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Sample records for references study selection

  1. Book Catalogs; Selected References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, Wesley T.

    The 116 citations on book catalogs are divided into the following two main sections: (1) Selected References, in alphabetic sequence by personal or institutional author and (2) Anonymous Entries, in alphabetic sequence by title. One hundred and seven of the citations cover the years 1960 through March 1969. There are five scattered citations in…

  2. Selected Reference Books of 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlvaine, Eileen

    1999-01-01

    Reviews a selection of recent scholarly and general reference works under the categories of Periodicals and Newspapers, Philosophy, Literature, Film and Radio, Art and Architecture, Music, Political Science, Women's Studies, and History. A brief summary of new editions of standard works is provided at the end of the articles. (AEF)

  3. Selection of Reference Genes for Expression Studies in Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassan, Meire Menezes; Angelotti-Mendonc A, Je Ssika; Alves, Gustavo Rodrigues; Yamamoto, Pedro Takao; Moura O Filho, Francisco de Assis Alves

    2017-12-05

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), is considered the main vector of the bacteria associated with huanglongbing, a very serious disease that has threatened the world citrus industry. The absence of efficient control management protocols, including a lack of resistant cultivars, has led to the development of different approaches to study this pathosystem. The production of resistant genotypes relies on D. citri gene expression analyses by RT-qPCR to assess control of the vector population. High-quality, reliable RT-qPCR analyses depend upon proper reference gene selection and validation. However, adequate D. citri reference genes have not yet been identified. In the present study, we evaluated the genes EF 1-α, ACT, GAPDH, RPL7, RPL17, and TUB as candidate reference genes for this insect. Gene expression stability was evaluated using the mathematical algorithms deltaCt, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and geNorm, at five insect developmental stages, grown on two different plant hosts [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Sapindales: Rutaceae) and Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack (Sapindales: Rutaceae)]. The final gene ranking was calculated using RefFinder software, and the V-ATPase-A gene was selected for validation. According to our results, two reference genes are recommended when different plant hosts and developmental stages are considered. Considering gene expression studies in D. citri grown on M. paniculata, regardless of the insect developmental stage, GAPDH and RPL7 have the best fit as reference genes in RT-qPCR analyses, whereas GAPDH and EF 1-α are recommended as reference genes in insect studies using C. sinensis. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Selection of Reliable Reference Genes for Gene Expression Studies on Rhododendron molle G. Don.

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    Xiao, Zheng; Sun, Xiaobo; Liu, Xiaoqing; Li, Chang; He, Lisi; Chen, Shangping; Su, Jiale

    2016-01-01

    The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) approach has become a widely used method to analyze expression patterns of target genes. The selection of an optimal reference gene is a prerequisite for the accurate normalization of gene expression in qRT-PCR. The present study constitutes the first systematic evaluation of potential reference genes in Rhododendron molle G. Don. Eleven candidate reference genes in different tissues and flowers at different developmental stages of R. molle were assessed using the following three software packages: GeNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper. The results showed that EF1- α (elongation factor 1-alpha), 18S (18s ribosomal RNA), and RPL3 (ribosomal protein L3) were the most stable reference genes in developing rhododendron flowers and, thus, in all of the tested samples, while tublin ( TUB ) was the least stable. ACT5 (actin), RPL3 , 18S , and EF1- α were found to be the top four choices for different tissues, whereas TUB was not found to favor qRT-PCR normalization in these tissues. Three stable reference genes are recommended for the normalization of qRT-PCR data in R. molle . Furthermore, the expression profiles of RmPSY (phytoene synthase) and RmPDS (phytoene dehydrogenase) were assessed using EF1- α, 18S , ACT5 , RPL3 , and their combination as internals. Similar trends were found, but these trends varied when the least stable reference gene TUB was used. The results further prove that it is necessary to validate the stability of reference genes prior to their use for normalization under different experimental conditions. This study provides useful information for reliable qRT-PCR data normalization in gene studies of R. molle .

  5. Selection of Reliable Reference Genes for Gene Expression Studies on Rhododendron molle G. Don

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    Zheng Xiao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR approach has become a widely used method to analyze expression patterns of target genes. The selection of an optimal reference gene is a prerequisite for the accurate normalization of gene expression in qRT-PCR. The present study constitutes the first systematic evaluation of potential reference genes in Rhododendron molle G. Don. Eleven candidate reference genes in different tissues and flowers at different developmental stages of R. molle were assessed using the following three software packages: GeNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. The results showed that EF1-α (elongation factor 1-alpha, 18S (18s ribosomal RNA and RPL3 (ribosomal protein L3 were the most stable reference genes in developing rhododendron flowers and, thus, in all of the tested samples, while tublin (TUB was the least stable. ACT5 (actin, RPL3, 18S and EF1-α were found to be the top four choices for different tissues, whereas TUB was not found to favor qRT-PCR normalization in these tissues. Three stable reference genes are recommended for the normalization of qRT-PCR data in R. molle. Furthermore, the expression profiles of RmPSY (phytoene synthase and RmPDS (phytoene dehydrogenase were assessed using EF1-α, 18S, ACT5, and RPL3 and their combination as internals. Similar trends were found, but these trends varied when the least stable reference gene TUB was used. The results further prove that it is necessary to validate the stability of reference genes prior to their use for normalization under different experimental conditions. This study provides useful information for reliable qRT-PCR data normalization in gene studies of R. molle.

  6. Adult health study reference papers. Selection of the sample. Characteristics of the sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beebe, G W; Fujisawa, Hideo; Yamasaki, Mitsuru

    1960-12-14

    The characteristics and selection of the clinical sample have been described in some detail to provide information on the comparability of the exposure groups with respect to factors excluded from the matching criteria and to provide basic descriptive information potentially relevant to individual studies that may be done within the framework of the Adult Health Study. The characteristics under review here are age, sex, many different aspects of residence, marital status, occupation and industry, details of location and shielding ATB, acute radiation signs and symptoms, and prior ABCC medical or pathology examinations. 5 references, 57 tables.

  7. Selected, annotated bibliography of studies relevant to the isolation of nuclear wastes. [705 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyder, L.K.; Fore, C.S.; Vaughan, N.D.; Faust, R.A.

    1980-09-01

    This annotated bibliography of 705 references represents the first in a series to be published by the Ecological Sciences Information Center containing scientific, technical, economic, and regulatory information relevant to nuclear waste isolation. Most references discuss deep geologic disposal, with fewer studies of deep seabed disposal; space disposal is also included. The publication covers both domestic and foreign literature for the period 1954 to 1980. Major chapters selected are Chemical and Physical Aspects; Container Design and Performance; Disposal Site; Envirnmental Transport; General Studies and Reviews; Geology, Hydrology and Site Resources; Regulatory and Economic Aspects; Repository Design and Engineering; Transportation Technology; Waste Production; and Waste Treatment. Specialized data fields have been incorporated to improve the ease and accuracy of locating pertinent references. Specific radionuclides for which data are presented are listed in the Measured Radionuclides field, and specific parameters which affect the migration of these radionuclides are presented in the Measured Parameters field. The references within each chapter are arranged alphabetically by leading author, corporate affiliation, or title of the document. When the author is not given, the corporate affiliation appears first. If these two levels of authorship are not given, the title of the document is used as the identifying level. Indexes are provided for author(s), keywords, subject category, title, geographic location, measured parameters, measured radionuclides, and publication description.

  8. Selection of relatively exact reference genes for gene expression studies in goosegrass (Eleusine indica) under herbicide stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingchao; Huang, Zhaofeng; Huang, Hongjuan; Wei, Shouhui; Liu, Yan; Jiang, Cuilan; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Chaoxian

    2017-04-21

    Goosegrass (Eleusine indica) is one of the most serious annual grassy weeds worldwide, and its evolved herbicide-resistant populations are more difficult to control. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is a common technique for investigating the resistance mechanism; however, there is as yet no report on the systematic selection of stable reference genes for goosegrass. This study proposed to test the expression stability of 9 candidate reference genes in goosegrass in different tissues and developmental stages and under stress from three types of herbicide. The results show that for different developmental stages and organs (control), eukaryotic initiation factor 4 A (eIF-4) is the most stable reference gene. Chloroplast acetolactate synthase (ALS) is the most stable reference gene under glyphosate stress. Under glufosinate stress, eIF-4 is the best reference gene. Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (UCE) is the most stable reference gene under quizalofop-p-ethyl stress. The gene eIF-4 is the recommended reference gene for goosegrass under the stress of all three herbicides. Moreover, pairwise analysis showed that seven reference genes were sufficient to normalize the gene expression data under three herbicides treatment. This study provides a list of reliable reference genes for transcript normalization in goosegrass, which will facilitate resistance mechanism studies in this weed species.

  9. Selection and validation of reference genes for miRNA expression studies during porcine pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyn M Wessels

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs comprise a family of small non-coding RNAs that modulate several developmental and physiological processes including pregnancy. Their ubiquitous presence is confirmed in mammals, worms, flies and plants. Although rapid advances have been made in microRNA research, information on stable reference genes for validation of microRNA expression is still lacking. Real time PCR is a widely used tool to quantify gene transcripts. An appropriate reference gene must be chosen to minimize experimental error in this system. A small difference in miRNA levels between experimental samples can be biologically meaningful as these entities can affect multiple targets in a pathway. This study examined the suitability of six commercially available reference genes (RNU1A, RNU5A, RNU6B, SNORD25, SCARNA17, and SNORA73A in maternal-fetal tissues from healthy and spontaneously arresting/dying conceptuses from sows were separately analyzed at gestation day 20. Comparisons were also made with non-pregnant endometrial tissues from sows. Spontaneous fetal loss is a prime concern to the commercial pork industry. Our laboratory has previously identified deficits in vasculature development at maternal-fetal interface as one of the major participating causes of fetal loss. Using this well-established model, we have extended our studies to identify suitable microRNA reference genes. A methodical approach to assessing suitability was adopted using standard curve and melting curve analysis, PCR product sequencing, real time PCR expression in a panel of gestational tissues, and geNorm and NormFinder analysis. Our quantitative real time PCR analysis confirmed expression of all 6 reference genes in maternal and fetal tissues. All genes were uniformly expressed in tissues from healthy and spontaneously arresting conceptus attachment sites. Comparisons between tissue types (maternal/fetal/non-pregnant revealed significant differences for RNU5A, RNU6B, SCARNA17, and SNORA73A

  10. Selected Reference Books of 1992.

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    McIlvaine, Eileen

    1993-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of 40 recent scholarly and general works of interest to reference workers in university libraries. Topics areas covered include philosophy, religion, language, literature, architecture, economics, law, area studies, Russia and the Soviet Union, women's studies, and Christopher Columbus. New editions and…

  11. Selection of reference genes for expression studies with fish myogenic cell cultures

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    Johnston Ian A

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Relatively few studies have used cell culture systems to investigate gene expression and the regulation of myogenesis in fish. To produce robust data from quantitative real-time PCR mRNA levels need to be normalised using internal reference genes which have stable expression across all experimental samples. We have investigated the expression of eight candidate genes to identify suitable reference genes for use in primary myogenic cell cultures from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.. The software analysis packages geNorm, Normfinder and Best keeper were used to rank genes according to their stability across 42 samples during the course of myogenic differentiation. Results Initial results showed several of the candidate genes exhibited stable expression throughout myogenic culture while Sdha was identified as the least stable gene. Further analysis with geNorm, Normfinder and Bestkeeper identified Ef1α, Hprt1, Ppia and RNApolII as stably expressed. Comparison of data normalised with the geometric average obtained from combinations of any three of these genes showed no significant differences, indicating that any combination of these genes is valid. Conclusion The geometric average of any three of Hprt1, Ef1α, Ppia and RNApolII is suitable for normalisation of gene expression data in primary myogenic cultures from Atlantic salmon.

  12. Selection of reference genes for expression studies with fish myogenic cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Neil I; Johnston, Ian A

    2009-08-10

    Relatively few studies have used cell culture systems to investigate gene expression and the regulation of myogenesis in fish. To produce robust data from quantitative real-time PCR mRNA levels need to be normalised using internal reference genes which have stable expression across all experimental samples. We have investigated the expression of eight candidate genes to identify suitable reference genes for use in primary myogenic cell cultures from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). The software analysis packages geNorm, Normfinder and Best keeper were used to rank genes according to their stability across 42 samples during the course of myogenic differentiation. Initial results showed several of the candidate genes exhibited stable expression throughout myogenic culture while Sdha was identified as the least stable gene. Further analysis with geNorm, Normfinder and Bestkeeper identified Ef1alpha, Hprt1, Ppia and RNApolII as stably expressed. Comparison of data normalised with the geometric average obtained from combinations of any three of these genes showed no significant differences, indicating that any combination of these genes is valid. The geometric average of any three of Hprt1, Ef1alpha, Ppia and RNApolII is suitable for normalisation of gene expression data in primary myogenic cultures from Atlantic salmon.

  13. Selection of reference genes for gene expression studies in heart failure for left and right ventricles.

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    Li, Mengmeng; Rao, Man; Chen, Kai; Zhou, Jianye; Song, Jiangping

    2017-07-15

    Real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR (qRT-PCR) is a feasible tool for determining gene expression profiles, but the accuracy and reliability of the results depends on the stable expression of selected housekeeping genes in different samples. By far, researches on stable housekeeping genes in human heart failure samples are rare. Moreover the effect of heart failure on the expression of housekeeping genes in right and left ventricles is yet to be studied. Therefore we aim to provide stable housekeeping genes for both ventricles in heart failure and normal heart samples. In this study, we selected seven commonly used housekeeping genes as candidates. By using the qRT-PCR, the expression levels of ACTB, RAB7A, GAPDH, REEP5, RPL5, PSMB4 and VCP in eight heart failure and four normal heart samples were assessed. The stability of candidate housekeeping genes was evaluated by geNorm and Normfinder softwares. GAPDH showed the least variation in all heart samples. Results also indicated the difference of gene expression existed in heart failure left and right ventricles. GAPDH had the highest expression stability in both heart failure and normal heart samples. We also propose using different sets of housekeeping genes for left and right ventricles respectively. The combination of RPL5, GAPDH and PSMB4 is suitable for the right ventricle and the combination of GAPDH, REEP5 and RAB7A is suitable for the left ventricle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Selection of Reference Genes for Expression Study in Pulp and Seeds of Theobroma grandiflorum (Willd. ex Spreng. Schum.

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    Lucas Ferraz Dos Santos

    Full Text Available Cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum [Willd. ex Spreng.] Schum is a species of high economic importance in Brazil with great potential at international level due to the multiple uses of both its seeds and pulp in the industry of sweets and cosmetics. For this reason, the cupuassu breeding program focused on the selection of genotypes with high pulp and seed quality-selection associated with the understanding of the mechanisms involved in fruit formation. Gene expression is one of the most used approaches related to such understanding. In this sense, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR is a powerful tool, since it rapidly and reliably quantifies gene expression levels across different experimental conditions. The analysis by qPCR and the correct interpretation of data depend on signal normalization using reference genes, i.e. genes presenting a uniform pattern of expression in the analyzed samples. Here, we selected and analyzed the expression of five genes from cupuassu (ACP, ACT, GAPDH, MDH, TUB to be used as candidates for reference genes on pulp and seed of young, maturing and mature cupuassu fruits. The evaluation of the gene expression stability was obtained using the NormFinder, geNorm and BestKeeper programs. In general, our results indicated that the GAPDH and MDH genes constituted the best combination as reference genes to analyze the expression of cupuassu samples. To our knowledge, this is the first report of reference gene definition in cupuassu, and these results will support subsequent analysis related to gene expression studies in cupuassu plants subjected to different biotic or abiotic conditions as well as serve as a tool for diversity analysis based on pulp and seed quality.

  15. Selected Reference Books of 1970-71

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehy, Eugene P.

    1971-01-01

    A continuation of the semiannual series, this list presents a selection of recent scholarly and foreign works of interest to reference workers in university libraries. It is not intended to be well balanced or comprehensive. (34 references) (Author/NH)

  16. Energy policy: selected references. [Booklet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenwrick-Piercy, E [comp.

    1980-01-01

    This bibliography is based on material held in the UK Department of Energy Library. Energy-related documents published between 1973 and 1980 are emphasized in the 260 references listed. The bibliography is organized under the major headings of United Kingdom, Irish Republic, World, Western Europe, Eastern Europe, North America, South America, Asia, Australia, New Zealand, Africa, and Middle East. For continuing information on energy policy, 5 useful periodicals are listed.

  17. Selection of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR studies in striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba skin biopsies

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    Casini Silvia

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Odontocete cetaceans occupy the top position of the marine food-web and are particularly sensitive to the bioaccumulation of lipophilic contaminants. The effects of environmental pollution on these species are highly debated and various ecotoxicological studies have addressed the impact of xenobiotic compounds on marine mammals, raising conservational concerns. Despite its sensitivity, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR has never been used to quantify gene induction caused by exposure of cetaceans to contaminants. A limitation for the application of qRT-PCR is the need for appropriate reference genes which allow the correct quantification of gene expression. A systematic evaluation of potential reference genes in cetacean skin biopsies is presented, in order to validate future qRT-PCR studies aiming at using the expression of selected genes as non-lethal biomarkers. Results Ten commonly used housekeeping genes (HKGs were partially sequenced in the striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba and, for each gene, PCR primer pairs were specifically designed and tested in qRT-PCR assays. The expression of these potential control genes was examined in 30 striped dolphin skin biopsy samples, obtained from specimens sampled in the north-western Mediterranean Sea. The stability of selected control genes was determined using three different specific VBA applets (geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper which produce highly comparable results. Glyceraldehyde-3P-dehydrogenase (GAPDH and tyrosine 3-monooxygenase (YWHAZ always rank as the two most stably expressed HKGs according to the analysis with geNorm and Normfinder, and are defined as optimal control genes by BestKepeer. Ribosomal protein L4 (RPL4 and S18 (RPS18 also exhibit a remarkable stability of their expression levels. On the other hand, transferrin receptor (TFRC, phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1, hypoxanthine ribosyltransferase (HPRT1 and β-2-microglobin (B2M show variable expression

  18. Landscape planning and management of spas in Serbia with special reference to the selected case studies

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    Crnčević Tijana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper is presented the overview of the legal requirements in Serbia covering planning and as well landscape planning. It is stress that Serbia is in the process of the ratification of the European Landscape Convention (ELC and adoption of the Spatial Plan of the Republic of Serbia (SPRS where is included the obligation of the production of the study 'Characterization of the landscape in Serbia' and as well pilot projects 'Characterization of the landscape' where are separated priority areas and where are specially stressed as tourist destinations spas. Taking into consideration that important step towards development of the methodological framework for landscape planning and management in Serbia was made with the inclusion of this subject within the process of formulating of the SPRS, besides the overview of the main obligations set by this document covering landscape planning and management, as an example of the current practice, two case studies of Vrnjacka spa and Pribojska spa are presented where special attention within planning documents was given to the protection and enhancement of the landscape. Beside that, as a contribution, it is given the proposal of the preliminary typology of the landscape of Vrnjacke spa within the borders of the Master plan and Pribojska spa within the borders of the Plan of detailed regulation. Taking into consideration the scope of these plans, the landscape is defined as cultural and by more detailed analyses as urban and rural. Within these two types of landscape are separated urban area, the 'core' of the spa, peri-urban area, and within rural forest and agricultural area. One of the main conclusions of this paper is that the inclusion of the landscape within legal framework which is promoting spatial and urban planning, nature and environmental protection is very important prerequisite for adequate planning and management of the landscape in Serbia.

  19. Selected Reference Books of 1998-99.

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    McIlvaine, Eileen

    1999-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of selected reference books published between 1998 and 1999 under subject headings for biography, journalism, mythology, languages and literature, architecture and city planning, political science, economics, history, and new editions and supplements. (LRW)

  20. Selected Reference Books of 1969-1970

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehy, Eugene P.

    1971-01-01

    The purpose of this list is to present a selection of recent scholarly and foreign works of interest to reference workers in university libraries. It is neither well balanced nor comprehensive. (Author/NH)

  1. Selected Reference Books of 1971-72

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehy, Eugene P.

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of this annotated list is to present a selection of recent scholarly and foreign works of interest to reference workers in university libraries. The citations are listed under the following headings: guide, bibliography, encyclopedias, dictionaries, newspapers, dissertations, biography, genealogy, literature, education, sociology,…

  2. Selection of reliable reference genes for gene expression studies in Trichoderma afroharzianum LTR-2 under oxalic acid stress.

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    Lyu, Yuping; Wu, Xiaoqing; Ren, He; Zhou, Fangyuan; Zhou, Hongzi; Zhang, Xinjian; Yang, Hetong

    2017-10-01

    An appropriate reference gene is required to get reliable results from gene expression analysis by quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). In order to identify stable and reliable reference genes in Trichoderma afroharzianum under oxalic acid (OA) stress, six commonly used housekeeping genes, i.e., elongation factor 1, ubiquitin, ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, α-tubulin, actin, from the effective biocontrol isolate T. afroharzianum strain LTR-2 were tested for their expression during growth in liquid culture amended with OA. Four in silico programs (comparative ΔCt, NormFinder, geNorm and BestKeeper) were used to evaluate the expression stabilities of six candidate reference genes. The elongation factor 1 gene EF-1 was identified as the most stably expressed reference gene, and was used as the normalizer to quantify the expression level of the oxalate decarboxylase coding gene OXDC in T. afroharzianum strain LTR-2 under OA stress. The result showed that the expression of OXDC was significantly up-regulated as expected. This study provides an effective method to quantify expression changes of target genes in T. afroharzianum under OA stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Reference gene selection for quantitative gene expression studies during biological invasions: A test on multiple genes and tissues in a model ascidian Ciona savignyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuena; Gao, Yangchun; Jiang, Bei; Zhou, Zunchun; Zhan, Aibin

    2016-01-15

    As invasive species have successfully colonized a wide range of dramatically different local environments, they offer a good opportunity to study interactions between species and rapidly changing environments. Gene expression represents one of the primary and crucial mechanisms for rapid adaptation to local environments. Here, we aim to select reference genes for quantitative gene expression analysis based on quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR) for a model invasive ascidian, Ciona savignyi. We analyzed the stability of ten candidate reference genes in three tissues (siphon, pharynx and intestine) under two key environmental stresses (temperature and salinity) in the marine realm based on three programs (geNorm, NormFinder and delta Ct method). Our results demonstrated only minor difference for stability rankings among the three methods. The use of different single reference gene might influence the data interpretation, while multiple reference genes could minimize possible errors. Therefore, reference gene combinations were recommended for different tissues - the optimal reference gene combination for siphon was RPS15 and RPL17 under temperature stress, and RPL17, UBQ and TubA under salinity treatment; for pharynx, TubB, TubA and RPL17 were the most stable genes under temperature stress, while TubB, TubA and UBQ were the best under salinity stress; for intestine, UBQ, RPS15 and RPL17 were the most reliable reference genes under both treatments. Our results suggest that the necessity of selection and test of reference genes for different tissues under varying environmental stresses. The results obtained here are expected to reveal mechanisms of gene expression-mediated invasion success using C. savignyi as a model species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Transcriptome-wide selection of a reliable set of reference genes for gene expression studies in potato cyst nematodes (Globodera spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabeh, Michael; Duceppe, Marc-Olivier; St-Arnaud, Marc; Mimee, Benjamin

    2018-01-01

    Relative gene expression analyses by qRT-PCR (quantitative reverse transcription PCR) require an internal control to normalize the expression data of genes of interest and eliminate the unwanted variation introduced by sample preparation. A perfect reference gene should have a constant expression level under all the experimental conditions. However, the same few housekeeping genes selected from the literature or successfully used in previous unrelated experiments are often routinely used in new conditions without proper validation of their stability across treatments. The advent of RNA-Seq and the availability of public datasets for numerous organisms are opening the way to finding better reference genes for expression studies. Globodera rostochiensis is a plant-parasitic nematode that is particularly yield-limiting for potato. The aim of our study was to identify a reliable set of reference genes to study G. rostochiensis gene expression. Gene expression levels from an RNA-Seq database were used to identify putative reference genes and were validated with qRT-PCR analysis. Three genes, GR, PMP-3, and aaRS, were found to be very stable within the experimental conditions of this study and are proposed as reference genes for future work.

  5. Selection of reference genes for gene expression studies in pig tissues using SYBR green qPCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillig, Ann-Britt Nygaard; Jørgensen, Claus Bøttcher; Cirera, Susanna

    2007-01-01

    -microglobulin (B2M), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS), hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase I (HPRT I), ribosomal protein L4 (RPL4), succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit A (SDHA), TATA box binding protein (TPB) and tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5......-monooxygenase activation protein zeta polypeptide (YWHAZ). The stability of these reference genes in different pig tissues was investigated using the geNorm application. The range of expression stability in the genes analysed was (from the most stable to the least stable): ACTB/RPL4, TBP, HPRT, HMBS, YWHAZ...

  6. Selection and evaluation of reference genes for expression studies with quantitative PCR in the model fungus Neurospora crassa under different environmental conditions in continuous culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen D Cusick

    Full Text Available Neurospora crassa has served as a model organism for studying circadian pathways and more recently has gained attention in the biofuel industry due to its enhanced capacity for cellulase production. However, in order to optimize N. crassa for biotechnological applications, metabolic pathways during growth under different environmental conditions must be addressed. Reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR is a technique that provides a high-throughput platform from which to measure the expression of a large set of genes over time. The selection of a suitable reference gene is critical for gene expression studies using relative quantification, as this strategy is based on normalization of target gene expression to a reference gene whose expression is stable under the experimental conditions. This study evaluated twelve candidate reference genes for use with N. crassa when grown in continuous culture bioreactors under different light and temperature conditions. Based on combined stability values from NormFinder and Best Keeper software packages, the following are the most appropriate reference genes under conditions of: (1 light/dark cycling: btl, asl, and vma1; (2 all-dark growth: btl, tbp, vma1, and vma2; (3 temperature flux: btl, vma1, act, and asl; (4 all conditions combined: vma1, vma2, tbp, and btl. Since N. crassa exists as different cell types (uni- or multi-nucleated, expression changes in a subset of the candidate genes was further assessed using absolute quantification. A strong negative correlation was found to exist between ratio and threshold cycle (CT values, demonstrating that CT changes serve as a reliable reflection of transcript, and not gene copy number, fluctuations. The results of this study identified genes that are appropriate for use as reference genes in RT-qPCR studies with N. crassa and demonstrated that even with the presence of different cell types, relative quantification is an acceptable method for measuring

  7. Selection and evaluation of reference genes for expression studies with quantitative PCR in the model fungus Neurospora crassa under different environmental conditions in continuous culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusick, Kathleen D; Fitzgerald, Lisa A; Pirlo, Russell K; Cockrell, Allison L; Petersen, Emily R; Biffinger, Justin C

    2014-01-01

    Neurospora crassa has served as a model organism for studying circadian pathways and more recently has gained attention in the biofuel industry due to its enhanced capacity for cellulase production. However, in order to optimize N. crassa for biotechnological applications, metabolic pathways during growth under different environmental conditions must be addressed. Reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) is a technique that provides a high-throughput platform from which to measure the expression of a large set of genes over time. The selection of a suitable reference gene is critical for gene expression studies using relative quantification, as this strategy is based on normalization of target gene expression to a reference gene whose expression is stable under the experimental conditions. This study evaluated twelve candidate reference genes for use with N. crassa when grown in continuous culture bioreactors under different light and temperature conditions. Based on combined stability values from NormFinder and Best Keeper software packages, the following are the most appropriate reference genes under conditions of: (1) light/dark cycling: btl, asl, and vma1; (2) all-dark growth: btl, tbp, vma1, and vma2; (3) temperature flux: btl, vma1, act, and asl; (4) all conditions combined: vma1, vma2, tbp, and btl. Since N. crassa exists as different cell types (uni- or multi-nucleated), expression changes in a subset of the candidate genes was further assessed using absolute quantification. A strong negative correlation was found to exist between ratio and threshold cycle (CT) values, demonstrating that CT changes serve as a reliable reflection of transcript, and not gene copy number, fluctuations. The results of this study identified genes that are appropriate for use as reference genes in RT-qPCR studies with N. crassa and demonstrated that even with the presence of different cell types, relative quantification is an acceptable method for measuring gene

  8. Selection of Reliable Reference Genes for Gene Expression Studies of a Promising Oilseed Crop, Plukenetia volubilis, by Real-Time Quantitative PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longjian Niu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR is a reliable and widely used method for gene expression analysis. The accuracy of the determination of a target gene expression level by RT-qPCR demands the use of appropriate reference genes to normalize the mRNA levels among different samples. However, suitable reference genes for RT-qPCR have not been identified in Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis, a promising oilseed crop known for its polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA-rich seeds. In this study, using RT-qPCR, twelve candidate reference genes were examined in seedlings and adult plants, during flower and seed development and for the entire growth cycle of Sacha inchi. Four statistical algorithms (delta cycle threshold (ΔCt, BestKeeper, geNorm, and NormFinder were used to assess the expression stabilities of the candidate genes. The results showed that ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (UCE, actin (ACT and phospholipase A22 (PLA were the most stable genes in Sacha inchi seedlings. For roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and seeds from adult plants, 30S ribosomal protein S13 (RPS13, cyclophilin (CYC and elongation factor-1alpha (EF1α were recommended as reference genes for RT-qPCR. During the development of reproductive organs, PLA, ACT and UCE were the optimal reference genes for flower development, whereas UCE, RPS13 and RNA polymerase II subunit (RPII were optimal for seed development. Considering the entire growth cycle of Sacha inchi, UCE, ACT and EF1α were sufficient for the purpose of normalization. Our results provide useful guidelines for the selection of reliable reference genes for the normalization of RT-qPCR data for seedlings and adult plants, for reproductive organs, and for the entire growth cycle of Sacha inchi.

  9. Selection of Reliable Reference Genes for Gene Expression Studies of a Promising Oilseed Crop, Plukenetia volubilis, by Real-Time Quantitative PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Longjian; Tao, Yan-Bin; Chen, Mao-Sheng; Fu, Qiantang; Li, Chaoqiong; Dong, Yuling; Wang, Xiulan; He, Huiying; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) is a reliable and widely used method for gene expression analysis. The accuracy of the determination of a target gene expression level by RT-qPCR demands the use of appropriate reference genes to normalize the mRNA levels among different samples. However, suitable reference genes for RT-qPCR have not been identified in Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis), a promising oilseed crop known for its polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-rich seeds. In this study, using RT-qPCR, twelve candidate reference genes were examined in seedlings and adult plants, during flower and seed development and for the entire growth cycle of Sacha inchi. Four statistical algorithms (delta cycle threshold (ΔCt), BestKeeper, geNorm, and NormFinder) were used to assess the expression stabilities of the candidate genes. The results showed that ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (UCE), actin (ACT) and phospholipase A22 (PLA) were the most stable genes in Sacha inchi seedlings. For roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and seeds from adult plants, 30S ribosomal protein S13 (RPS13), cyclophilin (CYC) and elongation factor-1alpha (EF1α) were recommended as reference genes for RT-qPCR. During the development of reproductive organs, PLA, ACT and UCE were the optimal reference genes for flower development, whereas UCE, RPS13 and RNA polymerase II subunit (RPII) were optimal for seed development. Considering the entire growth cycle of Sacha inchi, UCE, ACT and EF1α were sufficient for the purpose of normalization. Our results provide useful guidelines for the selection of reliable reference genes for the normalization of RT-qPCR data for seedlings and adult plants, for reproductive organs, and for the entire growth cycle of Sacha inchi. PMID:26047338

  10. Predator-induced defences in Daphnia pulex: Selection and evaluation of internal reference genes for gene expression studies with real-time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Don

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The planktonic microcrustacean Daphnia pulex is among the best-studied animals in ecological, toxicological and evolutionary research. One aspect that has sustained interest in the study system is the ability of D. pulex to develop inducible defence structures when exposed to predators, such as the phantom midge larvae Chaoborus. The available draft genome sequence for D. pulex is accelerating research to identify genes that confer plastic phenotypes that are regularly cued by environmental stimuli. Yet for quantifying gene expression levels, no experimentally validated set of internal control genes exists for the accurate normalization of qRT-PCR data. Results In this study, we tested six candidate reference genes for normalizing transcription levels of D. pulex genes; alpha tubulin (aTub, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, TATA box binding protein (Tbp syntaxin 16 (Stx16, X-box binding protein 1 (Xbp1 and CAPON, a protein associated with the neuronal nitric oxide synthase, were selected on the basis of an earlier study and from microarray studies. One additional gene, a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP, was tested to validate its transcriptional response to Chaoborus, which was earlier observed in a microarray study. The transcription profiles of these seven genes were assessed by qRT-PCR from RNA of juvenile D. pulex that showed induced defences in comparison to untreated control animals. We tested the individual suitability of genes for expression normalization using the programs geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. Intriguingly, Xbp1, Tbp, CAPON and Stx16 were selected as ideal reference genes. Analyses on the relative expression level using the software REST showed that both classical housekeeping candidate genes (aTub and GAPDH were significantly downregulated, whereas the MMP gene was shown to be significantly upregulated, as predicted. aTub is a particularly ill suited reference gene because five copies are

  11. Canadian Reference Sources 1980--A Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Dorothy E.

    1981-01-01

    Provides a bibliography of 52 reference sources and 24 new editions and supplements, excluding annuals. Topics include science and technology, art, history, university courses, regional information, native languages, museums, law, geography, Canadian culture, dissertations, sports, antiques, botany, and a variety of directories. (CHC)

  12. Selected references on thermoluminescent dosemeters for personnel monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, Helen

    1976-08-01

    This bibliography contains references on: specific thermoluminescent dosemeters used for personnel dosimetry; comparisons of thermoluminescent and other dosemeters for personnel monitoring and read-out apparatus for thermoluminescent dosemeters. An appendix contains selected foreign language references. (author)

  13. Selection of reliable reference genes for RT-qPCR studies in Octopus vulgaris paralarvae during development and immune-stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Fernández, P; Castellanos-Martínez, S; Iglesias, J; Otero, J J; Gestal, C

    2016-07-01

    The common octopus, Octopus vulgaris is a new candidate species for aquaculture. However, rearing of octopus paralarvae is hampered by high mortality and poor growth rates that impede its entire culture. The study of genes involved in the octopus development and immune response capability could help to understand the key of paralarvae survival and thus, to complete the octopus life cycle. Quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) is the most frequently tool used to quantify the gene expression because of specificity and sensitivity. However, reliability of RT-qPCR requires the selection of appropriate normalization genes whose expression must be stable across the different experimental conditions of the study. Hence, the aim of the present work is to evaluate the stability of six candidate genes: β-actin (ACT), elongation factor 1-α (EF), ubiquitin (UBI), β-tubulin (TUB), glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GADPH) and ribosomal RNA 18 (18S) in order to select the best reference gene. The stability of gene expression was analyzed using geNorm, NormFinder and Bestkeeper, in octopus paralarvae of seven developmental stages (embryo, paralarvae of 0, 10, 15, 20, 30 and 34days) and paralarvae of 20days after challenge with Vibrio lentus and Vibrio splendidus. The results were validated by measuring the expression of PGRP, a stimuli-specific gene. Our results showed UBI, EF and 18S as the most suitable reference genes during development of octopus paralarvae, and UBI, ACT and 18S for bacterial infection. These results provide a basis for further studies exploring molecular mechanism of their development and innate immune defense. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Construction of an adult barnacle (Balanus amphitrite cDNA library and selection of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burgess J Grant

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Balanus amphitrite is a barnacle commonly used in biofouling research. Although many aspects of its biology have been elucidated, the lack of genetic information is impeding a molecular understanding of its life cycle. As part of a wider multidisciplinary approach to reveal the biogenic cues influencing barnacle settlement and metamorphosis, we have sequenced and annotated the first cDNA library for B. amphitrite. We also present a systematic validation of potential reference genes for normalization of quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR data obtained from different developmental stages of this animal. Results We generated a cDNA library containing expressed sequence tags (ESTs from adult B. amphitrite. A total of 609 unique sequences (comprising 79 assembled clusters and 530 singlets were derived from 905 reliable unidirectionally sequenced ESTs. Bioinformatics tools such as BLAST, HMMer and InterPro were employed to allow functional annotation of the ESTs. Based on these analyses, we selected 11 genes to study their ability to normalize qRT-PCR data. Total RNA extracted from 7 developmental stages was reverse transcribed and the expression stability of the selected genes was compared using geNorm, BestKeeper and NormFinder. These software programs produced highly comparable results, with the most stable gene being mt-cyb, while tuba, tubb and cp1 were clearly unsuitable for data normalization. Conclusion The collection of B. amphitrite ESTs and their annotation has been made publically available representing an important resource for both basic and applied research on this species. We developed a qRT-PCR assay to determine the most reliable reference genes. Transcripts encoding cytochrome b and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 were expressed most stably, although other genes also performed well and could prove useful to normalize gene expression studies.

  15. The Lean Reference Collection: Improving Functionality through Selection and Weeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Christopher W.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses references collections in academic libraries and offers guidelines for placing materials in a reference collection that focus on their suitability for true reference functions and the expected frequency of use. Problems with poorly managed collections are discussed, and the importance of selection policies and weeding are emphasized. (37…

  16. Association of Reference Pricing with Drug Selection and Spending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, James C; Whaley, Christopher M; Brown, Timothy T

    2017-08-17

    Background In the United States, prices for therapeutically similar drugs vary widely, which has prompted efforts by public and private insurers to steer patients toward the lower-priced options. Under reference pricing, the insurer or employer establishes a maximum contribution it will make toward the price of a drug or procedure, and the patient pays the remainder. Methods We used difference-in-differences multivariable regression methods to analyze changes in prescriptions and pricing for 1302 drugs in 78 therapeutic classes in the United States, before and after implementation of reference pricing by an alliance of private employers. We assessed trends for the study group relative to those for an employee group that was not subject to reference pricing. The study included 1,122,741 prescriptions that were reimbursed during the period from 2010 through 2014. Results Implementation of reference pricing was associated with a higher percentage of prescriptions that were filled for the lowest-priced reference drug within its therapeutic class (difference in probability, 7.0 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.0 to 9.9), a lower average price paid per prescription (-13.9%; 95% CI, -23.8 to -2.7), and a higher rate of copayment by patients (5.2%; 95% CI, 0.2 to 10.4) than in the comparison group. During the first 18 months after implementation, spending for employers was $1.34 million lower and the amount of copayments for employees was $0.12 million higher than in the comparison group. Conclusions Implementation of reference pricing was associated with significant changes in drug selection and spending for a population of patients covered by employment-based insurance in the United States. (Funded by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and the Genentech Foundation.).

  17. Reference gene selection for molecular studies of dormancy in wild oat (Avena fatua L. caryopses by RT-qPCR method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Ruduś

    Full Text Available Molecular studies of primary and secondary dormancy in Avena fatua L., a serious weed of cereal and other crops, are intended to reveal the species-specific details of underlying molecular mechanisms which in turn may be useable in weed management. Among others, quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR data of comparative gene expression analysis may give some insight into the involvement of particular wild oat genes in dormancy release, maintenance or induction by unfavorable conditions. To assure obtaining biologically significant results using this method, the expression stability of selected candidate reference genes in different data subsets was evaluated using four statistical algorithms i.e. geNorm, NormFinder, Best Keeper and ΔCt method. Although some discrepancies in their ranking outputs were noticed, evidently two ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme homologs, AfUBC1 and AfUBC2, as well as one homolog of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase AfGAPDH1 and TATA-binding protein AfTBP2 appeared as more stably expressed than AfEF1a (translation elongation factor 1α, AfGAPDH2 or the least stable α-tubulin homolog AfTUA1 in caryopses and seedlings of A. fatua. Gene expression analysis of a dormancy-related wild oat transcription factor VIVIPAROUS1 (AfVP1 allowed for a validation of candidate reference genes performance. Based on the obtained results it can be recommended that the normalization factor calculated as a geometric mean of Cq values of AfUBC1, AfUBC2 and AfGAPDH1 would be optimal for RT-qPCR results normalization in the experiments comprising A. fatua caryopses of different dormancy status.

  18. Reference gene selection for molecular studies of dormancy in wild oat (Avena fatua L.) caryopses by RT-qPCR method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruduś, Izabela; Kępczyński, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Molecular studies of primary and secondary dormancy in Avena fatua L., a serious weed of cereal and other crops, are intended to reveal the species-specific details of underlying molecular mechanisms which in turn may be useable in weed management. Among others, quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) data of comparative gene expression analysis may give some insight into the involvement of particular wild oat genes in dormancy release, maintenance or induction by unfavorable conditions. To assure obtaining biologically significant results using this method, the expression stability of selected candidate reference genes in different data subsets was evaluated using four statistical algorithms i.e. geNorm, NormFinder, Best Keeper and ΔCt method. Although some discrepancies in their ranking outputs were noticed, evidently two ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme homologs, AfUBC1 and AfUBC2, as well as one homolog of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase AfGAPDH1 and TATA-binding protein AfTBP2 appeared as more stably expressed than AfEF1a (translation elongation factor 1α), AfGAPDH2 or the least stable α-tubulin homolog AfTUA1 in caryopses and seedlings of A. fatua. Gene expression analysis of a dormancy-related wild oat transcription factor VIVIPAROUS1 (AfVP1) allowed for a validation of candidate reference genes performance. Based on the obtained results it can be recommended that the normalization factor calculated as a geometric mean of Cq values of AfUBC1, AfUBC2 and AfGAPDH1 would be optimal for RT-qPCR results normalization in the experiments comprising A. fatua caryopses of different dormancy status.

  19. Influence of ICT on Reference Services in Selected University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 14, No 1-2 (2014) > ... What are the challenges of ICT on reference collections and services in the selected academic libraries? ... incomplete automation, reduced patronage (because of the availability of search engines), ...

  20. Selecting the optimal method to calculate daily global reference potential evaporation from CFSR reanalysis data for application in a hydrological model study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. C. Sperna Weiland

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Potential evaporation (PET is one of the main inputs of hydrological models. Yet, there is limited consensus on which PET equation is most applicable in hydrological climate impact assessments. In this study six different methods to derive global scale reference PET daily time series from Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR data are compared: Penman-Monteith, Priestley-Taylor and original and re-calibrated versions of the Hargreaves and Blaney-Criddle method. The calculated PET time series are (1 evaluated against global monthly Penman-Monteith PET time series calculated from CRU data and (2 tested on their usability for modeling of global discharge cycles.

