of financial assets in stocks, and foreign stock ownership, but it is positively related to own-company stock ownership. Conditional on stock ownership, ambiguity aversion is related to portfolio under-diversification, and during the financial crisis, ambiguity-averse respondents were more likely to sell stocks.

  16. Ambiguity aversion and household portfolio choice puzzles: Empirical evidence*

    Dimmock, Stephen G.; Kouwenberg, Roy; Mitchell, Olivia S.; Peijnenburg, Kim

    2017-01-01

    We test the relation between ambiguity aversion and five household portfolio choice puzzles: nonparticipation in equities, low allocations to equity, home-bias, own-company stock ownership, and portfolio under-diversification. In a representative US household survey, we measure ambiguity preferences using custom-designed questions based on Ellsberg urns. As theory predicts, ambiguity aversion is negatively associated with stock market participation, the fraction of financial assets in stocks, and foreign stock ownership, but it is positively related to own-company stock ownership. Conditional on stock ownership, ambiguity aversion is related to portfolio under-diversification, and during the financial crisis, ambiguity-averse respondents were more likely to sell stocks. PMID:28458446

  17. Concept analysis: Role ambiguity in senior nursing students.

    Kalkman, Beth

    2018-04-01

    Role ambiguity is a lack of clarity or uncertainty related to one's position or role. Role ambiguity has been documented in the literature in relationship to athletics, industry, business, education, and nursing. However, a concept analysis has not been performed. Therefore, the process of concept analysis outlined by Walker and Avant is now used to look at the concept of role ambiguity and its relevance to senior nursing students' socialization and education into the profession of nursing. Attributes, antecedents, consequences, and empiric referents are discussed and theories commonly associated with role ambiguity are presented. At the end of the analysis, an operational definition is provided for use in exploring the concept of role ambiguity as it relates to senior nursing students' articulation of the role of the professional nurse. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Ambiguities in the reaction mechanism for (e,e'N)

    Forest, T. de Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The primary motivation for performing quasi-elastic (e,e'N) experiments revolves around the plane wave impulse approximation (PWIA) description of this reaction. Since the PWIA is an approximation, corrections are necessary in practice in order to extract the desired nuclear structure. Unless one understands the physics behind these corrections this introduces ambiguities. In fact the PWIA itself is an ambiguous prescription since a 'free' off-shell cross section is not a well-defined concept. It is these ambiguities which are discussed in this talk. Most of the paper is devoted to the ambiguities associated with the electromagnetic interaction. The author concentrates on four topics: (1) the interaction of the electron with the nucleus in general; (2) ambiguities in the application of the impulse approximation; (3) the sigma-omega model; and (4) the Coulomb sum rule. (Auth.)

  19. Intolerance for approach of ambiguity in social anxiety disorder.

    Kuckertz, Jennie M; Strege, Marlene V; Amir, Nader

    2017-06-01

    Previous research has utilised the approach-avoidance task (AAT) to measure approach and avoidance action tendencies in socially anxious individuals. "Neutral" social stimuli may be perceived as ambiguous and hence threatening to socially anxious individuals, however it is unclear whether this results in difficulty approaching ambiguous ("neutral") versus unambiguous threat (e.g. disgust) faces (i.e. intolerance of ambiguity). Thirty participants with social anxiety disorder (SADs) and 29 non-anxious controls completed an implicit AAT in which they were instructed to approach or avoid neutral and disgust faces (i.e. pull or push a joystick) based on colour of the picture border. Results indicated that SADs demonstrated greater difficulty approaching neutral relative to disgust faces. Moreover, intolerance for approach of ambiguity predicted social anxiety severity while controlling for the effects of trait anxiety and depression. Our results provide further support for the role of intolerance of ambiguity in SAD.

  20. Absence of the Gribov ambiguity in a quadratic gauge

    Raval, Haresh

    2016-01-01

    The Gribov ambiguity exists in various gauges. Algebraic gauges are likely to be ambiguity free. However, algebraic gauges are not Lorentz invariant, which is their fundamental flaw. In addition, they are not generally compatible with the boundary conditions on the gauge fields, which are needed to compactify the space i.e., the ambiguity continues to exist on a compact manifold. Here we discuss a quadratic gauge fixing, which is Lorentz invariant. We consider an example of a spherically symmetric gauge field configuration in which we prove that this Lorentz invariant gauge removes the ambiguity on a compact manifold S 3 , when a proper boundary condition on the gauge configuration is taken into account. Thus, we provide one example where the ambiguity is absent on a compact manifold in the algebraic gauge. We also show that the BRST invariance is preserved in this gauge. (orig.)

  1. Absence of the Gribov ambiguity in a quadratic gauge

    Raval, Haresh [Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, Department of Physics, Mumbai (India)

    2016-05-15

    The Gribov ambiguity exists in various gauges. Algebraic gauges are likely to be ambiguity free. However, algebraic gauges are not Lorentz invariant, which is their fundamental flaw. In addition, they are not generally compatible with the boundary conditions on the gauge fields, which are needed to compactify the space i.e., the ambiguity continues to exist on a compact manifold. Here we discuss a quadratic gauge fixing, which is Lorentz invariant. We consider an example of a spherically symmetric gauge field configuration in which we prove that this Lorentz invariant gauge removes the ambiguity on a compact manifold S{sup 3}, when a proper boundary condition on the gauge configuration is taken into account. Thus, we provide one example where the ambiguity is absent on a compact manifold in the algebraic gauge. We also show that the BRST invariance is preserved in this gauge. (orig.)

  2. Azimuth Phase Coding for Range Ambiguity Suppression in SAR

    Dall, Jørgen; Kusk, Anders

    2004-01-01

    A novel ambiguity suppression technique is proposed. Range ambiguities in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images are eliminated with an azimuth filter after having applied an azimuth phase modulation to the transmitted pulses and a corresponding demodulation to the received pulses. The technique...... excels by actually eliminating the ambiguities rather than just defocusing them as most other techniques do. This makes the proposed technique applicable to distributed targets. The range ambiguity suppression permits the pulse repetition frequency (PRF) to exceed the upper limit otherwise defined...... by the antenna elevation dimension. The fundamental antenna area constraint still applies, but the PRF can be chosen with more freedom. In addition to ambiguity suppression, potential applications include nadir return elimination and signal-to-noise ratio improvement....

  3. Coding of level of ambiguity within neural systems mediating choice.

    Lopez-Paniagua, Dan; Seger, Carol A

    2013-01-01

    Data from previous neuroimaging studies exploring neural activity associated with uncertainty suggest varying levels of activation associated with changing degrees of uncertainty in neural regions that mediate choice behavior. The present study used a novel task that parametrically controlled the amount of information hidden from the subject; levels of uncertainty ranged from full ambiguity (no information about probability of winning) through multiple levels of partial ambiguity, to a condition of risk only (zero ambiguity with full knowledge of the probability of winning). A parametric analysis compared a linear model in which weighting increased as a function of level of ambiguity, and an inverted-U quadratic models in which partial ambiguity conditions were weighted most heavily. Overall we found that risk and all levels of ambiguity recruited a common "fronto-parietal-striatal" network including regions within the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, intraparietal sulcus, and dorsal striatum. Activation was greatest across these regions and additional anterior and superior prefrontal regions for the quadratic function which most heavily weighs trials with partial ambiguity. These results suggest that the neural regions involved in decision processes do not merely track the absolute degree ambiguity or type of uncertainty (risk vs. ambiguity). Instead, recruitment of prefrontal regions may result from greater degree of difficulty in conditions of partial ambiguity: when information regarding reward probabilities important for decision making is hidden or not easily obtained the subject must engage in a search for tractable information. Additionally, this study identified regions of activity related to the valuation of potential gains associated with stimuli or options (including the orbitofrontal and medial prefrontal cortices and dorsal striatum) and related to winning (including orbitofrontal cortex and ventral striatum).

  4. The Ethics of Strategic Ambiguity: Contrasting Teleologically and Deontologically Based Experiences.

    Paul, Jim; And Others

    This paper describes ethical considerations in the use of strategic ambiguity in organizational communication. Ambiguity is defined as "experienced ambiguity" and is distinct from uncertainty and equivocality which are properties of a stimulus. Strategic ambiguity is the use of "calculated ambiguity" in organizations to achieve…

  5. Ambiguous Loss in a Non-Western Context: Families of the Disappeared in Postconflict Nepal

    Robins, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Ambiguous loss has become a standard theory for understanding the impact of situations where the presence of a family member is subject to ambiguity. A number of studies of ambiguous loss have been made in a range of situations of ambiguity, but almost all have been firmly located within a Western cultural context. Here, ambiguous loss is explored…

  6. Preregularization and the structure of loop-momentum ambiguities within quantum corrections to the supercurrent

    Chowdhury, A.M.; Elias, V.; McKeon, D.G.C.; Mann, R.B.

    1986-01-01

    The anomaly in the supercurrent amplitude S/sub μ//sub ν/ is analyzed to one-loop order for N = 1 supersymmetry in the Wess-Zumino gauge within the framework of preregularization, in which loop-momentum-routing ambiguities percolate into shift-of-integration-variable surface terms peculiar to exactly four space-time dimensions. We find the supercurrent anomaly to be a consequence of the inability of such ambiguities (within a demonstrably finite set of quantum corrections) to absorb violations of gauge invariance (q/sup ν/S/sub μ//sub ν/not =0) and supersymmetry (partial/sup μ/S/sub μ//sub ν/equivalentpartialxSnot =0) simultaneously, a feature quite similar to the inability of VVA-triangle ambiguities to absorb violations of gauge invariance and the axial-vector-current Ward identity simultaneously. We also find that if gauge invariance is preserved, the contribution to the supercurrent anomaly obtained from O(g 2 ) quantum corrections to the supercurrent involves no infrared or ultraviolet infinities and resides in partialxS rather than γxS. This last result is a consequence of maintaining exactly four space-time dimensions, as is necessary for momentum-routing ambiguities to appear at all in the quantum corrections. The connection between our results and similar results obtained from an Adler-Rosenberg symmetry argument is examined in detail

  7. Ambiguity resolution for satellite Doppler positioning systems

    Argentiero, P.; Marini, J.

    1979-01-01

    The implementation of satellite-based Doppler positioning systems frequently requires the recovery of transmitter position from a single pass of Doppler data. The least-squares approach to the problem yields conjugate solutions on either side of the satellite subtrack. It is important to develop a procedure for choosing the proper solution which is correct in a high percentage of cases. A test for ambiguity resolution which is the most powerful in the sense that it maximizes the probability of a correct decision is derived. When systematic error sources are properly included in the least-squares reduction process to yield an optimal solution the test reduces to choosing the solution which provides the smaller valuation of the least-squares loss function. When systematic error sources are ignored in the least-squares reduction, the most powerful test is a quadratic form comparison with the weighting matrix of the quadratic form obtained by computing the pseudoinverse of a reduced-rank square matrix. A formula for computing the power of the most powerful test is provided. Numerical examples are included in which the power of the test is computed for situations that are relevant to the design of a satellite-aided search and rescue system.

  8. The reciprocal dynamic model of career decision ambiguity tolerance with career indecision: A longitudinal three-wave investigation.

    Xu, Hui; Tracey, Terence J G

    2017-10-01

    The current study investigated the dynamic interplay of career decision ambiguity tolerance and career indecision over 3 assessment times in a sample of college students (n = 583). While the previous research has repeatedly shown an association of career decision ambiguity tolerance with career indecision, the direction of this association has not been adequately assessed with longitudinal investigation. It was hypothesized in this study that there is a reciprocal pattern of career decision ambiguity tolerance leading to subsequent career indecision and career indecision leading to subsequent career decision ambiguity tolerance. Using a cross-lagged panel design, this study found support for the reciprocal pattern that aversion to ambiguity led to increased negative affect and choice anxiety in career decision making, while negative affect and choice anxiety led to increased aversion to ambiguity. Additionally, this study revealed that aversion led to decreased readiness for career decision making and readiness for career decision making led to increased interests in new information. The key findings were discussed with respect to the theoretical and clinical implications for career counseling along with limitations and suggestions for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Triple-Frequency GPS Precise Point Positioning Ambiguity Resolution Using Dual-Frequency Based IGS Precise Clock Products

    Fei Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the availability of the third civil signal in the Global Positioning System, triple-frequency Precise Point Positioning ambiguity resolution methods have drawn increasing attention due to significantly reduced convergence time. However, the corresponding triple-frequency based precise clock products are not widely available and adopted by applications. Currently, most precise products are generated based on ionosphere-free combination of dual-frequency L1/L2 signals, which however are not consistent with the triple-frequency ionosphere-free carrier-phase measurements, resulting in inaccurate positioning and unstable float ambiguities. In this study, a GPS triple-frequency PPP ambiguity resolution method is developed using the widely used dual-frequency based clock products. In this method, the interfrequency clock biases between the triple-frequency and dual-frequency ionosphere-free carrier-phase measurements are first estimated and then applied to triple-frequency ionosphere-free carrier-phase measurements to obtain stable float ambiguities. After this, the wide-lane L2/L5 and wide-lane L1/L2 integer property of ambiguities are recovered by estimating the satellite fractional cycle biases. A test using a sparse network is conducted to verify the effectiveness of the method. The results show that the ambiguity resolution can be achieved in minutes even tens of seconds and the positioning accuracy is in decimeter level.

  10. Semi-classical analysis of optical model ambiguities

    Cuer, M.

    1979-01-01

    The ambiguities in the inverse problem at fixed energy in quantum mechanics are analyzed in the framework of the JWKB method. When the classical turning point is unique for all values of the impact parameter (high energies region), the ambiguities proceed only from the quantization of the angular momentum. In the asymptotic region the difference between two particular equivalent potentials changes sign infinitely often. In addition, the set of equivalent potentials which have a given asymptotic form is bounded (except perhaps at the origin). When there are several turning points for small values of the impact parameter (low-energy region), new ambiguities arise from the fact that the parts of the potential that are located between turning points are not ''visible'' in the classical limit. The set of equivalent potentials wich have a given asymptotic form is then not bounded. Mumerical examples (of real and complex equivalent potentials) are given. The optical model ambiguities are studied. The potential depth ambiguities also appear in classical mechanics, but their discrete nature is a quantum property. The VR/sup p//sup( V/)=constant ambiguities can be explained by the quantum corrections to the spiral scattering phenomenon. An attempt to explain why ambiguities arise only with heavy particles scattering is also given

  11. Gauge ambiguities in (rvec e,e'rvec N) reactions

    Kelly, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    We examine the sensitivity of the distorted-wave impulse approximation for single-nucleon electromagnetic knockout from valence orbitals to ambiguities in the one-body current operator. Violations of current conservation are classified as gauge ambiguities, whereas the elements of a particular class of structural differences off shell are labeled Gordon ambiguities. Gauge ambiguities in differential cross sections and longitudinal response functions are found to increase with missing momentum and to become particularly severe for low-Q 2 kinematical conditions that are far from quasifree but are sometimes used to investigate correlations. The azimuthal asymmetry may provide a useful experimental means for selecting a gauge. Gordon ambiguities increase with Q 2 and are larger for relativistic than for nonrelativistic approaches. Because ambiguities in the one-body current are at least as large as effects due to correlations and there are additional uncertainties due to two-body currents, final-state interactions, and relativistic distortion, we conclude that is unlikely that information about correlations can be extracted from single-nucleon knockout from valence orbitals at large missing momentum. On the other hand, gauge and Gordon ambiguities and uncertainties in final-state interactions have very little effect upon the helicity-dependent recoil polarization, which can be used to investigate the roles of two-body currents and/or possible medium modifications of the one-body current. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  12. Comparing Tolerance of Ambiguity in Veterinary and Medical Students.

    Hancock, Jason; Hammond, Jennifer A; Roberts, Martin; Mattick, Karen

    Current guidelines suggest that educators in both medical and veterinary professions should do more to ensure that students can tolerate ambiguity. Designing curricula to achieve this requires the ability to measure and understand differences in ambiguity tolerance among and within professional groups. Although scales have been developed to measure tolerance of ambiguity in both medical and veterinary professions, no comparative studies have been reported. We compared the tolerance of ambiguity of medical and veterinary students, hypothesizing that veterinary students would have higher tolerance of ambiguity, given the greater patient diversity and less well-established evidence base underpinning practice. We conducted a secondary analysis of questionnaire data from first- to fourth-year medical and veterinary students. Tolerance of ambiguity scores were calculated and compared using the TAMSAD scale (29 items validated for the medical student population), the TAVS scale (27 items validated for the veterinary student population), and a scale comprising the 22 items common to both scales. Using the TAMSAD and TAVS scales, medical students had a significantly higher mean tolerance of ambiguity score than veterinary students (56.1 vs. 54.1, pambiguity than veterinary students, although this depends on the scale used.

  13. A method to reduce ambiguities of qualitative reasoning for conceptual design applications

    D'Amelio, V.; Chmarra, M.K.; Tomiyama, T.

    2013-01-01

    Qualitative reasoning can generate ambiguous behaviors due to the lack of quantitative information. Despite many different research results focusing on ambiguities reduction, fundamentally it is impossible to totally remove ambiguities with only qualitative methods and to guarantee the consistency

  14. Children’s and Adolescents’ Processing of Temporary Syntactic Ambiguity: An Eye Movement Study

    Paul E. Engelhardt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the eye movements of 24 children and adolescents as they read sentences containing temporary syntactic ambiguities. Prior research suggested that children primarily use grammatical information when making initial parsing decisions, and they tend to disregard semantic and contextual information. On each trial, participants read a garden path sentence (e.g., While the storm blew the boat sat in the shed, and, afterwards, they answered a comprehension question (e.g., Did the storm blow the boat?. The design was 2 × 2 (verb type × ambiguity repeated measures. Verb type was optionally transitive or reflexive, and sentences were ambiguous or unambiguous. Results showed no differences in first pass reading times at the disambiguating verb (e.g., sat. However, regressions did show a significant interaction. The unambiguous-reflexive condition had approximately half the number of regressions, suggesting less processing difficulty in this condition. Developmentally, we found that adolescents had significantly better comprehension, which seemed to be linked to the increased tendency to regress from the disambiguating word. Findings are consistent with the assumption that the processing architecture is more restricted in children compared to adolescents. In addition, results indicated that variance in ambiguity resolution was associated with interference control but not working memory.

  15. Extent of the Immirzi ambiguity in quantum general relativity

    Marugan, Guillermo A Mena

    2002-01-01

    The Ashtekar-Barbero formulation of general relativity admits a one-parameter family of canonical transformations that preserves the expressions of the Gauss and diffeomorphism constraints. The loop quantization of the connection formalism based on each of these canonical sets leads to different predictions. This phenomenon is called the Immirzi ambiguity. It has been recently argued that this ambiguity could be generalized to the extent of a spatially dependent function instead of a parameter. This would ruin the predictability of loop quantum gravity. We prove that such expectations are not realized, so that the Immirzi ambiguity introduces exclusively a freedom in the choice of a real number. (letter to the editor)

  16. Characteristics of a pure-state ambiguity function

    Praxmeyer, Ludmila; Vitanov, Nikolay; Stenholm, Stig

    2009-01-01

    We present the necessary and sufficient condition for a square integrable function on R 2N to be an ambiguity function corresponding to a square integrable function on R N . This condition has the form of an integral equation. We also list some easier to check necessary conditions that must be fulfilled by a function that is an ambiguity function of a pure state. We show how to construct a wavefunction corresponding to a given ambiguity function and we present examples of how our formal results can be used in practice.

  17. Renormalization ambiguities and conformal anomaly in metric-scalar backgrounds

    Asorey, M.; Berredo-Peixoto, G. de; Shapiro, I. L.

    2006-01-01

    We analyze the problem of the existing ambiguities in the conformal anomaly in theories with an external scalar field in curved backgrounds. In particular, we consider the anomaly of a self-interacting massive scalar field theory and of a Yukawa model in the massless conformal limit. In all cases the ambiguities are related to finite renormalizations of local nonminimal terms in the effective action. We point out the generic nature of this phenomenon and provide a general method to identify the theories where such an ambiguity can arise

  18. Ambiguity in Tactile Apparent Motion Perception.

    Emanuela Liaci

    Full Text Available In von Schiller's Stroboscopic Alternative Motion (SAM stimulus two visually presented diagonal dot pairs, located on the corners of an imaginary rectangle, alternate with each other and induce either horizontal, vertical or, rarely, rotational motion percepts. SAM motion perception can be described by a psychometric function of the dot aspect ratio ("AR", i.e. the relation between vertical and horizontal dot distances. Further, with equal horizontal and vertical dot distances (AR = 1 perception is biased towards vertical motion. In a series of five experiments, we presented tactile SAM versions and studied the role of AR and of different reference frames for the perception of tactile apparent motion.We presented tactile SAM stimuli and varied the ARs, while participants reported the perceived motion directions. Pairs of vibration stimulators were attached to the participants' forearms and stimulator distances were varied within and between forearms. We compared straight and rotated forearm conditions with each other in order to disentangle the roles of exogenous and endogenous reference frames.Increasing the tactile SAM's AR biased perception towards vertical motion, but the effect was weak compared to the visual modality. We found no horizontal disambiguation, even for very small tactile ARs. A forearm rotation by 90° kept the vertical bias, even though it was now coupled with small ARs. A 45° rotation condition with crossed forearms, however, evoked a strong horizontal motion bias.Existing approaches to explain the visual SAM bias fail to explain the current tactile results. Particularly puzzling is the strong horizontal bias in the crossed-forearm conditions. In the case of tactile apparent motion, there seem to be no fixed priority rule for perceptual disambiguation. Rather the weighting of available evidence seems to depend on the degree of stimulus ambiguity, the current situation and on the perceptual strategy of the individual

  19. Total urogenital sinus mobilization for ambiguous genitalia.

    Jesus, Vinicius Menezes; Buriti, Francisco; Lessa, Rodrigo; Toralles, Maria Betânia; Oliveira, Luciana Barros; Barroso, Ubirajara

    2018-04-01

    Genital ambiguity is a very common phenomenon in disorders of sex development (DSD). According to the Chicago Consensus 2006, feminizing genitoplasty, when indicated, should be performed in the most virilized cases (Prader III to V). Advances in the knowledge of genital anatomy in DSD have enabled the development and improvement of various surgical techniques. Mobilization of the urogenital sinus (MUS), first described by Peña, has become incorporated by most surgeons. However, the proximity of the urethral sphincter prompts concern over urinary incontinence, especially for full mobilization of the urogenital sinus. To retrospectively evaluate the short-term surgical results of feminizing genitoplasty with total mobilization of the urogenital sinus in patients with DSD. Review of medical records of all patients undergoing feminizing genitoplasty with mobilization of the urogenital sinus. We evaluated the rates of complications from surgery and of urinary incontinence, as well as cosmetic results, according to the opinion of the surgeon and the family. A total of 8 patients were included in the study. The mean age at surgery was 51months. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) was diagnosed in six patients, and gonadal dysgenesis in the other two. The vagina was separated from the urethra, with suitable distance in all cases. No patient had urinary incontinence after surgery. The mean follow-up of patients was. 20months (3-56months). In all cases, surgeons recorded being satisfied with the aesthetic result of post-surgical genitalia. The family was recorded as satisfied with the aesthetic result of the genitalia after surgery. In every case, there was no need for a second surgical procedure. The total mobilization of the urogenital sinus is a feasible and safe technique. The technique permits good cosmetic results, and urinary incontinence is absent. Therapeutic study. Level III. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Performance analysis of PPP ambiguity resolution with UPD products estimated from different scales of reference station networks

    Wang, Siyao; Li, Bofeng; Li, Xingxing; Zang, Nan

    2018-01-01

    Integer ambiguity fixing with uncalibrated phase delay (UPD) products can significantly shorten the initialization time and improve the accuracy of precise point positioning (PPP). Since the tracking arcs of satellites and the behavior of atmospheric biases can be very different for the reference networks with different scales, the qualities of corresponding UPD products may be also various. The purpose of this paper is to comparatively investigate the influence of different scales of reference station networks on UPD estimation and user ambiguity resolution. Three reference station networks with global, wide-area and local scales are used to compute the UPD products and analyze their impact on the PPP-AR. The time-to-first-fix, the unfix rate and the incorrect fix rate of PPP-AR are analyzed. Moreover, in order to further shorten the convergence time for obtaining precise positioning, a modified partial ambiguity resolution (PAR) and corresponding validation strategy are presented. In this PAR method, the ambiguity subset is determined by removing the ambiguity one by one in the order of ascending elevations. Besides, for static positioning mode, a coordinate validation strategy is employed to enhance the reliability of the fixed coordinate. The experiment results show that UPD products computed by smaller station network are more accurate and lead to a better coordinate solution; the PAR method used in this paper can shorten the convergence time and the coordinate validation strategy can improve the availability of high precision positioning.

  1. Ambiguity Of Doppler Centroid In Synthetic-Aperture Radar

    Chang, Chi-Yung; Curlander, John C.

    1991-01-01

    Paper discusses performances of two algorithms for resolution of ambiguity in estimated Doppler centroid frequency of echoes in synthetic-aperture radar. One based on range-cross-correlation technique, other based on multiple-pulse-repetition-frequency technique.

  2. Semantic Ambiguity: Do Multiple Meanings Inhibit or Facilitate Word Recognition?

    Haro, Juan; Ferré, Pilar

    2018-06-01

    It is not clear whether multiple unrelated meanings inhibit or facilitate word recognition. Some studies have found a disadvantage for words having multiple meanings with respect to unambiguous words in lexical decision tasks (LDT), whereas several others have shown a facilitation for such words. In the present study, we argue that these inconsistent findings may be due to the approach employed to select ambiguous words across studies. To address this issue, we conducted three LDT experiments in which we varied the measure used to classify ambiguous and unambiguous words. The results suggest that multiple unrelated meanings facilitate word recognition. In addition, we observed that the approach employed to select ambiguous words may affect the pattern of experimental results. This evidence has relevant implications for theoretical accounts of ambiguous words processing and representation.

  3. The Benefit of Ambiguity in Understanding Goals in Requirements Modelling

    Paay, Jeni; Pedell, Sonja; Sterling, Leon

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the benefit of ambiguity in describing goals in requirements modelling for the design of socio-technical systems using concepts from Agent-Oriented Software Engineering (AOSE) and ethnographic and cultural probe methods from Human Computer Interaction (HCI). The authors’ aim...... ambiguity in the process of elicitation and analysis through the use of empirically informed quality goals attached to functional goals. The authors demonstrate the benefit of articulating a quality goal without turning it into a functional goal. Their study shows that quality goals kept at a high level...... of abstraction, ambiguous and open for conversations through the modelling process add richness to goal models, and communicate quality attributes of the interaction being modelled to the design phase, where this ambiguity is regarded as a resource for design....

  4. Pricing risk and ambiguity : The effect of perspective taking

    Trautmann, S.T.; Schmidt, U.

    2012-01-01

    In the valuation of uncertain prospects, a difference is often observed between selling and buying perspectives. This paper distinguishes between risk (known probabilities) and ambiguity (unknown probabilities) in decisions under uncertainty and shows that the valuation disparity increases under

  5. PRF Ambiguity Detrmination for Radarsat ScanSAR System

    Jin, Michael Y.

    1998-01-01

    PRF ambiguity is a potential problem for a spaceborne SAR operated at high frequencies. For a strip mode SAR, there were several approaches to solve this problem. This paper, however, addresses PRF ambiguity determination algorithms suitable for a burst mode SAR system such as the Radarsat ScanSAR. The candidate algorithms include the wavelength diversity algorithm, range look cross correlation algorithm, and multi-PRF algorithm.

  6. An ambiguity in one-loop quantum gravity

    Capper, D.M.; Kimber, D.P.

    1980-01-01

    It is argued that the application of the dimensional regularisation technique to one-loop quantum gravity calculations is ambiguous. However, for the calculation of on-mass-shell S-matrix elements, this ambiguity can be resolved by requiring consistency with results obtained from other regularisation schemes. Some discussion is also given of the implications of this work for recent attempts to use higher derivative Lagrangians to solve the renormalisability problem in quantum gravity. (author)

  7. Ambiguities of the natural gauge in Yang-Mills theories

    Lazarides, G.

    1978-01-01

    We study the ambiguities of the natural gauge condition for the Euclidean SU(2) Yang-Mills theory in four dimensions. Then, we show that, in the stationary-phase approximation, these ambiguities do not affect the contribution of the sector with Pontryagin index q = 1 to the correlation functions of gauge-invariant operators. They affect only the higher-order corrections to this contribution

  8. Quantization ambiguity and non-trivial vacuum structure

    Rothe, H.J.; Swieca, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    It is pointed out that there is an ambiguity in quantization of any system whose configuration space has a non-trivial topology characterized by a Chern number. In field theories this ambiguity manifests itself through the existence of theta-sectors. The point of view adopted gives a simple interpretation of the difference between the temporal and Coulomb gauge descriptions of instantons. The general ideas are exemplified in the O(3) non-linear sigma-model in two dimensions [pt

  9. Self-reflection and the inner voice: activation of the left inferior frontal gyrus during perceptual and conceptual self-referential thinking.

    Morin, Alain; Hamper, Breanne

    2012-01-01

    Inner speech involvement in self-reflection was examined by reviewing 130 studies assessing brain activation during self-referential processing in key self-domains: agency, self-recognition, emotions, personality traits, autobiographical memory, and miscellaneous (e.g., prospection, judgments). The left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) has been shown to be reliably recruited during inner speech production. The percentage of studies reporting LIFG activity for each self-dimension was calculated. Fifty five percent of all studies reviewed indicated LIFG (and presumably inner speech) activity during self-reflection tasks; on average LIFG activation is observed 16% of the time during completion of non-self tasks (e.g., attention, perception). The highest LIFG activation rate was observed during retrieval of autobiographical information. The LIFG was significantly more recruited during conceptual tasks (e.g., prospection, traits) than during perceptual tasks (agency and self-recognition). This constitutes additional evidence supporting the idea of a participation of inner speech in self-related thinking.

  10. [Eye movement parameters in reading the sentences with syntactic ambiguity in Russian language].

    Anisimov, V A; Fedorova, O V; Latanov, A V

    2014-01-01

    We studied the eye movement parameters during reading of syntactically ambiguous sentences with feminine relative clause in Russian language. A priori difficulties of sentence structural analysis results in increase of time spent on reading as opposed to reading control sentences (unambiguous). Such a delay is caused by an increase of frequency of regressions (backward saccades) which are executed for rereading an ambiguous fragment ofsentence. This fact in turn leads to an increase in number of fixations and their duration. The total reading time for particular words composing the ambiguous fragment of sentence depended on disambiguation result (relative clause attachment, early/late closure). In case of early closure (when the subject attached relative clause to first noun) the total reading time for this noun exceeded one for second noun. In case of late closure (when the subject attached relative clause to second noun) the total reading time for both nouns didn't differ. Our results indicate that early closure domination in Russian language determines the greater total reading time for first noun of nominal group associated with relative clause.

  11. Removing Ambiguities of IP Telephony Traffic Using Protocol Scrubbers

    Bazara I. A. Barry

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Network intrusion detection systems (NIDSs face the serious challenge of attacks such as insertion and evasion attacks that are caused by ambiguous network traffic. Such ambiguity comes as a result of the nature of network traffic which includes protocol implementation variations and errors alongside legitimate network traffic. Moreover, attackers can intentionally introduce further ambiguities in the traffic. Consequently, NIDSs need to be aware of these ambiguities when detection is performed and make sure to differentiate between true attacks and protocol implementation variations or errors; otherwise, detection accuracy can be affected negatively. In this paper we present the design and implementation of tools that are called protocol scrubbers whose main functionality is to remove ambiguities from network traffic before it is presented to the NIDS. The proposed protocol scrubbers are designed for session initiation and data transfer protocols in IP telephony systems. They guarantee that the traffic presented to NIDSs is unambiguous by eliminating ambiguous behaviors of protocols using well-designed protocol state machines, and walking through packet headers of protocols to make sure packets will be interpreted in the desired way by the NIDS. The experimental results shown in this paper demonstrate the good quality and applicability of the introduced scrubbers.

  12. Preferences for 'New' Treatments Diminish in the Face of Ambiguity.

    Harrison, Mark; Marra, Carlo A; Bansback, Nick

    2017-06-01

    New products usually offer advantages over existing products, but in health care, most new drugs are 'me-too', comparable in effectiveness and side effects to existing drugs, but with a more ambiguous evidence base around adverse effects. Despite this, new treatments drive increased health care spending, suggesting a preference for 'newness' in this setting. We explore (1) whether preferences for treatments labeled 'new' exist and (2) persist once the ambiguity in the evidence base reflecting newness is described. We use a Canadian general population sample (n = 2837) characterized by their innovativeness in adopting new products in normal markets. We found that innovators/early adopters (n = 173) had significant preferences for 'newer' treatments (B = 0.162, p = 0.038) irrespective of comparable benefits and side effects and all respondents had significant preferences for less ambiguity in benefit/side effect estimates. Notably, when 'newness' was combined with ambiguity, no significant preferences for new treatments were observed regardless of respondent innovativeness. We conclude that preferences for new products exist for some people in health care markets but disappear when the implication of ambiguity in the evidence base for new treatments is communicated. Physicians should avoid describing treatments as 'new' or be mindful to qualify the implications of 'new' treatments in terms of evidence ambiguity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Isoclinic Ambiguity Unwrapping of Circular Ring under Diametric Compression

    Huang M.-J.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Isoclinic and isochromatic parameters in photoelastic analysis are formulated by arc tangent function of several phase shifting frames but for isochromatic calculation it is, in addition, in terms of isoclinic data also. Thus, any isoclinic phase ambiguity would also result in the phase inconsistencies of isochromatic calculation and cause unwrapping problems and difficulties. Many methods had been proposed to treat these kinds of isochromatic fringes but lots of treatments were needed for the correct retrieval. In this work, the isoclinic ambiguity problem is investigated and solved directly by a novel regional phase unwrapping technique. Once the isoclinic phase ambiguity problems are solved, a correct isoclinic result can be obtained. Then, substituting this result into the isochromatic formation yields an ambiguity free isochromatic phase map, which can be easily restored by any phase unwrapping algorithm. A stress frozen sample - circular ring under diametric compression verifies its effectiveness. Usually happened is that this kind of sample is with ambiguous isoclinic data which would cause phase ambiguities of the isochromatic formulation if not treated well first.

  14. Instantaneous and controllable integer ambiguity resolution: review and an alternative approach

    Zhang, Jingyu; Wu, Meiping; Li, Tao; Zhang, Kaidong

    2015-11-01

    In the high-precision application of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), integer ambiguity resolution is the key step to realize precise positioning and attitude determination. As the necessary part of quality control, integer aperture (IA) ambiguity resolution provides the theoretical and practical foundation for ambiguity validation. It is mainly realized by acceptance testing. Due to the constraint of correlation between ambiguities, it is impossible to realize the controlling of failure rate according to analytical formula. Hence, the fixed failure rate approach is implemented by Monte Carlo sampling. However, due to the characteristics of Monte Carlo sampling and look-up table, we have to face the problem of a large amount of time consumption if sufficient GNSS scenarios are included in the creation of look-up table. This restricts the fixed failure rate approach to be a post process approach if a look-up table is not available. Furthermore, if not enough GNSS scenarios are considered, the table may only be valid for a specific scenario or application. Besides this, the method of creating look-up table or look-up function still needs to be designed for each specific acceptance test. To overcome these problems in determination of critical values, this contribution will propose an instantaneous and CONtrollable (iCON) IA ambiguity resolution approach for the first time. The iCON approach has the following advantages: (a) critical value of acceptance test is independently determined based on the required failure rate and GNSS model without resorting to external information such as look-up table; (b) it can be realized instantaneously for most of IA estimators which have analytical probability formulas. The stronger GNSS model, the less time consumption; (c) it provides a new viewpoint to improve the research about IA estimation. To verify these conclusions, multi-frequency and multi-GNSS simulation experiments are implemented. Those results show that IA

  15. Estimating ambiguity preferences and perceptions in multiple prior models: Evidence from the field

    Dimmock, Stephen G.; Kouwenberg, Roy; Mitchell, Olivia S.; Peijnenburg, Kim

    2016-01-01

    We develop a tractable method to estimate multiple prior models of decision-making under ambiguity. In a representative sample of the U.S. population, we measure ambiguity attitudes in the gain and loss domains. We find that ambiguity aversion is common for uncertain events of moderate to high likelihood involving gains, but ambiguity seeking prevails for low likelihoods and for losses. We show that choices made under ambiguity in the gain domain are best explained by the α-MaxMin model, with one parameter measuring ambiguity aversion (ambiguity preferences) and a second parameter quantifying the perceived degree of ambiguity (perceptions about ambiguity). The ambiguity aversion parameter α is constant and prior probability sets are asymmetric for low and high likelihood events. The data reject several other models, such as MaxMin and MaxMax, as well as symmetric probability intervals. Ambiguity aversion and the perceived degree of ambiguity are both higher for men and for the college-educated. Ambiguity aversion (but not perceived ambiguity) is also positively related to risk aversion. In the loss domain, we find evidence of reflection, implying that ambiguity aversion for gains tends to reverse into ambiguity seeking for losses. Our model’s estimates for preferences and perceptions about ambiguity can be used to analyze the economic and financial implications of such preferences. PMID:26924890

  16. Estimating ambiguity preferences and perceptions in multiple prior models: Evidence from the field.

    Dimmock, Stephen G; Kouwenberg, Roy; Mitchell, Olivia S; Peijnenburg, Kim

    2015-12-01

    We develop a tractable method to estimate multiple prior models of decision-making under ambiguity. In a representative sample of the U.S. population, we measure ambiguity attitudes in the gain and loss domains. We find that ambiguity aversion is common for uncertain events of moderate to high likelihood involving gains, but ambiguity seeking prevails for low likelihoods and for losses. We show that choices made under ambiguity in the gain domain are best explained by the α-MaxMin model, with one parameter measuring ambiguity aversion (ambiguity preferences) and a second parameter quantifying the perceived degree of ambiguity (perceptions about ambiguity). The ambiguity aversion parameter α is constant and prior probability sets are asymmetric for low and high likelihood events. The data reject several other models, such as MaxMin and MaxMax, as well as symmetric probability intervals. Ambiguity aversion and the perceived degree of ambiguity are both higher for men and for the college-educated. Ambiguity aversion (but not perceived ambiguity) is also positively related to risk aversion. In the loss domain, we find evidence of reflection, implying that ambiguity aversion for gains tends to reverse into ambiguity seeking for losses. Our model's estimates for preferences and perceptions about ambiguity can be used to analyze the economic and financial implications of such preferences.

  17. Self-reference modulates the processing of emotional stimuli in the absence of explicit self-referential appraisal instructions

    Pauli, Paul; Herbert, Beate M.

    2011-01-01

    Self-referential evaluation of emotional stimuli has been shown to modify the way emotional stimuli are processed. This study aimed at a new approach by investigating whether self-reference alters emotion processing in the absence of explicit self-referential appraisal instructions. Event-related potentials were measured while subjects spontaneously viewed a series of emotional and neutral nouns. Nouns were preceded either by personal pronouns (‘my’) indicating self-reference or a definite article (‘the’) without self-reference. The early posterior negativity, a brain potential reflecting rapid attention capture by emotional stimuli was enhanced for unpleasant and pleasant nouns relative to neutral nouns irrespective of whether nouns were preceded by personal pronouns or articles. Later brain potentials such as the late positive potential were enhanced for unpleasant nouns only when preceded by personal pronouns. Unpleasant nouns were better remembered than pleasant or neutral nouns when paired with a personal pronoun. Correlation analysis showed that this bias in favor of self-related unpleasant concepts can be explained by participants’ depression scores. Our results demonstrate that self-reference acts as a first processing filter for emotional material to receive higher order processing after an initial rapid attention capture by emotional content has been completed. Mood-congruent processing may contribute to this effect. PMID:20855295

  18. Spectroscopic approaches to resolving ambiguities of hyper-polarized NMR signals from different reaction cascades

    Jensen, Pernille Rose; Meier, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    The influx of exogenous substrates into cellular reaction cascades on the seconds time scale is directly observable by NMR spectroscopy when using nuclear spin polarization enhancement. Conventional NMR assignment spectra for the identification of reaction intermediates are not applicable...... in these experiments due to the non-equilibrium nature of the nuclear spin polarization enhancement. We show that ambiguities in the intracellular identification of transient reaction intermediates can be resolved by experimental schemes using site-specific isotope labelling, optimised referencing and response...

  19. MEDICAL AUDIT OF CHILDREN WITH AMBIGUOUS GENITALIA- REVIEW OF CHILDREN TREATED OVER 18 YEARS

    Praburam P. M

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The survival of a newborn or a child presenting with ambiguous genitalia depends upon the timely diagnosis and institution of appropriate medical care. We undertook this study with the aim to determine if appropriate clinical and confirmatory diagnosis was arrived on time and if the treatment instituted was relevant and satisfactory. Methods: All children who were evaluated for ambiguous genitalia under the Department of Pediatric Endocrinology over the preceding 18 years were invited for a review. Data including time taken to make a clinical diagnosis, time taken to confirm the diagnosis, reasons for delay if any, and appropriateness of the sex assigned for rearing and treatment instituted were collected from the charts. Patients were evaluated for adequacy of response to treatment, compliance, problems encountered if any and subjective parental satisfaction. Results: A total of 165 children were diagnosed to have conditions with ambiguous genitalia and were called for a review. 33 children attended the review. 15 were being raised as boys and 18 as girls. 12 children had virilising congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH, 6 had cryptorchidism, 6 had hypospadias, 3 had complete and 1 had partial testicular feminisation, 2 had mixed gonadal dysgenesis (MGD, 2 had hypogonadism and 1 was a true hermaphrodite. An appropriate clinical diagnosis was made in 30childrenon the day one and a final confirmatory diagnosis was made within a month in 23. Conclusion: In most conditions presenting with ambiguous genitalia, a clinical and confirmatory diagnosis can be made in a short duration. Initiation of appropriate treatment results in favourable outcomes in terms of growth sexual identity and adaptation.

  20. Propagation and wavefront ambiguity of linear nondiffracting beams

    Grunwald, R.; Bock, M.

    2014-02-01

    Ultrashort-pulsed Bessel and Airy beams in free space are often interpreted as "linear light bullets". Usually, interconnected intensity profiles are considered a "propagation" along arbitrary pathways which can even follow curved trajectories. A more detailed analysis, however, shows that this picture gives an adequate description only in situations which do not require to consider the transport of optical signals or causality. To also cover these special cases, a generalization of the terms "beam" and "propagation" is necessary. The problem becomes clearer by representing the angular spectra of the propagating wave fields by rays or Poynting vectors. It is known that quasi-nondiffracting beams can be described as caustics of ray bundles. Their decomposition into Poynting vectors by Shack-Hartmann sensors indicates that, in the frame of their classical definition, the corresponding local wavefronts are ambiguous and concepts based on energy density are not appropriate to describe the propagation completely. For this reason, quantitative parameters like the beam propagation factor have to be treated with caution as well. For applications like communication or optical computing, alternative descriptions are required. A heuristic approach based on vector field based information transport and Fourier analysis is proposed here. Continuity and discontinuity of far field distributions in space and time are discussed. Quantum aspects of propagation are briefly addressed.