    A major finding is that for part of the investigated basins the selection of a PET method may have only a minor influence on the resulting river flow. Within the hydrological model used in this study the bias related to the PET method tends to decrease while going from PET, AET and runoff to discharge calculations. However, the performance of individual PET methods appears to be spatially variable, which stresses the necessity to select the most accurate and spatially stable PET method. The lowest root mean squared differences and the least significant deviations (95% significance level between monthly CFSR derived PET time series and CRU derived PET were obtained for a cell-specific re-calibrated Blaney-Criddle equation. However, results show that this re-calibrated form is likely to be unstable under changing climate conditions and less reliable for the calculation of daily time series. Although often recommended, the Penman-Monteith equation applied to the CFSR data did not outperform the other methods in a evaluation against PET derived with the Penman-Monteith equation from CRU data. In arid regions (e.g. Sahara, central Australia, US deserts, the equation resulted in relatively low PET values and, consequently, led to relatively high discharge values for dry basins (e

  1. Selecting reference cities for i-Tree Streets

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.G. McPherson

    2010-01-01

    The i-Tree Streets (formerly STRATUM) computer program quantifies municipal forest structure, function, and value using tree growth and geographic data from sixteen U.S. reference cities, one for each of sixteen climate zones. Selecting the reference city that best matches a subject city is problematic when the subject city is outside the U.S., lays on the border...

  2. Online Reference Service--How to Begin: A Selected Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroder, Emelie J., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Materials in this bibliography were selected and recommended by members of the Use of Machine-Assisted Reference in Public Libraries Committee, Reference and Adult Services Division, American Library Association. Topics include: financial aspects, equipment and communications considerations, comparing databases and database systems, advertising…

  3. Selection and validation of reference genes for quantitative gene expression studies in Erythroxylum coca [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/y1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Docimo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Real-time quantitative PCR is a powerful technique for the investigation of comparative gene expression, but its accuracy and reliability depend on the reference genes used as internal standards. Only genes that show a high level of expression stability are suitable for use as reference genes, and these must be identified on a case-by-case basis. Erythroxylum coca produces and accumulates high amounts of the pharmacologically active tropane alkaloid cocaine (especially in the leaves, and is an emerging model for the investigation of tropane alkaloid biosynthesis. The identification of stable internal reference genes for this species is important for its development as a model species, and would enable comparative analysis of candidate biosynthetic genes in the different tissues of the coca plant. In this study, we evaluated the expression stability of nine candidate reference genes in E. coca (Ec6409, Ec10131, Ec11142, Actin, APT2, EF1α, TPB1, Pex4, Pp2aa3. The expression of these genes was measured in seven tissues (flowers, stems, roots and four developmental leaf stages and the stability of expression was assessed using three algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. From our results we conclude that Ec10131 and TPB1 are the most appropriate internal reference genes in leaves (where the majority of cocaine is produced, while Ec10131 and Ec6409 are the most suitable internal reference genes across all of the tissues tested.

  4. Selection of reference genes for quantitative real-time RT-PCR studies in tomato fruit of the genotype MT-Rg1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla L. González-Aguilera

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR has become one of the most widely used methods for accurate quantification of gene expression. Since there are no universal reference genes for normalization, the optimal strategy to normalize raw qRT-PCR data is to perform an initial comparison of a set of independent reference genes to assess the most stable ones in each biological model. Normalization of a qRT-PCR experiment helps to ensure that the results are both statistically significant and biologically meaningful. Tomato is the model of choice to study fleshy fruit development. The miniature tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. cultivar Micro-Tom (MT is considered a model system for tomato genetics and functional genomics. A new genotype, containing the Rg1 allele, improves tomato in vitro regeneration. In this work, we evaluated the expression stability of four tomato reference genes, namely CAC, SAND, Expressed and ACTIN2. We showed that the genes CAC and Exp are the best reference genes of the four we tested during fruit development in the MT-Rg1 genotype. Furthermore, we validated the reference genes by showing that the expression profiles of the transcription factors FRUITFULL1 (FUL1 and APETALA2c (AP2c during fruit development are comparable to previous reports using other tomato cultivars.

  5. Selection of Reliable Reference Genes for Gene Expression Studies in the Biofuel Plant Jatropha curcas Using Real-Time Quantitative PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Zhang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas is a promising renewable feedstock for biodiesel and bio-jet fuel production. To study gene expression in Jatropha in different tissues throughout development and under stress conditions, we examined a total of 11 typical candidate reference genes using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR analysis, which is widely used for validating transcript levels in gene expression studies. The expression stability of these candidate reference genes was assessed across a total of 20 samples, including various tissues at vegetative and reproductive stages and under desiccation and cold stress treatments. The results obtained using software qBasePLUS showed that the top-ranked reference genes differed across the sample subsets. The combination of actin, GAPDH, and EF1α would be appropriate as a reference panel for normalizing gene expression data across samples at different developmental stages; the combination of actin, GAPDH, and TUB5 should be used as a reference panel for normalizing gene expression data across samples under various abiotic stress treatments. With regard to different developmental stages, we recommend the use of actin and TUB8 for normalization at the vegetative stage and GAPDH and EF1α for normalization at the reproductive stage. For abiotic stress treatments, we recommend the use of TUB5 and TUB8 for normalization under desiccation stress and GAPDH and actin for normalization under cold stress. These results are valuable for future research on gene expression during development or under abiotic stress in Jatropha. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the stability of reference genes in Jatropha.

  6. Selection of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR expression studies of microdissected reproductive tissues in apomictic and sexual Boechera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiteye Samuel

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apomixis, a natural form of asexual seed production in plants, is considered to have great biotechnological potential for agriculture. It has been hypothesised that de-regulation of the sexual developmental pathway could trigger apomictic reproduction. The genus Boechera represents an interesting model system for understanding apomixis, having both sexual and apomictic genotypes at the diploid level. Quantitative qRT-PCR is the most extensively used method for validating genome-wide gene expression analyses, but in order to obtain reliable results, suitable reference genes are necessary. In this work we have evaluated six potential reference genes isolated from a 454 (FLX derived cDNA library of Boechera. RNA from live microdissected ovules and anthers at different developmental stages, as well as vegetative tissues of apomictic and sexual Boechera, were used to validate the candidates. Results Based on homologies with Arabidopsis, six genes were selected from a 454 cDNA library of Boechera: RPS18 (Ribosomal sub protein 18, Efalpha1 (Elongation factor 1 alpha, ACT 2 (Actin2, UBQ (polyubiquitin, PEX4 (Peroxisomal ubiquitin conjugating enzyme and At1g09770.1 (Arabidopsis thaliana cell division cycle 5. Total RNA was extracted from 17 different tissues, qRT-PCRs were performed, and raw Ct values were analyzed for primer efficiencies and gene ratios. The geNorm and normFinder applications were used for selecting the most stable genes among all tissues and specific tissue groups (ovule, anthers and vegetative tissues in both apomictic and sexual plants separately. Our results show that BoechRPS18, BoechEfα1, BoechACT2 and BoechUBQ were the most stable genes. Based on geNorm, the combinations of BoechRPS18 and BoechEfα1 or BoechUBQ and BoechEfα1 were the most stable in the apomictic plant, while BoechRPS18 and BoechACT2 or BoechUBQ and BoechACT2 performed best in the sexual plant. When subgroups of tissue samples were analyzed

  7. Selection and validation of a set of reliable reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR studies in the brain of the Cephalopod Mollusc Octopus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biffali Elio

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR is valuable for studying the molecular events underlying physiological and behavioral phenomena. Normalization of real-time PCR data is critical for a reliable mRNA quantification. Here we identify reference genes to be utilized in RT-qPCR experiments to normalize and monitor the expression of target genes in the brain of the cephalopod mollusc Octopus vulgaris, an invertebrate. Such an approach is novel for this taxon and of advantage in future experiments given the complexity of the behavioral repertoire of this species when compared with its relatively simple neural organization. Results We chose 16S, and 18S rRNA, actB, EEF1A, tubA and ubi as candidate reference genes (housekeeping genes, HKG. The expression of 16S and 18S was highly variable and did not meet the requirements of candidate HKG. The expression of the other genes was almost stable and uniform among samples. We analyzed the expression of HKG into two different set of animals using tissues taken from the central nervous system (brain parts and mantle (here considered as control tissue by BestKeeper, geNorm and NormFinder. We found that HKG expressions differed considerably with respect to brain area and octopus samples in an HKG-specific manner. However, when the mantle is treated as control tissue and the entire central nervous system is considered, NormFinder revealed tubA and ubi as the most suitable HKG pair. These two genes were utilized to evaluate the relative expression of the genes FoxP, creb, dat and TH in O. vulgaris. Conclusion We analyzed the expression profiles of some genes here identified for O. vulgaris by applying RT-qPCR analysis for the first time in cephalopods. We validated candidate reference genes and found the expression of ubi and tubA to be the most appropriate to evaluate the expression of target genes in the brain of different octopuses. Our results also underline the

  8. With Reference to Reference Genes: A Systematic Review of Endogenous Controls in Gene Expression Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Joanne R; Waldenström, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    The choice of reference genes that are stably expressed amongst treatment groups is a crucial step in real-time quantitative PCR gene expression studies. Recent guidelines have specified that a minimum of two validated reference genes should be used for normalisation. However, a quantitative review of the literature showed that the average number of reference genes used across all studies was 1.2. Thus, the vast majority of studies continue to use a single gene, with β-actin (ACTB) and/or glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) being commonly selected in studies of vertebrate gene expression. Few studies (15%) tested a panel of potential reference genes for stability of expression before using them to normalise data. Amongst studies specifically testing reference gene stability, few found ACTB or GAPDH to be optimal, whereby these genes were significantly less likely to be chosen when larger panels of potential reference genes were screened. Fewer reference genes were tested for stability in non-model organisms, presumably owing to a dearth of available primers in less well characterised species. Furthermore, the experimental conditions under which real-time quantitative PCR analyses were conducted had a large influence on the choice of reference genes, whereby different studies of rat brain tissue showed different reference genes to be the most stable. These results highlight the importance of validating the choice of normalising reference genes before conducting gene expression studies.

  9. Mineralocorticoid hypertension: clinical and laboratory studies with special reference to selective percutaneous venography combined with aldosterone assay in the adrenal venous blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wajchenberg, B.L.; Liberman, B.; Novaes, M.

    1977-01-01

    With the purpose of demonstrating the presence of hypertension, hypokalemia and alkalosis were studied. The presence of daily aldosteronism was verified in five patients; the sixth one presented no daily aldosteronism but an increase of 18-OH-DOCA production, an ACTH dependente mineralocorticoid. The presence of tumor (less than 0.9cm) could not be shown in two patients by bilateral selective adrenal venography. The aldosterone assay during catherization of adrenal vein of those patients permitted to determine the tumoral side. Attention must be given to the fact that the blood collection of adrenal vein must always be made during adrenal venography to demonstrate the presence of short unilateral tumor or bilateral disease [pt

  10. Reference Materials in LIS Instruction: A Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabina, Debbie

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a Delphi study conducted over a two-month period in 2011. The purpose of the study was to identify reference sources that should be covered in basic reference courses taught in LIS programs in the United States. The Delphi method was selected for its appropriateness in soliciting expert opinions and assessing the…

  11. Selection of spatial reference frames depends on task's demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greeshma Sharma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Spatial reference frames (SRF are the means of representing spatial relations or locations either in an egocentric coordinate system (centred on navigator or in an allocentric coordinate system (Centred on object. It is necessary to understand when and how spatial representation switches between allocentric and egocentric reference frames in context to spatial tasks. The objective of this study was to explore if the elementary spatial representation does exist, whether it would remain consistent or change under the influence of a task's demand. Also, we explored how the SRF would assist if the environment is enriched with landmarks, having multiple routes for wayfinding. The results showed that the switching of SRF depends not only on the default representation but also on a task's demand. They also demonstrated that participants who were using allocentric representation performed better in the presence of landmarks.

  12. Bibliography of selected references on the effects of coal mine pollutants on aquatic ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, T F; Daniels, L K; Olsen, R D; Johnson, D O

    1979-12-01

    This bibliography contains more than 1400 references dealing with field and laboratory research on potential toxicities and disturbances known or postulated to be caused by pollutants found in coal mine effluents. The first of the three sections into which the bibliography is divided contains a select list of published bibliographies and literature reviews. In the second section are references on mine drainage studies, general references on environmental pollutants, and references dealing with two or more specific parameters. The third section includes references for 40 parameters under individual parameter headings. The multi parameter references in the second section are therefore also listed in the third section under individual headings. An author index is also provided.

  13. Genome-Wide Constitutively Expressed Gene Analysis and New Reference Gene Selection Based on Transcriptome Data: A Case Study from Poplar/Canker Disease Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaping Zhao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A number of transcriptome datasets for differential expression (DE genes have been widely used for understanding organismal biology, but these datasets also contain untapped information that can be used to develop more precise analytical tools. With the use of transcriptome data generated from poplar/canker disease interaction system, we describe a methodology to identify candidate reference genes from high-throughput sequencing data. This methodology will improve the accuracy of RT-qPCR and will lead to better standards for the normalization of expression data. Expression stability analysis from xylem and phloem of Populus bejingensis inoculated with the fungal canker pathogen Botryosphaeria dothidea revealed that 729 poplar transcripts (1.11% were stably expressed, at a threshold level of coefficient of variance (CV of FPKM < 20% and maximum fold change (MFC of FPKM < 2.0. Expression stability and bioinformatics analysis suggested that commonly used house-keeping (HK genes were not the most appropriate internal controls: 70 of the 72 commonly used HK genes were not stably expressed, 45 of the 72 produced multiple isoform transcripts, and some of their reported primers produced unspecific amplicons in PCR amplification. RT-qPCR analysis to compare and evaluate the expression stability of 10 commonly used poplar HK genes and 20 of the 729 newly-identified stably expressed transcripts showed that some of the newly-identified genes (such as SSU_S8e, LSU_L5e, and 20S_PSU had higher stability ranking than most of commonly used HK genes. Based on these results, we recommend a pipeline for deriving reference genes from transcriptome data. An appropriate candidate gene should have a unique transcript, constitutive expression, CV value of expression < 20% (or possibly 30% and MFC value of expression <2, and an expression level of 50–1,000 units. Lastly, when four of the newly identified HK genes were used in the normalization of expression data for 20

  14. Bacteriological detection of Salmonella in the presence of competitive micro-organisms. Bacteriological collaborative study IV amongst the National Reference Laboratories for Salmonella, the use of MSRV as selective enrichment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raes M; Nagelkerke N; Henken AM; MGB; IMA

    2000-01-01

    A fourth bacteriological collaborative study was organised by the Community Reference Laboratory for Salmonella. All National Reference Laboratories for Salmonella (NRLs) participated. This study had two objectives: 1) Evaluation of the results of the detection of different contamination levels of

  15. Studies on phytoplankton with reference to dinoflagellates

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naik, R.K.

    Bibliography Publications Appendices Statement As required under the University ordinance 0.19.8 (vi), I state that the present thesis titled ³Studies on phytoplankton with reference to dinoflagellates´ is my original contribution...

  16. Selection of References in Wind Turbine Model Predictive Control Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Hovgaard, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    a model predictive controller for a wind turbine. One of the important aspects for a tracking control problem is how to setup the optimal reference tracking problem, as it might be relevant to track, e.g., the three concurrent references: optimal pitch angle, optimal rotational speed, and optimal power......Lowering the cost of energy is one of the major focus areas in the wind turbine industry. Recent research has indicated that wind turbine controllers based on model predictive control methods can be useful in obtaining this objective. A number of design considerations have to be made when designing....... The importance if the individual references differ depending in particular on the wind speed. In this paper we investigate the performance of a reference tracking model predictive controller with two different setups of the used optimal reference signals. The controllers are evaluated using an industrial high...

  17. Reference satellite selection method for GNSS high-precision relative positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Gao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Selecting the optimal reference satellite is an important component of high-precision relative positioning because the reference satellite directly influences the strength of the normal equation. The reference satellite selection methods based on elevation and positional dilution of precision (PDOP value were compared. Results show that all the above methods cannot select the optimal reference satellite. We introduce condition number of the design matrix in the reference satellite selection method to improve structure of the normal equation, because condition number can indicate the ill condition of the normal equation. The experimental results show that the new method can improve positioning accuracy and reliability in precise relative positioning.

  18. Selecting and validating reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR in Plutella xylostella (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yanchun; Xie, Miao; Vasseur, Liette; You, Minsheng

    2018-05-01

    Gene expression analysis provides important clues regarding gene functions, and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is a widely used method in gene expression studies. Reference genes are essential for normalizing and accurately assessing gene expression. In the present study, 16 candidate reference genes (ACTB, CyPA, EF1-α, GAPDH, HSP90, NDPk, RPL13a, RPL18, RPL19, RPL32, RPL4, RPL8, RPS13, RPS4, α-TUB, and β-TUB) from Plutella xylostella were selected to evaluate gene expression stability across different experimental conditions using five statistical algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder, Delta Ct, BestKeeper, and RefFinder). The results suggest that different reference genes or combinations of reference genes are suitable for normalization in gene expression studies of P. xylostella according to the different developmental stages, strains, tissues, and insecticide treatments. Based on the given experimental sets, the most stable reference genes were RPS4 across different developmental stages, RPL8 across different strains and tissues, and EF1-α across different insecticide treatments. A comprehensive and systematic assessment of potential reference genes for gene expression normalization is essential for post-genomic functional research in P. xylostella, a notorious pest with worldwide distribution and a high capacity to adapt and develop resistance to insecticides.

  19. Selection of reference genes for qPCR in hairy root cultures of peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medrano Giuliana

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hairy root cultures produced via Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation have emerged as practical biological models to elucidate the biosynthesis of specialized metabolites. To effectively understand the expression patterns of the genes involved in the metabolic pathways of these compounds, reference genes need to be systematically validated under specific experimental conditions as established by the MIQE (Minimum Information for Publication of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Experiments guidelines. In the present report we describe the first validation of reference genes for RT-qPCR in hairy root cultures of peanut which produce stilbenoids upon elicitor treatments. Results A total of 21 candidate reference genes were evaluated. Nineteen genes were selected based on previous qPCR studies in plants and two were from the T-DNAs transferred from A. rhizogenes. Nucleotide sequences of peanut candidate genes were obtained using their homologous sequences in Arabidopsis. To identify the suitable primers, calibration curves were obtained for each candidate reference gene. After data analysis, 12 candidate genes meeting standard efficiency criteria were selected. The expression stability of these genes was analyzed using geNorm and NormFinder algorithms and a ranking was established based on expression stability of the genes. Candidate reference gene expression was shown to have less variation in methyl jasmonate (MeJA treated root cultures than those treated with sodium acetate (NaOAc. Conclusions This work constitutes the first effort to validate reference genes for RT-qPCR in hairy roots. While these genes were selected under conditions of NaOAc and MeJA treatment, we anticipate these genes to provide good targets for reference genes for hairy roots under a variety of stress conditions. The lead reference genes were a gene encoding for a TATA box binding protein (TBP2 and a gene encoding a ribosomal protein (RPL8C. A

  20. Selection of reference genes for transcriptional analysis of edible tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Fogliatto Mariot

    Full Text Available Potato (Solanum tuberosum yield has increased dramatically over the last 50 years and this has been achieved by a combination of improved agronomy and biotechnology efforts. Gene studies are taking place to improve new qualities and develop new cultivars. Reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR is a bench-marking analytical tool for gene expression analysis, but its accuracy is highly dependent on a reliable normalization strategy of an invariant reference genes. For this reason, the goal of this work was to select and validate reference genes for transcriptional analysis of edible tubers of potato. To do so, RT-qPCR primers were designed for ten genes with relatively stable expression in potato tubers as observed in RNA-Seq experiments. Primers were designed across exon boundaries to avoid genomic DNA contamination. Differences were observed in the ranking of candidate genes identified by geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper algorithms. The ranks determined by geNorm and NormFinder were very similar and for all samples the most stable candidates were C2, exocyst complex component sec3 (SEC3 and ATCUL3/ATCUL3A/CUL3/CUL3A (CUL3A. According to BestKeeper, the importin alpha and ubiquitin-associated/ts-n genes were the most stable. Three genes were selected as reference genes for potato edible tubers in RT-qPCR studies. The first one, called C2, was selected in common by NormFinder and geNorm, the second one is SEC3, selected by NormFinder, and the third one is CUL3A, selected by geNorm. Appropriate reference genes identified in this work will help to improve the accuracy of gene expression quantification analyses by taking into account differences that may be observed in RNA quality or reverse transcription efficiency across the samples.

  1. Selection of reference genes for transcriptional analysis of edible tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariot, Roberta Fogliatto; de Oliveira, Luisa Abruzzi; Voorhuijzen, Marleen M; Staats, Martijn; Hutten, Ronald C B; Van Dijk, Jeroen P; Kok, Esther; Frazzon, Jeverson

    2015-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) yield has increased dramatically over the last 50 years and this has been achieved by a combination of improved agronomy and biotechnology efforts. Gene studies are taking place to improve new qualities and develop new cultivars. Reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a bench-marking analytical tool for gene expression analysis, but its accuracy is highly dependent on a reliable normalization strategy of an invariant reference genes. For this reason, the goal of this work was to select and validate reference genes for transcriptional analysis of edible tubers of potato. To do so, RT-qPCR primers were designed for ten genes with relatively stable expression in potato tubers as observed in RNA-Seq experiments. Primers were designed across exon boundaries to avoid genomic DNA contamination. Differences were observed in the ranking of candidate genes identified by geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper algorithms. The ranks determined by geNorm and NormFinder were very similar and for all samples the most stable candidates were C2, exocyst complex component sec3 (SEC3) and ATCUL3/ATCUL3A/CUL3/CUL3A (CUL3A). According to BestKeeper, the importin alpha and ubiquitin-associated/ts-n genes were the most stable. Three genes were selected as reference genes for potato edible tubers in RT-qPCR studies. The first one, called C2, was selected in common by NormFinder and geNorm, the second one is SEC3, selected by NormFinder, and the third one is CUL3A, selected by geNorm. Appropriate reference genes identified in this work will help to improve the accuracy of gene expression quantification analyses by taking into account differences that may be observed in RNA quality or reverse transcription efficiency across the samples.

  2. Interactions: A Study of Office Reference Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Lederer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – The purpose of this study was to analyze the data from a referencestatistics-gathering mechanism at Colorado State University (CSU Libraries. It aimedprimarily to better understand patron behaviours, particularly in an academic librarywith no reference desk.Methods – The researchers examined data from 2007 to 2010 of College LiaisonLibrarians’ consultations with patrons. Data were analyzed by various criteria,including patron type, contact method, and time spent with the patron. Theinformation was examined in the aggregate, meaning all librarians combined, andthen specifically from the Liberal Arts and Business subject areas.Results – The researchers found that the number of librarian reference consultationsis substantial. Referrals to librarians from CSU’s Morgan Library’s one public servicedesk have declined over time. The researchers also found that graduate students arethe primary patrons and email is the preferred contact method overall.Conclusion – The researchers found that interactions with patrons in librarians’ offices – either in person or virtually – remain substantial even without a traditional reference desk. The data suggest that librarians’ efforts at marketing themselves to departments, colleges, and patrons have been successful. This study will be of value to reference, subject specialist, and public service librarians, and library administrators as they consider ways to quantify their work, not only for administrative purposes, but in order to follow trends and provide services and staffing accordingly.

  3. Nuclear site selection studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharib, A.; Zohoorian Izadpanah, A.A.; Iranmanesh, H.

    2000-01-01

    It is of special importance, especially from the nuclear safety viewpoint, to select suitable sites for different nuclear structures with the considered future activities. Site selection sometimes involves high costs not necessarily for merely selecting of site but for some preliminary measures to be taken so as the site may have the necessary characteristics. The more suitable the natural characteristics of the site for the considered project, the more successful and efficient the project, the lower the project costs and the longer the project operation period. If so, the project will cause the growth of public culture and sustainable socioeconomic development. This paper is the result of the conclusion of numerous massive reports of this activity in the preliminary phase based on theories, practices and the related safety principles on this ground as well as the application of data and information of the past and a glance to the future. The conception of need for a site for medium structures and nuclear research projects and how to perform this process are presented step by step here with a scientific approach to its selection during the investigations. In this study, it is practically described how the site is selected, by determining and defining the characteristics of research and nuclear projects with medium structures and also its fitting to the optimum site. The discovered sites typically involve the best advantages in technical and economic aspects and no particular contrast with the concerned structures

  4. Selection of a reference process for treatment of the West Valley alkaline waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holton, L.K.; Wise, B.M.; Bray, L.A.; Pope, J.M.; Carl, D.E.

    1984-08-01

    As part of the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) the alkaline PUREX supernatant stored in Tank 8D2 will be partially decontaminated by the removal of radiocesium. Four processes for removal of radiocesium from the alkaline supernatant were studied through experimentation and engineering analysis to identify a reference approach for the WVDP. These processes included the use of a zeolite inorganic ion-exchanger (Linde Ionsiv IE-95), an organic ion exchange resin (Duolite CS-100), and two precipitation processes; one using sodium tetraphenylboron (NaTPB) and the other using phosphotungstic acid (PTA). Based upon process performance, safety and environmental considerations, process and equipment complexity and impacts to the waste vitrification system, the zeolite ion-exchange process has been selected by West Valley Nuclear Services, Inc., as the reference supernatant treatment process for the WVDP. This paper will summarize the technical basis for the selection of the zeolite ion-exchange process. 4 figures, 2 tables

  5. Reference intervals for selected serum biochemistry analytes in cheetahs Acinonyx jubatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson-Lamb, Gavin C; Schoeman, Johan P; Hooijberg, Emma H; Heinrich, Sonja K; Tordiffe, Adrian S W

    2016-02-26

    Published haematologic and serum biochemistry reference intervals are very scarce for captive cheetahs and even more for free-ranging cheetahs. The current study was performed to establish reference intervals for selected serum biochemistry analytes in cheetahs. Baseline serum biochemistry analytes were analysed from 66 healthy Namibian cheetahs. Samples were collected from 30 captive cheetahs at the AfriCat Foundation and 36 free-ranging cheetahs from central Namibia. The effects of captivity-status, age, sex and haemolysis score on the tested serum analytes were investigated. The biochemistry analytes that were measured were sodium, potassium, magnesium, chloride, urea and creatinine. The 90% confidence interval of the reference limits was obtained using the non-parametric bootstrap method. Reference intervals were preferentially determined by the non-parametric method and were as follows: sodium (128 mmol/L - 166 mmol/L), potassium (3.9 mmol/L - 5.2 mmol/L), magnesium (0.8 mmol/L - 1.2 mmol/L), chloride (97 mmol/L - 130 mmol/L), urea (8.2 mmol/L - 25.1 mmol/L) and creatinine (88 µmol/L - 288 µmol/L). Reference intervals from the current study were compared with International Species Information System values for cheetahs and found to be narrower. Moreover, age, sex and haemolysis score had no significant effect on the serum analytes in this study. Separate reference intervals for captive and free-ranging cheetahs were also determined. Captive cheetahs had higher urea values, most likely due to dietary factors. This study is the first to establish reference intervals for serum biochemistry analytes in cheetahs according to international guidelines. These results can be used for future health and disease assessments in both captive and free-ranging cheetahs.

  6. Reference intervals for selected serum biochemistry analytes in cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin C. Hudson-Lamb

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Published haematologic and serum biochemistry reference intervals are very scarce for captive cheetahs and even more for free-ranging cheetahs. The current study was performed to establish reference intervals for selected serum biochemistry analytes in cheetahs. Baseline serum biochemistry analytes were analysed from 66 healthy Namibian cheetahs. Samples were collected from 30 captive cheetahs at the AfriCat Foundation and 36 free-ranging cheetahs from central Namibia. The effects of captivity-status, age, sex and haemolysis score on the tested serum analytes were investigated. The biochemistry analytes that were measured were sodium, potassium, magnesium, chloride, urea and creatinine. The 90% confidence interval of the reference limits was obtained using the non-parametric bootstrap method. Reference intervals were preferentially determined by the non-parametric method and were as follows: sodium (128 mmol/L – 166 mmol/L, potassium (3.9 mmol/L – 5.2 mmol/L, magnesium (0.8 mmol/L – 1.2 mmol/L, chloride (97 mmol/L – 130 mmol/L, urea (8.2 mmol/L – 25.1 mmol/L and creatinine (88 µmol/L – 288 µmol/L. Reference intervals from the current study were compared with International Species Information System values for cheetahs and found to be narrower. Moreover, age, sex and haemolysis score had no significant effect on the serum analytes in this study. Separate reference intervals for captive and free-ranging cheetahs were also determined. Captive cheetahs had higher urea values, most likely due to dietary factors. This study is the first to establish reference intervals for serum biochemistry analytes in cheetahs according to international guidelines. These results can be used for future health and disease assessments in both captive and free-ranging cheetahs.

  7. Development studies of captopril certified reference material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Nogueira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the studies performed with the candidate Certified Reference Material (CRM of captopril, the first CRM of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API in Brazil, including determination of impurities (organic, inorganic and volatiles, homogeneity testing, short- and long-term stability studies, calculation of captopril content using the mass balance approach, and estimation of the associated measurement uncertainty.Este artigo descreve os estudos realizados com o candidato a Material de Referência Certificado (MRC de captopril, primeiro MRC de fármacos no Brasil, incluindo a determinação de impurezas (orgânicas, inorgânicas e voláteis, testes de homogeneidade, testes de estabilidade de curta e longa duração, cálculo do teor de captopril por balanço de massa e estimativa da incerteza de medição associada ao valor certificado.

  8. Helium and radon-emanation bibliography. Selected references of geologic interest to uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adkisson, C.W.; Reimer, G.M.

    1976-01-01

    Selected references on helium and radon gas emanations and geologically related topics are given. There are 172 references primarily related to helium geology, 129 to radon geology, and 171 to helium and radon. These references are of geologic interest to uranium exploration

  9. Norwegian Hydrological Reference Dataset for Climate Change Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnussen, Inger Helene; Killingland, Magnus; Spilde, Dag

    2012-07-01

    Based on the Norwegian hydrological measurement network, NVE has selected a Hydrological Reference Dataset for studies of hydrological change. The dataset meets international standards with high data quality. It is suitable for monitoring and studying the effects of climate change on the hydrosphere and cryosphere in Norway. The dataset includes streamflow, groundwater, snow, glacier mass balance and length change, lake ice and water temperature in rivers and lakes.(Author)

  10. Selection of reference genes for expression analysis in the entomophthoralean fungus Pandora neoaphidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun; Xie, Tingna; Ye, Sudan; Jensen, Annette Bruun; Eilenberg, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    The selection of suitable reference genes is crucial for accurate quantification of gene expression and can add to our understanding of host-pathogen interactions. To identify suitable reference genes in Pandora neoaphidis, an obligate aphid pathogenic fungus, the expression of three traditional candidate genes including 18S rRNA(18S), 28S rRNA(28S) and elongation factor 1 alpha-like protein (EF1), were measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction at different developmental stages (conidia, conidia with germ tubes, short hyphae and elongated hyphae), and under different nutritional conditions. We calculated the expression stability of candidate reference genes using four algorithms including geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and Delta Ct. The analysis results revealed that the comprehensive ranking of candidate reference genes from the most stable to the least stable was 18S (1.189), 28S (1.414) and EF1 (3). The 18S was, therefore, the most suitable reference gene for real-time RT-PCR analysis of gene expression under all conditions. These results will support further studies on gene expression in P. neoaphidis. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Selection of reference genes for expression analysis in the entomophthoralean fungus Pandora neoaphidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The selection of suitable reference genes is crucial for accurate quantification of gene expression and can add to our understanding of host–pathogen interactions. To identify suitable reference genes in Pandora neoaphidis, an obligate aphid pathogenic fungus, the expression of three traditional candidate genes including 18S rRNA(18S, 28S rRNA(28S and elongation factor 1 alpha-like protein (EF1, were measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction at different developmental stages (conidia, conidia with germ tubes, short hyphae and elongated hyphae, and under different nutritional conditions. We calculated the expression stability of candidate reference genes using four algorithms including geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and Delta Ct. The analysis results revealed that the comprehensive ranking of candidate reference genes from the most stable to the least stable was 18S (1.189, 28S (1.414 and EF1 (3. The 18S was, therefore, the most suitable reference gene for real-time RT-PCR analysis of gene expression under all conditions. These results will support further studies on gene expression in P. neoaphidis.

  12. Automatic reference selection for quantitative EEG interpretation: identification of diffuse/localised activity and the active earlobe reference, iterative detection of the distribution of EEG rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bei; Wang, Xingyu; Ikeda, Akio; Nagamine, Takashi; Shibasaki, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Masatoshi

    2014-01-01

    EEG (Electroencephalograph) interpretation is important for the diagnosis of neurological disorders. The proper adjustment of the montage can highlight the EEG rhythm of interest and avoid false interpretation. The aim of this study was to develop an automatic reference selection method to identify a suitable reference. The results may contribute to the accurate inspection of the distribution of EEG rhythms for quantitative EEG interpretation. The method includes two pre-judgements and one iterative detection module. The diffuse case is initially identified by pre-judgement 1 when intermittent rhythmic waveforms occur over large areas along the scalp. The earlobe reference or averaged reference is adopted for the diffuse case due to the effect of the earlobe reference depending on pre-judgement 2. An iterative detection algorithm is developed for the localised case when the signal is distributed in a small area of the brain. The suitable averaged reference is finally determined based on the detected focal and distributed electrodes. The presented technique was applied to the pathological EEG recordings of nine patients. One example of the diffuse case is introduced by illustrating the results of the pre-judgements. The diffusely intermittent rhythmic slow wave is identified. The effect of active earlobe reference is analysed. Two examples of the localised case are presented, indicating the results of the iterative detection module. The focal and distributed electrodes are detected automatically during the repeating algorithm. The identification of diffuse and localised activity was satisfactory compared with the visual inspection. The EEG rhythm of interest can be highlighted using a suitable selected reference. The implementation of an automatic reference selection method is helpful to detect the distribution of an EEG rhythm, which can improve the accuracy of EEG interpretation during both visual inspection and automatic interpretation. Copyright © 2013 IPEM

  13. Reference values for methacholine reactivity (SAPALDIA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perruchoud André

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The distribution of airway responsiveness in a general population of non-smokers without respiratory symptoms has not been established, limiting its use in clinical and epidemiological practice. We derived reference equations depending on individual characteristics (i.e., sex, age, baseline lung function for relevant percentiles of the methacholine two-point dose-response slope. Methods In a reference sample of 1567 adults of the SAPALDIA cross-sectional survey (1991, defined by excluding subjects with respiratory conditions, responsiveness during methacholine challenge was quantified by calculating the two-point dose-response slope (O'Connor. Weighted L1-regression was used to estimate reference equations for the 95th , 90th , 75th and 50th percentiles of the two-point slope. Results Reference equations for the 95th , 90th , 75th and 50th percentiles of the two-point slope were estimated using a model of the form a + b* Age + c* FEV1 + d* (FEV12 , where FEV1 corresponds to the pre-test (or baseline level of FEV1. For the central half of the FEV1 distribution, we used a quadratic model to describe the dependence of methacholine slope on baseline FEV1. For the first and last quartiles of FEV1, a linear relation with FEV1 was assumed (i.e., d was set to 0. Sex was not a predictor term in this model. A negative linear association with slope was found for age. We provide an Excel file allowing calculation of the percentile of methacholine slope of a subject after introducing age – pre-test FEV1 – and results of methacholine challenge of the subject. Conclusion The present study provides equations for four relevant percentiles of methacholine two-point slope depending on age and baseline FEV1 as basic predictors in an adult reference population of non-obstructive and non-atopic persons. These equations may help clinicians and epidemiologists to better characterize individual or population airway responsiveness.

  14. Influence of population selection on the 99th percentile reference value for cardiac troponin assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinson, Paul O; Heung, Yen Ming; Gaze, David; Boa, Frances; Senior, Roxy; Christenson, Robert; Apple, Fred S

    2012-01-01

    We sought to determine the effect of patient selection on the 99th reference percentile of 2 sensitive and 1 high-sensitivity (hs) cardiac troponin assays in a well-defined reference population. Individuals>45 years old were randomly selected from 7 representative local community practices. Detailed information regarding the participants was collected via questionnaires. The healthy reference population was defined as individuals who had no history of vascular disease, hypertension, or heavy alcohol intake; were not receiving cardiac medication; and had blood pressure60 mL·min(-1)·(1.73 m2)(-1), and normal cardiac function according to results of echocardiography. Samples were stored at -70 °C until analysis for cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and cardiac troponin T (cTnT) and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide. Application of progressively more stringent population selection strategies to the initial baseline population of 545 participants until the only individuals who remained were completely healthy according to the study criteria reduced the number of outliers seen and led to a progressive decrease in the 99th-percentile value obtained for the Roche hs-cTnT assay and the sensitive Beckman cTnI assay but not for the sensitive Siemens Ultra cTnI assay. Furthermore, a sex difference found in the baseline population for the hs-cTnT (P=0.0018) and Beckman cTnI assays (Pstrategy significantly influenced the 99th percentile reference values determined for troponin assays and the observed sex differences in troponin concentrations.

  15. Selection of Suitable Endogenous Reference Genes for Relative Copy Number Detection in Sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bantong Xue

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Transgene copy number has a great impact on the expression level and stability of exogenous gene in transgenic plants. Proper selection of endogenous reference genes is necessary for detection of genetic components in genetically modification (GM crops by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR or by qualitative PCR approach, especially in sugarcane with polyploid and aneuploid genomic structure. qPCR technique has been widely accepted as an accurate, time-saving method on determination of copy numbers in transgenic plants and on detection of genetically modified plants to meet the regulatory and legislative requirement. In this study, to find a suitable endogenous reference gene and its real-time PCR assay for sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids DNA content quantification, we evaluated a set of potential “single copy” genes including P4H, APRT, ENOL, CYC, TST and PRR, through qualitative PCR and absolute quantitative PCR. Based on copy number comparisons among different sugarcane genotypes, including five S. officinarum, one S. spontaneum and two S. spp. hybrids, these endogenous genes fell into three groups: ENOL-3—high copy number group, TST-1 and PRR-1—medium copy number group, P4H-1, APRT-2 and CYC-2—low copy number group. Among these tested genes, P4H, APRT and CYC were the most stable, while ENOL and TST were the least stable across different sugarcane genotypes. Therefore, three primer pairs of P4H-3, APRT-2 and CYC-2 were then selected as the suitable reference gene primer pairs for sugarcane. The test of multi-target reference genes revealed that the APRT gene was a specific amplicon, suggesting this gene is the most suitable to be used as an endogenous reference target for sugarcane DNA content quantification. These results should be helpful for establishing accurate and reliable qualitative and quantitative PCR analysis of GM sugarcane.

  16. Cloning and selection of reference genes for gene expression ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Full length mRNA sequences of Ac-β-actin and Ac-gapdh, and partial mRNA sequences of Ac-18SrRNA and Ac-ubiquitin were cloned from pineapple in this study. The four genes were tested as housekeeping genes in three experimental sets. GeNorm and NormFinder analysis revealed that β-actin was the most ...

  17. Selection and evaluation of reference genes for RT-qPCR expression studies on Burkholderia tropica strain Ppe8, a sugarcane-associated diazotrophic bacterium grown with different carbon sources or sugarcane juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Paula Renata Alves; Vidal, Marcia Soares; de Paula Soares, Cleiton; Polese, Valéria; Simões-Araújo, Jean Luís; Baldani, José Ivo

    2016-11-01

    Among the members of the genus Burkholderia, Burkholderia tropica has the ability to fix nitrogen and promote sugarcane plant growth as well as act as a biological control agent. There is little information about how this bacterium metabolizes carbohydrates as well as those carbon sources found in the sugarcane juice that accumulates in stems during plant growth. Reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) can be used to evaluate changes in gene expression during bacterial growth on different carbon sources. Here we tested the expression of six reference genes, lpxC, gyrB, recA, rpoA, rpoB, and rpoD, when cells were grown with glucose, fructose, sucrose, mannitol, aconitic acid, and sugarcane juice as carbon sources. The lpxC, gyrB, and recA were selected as the most stable reference genes based on geNorm and NormFinder software analyses. Validation of these three reference genes during strain Ppe8 growth on the same carbon sources showed that genes involved in glycogen biosynthesis (glgA, glgB, glgC) and trehalose biosynthesis (treY and treZ) were highly expressed when Ppe8 was grown in aconitic acid relative to other carbon sources, while otsA expression (trehalose biosynthesis) was reduced with all carbon sources. In addition, the expression level of the ORF_6066 (gluconolactonase) gene was reduced on sugarcane juice. The results confirmed the stability of the three selected reference genes (lpxC, gyrB, and recA) during the RT-qPCR and also their robustness by evaluating the relative expression of genes involved in glycogen and trehalose biosynthesis when strain Ppe8 was grown on different carbon sources and sugarcane juice.

  18. Selection of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR in bovine preimplantation embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Zeveren Alex

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Real-time quantitative PCR is a sensitive and very efficient technique to examine gene transcription patterns in preimplantation embryos, in order to gain information about embryo development and to optimize assisted reproductive technologies. Critical to the succesful application of real-time PCR is careful assay design, reaction optimization and validation to maximize sensitivity and accuracy. In most of the studies published GAPD, ACTB or 18S rRNA have been used as a single reference gene without prior verification of their expression stability. Normalization of the data using unstable controls can result in erroneous conclusions, especially when only one reference gene is used. Results In this study the transcription levels of 8 commonly used reference genes (ACTB, GAPD, Histone H2A, TBP, HPRT1, SDHA, YWHAZ and 18S rRNA were determined at different preimplantation stages (2-cell, 8-cell, blastocyst and hatched blastocyst in order to select the most stable genes to normalize quantitative data within different preimplantation embryo stages. Conclusion Using the geNorm application YWHAZ, GAPD and SDHA were found to be the most stable genes across the examined embryonic stages, while the commonly used ACTB was shown to be highly regulated. We recommend the use of the geometric mean of those 3 reference genes as an accurate normalization factor, which allows small expression differences to be reliably measured.