  1. The ambiguity of altruism in nursing: A qualitative study.

    Slettmyr, Anna; Schandl, Anna; Arman, Maria

    2017-01-01

    For a long time, altruism was the basis for caring. Today, when society is more individualized, it is of interest to explore the meaning of altruism in nursing. In all, 13 nurses from a Swedish acute care setting participated in two focus group interviews performed as Socratic dialogues. Data were analyzed using a phenomenological hermeneutical method. Ethical considerations: Ethical issues were considered throughout the process according to established ethical principles. Informed consent was obtained from all participants, confidentiality regarding the data was guaranteed and quotations anonymized. Altruism created a sense of ambivalence and ambiguity, described as a rise of sovereign expressions of life caused by "the other's" need, but also unwillingness to take unconditional responsibility for "the other." Society's expectations of altruism and nurses' perception of their work as a salaried job collide in modern healthcare. Nurses are not willing to fully respond to the ethical demand of the patients. In case of a disaster, when nurses personal safety, life and health may be at risk, there might be reasons to question whether the healthcare organization would be able to fulfill its obligations of providing healthcare to an entire population.

  2. Benefits of using culturally unfamiliar stimuli in ambiguous emotion identification: A cross-cultural study.

    Koelkebeck, Katja; Kohl, Waldemar; Luettgenau, Julia; Triantafillou, Susanna; Ohrmann, Patricia; Satoh, Shinji; Minoshita, Seiko

    2015-07-30

    A novel emotion recognition task that employs photos of a Japanese mask representing a highly ambiguous stimulus was evaluated. As non-Asians perceive and/or label emotions differently from Asians, we aimed to identify patterns of task-performance in non-Asian healthy volunteers with a view to future patient studies. The Noh mask test was presented to 42 adult German participants. Reaction times and emotion attribution patterns were recorded. To control for emotion identification abilities, a standard emotion recognition task was used among others. Questionnaires assessed personality traits. Finally, results were compared to age- and gender-matched Japanese volunteers. Compared to other tasks, German participants displayed slowest reaction times on the Noh mask test, indicating higher demands of ambiguous emotion recognition. They assigned more positive emotions to the mask than Japanese volunteers, demonstrating culture-dependent emotion identification patterns. As alexithymic and anxious traits were associated with slower reaction times, personality dimensions impacted on performance, as well. We showed an advantage of ambiguous over conventional emotion recognition tasks. Moreover, we determined emotion identification patterns in Western individuals impacted by personality dimensions, suggesting performance differences in clinical samples. Due to its properties, the Noh mask test represents a promising tool in the differential diagnosis of psychiatric disorders, e.g. schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Rainbow-shift mechanism behind discrete optical-potential ambiguities

    Brandan, M.E.; McVoy, K.W.

    1991-01-01

    Some years ago, Drisko et al. suggested that the discrete ambiguity often encountered for elastic scattering optical potentials could be understood as being due to the interior or small-l S-matrix elements for two ''equivalent'' potentials differing in phase by 2π, l-by-l. We point out that the absence of this phase change for peripheral partial waves is equally essential, and suggest that a deeper understanding of the ambiguity may be achieved by viewing it as a consequence of a farside interference between interior and peripheral partial waves. It is this interference which produces the broad ''Airy maxima'' of a nuclear rainbow, and we show that a Drisko-type phase-shift increment δ l →(δ l +π) for low-l phases relative to the high-l ones is exactly what is needed to shift a farside rainbow pattern by one Airy maximum, thus providing an equivalent ''rainbow-shift'' interpretation of the discrete ambiguity. The physical importance of both interpretations lies in the fact that the existence of discrete ambiguities (as well as of nuclear rainbows) is explicit evidence for low-l transparency in nucleus-nucleus collisions. The essential role played by low partial waves explains why peripheral reactions have generally not proven helpful in resolving this ambiguity

  4. Increasing Statistical Literacy by Exploiting Lexical Ambiguity of Technical Terms

    Jennifer Kaplan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Instructional inattention to language poses a barrier for students in entry-level science courses, in part because students may perceive a subject as difficult solely based on the lack of understanding of the vocabulary. In addition, the technical use of terms that have different everyday meanings may cause students to misinterpret statements made by instructors, leading to an incomplete or incorrect understanding of the domain. Terms that have different technical and everyday meanings are said to have lexical ambiguity and statistics, as a discipline, has many lexically ambiguous terms. This paper presents a cyclic process for designing activities to address lexical ambiguity in statistics. In addition, it describes three short activities aimed to have high impact on student learning associated with two different lexically ambiguous words or word pairs in statistics. Preliminary student-level data are used to assess the efficacy of the activities, and future directions for development of activities and research about lexical ambiguity in statistics in particular and STEM in general are discussed.

  5. Marine Creatures and the Sea in Bronze Age Greece: Ambiguities of Meaning

    Berg, Ina

    2013-06-01

    Like most cultures, prehistoric Greek communities had an ambiguous relationship with the sea and the creatures that inhabit it. Positive and negative associations always co-existed, though the particular manifestations changed over time. By drawing together evidence of consumption of marine animals, seafaring, fishing, and iconography, this article unites disparate strands of evidence in an attempt to illuminate the relationship prehistoric Greeks had with marine creatures and the sea. Based on the marked reduction in seafood consumption after the Mesolithic and the use of marine creatures in funerary iconography in the post-palatial period, it becomes apparent that the sea—then as now—is an inherently ambiguous medium that captures both positive and negative emotions. On the one hand, the sea and the animals residing in it are strongly associated with death. On the other hand, the sea's positive dimensions, such as fertility and rebirth, are expressed in conspicuous marine consumption events.

  6. Long-Duration Spaceflight Increases Depth Ambiguity of Reversible Perspective Figures

    Clément, Gilles; Allaway, Heather C. M.; Demel, Michael; Golemis, Adrianos; Kindrat, Alexandra N.; Melinyshyn, Alexander N.; Merali, Tahir; Thirsk, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate depth perception in astronauts during and after spaceflight by studying their sensitivity to reversible perspective figures in which two-dimensional images could elicit two possible depth representations. Other ambiguous figures that did not give rise to a perception of illusory depth were used as controls. Six astronauts and 14 subjects were tested in the laboratory during three sessions for evaluating the variability of their responses in normal gravity. The six astronauts were then tested during four sessions while on board the International Space Station for 5–6 months. They were finally tested immediately after return to Earth and up to one week later. The reaction time decreased throughout the sessions, thus indicating a learning effect. However, the time to first percept reversal and the number of reversals were not different in orbit and after the flight compared to before the flight. On Earth, when watching depth-ambiguous perspective figures, all subjects reported seeing one three-dimensional interpretation more often than the other, i.e. a ratio of about 70–30%. In weightlessness this asymmetry gradually disappeared and after 3 months in orbit both interpretations were seen for the same duration. These results indicate that the perception of “illusory” depth is altered in astronauts during spaceflight. This increased depth ambiguity is attributed to the lack of the gravitational reference and the eye-ground elevation for interpreting perspective depth cues. PMID:26146839

  7. Long-Duration Spaceflight Increases Depth Ambiguity of Reversible Perspective Figures.

    Gilles Clément

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate depth perception in astronauts during and after spaceflight by studying their sensitivity to reversible perspective figures in which two-dimensional images could elicit two possible depth representations. Other ambiguous figures that did not give rise to a perception of illusory depth were used as controls. Six astronauts and 14 subjects were tested in the laboratory during three sessions for evaluating the variability of their responses in normal gravity. The six astronauts were then tested during four sessions while on board the International Space Station for 5-6 months. They were finally tested immediately after return to Earth and up to one week later. The reaction time decreased throughout the sessions, thus indicating a learning effect. However, the time to first percept reversal and the number of reversals were not different in orbit and after the flight compared to before the flight. On Earth, when watching depth-ambiguous perspective figures, all subjects reported seeing one three-dimensional interpretation more often than the other, i.e. a ratio of about 70-30%. In weightlessness this asymmetry gradually disappeared and after 3 months in orbit both interpretations were seen for the same duration. These results indicate that the perception of "illusory" depth is altered in astronauts during spaceflight. This increased depth ambiguity is attributed to the lack of the gravitational reference and the eye-ground elevation for interpreting perspective depth cues.

  8. Scheme-scale ambiguity in analysis of QCD observable

    Mirjalili, A.; Kniehl, B.A.

    2010-01-01

    The scheme-scale ambiguity that has plagued perturbative analysis in QCD remains on obstacle to making precise tests of the theory. Many attempts have been done to resolve the scale ambiguity. In this regard the BLM, EC, PMS and CORGI approaches are more distinct. We try to employ these methods to fix the scale ambiguity at NLO, NNLO and even in more higher order approximations. By optimizing the renormalization scale, there will be a possibility to predicate higher order terms. We present general results for predicted terms at any order, using different optimization methods. Some observable as specific examples will be used to indicate the validity of scale fixing to predicate the higher order terms. (authors)

  9. Phase ambiguity resolution for offset QPSK modulation systems

    Nguyen, Tien M. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A demodulator for Offset Quaternary Phase Shift Keyed (OQPSK) signals modulated with two words resolves eight possible combinations of phase ambiguity which may produce data error by first processing received I(sub R) and Q(sub R) data in an integrated carrier loop/symbol synchronizer using a digital Costas loop with matched filters for correcting four of eight possible phase lock errors, and then the remaining four using a phase ambiguity resolver which detects the words to not only reverse the received I(sub R) and Q(sub R) data channels, but to also invert (complement) the I(sub R) and/or Q(sub R) data, or to at least complement the I(sub R) and Q(sub R) data for systems using nontransparent codes that do not have rotation direction ambiguity.

  10. Authoritarianism, cognitive rigidity, and the processing of ambiguous visual information.

    Duncan, Lauren E; Peterson, Bill E

    2014-01-01

    Intolerance of ambiguity and cognitive rigidity are unifying aspects of authoritarianism as defined by Adorno, Frenkel-Brunswik, Levinson, and Sanford (1982/1950), who hypothesized that authoritarians view the world in absolute terms (e.g., good or evil). Past studies have documented the relationship between authoritarianism and intolerance of ambiguity and rigidity. Frenkel-Brunswik (1949) hypothesized that this desire for absolutism was rooted in perceptual processes. We present a study with three samples that directly tests the relationship between right wing authoritarianism (RWA) and the processing of ideologically neutral but ambiguous visual stimuli. As hypothesized, in all three samples we found that RWA was related to the slower processing of visual information that required participants to recategorize objects. In a fourth sample, RWA was unrelated to speed of processing visual information that did not require recategorization. Overall, results suggest a relationship between RWA and rigidity in categorization.

  11. Cognitive Defusion versus Thought Distraction: A Clinical Rationale, Training, and Experiential Exercise in Altering Psychological Impacts of Negative Self-Referential Thoughts

    Masuda, Akihiko; Feinstein, Amanda B.; Wendell, Johanna W.; Sheehan, Shawn T.

    2010-01-01

    Using two modes of intervention delivery, the present study compared the effects of a cognitive defusion strategy with a thought distraction strategy on the emotional discomfort and believability of negative self-referential thoughts. One mode of intervention delivery consisted of a clinical rationale and training (i.e., Partial condition). The…

  12. Using Self-Referential Pronouns in Writing: The Effect of Explicit Instruction on L2 Writers at Two Levels of Proficiency

    Abbuhl, Rebekha

    2012-01-01

    Skilled writers have at their disposal a range of rhetorical strategies for positioning themselves as competent members of a particular discourse community, including the judicious use of self-referential pronouns (e.g. "I," "she," "he") to overtly signal authorial presence. However, while researchers routinely recommend that second language (L2)…

  13. The Development of Narrative Productivity, Syntactic Complexity, Referential Cohesion and Event Content in Four- to Eight-Year-Old Finnish Children

    Mäkinen, Leena; Loukusa, Soile; Nieminen, Lea; Leinonen, Eeva; Kunnari, Sari

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on the development of narrative structure and the relationship between narrative productivity and event content. A total of 172 Finnish children aged between four and eight participated. Their picture-elicited narrations were analysed for productivity, syntactic complexity, referential cohesion and event content. Each measure…

  14. Normalizing biomedical terms by minimizing ambiguity and variability

    McNaught John

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the difficulties in mapping biomedical named entities, e.g. genes, proteins, chemicals and diseases, to their concept identifiers stems from the potential variability of the terms. Soft string matching is a possible solution to the problem, but its inherent heavy computational cost discourages its use when the dictionaries are large or when real time processing is required. A less computationally demanding approach is to normalize the terms by using heuristic rules, which enables us to look up a dictionary in a constant time regardless of its size. The development of good heuristic rules, however, requires extensive knowledge of the terminology in question and thus is the bottleneck of the normalization approach. Results We present a novel framework for discovering a list of normalization rules from a dictionary in a fully automated manner. The rules are discovered in such a way that they minimize the ambiguity and variability of the terms in the dictionary. We evaluated our algorithm using two large dictionaries: a human gene/protein name dictionary built from BioThesaurus and a disease name dictionary built from UMLS. Conclusions The experimental results showed that automatically discovered rules can perform comparably to carefully crafted heuristic rules in term mapping tasks, and the computational overhead of rule application is small enough that a very fast implementation is possible. This work will help improve the performance of term-concept mapping tasks in biomedical information extraction especially when good normalization heuristics for the target terminology are not fully known.

  15. Absence of the Gribov ambiguity in a special algebraic gauge

    Raval Haresh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gribov ambiguity exists in various gauges except algebraic gauges. However in general, algebraic gauges are not Lorentz invariant, which is their fundamental flaw. Here we discuss a quadratic gauge fixing, which is Lorentz invariant. We show that nontrivial copies can not occur in this gauge. We then provide an example of spherically symmetric gauge field configuration and prove that with a proper boundary condition on the configuration, this gauge removes the ambiguity on a compact manifold S3${{\\mathbb S}^3}$.

  16. Portfolio Management with Stochastic Interest Rates and Inflation Ambiguity

    Munk, Claus; Rubtsov, Alexey Vladimirovich

    We solve a stock-bond-cash portfolio choice problem for a risk- and ambiguity-averse investor in a setting where the inflation rate and interest rates are stochastic. The expected inflation rate is unobservable, but the investor may learn about it from realized inflation and observed stock and bond......-Jacobi-Bellman equation in closed form and derive and illustrate a number of interesting properties of the solution. For example, ambiguity aversion affects the optimal portfolio through the correlation of price level with the stock index, a bond, and the expected inflation rate. Furthermore, unlike other settings...

  17. Impact of Decorrelation on Search Efficiency of Ambiguity Resolution

    LU Liguo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The decorrelation performance of LAMBDA algorithm, LLL algorithm and Seysen algorithm are analyzed with evaluation indexes, i.e., condition number, orthogonal defect and S(A. Moreover, relationships between decorrelation performance of the above algorithms and ambiguity search efficiency are evaluated using theoretical and practical validation, respectively. The results validate that there is no inevitable relation between decorrelation performance of variance-covariance matrix of original ambiguity and search efficiency, whereas, traditional views consider that search efficiency can be enhanced just by improving decorrelation performance. Further analysis shows that the essence to improving search efficiency major depends on the permutation of basis vectors according to a certain direction.

  18. Process ambiguities in Sino-Danish Business Negotiations

    Kumar, Rajesh; Worm, Verner

    2004-01-01

    . These ambiguities stem from differences in negotiation scripts across Danish and Chinese cultures. The essential argument being advanced here is that it is the effective and/or the ineffective management of process ambiguities that shapes the evolution of the negotiating dynamic between the Danish and the Chinese...... businesspeople. An inductive model of sino-Danish negotiations is developed that is based on 24 interviews conducted with Danish expatriate managers in China and 4 interviews with Chinese working in Danish companies. Implications for research and practice are discussed...

  19. Eigenvector/eigenvalue analysis of a 3D current referential fault detection and diagnosis of an induction motor

    Pires, V. Fernao; Martins, J.F.; Pires, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper an integrated approach for on-line induction motor fault detection and diagnosis is presented. The need to insure a continuous and safety operation for induction motors involves preventive maintenance procedures combined with fault diagnosis techniques. The proposed approach uses an automatic three step algorithm. Firstly, the induction motor stator currents are measured which will give typical patterns that can be used to identify the fault. Secondly, the eigenvectors/eigenvalues of the 3D current referential are computed. Finally the proposed algorithm will discern if the motor is healthy or not and report the extent of the fault. Furthermore this algorithm is able to identify distinct faults (stator winding faults or broken bars). The proposed approach was experimentally implemented and its performance verified on various types of working conditions.

  20. Working memory and referential communication – multimodal aspects of interaction between children with sensorineural hearing impairment and normal hearing peers

    Olof eSandgren

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Whereas the language development of children with sensorineural hearing impairment (SNHI has repeatedly been shown to differ from that of peers with normal hearing (NH, few studies have used an experimental approach to investigate the consequences on everyday communicative interaction. This mini review gives an overview of a range of studies on children with SNHI and NH exploring intra- and inter-individual cognitive and linguistic systems during communication.Over the last decade, our research group has studied the conversational strategies of Swedish speaking children and adolescents with SNHI and NH using referential communication, an experimental analogue to problem-solving in the classroom. We have established verbal and nonverbal control and validation mechanisms, related to working memory capacity (WMC and phonological short term memory (PSTM. We present main findings and future directions relevant for the field of cognitive hearing science and for the clinical and school-based management of children and adolescents with SNHI.

  1. Memory cueing during sleep modifies the interpretation of ambiguous scenes in adolescents and adults

    Sabine Groch

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The individual tendency to interpret ambiguous situations negatively is associated with mental disorders. Interpretation biases are already evident during adolescence and due to the greater plasticity of the developing brain it may be easier to change biases during this time. We investigated in healthy adolescents and adults whether stabilizing memories of positive or negative scenes modulates the later interpretation of similar scenes. In the evening, participants learnt associations between ambiguous pictures and words that disambiguate the valence of the pictures in a positive or negative direction. Half of the words were acoustically presented (i.e. cued during post-learning sleep which is known to benefit memory consolidation by inducing reactivation of learned information. Cued compared to un-cued stimuli were remembered better the next morning. Importantly, cueing positively disambiguated pictures resulted in more positive interpretations whereas cueing negatively disambiguated pictures led to less positive interpretations of new ambiguous pictures with similar contents the next morning. These effects were not modulated by participants’ age indicating that memory cueing was as efficient in adolescents as in adults. Our findings suggest that memory cueing during sleep can modify interpretation biases by benefitting memory stabilization and generalization. Implications for clinical settings are discussed.

  2. Analytical Review of Contemporary Fatwas in Resolving Biomedical Issues Over Gender Ambiguity.

    Zabidi, Taqwa

    2018-04-21

    Issues of gender ambiguity have been discussed over time from both Islamic and medical perspectives. In Islam, these issues are typically considered in the context of khunūthah (literally translated as hermaphroditism). While biomedical studies have appeared to provide a large amount of information on abnormal human biological development, i.e. Disorders of Sex Development (DSDs). However, the connection between these two fields has been given little attention. This research aims to determine the Islamic underpinnings through the fatwa around the globe. Thus, institutional fatwa organisations among Sunni schools of thought at the international, regional and national levels are observed. The fatwas regarding the management of individuals with gender ambiguity, not specifically on DSDs, are chosen and presented accordingly. Based on the findings, the sporadic fatwas from different parts of the world delineate the issue of sex ambiguity and seem to be able to provide general guidelines for management of Muslim patients with DSDs. Three common aspects have been discussed including the methodology of gender assignment, the decision-making process and the surgical and hormonal treatments.

  3. Information search and information distortion in the diagnosis of an ambiguous presentation

    Olga Kostopoulou

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Physicians often encounter diagnostic problems with ambiguous and conflicting features. What are they likely to do in such situations? We presented a diagnostic scenario to 84 family physicians and traced their information gathering, diagnoses and management. The scenario contained an ambiguous feature, while the other features supported either a cardiac or a musculoskeletal diagnosis. Due to the risk of death, the cardiac diagnosis should be considered and managed appropriately. Forty-seven participants (56\\% gave only a musculoskeletal diagnosis and 45 of them managed the patient inappropriately (sent him home with painkillers. They elicited less information and spent less time on the scenario than those who diagnosed a cardiac cause. No feedback was provided to participants. Stimulated recall with 52 of the physicians revealed differences in the way that the same information was interpreted as a function of the final diagnosis. The musculoskeletal group denigrated important cues, making them coherent with their representation of a pulled muscle, whilst the cardiac group saw them as evidence for a cardiac problem. Most physicians indicated that they were fairly or very certain about their diagnosis. The observed behaviours can be described as coherence-based reasoning, whereby an emerging judgment influences the evaluation of incoming information, so that confident judgments can be achieved even with ambiguous, uncertain and conflicting information. The role of coherence-based reasoning in medical diagnosis and diagnostic error needs to be systematically examined.