  19. Selection of Suitable Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-time PCR in Sapium sebiferum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Chen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chinese tallow (Sapium sebiferum L. is a promising landscape and bioenergy plant. Measuring gene expression by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR can provide valuable information on gene function. Stably expressed reference genes for normalization are a prerequisite for ensuring the accuracy of the target gene expression level among different samples. However, the reference genes in Chinese tallow have not been systematically validated. In this study, 12 candidate reference genes (18S, GAPDH, UBQ, RPS15, SAND, TIP41, 60S, ACT7, PDF2, APT, TBP, and TUB were investigated with qRT-PCR in 18 samples, including those from different tissues, from plants treated with sucrose and cold stresses. The data were calculated with four common algorithms, geNorm, BestKeeper, NormFinder, and the delta cycle threshold (ΔCt. TIP41 and GAPDH were the most stable for the tissue-specific experiment, GAPDH and 60S for cold treatment, and GAPDH and UBQ for sucrose stresses, while the least stable genes were 60S, TIP41, and 18S respectively. The comprehensive results showed APT, GAPDH, and UBQ to be the top-ranked stable genes across all the samples. The stability of 60S was the lowest during all experiments. These selected reference genes were further validated by comparing the expression profiles of the chalcone synthase gene in Chinese tallow in different samples. The results will help to improve the accuracy of gene expression studies in Chinese tallow.

  20. Normalization Methods and Selection Strategies for Reference Materials in Stable Isotope Analyses - Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrzypek, G.; Sadler, R.; Paul, D.; Forizs, I.

    2011-01-01

    A stable isotope analyst has to make a number of important decisions regarding how to best determine the 'true' stable isotope composition of analysed samples in reference to an international scale. It has to be decided which reference materials should be used, the number of reference materials and how many repetitions of each standard is most appropriate for a desired level of precision, and what normalization procedure should be selected. In this paper we summarise what is known about propagation of uncertainties associated with normalization procedures and propagation of uncertainties associated with reference materials used as anchors for the determination of 'true' values for δ''1''3C and δ''1''8O. Normalization methods Several normalization methods transforming the 'raw' value obtained from mass spectrometers to one of the internationally recognized scales has been developed. However, as summarised by Paul et al. different normalization transforms alone may lead to inconsistencies between laboratories. The most common normalization procedures are: single-point anchoring (versus working gas and certified reference standard), modified single-point normalization, linear shift between the measured and the true isotopic composition of two certified reference standards, two-point and multipoint linear normalization methods. The accuracy of these various normalization methods has been compared by using analytical laboratory data by Paul et al., with the single-point and normalization versus tank calibrations resulting in the largest normalization errors, and that also exceed the analytical uncertainty recommended for δ 13 C. The normalization error depends greatly on the relative differences between the stable isotope composition of the reference material and the sample. On the other hand, the normalization methods using two or more certified reference standards produces a smaller normalization error, if the reference materials are bracketing the whole range of

  1. Automatic selection of reference taxa for protein-protein interaction prediction with phylogenetic profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Martin; Maetschke, S.R.; Ragan, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Motivation: Phylogenetic profiling methods can achieve good accuracy in predicting protein–protein interactions, especially in prokaryotes. Recent studies have shown that the choice of reference taxa (RT) is critical for accurate prediction, but with more than 2500 fully sequenced taxa publicly......: We present three novel methods for automating the selection of RT, using machine learning based on known protein–protein interaction networks. One of these methods in particular, Tree-Based Search, yields greatly improved prediction accuracies. We further show that different methods for constituting...... phylogenetic profiles often require very different RT sets to support high prediction accuracy....

  2. Long-term response to genomic selection: effects of estimation method and reference population structure for different genetic architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastiaansen, John W M; Coster, Albart; Calus, Mario P L; van Arendonk, Johan A M; Bovenhuis, Henk

    2012-01-24

    Genomic selection has become an important tool in the genetic improvement of animals and plants. The objective of this study was to investigate the impacts of breeding value estimation method, reference population structure, and trait genetic architecture, on long-term response to genomic selection without updating marker effects. Three methods were used to estimate genomic breeding values: a BLUP method with relationships estimated from genome-wide markers (GBLUP), a Bayesian method, and a partial least squares regression method (PLSR). A shallow (individuals from one generation) or deep reference population (individuals from five generations) was used with each method. The effects of the different selection approaches were compared under four different genetic architectures for the trait under selection. Selection was based on one of the three genomic breeding values, on pedigree BLUP breeding values, or performed at random. Selection continued for ten generations. Differences in long-term selection response were small. For a genetic architecture with a very small number of three to four quantitative trait loci (QTL), the Bayesian method achieved a response that was 0.05 to 0.1 genetic standard deviation higher than other methods in generation 10. For genetic architectures with approximately 30 to 300 QTL, PLSR (shallow reference) or GBLUP (deep reference) had an average advantage of 0.2 genetic standard deviation over the Bayesian method in generation 10. GBLUP resulted in 0.6% and 0.9% less inbreeding than PLSR and BM and on average a one third smaller reduction of genetic variance. Responses in early generations were greater with the shallow reference population while long-term response was not affected by reference population structure. The ranking of estimation methods was different with than without selection. Under selection, applying GBLUP led to lower inbreeding and a smaller reduction of genetic variance while a similar response to selection was

  3. Low-level radioactive waste technology: a selected, annotated bibliography. [416 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fore, C.S.; Carrier, R.F.; Brewster, R.H.; Hyder, L.K.; Barnes, K.A.

    1981-10-01

    This annotated bibliography of 416 references represents the third in a series to be published by the Hazardous Materials Information Center containing scientific, technical, economic, and regulatory information relevant to low-level radioactive waste technology. The bibliography focuses on disposal site, environmental transport, and waste treatment studies as well as general reviews on the subject. The publication covers both domestic and foreign literature for the period 1951 to 1981. Major chapters selected are Chemical and Physical Aspects; Container Design and Performance; Disposal Site; Environmental Transport; General Studies and Reviews; Geology, Hydrology, and Site Resources; Regulatory and Economic Aspects; Social Aspects; Transportation Technology; Waste Production; and Waste Treatment. Entries in each of the chapters are further classified as a field study, laboratory study, theoretical study, or general overview involving one or more of these research areas.

  4. The value of cows in reference populations for genomic selection of new functional traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Line Hjortø; Kargo, Morten; Berg, Peer

    2012-01-01

    Today, almost all reference populations consist of progeny tested bulls. However, older progeny tested bulls do not have reliable estimated breeding values (EBV) for new traits. Thus, to be able to select for these new traits, it is necessary to build a reference population. We used a deterministic...... of the direct genomic values (DGV) for a new functional trait, regardless of its heritability. For small-scale recording, we compared two scenarios where the reference population consisted of the 2000 cows with phenotypic records or the 30 sires of these cows in the first year with measurements of the new...... to achieve accuracies of the DGV that enable selection for new functional traits recorded on a large scale within 3 years from commencement of recording; and (iv) a higher heritability benefits a reference population of cows more than a reference population of bulls....

  5. Recruiter Perceptions of Information that Employment References Should Provide to Assist in Making Selection Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evuleocha, Stevina U.; Ugbah, Steve D.; Law, Sweety

    2009-01-01

    Authors investigated perceptions of campus recruiters (N = 168) in the San Francisco Bay Area regarding the importance of 15 types of information they solicit from job applicants' references in making selection decisions. Results suggest campus recruiters should consider 10 types of information to assist them in making selection decisions. Results…

  6. Selection of a reference process for treatment of the West Valley alkaline waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, L.A.; Holton, L.K.; Wise, B.M.; Carl, D.E.; Pope, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    As part of the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) the alkaline PUREX supernatant stored in Tank 8D2 will be partially decontaminated by the removal of radiocesium. Four processes for removal of radiocesium from the alkaline supernatant were studied through experimentation and engineering analysis to identify a reference approach for the WVDP. These processes included the use of a zeolite inorganic ion-exchanger (Linde Ionsiv IE-95, Ionsiv is a trademark of Union Carbide Company), an organic ion exchange resin (Duolite CS-100, Duolite is a registered trademark of Diamond Shamrock Co) and two precipitation processes; one using sodium tetraphenylboron (NaTPB) and the other using phosphotungsthC acid (PTA). Based upon process performance, safety and environmental considerations, process and equipment complexity and impacts to the waste vitrification system, the zeolite ion-exchange process has been selected by West Valley Nuclear Services, Inc., as the reference supernatant treatment process for the WVDP. This paper summarizes the technical basis for the selection of the zeolite ion-exchange process

  7. Selection of reliable reference genes in Caenorhabditis elegans for analysis of nanotoxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanqiong Zhang

    Full Text Available Despite rapid development and application of a wide range of manufactured metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs, the understanding of potential risks of using NPs is less completed, especially at the molecular level. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C.elegans has been emerging as an environmental model to study the molecular mechanism of environmental contaminations, using standard genetic tools such as the real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR. The most important factor that may affect the accuracy of RT-qPCR is to choose appropriate genes for normalization. In this study, we selected 13 reference gene candidates (act-1, cdc-42, pmp-3, eif-3.C, actin, act-2, csq-1, Y45F10D.4, tba-1, mdh-1, ama-1, F35G12.2, and rbd-1 to test their expression stability under different doses of nano-copper oxide (CuO 0, 1, 10, and 50 µg/mL using RT-qPCR. Four algorithms, geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and the comparative ΔCt method, were employed to evaluate these 13 candidates expressions. As a result, tba-1, Y45F10D.4 and pmp-3 were the most reliable, which may be used as reference genes in future study of nanoparticle-induced genetic response using C.elegans.

  8. Selection of reliable reference genes in Caenorhabditis elegans for analysis of nanotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanqiong; Chen, Dongliang; Smith, Michael A; Zhang, Baohong; Pan, Xiaoping

    2012-01-01

    Despite rapid development and application of a wide range of manufactured metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs), the understanding of potential risks of using NPs is less completed, especially at the molecular level. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C.elegans) has been emerging as an environmental model to study the molecular mechanism of environmental contaminations, using standard genetic tools such as the real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). The most important factor that may affect the accuracy of RT-qPCR is to choose appropriate genes for normalization. In this study, we selected 13 reference gene candidates (act-1, cdc-42, pmp-3, eif-3.C, actin, act-2, csq-1, Y45F10D.4, tba-1, mdh-1, ama-1, F35G12.2, and rbd-1) to test their expression stability under different doses of nano-copper oxide (CuO 0, 1, 10, and 50 µg/mL) using RT-qPCR. Four algorithms, geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and the comparative ΔCt method, were employed to evaluate these 13 candidates expressions. As a result, tba-1, Y45F10D.4 and pmp-3 were the most reliable, which may be used as reference genes in future study of nanoparticle-induced genetic response using C.elegans.

  9. Which Individuals To Choose To Update the Reference Population? Minimizing the Loss of Genetic Diversity in Animal Genomic Selection Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia E. Eynard

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Genomic selection (GS is commonly used in livestock and increasingly in plant breeding. Relying on phenotypes and genotypes of a reference population, GS allows performance prediction for young individuals having only genotypes. This is expected to achieve fast high genetic gain but with a potential loss of genetic diversity. Existing methods to conserve genetic diversity depend mostly on the choice of the breeding individuals. In this study, we propose a modification of the reference population composition to mitigate diversity loss. Since the high cost of phenotyping is the limiting factor for GS, our findings are of major economic interest. This study aims to answer the following questions: how would decisions on the reference population affect the breeding population, and how to best select individuals to update the reference population and balance maximizing genetic gain and minimizing loss of genetic diversity? We investigated three updating strategies for the reference population: random, truncation, and optimal contribution (OC strategies. OC maximizes genetic merit for a fixed loss of genetic diversity. A French Montbéliarde dairy cattle population with 50K SNP chip genotypes and simulations over 10 generations were used to compare these different strategies using milk production as the trait of interest. Candidates were selected to update the reference population. Prediction bias and both genetic merit and diversity were measured. Changes in the reference population composition slightly affected the breeding population. Optimal contribution strategy appeared to be an acceptable compromise to maintain both genetic gain and diversity in the reference and the breeding populations.

  10. Which Individuals To Choose To Update the Reference Population? Minimizing the Loss of Genetic Diversity in Animal Genomic Selection Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eynard, Sonia E; Croiseau, Pascal; Laloë, Denis; Fritz, Sebastien; Calus, Mario P L; Restoux, Gwendal

    2018-01-04

    Genomic selection (GS) is commonly used in livestock and increasingly in plant breeding. Relying on phenotypes and genotypes of a reference population, GS allows performance prediction for young individuals having only genotypes. This is expected to achieve fast high genetic gain but with a potential loss of genetic diversity. Existing methods to conserve genetic diversity depend mostly on the choice of the breeding individuals. In this study, we propose a modification of the reference population composition to mitigate diversity loss. Since the high cost of phenotyping is the limiting factor for GS, our findings are of major economic interest. This study aims to answer the following questions: how would decisions on the reference population affect the breeding population, and how to best select individuals to update the reference population and balance maximizing genetic gain and minimizing loss of genetic diversity? We investigated three updating strategies for the reference population: random, truncation, and optimal contribution (OC) strategies. OC maximizes genetic merit for a fixed loss of genetic diversity. A French Montbéliarde dairy cattle population with 50K SNP chip genotypes and simulations over 10 generations were used to compare these different strategies using milk production as the trait of interest. Candidates were selected to update the reference population. Prediction bias and both genetic merit and diversity were measured. Changes in the reference population composition slightly affected the breeding population. Optimal contribution strategy appeared to be an acceptable compromise to maintain both genetic gain and diversity in the reference and the breeding populations. Copyright © 2018 Eynard et al.

  11. Decision support for the selection of reference sites using 137Cs as a soil erosion tracer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Arata

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The classical approach of using 137Cs as a soil erosion tracer is based on the comparison between stable reference sites and sites affected by soil redistribution processes; it enables the derivation of soil erosion and deposition rates. The method is associated with potentially large sources of uncertainty with major parts of this uncertainty being associated with the selection of the reference sites. We propose a decision support tool to Check the Suitability of reference Sites (CheSS. Commonly, the variation among 137Cs inventories of spatial replicate reference samples is taken as the sole criterion to decide on the suitability of a reference inventory. Here we propose an extension of this procedure using a repeated sampling approach, in which the reference sites are resampled after a certain time period. Suitable reference sites are expected to present no significant temporal variation in their decay-corrected 137Cs depth profiles. Possible causes of variation are assessed by a decision tree. More specifically, the decision tree tests for (i uncertainty connected to small-scale variability in 137Cs due to its heterogeneous initial fallout (such as in areas affected by the Chernobyl fallout, (ii signs of erosion or deposition processes and (iii artefacts due to the collection, preparation and measurement of the samples; (iv finally, if none of the above can be assigned, this variation might be attributed to turbation processes (e.g. bioturbation, cryoturbation and mechanical turbation, such as avalanches or rockfalls. CheSS was exemplarily applied in one Swiss alpine valley where the apparent temporal variability called into question the suitability of the selected reference sites. In general we suggest the application of CheSS as a first step towards a comprehensible approach to test for the suitability of reference sites.

  12. The Paranormal: A Selected Bibliography of Serials and Reference Works, with Commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Charles H.

    1997-01-01

    Provides bibliography of references and serials to assist acquisitions librarians in selection of the paranormal. Topics include alchemy, astrology, magic, conjuring, witchcraft, paganism, demonology, satanism, voodooism, sorcery, cults, shamanism, UFOs, exobiology, curious physical and biological phenomena, ghosts, poltergeists, haunted places,…

  13. Reference Guide for Teaching Selected Duty Areas from Business, Marketing and Management Occupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, John H.

    This reference guide was designed to assist business, marketing, and management educators in locating textbook/instructional materials for use in teaching duty areas and task lists for grades 11-14. Duty areas and task lists are matched with selected textbook/instructional publications for the secretarial, general office clerk, and information…

  14. Selection of reliable reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR in human T cells and neutrophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ledderose Carola

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The choice of reliable reference genes is a prerequisite for valid results when analyzing gene expression with real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR. This method is frequently applied to study gene expression patterns in immune cells, yet a thorough validation of potential reference genes is still lacking for most leukocyte subtypes and most models of their in vitro stimulation. In the current study, we evaluated the expression stability of common reference genes in two widely used cell culture models-anti-CD3/CD28 activated T cells and lipopolysaccharide stimulated neutrophils-as well as in unselected untreated leukocytes. Results The mRNA expression of 17 (T cells, 7 (neutrophils or 8 (unselected leukocytes potential reference genes was quantified by reverse transcription qPCR, and a ranking of the preselected candidate genes according to their expression stability was calculated using the programs NormFinder, geNorm and BestKeeper. IPO8, RPL13A, TBP and SDHA were identified as suitable reference genes in T cells. TBP, ACTB and SDHA were stably expressed in neutrophils. TBP and SDHA were also the most stable genes in untreated total blood leukocytes. The critical impact of reference gene selection on the estimated target gene expression is demonstrated for IL-2 and FIH expression in T cells. Conclusions The study provides a shortlist of suitable reference genes for normalization of gene expression data in unstimulated and stimulated T cells, unstimulated and stimulated neutrophils and in unselected leukocytes.

  15. Normalization Methods and Selection Strategies for Reference Materials in Stable Isotope Analyes. Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skrzypek, G. [West Australian Biogeochemistry Centre, John de Laeter Centre of Mass Spectrometry, School of Plant Biology, University of Western Australia, Crawley (Australia); Sadler, R. [School of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of Western Australia, Crawley (Australia); Paul, D. [Department of Civil Engineering (Geosciences), Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur (India); Forizs, I. [Institute for Geochemical Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary)

    2013-07-15

    Stable isotope ratio mass spectrometers are highly precise, but not accurate instruments. Therefore, results have to be normalized to one of the isotope scales (e.g., VSMOW, VPDB) based on well calibrated reference materials. The selection of reference materials, numbers of replicates, {delta}-values of these reference materials and normalization technique have been identified as crucial in determining the uncertainty associated with the final results. The most common normalization techniques and reference materials have been tested using both Monte Carlo simulations and laboratory experiments to investigate aspects of error propagation during the normalization of isotope data. The range of observed differences justifies the need to employ the same sets of standards worldwide for each element and each stable isotope analytical technique. (author)

  16. Selection and validation of appropriate reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR analysis in Salvia hispanica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Gopalam

    Full Text Available Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR has become the most popular choice for gene expression studies. For accurate expression analysis, it is pertinent to select a stable reference gene to normalize the data. It is now known that the expression of internal reference genes varies considerably during developmental stages and under different experimental conditions. For Salvia hispanica, an economically important oilseed crop, there are no reports of stable reference genes till date. In this study, we chose 13 candidate reference genes viz. Actin11 (ACT, Elongation factor 1-alpha (EF1-α, Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3E (ETIF3E, alpha tubulin (α-TUB, beta tubulin (β-TUB, Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, Cyclophilin (CYP, Clathrin adaptor complex (CAC, Serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A, FtsH protease (FtsH, 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA, S-adenosyl methionine decarboxylase (SAMDC and Rubisco activase (RCA and the expression levels of these genes were assessed in a diverse set of tissue samples representing vegetative stages, reproductive stages and various abiotic stress treatments. Two of the widely used softwares, geNorm and Normfinder were used to evaluate the expression stabilities of these 13 candidate reference genes under different conditions. Results showed that GAPDH and CYP expression remain stable throughout in the different abiotic stress treatments, CAC and PP2A expression were relatively stable under reproductive stages and α-TUB, PP2A and ETIF3E were found to be stably expressed in vegetative stages. Further, the expression levels of Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT1, a key enzyme in triacylglycerol synthesis was analyzed to confirm the validity of reference genes identified in the study. This is the first systematic study of selection of reference genes in S. hispanica, and will benefit future expression studies in this crop.

  17. Fetal biometric parameters: Reference charts for a non-selected risk population from Uberaba, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Alberto Borges; da Cunha Caldas, Taciana Mara Rodrigues; Dulgheroff, Fernando Felix; Martins, Wellington P; Araujo Júnior, Edward

    2017-03-01

    To establish reference charts for fetal biometric parameters in a non-selected risk population from Uberaba, Southeast of Brazil. A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed among 5656 non-selected risk singleton pregnant women between 14 and 41 weeks of gestation. The ultrasound exams were performed during routine visits of second and third trimesters. Biparietal diameter (BPD) was measured at the level of the thalami and cavum septi pellucidi. Head circumference (HC) was calculated by the following formula: HC = 1.62*(BPD + occipital frontal diameter, OFD). Abdominal circumference (AC) was measured using the following formula: AC = (anteroposterior diameter + transverse abdominal diameter) × 1.57. Femur diaphysis length (FDL) was obtained in the longest axis of femur without including the distal femoral epiphysis. The estimated fetal weight (EFW) was obtained by the Hadlock formula. Polynomial regressions were performed to obtain the best-fit model for each fetal biometric parameter as the function of gestational age (GA). The mean, standard deviations ( SD ), minimum and maximum of BPD (cm), HC (cm), AC (cm), FDL (cm) and EFW (g) were 6.9 ± 1.9 (2.3 - 10.5), 24.51 ± 6.61 (9.1 - 36.4), 22.8 ± 7.3 (7.5 - 41.1), 4.9 ± 1.6 (1.2 - 8.1) and 1365 ± 1019 (103 - 4777), respectively. Second-degree polynomial regressions between the evaluated parameters and GA resulted in the following formulas: BPD = -4.044 + 0.540 × GA - 0.0049 × GA 2 ( R 2 = 0.97); HC= -15.420 + 2.024 GA - 0.0199 × GA 2 ( R 2 = 0.98); AC = -9.579 + 1.329 × GA - 0.0055 × GA 2 ( R 2 = 0.97); FDL = -3.778 + 0.416 × GA - 0.0035 × GA 2 ( R 2 = 0.98) and EFW = 916 - 123 × GA + 4.70 × GA 2 ( R 2 = 0.96); respectively. Reference charts for the fetal biometric parameters in a non-selected risk population from Uberaba, Southeast of Brazil, were established.

  18. Fetal biometric parameters: Reference charts for a non-selected risk population from Uberaba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Borges Peixoto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To establish reference charts for fetal biometric parameters in a non-selected risk population from Uberaba, Southeast of Brazil. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed among 5656 non-selected risk singleton pregnant women between 14 and 41 weeks of gestation. The ultrasound exams were performed during routine visits of second and third trimesters. Biparietal diameter (BPD was measured at the level of the thalami and cavum septi pellucidi. Head circumference (HC was calculated by the following formula: HC = 1.62*(BPD + occipital frontal diameter, OFD. Abdominal circumference (AC was measured using the following formula: AC = (anteroposterior diameter + transverse abdominal diameter × 1.57. Femur diaphysis length (FDL was obtained in the longest axis of femur without including the distal femoral epiphysis. The estimated fetal weight (EFW was obtained by the Hadlock formula. Polynomial regressions were performed to obtain the best-fit model for each fetal biometric parameter as the function of gestational age (GA. Results: The mean, standard deviations (SD, minimum and maximum of BPD (cm, HC (cm, AC (cm, FDL (cm and EFW (g were 6.9 ± 1.9 (2.3 – 10.5, 24.51 ± 6.61 (9.1 – 36.4, 22.8 ± 7.3 (7.5 – 41.1, 4.9 ± 1.6 (1.2 – 8.1 and 1365 ± 1019 (103 – 4777, respectively. Second-degree polynomial regressions between the evaluated parameters and GA resulted in the following formulas: BPD = –4.044 + 0.540 × GA – 0.0049 × GA² (R² = 0.97; HC= –15.420 + 2.024 GA – 0.0199 × GA² (R² = 0.98; AC = –9.579 + 1.329 × GA – 0.0055 × GA² (R² = 0.97; FDL = –3.778 + 0.416 × GA – 0.0035 × GA² (R² = 0.98 and EFW = 916 – 123 × GA + 4.70 × GA² (R² = 0.96; respectively. Conclusion: Reference charts for the fetal biometric parameters in a non-selected risk population from Uberaba, Southeast of Brazil, were established.

  19. Selection of reference genes for expression analysis of Kumamoto and Portuguese oysters and their hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lulu; Su, Jiaqi; Wang, Zhaoping; Yan, Xiwu; Yu, Ruihai

    2017-12-01

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a rapid and reliable technique which has been widely used to quantifying gene transcripts (expression analysis). It is also employed for studying heterosis, hybridization breeding and hybrid tolerability of oysters, an ecologically and economically important taxonomic group. For these studies, selection of a suitable set of housekeeping genes as references is crucial for correct interpretation of qRT-PCR data. To identify suitable reference genes for oysters during low temperature and low salinity stresses, we analyzed twelve genes from the gill tissue of Crassostrea sikamea (SS), Crassostrea angulata (AA) and their hybrid (SA), which included three ribosomal genes, 28S ribosomal protein S5 ( RPS5), ribosomal protein L35 ( RPL35), and 60S ribosomal protein L29 ( RPL29); three structural genes, tubulin gamma ( TUBγ), annexin A6 and A7 ( AA6 and AA7); three metabolic pathway genes, ornithine decarboxylase ( OD), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase ( GAPDH) and glutathione S-transferase P1 ( GSP); two transcription factors, elongation factor 1 alpha and beta ( EF1α and EF1β); and one protein synthesis gene (ubiquitin ( UBQ). Primers specific for these genes were successfully developed for the three groups of oysters. Three different algorithms, geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper, were used to evaluate the expression stability of these candidate genes. BestKeeper program was found to be the most reliable. Based on our analysis, we found that the expression of RPL35 and EF1α was stable under low salinity stress, and the expression of OD, GAPDH and EF1α was stable under low temperature stress in hybrid (SA) oyster; the expression of RPS5 and GAPDH was stable under low salinity stress, and the expression of RPS5, UBQ, GAPDH was stable under low temperature stress in SS oyster; the expression of RPS5, GAPDH, EF1β and AA7 was stable under low salinity stress, and the expression of RPL35, EF1α, GAPDH

  20. H.J. Bhabha: A case study of synchronous references

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swarna, T.; Kalyane, V.L.; Prakasan, E.R.; Kumar, V.

    2006-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of the events of synchronous references in the research papers followed throughout the publishing career of an individual scientist revealed interesting highlights on the knowledge-generating-system. In the case study of Homi Jehangir Bhabha, the first quinquennium and fifth quinquennium of his research career had low self-references; the third quinquennium and the fourth quinquennium had moderate self-references; whereas the second quinquennium had the highest number of self-references. The two major clusters of self-references occurring during the second and third quinquenniums were indicators of active periods of knowledge-generating and faster communications. (author)

  1. An evaluation of selected herbal reference texts and comparison to published reports of adverse herbal events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Christine A; Anderson, Ilene B; Kim, Susan Y; Blanc, Paul D

    2002-01-01

    There has been a recent proliferation of medical reference texts intended to guide practitioners whose patients use herbal therapies. We systematically assessed six herbal reference texts to evaluate the information they contain on herbal toxicity. We selected six major herbal references published from 1996 to 2000 to evaluate the adequacy of their toxicological information in light of published adverse events. To identify herbs most relevant to toxicology, we reviewed herbal-related calls to our regional California Poison Control System, San Francisco division (CPCS-SF) in 1998 and identified the 12 herbs (defined as botanical dietary supplements) most frequently involved in these CPCS-SF referrals. We searched Medline (1966 to 2000) to identify published reports of adverse effects potentially related to these same 12 herbs. We scored each herbal reference text on the basis of information inclusiveness for the target 12 herbs, with a maximal overall score of 3. The herbs, identified on the basis of CPCS-SF call frequency were: St John's wort, ma huang, echinacea, guarana, ginkgo, ginseng, valerian, tea tree oil, goldenseal, arnica, yohimbe and kava kava. The overall herbal reference scores ranged from 2.2 to 0.4 (median 1.1). The Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database received the highest overall score and was the most complete and useful reference source. All of the references, however, lacked sufficient information on management of herbal medicine overdose, and several had incorrect overdose management guidelines that could negatively impact patient care. Current herbal reference texts do not contain sufficient information for the assessment and management of adverse health effects of botanical therapies.

  2. Selection of Reference Genes for qRT-PCR Analysis of Gene Expression in Stipa grandis during Environmental Stresses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongli Wan

    Full Text Available Stipa grandis P. Smirn. is a dominant plant species in the typical steppe of the Xilingole Plateau of Inner Mongolia. Selection of suitable reference genes for the quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR is important for gene expression analysis and research into the molecular mechanisms underlying the stress responses of S. grandis. In the present study, 15 candidate reference genes (EF1 beta, ACT, GAPDH, SamDC, CUL4, CAP, SNF2, SKIP1, SKIP5, SKIP11, UBC2, UBC15, UBC17, UCH, and HERC2 were evaluated for their stability as potential reference genes for qRT-PCR under different stresses. Four algorithms were used: GeNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and RefFinder. The results showed that the most stable reference genes were different under different stress conditions: EF1beta and UBC15 during drought and salt stresses; ACT and GAPDH under heat stress; SKIP5 and UBC17 under cold stress; UBC15 and HERC2 under high pH stress; UBC2 and UBC15 under wounding stress; EF1beta and UBC17 under jasmonic acid treatment; UBC15 and CUL4 under abscisic acid treatment; and HERC2 and UBC17 under salicylic acid treatment. EF1beta and HERC2 were the most suitable genes for the global analysis of all samples. Furthermore, six target genes, SgPOD, SgPAL, SgLEA, SgLOX, SgHSP90 and SgPR1, were selected to validate the most and least stable reference genes under different treatments. Our results provide guidelines for reference gene selection for more accurate qRT-PCR quantification and will promote studies of gene expression in S. grandis subjected to environmental stress.

  3. Word learning emerges from the interaction of online referent selection and slow associative learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, Bob; Horst, Jessica S.; Samuelson, Larissa K.

    2013-01-01

    Classic approaches to word learning emphasize the problem of referential ambiguity: in any naming situation the referent of a novel word must be selected from many possible objects, properties, actions, etc. To solve this problem, researchers have posited numerous constraints, and inference strategies, but assume that determining the referent of a novel word is isomorphic to learning. We present an alternative model in which referent selection is an online process that is independent of long-term learning. This two timescale approach creates significant power in the developing system. We illustrate this with a dynamic associative model in which referent selection is simulated as dynamic competition between competing referents, and learning is simulated using associative (Hebbian) learning. This model can account for a range of findings including the delay in expressive vocabulary relative to receptive vocabulary, learning under high degrees of referential ambiguity using cross-situational statistics, accelerating (vocabulary explosion) and decelerating (power-law) learning rates, fast-mapping by mutual exclusivity (and differences in bilinguals), improvements in familiar word recognition with development, and correlations between individual differences in speed of processing and learning. Five theoretical points are illustrated. 1) Word learning does not require specialized processes – general association learning buttressed by dynamic competition can account for much of the literature. 2) The processes of recognizing familiar words are not different than those that support novel words (e.g., fast-mapping). 3) Online competition may allow the network (or child) to leverage information available in the task to augment performance or behavior despite what might be relatively slow learning or poor representations. 4) Even associative learning is more complex than previously thought – a major contributor to performance is the pruning of incorrect associations

  4. Selection of LEU/Th reference fuel for the HTGR-SC/C lead plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, R.F.; Neylan, A.J.; Baxter, A.M.; McEachern, D.W.; Stansfield, O.M.

    1983-05-01

    This paper describes the reference fuel materials for the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) plant for steam cycle/cogeneration (SC/C). A development and testing program carried out in 1978 through 1982 led to the selection of coated fuel particles of uranium-oxycarbide (UCO) for fissile materials and thorium oxide (ThO 2 ) for fertiel materials. Low-enriched uranium (LEU) is the enrichment basis for the HTGR-SC/C application. While UC 2 and UO 2 would also meet the essential criteria for fissile fuel, the UCO, alternative was selected on the basis of improved performance, economics, and process conditions

  5. Environmental reference materials methods and case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schramm-Nielsen, Karina Edith

    1998-01-01

    . This study lasted 22 months as well. The samples were produced and stored according to a 2³ factorial design. The influences of storage temperature, UV radiation and ultra-filtration on the stability of NH4-N and total phosphorous have been investigated. A Youden plot method is suggested for the graphical....... The methods have been evaluated with regard to their robustness towards variations in the chemical analytical method and with regard to the number of times a significant out of control situation is indicated. The second study regards the stability of NH4-N and total phosphorous in autoclaved seawater samples...... with wastewater. The purpose was to improve ortho-phosphate (and total phosphorous) homogeneity. A procedure is suggested which includes freeze-drying and redissolving. All calculations have been performed in SAS® primarily by means of elementary procedures, analyses of variance procedures, SAS Insight and SAS...

  6. Selection of reference genes for tissue/organ samples on day 3 fifth-instar larvae in silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Genhong; Chen, Yanfei; Zhang, Xiaoying; Bai, Bingchuan; Yan, Hao; Qin, Daoyuan; Xia, Qingyou

    2018-06-01

    The silkworm, Bombyx mori, is one of the world's most economically important insect. Surveying variations in gene expression among multiple tissue/organ samples will provide clues for gene function assignments and will be helpful for identifying genes related to economic traits or specific cellular processes. To ensure their accuracy, commonly used gene expression quantification methods require a set of stable reference genes for data normalization. In this study, 24 candidate reference genes were assessed in 10 tissue/organ samples of day 3 fifth-instar B. mori larvae using geNorm and NormFinder. The results revealed that, using the combination of the expression of BGIBMGA003186 and BGIBMGA008209 was the optimum choice for normalizing the expression data of the B. mori tissue/organ samples. The most stable gene, BGIBMGA003186, is recommended if just one reference gene is used. Moreover, the commonly used reference gene encoding cytoplasmic actin was the least appropriate reference gene of the samples investigated. The reliability of the selected reference genes was further confirmed by evaluating the expression profiles of two cathepsin genes. Our results may be useful for future studies involving the quantification of relative gene expression levels of different tissue/organ samples in B. mori. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Impact of the choice of the precipitation reference data set on climate model selection and the resulting climate change signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gampe, D.; Ludwig, R.

    2017-12-01

    Regional Climate Models (RCMs) that downscale General Circulation Models (GCMs) are the primary tool to project future climate and serve as input to many impact models to assess the related changes and impacts under such climate conditions. Such RCMs are made available through the Coordinated Regional climate Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX). The ensemble of models provides a range of possible future climate changes around the ensemble mean climate change signal. The model outputs however are prone to biases compared to regional observations. A bias correction of these deviations is a crucial step in the impact modelling chain to allow the reproduction of historic conditions of i.e. river discharge. However, the detection and quantification of model biases are highly dependent on the selected regional reference data set. Additionally, in practice due to computational constraints it is usually not feasible to consider the entire ensembles of climate simulations with all members as input for impact models which provide information to support decision-making. Although more and more studies focus on model selection based on the preservation of the climate model spread, a selection based on validity, i.e. the representation of the historic conditions is still a widely applied approach. In this study, several available reference data sets for precipitation are selected to detect the model bias for the reference period 1989 - 2008 over the alpine catchment of the Adige River located in Northern Italy. The reference data sets originate from various sources, such as station data or reanalysis. These data sets are remapped to the common RCM grid at 0.11° resolution and several indicators, such as dry and wet spells, extreme precipitation and general climatology, are calculate to evaluate the capability of the RCMs to produce the historical conditions. The resulting RCM spread is compared against the spread of the reference data set to determine the related uncertainties and

  8. Reference Gene Selection in the Desert Plant Eremosparton songoricum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dao-Yuan Zhang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Eremosparton songoricum (Litv. Vass. (E. songoricum is a rare and extremely drought-tolerant desert plant that holds promise as a model organism for the identification of genes associated with water deficit stress. Here, we cloned and evaluated the expression of eight candidate reference genes using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reactions. The expression of these candidate reference genes was analyzed in a diverse set of 20 samples including various E. songoricum plant tissues exposed to multiple environmental stresses. GeNorm analysis indicated that expression stability varied between the reference genes in the different experimental conditions, but the two most stable reference genes were sufficient for normalization in most conditions. EsEF and Esα-TUB were sufficient for various stress conditions, EsEF and EsACT were suitable for samples of differing germination stages, and EsGAPDHand EsUBQ were most stable across multiple adult tissue samples. The Es18S gene was unsuitable as a reference gene in our analysis. In addition, the expression level of the drought-stress related transcription factor EsDREB2 verified the utility of E. songoricum reference genes and indicated that no single gene was adequate for normalization on its own. This is the first systematic report on the selection of reference genes in E. songoricum, and these data will facilitate future work on gene expression in this species.

  9. The role of scene type and priming in the processing and selection of a spatial frame of reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin eJohannsen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The selection and processing of a spatial frame of reference (FOR in interpreting verbal scene descriptions is of great interest to psycholinguistics. In this study, we focus on the choice between the relative and the intrinsic FOR, addressing two questions: a does the presence or absence of a background in the scene influence the selection of a FOR, and b what is the effect of a previously selected FOR on the subsequent processing of a different FOR. Our results show that if a scene includes a realistic background, this will make the selection of the relative FOR more likely. We attribute this effect to the facilitation of mental simulation, which enhances the relation between the viewer and the objects. With respect to the response accuracy, we found both a higher (due to FOR priming and a lower accuracy (due to different FOR, while for the response latencies, we only found a delay effect.

  10. Selection and validation of endogenous reference genes for qRT-PCR analysis in leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wun S Chao

    Full Text Available Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR is the most important tool in measuring levels of gene expression due to its accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity. However, the accuracy of qRT-PCR analysis strongly depends on transcript normalization using stably expressed reference genes. The aim of this study was to find internal reference genes for qRT-PCR analysis in various experimental conditions for seed, adventitious underground bud, and other organs of leafy spurge. Eleven candidate reference genes (BAM4, PU1, TRP-like, FRO1, ORE9, BAM1, SEU, ARF2, KAPP, ZTL, and MPK4 were selected from among 171 genes based on expression stabilities during seed germination and bud growth. The other ten candidate reference genes were selected from three different sources: (1 3 stably expressed leafy spurge genes (60S, bZIP21, and MD-100 identified from the analyses of leafy spurge microarray data; (2 3 orthologs of Arabidopsis "general purpose" traditional reference genes (GAPDH_1, GAPDH_2, and UBC; and (3 4 orthologs of Arabidopsis stably expressed genes (UBC9, SAND, PTB, and F-box identified from Affymetrix ATH1 whole-genome GeneChip studies. The expression stabilities of these 21 genes were ranked based on the C(T values of 72 samples using four different computation programs including geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper, and the comparative ΔC(T method. Our analyses revealed SAND, PTB, ORE9, and ARF2 to be the most appropriate reference genes for accurate normalization of gene expression data. Since SAND and PTB were obtained from 4 orthologs of Arabidopsis, while ORE9 and ARF2 were selected from 171 leafy spurge genes, it was more efficient to identify good reference genes from the orthologs of other plant species that were known to be stably expressed than that of randomly testing endogenous genes. Nevertheless, the two newly identified leafy spurge genes, ORE9 and ARF2, can serve as orthologous candidates in the search for reference genes

  11. Selection of suitable reference genes for RT-qPCR analyses in cyanobacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Pinto

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are a group of photosynthetic prokaryotes that have a diverse morphology, minimal nutritional requirements and metabolic plasticity that has made them attractive organisms to use in biotechnological applications. The use of these organisms as cell factories requires the knowledge of their physiology and metabolism at a systems level. For the quantification of gene transcripts real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR is the standard technique. However, to obtain reliable RT-qPCR results the use and validation of reference genes is mandatory. Towards this goal we have selected and analyzed twelve candidate reference genes from three morphologically distinct cyanobacteria grown under routinely used laboratory conditions. The six genes exhibiting less variation in each organism were evaluated in terms of their expression stability using geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. In addition, the minimum number of reference genes required for normalization was determined. Based on the three algorithms, we provide a list of genes for cyanobacterial RT-qPCR data normalization. To our knowledge, this is the first work on the validation of reference genes for cyanobacteria constituting a valuable starting point for future works.

  12. MO-FG-204-02: Reference Image Selection in the Presence of Multiple Scan Realizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruan, D; Dou, T; Thomas, D; Low, D [Deparment of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Fusing information from multiple correlated realizations (e.g., 4DCT) can improve image quality. This process often involves ill-conditioned and asymmetric nonlinear registration and the proper selection of a reference image is important. This work proposes to examine post-registration variation indirectly for such selection, and develops further insights to reduce the number of cross-registrations needed. Methods: We consider each individual scan as a noisy point in the vicinity of an image manifold, related by motion. Nonrigid registration “transports” a scan along the manifold to the reference neighborhood, and the residual is a surrogate for local variation. To test this conjecture, 10 thoracic scans from the same session were reconstructed from a recently developed low-dose helical 4DCT protocol. Pairwise registration was repeated bi-directionally (81 times) and fusion was performed with each candidate reference. The fused image quality was assessed with SNR and CNR. Registration residuals in SSD, harmonic energy, and deformation Jacobian behavior were examined. The semi-symmetry is further utilized to reduce the number of registration needed. Results: The comparison of image quality between single image and fused ones identified reduction of local intensity variance as the major contributor of image quality, boosting SNR and CNR by 5 to 7 folds. This observation further suggests the criticality of good agreement across post-registration images. Triangle inequality on the SSD metric provides a proficient upper-bound and surrogate on such disagreement. Empirical observation also confirms that fused images with high residual SSD have lower SNR and CNR than the ones with low or intermediate SSDs. Registration SSD is structurally close enough to symmetry for reduced computation. Conclusion: Registration residual is shown to be a good predictor of post-fusion image quality and can be used to identify good reference centers. Semi-symmetry of the

  13. ITER site selection studies in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medrano, M.; Alejaldre, C.; Doncel, J.; Garcia, A.; Ibarra, A.; Jimenez, J.A.; Sanchez de Mora, M.A.; Alcala, F.; Diez, J.E.; Dominguez, M.; Albisu, F.