  4. Rotation Matrix Method Based on Ambiguity Function for GNSS Attitude Determination.

    Yang, Yingdong; Mao, Xuchu; Tian, Weifeng

    2016-06-08

    Global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) are well suited for attitude determination. In this study, we use the rotation matrix method to resolve the attitude angle. This method achieves better performance in reducing computational complexity and selecting satellites. The condition of the baseline length is combined with the ambiguity function method (AFM) to search for integer ambiguity, and it is validated in reducing the span of candidates. The noise error is always the key factor to the success rate. It is closely related to the satellite geometry model. In contrast to the AFM, the LAMBDA (Least-squares AMBiguity Decorrelation Adjustment) method gets better results in solving the relationship of the geometric model and the noise error. Although the AFM is more flexible, it is lack of analysis on this aspect. In this study, the influence of the satellite geometry model on the success rate is analyzed in detail. The computation error and the noise error are effectively treated. Not only is the flexibility of the AFM inherited, but the success rate is also increased. An experiment is conducted in a selected campus, and the performance is proved to be effective. Our results are based on simulated and real-time GNSS data and are applied on single-frequency processing, which is known as one of the challenging case of GNSS attitude determination.

  5. Rotation Matrix Method Based on Ambiguity Function for GNSS Attitude Determination

    Yingdong Yang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Global navigation satellite systems (GNSS are well suited for attitude determination. In this study, we use the rotation matrix method to resolve the attitude angle. This method achieves better performance in reducing computational complexity and selecting satellites. The condition of the baseline length is combined with the ambiguity function method (AFM to search for integer ambiguity, and it is validated in reducing the span of candidates. The noise error is always the key factor to the success rate. It is closely related to the satellite geometry model. In contrast to the AFM, the LAMBDA (Least-squares AMBiguity Decorrelation Adjustment method gets better results in solving the relationship of the geometric model and the noise error. Although the AFM is more flexible, it is lack of analysis on this aspect. In this study, the influence of the satellite geometry model on the success rate is analyzed in detail. The computation error and the noise error are effectively treated. Not only is the flexibility of the AFM inherited, but the success rate is also increased. An experiment is conducted in a selected campus, and the performance is proved to be effective. Our results are based on simulated and real-time GNSS data and are applied on single-frequency processing, which is known as one of the challenging case of GNSS attitude determination.

  6. Neutrality in mediation: an ambiguous ethical value

    Bailey, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Mediator neutrality would appear, by definition, to be a necessary and required ethical principle for all mediators to practice. But what is meant by neutrality in mediation? Is it practically possible to be completely neutral between parties in mediation while at the same time being fair to both of them? This paper attempts to answer these two questions.

  7. Generalized Coulomb gauge without Gribov ambiguity

    Fachin, S.; Parrinello, C. (New York Univ., NY (United States). Physics Dept.)

    1992-05-01

    We discuss a global gauge-fixing prescription that is free of the Gribov problem, preserves reflection positivity and contains as a limiting case the (maximal) Coulomb gauge. In such a formalism it is very easy to check that only color singlet states propagate in Euclidean time, for any value of [beta]. (orig.).

  8. Translation Ambiguity but Not Word Class Predicts Translation Performance

    Prior, Anat; Kroll, Judith F.; Macwhinney, Brian

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the influence of word class and translation ambiguity on cross-linguistic representation and processing. Bilingual speakers of English and Spanish performed translation production and translation recognition tasks on nouns and verbs in both languages. Words either had a single translation or more than one translation. Translation…

  9. A Mindfulness Experiential Small Group to Help Students Tolerate Ambiguity

    Bohecker, Lynn; Vereen, Linwood G.; Wells, Pamela C.; Wathen, Cristen C.

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the lived experiences of 20 counselors-in-training (CITs) in a mindfulness experiential small group. Using grounded theory, the authors described a 5-dimensional model for navigating ambiguity. Findings suggest mindfulness training provides CITs self-reflection skills and a greater ability to manage cognitive complexity.

  10. On the robustness and possible accounts of ambiguity aversion

    Keren, G.; Gerritsen, L.E.M.

    1999-01-01

    Ambiguity aversion is one of the most robust phenomena documented in the decision making literature, though there are still disagreements concerning what constitutes an adequate account for its occurrence. We describe six experiments that shed additional light on the enigmatic phenomenon of

  11. Resolving ambiguities in reconstructed grain maps using discrete tomography

    Alpers, A.; Knudsen, E.; Poulsen, H.F.

    2005-01-01

    reconstruct the image from diffraction data, but they are often unable to assign unambiguous values to all pixels. We present an approach that resolves these ambiguous pixels by using a Monte Carlo technique that exploits the discrete nature of the problem and utilizes proven methods of discrete tomography...

  12. Dealing with behavioral ambiguity in textual process descriptions

    van der Aa, Han; Leopold, Henrik; Reijers, Hajo A.

    2016-01-01

    Textual process descriptions are widely used in organizations since they can be created and understood by virtually everyone. The inherent ambiguity of natural language, however, impedes the automated analysis of textual process descriptions. While human readers can use their context knowledge to

  13. Sealed bid auctions with ambiguity: theory and experiments

    Chen, Y.; Katuščák, Peter; Ozdenoren, E.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 136, č. 1 (2007), s. 513-535 ISSN 0022-0531 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : sealed bid auctions * ambiguity * experiment Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.353, year: 2007

  14. Sealed bid auctions with ambiguity: an experimental study

    Chen, Y.; Katuščák, Peter; Ozdenoren, E.

    -, č. 269 (2005), s. 1-75 ISSN 1211-3298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : sealed bid auctions * ambiguity * experiment Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp269.pdf

  15. Psychometric Analysis of Role Conflict and Ambiguity Scales in Academia

    Khan, Anwar; Yusoff, Rosman Bin Md.; Khan, Muhammad Muddassar; Yasir, Muhammad; Khan, Faisal

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive Psychometric Analysis of Rizzo et al.'s (1970) Role Conflict & Ambiguity (RCA) scales were performed after its distribution among 600 academic staff working in six universities of Pakistan. The reliability analysis includes calculation of Cronbach Alpha Coefficients and Inter-Items statistics, whereas validity was determined by…

  16. Static vs Dynamic Auctions with Ambiguity Averse Bidders

    Carvalho, M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This paper presents the outcome of a dynamic price-descending auction when the distribution of the private values is uncertain and bidders exhibit ambiguity aversion. In contrast to sealed-bid auctions, in open auctions the bidders get information about the other bidders' private values

  17. How to Capture and Present Complexity, Ambivalence and Ambiguity

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    Bakhtin was a literary theorist and was the widely acknowledged father of dialogism. This working paper shows how Bakhtin and dialogism can be used to capture complexity, ambivalence and ambiguity in the social world. In following the spirit of dialogism, I will refer to my own research experiences...

  18. Sublexical Ambiguity Effect in Reading Chinese Disyllabic Compounds

    Huang, Hsu-Wen; Lee, Chia-Ying; Tsai, Jie-Li; Tzeng, Ovid J.-L.

    2011-01-01

    For Chinese compounds, neighbors can share either both orthographic forms and meanings, or orthographic forms only. In this study, central presentation and visual half-field (VF) presentation methods were used in conjunction with ERP measures to investigate how readers solve the sublexical semantic ambiguity of the first constituent character in…

  19. Why Ambiguity Detection Is a Predictor of Early Reading Skill

    Wankoff, Lorain Szabo; Cairns, Helen Smith

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the contributions of metalinguistic skill and psycholinguistic processing ability to children's ability to detect the ambiguity of sentences and the relationship among all three factors to early reading ability. A total of 20 first graders and 20 second graders were given tasks testing the following abilities:…

  20. Chasing Ambiguity: Critical Reflections on Working with Dance Graduates

    Roe, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    This paper questions whether are we able to foster uncertainty and ambiguity within higher education arts programmes, specifically alongside current institutional demands and embedded pedagogies. If not, then what effect does this have on current dance graduates? I attend to these questions through critical reflections upon my work as a pedagogue,…

  1. Textbook Presentations of Weight: Conceptual Difficulties and Language Ambiguities

    Taibu, Rex; Rudge, David; Schuster, David

    2015-01-01

    The term "weight" has multiple related meanings in both scientific and everyday usage. Even among experts and in textbooks, weight is ambiguously defined as either the gravitational force on an object or operationally as the magnitude of the force an object exerts on a measuring scale. This poses both conceptual and language difficulties…

  2. Diffeomorphisms, Anomalies and the Fefferman-Graham Ambiguity

    Schwimmer, A.; Theisen, S.

    2000-01-01

    Using the Weyl transfomations induced by diffeomorphisms we set up a cohomological problem for the Fefferman-Graham coefficients. The cohomologically nontrivial solutions remove the ambiguity and give the nonlocal terms in the effective action responsible for the trace anomalies. (author)

  3. Ambiguity of the equivalence principle and Hawking's temperature

    Hooft, G. 't

    1984-01-01

    There are two inequivalent ways in which the laws of physics in a gravitational field can be related to the laws in an inertial frame, when quantum mechanical effects are taken into account. This leads to an ambiguity in the derivation of Hawking's radiation temperature for a black hole: it could be

  4. Children's Use of Gesture to Resolve Lexical Ambiguity

    Kidd, Evan; Holler, Judith

    2009-01-01

    We report on a study investigating 3-5-year-old children's use of gesture to resolve lexical ambiguity. Children were told three short stories that contained two homonym senses; for example, "bat" (flying mammal) and "bat" (sports equipment). They were then asked to re-tell these stories to a second experimenter. The data were coded for the means…

  5. Doctoral Dissertation Defences: Performing Ambiguity between Ceremony and Assessment

    van der Heide, Arjen; Rufas, Alix; Supper, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Dissertation defenses are ambiguous affairs, which mark both the end of a long process of doctoral education and the inauguration of a doctoral candidate into a body of experts. At Maastricht University (and other Dutch universities), the decision to award a doctoral degree is made on the basis of

  6. Is Multilingualism Linked to a Higher Tolerance of Ambiguity?

    DeWaele, Jean-Marc; Wei, Li

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the link between multilingualism and the personality trait Tolerance of Ambiguity (TA) among 2158 mono-, bi- and multilinguals. Monolinguals and bilinguals scored significantly lower on TA compared to multilinguals. A high level of global proficiency of various languages was linked to higher TA scores. A stay abroad…

  7. On the Measurement and Properties of Ambiguity in Probabilistic Expectations

    Pickett, Justin T.; Loughran, Thomas A.; Bushway, Shawn

    2015-01-01

    Survey respondents' probabilistic expectations are now widely used in many fields to study risk perceptions, decision-making processes, and behavior. Researchers have developed several methods to account for the fact that the probability of an event may be more ambiguous for some respondents than others, but few prior studies have empirically…

  8. The ambiguity of US foreign policy towards Africa

    Olsen, Gorm Rye

    2017-01-01

    appear incoherent and ambiguous if judged narrowly on the expectation that it only aims to take care of US national security concerns and economic self-interests. The paper concludes that Africa was important to the United States during the presidencies of George W. Bush and Barack Obama because...

  9. The ambiguity of simplicity in quantum and classical simulation

    Aghamohammadi, Cina; Mahoney, John R.; Crutchfield, James P.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Simplicity depends on whether a system is represented classically or quantally. • We demonstrate that simplicity is unavoidably ambiguous. • Relative simplicity changes order moving between classical and quantum descriptions. • Ambiguity of simplicity bears directly on model selection. - Abstract: A system's perceived simplicity depends on whether it is represented classically or quantally. This is not so surprising, as classical and quantum physics are descriptive frameworks built on different assumptions that capture, emphasize, and express different properties and mechanisms. What is surprising is that, as we demonstrate, simplicity is ambiguous: the relative simplicity between two systems can change sign when moving between classical and quantum descriptions. Here, we associate simplicity with small model-memory. We see that the notions of absolute physical simplicity at best form a partial, not a total, order. This suggests that appeals to principles of physical simplicity, via Ockham's Razor or to the “elegance” of competing theories, may be fundamentally subjective. Recent rapid progress in quantum computation and quantum simulation suggest that the ambiguity of simplicity will strongly impact statistical inference and, in particular, model selection.

  10. "What Happened?" Teaching Attribution Theory through Ambiguous Prompts

    McArthur, John

    2011-01-01

    The concept of attribution, "the act of explaining why something happens or why a person acts a particular way," is typically an abstract concept. This 35-50-minute activity invites students to make a series of attributions by asking them "What happened?" in ambiguous scenes presented in class. Then, students retrospectively identify what…

  11. GLONASS CDMA L3 ambiguity resolution and positioning

    Zaminpardaz, Safoora; Teunissen, P.J.G.; Nadarajah, Nandakumaran

    2016-01-01

    A first assessment of GLONASS CDMA L3 ambiguity resolution and positioning performance is provided. Our analyses are based on GLONASS L3 data from the satellite pair SVNs 755-801, received by two JAVAD receivers at Curtin University, Perth, Australia. In our analyses, four different versions of

  12. The ambiguity of simplicity in quantum and classical simulation

    Aghamohammadi, Cina, E-mail: caghamohammadi@ucdavis.edu; Mahoney, John R., E-mail: jrmahoney@ucdavis.edu; Crutchfield, James P., E-mail: chaos@ucdavis.edu

    2017-04-11

    Highlights: • Simplicity depends on whether a system is represented classically or quantally. • We demonstrate that simplicity is unavoidably ambiguous. • Relative simplicity changes order moving between classical and quantum descriptions. • Ambiguity of simplicity bears directly on model selection. - Abstract: A system's perceived simplicity depends on whether it is represented classically or quantally. This is not so surprising, as classical and quantum physics are descriptive frameworks built on different assumptions that capture, emphasize, and express different properties and mechanisms. What is surprising is that, as we demonstrate, simplicity is ambiguous: the relative simplicity between two systems can change sign when moving between classical and quantum descriptions. Here, we associate simplicity with small model-memory. We see that the notions of absolute physical simplicity at best form a partial, not a total, order. This suggests that appeals to principles of physical simplicity, via Ockham's Razor or to the “elegance” of competing theories, may be fundamentally subjective. Recent rapid progress in quantum computation and quantum simulation suggest that the ambiguity of simplicity will strongly impact statistical inference and, in particular, model selection.

  13. The skew ray ambiguity in the analysis of videokeratoscopic data.

    Iskander, D Robert; Davis, Brett A; Collins, Michael J

    2007-05-01

    Skew ray ambiguity is present in most videokeratoscopic measurements when azimuthal components of the corneal curvature are not taken into account. There have been some reported studies based on theoretical predictions and measured test surfaces suggesting that skew ray ambiguity is significant for highly deformed corneas or decentered corneal measurements. However, the effect of skew ray ambiguity in ray tracing through videokeratoscopic data has not been studied in depth. We have evaluated the significance of the skew ray ambiguity and its effect on the analyzed corneal optics. This has been achieved by devising a procedure in which we compared the corneal wavefront aberrations estimated from 3D ray tracing with those determined from 2D (meridional based) estimates of the refractive power. The latter was possible due to recently developed concept of refractive Zernike power polynomials which links the refractive power domain with that of the wavefront. Simulated corneal surfaces as well as data from a range of corneas (from two different Placido disk-based videokeratoscopes) were used to find the limit at which the difference in estimated corneal wavefronts (or the corresponding refractive powers) would have clinical significance (e.g., equivalent to 0.125 D or more). The inclusion/exclusion of the skew ray in the analyses showed some differences in the results. However, the proposed procedure showed clinically significant differences only for highly deformed corneas and only for large corneal diameters. For the overwhelming majority of surfaces, the skew ray ambiguity is not a clinically significant issue in the analysis of the videokeratoscopic data indicating that the meridional processing such as that encountered in calculation of the refractive power maps is adequate.

  14. Young children with ASD use lexical and referential information during on-line sentence processing

    Edith L. Bavin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Research with adults and older children indicates that verb biases are strong influences on listeners’ interpretations when processing sentences, but they can be overruled. In this paper we ask two questions: (i are children with ASD who are high functioning sensitive to verb biases like their same age typically developing peers?, and (ii do young children with ASD and young children with typical development override strong verb biases to consider alternative interpretations of ambiguous sentences? Participants were aged 5-9 years (mean age 6.65 years: children with ASD who were high functioning and children with typical development. In task 1 biasing and neutral verbs were included (e.g., eat cake versus move cake. In task 2 the focus was on whether the prepositional phrase occurring with an instrument biasing verb (e.g. ‘chop the tree with the axe’ was interpreted as an instrument even if the named item was an implausible instrument (e.g. candle in ‘Cut the cake with the candle’. Overall, the results showed similarities between groups but the ASD group was generally slower. In task 1, both groups looked at the named object faster in the biasing than the non-biasing condition, and in the biasing condition the ASD group looked away from the target more quickly than the TD group. In task 2, both groups identified the target in the prepositional phrase. They were more likely to override the verb instrument bias and consider the alternative (modification interpretation in the implausible condition (e.g., looking at the picture of a cake with a candle on it’. Our findings indicate that children of age 5 years and above can use context to override verb biases. Additionally, an important component of the sentence processing mechanism is largely intact for young children with ASD who are high functioning. Like children with typical development, they draw on verb semantics and plausibility in integrating information. However, they are likely

  15. Ambiguities of functional integrals for fermionic systems

    Cordero, P.

    1981-01-01

    We study the path integral quantization of a purely fermionic system in the semiclassical approximation. It is crucial that the analogue of the usual method of stationary phase works for integrals over Grassmann variables. Our analysis is based on a quite trivial example (the exact solution is known), and therefore we can check when the results make sense. It is shown that just as in the boson case the path integral method depends on the discretization (we use the Faddeev discretization) and some attempts to do the same derivations directly in the continuous time limit are shown to yield either ill-defined objects or simply wrong results. It seems correct to conclude that the key point is the discretization

  16. Wind scatterometry with improved ambiguity selection and rain modeling

    Draper, David Willis

    Although generally accurate, the quality of SeaWinds on QuikSCAT scatterometer ocean vector winds is compromised by certain natural phenomena and retrieval algorithm limitations. This dissertation addresses three main contributors to scatterometer estimate error: poor ambiguity selection, estimate uncertainty at low wind speeds, and rain corruption. A quality assurance (QA) analysis performed on SeaWinds data suggests that about 5% of SeaWinds data contain ambiguity selection errors and that scatterometer estimation error is correlated with low wind speeds and rain events. Ambiguity selection errors are partly due to the "nudging" step (initialization from outside data). A sophisticated new non-nudging ambiguity selection approach produces generally more consistent wind than the nudging method in moderate wind conditions. The non-nudging method selects 93% of the same ambiguities as the nudged data, validating both techniques, and indicating that ambiguity selection can be accomplished without nudging. Variability at low wind speeds is analyzed using tower-mounted scatterometer data. According to theory, below a threshold wind speed, the wind fails to generate the surface roughness necessary for wind measurement. A simple analysis suggests the existence of the threshold in much of the tower-mounted scatterometer data. However, the backscatter does not "go to zero" beneath the threshold in an uncontrolled environment as theory suggests, but rather has a mean drop and higher variability below the threshold. Rain is the largest weather-related contributor to scatterometer error, affecting approximately 4% to 10% of SeaWinds data. A simple model formed via comparison of co-located TRMM PR and SeaWinds measurements characterizes the average effect of rain on SeaWinds backscatter. The model is generally accurate to within 3 dB over the tropics. The rain/wind backscatter model is used to simultaneously retrieve wind and rain from SeaWinds measurements. The simultaneous

  17. Perceived ambiguity as a barrier to intentions to learn genome sequencing results.

    Taber, Jennifer M; Klein, William M P; Ferrer, Rebecca A; Han, Paul K J; Lewis, Katie L; Biesecker, Leslie G; Biesecker, Barbara B

    2015-10-01

    Many variants that could be returned from genome sequencing may be perceived as ambiguous-lacking reliability, credibility, or adequacy. Little is known about how perceived ambiguity influences thoughts about sequencing results. Participants (n = 494) in an NIH genome sequencing study completed a baseline survey before sequencing results were available. We examined how perceived ambiguity regarding sequencing results and individual differences in medical ambiguity aversion and tolerance for uncertainty were associated with cognitions and intentions concerning sequencing results. Perceiving sequencing results as more ambiguous was associated with less favorable cognitions about results and lower intentions to learn and share results. Among participants low in tolerance for uncertainty or optimism, greater perceived ambiguity was associated with lower intentions to learn results for non-medically actionable diseases; medical ambiguity aversion did not moderate any associations. Results are consistent with the phenomenon of "ambiguity aversion" and may influence whether people learn and communicate genomic information.

  18. Blunted Ambiguity Aversion During Cost-Benefit Decisions in Antisocial Individuals.

    Buckholtz, Joshua W; Karmarkar, Uma; Ye, Shengxuan; Brennan, Grace M; Baskin-Sommers, Arielle

    2017-05-17

    Antisocial behavior is often assumed to reflect aberrant risk processing. However, many of the most significant forms of antisocial behavior, including crime, reflect the outcomes of decisions made under conditions of ambiguity rather than risk. While risk and ambiguity are formally distinct and experimentally dissociable, little is known about ambiguity sensitivity in individuals who engage in chronic antisocial behavior. We used a financial decision-making task in a high-risk community-based sample to test for associations between sensitivity to ambiguity, antisocial behavior, and arrest history. Sensitivity to ambiguity was lower in individuals who met diagnostic criteria for Antisocial Personality Disorder. Lower ambiguity sensitivity was also associated with higher externalizing (but not psychopathy) scores, and with higher levels of aggression (but not rule-breaking). Finally, blunted sensitivity to ambiguity also predicted a greater frequency of arrests. Together, these data suggest that alterations in cost-benefit decision-making under conditions of ambiguity may promote antisocial behavior.

  19. The impact of ambiguous economic news on uncertainty and consumer confidence

    Svensson, H.M.; Albæk, E.; van Dalen, A.; de Vreese, C.H.