    2003-01-01

    The studies carried out to evaluate and select a candidate site for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) construction in Spain are presented in this paper. The ITER design, completed in July 2001, considered a number of technical requirements that must be fulfilled by the selected site. Several assumptions concerning the ITER site were made in order to carry on the design before final site selection. In the studies undertaken for ITER site selection in Spain, the referred technical requirements and assumptions were applied across the whole of Spain and two areas were identified as being preferential. These areas are on the Mediterranean coast and are situated in the Catalan and Valencian regions. A comparative evaluation based on technical characteristics for the concrete plots, proposed within the preferential areas, has been done. The result of these studies was the selection of a site that was deemed to be the most competitive--Vandellos (Tarragona)--and it was proposed to the European Commission for detailed studies in order to be considered as a possible European site for ITER construction. Another key factor for hosting ITER in Spain, is the licensing process. The present status is summarised in this paper

  14. A selective annotated bibliography for clinical audiology (1988-2008): reference works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Vinent, Susan T; Ferrer-Vinent, Ignacio J

    2009-06-01

    This is the 1st in a series of 3 planned companion articles that present a selected, annotated, and indexed bibliography of clinical audiology publications from 1988 to 2008. Research and preparation of the bibliography were based on published guidelines, professional audiology experience, and professional librarian experience. This article presents reference works (dictionaries, encyclopedias, handbooks, and manuals). The future planned articles will cover other monographs, periodicals, and online resources. Audiologists and librarians can use these lists as a guide when seeking clinical audiology literature.

  15. Extending IM beyond the Reference Desk: A Case Study on the Integration of Chat Reference and Library-Wide Instant Messaging Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Chan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Openfire is an open source IM network and a single unified application that meets the needs of chat reference and internal communications. In Fall 2009, the California State University San Marcos (CSUSM Library began use of Openfire and other Jive software instant messaging technologies, to simultaneously improve our existing IM-integrated chat reference software and implement an internal IM network. This case study describes the chat reference and internal communications environment at the CSUSM Library and the selection, implementation, and evaluation of Openfire. In addition, the authors discuss the benefits of deploying an integrated instant messaging and chat reference network.

  16. Selection of reference soils for chemicals testing in the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhnt, G.; Hertling, T.; Schmotz, W.; Vetter, L.; Fraenzle, M.; Geissler, S.; Knabe, I.; Maass, R.; Struckmeyer, A.; Heinrich, U.

    1991-01-01

    Based on an multivariate statistical evaluation of binary and metric data relating to the soil cover of the European Community five regionally representative reference soils (EURO-Soils) have been identified for chemicals testing in the EC. The soil material sampled at representative localities in Italy, Greece, Great Britain, France and Germany was treated and prepared according to OECD Test Guideline 106 and analysed in detail. The homogenised specimens were subject to an EC-wide ring test to evaluate the feasibility of the modified guideline and to validate the physical-chemical amenability of the reference soils for sorption tests. The results proved the validity of the soils selected for assessing the potential behaviour of new chemicals in soil on the basis of a comparative evaluation of the individual test results obtained. In the light of this parametric assessment potential test soils were subsequently identified in the individual EC Member States which correspond as far as possible to the above reference soils in terms of both taxonomy and sorption-relevant properties. (orig.). 164 refs., 30 tabs., 24 figs [de

  17. Accuracy of genomic selection for alfalfa biomass yield in different reference populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annicchiarico, Paolo; Nazzicari, Nelson; Li, Xuehui; Wei, Yanling; Pecetti, Luciano; Brummer, E Charles

    2015-12-01

    Genomic selection based on genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) data could accelerate alfalfa yield gains, if it displayed moderate ability to predict parent breeding values. Its interest would be enhanced by predicting ability also for germplasm/reference populations other than those for which it was defined. Predicting accuracy may be influenced by statistical models, SNP calling procedures and missing data imputation strategies. Landrace and variety material from two genetically-contrasting reference populations, i.e., 124 elite genotypes adapted to the Po Valley (sub-continental climate; PV population) and 154 genotypes adapted to Mediterranean-climate environments (Me population), were genotyped by GBS and phenotyped in separate environments for dry matter yield of their dense-planted half-sib progenies. Both populations showed no sub-population genetic structure. Predictive accuracy was higher by joint rather than separate SNP calling for the two data sets, and using random forest imputation of missing data. Highest accuracy was obtained using Support Vector Regression (SVR) for PV, and Ridge Regression BLUP and SVR for Me germplasm. Bayesian methods (Bayes A, Bayes B and Bayesian Lasso) tended to be less accurate. Random Forest Regression was the least accurate model. Accuracy attained about 0.35 for Me in the range of 0.30-0.50 missing data, and 0.32 for PV at 0.50 missing data, using at least 10,000 SNP markers. Cross-population predictions based on a smaller subset of common SNPs implied a relative loss of accuracy of about 25% for Me and 30% for PV. Genome-wide association analyses based on large subsets of M. truncatula-aligned markers revealed many SNPs with modest association with yield, and some genome areas hosting putative QTLs. A comparison of genomic vs. conventional selection for parent breeding value assuming 1-year vs. 5-year selection cycles, respectively, indicated over three-fold greater predicted yield gain per unit time for genomic selection

  18. Superior Cross-Species Reference Genes: A Blueberry Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Die, Jose V.; Rowland, Lisa J.

    2013-01-01

    The advent of affordable Next Generation Sequencing technologies has had major impact on studies of many crop species, where access to genomic technologies and genome-scale data sets has been extremely limited until now. The recent development of genomic resources in blueberry will enable the application of high throughput gene expression approaches that should relatively quickly increase our understanding of blueberry physiology. These studies, however, require a highly accurate and robust workflow and make necessary the identification of reference genes with high expression stability for correct target gene normalization. To create a set of superior reference genes for blueberry expression analyses, we mined a publicly available transcriptome data set from blueberry for orthologs to a set of Arabidopsis genes that showed the most stable expression in a developmental series. In total, the expression stability of 13 putative reference genes was evaluated by qPCR and a set of new references with high stability values across a developmental series in fruits and floral buds of blueberry were identified. We also demonstrated the need to use at least two, preferably three, reference genes to avoid inconsistencies in results, even when superior reference genes are used. The new references identified here provide a valuable resource for accurate normalization of gene expression in Vaccinium spp. and may be useful for other members of the Ericaceae family as well. PMID:24058469

  19. Superior cross-species reference genes: a blueberry case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose V Die

    Full Text Available The advent of affordable Next Generation Sequencing technologies has had major impact on studies of many crop species, where access to genomic technologies and genome-scale data sets has been extremely limited until now. The recent development of genomic resources in blueberry will enable the application of high throughput gene expression approaches that should relatively quickly increase our understanding of blueberry physiology. These studies, however, require a highly accurate and robust workflow and make necessary the identification of reference genes with high expression stability for correct target gene normalization. To create a set of superior reference genes for blueberry expression analyses, we mined a publicly available transcriptome data set from blueberry for orthologs to a set of Arabidopsis genes that showed the most stable expression in a developmental series. In total, the expression stability of 13 putative reference genes was evaluated by qPCR and a set of new references with high stability values across a developmental series in fruits and floral buds of blueberry were identified. We also demonstrated the need to use at least two, preferably three, reference genes to avoid inconsistencies in results, even when superior reference genes are used. The new references identified here provide a valuable resource for accurate normalization of gene expression in Vaccinium spp. and may be useful for other members of the Ericaceae family as well.

  20. Reference gene selection for real-time quantitative PCR analysis of the mouse uterus in the peri-implantation period.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Lin

    Full Text Available The study of uterine gene expression patterns is valuable for understanding the biological and molecular mechanisms that occur during embryo implantation. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR is an extremely sensitive technique that allows for the precise quantification of mRNA abundance; however, selecting stable reference genes suitable for the normalization of qRT-PCR data is required to avoid the misinterpretation of experimental results and erroneous analyses. This study employs several mouse models, including an early pregnancy, a pseudopregnancy, a delayed implantation and activation, an artificial decidualization and a hormonal treatment model; ten candidate reference genes (PPIA, RPLP0, HPRT1, GAPDH, ACTB, TBP, B2M, 18S, UBC and TUBA that are found in uterine tissues were assessed for their suitability as internal controls for relative qRT-PCR quantification. GeNorm(PLUS, NormFinder, and BestKeeper were used to evaluate these candidate reference genes, and all of these methods identified RPLP0 and GAPDH as the most stable candidates and B2M and 18S as the least stable candidates. However, when the different models were analyzed separately, the reference genes exhibited some variation in their expression levels.

  1. Use of Maximum Likelihood-Mixed Models to select stable reference genes: a case of heat stress response in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salces Judit

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reference genes with stable expression are required to normalize expression differences of target genes in qPCR experiments. Several procedures and companion software have been proposed to find the most stable genes. Model based procedures are attractive because they provide a solid statistical framework. NormFinder, a widely used software, uses a model based method. The pairwise comparison procedure implemented in GeNorm is a simpler procedure but one of the most extensively used. In the present work a statistical approach based in Maximum Likelihood estimation under mixed models was tested and compared with NormFinder and geNorm softwares. Sixteen candidate genes were tested in whole blood samples from control and heat stressed sheep. Results A model including gene and treatment as fixed effects, sample (animal, gene by treatment, gene by sample and treatment by sample interactions as random effects with heteroskedastic residual variance in gene by treatment levels was selected using goodness of fit and predictive ability criteria among a variety of models. Mean Square Error obtained under the selected model was used as indicator of gene expression stability. Genes top and bottom ranked by the three approaches were similar; however, notable differences for the best pair of genes selected for each method and the remaining genes of the rankings were shown. Differences among the expression values of normalized targets for each statistical approach were also found. Conclusions Optimal statistical properties of Maximum Likelihood estimation joined to mixed model flexibility allow for more accurate estimation of expression stability of genes under many different situations. Accurate selection of reference genes has a direct impact over the normalized expression values of a given target gene. This may be critical when the aim of the study is to compare expression rate differences among samples under different environmental

  2. PHOTOMETRIC OBSERVATIONS OF SELECTED, OPTICALLY BRIGHT QUASARS FOR SPACE INTERFEROMETRY MISSION AND OTHER FUTURE CELESTIAL REFERENCE FRAMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojha, Roopesh; Zacharias, Norbert; Hennessy, Gregory S.; Gaume, Ralph A.; Johnston, Kenneth J.

    2009-01-01

    Photometric observations of 235 extragalactic objects that are potential targets for the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) are presented. Mean B, V, R, I magnitudes at the 5% level are obtained at 1-4 epochs between 2005 and 2007 using the 1 m telescopes at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory and the Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station. Of the 134 sources that have V magnitudes in the Veron and Veron-Cetty catalog, a difference of over 1.0 mag is found for the observed-catalog magnitudes for about 36% of the common sources, and 10 sources show over 3 mag difference. Our first set of observations presented here form the basis of a long-term photometric variability study of the selected reference frame sources to assist in mission target selection and to support QSO multicolor photometric variability studies in general.

  3. Time-Dependent Selection of an Optimal Set of Sources to Define a Stable Celestial Reference Frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bail, Karine; Gordon, David

    2010-01-01

    Temporal statistical position stability is required for VLBI sources to define a stable Celestial Reference Frame (CRF) and has been studied in many recent papers. This study analyzes the sources from the latest realization of the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF2) with the Allan variance, in addition to taking into account the apparent linear motions of the sources. Focusing on the 295 defining sources shows how they are a good compromise of different criteria, such as statistical stability and sky distribution, as well as having a sufficient number of sources, despite the fact that the most stable sources of the entire ICRF2 are mostly in the Northern Hemisphere. Nevertheless, the selection of a stable set is not unique: studying different solutions (GSF005a and AUG24 from GSFC and OPA from the Paris Observatory) over different time periods (1989.5 to 2009.5 and 1999.5 to 2009.5) leads to selections that can differ in up to 20% of the sources. Observing, recording, and network improvement are some of the causes, showing better stability for the CRF over the last decade than the last twenty years. But this may also be explained by the assumption of stationarity that is not necessarily right for some sources.

  4. Oak Ridge Tokamak experimental power reactor study reference design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, M.; Bettis, E.S.

    1975-11-01

    A Tokamak EPR Reference Design is presented as a basis for further design study leading to a Conceptual Design. The set of basic plasma parameters selected--minor radius of 2.25 m, major radius of 6.75 m, magnetic field on axis of 4.8 T and plasma current of 7.2 MA--should produce a reactor-grade plasma with a significant neutron flux, even with the great uncertainty in plasma physics scaling from present experience to large sizes. Neutronics and heat transfer calculations coupled with mechanical design and materials considerations were used to develop a blanket and shield capable of operating at high temperature, protecting the surrounding coils, being maintained remotely and, in a few experimental modules, breeding tritium. Nb 3 Sn and NbTi superconductors are used in the toroidal field coil design. The coil system was developed for a maximum field of 11 T at the winding (to give a field on axis of 4.8 T), and combines multifilamentary superconducting cable with forced flow of supercritical helium enclosed in a steel conduit. The structural system uses a stainless steel center bucking ring and intercoil box beam bracing to provide rigid support for coils against the centering force, overturning moments from poloidal fields and faults, other external forces, and thermal stresses. The poloidal magnetics system is specially designed both to reduce the total volt-second energy requirements and to reduce the magnitude of the rate of field change at the toroidal field coils. The rate of field change imposed upon the toroidal field coils is reduced by at least a factor of 3.3 compared to that due to the plasma alone. Tritium processing, tritium containment and vacuum systems employ double containment and atmospheric cleanup to minimize releases. The document also contains discussions of systems integration and assembly, key research and development needs, and schedule considerations

  5. The Value of Chat Reference Services: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacoby, JoAnn; Ward, David; Avery, Susan; Marcyk, Emilia

    2016-01-01

    This article explores student, instructor, and librarian perceptions of chat reference in the context of an introductory composition course. Participants in a mixed-method study responded to an anonymized chat transcript. While student respondents valued speed and efficiency, they were willing to receive instruction and open to questions that…

  6. To refer or not to refer: a qualitative study of reasons for referral from Role 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, J M; Nelson, T G; Simpson, R; Wall, C

    2012-09-01

    There are currently over 9000 British soldiers serving in Afghanistan. The Defence Medical Services provide primary health care to soldiers at forward locations using Regimental Medical Officers (RMOs) and General Duties Medical Officers (GDMOs). If required, GDMOs can refer patients to senior colleagues. Currently, little is known about the reasons for referrals by GDMOs. This study aims to identify the main factors affecting why GDMOs refer from forward locations. Nine GDMOs, who deployed on Operation HERRICK 13, were invited to join the study. They maintained a log of their referrals for two 14 day periods, one in each half of their tour. In addition, a semi-structured interview was performed with each GDMO in order to elicit the common themes surrounding referrals. The mean referral rate was 0.9 referrals/GDMO/week. The main reasons for referral were dental problems, musculoskeletal injuries, abdominal pain of unknown cause, and ano-genital problems. Factors that influenced referrals included availability of forwardly projected services (dentist and physiotherapist), manpower availability at the locations, the availability of flights (affected by weather, enemy action, and schedule of routine flights), and the timing of the tour in relation to leave. Referrals from GDMOs were due to doctor inexperience in the treatment of a particular condition, lack of access to investigations and the potential for deterioration in a location without adequate support. The referral decision process was affected by the patient's importance with regards to the mission, the weather and access to safe transportation. The introduction of clinical guidelines for common conditions in conjunction with minor alterations to GDMO training could help reduce referrals from Role 1, preserving manpower, reducing costs, and minimising risk to evacuation aircraft.

  7. Selection of reference genes for quantitative gene expression normalization in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neutelings Godfrey

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR is currently the most accurate method for detecting differential gene expression. Such an approach depends on the identification of uniformly expressed 'housekeeping genes' (HKGs. Extensive transcriptomic data mining and experimental validation in different model plants have shown that the reliability of these endogenous controls can be influenced by the plant species, growth conditions and organs/tissues examined. It is therefore important to identify the best reference genes to use in each biological system before using qRT-PCR to investigate differential gene expression. In this paper we evaluate different candidate HKGs for developmental transcriptomic studies in the economically-important flax fiber- and oil-crop (Linum usitatissimum L. Results Specific primers were designed in order to quantify the expression levels of 20 different potential housekeeping genes in flax roots, internal- and external-stem tissues, leaves and flowers at different developmental stages. After calculations of PCR efficiencies, 13 HKGs were retained and their expression stabilities evaluated by the computer algorithms geNorm and NormFinder. According to geNorm, 2 Transcriptional Elongation Factors (TEFs and 1 Ubiquitin gene are necessary for normalizing gene expression when all studied samples are considered. However, only 2 TEFs are required for normalizing expression in stem tissues. In contrast, NormFinder identified glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GADPH as the most stably expressed gene when all samples were grouped together, as well as when samples were classed into different sub-groups. qRT-PCR was then used to investigate the relative expression levels of two splice variants of the flax LuMYB1 gene (homologue of AtMYB59. LuMYB1-1 and LuMYB1-2 were highly expressed in the internal stem tissues as compared to outer stem tissues and other samples. This result was confirmed with both ge

  8. Selection of reference genes for quantitative gene expression normalization in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huis, Rudy; Hawkins, Simon; Neutelings, Godfrey

    2010-04-19

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is currently the most accurate method for detecting differential gene expression. Such an approach depends on the identification of uniformly expressed 'housekeeping genes' (HKGs). Extensive transcriptomic data mining and experimental validation in different model plants have shown that the reliability of these endogenous controls can be influenced by the plant species, growth conditions and organs/tissues examined. It is therefore important to identify the best reference genes to use in each biological system before using qRT-PCR to investigate differential gene expression. In this paper we evaluate different candidate HKGs for developmental transcriptomic studies in the economically-important flax fiber- and oil-crop (Linum usitatissimum L). Specific primers were designed in order to quantify the expression levels of 20 different potential housekeeping genes in flax roots, internal- and external-stem tissues, leaves and flowers at different developmental stages. After calculations of PCR efficiencies, 13 HKGs were retained and their expression stabilities evaluated by the computer algorithms geNorm and NormFinder. According to geNorm, 2 Transcriptional Elongation Factors (TEFs) and 1 Ubiquitin gene are necessary for normalizing gene expression when all studied samples are considered. However, only 2 TEFs are required for normalizing expression in stem tissues. In contrast, NormFinder identified glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GADPH) as the most stably expressed gene when all samples were grouped together, as well as when samples were classed into different sub-groups.qRT-PCR was then used to investigate the relative expression levels of two splice variants of the flax LuMYB1 gene (homologue of AtMYB59). LuMYB1-1 and LuMYB1-2 were highly expressed in the internal stem tissues as compared to outer stem tissues and other samples. This result was confirmed with both geNorm-designated- and NormFinder-designated-reference

  9. The Basic Principles in Assessment and Selection of Reference Doses: Considerations in Nuclear Medicine (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattsson, S.; Jacobsson, L.; Vestergren, E.

    1998-01-01

    The possible ways to optimise the relation between diagnostic information and patient absorbed dose differ between nuclear medicine and X ray imaging. In nuclear medicine, very little has been done to find an optimal dosage of radiopharmaceuticals. Current nuclear medicine methods are discussed in the light of the recent ICRP Publications and the new EU Patient Directive. The paper also discusses how reference levels for administered activity may be derived from patient studies. In order to eliminate the most inappropriate choices (too low or too high activities), knowledge of the current statistical distribution of administered activities may be helpful. Different methods to estimate the amount of activity that should be administered to children of various body sizes to guarantee the same image quality as for adults are also discussed. Examples of current activity levels for common nuclear medicine procedures, indicating the state of the practice, are given. (author)

  10. Annotated bibliography of selected references on shoreline barrier island deposits with emphasis on Patrick Draw Field, Sweetwater County, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawn-Schatzinger, V.; Schatzinger, R.A.

    1993-07-01

    This bibliography contains 290 annotated references on barrier island and associated depositional environments and reservoirs. It is not an exhaustive compilation of all references on the subject, but rather selected papers on barrier islands, and the depositional processes of formation. Papers that examine the morphology and internal architecture of barrier island deposits, exploration and development technologies are emphasized. Papers were selected that aid in understanding reservoir architecture and engineering technologies to help maximize recovery efficiency from barrier island oil reservoirs. Barrier islands from Wyoming, Montana and the Rocky Mountains basins are extensively covered.

  11. Physical fitness reference standards in European children: the IDEFICS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Miguel-Etayo, P; Gracia-Marco, L; Ortega, F B; Intemann, T; Foraita, R; Lissner, L; Oja, L; Barba, G; Michels, N; Tornaritis, M; Molnár, D; Pitsiladis, Y; Ahrens, W; Moreno, L A

    2014-09-01

    A low fitness status during childhood and adolescence is associated with important health-related outcomes, such as increased future risk for obesity and cardiovascular diseases, impaired skeletal health, reduced quality of life and poor mental health. Fitness reference values for adolescents from different countries have been published, but there is a scarcity of reference values for pre-pubertal children in Europe, using harmonised measures of fitness in the literature. The IDEFICS study offers a good opportunity to establish normative values of a large set of fitness components from eight European countries using common and well-standardised methods in a large sample of children. Therefore, the aim of this study is to report sex- and age-specific fitness reference standards in European children. Children (10,302) aged 6-10.9 years (50.7% girls) were examined. The test battery included: the flamingo balance test, back-saver sit-and-reach test (flexibility), handgrip strength test, standing long jump test (lower-limb explosive strength) and 40-m sprint test (speed). Moreover, cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by a 20-m shuttle run test. Percentile curves for the 1st, 3rd, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, 97th and 99th percentiles were calculated using the General Additive Model for Location Scale and Shape (GAMLSS). Our results show that boys performed better than girls in speed, lower- and upper-limb strength and cardiorespiratory fitness, and girls performed better in balance and flexibility. Older children performed better than younger children, except for cardiorespiratory fitness in boys and flexibility in girls. Our results provide for the first time sex- and age-specific physical fitness reference standards in European children aged 6-10.9 years.

  12. Geological and geochemical aspects of uranium deposits: a selected, annotated bibliography. [474 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, J.M.; Garland, P.A.; White, M.B.; Daniel, E.W.

    1980-09-01

    This bibliography, a compilation of 474 references, is the fourth in a series compiled from the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Bibliographic Data Base. This data base was created for the Grand Junction Office of the Department of Energy's National Uranium Resource Evaluation Project by the Ecological Sciences Information Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The references in the bibliography are arranged by subject category: (1) geochemistry, (2) exploration, (3) mineralogy, (4) genesis of deposits, (5) geology of deposits, (6) uranium industry, (7) geology of potential uranium-bearing areas, and (8) reserves and resources. The references are indexed by author, geographic location, quadrangle name, geoformational feature, and keyword.

  13. 137 Cs reference inventory for the soils erosion studies in Cienfuegos, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibello Hernandez; Rita Y; Febles Gonzalez, Jose Manuel; Toledo Sibello, Alicia L.; Suarez Suri, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    For the successful application of the 137Cs technique for soils erosion studies is necessary to establish the reference inventory correctly, it represents the total entrance from this radionuclide to the terrestrial surface. In this sense, a site that has not been perturbed neither for the erosion nor for the deposit, is selected as reference site. In the practice to find such sites is usually difficult. The objective of this investigation was to establish the reference inventory of 137Cs for the studied localities of Cienfuegos province. It was established that the confidence interval at 90% of probability of the 137Cs reference inventory is [1082; 1266] Bq/m2, and the variation coefficient of the reference inventory in the investigated localities was of 11%. These values are in correspondence with those reported by other authors for similar places. Also the lineal dependence between the inventories of 137Cs and the historical averages of the precipitations was determined, with a correlation coefficient of 0.94. This lineal function will be able to be used to obtain or to confirm the reference inventories from rainfall data. (author)

  14. Ground Receiving Station Reference Pair Selection Technique for a Minimum Configuration 3D Emitter Position Estimation Multilateration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmalik Shehu Yaro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Multilateration estimates aircraft position using the Time Difference Of Arrival (TDOA with a lateration algorithm. The Position Estimation (PE accuracy of the lateration algorithm depends on several factors which are the TDOA estimation error, the lateration algorithm approach, the number of deployed GRSs and the selection of the GRS reference used for the PE process. Using the minimum number of GRSs for 3D emitter PE, a technique based on the condition number calculation is proposed to select the suitable GRS reference pair for improving the accuracy of the PE using the lateration algorithm. Validation of the proposed technique was performed with the GRSs in the square and triangular GRS configuration. For the selected emitter positions, the result shows that the proposed technique can be used to select the suitable GRS reference pair for the PE process. A unity condition number is achieved for GRS pair most suitable for the PE process. Monte Carlo simulation result, in comparison with the fixed GRS reference pair lateration algorithm, shows a reduction in PE error of at least 70% for both GRS in the square and triangular configuration.

  15. Which individuals to choose to update the reference population? Minimizing the loss of genetic diversity in animal genomic selection programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eynard, Sonia E.; Croiseau, Pascal; Laloë, Denis; Fritz, Sebastien; Calus, Mario P.L.; Restoux, Gwendal

    2018-01-01

    Genomic selection (GS) is commonly used in livestock and increasingly in plant breeding. Relying on phenotypes and genotypes of a reference population, GS allows performance prediction for young individuals having only genotypes. This is expected to achieve fast high genetic gain but with a

  16. Nordic reference study on uncertainty and sensitivity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschberg, S.; Jacobsson, P.; Pulkkinen, U.; Porn, K.

    1989-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the first phase of Nordic reference study on uncertainty and sensitivity analysis. The main objective of this study is to use experiences form previous Nordic Benchmark Exercises and reference studies concerning critical modeling issues such as common cause failures and human interactions, and to demonstrate the impact of associated uncertainties on the uncertainty of the investigated accident sequence. This has been done independently by three working groups which used different approaches to modeling and to uncertainty analysis. The estimated uncertainty interval for the analyzed accident sequence is large. Also the discrepancies between the groups are substantial but can be explained. Sensitivity analyses which have been carried out concern e.g. use of different CCF-quantification models, alternative handling of CCF-data, time windows for operator actions and time dependences in phase mission operation, impact of state-of-knowledge dependences and ranking of dominating uncertainty contributors. Specific findings with respect to these issues are summarized in the paper

  17. Inter-laboratory analysis of selected genetically modified plant reference materials with digital PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobnik, David; Demšar, Tina; Huber, Ingrid; Gerdes, Lars; Broeders, Sylvia; Roosens, Nancy; Debode, Frederic; Berben, Gilbert; Žel, Jana

    2018-01-01

    Digital PCR (dPCR), as a new technology in the field of genetically modified (GM) organism (GMO) testing, enables determination of absolute target copy numbers. The purpose of our study was to test the transferability of methods designed for quantitative PCR (qPCR) to dPCR and to carry out an inter-laboratory comparison of the performance of two different dPCR platforms when determining the absolute GM copy numbers and GM copy number ratio in reference materials certified for GM content in mass fraction. Overall results in terms of measured GM% were within acceptable variation limits for both tested dPCR systems. However, the determined absolute copy numbers for individual genes or events showed higher variability between laboratories in one third of the cases, most possibly due to variability in the technical work, droplet size variability, and analysis of the raw data. GMO quantification with dPCR and qPCR was comparable. As methods originally designed for qPCR performed well in dPCR systems, already validated qPCR assays can most generally be used for dPCR technology with the purpose of GMO detection. Graphical abstract The output of three different PCR-based platforms was assessed in an inter-laboratory comparison.

  18. Selection and validation of reference genes for gene expression analysis in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum using quantitative real-time RT-PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacinta Gimeno

    Full Text Available Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum has received a lot of attention as a forage and bioenergy crop during the past few years. Gene expression studies are in progress to improve new traits and develop new cultivars. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR has emerged as an important technique to study gene expression analysis. For accurate and reliable results, normalization of data with reference genes is essential. In this work, we evaluate the stability of expression of genes to use as reference for qRT-PCR in the grass P. virgatum. Eleven candidate reference genes, including eEF-1α, UBQ6, ACT12, TUB6, eIF-4a, GAPDH, SAMDC, TUA6, CYP5, U2AF, and FTSH4, were validated for qRT-PCR normalization in different plant tissues and under different stress conditions. The expression stability of these genes was verified by the use of two distinct algorithms, geNorm and NormFinder. Differences were observed after comparison of the ranking of the candidate reference genes identified by both programs but eEF-1α, eIF-4a, CYP5 and U2AF are ranked as the most stable genes in the samples sets under study. Both programs discard the use of SAMDC and TUA6 for normalization. Validation of the reference genes proposed by geNorm and NormFinder were performed by normalization of transcript abundance of a group of target genes in different samples. Results show similar expression patterns when the best reference genes selected by both programs were used but differences were detected in the transcript abundance of the target genes. Based on the above research, we recommend the use of different statistical algorithms to identify the best reference genes for expression data normalization. The best genes selected in this study will help to improve the quality of gene expression data in a wide variety of samples in switchgrass.

  19. Anaerobic Digestion. Selected Instructional Activities and References. Instructional Resources Monograph Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Robert D., Comp.

    Focusing specifically on the wastewater treatment process of anaerobic digestion, this document identifies instructional and reference materials for use by professionals in the field in the development and implementation of new programs or in the updating of existing programs. It is designed to help trainers, plant operators, educators, engineers,…

  20. Criteria for the Selection of Reference Groups in the Statistical Evaluation of Tumor Markers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holubec jr., L.; Topolčan, O.; Pikner, R.; Pecen, Ladislav; Holubec sen., L.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 22, 1B (2002), s. 531 ISSN 0250-7005. [International Hamburg Symposium on Tumor Markers /11./. 27.01.2002-29.01.2002, Hamburg] Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : reference groups * tumor markers Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  1. Instrumental neutron and photon activation analyses of selected geochemical reference materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mizera, Jiří; Řanda, Zdeněk

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 284, č. 1 (2010), s. 157-163 ISSN 0236-5731 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300130706 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : neutron activation analysis * photon activation analysis * geochemical reference materials Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.777, year: 2010

  2. Instrumental neutron and photon activation analyses of selected geochemical reference materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mizera, Jiří; Řanda, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 284, č. 1 (2010), s. 157-163 ISSN 0236-5731 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : neutron activation analysis * photon activation analysis * geochemical reference materials Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 0.777, year: 2010

  3. Selection and Verification of Candidate Reference Genes for Mature MicroRNA Expression by Quantitative RT-PCR in the Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Song

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR is a rapid and sensitive method for analyzing microRNA (miRNA expression. However, accurate qRT-PCR results depend on the selection of reliable reference genes as internal positive controls. To date, few studies have identified reliable reference genes for differential expression analysis of miRNAs among tissues, and among experimental conditions in plants. In this study, three miRNAs and four non-coding small RNAs (ncRNA were selected as reference candidates, and the stability of their expression was evaluated among different tissues and under different experimental conditions in the tea plant (Camellia sinensis using the geNorm and NormFinder programs. It was shown that miR159a was the best single reference gene in the bud to the fifth leaf, 5S rRNA was the most suitable gene in different organs, miR6149 was the most stable gene when the leaves were attacked by Ectropis oblique and U4, miR5368n and miR159a were the best genes when the leaves were treated by methyl jasmonate (MeJA, salicylic acid (SA and abscisic acid (ABA, respectively. Our results provide suitable reference genes for future investigations on miRNA functions in tea plants.

  4. The Study of Consumption Pattern of Addiction among Women Who Referred to Damage Reducing Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Khademi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Drug addiction is one of common deviations in present age, which sacrifices numerous victims in a year, and inflicting serious damages on families and society. Present study was aimed to study of consumption pattern of addiction among women who referred to damage reducing center in Kermanshah province. Methods: This research was a descriptive-analytical study. With consideration of accessing limitation, all women (n=121 who referred to the center were selected as a sample. The studied variables were addiction age, addiction reason, drug consumption pattern, marital status. Results: More than 72.6 of clients reported opium use record. Also, Crack, Lactuarium, Heroin, Norjazak and Tamjizak, Meth Amphetamine, and Hashish were more used materials, respectively. Conclusion: These statistics and digits can be applied in addiction policy settings.

  5. Selection and Validation of Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR Normalization Under Ethanol Stress Conditions in Oenococcus oeni SD-2a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Peng

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The powerful Quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR was widely used to assess gene expression levels, which requires the optimal reference genes used for normalization. Oenococcus oeni (O. oeni, as the one of most important microorganisms in wine industry and the most resistant lactic acid bacteria (LAB species to ethanol, has not been investigated regarding the selection of stable reference genes for RT-qPCR normalization under ethanol stress conditions. In this study, nine candidate reference genes (proC, dnaG, rpoA, ldhD, ddlA, rrs, gyrA, gyrB, and dpoIII were analyzed to determine the most stable reference genes for RT-qPCR in O. oeni SD-2a under different ethanol stress conditions (8, 12, and 16% (v/v ethanol. The transcript stabilities of these genes were evaluated using the algorithms geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper. The results showed that dnaG and dpoIII were selected as the best reference genes across all experimental ethanol conditions. Considering single stress experimental modes, dpoIII and dnaG would be suitable to normalize expression level for 8% ethanol shock treatment, while the combination of gyrA, gyrB, and rrs would be suitable for 12% ethanol shock treatment. proC and gyrB revealed the most stable expression in 16% ethanol shock treatment. This study selected and validated for the first time the reference genes for RT-qPCR normalization in O. oeni SD-2a under ethanol stress conditions.

  6. An experimental study on the self-reference effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU; Ying(朱滢); ZHANG; Li(张力)

    2002-01-01

    Self-reference at encoding increases the probability of recollective experience in recognition memory. Self-reference effect (SRE) in memory is observed when the degree of self-refer- ence of to-be-remembered materials is varied. Usually items encoded in terms of self-reference are associated with significantly higher recall performance relative to items encoded in other ways, including semantic encoding. In our three experiments, four orientating tasks formed four levels in a between-subjects design. The conditions were rating personality traits with reference to self, mother, Lu Xun (a famous Chinese writer) or rating the traits on a negative-positive dimension. In a recognition test, subjects first identified old items and then indicated which of these were accompanied by recollective experience ('remember' responses) and which were recognized on some other basis ('know' responses). Our results showed that both the self-reference condition and mother condition were associated with the same highest proportion of correct remember responses and the same lowest proportion of correct know responses. In contrast, for Western subjects, the self-reference condition, relative to the mother condition, was associated with a higher proportion of correct remember responses and a lower proportion of correct know responses. We discussed the results with reference to the HERA model (hemispheric encoding/retrieval asymmetry).

  7. Describing, Instantiating and Evaluating a Reference Architecture : A Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avgeriou, Paris

    2003-01-01

    The result of a domain maturing is the emergence of reference architectures that offer numerous advantages to software architects and other stakeholders. However there is no straightforward way to describe a reference architecture and in sequence to design instances for specific systems, while at

  8. Characterization of Candida Species Isolated from cases of Vulvovaginitis in women referring to selected gynecological clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batol Bonyadpour

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: About 20% of non-pregnant women aged 15 to 55 harbour Candida albicans in the vagina .the aimed to determine the Characterization of Candida Species Isolated from women with Vulvovaginitis candidates (VVC of reproductive ages. Methods: this descriptive study was conducted on 280 of who were selected for gathering samples by Purposive sampling based on their history and characteristics of vaginal discharges in 2009. Among these patients, 105 ones were diagnosed with candidiasis. The data were collected using demographic information form and disease symptoms. the species were differentiated using germ tube test, chrome agar test, and chlamidospore test. Data analysis was performed in SPSS V.16, using Descriptive Statistics Results: the prevalence of candida vaginitis was 9.3%.105 samples obtained from patients.. Chlamidospore was detected in 54.3% of the corn meal agar media. Besides, in chrome agar test, 41.9% of the samples turned into green representing candida albicans. In germ tube test, on the other hand, 70.5% of the samples were candida albicans, while 29.5% were candida non-albicans. Overall, The frequency of the Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis and  the Candida Krusei were  66.6% , 219%  , 8.6% ,  and 2.9%, respectively. Conclusion: Candida albicans was the most common species leading to the Vulvovaginitis in patients with VCC while other species were at the secondary importance stages.Due to inaccurate diagnosis of the disease based on the clinical symptoms, fungal culture is recommended as a standard diagnostic method.

  9. A Comparative Study of Standardized Infinity Reference and Average Reference for EEG of Three Typical Brain States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaoxing Zheng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The choice of different reference electrodes plays an important role in deciphering the functional meaning of electroencephalography (EEG signals. In recent years, the infinity zero reference using the reference electrode standard technique (REST has been increasingly applied, while the average reference (AR was generally advocated as the best available reference option in previous classical EEG studies. Here, we designed EEG experiments and performed a direct comparison between the influences of REST and AR on EEG-revealed brain activity features for three typical brain behavior states (eyes-closed, eyes-open and music-listening. The analysis results revealed the following observations: (1 there is no significant difference in the alpha-wave-blocking effect during the eyes-open state compared with the eyes-closed state for both REST and AR references; (2 there was clear frontal EEG asymmetry during the resting state, and the degree of lateralization under REST was higher than that under AR; (3 the global brain functional connectivity density (FCD and local FCD have higher values for REST than for AR under different behavior states; and (4 the value of the small-world network characteristic in the eyes-closed state is significantly (in full, alpha, beta and gamma frequency bands higher than that in the eyes-open state, and the small-world effect under the REST reference is higher than that under AR. In addition, the music-listening state has a higher small-world network effect than the eyes-closed state. The above results suggest that typical EEG features might be more clearly presented by applying the REST reference than by applying AR when using a 64-channel recording.

  10. Selection and Validation of Reference Genes for qRT-PCR Expression Analysis of Candidate Genes Involved in Olfactory Communication in the Butterfly Bicyclus anynana

    OpenAIRE

    Arun, Alok; Bauml?, V?ronique; Amelot, Ga?l; Nieberding, Caroline M.

    2015-01-01

    Real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is a technique widely used to quantify the transcriptional expression level of candidate genes. qRT-PCR requires the selection of one or several suitable reference genes, whose expression profiles remain stable across conditions, to normalize the qRT-PCR expression profiles of candidate genes. Although several butterfly species (Lepidoptera) have become important models in molecular evolutionary ecology, so far no study aimed at ident...

  11. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information Selected Reference Series, Series 4, No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information.

    This bibliography, which attempts to gather the significant research on the reproductive effects of the drugs of abuse, is one in a series prepared by the National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information on subjects of topical interest. Selection of literature is based on its currency, its significance in the field, and its availability in local…

  12. Prey selection by North Sea herring (Clupea harengus) with special reference to fish eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segers, F.H.I.D.; Dickey-Collas, M.; Rijnsdorp, A.D.

    2007-01-01

    The herring stock in the North Sea in recent years has recovered to a relatively high biomass, and here we investigate prey selection of individual North Sea herring when population numbers are high. The diet composition, and specifically pelagic fish eggs, was investigated in February 2004. Samples

  13. Evaluation of suitable reference genes for gene expression studies in bovine muscular tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunner Susana

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Real-time reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (real-time RTqPCR is a technique used to measure mRNA species copy number as a way to determine key genes involved in different biological processes. However, the expression level of these key genes may vary among tissues or cells not only as a consequence of differential expression but also due to different factors, including choice of reference genes to normalize the expression levels of the target genes; thus the selection of reference genes is critical for expression studies. For this purpose, ten candidate reference genes were investigated in bovine muscular tissue. Results The value of stability of ten candidate reference genes included in three groups was estimated: the so called 'classical housekeeping' genes (18S, GAPDH and ACTB, a second set of genes used in expression studies conducted on other tissues (B2M, RPII, UBC and HMBS and a third set of novel genes (SF3A1, EEF1A2 and CASC3. Three different statistical algorithms were used to rank the genes by their stability measures as produced by geNorm, NormFinder and Bestkeeper. The three methods tend to agree on the most stably expressed genes and the least in muscular tissue. EEF1A2 and HMBS followed by SF3A1, ACTB, and CASC3 can be considered as stable reference genes, and B2M, RPII, UBC and GAPDH would not be appropriate. Although the rRNA-18S stability measure seems to be within the range of acceptance, its use is not recommended because its synthesis regulation is not representative of mRNA levels. Conclusion Based on geNorm algorithm, we propose the use of three genes SF3A1, EEF1A2 and HMBS as references for normalization of real-time RTqPCR in muscle expression studies.

  14. NMR chemical shift and J coupling parameterization and quantum mechanical reference spectrum simulation for selected nerve agent degradation products in aqueous conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskela, Harri; Anđelković, Boban

    2017-10-01

    The spectral parameters of selected nerve agent degradation products relevant to the Chemical Weapons Convention, namely, ethyl methylphosphonate, isopropyl methylphosphonate, pinacolyl methylphosphonate and methylphosphonic acid, were studied in wide range of pH conditions and selected temperatures. The pH and temperature dependence of chemical shifts and J couplings was parameterized using Henderson-Hasselbalch-based functions. The obtained parameters allowed calculation of precise chemical shifts and J coupling constants in arbitrary pH conditions and typical measurement temperatures, thus facilitating quantum mechanical simulation of reference spectra in the chosen magnetic field strength for chemical verification. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Study on the setting of Reference Chinese man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jixian; Chen Rusong

    1998-01-01

    The procedures for internal and external dose estimation, the calculation of authorized limits and derived reference levels, and the development of phantoms in the field of radiation protection are based on values for the ICRP Reference Man. Many differences exist between Asians, Europeans and North Americans with respect to race, customs and the pattern of food consumption. The neglect of these differences in the parameters used may lead to errors in dose assessment and health effect prognosis. research described in this paper was conducted to obtain reference values for the Chinese population or other Asian countries which might have major demographic contribution of Chinese. Based on the agreements reached in the Project Formulation Meeting ''Compilation of Anatomical, Physiological and Metabolic Characteristics for a Reference Asian Man'', the measurement of physique, organ mass and the food consumption were given the first priority for the first phase of the project. (author)

  16. Selected bibliography for the extraction of uranium from seawater: chemical process and plant design feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binney, S.E.; Polkinghorne, S.T.; Jante, R.R.; Rodman, M.R.; Chen, A.C.T.; Gordon, L.I.

    1979-02-01

    A selected annotated bibliography of 521 references was prepared as a part of a feasibility study of the extraction of uranium from seawater. For the most part, these references are related to the chemical processes whereby the uranium is removed from the seawater. A companion docment contains a similar bibliography of 471 references related to oceanographic and uranium extraction plant siting considerations, although some of the references are in common. The bibliography was prepared by computer retrieval from Chemical Abstracts, Nuclear Science Abstracts, Energy Data Base, NTIS, and Oceanic Abstracts. References are listed by author, country of author, and selected keywords.

  17. Selected bibliography for the extraction of uranium from seawater: chemical process and plant design feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binney, S.E.; Polkinghorne, S.T.; Jante, R.R.; Rodman, M.R.; Chen, A.C.T.; Gordon, L.I.

    1979-02-01

    A selected annotated bibliography of 521 references was prepared as a part of a feasibility study of the extraction of uranium from seawater. For the most part, these references are related to the chemical processes whereby the uranium is removed from the seawater. A companion docment contains a similar bibliography of 471 references related to oceanographic and uranium extraction plant siting considerations, although some of the references are in common. The bibliography was prepared by computer retrieval from Chemical Abstracts, Nuclear Science Abstracts, Energy Data Base, NTIS, and Oceanic Abstracts. References are listed by author, country of author, and selected keywords

  18. Current Highlights on ESA's Planetary Technology Reference Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkner, P.

    The concept of Technology Reference Studies has been introduced already at EGU05, where the Venus Entry Probe (VEP), the Jupiter Minisat Explorer (JME), the Deimos Sample Return (DSR) and the Interstellar Heliopause Probe (IHP) have been presented in detail. At the EGU06 the new studies in reaction to the Cosmic Vision exercise have been introduced. The formulation of themes and mapping into potential future missions has been taken as basis in the planning of additional new and adaptation of existing TRS's to cover areas, which have not yet been addressed by any TRS. These new ongoing studies are progressing well and current highlights will be presented in the paper in further detail as well as an overview on supporting technology studies and Concurrent Design Facility (CDF) sessions. The Jupiter System Explorer (JSE) study investigates mission concepts with up to two Magnetospheric Orbiters placed in a highly elliptical Jovian orbit and the possibility to deploy a Jovian Entry Probe. The mission profile is based on a solar powered concept launched on a Soyuz-Fregat launcher. Mission analysis and the application of a new Jovian radiation model are supporting the study activities. The Near-Earth Asteroid Sample Return (NEA-SR) concept explores the possibilities of sample return or in-situ mission profiles with visits to up to two NEA targets. Due to the assumed low cost cap a trade between a sample return and remote/in-situ exploration concept has a high attention in the study. The Cross Scale TRS (CS-TRS) is intended to simultaneously investigate magnetospheric and plasma processes in three spatial scales with a formation flight of up to 12 spacecraft, orbiting on deep elliptical orbits around Earth. One of the major challenges is the launch of that number of spacecraft on a single launcher and the collisionless deployment of the formation at the target orbit. The scope if the GeoSail TRS is to demonstrate deployment, attitude control and navigation concepts for a

  19. Compendium of selected references on air emissions; health, risk, and valuation research; and environmental externalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szpunar, C.B.

    1992-07-01

    In preparing to develop a cost-benefit methodology that could be applied to potential projects abroad involving new coal-fired power plants that make use of US clean coal technologies, the author reviewed a wide variety of reference sources. These are listed in this publication. Before this review, the author had conducted a number of literature searches that identified source material in the newly rediscovered field of environmental externalities and related topics that might also be of value to other energy and environmental researchers. Those sources that appeared to be appropriate but that the author was unable to review are also listed in this document. Thus, this document serves as a comprehensive compendium of source material on these subjects, arranged alphabetically within categories

  20. Evidence based selection of commonly used RT-qPCR reference genes for the analysis of mouse skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen C Thomas

    Full Text Available The ability to obtain accurate and reproducible data using quantitative real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR is limited by the process of data normalization. The use of 'housekeeping' or 'reference' genes is the most common technique used to normalize RT-qPCR data. However, commonly used reference genes are often poorly validated and may change as a result of genetic background, environment and experimental intervention. Here we present an analysis of 10 reference genes in mouse skeletal muscle (Actb, Aldoa, Gapdh, Hprt1, Ppia, Rer1, Rn18s, Rpl27, Rpl41 and Rpl7L1, which were identified as stable either by microarray or in the literature. Using the MIQE guidelines we compared wild-type (WT mice across three genetic backgrounds (R129, C57BL/6j and C57BL/10 as well as analyzing the α-actinin-3 knockout (Actn3 KO mouse, which is a model of the common null polymorphism (R577X in human ACTN3. Comparing WT mice across three genetic backgrounds, we found that different genes were more tightly regulated in each strain. We have developed a ranked profile of the top performing reference genes in skeletal muscle across these common mouse strains. Interestingly the commonly used reference genes; Gapdh, Rn18s, Hprt1 and Actb were not the most stable. Analysis of our experimental variant (Actn3 KO also resulted in an altered ranking of reference gene suitability. Furthermore we demonstrate that a poor reference gene results in increased variability in the normalized expression of a gene of interest, and can result in loss of significance. Our data demonstrate that reference genes need to be validated prior to use. For the most accurate normalization, it is important to test several genes and use the geometric mean of at least three of the most stably expressed genes. In the analysis of mouse skeletal muscle, strain and intervention played an important role in selecting the most stable reference genes.

  1. Analysis of Reference Cigarette Smoke Yield Data From 21 Laboratories for 28 Selected Analytes as a Guide to Selection of New Coresta Recommended Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purkis Steve

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Since 1999, the CORESTA Special Analytes Sub Group (SPA SG has been working on the development of CORESTA Recommended Methods (CRMs for the analysis of cigarette smoke components. All CRMs have been posted on the CORESTA website and several associated papers published. In this study, 21 laboratories shared data and in-house methodologies for 28 additional smoke components of regulatory interest to prioritise the development of further CRMs. Laboratories provided data, where available, from CORESTA monitor test pieces (CM6 and CM7 and Kentucky Reference Cigarettes (1R5F / 3R4F covering the period 2010-2012 obtained under both the ISO 3308 and Health Canada Intense regimes. Scant data were available on the CORESTA monitor test pieces and the Kentucky 1R5F reference. The greatest amount of data was obtained on the Kentucky 3R4F and this was used in the analyses described in this paper. SPA SG discussions provided invaluable insight into identifying causes and ways of reducing inter-laboratory variability which will be investigated in joint experiments before embarking on final collaborative studies using draft CRMs to obtain mean yields, repeatability and reproducibility values. Phenolic compounds (phenol, 3 cresol isomers, hydroquinone, catechol and resorcinol gave consistent results by liquid chromatography (LC separation and fluorescence detection after extracting collected “tar” on a Cambridge filter pad (CFP. Yields were similar to those obtained by a derivatisation method followed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis. Similar ratios of phenols were also obtained from each method. Of the 28 studied analytes, the between-laboratory variability was lowest for the phenols. Hydrogen cyanide was derivatised using various reagents and the colour development measured after continuous flow analysis (CFA by ultra-violet absorbance. Although, methodologies gave reasonably consistent results, investigations on the trapping system

  2. Geochemical of clay formations : study of Spanish clay REFERENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turrero, M. J.; Pena, J.

    2003-01-01

    Clay rocks are investigated in different international research programs in order to assess its feasibility for the disposal of high level radioactive wastes. This is because different sepcific aspects: they have low hydraulic conductivity (10''-11-10''-15 m/s), a high sorption capacity, self-sealing capacity of facults and discontinuities and mechanical resistance. Several research programs on clay formations are aimed to study the chemistry of the groundwater and the water-rock reactions that control it: e. g. Boom Clay (Mol, Belgium), Oxford Clay /Harwell, United Kingdom), Toarcian Clay (Tournemire, France), Palfris formation (Wellenberg, Switzerland), Opalinus Clay (Bure, France). Based on these studies, considerable progress in the development of techniques for hydrologic, geochemical and hydrogeochemical characterization of mudstones has been accomplished (e. g. Beaufais et al. 1994, De Windt el al. 1998. Thury and Bossart 1999, Sacchi and Michelot 2000) with important advances in the knowledge of geochemical process in these materials (e. g. Reeder et al. 1993, Baeyens and Brandbury 1994, Beaucaire et al. 2000, Pearson et al., 2003).Furtermore, geochemical modeling is commonly used to simulate the evolution of water chemistry and to understand quantitatively the processes controlling the groundwater chemistry (e. g. Pearson et al. 1998, Tempel and Harrison 2000, Arcos et al., 2001). The work presented here is part of a research program funded by Enresa in the context of its R and D program. It is focused on the characterization of a clay formation (reference Argillaceous Formation, RAF) located within the Duero Basin (north-centralSpain). The characterisation of th ephysical properties,, fluid composition, mineralogy, water-rock reaction processes, geochemical modelling and sorption properties of the clays from the mentioned wells is the main purpose of this work. (Author)

  3. Preliminary Comparative Evaluation Study on Reference Design of GEN-IV SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Yoon Sub; Kim, Yeong Il; Hong, Ser Gi (and others)

    2005-11-15

    A fast reactor has a good transmutation capability and it enables breeding of fuel and use of a closed fuel cycle. By these characteristics of a fast reactor, the limited uranium resources of the world can be much more effectively utilized and the nuclear wastes of a high level of radioactivity and toxicity from the current nuclear power reactors of LWRs and HWRs can be drastically reduced in its volume and the management of the wastes can be easily treated. Also electricity can be generated more effectively since a fast reactor has the feature of high operation temperature. These features of a fast reactor makes it inevitable on a long term basis to construct fast reactors in Korea. The domestic fast reactor technology level, however, is at the level of coming out of a beginning stage and needs utilization of international expertise. Recently an international cooperation program called GIF has been formulated and our KALIMER was selected as one of the two reference designs for the international joint R and D works with JSFR of Japan. In the current frame of the GIF program, the two selected reference designs are supposed to be evaluated against each other in future and one design is to be finally selected. To make the international cooperation program directed more useful to our fast reactor technology development, it is required to strengthen the competitiveness of KALIMER so that it can be selected. To meet the necessity, a study was made in this research for pre-evaluation of the GIF reference designs and setting up plans for development of designs and technology that will enhance the competitiveness of KALIMER.

  4. Reference Gene Selection for qRT-PCR Normalization Analysis in kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L. under Abiotic Stress and Hormonal Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Niu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L., an environmental friendly and economic fiber crop, has a certain tolerance to abiotic stresses. Identification of reliable reference genes for transcript normalization of stress responsive genes expression by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR is important for exploring the molecular mechanisms of plants response to abiotic stresses. In this study, nine candidate reference genes were cloned, and their expression stabilities were assessed in 132 abiotic stress and hormonal stimuli samples of kenaf using geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper algorithms. Results revealed that HcPP2A (Protein phosphatase 2A and HcACT7 (Actin 7 were the optimum reference genes across all samples; HcUBC (Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme like protein was the worst reference gene for transcript normalization. The reliability of the selected reference genes was further confirmed by evaluating the expression profile of HcWRKY28 gene at different stress durations. This work will benefit future studies on discovery of stress-tolerance genes and stress-signaling pathways in this important fiber crop.

  5. Chronology and References of Volcanic Eruptions and Selected Unrest in the United States, 1980-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefenbach, Angela K.; Guffanti, Marianne; Ewert, John W.

    2009-01-01

    The United States ranks as one of the top countries in the world in the number of young, active volcanoes within its borders. The United States, including the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, is home to approximately 170 geologically active (age activity, unrest, that do not culminate in eruptions. Monitoring volcanic activity in the United States is the responsibility of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Volcano Hazards Program (VHP) and is accomplished with academic, Federal, and State partners. The VHP supports five Volcano Observatories - the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO), Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (YVO), Long Valley Observatory (LVO), and Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO). With the exception of HVO, which was established in 1912, the U.S. Volcano Observatories have been established in the past 27 years in response to specific volcanic eruptions or sustained levels of unrest. As understanding of volcanic activity and hazards has grown over the years, so have the extent and types of monitoring networks and techniques available to detect early signs of anomalous volcanic behavior. This increased capability is providing us with a more accurate gauge of volcanic activity in the United States. The purpose of this report is to (1) document the range of volcanic activity that U.S. Volcano Observatories have dealt with, beginning with the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, (2) describe some overall characteristics of the activity, and (3) serve as a quick reference to pertinent published literature on the eruptions and unrest documented in this report.

  6. Automatic selection of atomic fingerprints and reference configurations for machine-learning potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbalzano, Giulio; Anelli, Andrea; Giofré, Daniele; Klees, Sinja; Behler, Jörg; Ceriotti, Michele

    2018-06-01

    Machine learning of atomic-scale properties is revolutionizing molecular modeling, making it possible to evaluate inter-atomic potentials with first-principles accuracy, at a fraction of the costs. The accuracy, speed, and reliability of machine learning potentials, however, depend strongly on the way atomic configurations are represented, i.e., the choice of descriptors used as input for the machine learning method. The raw Cartesian coordinates are typically transformed in "fingerprints," or "symmetry functions," that are designed to encode, in addition to the structure, important properties of the potential energy surface like its invariances with respect to rotation, translation, and permutation of like atoms. Here we discuss automatic protocols to select a number of fingerprints out of a large pool of candidates, based on the correlations that are intrinsic to the training data. This procedure can greatly simplify the construction of neural network potentials that strike the best balance between accuracy and computational efficiency and has the potential to accelerate by orders of magnitude the evaluation of Gaussian approximation potentials based on the smooth overlap of atomic positions kernel. We present applications to the construction of neural network potentials for water and for an Al-Mg-Si alloy and to the prediction of the formation energies of small organic molecules using Gaussian process regression.

  7. Particle size studies in the preparation of AQCS reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajgelj, A.; Zeisler, R.; Benesch, T.; Dekner, R.

    1994-01-01

    Particle size determination is one of the important steps in the characterization of physical properties of each particulate material. However, particle size distribution effects also a chemical composition of the material in terms of homogeneity and representativeness of the sample, as well as allows or not a possible sub-sampling of the material. All this is of great importance in the preparation of reference materials for which the chemical composition and physical properties have to be extremely well characterized. In the present paper we intend to present same efforts which have been done by Analytical Quality Control Services (AQCS) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in the field of particle size determination in the production of reference materials. The Malvern product MasterSizer X, based on laser light scattering is used for this purpose and the technique is also shortly discussed. (author)

  8. Selection of reference genes for transcriptional analysis of edible tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mariot, Roberta Fogliatto; Oliveira, De Luisa Abruzzi; Voorhuijzen, M.M.; Staats, Martijn; Hutten, R.C.B.; Dijk, Van J.P.; Kok, Esther; Frazzon, Jeverson

    2015-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) yield has increased dramatically over the last 50 years and this has been achieved by a combination of improved agronomy and biotechnology efforts. Gene studies are taking place to improve new qualities and develop new cultivars. Reverse transcriptase quantitative

  9. Screening for the Most Suitable Reference Genes for Gene Expression Studies in Equine Milk Somatic Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Cieslak

    Full Text Available Apart from the well-known role of somatic cell count as a parameter reflecting the inflammatory status of the mammary gland, the composition of cells isolated from milk is considered as a valuable material for gene expression studies in mammals. Due to its unique composition, in recent years an increasing interest in mare's milk consumption has been observed. Thus, investigating the genetic background of horse's milk variability presents and interesting study model. Relying on 39 milk samples collected from mares representing three breeds (Polish Primitive Horse, Polish Cold-blooded Horse, Polish Warmblood Horse we aimed to investigate the utility of equine milk somatic cells as a source of mRNA and to screen the best reference genes for RT-qPCR using geNorm and NormFinder algorithms. The results showed that despite relatively low somatic cell counts in mare's milk, the amount and the quality of the extracted RNA are sufficient for gene expression studies. The analysis of the utility of 7 potential reference genes for RT-qPCR experiments for the normalization of equine milk somatic cells revealed some differences between the outcomes of the applied algorithms, although in both cases the KRT8 and TOP2B genes were pointed as the most stable. Analysis by geNorm showed that the combination of 4 reference genes (ACTB, GAPDH, TOP2B and KRT8 is required for apropriate RT-qPCR experiments normalization, whereas NormFinder algorithm pointed the combination of KRT8 and RPS9 genes as the most suitable. The trial study of the relative transcript abundance of the beta-casein gene with the use of various types and numbers of internal control genes confirmed once again that the selection of proper reference gene combinations is crucial for the final results of each real-time PCR experiment.

  10. The Kjeldahl method as a primary reference procedure for total protein in certified reference materials used in clinical chemistry. II. Selection of direct Kjeldahl analysis and its preliminary performance parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinklárková, Bára; Chromý, Vratislav; Šprongl, Luděk; Bittová, Miroslava; Rikanová, Milena; Ohnútková, Ivana; Žaludová, Lenka

    2015-01-01

    To select a Kjeldahl procedure suitable for the determination of total protein in reference materials used in laboratory medicine, we reviewed in our previous article Kjeldahl methods adopted by clinical chemistry and found an indirect two-step analysis by total Kjeldahl nitrogen corrected for its nonprotein nitrogen and a direct analysis made on isolated protein precipitates. In this article, we compare both procedures on various reference materials. An indirect Kjeldahl method gave falsely lower results than a direct analysis. Preliminary performance parameters qualify the direct Kjeldahl analysis as a suitable primary reference procedure for the certification of total protein in reference laboratories.

  11. Selection and validation of reference genes for quantitative gene expression analyses in various tissues and seeds at different developmental stages in Bixa orellana L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Viviane S; Soares, Virgínia L F; Silva, Raner J S; Sousa, Aurizangela O; Otoni, Wagner C; Costa, Marcio G C

    2018-05-01

    Bixa orellana L., popularly known as annatto, produces several secondary metabolites of pharmaceutical and industrial interest, including bixin, whose molecular basis of biosynthesis remain to be determined. Gene expression analysis by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is an important tool to advance such knowledge. However, correct interpretation of qPCR data requires the use of suitable reference genes in order to reduce experimental variations. In the present study, we have selected four different candidates for reference genes in B. orellana , coding for 40S ribosomal protein S9 (RPS9), histone H4 (H4), 60S ribosomal protein L38 (RPL38) and 18S ribosomal RNA (18SrRNA). Their expression stabilities in different tissues (e.g. flower buds, flowers, leaves and seeds at different developmental stages) were analyzed using five statistical tools (NormFinder, geNorm, BestKeeper, ΔCt method and RefFinder). The results indicated that RPL38 is the most stable gene in different tissues and stages of seed development and 18SrRNA is the most unstable among the analyzed genes. In order to validate the candidate reference genes, we have analyzed the relative expression of a target gene coding for carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 1 (CCD1) using the stable RPL38 and the least stable gene, 18SrRNA , for normalization of the qPCR data. The results demonstrated significant differences in the interpretation of the CCD1 gene expression data, depending on the reference gene used, reinforcing the importance of the correct selection of reference genes for normalization.

  12. A global multicenter study on reference values: 1. Assessment of methods for derivation and comparison of reference intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihara, Kiyoshi; Ozarda, Yesim; Barth, Julian H; Klee, George; Qiu, Ling; Erasmus, Rajiv; Borai, Anwar; Evgina, Svetlana; Ashavaid, Tester; Khan, Dilshad; Schreier, Laura; Rolle, Reynan; Shimizu, Yoshihisa; Kimura, Shogo; Kawano, Reo; Armbruster, David; Mori, Kazuo; Yadav, Binod K

    2017-04-01

    The IFCC Committee on Reference Intervals and Decision Limits coordinated a global multicenter study on reference values (RVs) to explore rational and harmonizable procedures for derivation of reference intervals (RIs) and investigate the feasibility of sharing RIs through evaluation of sources of variation of RVs on a global scale. For the common protocol, rather lenient criteria for reference individuals were adopted to facilitate harmonized recruitment with planned use of the latent abnormal values exclusion (LAVE) method. As of July 2015, 12 countries had completed their study with total recruitment of 13,386 healthy adults. 25 analytes were measured chemically and 25 immunologically. A serum panel with assigned values was measured by all laboratories. RIs were derived by parametric and nonparametric methods. The effect of LAVE methods is prominent in analytes which reflect nutritional status, inflammation and muscular exertion, indicating that inappropriate results are frequent in any country. The validity of the parametric method was confirmed by the presence of analyte-specific distribution patterns and successful Gaussian transformation using the modified Box-Cox formula in all countries. After successful alignment of RVs based on the panel test results, nearly half the analytes showed variable degrees of between-country differences. This finding, however, requires confirmation after adjusting for BMI and other sources of variation. The results are reported in the second part of this paper. The collaborative study enabled us to evaluate rational methods for deriving RIs and comparing the RVs based on real-world datasets obtained in a harmonized manner. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Selection of reference genes for quantitative real time RT-PCR during dimorphism in the zygomycete Mucor circinelloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle-Maldonado, Marco I; Jácome-Galarza, Irvin E; Gutiérrez-Corona, Félix; Ramírez-Díaz, Martha I; Campos-García, Jesús; Meza-Carmen, Víctor

    2015-03-01

    Mucor circinelloides is a dimorphic fungal model for studying several biological processes including cell differentiation (yeast-mold transitions) as well as biodiesel and carotene production. The recent release of the first draft sequence of the M. circinelloides genome, combined with the availability of analytical methods to determine patterns of gene expression, such as quantitative Reverse transcription-Polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and the development of molecular genetic tools for the manipulation of the fungus, may help identify M. circinelloides gene products and analyze their relevance in different biological processes. However, no information is available on M. circinelloides genes of stable expression that could serve as internal references in qRT-PCR analyses. One approach to solve this problem consists in the use of housekeeping genes as internal references. However, validation of the usability of these reference genes is a fundamental step prior to initiating qRT-PCR assays. This work evaluates expression of several constitutive genes by qRT-PCR throughout the morphological differentiation stages of M. circinelloides; our results indicate that tfc-1 and ef-1 are the most stable genes for qRT-PCR assays during differentiation studies and they are proposed as reference genes to carry out gene expression studies in this fungus.

  14. Selection and validation of reference genes for qRT-PCR expression analysis of candidate genes involved in olfactory communication in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Arun

    Full Text Available Real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR is a technique widely used to quantify the transcriptional expression level of candidate genes. qRT-PCR requires the selection of one or several suitable reference genes, whose expression profiles remain stable across conditions, to normalize the qRT-PCR expression profiles of candidate genes. Although several butterfly species (Lepidoptera have become important models in molecular evolutionary ecology, so far no study aimed at identifying reference genes for accurate data normalization for any butterfly is available. The African bush brown butterfly Bicyclus anynana has drawn considerable attention owing to its suitability as a model for evolutionary ecology, and we here provide a maiden extensive study to identify suitable reference gene in this species. We monitored the expression profile of twelve reference genes: eEF-1α, FK506, UBQL40, RpS8, RpS18, HSP, GAPDH, VATPase, ACT3, TBP, eIF2 and G6PD. We tested the stability of their expression profiles in three different tissues (wings, brains, antennae, two developmental stages (pupal and adult and two sexes (male and female, all of which were subjected to two food treatments (food stress and control feeding ad libitum. The expression stability and ranking of twelve reference genes was assessed using two algorithm-based methods, NormFinder and geNorm. Both methods identified RpS8 as the best suitable reference gene for expression data normalization. We also showed that the use of two reference genes is sufficient to effectively normalize the qRT-PCR data under varying tissues and experimental conditions that we used in B. anynana. Finally, we tested the effect of choosing reference genes with different stability on the normalization of the transcript abundance of a candidate gene involved in olfactory communication in B. anynana, the Fatty Acyl Reductase 2, and we confirmed that using an unstable reference gene can drastically alter the

  15. Selection and validation of reference genes for qRT-PCR expression analysis of candidate genes involved in olfactory communication in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, Alok; Baumlé, Véronique; Amelot, Gaël; Nieberding, Caroline M

    2015-01-01

    Real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is a technique widely used to quantify the transcriptional expression level of candidate genes. qRT-PCR requires the selection of one or several suitable reference genes, whose expression profiles remain stable across conditions, to normalize the qRT-PCR expression profiles of candidate genes. Although several butterfly species (Lepidoptera) have become important models in molecular evolutionary ecology, so far no study aimed at identifying reference genes for accurate data normalization for any butterfly is available. The African bush brown butterfly Bicyclus anynana has drawn considerable attention owing to its suitability as a model for evolutionary ecology, and we here provide a maiden extensive study to identify suitable reference gene in this species. We monitored the expression profile of twelve reference genes: eEF-1α, FK506, UBQL40, RpS8, RpS18, HSP, GAPDH, VATPase, ACT3, TBP, eIF2 and G6PD. We tested the stability of their expression profiles in three different tissues (wings, brains, antennae), two developmental stages (pupal and adult) and two sexes (male and female), all of which were subjected to two food treatments (food stress and control feeding ad libitum). The expression stability and ranking of twelve reference genes was assessed using two algorithm-based methods, NormFinder and geNorm. Both methods identified RpS8 as the best suitable reference gene for expression data normalization. We also showed that the use of two reference genes is sufficient to effectively normalize the qRT-PCR data under varying tissues and experimental conditions that we used in B. anynana. Finally, we tested the effect of choosing reference genes with different stability on the normalization of the transcript abundance of a candidate gene involved in olfactory communication in B. anynana, the Fatty Acyl Reductase 2, and we confirmed that using an unstable reference gene can drastically alter the expression

  16. Reference gene selection for quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction normalization during in vitro adventitious rooting in Eucalyptus globulus Labill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Márcia R; Ruedell, Carolina M; Ricachenevsky, Felipe K; Sperotto, Raul A; Pasquali, Giancarlo; Fett-Neto, Arthur G

    2010-09-20

    Eucalyptus globulus and its hybrids are very important for the cellulose and paper industry mainly due to their low lignin content and frost resistance. However, rooting of cuttings of this species is recalcitrant and exogenous auxin application is often necessary for good root development. To date one of the most accurate methods available for gene expression analysis is quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qPCR); however, reliable use of this technique requires reference genes for normalization. There is no single reference gene that can be regarded as universal for all experiments and biological materials. Thus, the identification of reliable reference genes must be done for every species and experimental approach. The present study aimed at identifying suitable control genes for normalization of gene expression associated with adventitious rooting in E. globulus microcuttings. By the use of two distinct algorithms, geNorm and NormFinder, we have assessed gene expression stability of eleven candidate reference genes in E. globulus: 18S, ACT2, EF2, EUC12, H2B, IDH, SAND, TIP41, TUA, UBI and 33380. The candidate reference genes were evaluated in microccuttings rooted in vitro, in presence or absence of auxin, along six time-points spanning the process of adventitious rooting. Overall, the stability profiles of these genes determined with each one of the algorithms were very similar. Slight differences were observed in the most stable pair of genes indicated by each program: IDH and SAND for geNorm, and H2B and TUA for NormFinder. Both programs identified UBI and 18S as the most variable genes. To validate these results and select the most suitable reference genes, the expression profile of the ARGONAUTE1 gene was evaluated in relation to the most stable candidate genes indicated by each algorithm. Our study showed that expression stability varied between putative reference genes tested in E. globulus. Based on the AGO1 relative expression

  17. Selection of reference genes for qRT-PCR analysis of gene expression in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus during aestivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ye; Chen, Muyan; Wang, Tianming; Sun, Lina; Xu, Dongxue; Yang, Hongsheng

    2014-11-01

    Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a technique that is widely used for gene expression analysis, and its accuracy depends on the expression stability of the internal reference genes used as normalization factors. However, many applications of qRT-PCR used housekeeping genes as internal controls without validation. In this study, the expression stability of eight candidate reference genes in three tissues (intestine, respiratory tree, and muscle) of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus was assessed during normal growth and aestivation using the geNorm, NormFinder, delta CT, and RefFinder algorithms. The results indicate that the reference genes exhibited significantly different expression patterns among the three tissues during aestivation. In general, the β-tubulin (TUBB) gene was relatively stable in the intestine and respiratory tree tissues. The optimal reference gene combination for intestine was 40S ribosomal protein S18 (RPS18), TUBB, and NADH dehydrogenase (NADH); for respiratory tree, it was β-actin (ACTB), TUBB, and succinate dehydrogenase cytochrome B small subunit (SDHC); and for muscle it was α-tubulin (TUBA) and NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 α subcomplex subunit 13 (NDUFA13). These combinations of internal control genes should be considered for use in further studies of gene expression in A. japonicus during aestivation.

  18. Reference genes for normalization: A study of rat brain tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonefeld, Birgit; Elfving, Betina; Wegener, Gregers

    2008-01-01

    are warranted. With the overall aim to inspect the gene expression of three target genes, NMDAR1, SORT, and CREB, in rat hippocampus, we tested a panel of eight HKGs, 18s rRNA, ActB, CycA, Gapd, Hmbs, Hprt1, Rpl13A, and Ywhaz in order to select the most stably expressed gene, using the NormFinder and ge...

  19. Selection of reference genes in different myocardial regions of an in vivo ischemia/reperfusion rat model for normalization of antioxidant gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesentini Nicoletta

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in cardiac gene expression due to myocardial injury are usually assessed in whole heart tissue. However, as the heart is a heterogeneous system, spatial and temporal heterogeneity is expected in gene expression. Results In an ischemia/reperfusion (I/R rat model we evaluated gene expression of mitochondrial and cytoplasmatic superoxide dismutase (MnSod, Cu-ZnSod and thioredoxin reductase (trxr1 upon short (4 h and long (72 h reperfusion times in the right ventricle (RV, and in the ischemic/reperfused (IRR and the remote region (RR of the left ventricle. Gene expression was assessed by Real-time reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR. In order to select most stable reference genes suitable for normalization purposes, in each myocardial region we tested nine putative reference genes by geNorm analysis. The genes investigated were: Actin beta (actb, Glyceraldehyde-3-P-dehydrogenase (gapdh, Ribosomal protein L13A (rpl13a, Tyrosine 3-monooxygenase (ywhaz, Beta-glucuronidase (gusb, Hypoxanthine guanine Phosphoribosyltransferase 1 (hprt, TATA binding box protein (tbp, Hydroxymethylbilane synthase (hmbs, Polyadenylate-binding protein 1 (papbn1. According to our findings, most stable reference genes in the RV and RR were hmbs/hprt and hmbs/tbp/hprt respectively. In the IRR, six reference genes were recommended for normalization purposes; however, in view of experimental feasibility limitations, target gene expression could be normalized against the three most stable reference genes (ywhaz/pabp/hmbs without loss of sensitivity. In all cases MnSod and Cu-ZnSod expression decreased upon long reperfusion, the former in all myocardial regions and the latter in IRR alone. trxr1 expression did not vary. Conclusions This study provides a validation of reference genes in the RV and in the anterior and posterior wall of the LV of cardiac ischemia/reperfusion model and shows that gene expression should be assessed separately in

  20. Studies on the aquatic environment at Olkiluoto and reference area. 1: Olkiluoto, reference lakes and Eurajoki and Lapijoki rivers in 2009-2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kangasniemi, V. [Environmental Research and Assessment EnviroCase Ltd., Pori (Finland); Helin, J.

    2014-03-15

    This working report presents the first results of a sampling campaign at Olkiluoto and reference lakes and rivers selected to resemble the aquatic systems expected to form at the site in the future with the post-glacial crustal rebound (land uplift). In 2009-2010, the aim of the studies was to improve the knowledge of the aquatic systems and to produce input data to the safety case for the spent nuclear fuel repository at Olkiluoto. The first main objective was to estimate the areal biomass distribution and measure the dimensions of characteristic aquatic plants and animals. Another objective was to estimate the transfer of different elements from water to the aquatic organisms paying special attention on key elements (Ag, Cl, I, Mo, Nb and Se) in the dose assessment within the safety case. Surface water, sediment, macrophyte, fish and macrobenthos samples were collected from the Olkiluoto coastal area and from the reference lakes for biomass and dimension measurements and analysis of element concentration. Water-to-biota concentration ratios were estimated for the coastal area and for the reference lakes. From rivers, only water samples were collected at this stage. In 2009-2010, sampling procedures and pre-treatment methods were developed and analytical methods were optimised. Thus, the results reported here are indicative by their nature. After 2010, the studies have been continued with better established methods, and the more recent results will be reported later. (orig.)

  1. Selection and evaluation of potential reference genes for gene expression analysis in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae using reverse-transcription quantitative PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Yuan

    Full Text Available The brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera, Delphacidae, is one of the most important rice pests. Abundant genetic studies on BPH have been conducted using reverse-transcription quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. Using qRT-PCR, the expression levels of target genes are calculated on the basis of endogenous controls. These genes need to be appropriately selected by experimentally assessing whether they are stably expressed under different conditions. However, such studies on potential reference genes in N. lugens are lacking. In this paper, we presented a systematic exploration of eight candidate reference genes in N. lugens, namely, actin 1 (ACT, muscle actin (MACT, ribosomal protein S11 (RPS11, ribosomal protein S15e (RPS15, alpha 2-tubulin (TUB, elongation factor 1 delta (EF, 18S ribosomal RNA (18S, and arginine kinase (AK and used four alternative methods (BestKeeper, geNorm, NormFinder, and the delta Ct method to evaluate the suitability of these genes as endogenous controls. We examined their expression levels among different experimental factors (developmental stage, body part, geographic population, temperature variation, pesticide exposure, diet change, and starvation following the MIQE (Minimum Information for publication of Quantitative real time PCR Experiments guidelines. Based on the results of RefFinder, which integrates four currently available major software programs to compare and rank the tested candidate reference genes, RPS15, RPS11, and TUB were found to be the most suitable reference genes in different developmental stages, body parts, and geographic populations, respectively. RPS15 was the most suitable gene under different temperature and diet conditions, while RPS11 was the most suitable gene under different pesticide exposure and starvation conditions. This work sheds light on establishing a standardized qRT-PCR procedure in N. lugens, and serves as a starting point for screening for reference genes for

  2. Expression stability and selection of optimal reference genes for gene expression normalization in early life stage rainbow trout exposed to cadmium and copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekh, Kamran; Tang, Song; Niyogi, Som; Hecker, Markus

    2017-09-01

    Gene expression analysis represents a powerful approach to characterize the specific mechanisms by which contaminants interact with organisms. One of the key considerations when conducting gene expression analyses using quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is the selection of appropriate reference genes, which is often overlooked. Specifically, to reach meaningful conclusions when using relative quantification approaches, expression levels of reference genes must be highly stable and cannot vary as a function of experimental conditions. However, to date, information on the stability of commonly used reference genes across developmental stages, tissues and after exposure to contaminants such as metals is lacking for many vertebrate species including teleost fish. Therefore, in this study, we assessed the stability of expression of 8 reference gene candidates in the gills and skin of three different early life-stages of rainbow trout after acute exposure (24h) to two metals, cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) using qPCR. Candidate housekeeping genes were: beta actin (b-actin), DNA directed RNA polymerase II subunit I (DRP2), elongation factor-1 alpha (EF1a), glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT), ribosomal protein L8 (RPL8), and 18S ribosomal RNA (18S). Four algorithms, geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and the comparative ΔCt method were employed to systematically evaluate the expression stability of these candidate genes under control and exposed conditions as well as across three different life-stages. Finally, stability of genes was ranked by taking geometric means of the ranks established by the different methods. Stability of reference genes was ranked in the following order (from lower to higher stability): HPRT

  3. Development of a guideline on reading CT images of malignant pleural mesothelioma and selection of the reference CT films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Huashi; Tamura, Taro; Kusaka, Yukinori; Suganuma, Narufumi; Subhannachart, Ponglada; Vijitsanguan, Chomphunut; Noisiri, Weeraya; Hering, Kurt G.; Akira, Masanori; Itoh, Harumi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: International experts developed a guideline on reading CT images of malignant pleural mesothelioma for radiologists and physicians. It is intended that it act as a supplement to the current International Classification of HRCT for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases. Methods: The research literatures on mesothelioma CT features were systematically reviewed. Ten mesothelioma CT features were adopted into the guideline prepared according to experts’ opinion. The terminology of mesothelioma CT features and mesothelioma probability were agreed by consensus of experts. The CT reference films for each mesothelioma feature were selected based on agreement by experts from 22 definite mesothelioma cases confirmed pathologically and immunohistochemically. To support the validity of the mesothelioma probability, 4 experts’ readings of CT films from 57 cases with or without mesothelioma were analyzed by kappa statistics between the experts; sensitivity and specificity for mesothelioma were also assessed. Results: The mesothelioma CT Guideline was developed, providing the terminology of CT features and the mesothelioma probability, the judgement of severity, the distribution of mesothelioma, and the revised CT reading sheet including mesothelioma items. The CT reference films with ten mesothelioma typical features were selected. The average linearly and quadratically weighted kappa of the agreement on the 4-point scale mesothelioma probability were 0.58 and 0.71, respectively. The average sensitivity and specificity for mesothelioma were 93.2% and 65.6%, respectively. Conclusion: The evidence-based mesothelioma CT Guideline developed may serve as a good educational tool to facilitate physicians in recognising mesothelioma and improve their proficiency in diagnosis of mesothelioma.

  4. Development of a guideline on reading CT images of malignant pleural mesothelioma and selection of the reference CT films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Huashi, E-mail: zhouhua@u-fukui.ac.jp [Department of Environmental Health, School of Medicine, University of Fukui, 23-3 Shimoaitsuki, Matsuoka, Eihezi-cho, Fukui Prefecture 910-1193 (Japan); Tamura, Taro, E-mail: tarou@u-fukui.ac.jp [Department of Environmental Health, School of Medicine, University of Fukui, 23-3 Shimoaitsuki, Matsuoka, Eihezi-cho, Fukui Prefecture 910-1193 (Japan); Kusaka, Yukinori, E-mail: kusakayk@gmail.com [Department of Environmental Health, School of Medicine, University of Fukui, 23-3 Shimoaitsuki, Matsuoka, Eihezi-cho, Fukui Prefecture 910-1193 (Japan); Suganuma, Narufumi, E-mail: nsuganuma@kochi-u.ac.jp [Department of Environmental Medicine, Kochi University School of Medicine (Japan); Subhannachart, Ponglada, E-mail: pongladas@gmail.com [Central Chest Disease Institute of Thailand, 39 Moo 9, Tiwanon Road, Muang Nonthaburi 11000 (Thailand); Vijitsanguan, Chomphunut, E-mail: Chompoo_vj@yahoo.com [Central Chest Disease Institute of Thailand, 39 Moo 9, Tiwanon Road, Muang Nonthaburi 11000 (Thailand); Noisiri, Weeraya, E-mail: weeraya_tat@yahoo.com [Central Chest Disease Institute of Thailand, 39 Moo 9, Tiwanon Road, Muang Nonthaburi 11000 (Thailand); Hering, Kurt G., E-mail: k.g.hering@t-online.de [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Radiooncology and Nuclear Medicine, Radiological Clinic, Miner' s Hospital, Radiologische Klinik, Lansppaschaftskranhaus Dortmund, Wieckesweg 27 44309, Dortmund (Germany); Akira, Masanori, E-mail: akira@kch.hosp.go.jp [Department of Radiology, National Hospital Organization Kinki-Chuo Chest Medical Center, 1180 Nagasone-cho, Kita-ku, Sakai, Osaka 591-8555 (Japan); Itoh, Harumi, E-mail: hitoh@fmsrsa.fukui-med.ac.jp [Department of Environmental Health, School of Medicine, University of Fukui, 23-3 Shimoaitsuki, Matsuoka, Eihezi-cho, Fukui Prefecture 910-1193 (Japan); Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Fukui, 23-3 Shimoaitsuki Matsuoka, Eiheizi-cho, Fukui Prefecture 910-1193 (Japan); and others

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: International experts developed a guideline on reading CT images of malignant pleural mesothelioma for radiologists and physicians. It is intended that it act as a supplement to the current International Classification of HRCT for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases. Methods: The research literatures on mesothelioma CT features were systematically reviewed. Ten mesothelioma CT features were adopted into the guideline prepared according to experts’ opinion. The terminology of mesothelioma CT features and mesothelioma probability were agreed by consensus of experts. The CT reference films for each mesothelioma feature were selected based on agreement by experts from 22 definite mesothelioma cases confirmed pathologically and immunohistochemically. To support the validity of the mesothelioma probability, 4 experts’ readings of CT films from 57 cases with or without mesothelioma were analyzed by kappa statistics between the experts; sensitivity and specificity for mesothelioma were also assessed. Results: The mesothelioma CT Guideline was developed, providing the terminology of CT features and the mesothelioma probability, the judgement of severity, the distribution of mesothelioma, and the revised CT reading sheet including mesothelioma items. The CT reference films with ten mesothelioma typical features were selected. The average linearly and quadratically weighted kappa of the agreement on the 4-point scale mesothelioma probability were 0.58 and 0.71, respectively. The average sensitivity and specificity for mesothelioma were 93.2% and 65.6%, respectively. Conclusion: The evidence-based mesothelioma CT Guideline developed may serve as a good educational tool to facilitate physicians in recognising mesothelioma and improve their proficiency in diagnosis of mesothelioma.

  5. Reference pricing system and competition: case study from Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portela, Conceiçăo

    2009-10-01

    To characterize the patterns of competition for a sample of drugs in the Portuguese pharmaceutical market before (January 2002-March 2003) and after (April 2003-June 2003) the introduction of the reference pricing system (RPS). We performed a descriptive, retrospective, longitudinal analysis, with monthly observations from January 2002 until June 2003 of 15 homogeneous groups. The groups represented the upper limit of public pharmaceutical expenditure in the RPS segment in 2003 (n=270). Measures of competition were: 1) number of presentations; 2) prescriptions' concentration in the generic and originator (brand) segments, using Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI); and 3) dominant positions of market leader in the homogeneous group. A correlation analysis between the number of presentations, the HHI, and the dominant position of the market leader was performed using Pearson coefficient of correlation. The structure of the market changed with the introduction of RPS. We found an increasing number of generic presentations (from 4+/-3 to 7+/-4; mean+/-standard deviation) and a decrease in the HHI for the generics market segment (from 0.7+/-0.2 to 0.6+/-0.3). There was a negative correlation between those variables that increased after the introduction of RPS (from -0.6 to -0.8). The HHI for brands and the dominant positions remained unchanged. After the implementation of RPS, the increased competition was mainly driven by economic and social agents in the generics market segment but not in the brands market segment.

  6. A Comparative Study of Different EEG Reference Choices for Diagnosing Unipolar Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, Wajid; Malik, Aamir Saeed

    2018-06-02

    The choice of an electroencephalogram (EEG) reference has fundamental importance and could be critical during clinical decision-making because an impure EEG reference could falsify the clinical measurements and subsequent inferences. In this research, the suitability of three EEG references was compared while classifying depressed and healthy brains using a machine-learning (ML)-based validation method. In this research, the EEG data of 30 unipolar depressed subjects and 30 age-matched healthy controls were recorded. The EEG data were analyzed in three different EEG references, the link-ear reference (LE), average reference (AR), and reference electrode standardization technique (REST). The EEG-based functional connectivity (FC) was computed. Also, the graph-based measures, such as the distances between nodes, minimum spanning tree, and maximum flow between the nodes for each channel pair, were calculated. An ML scheme provided a mechanism to compare the performances of the extracted features that involved a general framework such as the feature extraction (graph-based theoretic measures), feature selection, classification, and validation. For comparison purposes, the performance metrics such as the classification accuracies, sensitivities, specificities, and F scores were computed. When comparing the three references, the diagnostic accuracy showed better performances during the REST, while the LE and AR showed less discrimination between the two groups. Based on the results, it can be concluded that the choice of appropriate reference is critical during the clinical scenario. The REST reference is recommended for future applications of EEG-based diagnosis of mental illnesses.