    Journalistic practice emphasizes both positive and negative aspects of news stories. Nevertheless, the effects of ambiguous news, which includes both positive and negative information, are under-investigated. This study examines how exposure to ambiguous economic news affects uncertainty and

  20. United we sense, divided we fail: context-driven perception of ambiguous visual stimuli.

    Klink, P.C.; van Wezel, R.J.A.; van Ee, R.

    2012-01-01

    Ambiguous visual stimuli provide the brain with sensory information that contains conflicting evidence for multiple mutually exclusive interpretations. Two distinct aspects of the phenomenological experience associated with viewing ambiguous visual stimuli are the apparent stability of perception

  1. United we sense, divided we fail: context-driven perception of ambiguous visual stimuli

    Klink, P. C; van Wezel, Richard Jack Anton; van Ee, R.

    2012-01-01

    Ambiguous visual stimuli provide the brain with sensory information that contains conflicting evidence for multiple mutually exclusive interpretations. Two distinct aspects of the phenomenological experience associated with viewing ambiguous visual stimuli are the apparent stability of perception

  2. There is a continuum ambiguity for elastic πN amplitudes

    Atkinson, D.; Roo, M. de; Polman, T.J.T.M.

    1984-01-01

    The implicit-function method of constructing phase-factor continuum ambiguities in phase-shift analysis is briefly reviewed, and new numerical examples are given of ambiguities in πN phase shifts at 1997 MeV. Since the ambiguous amplitudes differ by more than 5%, while the corresponding cross sections and polarizations are equal, to better than a computational accuracy of 0.007%, numerical credence is given to the theoretical claim that the continuum ambiguity exists. (orig.)

  3. Chains of phase-shift ambiguities in elastic spin-0-spin-1/2 scattering

    Berends, F.A.; Reisen, J.C.J.M. van

    1977-01-01

    It is shown, that a previously constructed phase-shift ambiguity for an arbitrary number, 2L + 1, of partial waves can be connected to L - 1 other ambiguities. The two sets of phase shifts defined by the chain of ambiguities become equal (modulo π) at the endpoints of the chain, but in general not at the endpoints of the ambiguities. Also other examples of such chains are given. (Auth.)

  4. Selective impairment of decision making under ambiguity in alexithymia.

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Xue; Zhu, Yu; Li, Hongchen; Zhu, Chunyan; Yu, Fengqiong; Wang, Kai

    2017-11-28

    Alexithymia is characterised by difficulties identifying and describing emotions. Few studies have investigated how alexithymia influences decision-making under different conditions (ambiguity and risk). This study aimed to examine whether alexithymia contributes to impairment in decision-making. This study included 42 participants with high scores in the Chinese version of Toronto Alexithymia Scale (alexithymia group), and 44 matched subjects with low scores (control group). Decision-making was measured using the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and the Game of Dice Task (GDT). The main findings of this study revealed selective deficits in IGT performance for the alexithymia group, while GDT performance was unimpaired when compared with the control group. In IGT, total netscores were lower for the alexithymia group compared to the control group, particularly with regard to block 5. Moreover, the alexithymia individuals selected significantly more adverse cards than the controls, indicating significant decision-making impairments. Alexithymia selectively influences decision-making under ambiguity.

  5. Resolution of potential ambiguities through farside angular structure: Semiclassical analysis

    Fricke, S.H.; Brandan, M.E.; McVoy, K.W.

    1988-01-01

    The optical potential fits summarized in the preceding paper are subjected to a semiclassical analysis of the Ford-Wheeler--Knoll-Schaeffer type. The important broad dips in their farside cross sections, which are essential in greatly reducing potential ambiguities, are found (in partial agreement with a suggestion of Goldberg's) to be mainly weak ''Airy'' or rainbow minima, that serve to identify deeply penetrating trajectories. The semiclassical analysis also permits the identification and understanding of a new category of discrete and continuous potential ambiguities, and suggests the manner in which specific features of the angular distributions (such as spacings and depths of various angular minima) determine the Woods-Saxon parameters found by a chi-squared search

  6. Obstetricians' choice of cesarean delivery in ambiguous cases

    Fuglenes, Dorthe; Oian, Pål; Kristiansen, Ivar Sønbø

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that obstetricians' choice of delivery method is influenced by their risk attitude and perceived risk of complaints and malpractice litigation. STUDY DESIGN: The choice of delivery method in ambiguous cases was studied in a nationwide...... survey of Norwegian obstetricians (n = 716; response rate, 71%) using clinical scenarios. The risk attitude was measured by 6 items from the Jackson Personality Inventory-Revised. RESULTS: The proportion of obstetricians consenting to the cesarean request varied both within and across the scenarios....... The perceived risk of complaints and malpractice litigation was a clear determinant of obstetricians' choice of cesarean in all of the clinical scenarios, whereas no impact was observed for risk attitude. CONCLUSION: Obstetricians' judgments about cesarean request in ambiguous clinical cases vary considerably...

  7. Portfolio Management with Stochastic Interest Rates and Inflation Ambiguity

    Munk, Claus; Rubtsov, Alexey Vladimirovich

    We solve a stock-bond-cash portfolio choice problem for a risk- and ambiguity-averse investor in a setting where the inflation rate and interest rates are stochastic. The expected inflation rate is unobservable, but the investor may learn about it from realized inflation and observed stock and bond...... prices. The investor is aware that his model for the observed inflation is potentially misspecified, and he seeks an investment strategy that maximizes his expected utility from real terminal wealth and is also robust to inflation model misspecification. We solve the corresponding robust Hamilton......-Jacobi-Bellman equation in closed form and derive and illustrate a number of interesting properties of the solution. For example, ambiguity aversion affects the optimal portfolio through the correlation of price level with the stock index, a bond, and the expected inflation rate. Furthermore, unlike other settings...

  8. The ambiguity of simplicity in quantum and classical simulation

    Aghamohammadi, Cina; Mahoney, John R.; Crutchfield, James P.

    2017-04-01

    A system's perceived simplicity depends on whether it is represented classically or quantally. This is not so surprising, as classical and quantum physics are descriptive frameworks built on different assumptions that capture, emphasize, and express different properties and mechanisms. What is surprising is that, as we demonstrate, simplicity is ambiguous: the relative simplicity between two systems can change sign when moving between classical and quantum descriptions. Here, we associate simplicity with small model-memory. We see that the notions of absolute physical simplicity at best form a partial, not a total, order. This suggests that appeals to principles of physical simplicity, via Ockham's Razor or to the ;elegance; of competing theories, may be fundamentally subjective. Recent rapid progress in quantum computation and quantum simulation suggest that the ambiguity of simplicity will strongly impact statistical inference and, in particular, model selection.

  9. Cancellation of renormalon ambiguities in the heavy quark effective theory

    Neubert, M.; Sachrajda, C.T.

    1995-01-01

    Recently, it has been shown that the concept of the pole mass of a heavy quark becomes ambiguous beyond perturbation theory, because of the presence of infrared renormalons. We argue that the predictions of the heavy quark effective theory, whose construction is based on the pole mass, are free of such ambiguities. In the 1/m Q expansion of physical quantities, infrared and ultraviolet renormalons compensate each other between coefficient functions and matrix elements. We trace the appearance of these compensations for current-induced exclusive heavy-to-heavy and heavy-to-light transitions, and for inclusive decays of heavy hadrons. In particular, we show that the structure of the heavy quark expansion is not obscured by renormalons, and none of the predictions of the heavy quark effective theory are invalidated. ((orig.))

  10. Intermittent behavior in the brain neuronal network in the perception of ambiguous images

    Hramov, Alexander E.; Kurovskaya, Maria K.; Runnova, Anastasiya E.; Zhuravlev, Maxim O.; Grubov, Vadim V.; Koronovskii, Alexey A.; Pavlov, Alexey N.; Pisarchik, Alexander N.

    2017-03-01

    Characteristics of intermittency during the perception of ambiguous images have been studied in the case the Necker cube image has been used as a bistable object for demonstration in the experiments, with EEG being simultaneously measured. Distributions of time interval lengths corresponding to the left-oriented and right-oriented Necker cube perception have been obtain. EEG data have been analyzed using continuous wavelet transform which was shown that the destruction of alpha rhythm with accompanying generation of high frequency oscillations can serve as a electroencephalographical marker of Necker cube recognition process in human brain.

  11. Instructor Strategic Ambiguity: Delineation of the Construct and Development of a Measure

    Klyukovski, Andrei A.; Medlock-Klyukovski, Amanda L.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents research to delineate the construct of instructor strategic ambiguity (ISA) and develop a measure. The first study analyzed instructor uses of ambiguity, identified 18 strategies, and classified them into four categories. The second study developed an Instructor Strategic Ambiguity Measure (ISAM) for the college classroom.…

  12. The classification of ambiguity in polarimetric reconstruction of coronal mass ejection

    Dai, Xinghua; Wang, Huaning; Huang, Xin; Du, Zhanle; He, Han

    2014-01-01

    The Thomson scattering theory indicates that there exist explicit and implicit ambiguities in polarimetric analyses of coronal mass ejection (CME) observations. We suggest a classification for these ambiguities in CME reconstruction. Three samples, including double explicit, mixed, and double implicit ambiguity, are shown with the polarimetric analyses of STEREO CME observations. These samples demonstrate that this classification is helpful for improving polarimetric reconstruction.

  13. Performance management and goal ambiguity: managerial implications in a single payer system.

    Calciolari, Stefano; Cantù, Elena; Fattore, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Goal ambiguity influences the effectiveness of performance management systems to drive organizations toward enhanced results. The literature analyzes the antecedents of goal ambiguity and shows the influence of goal ambiguity on the performance of U.S. federal agencies. However, no study has analyzed goal ambiguity in other countries or in health care systems. This study has three aims: to test the validity of a measurement instrument for goal ambiguity, to investigate its main antecedents, and to explore the relationship between goal ambiguity and organizational performance in a large, public, Beveridge-type health care system. A nationwide survey of general managers of the Italian national health system was performed. A factor analysis was used to validate the mono-dimensionality of an instrument that measured goal ambiguity. Structural equation modeling was used to test both the antecedents and the influence of goal ambiguity on organizational performance. Data from 135 health care organizations (53% response rate) were available for analysis. The results confirm the mono-dimensionality of the instrument, the existence of two environmental sources of ambiguity (political endorsement and governance commitment), and the negative relationship between goal ambiguity and organizational performance. Goal ambiguity matters because it may hamper organizational performance. Therefore, performance should be fostered by reducing goal ambiguity (e.g., goal-setting model, funding arrangements, and political support). Mutatis mutandis, our results may apply to public health care systems of other countries or other "public interest" sectors, such as social care and education.

  14. Estimating Ambiguity Preferences and Perceptions in Multiple Prior Models: Evidence from the Field

    S.G. Dimmock (Stephen); R.R.P. Kouwenberg (Roy); O.S. Mitchell (Olivia); K. Peijnenburg (Kim)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractWe develop a tractable method to estimate multiple prior models of decision-making under ambiguity. In a representative sample of the U.S. population, we measure ambiguity attitudes in the gain and loss domains. We find that ambiguity aversion is common for uncertain events of

  15. Identification and Definition of Lexically Ambiguous Words in Statistics by Tutors and Students

    Richardson, Alice M.; Dunn, Peter K.; Hutchins, Rene

    2013-01-01

    Lexical ambiguity arises when a word from everyday English is used differently in a particular discipline, such as statistics. This paper reports on a project that begins by identifying tutors' perceptions of words that are potentially lexically ambiguous to students, in two different ways. Students' definitions of nine lexically ambiguous words…

  16. Semantic ambiguity processing in sentence context: Evidence from event-related fMRI

    Zempleni, Monika-Zita; Renken, Remco; Hoeks, John C. J.; Hoogduin, Johannes M.; Stowe, Laurie A.

    2007-01-01

    Lexical semantic ambiguity is the phenomenon when a word has multiple meanings (e.g. 'bank'). The aim of this event-related functional MRI study was to identify those brain areas, which are involved in contextually driven ambiguity resolution. Ambiguous words were selected which have a most

  17. Representation and productive ambiguity in mathematics and the sciences

    Grosholz, Emily R

    2007-01-01

    Emily Grosholz offers an original investigation of demonstration in mathematics and science, examining how it works and why it is persuasive. Focusing on geometrical demonstration, she shows the roles that representation and ambiguity play in mathematical discovery. She presents a wide range of case studies in mechanics, topology, algebra, logic, and chemistry, from ancient Greece to the present day, but focusing particularly on the seventeenth and twentieth centuries. Anyone interested in how mathematics works will find this a stimulating read.

  18. Differential age effects on lexical ambiguity resolution mechanisms

    Lee, Chia-lin; Federmeier, Kara D.

    2010-01-01

    Multiple neurocognitive subsystems are involved in resolving lexical ambiguity under different circumstances. We examined how processing in these subsystems changes with normal aging by comparing ERP responses to homographs and unambiguous words completing congruent sentences (with both semantic and syntactic contextual information) or syntactic prose (syntactic information only). Like young adults in prior work, older adults elicited more negative N400s to homographs in congruent sentences, ...

  19. Cooperative Learning, Responsibility, Ambiguity, Controversy and Support in Motivating Students

    Ronald Brecke, PhD

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that student motivation is nurtured more by intrinsic rather than extrinsic rewards. Rather than relying on grades alone to stimulate students, this paper explores how engendering a natural critical learning environment can give students a sense of ownership in their own learning and lead to their commitment to that learning. We examine uses of cooperative learning, shared responsibility, ambiguity, controversy and support in student motivation.

  20. Cooperative Learning, Responsibility, Ambiguity, Controversy and Support in Motivating Students

    Ronald Brecke

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that student motivation is nurtured more by intrinsic rather than extrinsic rewards. Rather than relying on grades alone to stimulate students, this paper explores how engendering a natural critical learning environment can give students a sense of ownership in their own learning and lead to their commitment to that learning. We examine uses of cooperative learning, shared responsibility, ambiguity, controversy and support in student motivation.

  1. Acute stress affects risk taking but not ambiguity aversion.

    Buckert, Magdalena; Schwieren, Christiane; Kudielka, Brigitte M; Fiebach, Christian J

    2014-01-01

    Economic decisions are often made in stressful situations (e.g., at the trading floor), but the effects of stress on economic decision making have not been systematically investigated so far. The present study examines how acute stress influences economic decision making under uncertainty (risk and ambiguity) using financially incentivized lotteries. We varied the domain of decision making as well as the expected value of the risky prospect. Importantly, no feedback was provided to investigate risk taking and ambiguity aversion independent from learning processes. In a sample of 75 healthy young participants, 55 of whom underwent a stress induction protocol (Trier Social Stress Test for Groups), we observed more risk seeking for gains. This effect was restricted to a subgroup of participants that showed a robust cortisol response to acute stress (n = 26). Gambling under ambiguity, in contrast to gambling under risk, was not influenced by the cortisol response to stress. These results show that acute psychosocial stress affects economic decision making under risk, independent of learning processes. Our results further point to the importance of cortisol as a mediator of this effect.

  2. Pointwise Partial Information Decomposition Using the Specificity and Ambiguity Lattices

    Finn, Conor; Lizier, Joseph

    2018-04-01

    What are the distinct ways in which a set of predictor variables can provide information about a target variable? When does a variable provide unique information, when do variables share redundant information, and when do variables combine synergistically to provide complementary information? The redundancy lattice from the partial information decomposition of Williams and Beer provided a promising glimpse at the answer to these questions. However, this structure was constructed using a much criticised measure of redundant information, and despite sustained research, no completely satisfactory replacement measure has been proposed. In this paper, we take a different approach, applying the axiomatic derivation of the redundancy lattice to a single realisation from a set of discrete variables. To overcome the difficulty associated with signed pointwise mutual information, we apply this decomposition separately to the unsigned entropic components of pointwise mutual information which we refer to as the specificity and ambiguity. This yields a separate redundancy lattice for each component. Then based upon an operational interpretation of redundancy, we define measures of redundant specificity and ambiguity enabling us to evaluate the partial information atoms in each lattice. These atoms can be recombined to yield the sought-after multivariate information decomposition. We apply this framework to canonical examples from the literature and discuss the results and the various properties of the decomposition. In particular, the pointwise decomposition using specificity and ambiguity satisfies a chain rule over target variables, which provides new insights into the so-called two-bit-copy example.

  3. Dressed skeleton expansion and the coupling scale ambiguity problem

    Lu, Hung Jung.

    1992-09-01

    Perturbative expansions in quantum field theories are usually expressed in powers of a coupling constant. In principle, the infinite sum of the expansion series is independent of the renormalization scale of the coupling constant. In practice, there is a remnant dependence of the truncated series on the renormalization scale. This scale ambiguity can severely restrict the predictive power of theoretical calculations. The dressed skeleton expansion is developed as a calculational method which avoids the coupling scale ambiguity problem. In this method, physical quantities are expressed as functional expansions in terms of a coupling vertex function. The arguments of the vertex function are given by the physical momenta of each process. These physical momenta effectively replace the unspecified renormalization scale and eliminate the ambiguity problem. This method is applied to various field theoretical models and its main features and limitations are explored. For quantum chromodynamics, an expression for the running coupling constant of the three-gluon vertex is obtained. The effective coupling scale of this vertex is shown to be essentially given by μ 2 ∼ Q min 2 Q med 2 /Q max 2 where Q min 2 Q med 2 /Q max 2 are respectively the smallest, the next-to-smallest and the largest scale among the three gluon virtualities. This functional form suggests that the three-gluon vertex becomes non-perturbative at asymmetric momentum configurations. Implications for four-jet physics is discussed

  4. Robustness of climate metrics under climate policy ambiguity

    Ekholm, Tommi; Lindroos, Tomi J.; Savolainen, Ilkka

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We assess the economic impacts of using different climate metrics. • The setting is cost-efficient scenarios for three interpretations of the 2C target. • With each target setting, the optimal metric is different. • Therefore policy ambiguity prevents the selection of an optimal metric. • Robust metric values that perform well with multiple policy targets however exist. -- Abstract: A wide array of alternatives has been proposed as the common metrics with which to compare the climate impacts of different emission types. Different physical and economic metrics and their parameterizations give diverse weights between e.g. CH 4 and CO 2 , and fixing the metric from one perspective makes it sub-optimal from another. As the aims of global climate policy involve some degree of ambiguity, it is not possible to determine a metric that would be optimal and consistent with all policy aims. This paper evaluates the cost implications of using predetermined metrics in cost-efficient mitigation scenarios. Three formulations of the 2 °C target, including both deterministic and stochastic approaches, shared a wide range of metric values for CH 4 with which the mitigation costs are only slightly above the cost-optimal levels. Therefore, although ambiguity in current policy might prevent us from selecting an optimal metric, it can be possible to select robust metric values that perform well with multiple policy targets

  5. Teaching weight to explicitly address language ambiguities and conceptual difficulties

    Taibu, Rex; Schuster, David; Rudge, David

    2017-06-01

    Language ambiguities in concept meanings can exacerbate student learning difficulties and conceptual understanding of physics concepts. This is especially true for the concept of "weight," which has multiple meanings in both scientific and everyday usage. The term weight has been defined in several different ways, with nuances, but in textbooks and teaching the term is almost always defined in one of two ways: operationally either as the contact force between an object and a measuring scale or as the gravitational force on an object due to some other body such as Earth. The use of the same name for different concepts leads to much confusion, especially in accelerating situations, and to conflicting notions of "weightlessness" in free fall situations. In the present paper, we share an innovative approach that initially avoids the term weight entirely while teaching the physics of each situation, and then teaches the language ambiguities explicitly. We developed an instructional module with this approach and implemented it over two terms in three sections of an introductory physics course for preservice elementary teachers. Learning gains for content understanding were assessed using pretests and post-tests. Participants achieved remarkably high gains for both static and accelerating situations. Surveys pre- and postinstruction showed substantially improved appreciation of language issues and ambiguities associated with weight, weightlessness, and free fall. Interviews with instructors teaching the module provided additional insight into the advantages and teaching demands of the new approach.

  6. Cross-linguistic scope ambiguity: When two systems meet

    Gregory Scontras

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Accurately recognizing and resolving ambiguity is a hallmark of linguistic ability. English is a language with scope ambiguities in doubly-quantified sentences like 'A shark ate every pirate'; this sentence can either describe a scenario with a single shark eating all of the pirates, or a scenario with many sharks—a potentially-different one eating each pirate. In Mandarin Chinese, the corresponding sentence is unambiguous, as it can only describe the single-shark scenario. We present experimental evidence to this effect, comparing native speakers of English with native speakers of Mandarin in their interpretations of doubly-quantified sentences. Having demonstrated the difference between these two languages in their ability for inverse scope interpretations, we then probe the robustness of the grammar of scope by extending our experiments to English-dominant adult heritage speakers of Mandarin. Like native speakers of Mandarin, heritage Mandarin speakers lack inverse scope in Mandarin. Crucially, these speakers also lack inverse scope in English, their dominant language in adulthood. We interpret these results as evidence for the pressure to simplify the grammar of scope, decreasing ambiguity when possible. In other words, when two systems meet—as in the case of heritage speakers—the simpler system prevails. This article is part of the special collection: Quantifier Scope

  7. Space-frequency analysis and reduction of potential field ambiguity

    A. Rapolla

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Ambiguity of depth estimation of magnetic sources via spectral analysis can be reduced representing its field via a set of space-frequency atoms. This is obtained throughout a continuous wavelet transform using a Morlet analyzing wavelet. In the phase-plane representation even a weak contribution related to deep-seated sources is clearly distinguished with respect a more intense effect of a shallow source, also in the presence of a strong noise. Furthermore, a new concept of local power spectrum allows the depth to both the sources to be correctly interpreted. Neither result can be provided by standard Fourier analysis. Another method is proposed to reduce ambiguity by inversion of potential field data lying along the vertical axis. This method allows a depth resolution to gravity or the magnetic methods and below some conditions helps to reduce their inherent ambiguity. Unlike the case of monopoles, inversion of a vertical profile of gravity data above a cubic source gives correct results for the cube side and density.