  7. A Cross-Cultural Study of Reference Point Adaptation: Evidence from China, Korea, and the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkes, Hal R.; Hirshleifer, David; Jiang, Danling; Lim, Sonya S.

    2010-01-01

    We examined reference point adaptation following gains or losses in security trading using participants from China, Korea, and the US. In both questionnaire studies and trading experiments with real money incentives, reference point adaptation was larger for Asians than for Americans. Subjects in all countries adapted their reference points more…

  8. Investigating the Problems and Needs of Infertile Patients Referring to Assisted Reproduction Centers: A Review Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Hasanbeigi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The provision of optimal care is the most important goal in nursing, the fulfillment of which requires the identification of clients’ problems and needs. However, based on the review of the literature, no review study has investigated the problems and needs of the infertile patients in Iran. Aim: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the problems and needs of the infertile patients referring to the assisted reproduction centers. Method: This review study was based on the traditional review procedure developed by Cronin et al., which entails five steps including: 1 choosing the topic of the review, 2 searching the manuscripts, 3 collecting, reading, and analyzing the texts, 4 writing the review, and 5 providing references. The articles published within 2003-2017 were searched in such valid databases as Google Scholar, Pub Med, Science Direct, Ovid, and Cochran. The inclusion criteria in this study were articles in Persian and English with the keywords referring to problems and needs of clients. Out of the 350 original articles, 31 cases were finally selected for this review study. Results: In general, the infertile patients’ problems were placed under four domains of mental-psychological, social, marital, and financial factors. The needs of the infertile individuals were grouped into six domains of physical, care, informational, financial, mental-psychological, and spiritual factors. Implications for Practice: The identification of the patients’ problems and needs can lead to the conceptualization of strategic points targeted toward the delivery of effective interventions facilitating the provision of patient-centered infertility care. This can enhance the quality of life and lower the levels of stress during the course of treatment.

  9. Portfolio Manager Selection – A Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Within a delegated portfolio management setting, this paper presents a case study of how the manager selection process can be operationalized in practice. Investors have to pursue a thorough screening of potential portfolio managers in order to discover their quality, and this paper discusses how...

  10. Sexual selection studies: A NESCent catalyst meeting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roughgarden, J.; Adkins-Regan, E.; Akcay, E.; Hinde, C.A.; Hoquet, T.; O'Connor, C.; Prokop, Z.M.; Prum, R.O.; Shafir, S.; Snow, S.S.; Taylor, D.; Cleve, Van J.; Weisberg, M.

    2015-01-01

    A catalyst meeting on sexual selection studies was held in July 2013 at the facilities of the National Evolutionary Synthesis Center (NESCent) in Durham, NC. This article by a subcommittee of the participants foregrounds some of the topics discussed at the meeting. Topics mentioned here include the

  11. The Sequence of Acquisition of Personal Pronoun Case and Person Reference among 6 Year Old Children in Two Selected Malaysian Kindergartens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Abd Samad

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Pronoun case and person reference refer to the position of the pronoun in the sentence and the person the pronoun refers to respectively.  Examining the acquisition of pronoun case and person reference among young children can be insightful as, besides their obvious relevance to language development, both these constructs can have implications on other aspects of child development.  Attention given by children to these various constructs may indicate the importance children place on the concept of ego and self as well as on social relations.  The sequence of acquisition of personal pronouns among these children is therefore an important phenomenon to be examined as it can reflect linguistic and socio-cognitive development.  This largely descriptive study examines the sequence of acquisition of the English pronouns among forty 6 year old Malaysian children learning ESL in two kindergartens.  The children in the study were presented with 33 drawings to assess their familiarity with case and person reference expressed through English personal pronouns.  They were required to select the correct pronoun from three pronouns that were used to describe each drawing.  This paper reports on the accuracy rates for each pronoun and assumes that high accuracy rates indicate a more complete acquisition of the pronoun.  Error forms by the children were also be identified and examined.  Data obtained were compared to acquisition sequences in the literature and general implications related to the acquisition of personal pronouns among children in an ESL setting in Malaysia will be discussed.

  12. Reference waste form, basalts, and ground water systems for waste interaction studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deju, R.A.; Ledgerwood, R.K.; Long, P.E.

    1978-09-01

    This report summarizes the type of waste form, basalt, and ground water compositions to be used in theoretical and experimental models of the geochemical environment to be simulated in studying a typical basalt repository. Waste forms to be used in the experiments include, and are limited to, glass, supercalcine, and spent unreprocessed fuel. Reference basalts selected for study include the Pomona member and the Umtanum Unit, Shwana Member, of the Columbia River Basalt Group. In addition, a sample of the Basalt International Geochemical Standard (BCR-1) will be used for cross-comparison purposes. The representative water to be used is of a sodium bicarbonate composition as determined from results of analyses of deep ground waters underlying the Hanford Site. 12 figures, 13 tables.

  13. Reference waste form, basalts, and ground water systems for waste interaction studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deju, R.A.; Ledgerwood, R.K.; Long, P.E.

    1978-09-01

    This report summarizes the type of waste form, basalt, and ground water compositions to be used in theoretical and experimental models of the geochemical environment to be simulated in studying a typical basalt repository. Waste forms to be used in the experiments include, and are limited to, glass, supercalcine, and spent unreprocessed fuel. Reference basalts selected for study include the Pomona member and the Umtanum Unit, Shwana Member, of the Columbia River Basalt Group. In addition, a sample of the Basalt International Geochemical Standard (BCR-1) will be used for cross-comparison purposes. The representative water to be used is of a sodium bicarbonate composition as determined from results of analyses of deep ground waters underlying the Hanford Site. 12 figures, 13 tables

  14. Selection of appropriate reference genes for the detection of rhythmic gene expression via quantitative real-time PCR in Tibetan hulless barley.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Cai

    Full Text Available Hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. nudum. hook. f. has been cultivated as a major crop in the Qinghai-Tibet plateau of China for thousands of years. Compared to other cereal crops, the Tibetan hulless barley has developed stronger endogenous resistances to survive in the severe environment of its habitat. To understand the unique resistant mechanisms of this plant, detailed genetic studies need to be performed. The quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR is the most commonly used method in detecting gene expression. However, the selection of stable reference genes under limited experimental conditions was considered to be an essential step for obtaining accurate results in qRT-PCR. In this study, 10 candidate reference genes-ACT (Actin, E2 (Ubiquitin conjugating enzyme 2, TUBα (Alpha-tubulin, TUBβ6 (Beta-tubulin 6, GAPDH (Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, EF-1α (Elongation factor 1-alpha, SAMDC (S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase, PKABA1 (Gene for protein kinase HvPKABA1, PGK (Phosphoglycerate kinase, and HSP90 (Heat shock protein 90-were selected from the NCBI gene database of barley. Following qRT-PCR amplifications of all candidate reference genes in Tibetan hulless barley seedlings under various stressed conditions, the stabilities of these candidates were analyzed by three individual software packages including geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper. The results demonstrated that TUBβ6, E2, TUBα, and HSP90 were generally the most suitable sets under all tested conditions; similarly, TUBα and HSP90 showed peak stability under salt stress, TUBα and EF-1α were the most suitable reference genes under cold stress, and ACT and E2 were the most stable under drought stress. Finally, a known circadian gene CCA1 was used to verify the service ability of chosen reference genes. The results confirmed that all recommended reference genes by the three software were suitable for gene expression

  15. Selection of appropriate reference genes for the detection of rhythmic gene expression via quantitative real-time PCR in Tibetan hulless barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jing; Li, Pengfei; Luo, Xiao; Chang, Tianliang; Li, Jiaxing; Zhao, Yuwei; Xu, Yao

    2018-01-01

    Hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. nudum. hook. f.) has been cultivated as a major crop in the Qinghai-Tibet plateau of China for thousands of years. Compared to other cereal crops, the Tibetan hulless barley has developed stronger endogenous resistances to survive in the severe environment of its habitat. To understand the unique resistant mechanisms of this plant, detailed genetic studies need to be performed. The quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is the most commonly used method in detecting gene expression. However, the selection of stable reference genes under limited experimental conditions was considered to be an essential step for obtaining accurate results in qRT-PCR. In this study, 10 candidate reference genes-ACT (Actin), E2 (Ubiquitin conjugating enzyme 2), TUBα (Alpha-tubulin), TUBβ6 (Beta-tubulin 6), GAPDH (Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase), EF-1α (Elongation factor 1-alpha), SAMDC (S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase), PKABA1 (Gene for protein kinase HvPKABA1), PGK (Phosphoglycerate kinase), and HSP90 (Heat shock protein 90)-were selected from the NCBI gene database of barley. Following qRT-PCR amplifications of all candidate reference genes in Tibetan hulless barley seedlings under various stressed conditions, the stabilities of these candidates were analyzed by three individual software packages including geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper. The results demonstrated that TUBβ6, E2, TUBα, and HSP90 were generally the most suitable sets under all tested conditions; similarly, TUBα and HSP90 showed peak stability under salt stress, TUBα and EF-1α were the most suitable reference genes under cold stress, and ACT and E2 were the most stable under drought stress. Finally, a known circadian gene CCA1 was used to verify the service ability of chosen reference genes. The results confirmed that all recommended reference genes by the three software were suitable for gene expression analysis

  16. Spiraling reference: A case study of apprenticeship into an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article uses the science studies of Latour (1993; 1999), the network theory of Collins (1998; 2004), and the formalization studies of Stinchcombe (2001) to trace the apprenticeship of one masters student into an academic community. It traces her implication within ever expanding intellectual networks and their academic ...

  17. Electronic journals and scholarly communication: a citation and reference study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P. Harter

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The journal is fundamental to formal scholarly communication. This research reports highlights and preliminary findings from an empirical study of scholarly electronic journals. The purpose of the research is to assess the impact of electronic journals (e-journals on scholarly communication, by measuring the extent to which they are being cited in the literature, both print and electronic. The intent is to provide a snapshot of the impact e-journals were having on scholarly communication at a given point in time, roughly the end of 1995. This study provides one measure of that impact, specifically on the formal, as opposed to informal, communication process. The study also examines the forms in which scholars cite e-journals, the accuracy and completeness of citations to e-journals, and practical difficulties faced by scholars and researchers who wish to retrieve e-journals through the networks.

  18. Using DOE Commercial Reference Buildings for Simulation Studies: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, K.; Deru, M.; Studer, D.

    2010-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy developed 256 EnergyPlus models for use in studies that aim to characterize about 70% of the U.S. commercial building stock. Sixteen building types - including restaurants, health care, schools, offices, supermarkets, retail, lodging, and warehouses - are modeled across 16 cities to represent the diversity of U.S. climate zones. Weighting factors have been developed to combine the models in proportions similar to those of the McGraw-Hill Construction Projects Starts Database for 2003-2007. This paper reviews the development and contents of these models and their applications in simulation studies.

  19. Prioritisation, resources and search terms: a study of decision-making at the virtual reference desk.

    OpenAIRE

    Attfield, Simon; Makri, Stephann; Kalbach, James; Blandford, Ann; De Gabrielle, Stephen; Edwards, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The reinterpretation of the traditional reference service in an online context is the virtual reference desk. Placing reference services into an online setting, however, presents many challenges. We report a study and analytic framework which addresses support for decision-making during virtual enquiry work. Focusing on specialist law-libraries, the study shows that enquirers do not volunteer important information to the service and that asynchronous communication media and some social obstac...

  20. Spirometry Reference Equations from the HCHS/SOL (Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaVange, Lisa; Davis, Sonia M; Hankinson, John; Enright, Paul; Wilson, Rebbecca; Barr, R Graham; Aldrich, Thomas K; Kalhan, Ravi; Lemus, Hector; Ni, Ai; Smith, Lewis J; Talavera, Gregory A

    2017-10-15

    Accurate reference values for spirometry are important because the results are used for diagnosing common chronic lung diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, estimating physiologic impairment, and predicting all-cause mortality. Reference equations have been established for Mexican Americans but not for others with Hispanic/Latino backgrounds. To develop spirometry reference equations for adult Hispanic/Latino background groups in the United States. The HCHS/SOL (Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos) recruited a population-based probability sample of 16,415 Hispanics/Latinos aged 18-74 years living in the Bronx, Chicago, Miami, and San Diego. Participants self-identified as being of Puerto Rican, Cuban, Dominican, Mexican, or Central or South American background. Spirometry was performed using standardized methods with central quality control monitoring. Spirometric measures from a subset of 6,425 never-smoking participants without respiratory symptoms or disease were modeled as a function of sex, age, height, and Hispanic/Latino background to produce background-specific reference equations for the predicted value and lower limit of normal. Dominican and Puerto Rican Americans had substantially lower predicted and lower limit of normal values for FVC and FEV 1 than those in other Hispanic/Latino background groups and also than Mexican American values from NHANES III (Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey). For patients of Dominican and Puerto Rican background who present with pulmonary symptoms in clinical practice, use of background-specific spirometry reference equations may provide more appropriate predicted and lower limit of normal values, enabling more accurate diagnoses of abnormality and physiologic impairment.

  1. Benefits of Record Management For Scientific Writing (Study of Metadata Reception of Zotero Reference Management Software in UIN Malang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moch Fikriansyah Wicaksono

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Record creation and management by individuals or organizations grows rapidly, particularly the change from print to electronics, and the smallest part of record (metadata. Therefore, there is a need to perform record management metadata, particularly for students who have the needs of recording references and citation. Reference management software (RMS is a software to help reference management, one of them named zotero. The purpose of this article is to describe the benefits of record management for the writing of scientific papers for students, especially on biology study program in UIN Malik Ibrahim Malang. The type of research used is descriptive with quantitative approach. To increase the depth of respondents' answers, we used additional data by conducting interviews. The selected population is 322 students, class of 2012 to 2014, using random sampling. The selection criteria were chosen because the introduction and use of reference management software, zotero have started since three years ago.  Respondents in this study as many as 80 people, which is obtained from the formula Yamane. The results showed that 70% agreed that using reference management software saved time and energy in managing digital file metadata, 71% agreed that if digital metadata can be quickly stored into RMS, 65% agreed on the ease of storing metadata into the reference management software, 70% agreed when it was easy to configure metadata to quote and bibliography, 56.6% agreed that the metadata stored in reference management software could be edited, 73.8% agreed that using metadata will make it easier to write quotes and bibliography.

  2. Selection and validation of a set of reliable reference genes for quantitative sod gene expression analysis in C. elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandesompele Jo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans the conserved Ins/IGF-1 signaling pathway regulates many biological processes including life span, stress response, dauer diapause and metabolism. Detection of differentially expressed genes may contribute to a better understanding of the mechanism by which the Ins/IGF-1 signaling pathway regulates these processes. Appropriate normalization is an essential prerequisite for obtaining accurate and reproducible quantification of gene expression levels. The aim of this study was to establish a reliable set of reference genes for gene expression analysis in C. elegans. Results Real-time quantitative PCR was used to evaluate the expression stability of 12 candidate reference genes (act-1, ama-1, cdc-42, csq-1, eif-3.C, mdh-1, gpd-2, pmp-3, tba-1, Y45F10D.4, rgs-6 and unc-16 in wild-type, three Ins/IGF-1 pathway mutants, dauers and L3 stage larvae. After geNorm analysis, cdc-42, pmp-3 and Y45F10D.4 showed the most stable expression pattern and were used to normalize 5 sod expression levels. Significant differences in mRNA levels were observed for sod-1 and sod-3 in daf-2 relative to wild-type animals, whereas in dauers sod-1, sod-3, sod-4 and sod-5 are differentially expressed relative to third stage larvae. Conclusion Our findings emphasize the importance of accurate normalization using stably expressed reference genes. The methodology used in this study is generally applicable to reliably quantify gene expression levels in the nematode C. elegans using quantitative PCR.

  3. Nationwide Multicenter Reference Interval Study for 28 Common Biochemical Analytes in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Liangyu; Chen, Ming; Liu, Min; Tao, Zhihua; Li, Shijun; Wang, Liang; Cheng, Xinqi; Qin, Xuzhen; Han, Jianhua; Li, Pengchang; Hou, Li'an; Yu, Songlin; Ichihara, Kiyoshi; Qiu, Ling

    2016-03-01

    A nationwide multicenter study was conducted in the China to explore sources of variation of reference values and establish reference intervals for 28 common biochemical analytes, as a part of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, Committee on Reference Intervals and Decision Limits (IFCC/C-RIDL) global study on reference values. A total of 3148 apparently healthy volunteers were recruited in 6 cities covering a wide area in China. Blood samples were tested in 2 central laboratories using Beckman Coulter AU5800 chemistry analyzers. Certified reference materials and value-assigned serum panel were used for standardization of test results. Multiple regression analysis was performed to explore sources of variation. Need for partition of reference intervals was evaluated based on 3-level nested ANOVA. After secondary exclusion using the latent abnormal values exclusion method, reference intervals were derived by a parametric method using the modified Box-Cox formula. Test results of 20 analytes were made traceable to reference measurement procedures. By the ANOVA, significant sex-related and age-related differences were observed in 12 and 12 analytes, respectively. A small regional difference was observed in the results for albumin, glucose, and sodium. Multiple regression analysis revealed BMI-related changes in results of 9 analytes for man and 6 for woman. Reference intervals of 28 analytes were computed with 17 analytes partitioned by sex and/or age. In conclusion, reference intervals of 28 common chemistry analytes applicable to Chinese Han population were established by use of the latest methodology. Reference intervals of 20 analytes traceable to reference measurement procedures can be used as common reference intervals, whereas others can be used as the assay system-specific reference intervals in China.

  4. Blanket comparison and selection study. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    The objectives of the Blanket Comparison and Selection Study (BCSS) can be stated as follows: (1) Define a small number (approx. 3) of blanket design concepts that should be the focus of the blanket R and D program. A design concept is defined by the selection of all materials (e.g., breeder, coolant, structure and multiplier) and other major characteristics that significantly influence the R and D requirements. (2) Identify and prioritize the critical issues for the leading blanket concepts. (3) Provide the technical input necessary to develop a blanket R and D program plan. Guidelines for prioritizing the R and D requirements include: (a) critical feasibility issues for the leading blanket concepts will receive the highest priority, and (b) for equally important feasibility issues, higher R and D priority will be given to those that require minimum cost and short time

  5. Comprehensive evaluation of candidate reference genes for gene expression studies in Lysiphlebia japonica (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) using RT-qPCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xue-Ke; Zhang, Shuai; Luo, Jun-Yu; Wang, Chun-Yi; Lü, Li-Min; Zhang, Li-Juan; Zhu, Xiang-Zhen; Wang, Li; Lu, Hui; Cui, Jin-Jie

    2017-12-30

    Lysiphlebia japonica (Ashmead) is a predominant parasitoid of cotton-melon aphids in the fields of northern China with a proven ability to effectively control cotton aphid populations in early summer. For accurate normalization of gene expression in L. japonica using quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), reference genes with stable gene expression patterns are essential. However, no appropriate reference genes is L. japonica have been investigated to date. In the present study, 12 selected housekeeping genes from L. japonica were cloned. We evaluated the stability of these genes under various experimental treatments by RT-qPCR using four independent (geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and Delta Ct) and one comparative (RefFinder) algorithm. We identified genes showing the most stable levels of expression: DIMT, 18S rRNA, and RPL13 during different stages; AK, RPL13, and TBP among sexes; EF1A, PPI, and RPL27 in different tissues, and EF1A, RPL13, and PPI in adults fed on different diets. Moreover, the expression profile of a target gene (odorant receptor 1, OR1) studied during the developmental stages confirms the reliability of the chosen selected reference genes. This study provides for the first time a comprehensive list of suitable reference genes for gene expression studies in L. japonica and will benefit subsequent genomics and functional genomics research on this natural enemy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. The Prevalence of Edentulism among Patients Over 35 Years of Age Referring to the Selected Dental Clinics in Qom City, Iran, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mina hamian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Backgroung and Objectives: Edentulism is a common phenomenon among the elderly, which its prevalence is one of the community health indicators. Edentulism leads to gastrointestinal diseases, esthetic defects, and reduction of social and psychological abilities. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of edentulism among patients aged 35 years and over who referred to the selected dental clinics of Qom city. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 394 patients (aged 35 years and over referring to the selected dental clinics of Qom city, 2014, were randomly selected. Before performing oral examination for each person, demographic characteristics, including age, sex, job, marital status, and economic status, as well as history of smoking, xerostomia, systemic diseases, oral hygiene, and causes for edentulism, were recorded in a questionnaire. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-square test. The level of significance was set at p<0.05. Results: The prevalence of edentulism was 23.9%, which had a significant relationship with gender, and was higher in male gender. The results of independent t-test showed that the mean age was higher in edentulous subjects and was higher (56.6. The most cause of tooth loss (75% was tooth decay. Among edentulous individuals, 84% were under diploma and 52.6% had moderate economic status. Also, 71.9% of them were brushing rarely. Conclusion: According to the results, the prevalence of edentulism in Qom was high. Also, there was a significant relationship between edentulism and education level, smoking, caries, periodontal disease, economic status, occupation, xerostomia, oral hygiene, and systemic diseases.

  7. Recurrent cerebral thrombosis; With special reference to the neuroradiological study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwamoto, Toshihiko; Abe, Shin-e; Kubo, Hideki; Hanyu, Haruo; Takasaki, Masaru (Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1992-10-01

    Neuroradiological techniques were used to elucidate pathophysiology of recurrent cerebral thrombosis. Twenty-two patients with cerebral thrombosis who suffered a second attack under stable conditions more than 22 days after the initial stroke were studied. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolemia were also seen in 20, 8, and 12 patients, respectively. The patients were divided into three groups according to their symptoms: (I) symptoms differed between the first and second strokes (n=12); (II) initial symptoms were suddenly deteriorated (n=6); and (III) symptoms occurring in groups I and II were seen (n=4). In group I, contralateral hemiparesis or suprabulbar palsy was often associated with the initial hemiparesis. The time of recurrent stroke varied from 4 months to 9 years. CT and MRI showed not only lacunae in both hemispheres, but also deep white-matter ischemia of the centrum semi-ovale. In group II, hemiparesis or visual field defect was deteriorated early after the initial stroke. In addition, neuroimaging revealed that infarction in the posterior cerebral artery was progressed on the contralateral side, or that white matter lesion in the middle artery was enlarged in spite of small lesion in the left cerebral hemisphere. All patients in group III had deterioration of right hemiparesis associated with aphasia. CT, MRI, SPECT, and angiography indicated deep white-matter ischemia caused by main trunk lesions in the left hemisphere. Group III seemed to be equivalent to group II, except for laterality of the lesion. Neuroradiological assessment of the initial stroke may help to predict the mode of recurrence, although pathophysiology of cerebral thrombosis is complicated and varies from patient to patient. (N.K.).

  8. Identification of valid reference genes for gene expression studies of human stomach cancer by reverse transcription-qPCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Yeon-Su

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR is a powerful method for the analysis of gene expression. Target gene expression levels are usually normalized to a consistently expressed reference gene also known as internal standard, in the same sample. However, much effort has not been expended thus far in the search for reference genes suitable for the study of stomach cancer using RT-qPCR, although selection of optimal reference genes is critical for interpretation of results. Methods We assessed the suitability of six possible reference genes, beta-actin (ACTB, glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase 1 (HPRT1, beta-2-microglobulin (B2M, ribosomal subunit L29 (RPL29 and 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA in 20 normal and tumor stomach tissue pairs of stomach cancer patients and 6 stomach cancer cell lines, by RT-qPCR. Employing expression stability analyses using NormFinder and geNorm algorithms we determined the order of performance of these reference genes and their variation values. Results This RT-qPCR study showed that there are statistically significant (p Conclusion This study validated RPL29 and RPL29-B2M as the best single reference genes and combination, for RT-qPCR analysis of 'all stomach tissues', and B2M and B2M-GAPDH as the best single reference gene and combination, for 'stomach cancer cell lines'. Use of these validated reference genes should provide more exact interpretation of differential gene expressions at transcription level in stomach cancer.

  9. The Mobile Reference Service: a case study of an onsite reference service program at the School of Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Donghua; McCarthy, Patrick G; Krieger, Mary M; Webb, Annie B

    2009-01-01

    The School of Public Health at Saint Louis University is located at a greater distance from the library than other programs on the main medical center campus. Physical distance diminishes the ease of access to direct reference services for public health users. To bridge the gap, the library developed the Mobile Reference Service to deliver on-site information assistance with regular office hours each week. Between September 2006 and April 2007, a total of 57 in-depth reference transactions took place over 25 weeks, averaging 2 transactions per week in a 2-hour period. Overall reference transactions from public health users went up 28%, while liaison contacts with public health users doubled compared to the same period the year before. The Mobile Reference Service program has improved library support for research and scholarship, cultivated and strengthened liaison relationships, and enhanced marketing and delivery of library resources and services to the Saint Louis University School of Public Health.

  10. The Mobile Reference Service: a case study of an onsite reference service program at the school of public health*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Donghua; McCarthy, Patrick G.; Krieger, Mary M.; Webb, Annie B.

    2009-01-01

    The School of Public Health at Saint Louis University is located at a greater distance from the library than other programs on the main medical center campus. Physical distance diminishes the ease of access to direct reference services for public health users. To bridge the gap, the library developed the Mobile Reference Service to deliver onsite information assistance with regular office hours each week. Between September 2006 and April 2007, a total of 57 in-depth reference transactions took place over 25 weeks, averaging 2 transactions per week in a 2-hour period. Overall reference transactions from public health users went up 28%, while liaison contacts with public health users doubled compared to the same period the year before. The Mobile Reference Service program has improved library support for research and scholarship, cultivated and strengthened liaison relationships, and enhanced marketing and delivery of library resources and services to the Saint Louis University School of Public Health. PMID:19159004

  11. Acute myeloid leukemia and background radiation in an expanded case-referent study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flodin, U.; Fredriksson, M.; Persson, B.; Axelson, O.

    1990-01-01

    A case-referent study that investigated possible associations between environmental and occupational exposures and acute myeloid leukemia was performed on 86 cases and 172 referents, all of whom were living. Exposure information was obtained through a questionnaire mailed to each subject. An association was found between time spent in concrete buildings at home and work and leukemia morbidity. In addition, extensive x-ray examinations that occurred more than 5 y prior to diagnosis were more common among cases than referents

  12. Review of neutron activation analysis in the standardization and study of reference materials, including its application to radionuclide reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) plays a very important role in the certification of reference materials (RMs) and their characterization, including homogeneity testing. The features of the method are briefly reviewed, particularly aspects relating to its completely independent nuclear basis, its virtual freedom from blank problems, and its capacity for self-verification. This last aspect, arising from the essentially isotopic character of NAA, can be exploited by using different nuclear reactions and induced nuclides, and the possibility of employing two modes, one instrumental (nondestructive), the other radiochemical (destructive). This enables the derivation of essentially independent analytical information and the unique capacity of NAA for selfvalidation. The application of NAA to quantify natural or man-made radionuclides such as uranium, thorium, 237 Np, 129 I and 230 Th is discussed, including its advantages over conventional radiometric methods and its usefulness in providing independent data for nuclides where other confirmatory analyses are impossible, or are only recently becoming available through newer 'atom counting' techniques. Certain additional, prospective uses of NAA in the study of RMs and potential RMs are mentioned, including transmutation reactions, creation of endogenously radiolabelled matrices for production and study of RMs (such as dissolution and leaching tests, use as incorporated radiotracers for chemical recovery correction), and the possibility of molecular activation analysis for specification. (orig.)

  13. Equivalence testing using existing reference data: An example with genetically modified and conventional crops in animal feeding studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Voet, Hilko; Goedhart, Paul W; Schmidt, Kerstin

    2017-11-01

    An equivalence testing method is described to assess the safety of regulated products using relevant data obtained in historical studies with assumedly safe reference products. The method is illustrated using data from a series of animal feeding studies with genetically modified and reference maize varieties. Several criteria for quantifying equivalence are discussed, and study-corrected distribution-wise equivalence is selected as being appropriate for the example case study. An equivalence test is proposed based on a high probability of declaring equivalence in a simplified situation, where there is no between-group variation, where the historical and current studies have the same residual variance, and where the current study is assumed to have a sample size as set by a regulator. The method makes use of generalized fiducial inference methods to integrate uncertainties from both the historical and the current data. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Identification and validation of reference genes for qRT-PCR studies of the obligate aphid pathogenic fungus Pandora neoaphidis during different developmental stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shutao Zhang

    Full Text Available The selection of stable reference genes is a critical step for the accurate quantification of gene expression. To identify and validate the reference genes in Pandora neoaphidis-an obligate aphid pathogenic fungus-the expression of 13classical candidate reference genes were evaluated by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction(qPCR at four developmental stages (conidia, conidia with germ tubes, short hyphae and elongated hyphae. Four statistical algorithms, including geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and Delta Ct method were used to rank putative reference genes according to their expression stability and indicate the best reference gene or combination of reference genes for accurate normalization. The analysis of comprehensive ranking revealed that ACT1and 18Swas the most stably expressed genes throughout the developmental stages. To further validate the suitability of the reference genes identified in this study, the expression of cell division control protein 25 (CDC25 and Chitinase 1(CHI1 genes were used to further confirm the validated candidate reference genes. Our study presented the first systematic study of reference gene(s selection for P. neoaphidis study and provided guidelines to obtain more accurate qPCR results for future developmental efforts.

  15. Identification and validation of reference genes for qRT-PCR studies of the obligate aphid pathogenic fungus Pandora neoaphidis during different developmental stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shutao; Chen, Chun; Xie, Tingna; Ye, Sudan

    2017-01-01

    The selection of stable reference genes is a critical step for the accurate quantification of gene expression. To identify and validate the reference genes in Pandora neoaphidis-an obligate aphid pathogenic fungus-the expression of 13classical candidate reference genes were evaluated by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction(qPCR) at four developmental stages (conidia, conidia with germ tubes, short hyphae and elongated hyphae). Four statistical algorithms, including geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and Delta Ct method were used to rank putative reference genes according to their expression stability and indicate the best reference gene or combination of reference genes for accurate normalization. The analysis of comprehensive ranking revealed that ACT1and 18Swas the most stably expressed genes throughout the developmental stages. To further validate the suitability of the reference genes identified in this study, the expression of cell division control protein 25 (CDC25) and Chitinase 1(CHI1) genes were used to further confirm the validated candidate reference genes. Our study presented the first systematic study of reference gene(s) selection for P. neoaphidis study and provided guidelines to obtain more accurate qPCR results for future developmental efforts.

  16. Identification of valid reference genes for gene expression studies of human stomach cancer by reverse transcription-qPCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rho, Hyun-Wook; Lee, Byoung-Chan; Choi, Eun-Seok; Choi, Il-Ju; Lee, Yeon-Su; Goh, Sung-Ho

    2010-01-01

    Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a powerful method for the analysis of gene expression. Target gene expression levels are usually normalized to a consistently expressed reference gene also known as internal standard, in the same sample. However, much effort has not been expended thus far in the search for reference genes suitable for the study of stomach cancer using RT-qPCR, although selection of optimal reference genes is critical for interpretation of results. We assessed the suitability of six possible reference genes, beta-actin (ACTB), glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase 1 (HPRT1), beta-2-microglobulin (B2M), ribosomal subunit L29 (RPL29) and 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) in 20 normal and tumor stomach tissue pairs of stomach cancer patients and 6 stomach cancer cell lines, by RT-qPCR. Employing expression stability analyses using NormFinder and geNorm algorithms we determined the order of performance of these reference genes and their variation values. This RT-qPCR study showed that there are statistically significant (p < 0.05) differences in the expression levels of HPRT1 and 18S rRNA in 'normal-' versus 'tumor stomach tissues'. The stability analyses by geNorm suggest B2M-GAPDH, as best reference gene combination for 'stomach cancer cell lines'; RPL29-HPRT1, for 'all stomach tissues'; and ACTB-18S rRNA, for 'all stomach cell lines and tissues'. NormFinder also identified B2M as the best reference gene for 'stomach cancer cell lines', RPL29-B2M for 'all stomach tissues', and 18S rRNA-ACTB for 'all stomach cell lines and tissues'. The comparisons of normalized expression of the target gene, GPNMB, showed different interpretation of target gene expression depend on best single reference gene or combination. This study validated RPL29 and RPL29-B2M as the best single reference

  17. Agreement between diagnoses reached by clinical examination and available reference standards: a prospective study of 216 patients with lumbopelvic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tropp Hans

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tissue origin of low back pain (LBP or referred lower extremity symptoms (LES may be identified in about 70% of cases using advanced imaging, discography and facet or sacroiliac joint blocks. These techniques are invasive and availability varies. A clinical examination is non-invasive and widely available but its validity is questioned. Diagnostic studies usually examine single tests in relation to single reference standards, yet in clinical practice, clinicians use multiple tests and select from a range of possible diagnoses. There is a need for studies that evaluate the diagnostic performance of clinical diagnoses against available reference standards. Methods We compared blinded clinical diagnoses with diagnoses based on available reference standards for known causes of LBP or LES such as discography, facet, sacroiliac or hip joint blocks, epidurals injections, advanced imaging studies or any combination of these tests. A prospective, blinded validity design was employed. Physiotherapists examined consecutive patients with chronic lumbopelvic pain and/or referred LES scheduled to receive the reference standard examinations. When diagnoses were in complete agreement regardless of complexity, "exact" agreement was recorded. When the clinical diagnosis was included within the reference standard diagnoses, "clinical agreement" was recorded. The proportional chance criterion (PCC statistic was used to estimate agreement on multiple diagnostic possibilities because it accounts for the prevalence of individual categories in the sample. The kappa statistic was used to estimate agreement on six pathoanatomic diagnoses. Results In a sample of chronic LBP patients (n = 216 with high levels of disability and distress, 67% received a patho-anatomic diagnosis based on available reference standards, and 10% had more than one tissue origin of pain identified. For 27 diagnostic categories and combinations, chance clinical agreement

  18. Needs assessment for next generation computer-aided mammography reference image databases and evaluation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsch, Alexander; Hapfelmeier, Alexander; Elter, Matthias

    2011-11-01

    Breast cancer is globally a major threat for women's health. Screening and adequate follow-up can significantly reduce the mortality from breast cancer. Human second reading of screening mammograms can increase breast cancer detection rates, whereas this has not been proven for current computer-aided detection systems as "second reader". Critical factors include the detection accuracy of the systems and the screening experience and training of the radiologist with the system. When assessing the performance of systems and system components, the choice of evaluation methods is particularly critical. Core assets herein are reference image databases and statistical methods. We have analyzed characteristics and usage of the currently largest publicly available mammography database, the Digital Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM) from the University of South Florida, in literature indexed in Medline, IEEE Xplore, SpringerLink, and SPIE, with respect to type of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) (detection, CADe, or diagnostics, CADx), selection of database subsets, choice of evaluation method, and quality of descriptions. 59 publications presenting 106 evaluation studies met our selection criteria. In 54 studies (50.9%), the selection of test items (cases, images, regions of interest) extracted from the DDSM was not reproducible. Only 2 CADx studies, not any CADe studies, used the entire DDSM. The number of test items varies from 100 to 6000. Different statistical evaluation methods are chosen. Most common are train/test (34.9% of the studies), leave-one-out (23.6%), and N-fold cross-validation (18.9%). Database-related terminology tends to be imprecise or ambiguous, especially regarding the term "case". Overall, both the use of the DDSM as data source for evaluation of mammography CAD systems, and the application of statistical evaluation methods were found highly diverse. Results reported from different studies are therefore hardly comparable. Drawbacks of the DDSM

  19. Thermodynamic study of selected monoterpenes III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Štejfa, Vojtěch; Fulem, Michal; Růžička, Květoslav; Červinka, Ctirad

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • (−)-trans-Pinane, (+)-Δ-carene, eucalyptol, and limonene were studied. • New thermodynamic data were measured and calculated. • Many of thermodynamic data are reported for the first time. - Abstract: A thermodynamic study of selected monoterpenes, (−)-trans-pinane, (+)-Δ-carene, eucalyptol, (+)-limonene, and (−)-limonene, is presented in this work. The vapor pressure measurements were performed using the static method over the environmentally important temperature range (238 to 308) K. Liquid heat capacities were measured by Tian–Calvet calorimetry in the temperature interval (258 to 355) K. The phase behavior was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) from T = 183 K. The thermodynamic properties in the ideal-gas state were calculated by combining statistical thermodynamic and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Calculated ideal-gas heat capacities and experimental data for vapor pressures and condensed phase heat capacities were treated simultaneously to obtain a consistent thermodynamic description

  20. Identification of a set of endogenous reference genes for miRNA expression studies in Parkinson's disease blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, Alice; Foco, Luisa; Blankenburg, Hagen; Picard, Anne; Zanigni, Stefano; Zanon, Alessandra; Pramstaller, Peter P; Hicks, Andrew A; Schwienbacher, Christine

    2014-10-10

    Research on microRNAs (miRNAs) is becoming an increasingly attractive field, as these small RNA molecules are involved in several physiological functions and diseases. To date, only few studies have assessed the expression of blood miRNAs related to Parkinson's disease (PD) using microarray and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Measuring miRNA expression involves normalization of qRT-PCR data using endogenous reference genes for calibration, but their choice remains a delicate problem with serious impact on the resulting expression levels. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the suitability of a set of commonly used small RNAs as normalizers and to identify which of these miRNAs might be considered reliable reference genes in qRT-PCR expression analyses on PD blood samples. Commonly used reference genes snoRNA RNU24, snRNA RNU6B, snoRNA Z30 and miR-103a-3p were selected from the literature. We then analyzed the effect of using these genes as reference, alone or in any possible combination, on the measured expression levels of the target genes miR-30b-5p and miR-29a-3p, which have been previously reported to be deregulated in PD blood samples. We identified RNU24 and Z30 as a reliable and stable pair of reference genes in PD blood samples.

  1. Gene selection heuristic algorithm for nutrigenomics studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valour, D; Hue, I; Grimard, B; Valour, B

    2013-07-15

    Large datasets from -omics studies need to be deeply investigated. The aim of this paper is to provide a new method (LEM method) for the search of transcriptome and metabolome connections. The heuristic algorithm here described extends the classical canonical correlation analysis (CCA) to a high number of variables (without regularization) and combines well-conditioning and fast-computing in "R." Reduced CCA models are summarized in PageRank matrices, the product of which gives a stochastic matrix that resumes the self-avoiding walk covered by the algorithm. Then, a homogeneous Markov process applied to this stochastic matrix converges the probabilities of interconnection between genes, providing a selection of disjointed subsets of genes. This is an alternative to regularized generalized CCA for the determination of blocks within the structure matrix. Each gene subset is thus linked to the whole metabolic or clinical dataset that represents the biological phenotype of interest. Moreover, this selection process reaches the aim of biologists who often need small sets of genes for further validation or extended phenotyping. The algorithm is shown to work efficiently on three published datasets, resulting in meaningfully broadened gene networks.

  2. Selective bibliography of surface coal mining and reclamation literature. Volume 1. Eastern coal province. [More than 1300 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, N. E.; Sobek, A. A.; Streib, D. L.

    1977-11-01

    This bibliography has been compiled for use by researchers, students, and other groups who need a reference source of published literature related to surface coal mining and reclamation in the Eastern Coal Province. This bibliography contains more than 1300 references including government reports, journal articles, symposium proceedings, industrial reports, workshop proceedings, theses, and bibliographices. A simple format was used to categorize citations.

  3. Evaluation of reference genes for RT-qPCR study in abalone Haliotis discus hannai during heavy metal overload stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Yoon Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evaluation of suitable reference genes as normalization controls is a prerequisite requirement for launching quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-qPCR-based expression study. In order to select the stable reference genes in abalone Haliotis discus hannai tissues (gill and hepatopancreas under heavy metal exposure conditions (Cu, Zn, and Cd, 12 potential candidate housekeeping genes were subjected to expression stability based on the comprehensive ranking while integrating four different statistical algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and ΔCT method. Results Expression stability in the gill subset was determined as RPL7 > RPL8 > ACTB > RPL3 > PPIB > RPL7A > EF1A > RPL4 > GAPDH > RPL5 > UBE2 > B-TU. On the other hand, the ranking in the subset for hepatopancreas was RPL7 > RPL3 > RPL8 > ACTB > RPL4 > EF1A > RPL5 > RPL7A > B-TU > UBE2 > PPIB > GAPDH. The pairwise variation assessed by the geNorm program indicates that two reference genes could be sufficient for accurate normalization in both gill and hepatopancreas subsets. Overall, both gill and hepatopancreas subsets recommended ribosomal protein genes (particularly RPL7 as stable references, whereas traditional housekeepers such as β-tubulin (B-TU and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH genes were ranked as unstable genes. The validation of reference gene selection was confirmed with the quantitative assay of MT transcripts. Conclusions The present analysis showed the importance of validating reference genes with multiple algorithmic approaches to select genes that are truly stable. Our results indicate that expression stability of a given reference gene could not always have consensus across tissue types. The data from this study could be a good guide for the future design of RT-qPCR studies with respect to metal regulation/detoxification and other related

  4. Selection of reference genes for normalisation of real-time RT-PCR in brain-stem death injury in Ovis aries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser John F

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heart and lung transplantation is frequently the only therapeutic option for patients with end stage cardio respiratory disease. Organ donation post brain stem death (BSD is a pre-requisite, yet BSD itself causes such severe damage that many organs offered for donation are unusable, with lung being the organ most affected by BSD. In Australia and New Zealand, less than 50% of lungs offered for donation post BSD are suitable for transplantation, as compared with over 90% of kidneys, resulting in patients dying for lack of suitable lungs. Our group has developed a novel 24 h sheep BSD model to mimic the physiological milieu of the typical human organ donor. Characterisation of the gene expression changes associated with BSD is critical and will assist in determining the aetiology of lung damage post BSD. Real-time PCR is a highly sensitive method involving multiple steps from extraction to processing RNA so the choice of housekeeping genes is important in obtaining reliable results. Little information however, is available on the expression stability of reference genes in the sheep pulmonary artery and lung. We aimed to establish a set of stably expressed reference genes for use as a standard for analysis of gene expression changes in BSD. Results We evaluated the expression stability of 6 candidate normalisation genes (ACTB, GAPDH, HGPRT, PGK1, PPIA and RPLP0 using real time quantitative PCR. There was a wide range of Ct-values within each tissue for pulmonary artery (15–24 and lung (16–25 but the expression pattern for each gene was similar across the two tissues. After geNorm analysis, ACTB and PPIA were shown to be the most stably expressed in the pulmonary artery and ACTB and PGK1 in the lung tissue of BSD sheep. Conclusion Accurate normalisation is critical in obtaining reliable and reproducible results in gene expression studies. This study demonstrates tissue associated variability in the selection of these

  5. A reference dataset for deformable image registration spatial accuracy evaluation using the COPDgene study archive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo, Richard; Castillo, Edward; Wood, Abbie M; Ludwig, Michelle S; Guerrero, Thomas; Fuentes, David; Ahmad, Moiz

    2013-01-01

    Landmark point-pairs provide a strategy to assess deformable image registration (DIR) accuracy in terms of the spatial registration of the underlying anatomy depicted in medical images. In this study, we propose to augment a publicly available database (www.dir-lab.com) of medical images with large sets of manually identified anatomic feature pairs between breath-hold computed tomography (BH-CT) images for DIR spatial accuracy evaluation. Ten BH-CT image pairs were randomly selected from the COPDgene study cases. Each patient had received CT imaging of the entire thorax in the supine position at one-fourth dose normal expiration and maximum effort full dose inspiration. Using dedicated in-house software, an imaging expert manually identified large sets of anatomic feature pairs between images. Estimates of inter- and intra-observer spatial variation in feature localization were determined by repeat measurements of multiple observers over subsets of randomly selected features. 7298 anatomic landmark features were manually paired between the 10 sets of images. Quantity of feature pairs per case ranged from 447 to 1172. Average 3D Euclidean landmark displacements varied substantially among cases, ranging from 12.29 (SD: 6.39) to 30.90 (SD: 14.05) mm. Repeat registration of uniformly sampled subsets of 150 landmarks for each case yielded estimates of observer localization error, which ranged in average from 0.58 (SD: 0.87) to 1.06 (SD: 2.38) mm for each case. The additions to the online web database (www.dir-lab.com) described in this work will broaden the applicability of the reference data, providing a freely available common dataset for targeted critical evaluation of DIR spatial accuracy performance in multiple clinical settings. Estimates of observer variance in feature localization suggest consistent spatial accuracy for all observers across both four-dimensional CT and COPDgene patient cohorts. (paper)

  6. Certification of a new biological reference material - Virginia Tobacco Leaves (CTA-VTL-2) and homogeneity study by NAA on this and other candidate reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dybczynski, Rajmund; Polkowska-Motrenko, Halina; Samczynski, Zbigniew; Szopa, Zygmunt; Kulisa, Krzysztof; Wasek, Marek

    2002-01-01

    This report describes the laboratory's participation in the interlaboratory comparison run where the laboratory applied neutron activation analysis aimed at certification of the candidate reference material. Data evaluation and statistical treatment steps are discussed. The report also describes homogeneity study on the reference material and provides details of the analytical procedures

  7. Virtual Reference Services through Web Search Engines: Study of Academic Libraries in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubia Khan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Web search engines (WSE are powerful and popular tools in the field of information service management. This study is an attempt to examine the impact and usefulness of web search engines in providing virtual reference services (VRS within academic libraries in Pakistan. The study also attempts to investigate the relevant expertise and skills of library professionals in providing digital reference services (DRS efficiently using web search engines. Methodology used in this study is quantitative in nature. The data was collected from fifty public and private sector universities in Pakistan using a structured questionnaire. Microsoft Excel and SPSS were used for data analysis. The study concludes that web search engines are commonly used by librarians to help users (especially research scholars by providing digital reference services. The study also finds a positive correlation between use of web search engines and quality of digital reference services provided to library users. It is concluded that although search engines have increased the expectations of users and are really big competitors to a library’s reference desk, they are however not an alternative to reference service. Findings reveal that search engines pose numerous challenges for librarians and the study also attempts to bring together possible remedial measures. This study is useful for library professionals to understand the importance of search engines in providing VRS. The study also provides an intellectual comparison among different search engines, their capabilities, limitations, challenges and opportunities to provide VRS effectively in libraries.

  8. Pediatric reference intervals for general clinical chemistry components - merging of studies from Denmark and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridefelt, Peter; Hilsted, Linda; Juul, Anders; Hellberg, Dan; Rustad, Pål

    2018-05-28

    Reference intervals are crucial tools aiding clinicians when making medical decisions. However, for children such values often are lacking or incomplete. The present study combines data from separate pediatric reference interval studies of Denmark and Sweden in order to increase sample size and to include also pre-school children who were lacking in the Danish study. Results from two separate studies including 1988 healthy children and adolescents aged 6 months to 18 years of age were merged and recalculated. Eighteen general clinical chemistry components were measured on Abbott and Roche platforms. To facilitate commutability, the NFKK Reference Serum X was used. Age- and gender-specific pediatric reference intervals were defined by calculating 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles. The data generated are primarily applicable to a Nordic population, but could be used by any laboratory if validated for the local patient population.

  9. The application of HPLC-F and GC-MS to the analysis of selected hydroxy polycylic hydrocarbons in two certified fish bile reference materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonsson, G.; Beyer, J.; Wells, D.; Ariese, F.

    2003-01-01

    Four selected hydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs), 2-hydroxy-naphthalene (2-OH-NPH), 1-hydroxy-phenanthrene (1-OH-PHE), 1-hydroxy-pyrene (1-OH-PYR) and 3-hydroxy-benzo[a]pyrene (3-OH-BaP) have been analysed in two certified fish bile reference materials (CRMs) for exposure monitoring

  10. The application of HPLC-F and GC-MS to the analysis of selected hydroxy polycyclic hydrocarbons in two certified fish bile reference materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonsson, G.; Beyer, J.; Wells, D.E.; Ariese, F.

    2003-01-01

    Four selected hydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs), 2-hydroxy-naphthalene (2-OH-NPH), 1-hydroxy-phenanthrene (1-OH-PHE), 1-hydroxy-pyrene (1-OH-PYR) and 3-hydroxy-benzo[a]pyrene (3-OH-BaP) have been analysed in two certified fish bile reference materials (CRMs) for exposure monitoring

  11. The importance of the selection of appropriate reference genes for gene expression profiling in adrenal medulla or sympathetic ganglia of spontaneously hypertensive rat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vavřínová, Anna; Behuliak, Michal; Zicha, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 3 (2016), s. 401-411 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-16225P Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : adrenal medulla * gene expression profiling * reference gene selection * sympathetic nervous system Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 1.461, year: 2016

  12. Evaluation of reference genes for real-time quantitative PCR studies in Candida glabrata following azole treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Qingdi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The selection of stable and suitable reference genes for real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR is a crucial prerequisite for reliable gene expression analysis under different experimental conditions. The present study aimed to identify reference genes as internal controls for gene expression studies by RT-qPCR in azole-stimulated Candida glabrata. Results The expression stability of 16 reference genes under fluconazole stress was evaluated using fold change and standard deviation computations with the hkgFinder tool. Our data revealed that the mRNA expression levels of three ribosomal RNAs (RDN5.8, RDN18, and RDN25 remained stable in response to fluconazole, while PGK1, UBC7, and UBC13 mRNAs showed only approximately 2.9-, 3.0-, and 2.5-fold induction by azole, respectively. By contrast, mRNA levels of the other 10 reference genes (ACT1, EF1α, GAPDH, PPIA, RPL2A, RPL10, RPL13A, SDHA, TUB1, and UBC4 were dramatically increased in C. glabrata following antifungal treatment, exhibiting changes ranging from 4.5- to 32.7-fold. We also assessed the expression stability of these reference genes using the 2-ΔΔCT method and three other software packages. The stability rankings of the reference genes by geNorm and the 2-ΔΔCT method were identical to those by hkgFinder, whereas the stability rankings by BestKeeper and NormFinder were notably different. We then validated the suitability of six candidate reference genes (ACT1, PGK1, RDN5.8, RDN18, UBC7, and UBC13 as internal controls for ten target genes in this system using the comparative CT method. Our validation experiments passed for all six reference genes analyzed except RDN18, where the amplification efficiency of RDN18 was different from that of the ten target genes. Finally, we demonstrated that the relative quantification of target gene expression varied according to the endogenous control used, highlighting the importance of the choice of internal controls in such

  13. Thermodynamic study of selected monoterpenes II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Štejfa, Vojtěch; Fulem, Michal; Růžička, Květoslav; Červinka, Ctirad

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • (−)-Borneol, (−)-camphor, (±)-camphene, and (+)-fenchone were studied. • New thermodynamic data were measured and calculated. • Most of thermodynamic data are reported for the first time. - Abstract: A thermodynamic study of selected monoterpenes, (−)-borneol, (−)-camphor, (±)-camphene, and (+)-fenchone is presented in this work. The vapor pressure measurements were performed using the static method over the environmentally important temperature range from (238 to 308) K. Heat capacities of condensed phases were measured by Tian–Calvet calorimetry in the temperature interval from (258 to 355) K. The phase behavior was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) from subambient temperatures up to the fusion temperatures. The thermodynamic properties in the ideal-gas state were calculated by combining statistical thermodynamic and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Calculated ideal-gas heat capacities and experimental data for vapor pressures and condensed phase heat capacities were treated simultaneously to obtain a consistent thermodynamic description

  14. Using RNA-Seq Data to Evaluate Reference Genes Suitable for Gene Expression Studies in Soybean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldrin Kay-Yuen Yim

    Full Text Available Differential gene expression profiles often provide important clues for gene functions. While reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR is an important tool, the validity of the results depends heavily on the choice of proper reference genes. In this study, we employed new and published RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq datasets (26 sequencing libraries in total to evaluate reference genes reported in previous soybean studies. In silico PCR showed that 13 out of 37 previously reported primer sets have multiple targets, and 4 of them have amplicons with different sizes. Using a probabilistic approach, we identified new and improved candidate reference genes. We further performed 2 validation tests (with 26 RNA samples on 8 commonly used reference genes and 7 newly identified candidates, using RT-qPCR. In general, the new candidate reference genes exhibited more stable expression levels under the tested experimental conditions. The three newly identified candidate reference genes Bic-C2, F-box protein2, and VPS-like gave the best overall performance, together with the commonly used ELF1b. It is expected that the proposed probabilistic model could serve as an important tool to identify stable reference genes when more soybean RNA-Seq data from different growth stages and treatments are used.

  15. Identification of suitable reference genes for gene expression studies of shoulder instability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Ferreira Leal

    Full Text Available Shoulder instability is a common shoulder injury, and patients present with plastic deformation of the glenohumeral capsule. Gene expression analysis may be a useful tool for increasing the general understanding of capsule deformation, and reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR has become an effective method for such studies. Although RT-qPCR is highly sensitive and specific, it requires the use of suitable reference genes for data normalization to guarantee meaningful and reproducible results. In the present study, we evaluated the suitability of a set of reference genes using samples from the glenohumeral capsules of individuals with and without shoulder instability. We analyzed the expression of six commonly used reference genes (ACTB, B2M, GAPDH, HPRT1, TBP and TFRC in the antero-inferior, antero-superior and posterior portions of the glenohumeral capsules of cases and controls. The stability of the candidate reference gene expression was determined using four software packages: NormFinder, geNorm, BestKeeper and DataAssist. Overall, HPRT1 was the best single reference gene, and HPRT1 and B2M composed the best pair of reference genes from different analysis groups, including simultaneous analysis of all tissue samples. GenEx software was used to identify the optimal number of reference genes to be used for normalization and demonstrated that the accumulated standard deviation resulting from the use of 2 reference genes was similar to that resulting from the use of 3 or more reference genes. To identify the optimal combination of reference genes, we evaluated the expression of COL1A1. Although the use of different reference gene combinations yielded variable normalized quantities, the relative quantities within sample groups were similar and confirmed that no obvious differences were observed when using 2, 3 or 4 reference genes. Consequently, the use of 2 stable reference genes for normalization, especially

  16. Selection of suitable reference genes for normalization of genes of interest in canine soft tissue sarcomas using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zornhagen, K. W.; Kristensen, A. T.; Hansen, Anders Elias

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a sensitive technique for quantifying gene expression. Stably expressed reference genes are necessary for normalization of RT-qPCR data. Only a few articles have been published on reference genes in canine tumours....... The objective of this study was to demonstrate how to identify suitable reference genes for normalization of genes of interest in canine soft tissue sarcomas using RT-qPCR. Primer pairs for 17 potential reference genes were designed and tested in archival tumour biopsies from six dogs. The geNorm algorithm...

  17. Annual report references to dog longevity studies in which all dogs have died

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boecker, B B

    1988-12-01

    All of the dogs in several of the-lifespan studies with beta-emitting radionuclides are dead. Routine annual summaries of these studies have been discontinued. To aid the reader interested in obtaining further information, this report provides summaries of the final status of each study and lists all previous ITRI Annual Report references for each study. (author)

  18. Annual report references to dog longevity studies in which all dogs have died

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecker, B.B.

    1988-01-01

    All of the dogs in several of the-lifespan studies with beta-emitting radionuclides are dead. Routine annual summaries of these studies have been discontinued. To aid the reader interested in obtaining further information, this report provides summaries of the final status of each study and lists all previous ITRI Annual Report references for each study. (author)

  19. Migraine and Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: A Case-Referent Clinical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Woldeamanuel, Yohannes W.; Cooley, Corinne; Foley-Saldena, Katharine; Cowan, Robert P.

    2017-01-01

    We studied clinical phenotype differences between migraineurs with CRPS (Mig + CRPS) and those without (Mig − CRPS). Mig + CRPS cases and Mig − CRPS referents aged ≥18 years were enrolled. Diagnosis was made in accordance with International Classification of Headache Disorders-3 beta (ICHD-3 beta) for migraine and Budapest Criteria for CRPS. Migraines both with and without aura were included. A total of 70 Mig + CRPS cases (13% males, mean age 48 years) and 80 Mig − CRPS referents (17% males,...

  20. Geological and geochemical aspects of uranium deposits: a selected, annotated bibliography. Vol. 2, Rev. 1. [490 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, J.M.; Brock, M.L.; Garland, P.A.; White, M.B.; Daniel, E.W. (comps.)

    1979-07-01

    This bibliography, a compilation of 490 references, is the second in a series compiled from the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Bibliographic Data Base. This data base is one of six data bases created by the Ecological Sciences Information Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, for the Grand Junction Office of the Department of Energy. Major emphasis for this volume has been placed on uranium geology, encompassing deposition, genesis of ore deposits, and ore controls; and prospecting techniques, including geochemistry and aerial reconnaissance. The following indexes are provided to aid the user in locating references of interest: author, geographic location, quadrangle name, geoformational feature, taxonomic name, and keyword.

  1. Exploring valid reference genes for quantitative real - time rt - pce studies of hydrogenperoxide signaling in arabidopsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, H.; Han, B.; Xie, Y.; Zhang, J.; Shen, W.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ ) acts as a signaling molecule modulating the expression of various genes in plants. However, the reference gene(s) used for gene expression analysis of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ signaling is still arbitrary. A reliable result obtained by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) highly depends on accurate transcript normalization using stably expressed reference genes, whereas the inaccurate normalization could easily lead to the false conclusions. In this report, by using geNorm and NormFinder algorithms, 12 candidate reference genes were evaluated and compared in root and shoot tissues of Arabidopsis upon different doses of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/. The results revealed that, in our experimental conditions, three novel reference genes (TIP41-like, UKN, and UBC21) were identified and validated as suitable reference genes for RT-qPCR normalization in both root and shoot tissues under oxidative stress. This conclusion was further confirmed by publicly available microarray data of methyl viologen and drought stress. In comparison with a single reference gene (EF-1a), the expression pattern of ZAT12 modulated by H/sub 2/O/sub 2/, when using TIP41-like, UKN, and UBC21 as multiple reference gene(s), was similar with the previous reports by using northern blotting. Thus, we proposed that these three reference genes might be good candidates for other researchers to include in their reference gene validation in gene expression studies under H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ related oxidative stress. (author)

  2. Statistical considerations for harmonization of the global multicenter study on reference values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihara, Kiyoshi

    2014-05-15

    The global multicenter study on reference values coordinated by the Committee on Reference Intervals and Decision Limits (C-RIDL) of the IFCC was launched in December 2011, targeting 45 commonly tested analytes with the following objectives: 1) to derive reference intervals (RIs) country by country using a common protocol, and 2) to explore regionality/ethnicity of reference values by aligning test results among the countries. To achieve these objectives, it is crucial to harmonize 1) the protocol for recruitment and sampling, 2) statistical procedures for deriving the RI, and 3) test results through measurement of a panel of sera in common. For harmonized recruitment, very lenient inclusion/exclusion criteria were adopted in view of differences in interpretation of what constitutes healthiness by different cultures and investigators. This policy may require secondary exclusion of individuals according to the standard of each country at the time of deriving RIs. An iterative optimization procedure, called the latent abnormal values exclusion (LAVE) method, can be applied to automate the process of refining the choice of reference individuals. For global comparison of reference values, test results must be harmonized, based on the among-country, pair-wise linear relationships of test values for the panel. Traceability of reference values can be ensured based on values assigned indirectly to the panel through collaborative measurement of certified reference materials. The validity of the adopted strategies is discussed in this article, based on interim results obtained to date from five countries. Special considerations are made for dissociation of RIs by parametric and nonparametric methods and between-country difference in the effect of body mass index on reference values. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Fresh biological reference materials. Use in inter laboratory studies and as CRMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Boer, J.

    1999-01-01

    Biological reference materials were prepared and packed in tins and glass jars to be used in inter laboratory studies on chlorobiphenyls and organochlorine pesticides, and trace metals, respectively. The materials were homogenised, sterilised and packed as wet tissue, which is unique for the purpose of inter laboratory studies and offers the advantage of studying the extraction and destruction steps of the analytical methods. In addition to their use in inter laboratory studies, some materials have been prepared or are being prepared as certified reference material for chlorobiphenyl analysis. (author)

  4. Reference intervals for serum osteocalcin concentrations in adult men and women from the study of health in Pomerania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannemann, Anke; Friedrich, Nele; Spielhagen, Christin; Rettig, Rainer; Ittermann, Till; Nauck, Matthias; Wallaschofski, Henri

    2013-03-13

    Osteocalcin (OC) is a bone-specific protein produced primarily by osteoblasts during bone formation. Besides its role in bone formation, osteocalcin may play a role in the regulation of energy metabolism and male fertility. To interpret serum OC data, reference intervals adapted to a specific laboratory method are needed. A healthy reference population was selected from the first follow-up of the Study of Health in Pomerania. Serum OC concentrations were measured with the IDS-iSYS N-Mid Osteocalcin assay on the IDS-iSYS Automated System (Immunodiagnostic Systems, Frankfurt am Main, Germany). The reference interval was defined as the central 95% range (2.5th-97.5th percentile). Age-specific reference intervals were calculated by quantile regression for 1107 men (25-79 years) and 545 premenopausal women (25-54 years). The reference interval for 498 postmenopausal women (50-79 years) was calculated irrespective of age. Median (1st-3rd quartile) serum OC concentrations were 15.4 ng/mL (12.0-19.4 ng/mL) in men, 14.4 ng/mL (11.3-18.5 ng/mL) in premenopausal women, and 18.6 ng/mL (13.6-25.6 ng/mL) in postmenopausal women. Serum OC concentrations were highest in men and premenopausal women aged 25-29 years, were stable during midlife, and rose again after 65 years of age in men and at transition to menopause in women. Serum OC concentrations were lower in women taking oral contraceptives or who were under hormone replacement therapy after menopause and in subjects with diabetes mellitus or with body mass index  30 kg/m2 than in subjects without these conditions. We established sex-specific adult reference intervals for the serum OC concentration measured by the IDS-iSYS N-Mid Osteocalcin assay.

  5. Selective arsenic speciation analysis of human urine reference materials using gradient elution ion-exchange HPLC-ICP-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Julshamn, K.

    2004-01-01

    identical with the reference values given for total arsenic. The obtained values for arsenobetaine and dimethylarsinic acid were identical with the values certified for the NIES No. 18 urine CRM. The speciation data presented here may be valuable for the quality assurance of analytical method development...

  6. Public administration, residential weatherization, and indoor air quality: a selected bibliography. [67 references to indoor air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, A.G.

    1983-01-01

    Indoor air pollution caused by weatherization materials and reduced air exchange is a new problem created by efforts to reduce energy consumption. The 67 references in this bibliography address the health effects of low-level pollutants and the legal aspects of government policies which encourage citizens to tighten their homes. (DCK)

  7. NChina16: A stable geodetic reference frame for geological hazard studies in North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoquan; Bao, Yan; Gan, Weijun; Geng, Jianghui; Xiao, Gengru; Shen, Jack S.

    2018-04-01

    We have developed a stable North China Reference Frame 2016 (NChina16) using five years of continuous GPS observations (2011.8-2016.8) from 12 continuously operating reference stations (CORS) fixed to the North China Craton. Applications of NChina16 in landslide and subsidence studies are illustrated in this article. A method for realizing a regional geodetic reference frame is introduced. The primary result of this study is the seven parameters for transforming Cartesian ECEF (Earth-Centered, Earth-Fixed) coordinates X, Y, and Z from the International GNSS Service Reference Frame 2008 (IGS08) to NChina16. The seven parameters include the epoch that is used to align the regional reference frame to IGS08 and the time derivatives of three translations and three rotations. The GIPSY-OASIS (V6.4) software package was used to obtain the precise point positioning (PPP) daily solutions with respect to IGS08. The frame stability of NChina16 is approximately 0.5 mm/year in both horizontal and vertical directions. This study also developed a regional model for correcting seasonal motions superimposed into the vertical component of the GPS-derived displacement time series. Long-term GPS observations (1999-2016) from five CORS in North China were used to develop the seasonal model. According to this study, the PPP daily solutions with respect to NChina16 could achieve 2-3 mm horizontal accuracy and 4-5 mm vertical accuracy after being modified by the regional model. NChina16 will be critical to study geodynamic problems in North China, such as earthquakes, faulting, subsidence, and landslides. The regional reference frame will be periodically updated every few years to mitigate degradation of the frame with time and be synchronized with the update of IGS reference frame.

  8. Elasmobranch qPCR reference genes: a case study of hypoxia preconditioned epaulette sharks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashton Kevin J

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elasmobranch fishes are an ancient group of vertebrates which have high potential as model species for research into evolutionary physiology and genomics. However, no comparative studies have established suitable reference genes for quantitative PCR (qPCR in elasmobranchs for any physiological conditions. Oxygen availability has been a major force shaping the physiological evolution of vertebrates, especially fishes. Here we examined the suitability of 9 reference candidates from various functional categories after a single hypoxic insult or after hypoxia preconditioning in epaulette shark (Hemiscyllium ocellatum. Results Epaulette sharks were caught and exposed to hypoxia. Tissues were collected from 10 controls, 10 individuals with single hypoxic insult and 10 individuals with hypoxia preconditioning (8 hypoxic insults, 12 hours apart. We produced sequence information for reference gene candidates and monitored mRNA expression levels in four tissues: cerebellum, heart, gill and eye. The stability of the genes was examined with analysis of variance, geNorm and NormFinder. The best ranking genes in our study were eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 beta (eef1b, ubiquitin (ubq and polymerase (RNA II (DNA directed polypeptide F (polr2f. The performance of the ribosomal protein L6 (rpl6 was tissue-dependent. Notably, in one tissue the analysis of variance indicated statistically significant differences between treatments for genes that were ranked as the most stable candidates by reference gene software. Conclusions Our results indicate that eef1b and ubq are generally the most suitable reference genes for the conditions and tissues in the present epaulette shark studies. These genes could also be potential reference gene candidates for other physiological studies examining stress in elasmobranchs. The results emphasise the importance of inter-group variation in reference gene evaluation.

  9. Analytical characterization of recombinant hCG and comparative studies with reference product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thennati, Rajamannar; Singh, Sanjay Kumar; Nage, Nitin; Patel, Yena; Bose, Sandip Kumar; Burade, Vinod; Ranbhor, Ranjit Sudhakar

    2018-01-01

    Regulatory agencies recommend a stepwise approach for demonstrating biosimilarity between a proposed biosimilar and reference biological product emphasizing for functional and structural characterization to trace if there is any difference which may impact safety and efficacy. We studied the comparative structural and biological attributes of recombinant human chorionic gonadotropin (rhCG), SB005, with reference product, Ovidrel ® and Ovitrelle ® . Recombiant hCG was approved in 2000 by the US Food and Drug Administration for the induction of final follicular maturation, early luteinization in infertile women as part of assisted reproductive technology program. It is also indicated for the induction of ovulation and pregnancy in ovulatory infertile patients whose cause of infertility is not due to ovarian failure. Primary structure was studied by intact mass analysis, peptide fingerprinting, peptide mass fingerprinting and sequence coverage analysis. Higher order structure was studied by circular dichroism, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and disulfide bridge analysis. Different isoforms of reference product and SB005 were identified using capillary isoelectric focusing and capillary zone electrophoresis. Glycosylation was studied by N-glycan mapping using LC-ESI-MS, point of glycosylation, released glycan analysis using ultra performance liquid chromatography and sialic acid analysis. Product related impurities such as oligomer content analysis and oxidized impurities were studied using size exclusion chromatography and reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography, respectively. Biological activity in term of potency of reference product and SB005 was studied by in vivo analysis. In this study we have compared analytical similarity of recombinant rhCG (SB005) produced at Sun Pharmaceuticals with the reference product with respect to its primary, higher order structure, isoforms, charge variants, glycosylation, sialyation

  10. Construction of Polarimetric Radar-Based Reference Rain Maps for the Iowa Flood Studies Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Walt; Krajewski, Witek; Wolff, David; Gatlin, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission Iowa Flood Studies (IFloodS) campaign was conducted in central and northeastern Iowa during the months of April-June, 2013. Specific science objectives for IFloodS included quantification of uncertainties in satellite and ground-based estimates of precipitation, 4-D characterization of precipitation physical processes and associated parameters (e.g., size distributions, water contents, types, structure etc.), assessment of the impact of precipitation estimation uncertainty and physical processes on hydrologic predictive skill, and refinement of field observations and data analysis approaches as they pertain to future GPM integrated hydrologic validation and related field studies. In addition to field campaign archival of raw and processed satellite data (including precipitation products), key ground-based platforms such as the NASA NPOL S-band and D3R Ka/Ku-band dual-polarimetric radars, University of Iowa X-band dual-polarimetric radars, a large network of paired rain gauge platforms, and a large network of 2D Video and Parsivel disdrometers were deployed. In something of a canonical approach, the radar (NPOL in particular), gauge and disdrometer observational assets were deployed to create a consistent high-quality distributed (time and space sampling) radar-based ground "reference" rainfall dataset, with known uncertainties, that could be used for assessing the satellite-based precipitation products at a range of space/time scales. Subsequently, the impact of uncertainties in the satellite products could be evaluated relative to the ground-benchmark in coupled weather, land-surface and distributed hydrologic modeling frameworks as related to flood prediction. Relative to establishing the ground-based "benchmark", numerous avenues were pursued in the making and verification of IFloodS "reference" dual-polarimetric radar-based rain maps, and this study documents the process and results as they pertain specifically

  11. Construction of Polarimetric Radar-Based Reference Rain Maps for the Iowa Flood Studies Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Walter; Wolff, David; Krajewski, Witek; Gatlin, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission Iowa Flood Studies (IFloodS) campaign was conducted in central and northeastern Iowa during the months of April-June, 2013. Specific science objectives for IFloodS included quantification of uncertainties in satellite and ground-based estimates of precipitation, 4-D characterization of precipitation physical processes and associated parameters (e.g., size distributions, water contents, types, structure etc.), assessment of the impact of precipitation estimation uncertainty and physical processes on hydrologic predictive skill, and refinement of field observations and data analysis approaches as they pertain to future GPM integrated hydrologic validation and related field studies. In addition to field campaign archival of raw and processed satellite data (including precipitation products), key ground-based platforms such as the NASA NPOL S-band and D3R Ka/Ku-band dual-polarimetric radars, University of Iowa X-band dual-polarimetric radars, a large network of paired rain gauge platforms, and a large network of 2D Video and Parsivel disdrometers were deployed. In something of a canonical approach, the radar (NPOL in particular), gauge and disdrometer observational assets were deployed to create a consistent high-quality distributed (time and space sampling) radar-based ground "reference" rainfall dataset, with known uncertainties, that could be used for assessing the satellite-based precipitation products at a range of space/time scales. Subsequently, the impact of uncertainties in the satellite products could be evaluated relative to the ground-benchmark in coupled weather, land-surface and distributed hydrologic modeling frameworks as related to flood prediction. Relative to establishing the ground-based "benchmark", numerous avenues were pursued in the making and verification of IFloodS "reference" dual-polarimetric radar-based rain maps, and this study documents the process and results as they pertain specifically

  12. The accuracy of references in PhD theses: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadeh, Fereydoon; Vaez, Reyhaneh

    2013-09-01

    Inaccurate references and citations cause confusion, distrust in the accuracy of a report, waste of time and unnecessary financial charges for libraries, information centres and researchers. The aim of the study was to establish the accuracy of article references in PhD theses from the Tehran and Tabriz Universities of Medical Sciences and their compliance with the Vancouver style. We analysed 357 article references in the Tehran and 347 in the Tabriz. Six bibliographic elements were assessed: authors' names, article title, journal title, publication year, volume and page range. Referencing errors were divided into major and minor. Sixty two percent of references in the Tehran and 53% of those in the Tabriz were erroneous. In total, 164 references in the Tehran and 136 in the Tabriz were complete without error. Of 357 reference articles in the Tehran, 34 (9.8%) were in complete accordance with the Vancouver style, compared with none in the Tabriz. Accuracy of referencing did not differ significantly between the two groups, but compliance with the Vancouver style was significantly better in the Tehran. The accuracy of referencing was not satisfactory in both groups, and students need to gain adequate instruction in appropriate referencing methods. © 2013 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2013 Health Libraries Group.

  13. Identification of reference genes and validation for gene expression studies in diverse axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guelke, Eileen; Bucan, Vesna; Liebsch, Christina; Lazaridis, Andrea; Radtke, Christine; Vogt, Peter M; Reimers, Kerstin

    2015-04-10

    For the precise quantitative RT-PCR normalization a set of valid reference genes is obligatory. Moreover have to be taken into concern the experimental conditions as they bias the regulation of reference genes. Up till now, no reference targets have been described for the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum). In a search in the public database SalSite for genetic information of the axolotl we identified fourteen presumptive reference genes, eleven of which were further tested for their gene expression stability. This study characterizes the expressional patterns of 11 putative endogenous control genes during axolotl limb regeneration and in an axolotl tissue panel. All 11 reference genes showed variable expression. Strikingly, ACTB was to be found most stable expressed in all comparative tissue groups, so we reason it to be suitable for all different kinds of axolotl tissue-type investigations. Moreover do we suggest GAPDH and RPLP0 as suitable for certain axolotl tissue analysis. When it comes to axolotl limb regeneration, a validated pair of reference genes is ODC and RPLP0. With these findings, new insights into axolotl gene expression profiling might be gained. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Maternal Exposure to Bisphenol-A and Fetal Growth Restriction: A Case-Referent Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Burstyn

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a case-referent study of the effect of exposure to bisphenol-A on fetal growth in utero in full-term, live-born singletons in Alberta, Canada. Newborns <10 percentile of expected weight for gestational age and sex were individually matched on sex, maternal smoking and maternal age to referents with weight appropriate to gestational age. Exposure of the fetus to bisphenol-A was estimated from maternal serum collected at 15–16 weeks of gestation. We pooled sera across subjects for exposure assessment, stratified on case-referent status and sex. Individual 1:1 matching was maintained in assembling 69 case and 69 referent pools created from 550 case-referent pairs. Matched pools had an equal number of aliquots from individual women. We used an analytical strategy conditioning on matched set and total pool-level values of covariates to estimate individual-level effects. Pools of cases and referents had identical geometric mean bisphenol-A concentrations (0.5 ng/mL and similar geometric standard deviations (2.3–2.5. Mean difference in concentration between matched pools was 0 ng/mL, standard deviation: 1 ng/mL. Stratification by sex and control for confounding did not suggest bisphenol-A increased fetal growth restriction. Our analysis does not provide evidence to support the hypothesis that bisphenol-A contributes to fetal growth restriction in full-term singletons.

  15. Estimation of Completeness of Cancer Registration for Patients Referred to Shiraz Selected Centers through a Two Source Capture Re-capture Method, 2009 Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifian, Roxana; SedaghatNia, Mohammad Hossein; Nematolahi, Mohtram; Zare, Najaf; Barzegari, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Cancer has important social consequences with cancer registration as the basis of moving towards prevention. The present study aimed to estimate the completeness of registration of the ten most common cancers in patients referred to selected hospitals in Shiraz, Iran by using capture-recapture method. This cross-sectional analytical study was performed in 2014 based on the data of 2009, on a total of 4,388 registered cancer patients. After cleaning data from two sources, using capture-recapture common findings were identified. Then, the percentage of the completeness of cancer registration was estimated using Chapman and Chao methods. Finally, the effects of demographic and treatment variables on the completeness of cancer registration were investigated. The results showed that the percentages of completeness of cancer registration in the selected hospitals of Shiraz were 58.6% and 58.4%, and influenced by different variables. The age group between 40-49 years old was the highest represented and for the age group under 20 years old was the lowest for cancer registration. Breast cancer had the highest registration level and after that, thyroid and lung cancers, while colorectal cancer had the lowest registration level. According to the results, the number of cancers registered was very few and it seems that factors like inadequate knowledge of some doctors, imprecise diagnosis about the types of cancer, incorrectly filled out medical documents, and lack of sufficient accuracy in recording data on the computer cause errors and defects in cancer registration. This suggests a necessity to educate and teach doctors and other medical workers about the methods of documenting information related to cancer and also conduct additional measures to improve the cancer registration system.

  16. Reference Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bivens-Tatum, Wayne

    2006-01-01

    This article presents interesting articles that explore several different areas of reference assessment, including practical case studies and theoretical articles that address a range of issues such as librarian behavior, patron satisfaction, virtual reference, or evaluation design. They include: (1) "Evaluating the Quality of a Chat Service"…

  17. Religious Studies: The Shaping of a Field and a Guide to Reference Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippy, Charles H.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the development of religious studies as an academic discipline. Examines the work of leading thinkers in the field, including anthropologists Sir James Fraser and Edward Burnett Taylor, sociologist Max Weber, and psychologist Erik Erikson. Identifies some of the many reference works that deal with religious studies. (SG)

  18. Breast cancer screening halves the risk of breast cancer death: a case-referent study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paap, Ellen; Verbeek, André L. M.; Botterweck, Anita A. M.; van Doorne-Nagtegaal, Heidi J.; Imhof-Tas, Mechli; de Koning, Harry J.; Otto, Suzie J.; de Munck, Linda; van der Steen, Annemieke; Holland, Roland; den Heeten, Gerard J.; Broeders, Mireille J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale epidemiologic studies have consistently demonstrated the effectiveness of mammographic screening programs, however the benefits are still subject to debate. We estimated the effect of the Dutch screening program on breast cancer mortality. In a large multi-region case-referent study, we

  19. Detailed mechanical design and manufacturing study for the ITER reference breeding blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacchia, F.; Daenner, W.; Stefanis, L. de; Ferrari, M.; Gerber, A.; Mustoe, J.

    1998-01-01

    This papers relates on the detailed mechanical design, manufacturing feasibility and assembly analysis of a water-cooled solid breeding blanket concept, selected as the ITER reference design. This breeding blanket design is characterised by: i) pressurised water flowing inside flat steel panels for cooling of the internals; each panel is welded along its contour onto the first wall structure and to the rear shield plate after closure of the module (last assembly step). ii) Beryllium (neutronic multiplier) in the form of micro-spheres filling the volume between parallel flat coolant panels. iii) Breeder pebbles enclosed in rods, which form bundles and are themselves embedded inside the Beryllium micro-spheres. (authors)

  20. Utilization of Reference Books by Students: A Case Study of Covenant University, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie E. Ilogho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the utilization of reference books by final-year students of Covenant University, Nigeria with a view to providing valuable data to help students to get a better orientation on the use and importance of reference sources for their research work, to guide instructors and teachers on the use of library, information retrieval processes and information literacy, and to help University management, policy-makers and other stakeholders to make appropriate policies concerning the acquisitions of library materials. The survey method of research was adopted for the study. The simple random sampling technique was used in choosing the study population. The respondents for the questionnaire, interview and focus group discussion were chosen from the 400- and 500-level undergraduate students at the Covenant University. 300 copies of the questionnaires were administered to respondents. A focus group discussion was conducted with 30 participants. And 18 students were interviewed. It was revealed that students prefer online resources, which accounts for the poor usage of the hardcopy reference materials. It is, therefore, recommended that the library should intensify its information literacy skills program in order to help users maximize online reference resources. At the same time, the library should acquire more online reference sources rather than buying hard copies for a few users.

  1. A Reference-Dependent Regret Model for Deterministic Trade-off Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kujawski, Edouard

    2005-02-25

    Today's typical multi-criteria decision analysis is based on classical expected utility theory that assumes a mythical ''Rational Individual'' immune to psychological influences such as anticipated regret. It is therefore in conflict with rational individuals who trade-off some benefits and forgo the alternative with the highest total classical utility for a more balanced alternative in order to reduce their levels of anticipated regret. This paper focuses on decision making under certainty. It presents a reference-dependent regret model (RDRM) in which the level of regret that an individual experiences depends on the absolute values rather than the differences of the utilities of the chosen and forgone alternatives. The RDRM best choice may differ from the conventional linear additive utility model, the analytic hierarchy process, and the regret theory of Bell and Loomes and Sugden. Examples are presented that indicate that RDRM is the better predictive descriptor for decision making under certainty. RDRM satisfies transitivity of the alternatives under pairwise comparisons and models rank reversal consistent with observed reasonable choices under dynamic or distinct situations. Like regret theory, the RDRM utilities of all the alternatives under consideration are interrelated. For complex trade-off studies regret is incorporated as an element of a cost-utility-regret analysis that characterizes each alternative in terms of its monetary cost, an aggregate performance utility, and a regret value. This provides decision makers adequate information to compare the alternatives and depending on their values they may trade-off some performance and/or cost to avoid high levels of regret. The result is a well-balanced alternative often preferred by reasonable decision makers to the optimal choice of classical multi-attribute utility analysis. The model can readily be extended to incorporate rejoicing to suit decision makers who seek it. The

  2. Selective injection locking of a multi-mode semiconductor laser to a multi-frequency reference beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramod, Mysore Srinivas; Yang, Tao; Pandey, Kanhaiya; Giudici, Massimo; Wilkowski, David

    2014-07-01

    Injection locking is a well known and commonly used method for coherent light amplification. Usually injection locking is obtained on a single-mode laser injected by a single-frequency seeding beam. In this work we show that selective injection locking of a single-frequency may also be achieved on a multi-mode semiconductor laser injected by a multi-frequency seeding beam, if the slave laser provides sufficient frequency filtering. This selective injection locking condition depends critically on the frequency detuning between the free-running slave emission frequency and each injected frequency component. Stable selective injection locking to a set of three seeding components separated by 1.2 GHz is obtained. This system provides an amplification up to 37 dB of each component. This result suggests that, using distinct slave lasers for each frequency line, a set of mutually coherent high-power radiation modes can be tuned in the GHz frequency domain.

  3. Reference gene selection for qRT-PCR assays in Stellera chamaejasme subjected to abiotic stresses and hormone treatments based on transcriptome datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Guan, Huirui; Song, Min; Fu, Yanping; Han, Xiaomin; Lei, Meng; Ren, Jingyu; Guo, Bin; He, Wei; Wei, Yahui

    2018-01-01

    Stellera chamaejasme Linn, an important poisonous plant of the China grassland, is toxic to humans and livestock. The rapid expansion of S. chamaejasme has greatly damaged the grassland ecology and, consequently, seriously endangered the development of animal husbandry. To draft efficient prevention and control measures, it has become more urgent to carry out research on its adaptive and expansion mechanisms in different unfavorable habitats at the genetic level. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a widely used technique for studying gene expression at the transcript level; however, qRT-PCR requires reference genes (RGs) as endogenous controls for data normalization and only through appropriate RG selection and qRT-PCR can we guarantee the reliability and robustness of expression studies and RNA-seq data analysis. Unfortunately, little research on the selection of RGs for gene expression data normalization in S. chamaejasme has been reported. In this study, 10 candidate RGs namely, 18S , 60S , CYP , GAPCP1 , GAPDH2 , EF1B , MDH , SAND , TUA1 , and TUA6 , were singled out from the transcriptome database of S. chamaejasme , and their expression stability under three abiotic stresses (drought, cold, and salt) and three hormone treatments (abscisic acid, ABA; gibberellin, GA; ethephon, ETH) were estimated with the programs geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper. Our results showed that GAPCP1 and EF1B were the best combination for the three abiotic stresses, whereas TUA6 and SAND , TUA1 and CYP , GAPDH2 and 60S were the best choices for ABA, GA, and ETH treatment, respectively. Moreover, GAPCP1 and 60S were assessed to be the best combination for all samples, and 18S was the least stable RG for use as an internal control in all of the experimental subsets. The expression patterns of two target genes ( P5CS2 and GI ) further verified that the RGs that we selected were suitable for gene expression normalization. This work is the first attempt to

  4. Reference gene selection for qRT-PCR assays in Stellera chamaejasme subjected to abiotic stresses and hormone treatments based on transcriptome datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Stellera chamaejasme Linn, an important poisonous plant of the China grassland, is toxic to humans and livestock. The rapid expansion of S. chamaejasme has greatly damaged the grassland ecology and, consequently, seriously endangered the development of animal husbandry. To draft efficient prevention and control measures, it has become more urgent to carry out research on its adaptive and expansion mechanisms in different unfavorable habitats at the genetic level. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR is a widely used technique for studying gene expression at the transcript level; however, qRT-PCR requires reference genes (RGs as endogenous controls for data normalization and only through appropriate RG selection and qRT-PCR can we guarantee the reliability and robustness of expression studies and RNA-seq data analysis. Unfortunately, little research on the selection of RGs for gene expression data normalization in S. chamaejasme has been reported. Method In this study, 10 candidate RGs namely, 18S, 60S, CYP, GAPCP1, GAPDH2, EF1B, MDH, SAND, TUA1, and TUA6, were singled out from the transcriptome database of S. chamaejasme, and their expression stability under three abiotic stresses (drought, cold, and salt and three hormone treatments (abscisic acid, ABA; gibberellin, GA; ethephon, ETH were estimated with the programs geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper. Result Our results showed that GAPCP1 and EF1B were the best combination for the three abiotic stresses, whereas TUA6 and SAND, TUA1 and CYP, GAPDH2 and 60S were the best choices for ABA, GA, and ETH treatment, respectively. Moreover, GAPCP1 and 60S were assessed to be the best combination for all samples, and 18S was the least stable RG for use as an internal control in all of the experimental subsets. The expression patterns of two target genes (P5CS2 and GI further verified that the RGs that we selected were suitable for gene expression normalization. Discussion

  5. Engineering design study of a reference theta-pinch reactor (RTPR): environmental impact study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draley, J.E.; Krakowski, R.A.; Coultas, T.A.; Maroni, V.A.