  8. Self-referential processing is distinct from semantic elaboration: evidence from long-term memory effects in a patient with amnesia and semantic impairments.

    Sui, Jie; Humphreys, Glyn W

    2013-11-01

    We report data demonstrating that self-referential encoding facilitates memory performance in the absence of effects of semantic elaboration in a severely amnesic patient also suffering semantic problems. In Part 1, the patient, GA, was trained to associate items with the self or a familiar other during the encoding phase of a memory task (self-ownership decisions in Experiment 1 and self-evaluation decisions in Experiment 2). Tests of memory showed a consistent self-reference advantage, relative to a condition where the reference was another person in both experiments. The pattern of the self-reference advantage was similar to that in healthy controls. In Part 2 we demonstrate that GA showed minimal effects of semantic elaboration on memory for items he semantically classified, compared with items subject to physical size decisions; in contrast, healthy controls demonstrated enhanced memory performance after semantic relative to physical encoding. The results indicate that self-referential encoding, not semantic elaboration, improves memory in amnesia. Self-referential processing may provide a unique scaffold to help improve learning in amnesic cases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Not ‘me – but a supposed person’: Emily Dickinson’s Non-Referential Correspondence

    Trisha Kannan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay takes issue with the notion of Dickinson as the poet of privacy and argues that her conception of authorship involved a concentrated effort to break traditional conventions and assumptions regarding private communication and literary production. The uniqueness of Dickinson's poetry stems from its cryptic, deceptive, and fierce simplicity, and she achieves the illusion of simplicity through a meticulous attention to diction. Dickinson consciously works with the established notions of public and private during the nineteenth century, and uses the assumed simplicity of the distinction to develop a "new department" of prose and poetry that centers on manuscript construction and circulation. Dickinson's manuscripts reveal a sustained commitment to breaking the generic conventions of lyric poetry and epistolary prose. Readers since the nineteenth century have searched within Dickinson's correspondence for a static, autobiographical "I" in order to make the lyric "I" of her poetry more clear. However, assuming a static "I" proves problematic in both genres. Readers have sought an explanation of the poetry in Dickinson's biography, and they often turn to the letters as evidence, but a static voice in the correspondence proves to be an illusion. In contrast to the spontaneous, natural, and emotional letters that proper nineteenth-century women were supposed to write, Dickinson makes private communication artful. Dickinson's body of work represents a meticulous exploration into the power of un-occasional, non-referential prose and poetry.

  10. "Estoy viejo" [I'm old]: internalized ageism as self-referential, negative, ageist speech in the Republic of Panama.

    Campos, Irma D; Stripling, Ashley M; Heesacker, Martin

    2012-12-01

    Ageism is a form of discrimination that anyone may experience at some point in life (Palmore 2004). Yet ageism is rarely the focus of behavioral research (Nelson 2005). Age can be understood as a social construct that reflects social norms (Lemus and Exposito 2005). Based on our review of the published literature, there were two studies on perceptions of aging among Latina/os in the United States (Beyene et al. 2002; Sarkisian et al. 2006). These studies investigated perceptions and expectations of aging among older Latina/o adults rather than direct experiences of ageism. It is important to note that Latina/os are not a homogenous group and that there are within-group differences. For this reason, this study explored internalized, negative ageism specifically in the Republic of Panama. Although Panama has unique characteristics, it also reflects Central American culture and therefore should provide initial insights regarding Central American self-referential, negative, ageist talk, which we labeled "Estoy viejo." Flanagan's Critical Incident Technique was used to access and understand participants' (ages 18-65) negative ageist talk (n=159). Participants who reported engaging in "Estoy viejo." (46.3% of those sampled) were significantly younger than participants who did not (pexplanation is that younger participants may have been more influenced by North American culture and its strongly negative ageist stereotypes than older participants, who may have identified primarily with Central American culture.

  11. The Spatiotemporal Features of Self- Referential Processing: Evidence of ERPs%音乐情境中自我参照加工的时间特征:来自ERPs的证据

    钟毅平; 范伟; 周路平; 肖丽辉; 王小艳; 张笑仪; 龙腾; 颜志雄

    2012-01-01

    采用事件相关电位技术,考察在有情境条件下不同层面的自我参照加工的特性及其神经机制。实验发现,在两种音乐情境条件下个体自我参展刺激所激发的P300波幅比集体自我参照刺激和非自我刺激更大,而集体自我参照刺激所激发的P300波幅比非自我刺激更大;两种音乐情境条件下个体自我参照刺激所激发的P300波幅差异显著,而集体自我参照刺激所激发的P300波幅差异不显著。研究结果表明了在不同的情境中,个体自我参照加工的差异较大,表现出不稳定的特征;个体自我参照加工与集体自我参照加工的神经机制是不同的。这些结果还可能表明了相对于集体自我来讲,个体自我是自我的核心层面。%Based on previous studies, this study used event-related potential to investigate the self-referential processing in the case of context, the characteristics at different levels of self-reference processing and its neural mechanisms under situational conditions. To extend the results of the previous studies and to further the discussion, we designed the experiment, in which we added the indi- vidual self-referential and collective self-referential stimuli, and compared the processing course with each other. In the experiment, we used the lexical decision task, and took the characteristic adjectives as individual self-referential and collective self-referential stimuli. To investigate the characteristics of the two self-referential processing, we also took the situation into consideration, and placed the indi- vidual self-referential processing and collective self-referential processing in different situations. In the experiment, we used the decision task, combined with unrelated individualistic music and group- oriented music as background, three characteristic adjectives as target stimulus, in total, six types of stimuli. In the experiment, we found that under the two musical

  12. Decision ambiguity is mediated by a late positive potential originating from cingulate cortex.

    Sun, Sai; Zhen, Shanshan; Fu, Zhongzheng; Wu, Daw-An; Shimojo, Shinsuke; Adolphs, Ralph; Yu, Rongjun; Wang, Shuo

    2017-08-15

    People often make decisions in the face of ambiguous information, but it remains unclear how ambiguity is represented in the brain. We used three types of ambiguous stimuli and combined EEG and fMRI to examine the neural representation of perceptual decisions under ambiguity. We identified a late positive potential, the LPP, which differentiated levels of ambiguity, and which was specifically associated with behavioral judgments about choices that were ambiguous, rather than passive perception of ambiguous stimuli. Mediation analyses together with two further control experiments confirmed that the LPP was generated only when decisions are made (not during mere perception of ambiguous stimuli), and only when those decisions involved choices on a dimension that is ambiguous. A further control experiment showed that a stronger LPP arose in the presence of ambiguous stimuli compared to when only unambiguous stimuli were present. Source modeling suggested that the LPP originated from multiple loci in cingulate cortex, a finding we further confirmed using fMRI and fMRI-guided ERP source prediction. Taken together, our findings argue for a role of an LPP originating from cingulate cortex in encoding decisions based on task-relevant perceptual ambiguity, a process that may in turn influence confidence judgment, response conflict, and error correction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Decision-Making under Ambiguity Is Modulated by Visual Framing, but Not by Motor vs. Non-Motor Context. Experiments and an Information-Theoretic Ambiguity Model.

    Grau-Moya, Jordi; Ortega, Pedro A; Braun, Daniel A

    2016-01-01

    A number of recent studies have investigated differences in human choice behavior depending on task framing, especially comparing economic decision-making to choice behavior in equivalent sensorimotor tasks. Here we test whether decision-making under ambiguity exhibits effects of task framing in motor vs. non-motor context. In a first experiment, we designed an experience-based urn task with varying degrees of ambiguity and an equivalent motor task where subjects chose between hitting partially occluded targets. In a second experiment, we controlled for the different stimulus design in the two tasks by introducing an urn task with bar stimuli matching those in the motor task. We found ambiguity attitudes to be mainly influenced by stimulus design. In particular, we found that the same subjects tended to be ambiguity-preferring when choosing between ambiguous bar stimuli, but ambiguity-avoiding when choosing between ambiguous urn sample stimuli. In contrast, subjects' choice pattern was not affected by changing from a target hitting task to a non-motor context when keeping the stimulus design unchanged. In both tasks subjects' choice behavior was continuously modulated by the degree of ambiguity. We show that this modulation of behavior can be explained by an information-theoretic model of ambiguity that generalizes Bayes-optimal decision-making by combining Bayesian inference with robust decision-making under model uncertainty. Our results demonstrate the benefits of information-theoretic models of decision-making under varying degrees of ambiguity for a given context, but also demonstrate the sensitivity of ambiguity attitudes across contexts that theoretical models struggle to explain.

  14. Decision-Making under Ambiguity Is Modulated by Visual Framing, but Not by Motor vs. Non-Motor Context. Experiments and an Information-Theoretic Ambiguity Model.

    Jordi Grau-Moya

    Full Text Available A number of recent studies have investigated differences in human choice behavior depending on task framing, especially comparing economic decision-making to choice behavior in equivalent sensorimotor tasks. Here we test whether decision-making under ambiguity exhibits effects of task framing in motor vs. non-motor context. In a first experiment, we designed an experience-based urn task with varying degrees of ambiguity and an equivalent motor task where subjects chose between hitting partially occluded targets. In a second experiment, we controlled for the different stimulus design in the two tasks by introducing an urn task with bar stimuli matching those in the motor task. We found ambiguity attitudes to be mainly influenced by stimulus design. In particular, we found that the same subjects tended to be ambiguity-preferring when choosing between ambiguous bar stimuli, but ambiguity-avoiding when choosing between ambiguous urn sample stimuli. In contrast, subjects' choice pattern was not affected by changing from a target hitting task to a non-motor context when keeping the stimulus design unchanged. In both tasks subjects' choice behavior was continuously modulated by the degree of ambiguity. We show that this modulation of behavior can be explained by an information-theoretic model of ambiguity that generalizes Bayes-optimal decision-making by combining Bayesian inference with robust decision-making under model uncertainty. Our results demonstrate the benefits of information-theoretic models of decision-making under varying degrees of ambiguity for a given context, but also demonstrate the sensitivity of ambiguity attitudes across contexts that theoretical models struggle to explain.

  15. Decision-Making under Ambiguity Is Modulated by Visual Framing, but Not by Motor vs. Non-Motor Context. Experiments and an Information-Theoretic Ambiguity Model

    Grau-Moya, Jordi; Ortega, Pedro A.; Braun, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    A number of recent studies have investigated differences in human choice behavior depending on task framing, especially comparing economic decision-making to choice behavior in equivalent sensorimotor tasks. Here we test whether decision-making under ambiguity exhibits effects of task framing in motor vs. non-motor context. In a first experiment, we designed an experience-based urn task with varying degrees of ambiguity and an equivalent motor task where subjects chose between hitting partially occluded targets. In a second experiment, we controlled for the different stimulus design in the two tasks by introducing an urn task with bar stimuli matching those in the motor task. We found ambiguity attitudes to be mainly influenced by stimulus design. In particular, we found that the same subjects tended to be ambiguity-preferring when choosing between ambiguous bar stimuli, but ambiguity-avoiding when choosing between ambiguous urn sample stimuli. In contrast, subjects’ choice pattern was not affected by changing from a target hitting task to a non-motor context when keeping the stimulus design unchanged. In both tasks subjects’ choice behavior was continuously modulated by the degree of ambiguity. We show that this modulation of behavior can be explained by an information-theoretic model of ambiguity that generalizes Bayes-optimal decision-making by combining Bayesian inference with robust decision-making under model uncertainty. Our results demonstrate the benefits of information-theoretic models of decision-making under varying degrees of ambiguity for a given context, but also demonstrate the sensitivity of ambiguity attitudes across contexts that theoretical models struggle to explain. PMID:27124723

  16. Development of a New Scale to Measure Ambiguity Tolerance in Veterinary Students.

    Hammond, Jennifer A; Hancock, Jason; Martin, Margaret S; Jamieson, Susan; Mellor, Dominic J

    The ability to cope with ambiguity and feelings of uncertainty is an essential part of professional practice. Research with physicians has identified that intolerance of ambiguity or uncertainty is linked to stress, and some authors have hypothesized that there could be an association between intolerance of ambiguity and burnout. We describe the adaptation of the TAMSAD (Tolerance of Ambiguity in Medical Students and Doctors) scale for use with veterinary students. Exploratory factor analysis supports a uni-dimensional structure for the Ambiguity tolerance construct. Although internal reliability of the 29-item TAMSAD scale is reasonable (α=.50), an alternative 27-item scale (drawn from the original 41 items used to develop TAMSAD) shows higher internal reliability for veterinary students (α=.67). We conclude that there is good evidence to support the validity of this latter TAVS (Tolerance of Ambiguity in Veterinary Students) scale to study ambiguity tolerance in veterinary students.

  17. Ambiguity and Investment Decisions: An Empirical Analysis on Mutual Fund Investor Behaviour

    Chao Tang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper empirically studies the relationship between ambiguity and mutual fund investor behaviour. Theoretical models for investment decisions incorporating ambiguity motivate our analyses. While the models indicate that investors would less likely to invest in financial markets when ambiguity increases, there is rare empirical evidence in natural occurring financial data to examine this hypothesis. In this paper, we test the hypothesis with equity fund flow data as for investment decisions and ambiguity with the degree of disagreement in equity analysts’ prediction about asset returns. Our results support the hypothesis that increases in ambiguity could lead to less fund flows and this result remains consistently when adding various control variables affecting fund flows. Besides, we find that heterogeneous impacts of ambiguity: equity funds with high yield targets and active management style are affected more than funds investing in stable stocks; funds with larger proportion of institutional investors are more sensitive and affected by the ambiguity.

  18. Embedded promotions in online services: how goal-relevance ambiguity shapes response and affect.

    Brasel, S Adam

    2010-09-01

    Adding promotions to online services is increasingly commonplace, yet consumers may have difficulty determining whether service-embedded promotions are goal-relevant, due to the linear and transactional nature of online services. This contextual effect of goal-relevance ambiguity on promotions is explored across three studies. An exploratory study utilizing actual service websites and a broad range of consumers as participants showed promotional elements in online services generated considerable confusion, and instructions labeling promotions as optional did little to relieve goal-relevance ambiguity. A second study using student participants inserted promotions into an online airline ticket service, a shopping site, a local news blog, and a news headline aggregator, to explore how linear and transactional sites such as online services compared to more exploratory or informational online environments. Results showed that service-embedded promotions enjoyed initial compliance far beyond promotions in traditional websites but also generated increased confusion, frustration, and anger. A third study utilizing student participants explored how varying levels of online service experience created differing responses to promotions in services; novices were less able to judge promotional goal-relevance and experienced more confusion, whereas experienced searchers were more likely to respond with frustration and anger. Many participants complied with promotional offers at the time of the service transaction, but stated intentions to use the promotion postservice were very low. The overall results spotlight goal-relevance ambiguity as an important driver of consumer response to online promotions, and highlight the role website context can play in the processing of online promotional elements. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. In Praise of Vagueness: Uncertainty, ambiguity and archaeological methodology

    Sørensen, Tim Flohr

    2016-01-01

    This article stipulates that vagueness is a socially important yet academically largely overlooked aspect of human interaction with the world. Vagueness and vague experiences can structure material categorisations of the world; it can contribute to the shaping of social relations and nurture...... and ambiguity can be integral to certain social and material phenomena. Third, the article examines recent archaeological analyses of burial practices in South Scandinavian passage graves from the Middle Neolithic in order to discuss the pursuit of certitude in archaeological observations and interpretations...

  20. SAR antenna design for ambiguity and multipath suppression

    Christensen, Erik Lintz; Dich, Mikael

    1993-01-01

    A high resolution airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has been developed at the Electromagnetics Institute (EMI) for remote sensing applications. The paper considers the radiation of antennas for a SAR system from a systems perspective. The basic specifications of an idealised antenna...... are obtained from the required swath and the azimuth footprint needed for the SAR processing. The radiation from a real antenna causes unwanted signal returns that lead to intensity variations (multipath) and ghost echoes (ambiguity). Additional specifications are deduced by considering these signals...

  1. Sensorimotor Adaptation Following Exposure to Ambiguous Inertial Motion Cues

    Wood, S. J.; Clement, G. R.; Rupert, A. H.; Reschke, M. F.; Harm, D. L.; Guedry, F. E.

    2007-01-01

    The central nervous system must resolve the ambiguity of inertial motion sensory cues in order to derive accurate spatial orientation awareness. Adaptive changes in how inertial cues from the otolith system are integrated with other sensory information lead to perceptual and postural disturbances upon return to Earth s gravity. The primary goals of this ground-based research investigation are to explore physiological mechanisms and operational implications of tilt-translation disturbances during and following re-entry, and to evaluate a tactile prosthesis as a countermeasure for improving control of whole-body orientation during tilt and translation motion.

  2. Discrete ambiguity resolution and baryon-resonance parameter determination

    Chew, D.M; Urban, M.

    1978-04-01

    A partial-wave analysis was performed on elastic π + p data between 1400 and 2200 MeV, using principles of analyticity (to select and amalgamate data), causality and unitarity together with Barrelet zeros are the resonating waves between 1500 and 1800 MeV examined in detail, and it is shown how a new resolution of the discrete ambiguity gives, for the S31 and D33 resonances, different parameters than found in an earlier resolution using less accurate information. In either case, mass degeneracy of these resonances is observed in agreement with general considerations regarding smooth zero trajectories. 18 references

  3. Role of MRI in the evaluation of ambiguous genitalia

    Secaf, E [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA (United States) Dept. de Radiologia, Faculdade de Medicina da Univ. de Sao Paulo (Brazil); Hricak, H [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA (United States) Dept. of Urology, Univ. of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA (United States); Gooding, C A [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA (United States) Dept. of Pediatrics, Univ. of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA (United States); Ho, V W [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA (United States); Gorczyca, D P [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA (United States) Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Ringertz, H [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Conte, F A [Dept. of Pediatr

    1994-08-01

    Diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) interpretation was assessed prospectively in patients with ambiguous genitalia or intersex problems. MRI depiction of the uterus was possible in 93 %, the vagina in 95 %, the penis in 100 %, the testis in 88 %, and the ovary in 74 % of patients. The strength of MRI lies in the multiplanar capability and tissue characterization by means of T1- and T2-weighted sequences. MRI contributes to accurate morphologic evaluation of muellerian duct structures, the gonads, and the development of the phallus, all of which are essential for appropriate gender assignment and planning of surgical reconstruction. (orig.)

  4. Projection Effects and Strategic Ambiguity in Electoral Competition

    Jensen, Thomas

    Theories from psychology suggest that voters' perceptions of political positions depend on their non-policy related attitudes towards the candidates. A voter who likes (dislikes) a candidate will perceive the candidate's position as closer to (further from) his own than it really is. This is called...... projection. If voters' perceptions are not counterfactual and voting is based on perceived policy positions then projection gives a generally liked candidate an incentive to be ambiguous. In this paper we construct and analyze a formal model to investigate under which conditions this incentive survives...

  5. Projection effects and strategic ambiguity in electoral competition

    Jensen, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Theories from psychology suggest that voters' perceptions of political positions depend on their non-policy related attitudes towards the candidates. A voter who likes (dislikes) a candidate will perceive the candidate's position as closer to (further from) his own than it really is. This is called...... projection. If voters' perceptions are not counterfactual and voting is based on perceived policy positions then projection gives generally liked candidates an incentive to be ambiguous. In this paper we extend the standard Downsian model in order to investigate under what conditions this incentive survives...

  6. Resolution of ambiguities in cartoons as an illustration of the role of pragmatics in natural language understanding by computers

    Mazlack, L.J.; Paz, N.M.

    1983-01-01

    Newspaper cartoons can graphically display the result of ambiguity in human speech; the result can be unexpected and funny. Likewise, computer analysis of natural language statements also needs to successfully resolve ambiguous situations. Computer techniques already developed use restricted world knowledge in resolving ambiguous language use. This paper illustrates how these techniques can be used in resolving ambiguous situations arising in cartoons. 8 references.

  7. Ambiguity, logic, simplicity, and dynamics: Wittgensteinian evaluative criteria in peer review of quantitative research on categorization.

    Shimp, Charles P

    2004-06-30

    Research on categorization has changed over time, and some of these changes resemble how Wittgenstein's views changed from his Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus to his Philosophical Investigations. Wittgenstein initially focused on unambiguous, abstract, parsimonious, logical propositions and rules, and on independent, static, "atomic facts." This approach subsequently influenced the development of logical positivism and thereby may have indirectly influenced method and theory in research on categorization: much animal research on categorization has focused on learning simple, static, logical rules unambiguously interrelating small numbers of independent features. He later rejected logical simplicity and rigor and focused instead on Gestalt ideas about figure-ground reversals and context, the ambiguity of family resemblance, and the function of details of everyday language. Contemporary contextualism has been influenced by this latter position, some features of which appear in contemporary empirical research on categorization. These developmental changes are illustrated by research on avian local and global levels of visual perceptual analysis, categorization of rectangles and moving objects, and artificial grammar learning. Implications are described for peer review of quantitative theory in which ambiguity, logical rigor, simplicity, or dynamics are designed to play important roles.

  8. Contingency bias in probability judgement may arise from ambiguity regarding additional causes.

    Mitchell, Chris J; Griffiths, Oren; More, Pranjal; Lovibond, Peter F

    2013-09-01

    In laboratory contingency learning tasks, people usually give accurate estimates of the degree of contingency between a cue and an outcome. However, if they are asked to estimate the probability of the outcome in the presence of the cue, they tend to be biased by the probability of the outcome in the absence of the cue. This bias is often attributed to an automatic contingency detection mechanism, which is said to act via an excitatory associative link to activate the outcome representation at the time of testing. We conducted 3 experiments to test alternative accounts of contingency bias. Participants were exposed to the same outcome probability in the presence of the cue, but different outcome probabilities in the absence of the cue. Phrasing the test question in terms of frequency rather than probability and clarifying the test instructions reduced but did not eliminate contingency bias. However, removal of ambiguity regarding the presence of additional causes during the test phase did eliminate contingency bias. We conclude that contingency bias may be due to ambiguity in the test question, and therefore it does not require postulation of a separate associative link-based mechanism.

  9. Quantization ambiguities and bounds on geometric scalars in anisotropic loop quantum cosmology

    Singh, Parampreet; Wilson-Ewing, Edward

    2014-01-01

    We study quantization ambiguities in loop quantum cosmology that arise for space-times with non-zero spatial curvature and anisotropies. Motivated by lessons from different possible loop quantizations of the closed Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker cosmology, we find that using open holonomies of the extrinsic curvature, which due to gauge-fixing can be treated as a connection, leads to the same quantum geometry effects that are found in spatially flat cosmologies. More specifically, in contrast to the quantization based on open holonomies of the Ashtekar–Barbero connection, the expansion and shear scalars in the effective theories of the Bianchi type II and Bianchi type IX models have upper bounds, and these are in exact agreement with the bounds found in the effective theories of the Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker and Bianchi type I models in loop quantum cosmology. We also comment on some ambiguities present in the definition of inverse triad operators and their role. (paper)

  10. Quantization ambiguities and bounds on geometric scalars in anisotropic loop quantum cosmology

    Singh, Parampreet; Wilson-Ewing, Edward

    2014-02-01

    We study quantization ambiguities in loop quantum cosmology that arise for space-times with non-zero spatial curvature and anisotropies. Motivated by lessons from different possible loop quantizations of the closed Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker cosmology, we find that using open holonomies of the extrinsic curvature, which due to gauge-fixing can be treated as a connection, leads to the same quantum geometry effects that are found in spatially flat cosmologies. More specifically, in contrast to the quantization based on open holonomies of the Ashtekar-Barbero connection, the expansion and shear scalars in the effective theories of the Bianchi type II and Bianchi type IX models have upper bounds, and these are in exact agreement with the bounds found in the effective theories of the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker and Bianchi type I models in loop quantum cosmology. We also comment on some ambiguities present in the definition of inverse triad operators and their role.

  11. From expert generalists to ambiguity masters: using ambiguity tolerance theory to redefine the practice of rural nurses.

    Knight, Kaye; Kenny, Amanda; Endacott, Ruth

    2016-06-01

    To redefine the practice of rural nurses and describe a model that conceptualises the capabilities and characteristics required in the rural environment. The way in which the practice of rural nurses has been conceptualised is problematic. Definitions of rural nursing have been identified primarily through the functional context of rural health service delivery. The expert generalist term has provided a foundation theory for rural nurses with understandings informed by the scope of practice needed to meet service delivery requirements. However, authors exploring intrinsic characteristics of rural nurses have challenged this definition, as it does not adequately address the deeper, intangible complexities of practice required in the rural context. Despite this discourse, an alternative way to articulate the distinctive nature of rural nursing practice has eluded authors in Australia and internationally. A theoretical paper based on primary research. The development of the model was informed by the findings of a study that explored the nursing practice of managing telephone presentations in rural health services in Victoria, Australia. The study involved policy review from State and Federal governments, nursing and medical professional bodies, and five rural health services; semi-structured interviews with eight Directors of Nursing, seven registered nurses and focus group interviews with eight registered nurses. An ambiguity tolerance model drawn from corporate global entrepreneurship theory was adapted to explain the findings of the study. The adapted model presents capabilities and characteristics used by nurses to successfully manage the ambiguity of providing care in the rural context. Redefining the practice of rural nurses, through an adapted theory of ambiguity tolerance, highlights nursing characteristics and capabilities required in the rural context. This perspective offers new ways of thinking about the work of rural nurses, rural nurse policy, education

  12. Psychoanalytic and musical ambiguity: the tritone in gee, officer krupke.

    Jaffee Nagel, Julie

    2010-02-01

    The poignant and timeless Broadway musical West Side Story is viewed from the standpoint of taking musical forms as psychoanalytic data. The musical configuration of notes called the tritone (or diabolus in musica) is taken as a sonic metaphor expressing ambiguity both in musical vocabulary and in mental life. The tritone, which historically and harmonically represents instability, is heard throughout the score and emphasizes the intrapsychic, interpersonal, and social dramas that unfold within and between the two gangs in West Side Story. Particular emphasis is given to the comic but exceedingly sober song Gee, Officer Krupke. Bernstein's sensitivity to the ambiguity and tension inherent in the tritone in West Side Story is conceptualized as an intersection of music theory and theories of mind; this perspective holds implications for clinical practice and transports psychoanalytic concepts from the couch to the Broadway stage and into the community to address the complexities of love, hate, aggression, prejudice, and violence. Ultimately, West Side Story cross-pollinates music and theater, as well as music and psychoanalytic concepts.

  13. Ambivalence and Ambiguity in The Autobiography of Miss Jane Pittman

    Monica Michlin

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This close reading of the text highlights how Miss Jane, in her double role as protagonist and narrator, shows considerable ambivalence towards friend and foe alike, with the result that the apparently transparent ideological meaning of entire episodes is blurred by what some critics have merely put down to “conservatism.” I examine Miss Jane’s almost constant suppression of emotion, and frequent displays of ambivalence towards other black people; her ambiguous relationship to oppressive, but familiar whites like Albert Cluveau or Robert Samson; and her conflicted relation to black heroes and heroics. Is the leading character a variation on the “mammy” who has internalized racist figures of speech, and uses contradictory images that undermine black heroics and validate white oppression? Or is Gaines’s point to undo the “retrick” of heroics and of alienation alike, and, against of backdrop of constant, ordinary destruction of black lives, to cast the adult Miss Jane as a Brer Rabbit-like figure, for whom survival and resistance are both dialectically connected and opposed? Is there a contradiction between her “progress” towards resistance shown in the last section, and her metadiscursive comments in the present, and does her literally walking out of her own story give a conclusive meaning to her narrative, or does it point to the author’s not having been able to resolve the ambivalence and ambiguities within the text?

  14. Speech rhythm facilitates syntactic ambiguity resolution: ERP evidence.

    Maria Paula Roncaglia-Denissen

    Full Text Available In the current event-related potential (ERP study, we investigated how speech rhythm impacts speech segmentation and facilitates the resolution of syntactic ambiguities in auditory sentence processing. Participants listened to syntactically ambiguous German subject- and object-first sentences that were spoken with either regular or irregular speech rhythm. Rhythmicity was established by a constant metric pattern of three unstressed syllables between two stressed ones that created rhythmic groups of constant size. Accuracy rates in a comprehension task revealed that participants understood rhythmically regular sentences better than rhythmically irregular ones. Furthermore, the mean amplitude of the P600 component was reduced in response to object-first sentences only when embedded in rhythmically regular but not rhythmically irregular context. This P600 reduction indicates facilitated processing of sentence structure possibly due to a decrease in processing costs for the less-preferred structure (object-first. Our data suggest an early and continuous use of rhythm by the syntactic parser and support language processing models assuming an interactive and incremental use of linguistic information during language processing.

  15. Speech rhythm facilitates syntactic ambiguity resolution: ERP evidence.

    Roncaglia-Denissen, Maria Paula; Schmidt-Kassow, Maren; Kotz, Sonja A

    2013-01-01

    In the current event-related potential (ERP) study, we investigated how speech rhythm impacts speech segmentation and facilitates the resolution of syntactic ambiguities in auditory sentence processing. Participants listened to syntactically ambiguous German subject- and object-first sentences that were spoken with either regular or irregular speech rhythm. Rhythmicity was established by a constant metric pattern of three unstressed syllables between two stressed ones that created rhythmic groups of constant size. Accuracy rates in a comprehension task revealed that participants understood rhythmically regular sentences better than rhythmically irregular ones. Furthermore, the mean amplitude of the P600 component was reduced in response to object-first sentences only when embedded in rhythmically regular but not rhythmically irregular context. This P600 reduction indicates facilitated processing of sentence structure possibly due to a decrease in processing costs for the less-preferred structure (object-first). Our data suggest an early and continuous use of rhythm by the syntactic parser and support language processing models assuming an interactive and incremental use of linguistic information during language processing.

  16. A Range Ambiguity Suppression Processing Method for Spaceborne SAR with Up and Down Chirp Modulation

    Xuejiao Wen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Range ambiguity is one of the factors which affect the SAR image quality. Alternately transmitting up and down chirp modulation pulses is one of the methods used to suppress the range ambiguity. However, the defocusing range ambiguous signal can still hold the stronger backscattering intensity than the mainlobe imaging area in some case, which has a severe impact on visual effects and subsequent applications. In this paper, a novel hybrid range ambiguity suppression method for up and down chirp modulation is proposed. The method can obtain the ambiguity area image and reduce the ambiguity signal power appropriately, by applying pulse compression using a contrary modulation rate and CFAR detecting method. The effectiveness and correctness of the approach is demonstrated by processing the archive images acquired by Chinese Gaofen-3 SAR sensor in full-polarization mode.

  17. A Range Ambiguity Suppression Processing Method for Spaceborne SAR with Up and Down Chirp Modulation.

    Wen, Xuejiao; Qiu, Xiaolan; Han, Bing; Ding, Chibiao; Lei, Bin; Chen, Qi

    2018-05-07

    Range ambiguity is one of the factors which affect the SAR image quality. Alternately transmitting up and down chirp modulation pulses is one of the methods used to suppress the range ambiguity. However, the defocusing range ambiguous signal can still hold the stronger backscattering intensity than the mainlobe imaging area in some case, which has a severe impact on visual effects and subsequent applications. In this paper, a novel hybrid range ambiguity suppression method for up and down chirp modulation is proposed. The method can obtain the ambiguity area image and reduce the ambiguity signal power appropriately, by applying pulse compression using a contrary modulation rate and CFAR detecting method. The effectiveness and correctness of the approach is demonstrated by processing the archive images acquired by Chinese Gaofen-3 SAR sensor in full-polarization mode.

  18. PENGARUH ROLE AMBIGUITY DAN ROLE CONFLICT TERHADAP KOMITMEN INDEPENDENSI AUDITOR INTERNAL

    Angga Prasetyo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the influence of role conflict (role conflict against the commitmentof internal auditors’ independence, and know the effect of role ambiguity (role ambiguity ofthe Internal Auditor independence commitment. Data was collected through primary method byusing a questionnaire. Then performed the data analysis that includes classical assumption test,F test, t test, and analysis of coefficient of determination (R2. To analyze using SPSS softwareversion 16. Based on research result shows that role conflict has a significant negative effect oncommitment to the independence of internal auditors, and role ambiguity (role ambiguity has asignificant negative effect on commitment to the independence of internal auditors. While basedon simultaneous test (F test, role conflict (role conflict and role ambiguity (role ambiguity havean influence on the commitment of internal auditor independence.

  19. Motivations, contradictions and ambiguities in the leadership of nurses in management positions in a university hospital

    Clarice Maria Dall'Agnol

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to analyze the contradictions and ambiguities which permeate nurses' motivation for exercising leadership in management positions, in a university hospital. METHOD: this study has a qualitative approach and is exploratory and descriptive, and used a total of 33 semi-structured interviews which were submitted to thematic analysis. RESULTS: the information converged on five categories: Motivation to take on a management position; The view of nursing managers on the exercising of leadership; The emblematic aspect of working with people; Leadership in nursing - mediatory and conciliatory; Time: a dilemma between managing and caring. CONCLUSION: leading people can be both a great encouragement, and an impeding aspect, bearing in mind the nuances of teamwork and the complexity of the context in which this process is constructed. In addition to this, conciliatory and mediatory attitudes are shown to be fundamental for a healthy and productive organizational atmosphere; however, the lack of time was indicated as a dilemma between managing and caring.

  20. Bilingual children weigh speaker’s referential cues and word-learning heuristics differently in different language contexts when interpreting a speaker’s intent

    Wan-Yu eHung

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Past research has investigated how children use different sources of information such as social cues and word-learning heuristics to infer referential intents. The present research explored how children weigh and use some of these cues to make referential inferences. Specifically, we examined how switching between languages known (familiar or unknown (unfamiliar to a child would influence his or her choice of cue to interpret a novel label in a challenging disambiguation task, where a pointing cue was pitted against the mutual exclusivity (ME principle. Forty-eight 3-and 4-year-old English-Mandarin bilingual children listened to a story told either in English only (No-Switch, English and Mandarin (Familiar-Switch, English and Japanese (Unfamiliar-Switch, or English and English-sounding nonsense sentences (Nonsense-Switch. They were then asked to select an object (from a pair of familiar and novel objects after hearing a novel label paired with the speaker’s point at the familiar object, e.g., Can you give me the blicket? Results showed that children in the Familiar-Switch condition were more willing to relax ME to follow the speaker’s point to pick the familiar object than those in the Unfamiliar-Switch condition, who were more likely to pick the novel object. No significant differences were found between the other conditions. Further analyses revealed that children in the Unfamiliar-Switch condition looked at the speaker longer than children in the other conditions when the switch happened. Our findings suggest that children weigh speakers’ referential cues and word-learning heuristics differently in different language contexts while taking into account their communicative history with the speaker. There are important implications for general education and other learning efforts, such as designing learning games so that the history of credibility with the user is maintained and how learning may be best scaffolded in a helpful and trusting

  1. SAR Cross-Ambiguities in SAOCOM-CS Large Baseline Bistatic Configuration

    Bordoni, Federica; Rodriguez-Cassola, Marc; Younis, Marwan; Prats-Iraola, Pau; Lopez-Dekker, Paco; Krieger, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of the ambiguous signal level, the Ambiguity-to-Signal Ratio (ASR), plays a key role in the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) design and performance prediction. In conventional SAR acquisition scenarios, the computation of the ASR is based on the evaluation of the range and azimuth ambiguous contributes. Though appealing for its simplicity, this approach could be inaccurate in case of complex SAR acquisition geometries. In this paper we focus on the ASR performance of the SAOCOM-...

  2. Pericentric Inversion of Chromosome 9 in an Infant With Ambiguous Genitalia.

    Sotoudeh, Arya; Rostami, Parastoo; Nakhaeimoghadam, Maryam; Mohsenipour, Reihaneh; Rezaei, Nima

    2017-10-01

    Pericentric inversion of Chromosome 9 is one of the most common chromosomal abnormalities, which could be associated with various manifestations in some cases. Herein, a patient is presented with ambiguous genitalia that karyotyping revealed pericentric inversion of Chromosome 9 (p12,q13). Pericentric inversion of Chromosome 9 could be considered in the list of differential diagnosis of those with ambiguous genitalia, while chromosomal karyotype and culture could be recommended in children with ambiguous genitalia.

  3. In Command And Out Of Control: Leaders Developing Teams That Thrive In Chaos And Ambiguity

    2016-05-26

    In Command and Out of Control: Leaders Developing Teams that Thrive in Chaos and Ambiguity A Monograph by...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER In Command and Out of Control: Leaders Developing Teams that Thrive in Chaos and Ambiguity Sb. GRANT NUMBER...the chaos and ambiguity associated with war. Teams must provide the innovative and creative solutions formerly left to the individual leader. This

  4. Downsizing and reorganization: demands, challenges and ambiguity for registered nurses.

    Hertting, Anna; Nilsson, Kerstin; Theorell, Töres; Larsson, Ullabeth Sätterlund

    2004-01-01

    The 1990s were characterized by substantial financial cuts, and related staff redundancies and reorganizations in the Swedish health care sector. A large hospital in Sweden was selected for the study, in which downsizing had occurred between 1995 and 1997. The number of staff in the hospital was reduced by an average of 20%, and 10% were relocated to other departments. The aims of this study were to explore registered nurses' experiences of psychosocial 'stressors' and 'motivators', and how they handled their work situations, following a period of personnel reductions and ongoing reorganization. Interviews were undertaken with 14 nurses working in one Swedish hospital. Nurses were interviewed in 1997 about the recent and last round of redundancies, and were followed up 1 year later in 1998 and again in 2001. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed and analysed for thematic content. Five themes emerged in relation to nurses' perceived stressors, motivators, and coping options: 'distrust towards the employer', 'concurrent demands and challenges', 'professional ambiguity, 'a wish for collaboration', and 'efforts to gain control'. A common feature was duality and ambiguity in nurses' descriptions of the phenomena studied, meaning that identified themes had underlying sub-themes with both negative and positive dimensions. The concurrence of 'ever-growing job demands' and 'work going unrewarded' contributed to a feeling of being taken advantage of by the employer. The 'waste of human resources' and 'competence drain' that followed redundancies provoked anger. Unfulfilled collaboration with doctors was a major stress producer, which related to both the downsized work organization, and the complex 'deference-dominance' doctor-nurse relationship. The well-being of nurses depends on being an equal/parallel health professional in a comprehensive team that shares knowledge and improves collaborative care of patients. A consciously formulated nursing philosophy emerged as a

  5. Ambiguities of the phase analysis of the proton-proton scattering amplitude

    Grebenyuk, O.G.; Shklyarevskij, G.M.

    1980-01-01

    Ambiguities of the phase analysis of the proton-proton scattering amplitude are analysed. It is shown that for five measurements of polarization parameters sets there are ambiguities similar to the Gersten ambiguities in the phase analysis of πN scattering. A problem on additional experiments needed to eliminate these ambiguities is investigated. It is shown that for this purpose it suffices to measure three total cross sections with polarized and nonpolarized protons, thus determining the imaginary parts of amplitudes at THETA=0 and polarization parameters

  6. Elaboration of the methodological referential for life cycle analysis of first generation biofuels in the French context

    2008-01-01

    This study was made under the particular context of a strong growth of biofuels market, and the implication of French and European public authorities, and certain Member States (Germany, Netherlands, UK), for the development of certification schemes for first generation biofuels. The elaboration of such schemes requires a consensus on the methodology to apply when producing Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) of biofuels. To answer this demand, the study built up the methodological referential for biofuels LCAs in order to assess the Greenhouse Gases (GHG) emissions, fossil fuels consumptions and local atmospheric pollutants emissions induced by the different biofuel production pathways. The work consisted in methodological engineering, and was accomplished thanks to the participation of all the members of the Technical Committee of the study. An initial bibliographic review on biofuels LCAs allowed the identification of the main methodological issues (listed below). For each point, the impact of the methodological choices on the biofuels environmental balances was assessed by several sensitivity analyses. The results of these analyses were taken into account for the elaboration of the recommendations: - Consideration of the environmental burdens associated with buildings, equipments and their maintenance - Quantification of nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions from fields - Impact of the Land Use Change (LUC) - Allocation method for the distribution of the environmental impacts of biofuel production pathways between the different products and coproducts generated. Within the framework of this study, we made no distinction in terms of methodological approach between GHG emissions and local pollutants emissions. This results from the fact that the methodological issues cover all the environmental burdens and do not require specific approaches. This executive summary presents the methodological aspects related to biofuels LCAs. The complete report of the study presents in addition

  7. The comprehension of ambiguous idioms in aphasic patients.

    Cacciari, Cristina; Reati, Fabiola; Colombo, Maria Rosa; Padovani, Roberto; Rizzo, Silvia; Papagno, Costanza

    2006-01-01

    The ability to understand ambiguous idioms was assessed in 15 aphasic patients with preserved comprehension at a single word level. A string-to-word matching task was used. Patients were requested to choose one among four alternatives: a word associated with the figurative meaning of the idiom string; a word semantically associate with the last constituent of the idiom string; and two unrelated words. The results showed that patients' performance was impaired with respect to a group of matched controls, with patients showing a frontal and/or temporal lesion being the most impaired. A significant number of semantically associate errors were produced, suggesting an impairment of inhibition mechanisms and/or of recognition/activation of the idiomatic meaning.

  8. L’EXEMPLE AMBIGU OU LA PHRONESIS DU PHRONIMOS

    Loïc NICOLAS

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The present contribution studies the concept and the theory of example starting from an analysis of the phronèsis – the intelligence of and in the action. We show that we cannot think the phronèsis without examples, i.e. without incarnating it into the one who puts it in practice. We also prove that – as content of the moral education – the phronimos, key figure of right judgment and eu zèn, appears of an undeniable ambiguity. This reflexion on the phronèsis of the phronimos gives the opportunity to raise several crucial questions on the role of the experiment, the usage of the practical judgment and the acquisition of freedom.

  9. Symmetry relations and ambiguities in a free-quark model

    Battistel, O.A.; Nemes, M.C.; Battistel, O.L.

    1998-01-01

    We present a systematic study of one, two and three point functions of vector axial-vector scalar and pseudoscalar densities constructed in a free-quark model in a point of view of a alternative strategy to manipulate and calculate divergent amplitudes. The divergent content of the amplitudes in this technique are left in the form of (external momenta independent) 4-D integrals. Ambiguities and Symmetry Violations in all cases are shown to be associated to terms which involved relations between divergent integrals of the same degree of divergence. We conclude then that it's possible to avoid all these problems. For this purpose a set of conditions must be fulfilled the same ones we need for preserving gauge symmetry in QED. The implications of our studies to others theories and models are also discussed. (author)

  10. Sensorimotor Adaptations Following Exposure to Ambiguous Inertial Motion Cues

    Wood, S. J.; Harm, D. L.; Reschke, M. F.; Rupert, A. H.; Clement, G. R.

    2009-01-01

    The central nervous system must resolve the ambiguity of inertial motion sensory cues in order to derive accurate spatial orientation awareness. We hypothesize that multi-sensory integration will be adaptively optimized in altered gravity environments based on the dynamics of other sensory information available, with greater changes in otolith-mediated responses in the mid-frequency range where there is a crossover of tilt and translation responses. The primary goals of this ground-based research investigation are to explore physiological mechanisms and operational implications of tilt-translation disturbances during and following re-entry, and to evaluate a tactile prosthesis as a countermeasure for improving control of whole-body orientation.

  11. In Praise of Ambiguity: Musical Subtlety and Merleau-Ponty

    Tiger C. Roholt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available When a jazz, rock, or hip-hop drummer strikes certain notes in each measure slightly late, instead of hearing the degree to which those notes are late, we typically hear the effects of those variations; namely, a groove, the "feel" of a rhythm. Slight variations of pitch function similarly. In this essay, I argue that certain analytic theorists go astray due to their preoccupation with the variations themselves. By invoking Maurice Merleau-Ponty's insights into subtle visual perceptions, and his notion of perceptual indeterminacy, I avoid an account of musical subtlety suggested by Daniel Dennett that is too coarse-grained, as well as the bleak conclusion that certain musical subtleties are ineffable, Diana Raffman's view. I conclude that elements of music that are perceived ambiguously can perform a positive function in such aesthetic experiences: they can mediate or foster emergent qualities; moreover, they must be perceived in this way to do so.

  12. Managing ambiguity in business. A holistic and innovative approach

    Pop Oana

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article will look at the hurdles of dealing with ambiguity and the wicked problems that organizations are struggling with, by providing key insights from a one year team coaching program that the author had the opportunity to deliver in a Romanian entrepreneurial organization. Based on the actual methods used and highlighting the findings and impact of the program, we will reflect on how ambiguity manifests in organizational settings and how wicked problems can be defined. The methods employed are within the range of complexity science and are holistic approaches to systemic interventions within organizations that combine soft systems methodology, paradoxical theory of change, complex responsive processes approach with important concepts from systems thinking such as archetypes, feedback loops and modeling. One of the key objectives of the article is to reunite different academic approaches and link them to a case study as a way of adding value to these approaches and to reiterate that research needs, to find its rightful place in the practitioners’ toolkit and have a more meaningful and direct impact on the real struggles that business is faced with. The author’s expertize in systemic interventions is based on extensive practitioner experience, having been trained and certified as a systemic coach and facilitator, and therefore draws upon the work of other skilled practitioners that support companies in finding successful ways to address complexity. Although the article can be easily put in the complexity science and systems thinking area of academic interest, the research questions and insights are intended to serve the learning and the evolution of organizations.

  13. Quadri-stability of a spatially ambiguous auditory illusion

    Constance May Bainbridge

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to vision, audition plays an important role in sound localization in our world. One way we estimate the motion of an auditory object moving towards or away from us is from changes in volume intensity. However, the human auditory system has unequally distributed spatial resolution, including difficulty distinguishing sounds in front versus behind the listener. Here, we introduce a novel quadri-stable illusion, the Transverse-and-Bounce Auditory Illusion, which combines front-back confusion with changes in volume levels of a nonspatial sound to create ambiguous percepts of an object approaching and withdrawing from the listener. The sound can be perceived as traveling transversely from front to back or back to front, or bouncing to remain exclusively in front of or behind the observer. Here we demonstrate how human listeners experience this illusory phenomenon by comparing ambiguous and unambiguous stimuli for each of the four possible motion percepts. When asked to rate their confidence in perceiving each sound’s motion, participants reported equal confidence for the illusory and unambiguous stimuli. Participants perceived all four illusory motion percepts, and could not distinguish the illusion from the unambiguous stimuli. These results show that this illusion is effectively quadri-stable. In a second experiment, the illusory stimulus was looped continuously in headphones while participants identified its perceived path of motion to test properties of perceptual switching, locking, and biases. Participants were biased towards perceiving transverse compared to bouncing paths, and they became perceptually locked into alternating between front-to-back and back-to-front percepts, perhaps reflecting how auditory objects commonly move in the real world. This multi-stable auditory illusion opens opportunities for studying the perceptual, cognitive, and neural representation of objects in motion, as well as exploring multimodal perceptual

  14. The dark side of ambiguous discrimination: how state self-esteem moderates emotional and behavioural responses to ambiguous and unambiguous discrimination.

    Cihangir, Sezgin; Barreto, Manuela; Ellemers, Naomi

    2010-03-01

    Two experiments examine how experimentally induced differences in state self-esteem moderate emotional and behavioural responses to ambiguous and unambiguous discrimination. Study 1 (N=108) showed that participants who were exposed to ambiguous discrimination report more negative self-directed emotions when they have low compared to high self-esteem. These differences did not emerge when participants were exposed to unambiguous discrimination. Study 2 (N=118) additionally revealed that self-esteem moderated the effect of ambiguous discrimination on self-concern, task performance, and self-stereotyping. Results show that ambiguous discrimination caused participants with low self-esteem to report more negative self-directed emotions, more self-concern, an inferior task performance, and more self-stereotyping, compared to participants in the high self-esteem condition. Emotional and behavioural responses to unambiguous discrimination did not depend on the induced level of self-esteem in these studies.

  15. Neural responses to ambiguity involve domain-general and domain-specific emotion processing systems.

    Neta, Maital; Kelley, William M; Whalen, Paul J

    2013-04-01

    Extant research has examined the process of decision making under uncertainty, specifically in situations of ambiguity. However, much of this work has been conducted in the context of semantic and low-level visual processing. An open question is whether ambiguity in social signals (e.g., emotional facial expressions) is processed similarly or whether a unique set of processors come on-line to resolve ambiguity in a social context. Our work has examined ambiguity using surprised facial expressions, as they have predicted both positive and negative outcomes in the past. Specifically, whereas some people tended to interpret surprise as negatively valenced, others tended toward a more positive interpretation. Here, we examined neural responses to social ambiguity using faces (surprise) and nonface emotional scenes (International Affective Picture System). Moreover, we examined whether these effects are specific to ambiguity resolution (i.e., judgments about the ambiguity) or whether similar effects would be demonstrated for incidental judgments (e.g., nonvalence judgments about ambiguously valenced stimuli). We found that a distinct task control (i.e., cingulo-opercular) network was more active when resolving ambiguity. We also found that activity in the ventral amygdala was greater to faces and scenes that were rated explicitly along the dimension of valence, consistent with findings that the ventral amygdala tracks valence. Taken together, there is a complex neural architecture that supports decision making in the presence of ambiguity: (a) a core set of cortical structures engaged for explicit ambiguity processing across stimulus boundaries and (b) other dedicated circuits for biologically relevant learning situations involving faces.

  16. Combining Theory of Institutional Logics and Theory of Justification in Understanding Ambiguous Decision Making

    Westenholz, Ann

    I propose to understand decision making by combining theory of institutional logics (Friedland; Thornton, Ocasio & Lounsbury) and theory of justification (Boltanski and Thévenot). These two theoretical approaches are different but, at the same time, deal with the socially constructed plurality...... companies have located part of their business in Denmark. Finally I conclude and discuss why theory of institutional logics needs theory of justification and vice versa....... of the world nesting a macro-meso-micro level analysis. My argument is that both theories may learn from each other and enrich the study of ambiguous decision making. In the paper I describe, compare and combine the two theoretical approaches. I then illustrate the combined approach by a case where Chinese...

  17. Multi-GNSS phase delay estimation and PPP ambiguity resolution: GPS, BDS, GLONASS, Galileo

    Li, Xingxing; Li, Xin; Yuan, Yongqiang; Zhang, Keke; Zhang, Xiaohong; Wickert, Jens

    2018-06-01

    This paper focuses on the precise point positioning (PPP) ambiguity resolution (AR) using the observations acquired from four systems: GPS, BDS, GLONASS, and Galileo (GCRE). A GCRE four-system uncalibrated phase delay (UPD) estimation model and multi-GNSS undifferenced PPP AR method were developed in order to utilize the observations from all systems. For UPD estimation, the GCRE-combined PPP solutions of the globally distributed MGEX and IGS stations are performed to obtain four-system float ambiguities and then UPDs of GCRE satellites can be precisely estimated from these ambiguities. The quality of UPD products in terms of temporal stability and residual distributions is investigated for GPS, BDS, GLONASS, and Galileo satellites, respectively. The BDS satellite-induced code biases were corrected for GEO, IGSO, and MEO satellites before the UPD estimation. The UPD results of global and regional networks were also evaluated for Galileo and BDS, respectively. As a result of the frequency-division multiple-access strategy of GLONASS, the UPD estimation was performed using a network of homogeneous receivers including three commonly used GNSS receivers (TRIMBLE NETR9, JAVAD TRE_G3TH DELTA, and LEICA). Data recorded from 140 MGEX and IGS stations for a 30-day period in January in 2017 were used to validate the proposed GCRE UPD estimation and multi-GNSS dual-frequency PPP AR. Our results show that GCRE four-system PPP AR enables the fastest time to first fix (TTFF) solutions and the highest accuracy for all three coordinate components compared to the single and dual system. An average TTFF of 9.21 min with 7{°} cutoff elevation angle can be achieved for GCRE PPP AR, which is much shorter than that of GPS (18.07 min), GR (12.10 min), GE (15.36 min) and GC (13.21 min). With observations length of 10 min, the positioning accuracy of the GCRE fixed solution is 1.84, 1.11, and 1.53 cm, while the GPS-only result is 2.25, 1.29, and 9.73 cm for the east, north, and vertical

  18. Midwestern Millennial University Students' Tolerance for Ambiguity in a Period of Complex World Conflicts

    Mahdi, Ghada S.

    2012-01-01

    Though age and gender do not affect students' knowledge of global issues and associated ambiguity, the academic major of undergraduates did. Students' combined perceptions on knowledge of these issues and their associated ambiguities varied among the four academic groups of majors. Unlike teacher education majors and in combined other majors…

  19. Sadder but wiser : the effects of emotional states on ambiguity attitudes

    Baillon, A.; Koelinger, P.; Treffers, T.

    “Many important decisions are made without precise information about the probabilities of the outcomes. In such situations, individual ambiguity attitudes influence decision making. The present study identifies emotions as a transient cause of ambiguity attitudes. We conducted two random-assignment,

  20. Aggregating imprecise or conflicting beliefs: An experimental investigation using modern ambiguity theories

    A. Baillon (Aurélien); L. Cabantous (Laure); P.P. Wakker (Peter)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractTwo experiments show that violations of expected utility due to ambiguity, found in general decision experiments, also affect belief aggregation. Hence we use modern ambiguity theories to analyze belief aggregation, thus obtaining more refined and empirically more valid results than

  1. In the Face of Uncertainty: A Twin Study of Ambiguous Information, Anxiety and Depression in Children

    Eley, Thalia C.; Gregory, Alice M.; Lau, Jennifer Y. F.; McGuffin, Peter; Napolitano, Maria; Rijsdijk, Fruhling V.; Clark, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Anxiety and depression share genetic influences, and have been associated with similar cognitive biases. Psychological theories of anxiety and depression highlight threat interpretations of ambiguity. Little is known about whether genes influence cognitive style, or its links to symptoms. We assessed ambiguous word and scenario interpretations,…

  2. On the Impact of L2 Speech Rhythm on Syntactic Ambiguity Resolution

    Roncaglia-Denissen, M. Paula; Schmidt-Kassow, Maren; Heine, Angela; Kotz, Sonja A.

    2015-01-01

    In an event-related potential (ERP) study we investigated the role of age of acquisition (AoA) on the use of second language rhythmic properties during syntactic ambiguity resolution. Syntactically ambiguous sentences embedded in rhythmically regular and irregular contexts were presented to Turkish early and late second language (L2) learners of…

  3. Exploiting Lexical Ambiguity to Help Students Understand the Meaning of "Random"

    Kaplan, Jennifer J.; Rogness, Neal T.; Fisher, Diane G.

    2014-01-01

    Words that are part of colloquial English but used differently in a technical domain may possess lexical ambiguity. The use of such words by instructors may inhibit student learning if incorrect connections are made by students between the technical and colloquial meanings. One fundamental word in statistics that has lexical ambiguity for students…

  4. The Relationship between Tolerance of Ambiguity and Stereotyping: Implications for BSW Education

    Valutis, Stephanie A.

    2015-01-01

    Ambiguity tolerance and intolerance can influence one's professional practice. The study of such influences remains sparse within the social work literature. Behaviors that reduce uncertainty, including categorizing or stereotyping, are used by those who feel discomfort in ambiguous situations. This study explores explore the relationship between…

  5. Ambiguous Belonging and the Challenge of Inclusion: Parent Perspectives on School Membership

    Scorgie, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Boundary ambiguity occurs when members of a family are confused or uncertain regarding roles, responsibilities and subsystem configurations within the family. Research suggests that perception of boundary ambiguity is associated with family stress despite internal and external resource availability. It has been suggested that research on family…

  6. Medical Student and Junior Doctors' Tolerance of Ambiguity: Development of a New Scale

    Hancock, Jason; Roberts, Martin; Monrouxe, Lynn; Mattick, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The practice of medicine involves inherent ambiguity, arising from limitations of knowledge, diagnostic problems, complexities of treatment and outcome and unpredictability of patient response. Research into doctors' tolerance of ambiguity is hampered by poor conceptual clarity and inadequate measurement scales. We aimed to create and pilot a…

  7. Resolving the ambiguity: Making sense of intrinsic disorder when PDB structures disagree.

    DeForte, Shelly; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2016-03-01

    Missing regions in X-ray crystal structures in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) have played a foundational role in the study of intrinsically disordered protein regions (IDPRs), especially in the development of in silico predictors of intrinsic disorder. However, a missing region is only a weak indication of intrinsic disorder, and this uncertainty is compounded by the presence of ambiguous regions, where more than one structure of the same protein sequence "disagrees" in terms of the presence or absence of missing residues. The question is this: are these ambiguous regions intrinsically disordered, or are they the result of static disorder that arises from experimental conditions, ensembles of structures, or domain wobbling? A novel way of looking at ambiguous regions in terms of the pattern between multiple PDB structures has been demonstrated. It was found that the propensity for intrinsic disorder increases as the level of ambiguity decreases. However, it is also shown that ambiguity is more likely to occur as the protein region is placed within different environmental conditions, and even the most ambiguous regions as a set display compositional bias that suggests flexibility. The results suggested that ambiguity is a natural result for many IDPRs crystallized under different conditions and that static disorder and wobbling domains are relatively rare. Instead, it is more likely that ambiguity arises because many of these regions were conditionally or partially disordered. © 2016 The Protein Society.

  8. Exploring the Relationship between Tolerance of Ambiguity of EFL Learners and Their Vocabulary Knowledge

    Basöz, Tutku

    2015-01-01

    Learning a new language is akin to exploring an unknown land as ambiguous situations are prevalent in language learning. Ambiguity tolerance, which can hinder or facilitate language learning, is considered as an important learning style. The purpose of the present study was to understand how tolerant/intolerant EFL learners are of foreign language…

  9. Role Ambiguity and Self-Efficacy: The Moderating Effects of Goal Orientation and Procedural Justice

    Li, Andrew; Bagger, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated variables that moderated the relationship between role ambiguity and self-efficacy. Results of a field study found support for the moderating role of learning goal orientation, such that the relationship between role ambiguity and self-efficacy was weaker when learning goal orientation was high. In addition, we found…

  10. More is not always better: coping with ambiguity in natural resources management

    Brugnach, M.; Dewulf, A.; Henriksen, H.J.; Keur, van der P.

    2011-01-01

    Coping with ambiguities in natural resources management has become unavoidable. Ambiguity is a distinct type of uncertainty that results from the simultaneous presence of multiple valid, and sometimes conflicting, ways of framing a problem. As such, it reflects discrepancies in meanings and

  11. More is not always better: Coping with ambiguity in natural resources management

    Brugnach, Marcela Fabiana; De Wulf, A.; Henriksen, H.J.; van der Keur, P.

    2011-01-01

    Coping with ambiguities in natural resources management has become unavoidable. Ambiguity is a distinct type of uncertainty that results from the simultaneous presence of multiple valid, and sometimes conflicting, ways of framing a problem. As such, it reflects discrepancies in meanings and

  12. Tracking Down the Origins of Ambiguity in Context-Free Grammars

    H.J.S. Basten (Bas)

    2010-01-01

    htmlabstractContext-free grammars are widely used but still hindered by ambiguity. This stresses the need for detailed detection methods that point out the sources of ambiguity in a grammar. In this paper we show how the approximative Noncanonical Unambiguity Test by Schmitz can be extended to

  13. Ambiguity and risk measures in the lab and students’ real-life borrowing behavior

    Fairley, Kim; Weitzel, Utz

    This study analyzes the external validity of experimentally elicited ambiguity aversion, likelihood insensitivity and risk aversion on real-life decision-making in the field of student loans. Our main finding is that ambiguity aversion, likelihood insensitivity and risk aversion are not related to

  14. The role of ambiguity and discrepancy in the early phases of innovation

    Laursen, Linda Nhu; Tollestrup, Christian H. T.

    2015-01-01

    Innovation literature mainly focuses on eliminating ambiguity and discrepancy from the early phases of innovation. This study questions this implicit assumption, as it may provide an oversimplified view on, how to attain proficiency. Instead of narrowly focusing on reducing ambiguity and discrepa...

  15. Comparing the ambiguity reduction abilities of probabilistic context-free grammars

    Infante-Lopez, G.G.; de Rijke, M.

    2004-01-01

    We present a measure for evaluating Probabilistic Context Free Grammars (PCFG) based on their ambiguity resolution capabilities.Probabilities in a PCFG can be seen as a filtering mechanism: For an ambiguous sentence, the trees bearing maximum probability aresingle out, while all others are

  16. Theory-Based Evaluation Meets Ambiguity: The Role of Janus Variables

    Dahler-Larsen, Peter

    2018-01-01

    As theory-based evaluation (TBE) engages in situations where multiple stakeholders help develop complex program theory about dynamic phenomena in politically contested settings, it becomes difficult to develop and use program theory without ambiguity. The purpose of this article is to explore ambiguity as a fruitful perspective that helps TBE face…

  17. Dealing With Uncertainty: Testing Risk- and Ambiguity-Attitude Across Adolescence.

    Blankenstein, Neeltje E; Crone, Eveline A; van den Bos, Wouter; van Duijvenvoorde, Anna C K

    2016-01-01

    Attitudes to risk (known probabilities) and attitudes to ambiguity (unknown probabilities) are separate constructs that influence decision making, but their development across adolescence remains elusive. We administered a choice task to a wide adolescent age-range (N = 157, 10-25 years) to disentangle risk- and ambiguity-attitudes using a model-based approach. Additionally, this task was played in a social context, presenting choices from a high risk-taking peer. We observed age-related changes in ambiguity-attitude, but not risk-attitude. Also, ambiguity-aversion was negatively related to real-life risk taking. Finally, the social context influenced only risk-attitudes. These results highlight the importance of disentangling risk- and ambiguity-attitudes in adolescent risk taking.

  18. Ambiguity tolerance in organizations: definitional clarification and perspectives on future research.

    McLain, David L; Kefallonitis, Efstathios; Armani, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Ambiguity tolerance is an increasingly popular subject for study in a wide variety of fields. The definition of ambiguity tolerance has changed since its inception, and accompanying that change are changes in measurement and the research questions that interest researchers. There is a wealth of opportunity for research related to ambiguity tolerance and recent advances in neuroscience, measurement, trait research, perception, problem solving, and other fields highlight areas of interest and point to issues that need further attention. The future of ambiguity tolerance research is promising and it is expected that future studies will yield new insights into individual differences in reactions to the complex, unfamiliar, confusing, indeterminate, and incomplete stimuli that fall within the conceptual domain of ambiguity.

  19. The Ethics of Ambiguity: Rethinking the Role and Importance of Uncertainty in Medical Education and Practice.

    Domen, Ronald E

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and embracing uncertainty are critical for effective teacher-learner relationships as well as for shared decision-making in the physician-patient relationship. However, ambiguity has not been given serious consideration in either the undergraduate or graduate medical curricula or in the role it plays in patient-centered care. In this article, the author examines the ethics of ambiguity and argues for a pedagogy that includes education in the importance of, and tolerance of, ambiguity that is inherent in medical education and practice. Common threads running through the ethics of ambiguity are the virtue of respect, and the development of a culture of respect is required for the successful understanding and implementation of a pedagogy of ambiguity.

  20. Ambiguity Tolerance in Organizations: Definitional Clarification and Perspectives on Future Research

    David L Mclain

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ambiguity tolerance is an increasingly popular subject for study in a wide variety of fields. The definition of ambiguity tolerance has changed since its inception, and accompanying that change are changes in measurement and the research questions that interest researchers. There is a wealth of opportunity for research related to ambiguity tolerance and recent advances in neuroscience, measurement, trait research, perception, problem solving, and other fields highlight areas of interest and point to issues that need further attention. The future of ambiguity tolerance research is promising and it is expected that future studies will yield new insights into individual differences in reactions to the complex, unfamiliar, confusing, indeterminate, and incomplete stimuli that fall within the conceptual domain of ambiguity.