    1975-03-01

    The recently completed engineering design study for the Reference Theta-Pinch Reactor (RTPR) has allowed an assessment of the potential environmental impact of an RTPR power plant to be made. During normal operation of the plant, tritium is expected to be released at a rate of 6 Ci/day, an amount that would lead to low maximum doses (0.06 to 0.8 mrem/yr, depending on site and cooling options). These doses, and the anticipated integrated population doses, are considerably less than doses now considered acceptable. Problems related to (i) the required commitment of some natural resources (e.g., beryllium and niobium), (ii) the disposition of activated structural materials and other radioactive waste (76,700 kg/yr or 12 GCi/yr at shutdown) for a five-year niobium component lifetime, and (iii) land despoilment are substantial but do not appear to compromise the viability of RTPR's as a useful power source. Consideration of the occurrence of severe accidents (e.g., liquid-metal fires) and other unusual incidents indicate that their effects will be contained within the plant, but that they may be costly. Radiation doses resulting from accidental release of the operating tritium inventory during a liquid-metal fire would probably be below the level now permitted for fission plants. (U.S.)

  6. Injury risk at the work processes in fishing: a case-referent study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Olaf C

    2006-01-01

    Epidemiological studies on occupational injuries describe the incidence ratios related to the main strata in the industries, while the injury incidence ratios for the specific work processes within the work places have not yet been studied. The aim was to estimate the injury rate......-ratios for the main work processes in commercial fishing. A case-referent design with samples of person-time was used. The reported injuries to the National Maritime Authorities for a 5-year period for four types of commercial fishing defined the cases. The odds for the referents were calculated from samples...... of person-times for the specific working processes. Odds Ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated for the specific working processes. A total of 560 cases were included and the samples of referent working periods were 63110 min in total. The largest part of the injuries (n = 318...

  7. Identification of Reference Genes for Quantitative Gene Expression Studies in a Non-Model Tree Pistachio (Pistacia vera L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Moazzam Jazi

    Full Text Available The tree species, Pistacia vera (P. vera is an important commercial product that is salt-tolerant and long-lived, with a possible lifespan of over one thousand years. Gene expression analysis is an efficient method to explore the possible regulatory mechanisms underlying these characteristics. Therefore, having the most suitable set of reference genes is required for transcript level normalization under different conditions in P. vera. In the present study, we selected eight widely used reference genes, ACT, EF1α, α-TUB, β-TUB, GAPDH, CYP2, UBQ10, and 18S rRNA. Using qRT-PCR their expression was assessed in 54 different samples of three cultivars of P. vera. The samples were collected from different organs under various abiotic treatments (cold, drought, and salt across three time points. Several statistical programs (geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper were applied to estimate the expression stability of candidate reference genes. Results obtained from the statistical analysis were then exposed to Rank aggregation package to generate a consensus gene rank. Based on our results, EF1α was found to be the superior reference gene in all samples under all abiotic treatments. In addition to EF1α, ACT and β-TUB were the second best reference genes for gene expression analysis in leaf and root. We recommended β-TUB as the second most stable gene for samples under the cold and drought treatments, while ACT holds the same position in samples analyzed under salt treatment. This report will benefit future research on the expression profiling of P. vera and other members of the Anacardiaceae family.

  8. Identification of Reference Genes for Quantitative Gene Expression Studies in a Non-Model Tree Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazzam Jazi, Maryam; Ghadirzadeh Khorzoghi, Effat; Botanga, Christopher; Seyedi, Seyed Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    The tree species, Pistacia vera (P. vera) is an important commercial product that is salt-tolerant and long-lived, with a possible lifespan of over one thousand years. Gene expression analysis is an efficient method to explore the possible regulatory mechanisms underlying these characteristics. Therefore, having the most suitable set of reference genes is required for transcript level normalization under different conditions in P. vera. In the present study, we selected eight widely used reference genes, ACT, EF1α, α-TUB, β-TUB, GAPDH, CYP2, UBQ10, and 18S rRNA. Using qRT-PCR their expression was assessed in 54 different samples of three cultivars of P. vera. The samples were collected from different organs under various abiotic treatments (cold, drought, and salt) across three time points. Several statistical programs (geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper) were applied to estimate the expression stability of candidate reference genes. Results obtained from the statistical analysis were then exposed to Rank aggregation package to generate a consensus gene rank. Based on our results, EF1α was found to be the superior reference gene in all samples under all abiotic treatments. In addition to EF1α, ACT and β-TUB were the second best reference genes for gene expression analysis in leaf and root. We recommended β-TUB as the second most stable gene for samples under the cold and drought treatments, while ACT holds the same position in samples analyzed under salt treatment. This report will benefit future research on the expression profiling of P. vera and other members of the Anacardiaceae family.

  9. Evaluation of Suitable Reference Genes for Normalization of qPCR Gene Expression Studies in Brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) During Fruit Developmental Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakachari, Mogilicherla; Solanke, Amolkumar U; Prabhakaran, Narayanasamy; Ahmad, Israr; Dhandapani, Gurusamy; Jayabalan, Narayanasamy; Kumar, Polumetla Ananda

    2016-02-01

    Brinjal/eggplant/aubergine is one of the major solanaceous vegetable crops. Recent availability of genome information greatly facilitates the fundamental research on brinjal. Gene expression patterns during different stages of fruit development can provide clues towards the understanding of its biological functions. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) has become one of the most widely used methods for rapid and accurate quantification of gene expression. However, its success depends on the use of a suitable reference gene for data normalization. For qPCR analysis, a single reference gene is not universally suitable for all experiments. Therefore, reference gene validation is a crucial step. Suitable reference genes for qPCR analysis of brinjal fruit development have not been investigated so far. In this study, we have selected 21 candidate reference genes from the Brinjal (Solanum melongena) Plant Gene Indices database (compbio.dfci.harvard.edu/tgi/plant.html) and studied their expression profiles by qPCR during six different fruit developmental stages (0, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 50 days post anthesis) along with leaf samples of the Pusa Purple Long (PPL) variety. To evaluate the stability of gene expression, geNorm and NormFinder analytical softwares were used. geNorm identified SAND (SAND family protein) and TBP (TATA binding protein) as the best pairs of reference genes in brinjal fruit development. The results showed that for brinjal fruit development, individual or a combination of reference genes should be selected for data normalization. NormFinder identified Expressed gene (expressed sequence) as the best single reference gene in brinjal fruit development. In this study, we have identified and validated for the first time reference genes to provide accurate transcript normalization and quantification at various fruit developmental stages of brinjal which can also be useful for gene expression studies in other Solanaceae plant species.

  10. Validation of commonly used reference genes for sleep-related gene expression studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro Rosa MRPS

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sleep is a restorative process and is essential for maintenance of mental and physical health. In an attempt to understand the complexity of sleep, multidisciplinary strategies, including genetic approaches, have been applied to sleep research. Although quantitative real time PCR has been used in previous sleep-related gene expression studies, proper validation of reference genes is currently lacking. Thus, we examined the effect of total or paradoxical sleep deprivation (TSD or PSD on the expression stability of the following frequently used reference genes in brain and blood: beta-actin (b-actin, beta-2-microglobulin (B2M, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, and hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT. Results Neither TSD nor PSD affected the expression stability of all tested genes in both tissues indicating that b-actin, B2M, GAPDH and HPRT are appropriate reference genes for the sleep-related gene expression studies. In order to further verify these results, the relative expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase1 (GPD1 was evaluated in brain and blood, respectively. The normalization with each of four reference genes produced similar pattern of expression in control and sleep deprived rats, but subtle differences in the magnitude of expression fold change were observed which might affect the statistical significance. Conclusion This study demonstrated that sleep deprivation does not alter the expression stability of commonly used reference genes in brain and blood. Nonetheless, the use of multiple reference genes in quantitative RT-PCR is required for the accurate results.

  11. Maternal Exposure to Bisphenol-A and Fetal Growth Restriction: A Case-Referent Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstyn, Igor; Martin, Jonathan W.; Beesoon, Sanjay; Bamforth, Fiona; Li, Qiaozhi; Yasui, Yutaka; Cherry, Nicola M.

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a case-referent study of the effect of exposure to bisphenol-A on fetal growth in utero in full-term, live-born singletons in Alberta, Canada. Newborns bisphenol-A was estimated from maternal serum collected at 15–16 weeks of gestation. We pooled sera across subjects for exposure assessment, stratified on case-referent status and sex. Individual 1:1 matching was maintained in assembling 69 case and 69 referent pools created from 550 case-referent pairs. Matched pools had an equal number of aliquots from individual women. We used an analytical strategy conditioning on matched set and total pool-level values of covariates to estimate individual-level effects. Pools of cases and referents had identical geometric mean bisphenol-A concentrations (0.5 ng/mL) and similar geometric standard deviations (2.3–2.5). Mean difference in concentration between matched pools was 0 ng/mL, standard deviation: 1 ng/mL. Stratification by sex and control for confounding did not suggest bisphenol-A increased fetal growth restriction. Our analysis does not provide evidence to support the hypothesis that bisphenol-A contributes to fetal growth restriction in full-term singletons. PMID:24336026

  12. IAEA Reference Materials for Quality Assurance: A Study in the Quality Control of Marine Radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham Mai Khanh; Bartocci, J.; Gastaud, J.; Nies, H.; Vasileva, E.; Betti, M.; Chamizo, E.; Gomez-Guzman, J.-M.

    2013-01-01

    The IAEA's Marine Environment Laboratories has assisted laboratories in Analytical Quality Control Services (AQCS) for the analysis of radionuclides in the marine environment since the early seventies. The AQCS programme, now named Reference Products for Environment and Trade, is recognized as an essential component of quality assurance and control and for the development and validation of analytical methods, through its worldwide and regional interlaboratory comparisons and the provision of reference methods and Reference Materials/Certified Reference Materials (RMs/CRMs). A total of 49 interlaboratory exercises were organized and 42 RMs/CRMs were produced for marine radioactivity studies. Different techniques such as radiometric methods with X ray, gamma spectrometry, alpha spectrometry, beta counter, liquid scintillation counter as well as mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, AMS, TIMS) are applied for the characterization during certification process. An overview of prepared Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) for radionuclides in marine matrices will be presented as well as lessons learned from interlaboratory comparisons (ICs) and Proficiency Tests (PTs). A characterization of a new CRM for radionuclides in IAEA-446, Baltic Sea seaweed (Fucus vesiculosus), as well as a specific case of using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) technique to characterize I-129 in sea water (IAEA-418) and seaweed sample (IAEA-446), will be discussed. Available RMs/CRMs are listed and can be ordered and purchased through the IAEA website http://nucleus.iaea.org/rpst/. (author)

  13. IAEA Reference Materials for Quality Assurance: A Study in the Quality Control of Marine Radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanh, Pham Mai; Bartocci, J.; Gastaud, J.; Nies, H.; Vasileva, E.; Betti, M. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Environment Laboratory (Monaco); Chamizo, E.; Gomez-Guzman, J. -M. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Seville (Spain)

    2013-07-15

    The IAEA's Marine Environment Laboratories has assisted laboratories in Analytical Quality Control Services (AQCS) for the analysis of radionuclides in the marine environment since the early seventies. The AQCS programme, now named Reference Products for Environment and Trade, is recognized as an essential component of quality assurance and control and for the development and validation of analytical methods, through its worldwide and regional interlaboratory comparisons and the provision of reference methods and Reference Materials/Certified Reference Materials (RMs/CRMs). A total of 49 interlaboratory exercises were organized and 42 RMs/CRMs were produced for marine radioactivity studies. Different techniques such as radiometric methods with X ray, gamma spectrometry, alpha spectrometry, beta counter, liquid scintillation counter as well as mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, AMS, TIMS) are applied for the characterization during certification process. An overview of prepared Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) for radionuclides in marine matrices will be presented as well as lessons learned from interlaboratory comparisons (ICs) and Proficiency Tests (PTs). A characterization of a new CRM for radionuclides in IAEA-446, Baltic Sea seaweed (Fucus vesiculosus), as well as a specific case of using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) technique to characterize I-129 in sea water (IAEA-418) and seaweed sample (IAEA-446), will be discussed. Available RMs/CRMs are listed and can be ordered and purchased through the IAEA website http://nucleus.iaea.org/rpst/. (author)

  14. Variable selection methods in PLS regression - a comparison study on metabolomics data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karaman, İbrahim; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    . The aim of the metabolomics study was to investigate the metabolic profile in pigs fed various cereal fractions with special attention to the metabolism of lignans using LC-MS based metabolomic approach. References 1. Lê Cao KA, Rossouw D, Robert-Granié C, Besse P: A Sparse PLS for Variable Selection when...... integrated approach. Due to the high number of variables in data sets (both raw data and after peak picking) the selection of important variables in an explorative analysis is difficult, especially when different data sets of metabolomics data need to be related. Variable selection (or removal of irrelevant...... different strategies for variable selection on PLSR method were considered and compared with respect to selected subset of variables and the possibility for biological validation. Sparse PLSR [1] as well as PLSR with Jack-knifing [2] was applied to data in order to achieve variable selection prior...

  15. A STUDY ON DETERMINING THE REFERENCE SPREADING SEQUENCES FOR A DS/CDMACOMMUNICATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cebrail ÇİFTLİKLİ

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available In a direct sequence/code division multiple access (DS/CDMA system, the role of the spreading sequences (codes is crucial since the multiple access interference (MAI is the main performance limitation. In this study, we propose an accurate criterion which enables the determination of the reference spreading codes which yield lower bit error rates (BER's in a given code set for a DS/CDMA system using despreading sequences weighted by stepping chip waveforms. The numerical results show that the spreading codes determined by the proposed criterion are the most suitable codes for using as references.

  16. Reference intervals of spinal mobility measures in normal individuals: the mobility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramiro, Sofia; van Tubergen, Astrid; Stolwijk, Carmen; van der Heijde, Desiree; Royston, Patrick; Landewe, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To establish reference intervals (RIs) for spinal mobility measures as recommended for patients with axial spondyloarthritis, and to determine the effect of age, height and gender on spinal mobility, in normal individuals. Methods A cross-sectional study (MOBILITY) was conducted among

  17. Comparison of plasma input and reference tissue models for analysing [(11)C]flumazenil studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klumpers, Ursula M. H.; Veltman, Dick J.; Boellaard, Ronald; Comans, Emile F.; Zuketto, Cassandra; Yaqub, Maqsood; Mourik, Jurgen E. M.; Lubberink, Mark; Hoogendijk, Witte J. G.; Lammertsma, Adriaan A.

    2008-01-01

    A single-tissue compartment model with plasma input is the established method for analysing [(11)C]flumazenil ([(11)C]FMZ) studies. However, arterial cannulation and measurement of metabolites are time-consuming. Therefore, a reference tissue approach is appealing, but this approach has not been

  18. The Learning Outcomes of Mentoring Library Science Students in Virtual World Reference: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpur, Geraldine; Morris, Jon Levi

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on the cognitive and affective development of students being mentored in virtual reference interview skills by professional librarians. The authors present a case study which examines the impact on student learning resulting from librarian mentor participation and collaboration with students on a course assignment. This study…

  19. Identification of reference genes in human myelomonocytic cells for gene expression studies in altered gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Cora S; Hauschild, Swantje; Tauber, Svantje; Paulsen, Katrin; Raig, Christiane; Raem, Arnold; Biskup, Josefine; Gutewort, Annett; Hürlimann, Eva; Unverdorben, Felix; Buttron, Isabell; Lauber, Beatrice; Philpot, Claudia; Lier, Hartwin; Engelmann, Frank; Layer, Liliana E; Ullrich, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression studies are indispensable for investigation and elucidation of molecular mechanisms. For the process of normalization, reference genes ("housekeeping genes") are essential to verify gene expression analysis. Thus, it is assumed that these reference genes demonstrate similar expression levels over all experimental conditions. However, common recommendations about reference genes were established during 1 g conditions and therefore their applicability in studies with altered gravity has not been demonstrated yet. The microarray technology is frequently used to generate expression profiles under defined conditions and to determine the relative difference in expression levels between two or more different states. In our study, we searched for potential reference genes with stable expression during different gravitational conditions (microgravity, normogravity, and hypergravity) which are additionally not altered in different hardware systems. We were able to identify eight genes (ALB, B4GALT6, GAPDH, HMBS, YWHAZ, ABCA5, ABCA9, and ABCC1) which demonstrated no altered gene expression levels in all tested conditions and therefore represent good candidates for the standardization of gene expression studies in altered gravity.

  20. Researching Refugee and Forced Migration Studies: An Introduction to the Field and the Reference Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Elisa

    1999-01-01

    Describes the evolution of refugee and forced migration studies, identifies factors that render it a challenging field to research, and highlights a variety of Internet-based and other electronic resources that can be used to locate monographs, periodicals, grey literature, and current information. Provides a bibliography of reference materials in…

  1. Operationalization of a Frame of Reference for Studying Organizational Culture in Middle Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Larry G.

    A frame of reference for studying culture in middle schools was developed. Items for the Middle School Description Survey (MSDS), which was designed to test elements of the ideal middle school culture, were created based on middle school advocacy literature. The items were conceptually categorized according to E. H. Schein's (1985) cultural…

  2. A Survey and Empirical Study of Virtual Reference Service in Academic Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Xiangming; Dimitroff, Alexandra; Jordan, Jeanette; Burclaff, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    Virtual Reference Services (VRS) have high user satisfaction. The main problem is its low usage. We surveyed 100 academic library web sites to understand how VRS are presented. We then conducted a usability study to further test an active VRS model regarding its effectiveness.

  3. Sample size of the reference sample in a case-augmented study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Palash; Dewanji, Anup

    2017-05-01

    The case-augmented study, in which a case sample is augmented with a reference (random) sample from the source population with only covariates information known, is becoming popular in different areas of applied science such as pharmacovigilance, ecology, and econometrics. In general, the case sample is available from some source (for example, hospital database, case registry, etc.); however, the reference sample is required to be drawn from the corresponding source population. The required minimum size of the reference sample is an important issue in this regard. In this work, we address the minimum sample size calculation and discuss related issues. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Reference group theory with implications for information studies: a theoretical essay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Murell Dawson

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the role and implications of reference group theory in relation to the field of library and information science. Reference group theory is based upon the principle that people take the standards of significant others as a basis for making self-appraisals, comparisons, and choices regarding need and use of information. Research that applies concepts of reference group theory to various sectors of library and information studies can provide data useful in enhancing areas such as information-seeking research, special populations, and uses of information. Implications are promising that knowledge gained from like research can be beneficial in helping information professionals better understand the role theory plays in examining ways in which people manage their information and social worlds.

  5. Selection of suitable reference genes for normalization of genes of interest in canine soft tissue sarcomas using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zornhagen, K W; Kristensen, A T; Hansen, A E; Oxboel, J; Kjaer, A

    2015-12-01

    Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a sensitive technique for quantifying gene expression. Stably expressed reference genes are necessary for normalization of RT-qPCR data. Only a few articles have been published on reference genes in canine tumours. The objective of this study was to demonstrate how to identify suitable reference genes for normalization of genes of interest in canine soft tissue sarcomas using RT-qPCR. Primer pairs for 17 potential reference genes were designed and tested in archival tumour biopsies from six dogs. The geNorm algorithm was used to analyse the most suitable reference genes. Eight potential reference genes were excluded from this final analysis because of their dissociation curves. β-Glucuronidase (GUSB) and proteasome subunit, beta type, 6 (PSMB6) were most stably expressed with an M value of 0.154 and a CV of 0.053 describing their average stability. We suggest that choice of reference genes should be based on specific testing in every new experimental set-up. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Investigating the Problems and Needs of Infertile Patients Referring to Assisted Reproduction Centers: A Review Study

    OpenAIRE

    Fahimeh Hasanbeigi; Mitra Zandi; Zohreh Vanaki; Anoushirvan Kazemnejad

    2017-01-01

    Background: The provision of optimal care is the most important goal in nursing, the fulfillment of which requires the identification of clients’ problems and needs. However, based on the review of the literature, no review study has investigated the problems and needs of the infertile patients in Iran. Aim: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the problems and needs of the infertile patients referring to the assisted reproduction centers. Method: This review study was based on...

  7. Microarray-based comparative genomic profiling of reference strains and selected Canadian field isolates of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacInnes Janet I

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, is a highly contagious respiratory pathogen that causes severe losses to the swine industry worldwide. Current commercially-available vaccines are of limited value because they do not induce cross-serovar immunity and do not prevent development of the carrier state. Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridizations (M-CGH were used to estimate whole genomic diversity of representative Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae strains. Our goal was to identify conserved genes, especially those predicted to encode outer membrane proteins and lipoproteins because of their potential for the development of more effective vaccines. Results Using hierarchical clustering, our M-CGH results showed that the majority of the genes in the genome of the serovar 5 A. pleuropneumoniae L20 strain were conserved in the reference strains of all 15 serovars and in representative field isolates. Fifty-eight conserved genes predicted to encode for outer membrane proteins or lipoproteins were identified. As well, there were several clusters of diverged or absent genes including those associated with capsule biosynthesis, toxin production as well as genes typically associated with mobile elements. Conclusion Although A. pleuropneumoniae strains are essentially clonal, M-CGH analysis of the reference strains of the fifteen serovars and representative field isolates revealed several classes of genes that were divergent or absent. Not surprisingly, these included genes associated with capsule biosynthesis as the capsule is associated with sero-specificity. Several of the conserved genes were identified as candidates for vaccine development, and we conclude that M-CGH is a valuable tool for reverse vaccinology.

  8. Why patients self-refer to the Emergency Department: A qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraaijvanger, Nicole; Rijpsma, Douwe; Willink, Lisa; Lucassen, Peter; van Leeuwen, Henk; Edwards, Michael

    2017-06-01

    There have been multiple studies investigating reasons for patients to self-refer to the Emergency Department (ED). The majority made use of questionnaires and excluded patients with urgent conditions. The goal of this qualitative study is to explore what motives patients have to self-refer to an ED, also including patients in urgent triage categories. In a large teaching hospital in the Netherlands, a qualitative interview study focusing on reasons for self-referring to the ED was performed. Self-referred patients were included until no new reasons for attending the ED were found. Exclusion criteria were as follows: not mentally able to be interviewed or not speaking Dutch. Patients who were in need of urgent care were treated first, before being asked to participate. Interviews followed a predefined topic guide. Practicing cyclic analysis, the interview topic guide was modified during the inclusion period. Interviews were recorded on an audio recorder, transcribed verbatim, and anonymized. Two investigators independently coded the information and combined the codes into meaningful clusters. Subsequently, these were categorized into themes to build a framework of reasons for self-referral to the ED. Characteristic quotes were used to illustrate the acquired theoretical framework. Thirty self-referred patients were interviewed. Most of the participants were male (63%), with a mean age of 46 years. Two main themes emerged from the interviews that are pertinent to the patients' decisions to attend the ED: (1) health concerns and (2) practical issues. This study found that there are 2 clearly distinctive reasons for self-referral to the ED: health concerns or practical motives. Self-referral because of practical motives is probably most suitable for strategies that aim to reduce inappropriate ED visits. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Identification and validation of suitable endogenous reference genes for gene expression studies in human peripheral blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turner Renee J

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression studies require appropriate normalization methods. One such method uses stably expressed reference genes. Since suitable reference genes appear to be unique for each tissue, we have identified an optimal set of the most stably expressed genes in human blood that can be used for normalization. Methods Whole-genome Affymetrix Human 2.0 Plus arrays were examined from 526 samples of males and females ages 2 to 78, including control subjects and patients with Tourette syndrome, stroke, migraine, muscular dystrophy, and autism. The top 100 most stably expressed genes with a broad range of expression levels were identified. To validate the best candidate genes, we performed quantitative RT-PCR on a subset of 10 genes (TRAP1, DECR1, FPGS, FARP1, MAPRE2, PEX16, GINS2, CRY2, CSNK1G2 and A4GALT, 4 commonly employed reference genes (GAPDH, ACTB, B2M and HMBS and PPIB, previously reported to be stably expressed in blood. Expression stability and ranking analysis were performed using GeNorm and NormFinder algorithms. Results Reference genes were ranked based on their expression stability and the minimum number of genes needed for nomalization as calculated using GeNorm showed that the fewest, most stably expressed genes needed for acurate normalization in RNA expression studies of human whole blood is a combination of TRAP1, FPGS, DECR1 and PPIB. We confirmed the ranking of the best candidate control genes by using an alternative algorithm (NormFinder. Conclusion The reference genes identified in this study are stably expressed in whole blood of humans of both genders with multiple disease conditions and ages 2 to 78. Importantly, they also have different functions within cells and thus should be expressed independently of each other. These genes should be useful as normalization genes for microarray and RT-PCR whole blood studies of human physiology, metabolism and disease.

  10. Analytical characterization of recombinant hCG and comparative studies with reference product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thennati R

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rajamannar Thennati,1 Sanjay Kumar Singh,1 Nitin Nage,1 Yena Patel,1 Sandip Kumar Bose,1 Vinod Burade,2 Ranjit Sudhakar Ranbhor1 1Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Limited, 2Sun Pharmaceutical Advanced Research Center, Vadodara, Gujarat, India Introduction: Regulatory agencies recommend a stepwise approach for demonstrating biosimilarity between a proposed biosimilar and reference biological product emphasizing for functional and structural characterization to trace if there is any difference which may impact safety and efficacy. We studied the comparative structural and biological attributes of recombinant human chorionic gonadotropin (rhCG, SB005, with reference product, Ovidrel® and Ovitrelle®. Recombiant hCG was approved in 2000 by the US Food and Drug Administration for the induction of final follicular maturation, early luteinization in infertile women as part of assisted reproductive technology program. It is also indicated for the induction of ovulation and pregnancy in ovulatory infertile patients whose cause of infertility is not due to ovarian failure. Materials and methods: Primary structure was studied by intact mass analysis, peptide fingerprinting, peptide mass fingerprinting and sequence coverage analysis. Higher order structure was studied by circular dichroism, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and disulfide bridge analysis. Different isoforms of reference product and SB005 were identified using capillary isoelectric focusing and capillary zone electrophoresis. Glycosylation was studied by N-glycan mapping using LC-ESI-MS, point of glycosylation, released glycan analysis using ultra performance liquid chromatography and sialic acid analysis. Product related impurities such as oligomer content analysis and oxidized impurities were studied using size exclusion chromatography and reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography, respectively. Biological activity in term of potency of reference product

  11. Public synthesis of the reference costs study of the electric power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Every 3 or 5 years, the DGEC published the reference costs study of the electric power production which evaluates, in a theoretical framework, the total cost of an electrical MWh, from different production ways. These studies bring information for the definition of the energy policy and the elaboration of the investments program. because of the great competition of the market, it was decided not to publish the absolute value of the hypothesis and the results but under indexed form. (A.L.B.)

  12. Individual differences in the ability to identify, select and use appropriate frames of reference for perceptuo-motor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isableu, B; Ohlmann, T; Cremieux, J; Vuillerme, N; Amblard, B; Gresty, M A

    2010-09-01

    The causes of the interindividual differences (IDs) in how we perceive and control spatial orientation are poorly understood. Here, we propose that IDs partly reflect preferred modes of spatial referencing and that these preferences or "styles" are maintained from the level of spatial perception to that of motor control. Two groups of experimental subjects, one with high visual field dependency (FD) and one with marked visual field independency (FI) were identified by the Rod and Frame Test, which identifies relative dependency on a visual frame of reference (VFoR). FD and FI subjects were tasked with standing still in conditions of increasing postural difficulty while visual cues of self-orientation (a visual frame tilted in roll) and self-motion (in stroboscopic illumination) were varied and in darkness to assess visual dependency. Postural stability, overall body orientation and modes of segmental stabilization relative to either external (space) or egocentric (adjacent segments) frames of reference in the roll plane were analysed. We hypothesized that a moderate challenge to balance should enhance subjects' reliance on VFoR, particularly in FD subjects, whereas a substantial challenge should constrain subjects to use a somatic-vestibular based FoR to prevent falling in which case IDs would vanish. The results showed that with increasing difficulty, FD subjects became more unstable and more disoriented shown by larger effects of the tilted visual frame on posture. Furthermore, their preference to coalign body/VFoR coordinate systems lead to greater fixation of the head-trunk articulation and stabilization of the hip in space, whereas the head and trunk remained more stabilized in space with the hip fixed on the leg in FI subjects. These results show that FD subjects have difficulties at identifying and/or adopting a more appropriate FoR based on proprioceptive and vestibular cues to regulate the coalignment of posturo/exocentric FoRs. The FI subjects' resistance

  13. Selected studies in HTGR reprocessing development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notz, K.J.

    1976-03-01

    Recent work at ORNL on hot cell studies, off-gas cleanup, and waste handling is reviewed. The work includes small-scale burning tests with irradiated fuels to study fission product release, development of the KALC process for the removal of 85 Kr from a CO 2 stream, preliminary work on a nonfluidized bed burner, solvent extraction studies including computer modeling, characterization of reprocessing wastes, and initiation of a development program for the fixation of 14 C as CaCO 3

  14. Blanket comparison and selection study. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    This volume contains extensive data for the following chapters: (1) solid breeder tritium recovery, (2) solid breeder blanket designs, (3) alternate blanket concept screening, and (4) safety analysis. The following appendices are also included: (1) blanket design guidelines, (2) power conversion systems, (3) helium-cooled, vanadium alloy structure blanket design, (4) high wall loading study, and (5) molten salt safety studies

  15. A system for protecting the environment from ionising radiation: selecting reference fauna and flora, and the possible dose models and environmental geometries that could be applied to them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentreath, R J; Woodhead, D S

    2001-09-28

    In order to demonstrate, explicitly, that the environment can be protected with respect to controlled sources of ionising radiation, it is essential to have a systematic framework within which dosimetry models for fauna and flora can be used. And because of the practical limitations on what could reasonably be modelled and the amount of information that could reasonably be obtained, it is also necessary to limit the application of such models to a 'set' of fauna and flora within a reference' context. This paper, therefore, outlines the factors that will need to be considered to select such 'reference' fauna and flora, and describes some of the factors and constraints necessary to develop the associated dosimetry models. It also describes some of the most basic environmental geometrics within which the dose models could be set in order to make comparisons amongst different radiation sources.

  16. A system for protecting the environment from ionising radiation. Selecting reference fauna and flora, and the possible dose models and environmental geometries that could be applied to them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pentreath, R.J.; Woodhead, D.S.

    2001-01-01

    In order to demonstrate, explicitly, that the environment can be protected with respect to controlled sources of ionising radiation, it is essential to have a systematic framework within which dosimetry models for fauna and flora can be used. And because of the practical limitations on what could reasonably be modelled and the amount of information that could reasonably be obtained, it is also necessary to limit the application of such models to a 'set' of fauna and flora within a 'reference' context. This paper, therefore, outlines the factors that will need to be considered to select such 'reference' fauna and flora, and describes some of the factors and constraints necessary to develop the associated dosimetry models. It also describes some of the most basic environmental geometries within which the dose models could be set in order to make comparisons amongst different radiation sources

  17. Selection as a learning experience: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Visser, Marieke; Laan, Roland F; Engbers, Rik; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Fluit, Cornelia

    2018-01-01

    Research on selection for medical school does not explore selection as a learning experience, despite growing attention for the learning effects of assessment in general. Insight in the learning effects allows us to take advantage of selection as an inclusive part of medical students' learning process to become competent professionals. The aims of this study at Radboud University Medical Center, the Netherlands, were 1) to determine whether students have learning experiences in the selection process, and, if so, what experiences; and 2) to understand what students need in order to utilize the learning effects of the selection process at the start of the formal curriculum. We used focus groups to interview 30 students admitted in 2016 about their learning experiences in the selection process. Thematic analysis was used to explore the outcomes of the interviews and to define relevant themes. In the selection process, students learned about the curriculum, themselves, their relation to others, and the profession they had been selected to enter, although this was not explicitly perceived as learning. Students needed a connection between selection and the curriculum as well as feedback to be able to really use their learning experiences for their further development. Medical school selection qualifies as a learning experience, and students as well as medical schools can take advantage of this. We recommend a careful design of the selection procedure, integrating relevant selection learning experiences into the formal curriculum, providing feedback and explicitly approaching the selection and the formal curriculum as interconnected contributors to students' development.

  18. Whole-Transcriptome Selection and Evaluation of Internal Reference Genes for Expression Analysis in Protocorm Development of Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongqiang An

    Full Text Available Dendrobium officinale Kimu et Migo has increased many researchers' interest for its high medical and horticultural values and the molecular mechanism of its protocorm development remains unclear. In this study, 19 genes from 26 most stably expressed genes in whole transcriptome of protocorms and 5 housekeeping genes were used as candidate reference genes and screened with 4 application softwares (geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and RefFinder. The results showed that a few reference genes could effectively normalize expression level of specific genes in protocorm development and the optimal top 2 reference genes were ASS and APH1L. Meanwhile, validation of GNOM, AP2 and temperature induced gene (TIL for normalization demonstrates the usefulness of the validated candidate reference genes. The expression profiles of these genes varied under protocorms and temperature stress according to the stablest and unstablest reference genes, which proved the importance of the choice of appropriate reference genes. The first systematic evaluation of stably expressed genes will be very useful in the future analysis of specific genes expression in D. officinale.

  19. Validation of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR studies of gene expression in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thrush Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. is an important pasture and turf crop. Biotechniques such as gene expression studies are being employed to improve traits in this temperate grass. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR is among the best methods available for determining changes in gene expression. Before analysis of target gene expression, it is essential to select an appropriate normalisation strategy to control for non-specific variation between samples. Reference genes that have stable expression at different biological and physiological states can be effectively used for normalisation; however, their expression stability must be validated before use. Results Existing Serial Analysis of Gene Expression data were queried to identify six moderately expressed genes that had relatively stable gene expression throughout the year. These six candidate reference genes (eukaryotic elongation factor 1 alpha, eEF1A; TAT-binding protein homolog 1, TBP-1; eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4 alpha, eIF4A; YT521-B-like protein family protein, YT521-B; histone 3, H3; ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, E2 were validated for qRT-PCR normalisation in 442 diverse perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. samples sourced from field- and laboratory-grown plants under a wide range of experimental conditions. Eukaryotic EF1A is encoded by members of a multigene family exhibiting differential expression and necessitated the expression analysis of different eEF1A encoding genes; a highly expressed eEF1A (h, a moderately, but stably expressed eEF1A (s, and combined expression of multigene eEF1A (m. NormFinder identified eEF1A (s and YT521-B as the best combination of two genes for normalisation of gene expression data in perennial ryegrass following different defoliation management in the field. Conclusions This study is unique in the magnitude of samples tested with the inclusion of numerous field-grown samples

  20. Trees in Urban and City Environments: a review of the selection criteria with particular reference to nature conservation in New Zealand Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    (Late David Given

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The overall aim of this research was to review the general criteria for selection of trees for urban environments and city environments. The reason for this research was to assess the extent to which criteria for tree selection can contribute to nature conservation in cities. We conducted an extensive review of the literature, looking for publications about the selection criteria. In particular, we looked for any previous published reviews of the criteria. With reference to the criteria used in New Zealand, we undertook an unstructured review of the practices adopted in most cities. A review of the literature revealed many publications about different criteria but only one publication in which there was a general review of the criteria used for selecting trees for urban environments. By way of contrast, lists of tree species deemed to be suitable (or unsuitable for urban planting are widely available, and some include information about selection criteria, but often with little background explanation. Worldwide, commonly used criteria included commercial availability of species, compatibility with urban environments, landscape design, low maintenance, avoidance of nuisance factors and historical practice. The most common criteria are concerned with the concept of choosing species compatible with local climate and soils. Anecdotal evidence suggests that more and more cities are using a mix of criteria including those that may contribute to conservation and restoration of native biota. We suggest that there should be greater use of ecological, genetic and biogeographical criteria to meet the needs of nature conservation in New Zealand cities.

  1. Case studies on selected natural food antioxidants

    OpenAIRE

    Herrero, Miguel; Mendiola, J. A.; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Ibáñez, Elena

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter, a broad description of several case studies related to common antioxidants found in food-related products is presented. In this regard, special attention is put on the novel advanced environmentally-friendly extraction methods nowadays employed to extract and purify those potent antioxidants from natural matrices. A brief description of these extraction processes is provided together with some of the instrumentation needed. Besides, the studies carried out so f...

  2. Geographic name "zagora" and its reference to areas in the Dalmatian hinterland in the selected newspaper medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branimir Vukosav

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Croatian language, the word "zagora" or "zagorje" refers to an area "on the other side of a mountain or a hill". Throughout history, this term has been widely used to describe places physically detached from some other, economically or politically more prominent areas; and has thus been adopted as a geographic name (toponym for places which were "in contrast" to such areas and separated from them by an element of terrain. The term zagora is therefore a geographic name which denotes an area observed from an outside point of view, and which is later on accepted by the domicile population, becoming an endonym. In the context of the Croatian national territory, the most prominent usage of this toponym has been present in specific traditional regions in northern and southern Croatia; namely, Hrvatsko zagorje in northern Croatia, and a rather undefined area in the Dalmatian hinterland in southern Croatia. The extent and the degree of identification of the areas in southern Croatia bearing that particular geographic name have not been precisely defined, although there are many obvious indications of the existence of such a region in many contemporary sources. The aim of this paper is to research the perceptual character of an area in the Dalmatian hinterland in relation to geographic names Zagora and Dalmatinska zagora by means of content analysis. The final conclusions are drawn on the basis of informal geographic data retrieval from a chosen contemporary medium source (Slobodna Dalmacija newspaper. The observed extent of perception provides provisional maps which serve as approximations of collective cognitive maps and represents a starting point for a more extensive research on vernacular aspects of the Dalmatian hinterland.

  3. Selection of reference genes is critical for miRNA expression analysis in human cardiac tissue. A focus on atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masè, Michela; Grasso, Margherita; Avogaro, Laura; D'Amato, Elvira; Tessarolo, Francesco; Graffigna, Angelo; Denti, Michela Alessandra; Ravelli, Flavia

    2017-01-24

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are emerging as key regulators of complex biological processes in several cardiovascular diseases, including atrial fibrillation (AF). Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction is a powerful technique to quantitatively assess miRNA expression profile, but reliable results depend on proper data normalization by suitable reference genes. Despite the increasing number of studies assessing miRNAs in cardiac disease, no consensus on the best reference genes has been reached. This work aims to assess reference genes stability in human cardiac tissue with a focus on AF investigation. We evaluated the stability of five reference genes (U6, SNORD48, SNORD44, miR-16, and 5S) in atrial tissue samples from eighteen cardiac-surgery patients in sinus rhythm and AF. Stability was quantified by combining BestKeeper, delta-C q , GeNorm, and NormFinder statistical tools. All methods assessed SNORD48 as the best and U6 as the worst reference gene. Applications of different normalization strategies significantly impacted miRNA expression profiles in the study population. Our results point out the necessity of a consensus on data normalization in AF studies to avoid the emergence of divergent biological conclusions.

  4. Certification of a meat reference material based on a collaborative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Marcela Salazar Arzate

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Through a collaborative project, comparison studies were carried out to improve measurement capabilities of participating laboratories, supporting them to produce, characterize and distribute reference materials in the food sector. The project was planned in four annual stages (milk, water, meat and grains. The third stage aimed specifically to quantify and certify the nutritional content of the parameters (nitrogen, fat, sodium and potassium of a batch candidate as Certified Reference Material (CRM of canned beef. This study was conducted in collaboration between several National Metrology Institutes (NMIs and/or collaborating laboratories, which, once identified the possible causes of variability or bias in the measurements, as well as the opportunities of improvement, achieved the certification of the material beef. The CRM was distributed among the participants to cover the needs of the food industry of meat products and testing laboratories in their respective countries.

  5. A feasibility study for producing an egg matrix candidate reference material for the polyether ionophore salinomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Rosana Gomes; Monteiro, Mychelle Alves; Pereira, Mararlene Ulberg; da Costa, Rafaela Pinto; Spisso, Bernardete Ferraz; Calado, Veronica

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this work was to study the feasibility of producing an egg matrix candidate reference material for salinomycin. Preservation techniques investigated were freeze-drying and spray drying dehydration. Homogeneity and stability studies of the produced batches were conducted according to ISO Guides 34 and 35. The results showed that all produced batches were homogeneous and both freeze-drying and spray drying techniques were suitable for matrix dehydrating, ensuring the material stability. In order to preserve the material integrity, it must be transported within the temperature range of -20 up to 25°C. The results constitute an important step towards the development of an egg matrix reference material for salinomycin is possible. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The study on the intake and distribution of elements for 'Reference Japanese'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    From the standpoint of radiological protection, the quantitative description of the physical characteristics and customs of man is the basis for calculating annual limit of intake, estimating dose equivalents and MIRD phantom for radioactive substances (ICRP 77). Committee 2 of ICRP has published compilation of data on the anatomical, chemical and physiological characteristics of man, as Standard Man and Reference Man. The models are, however, mostly based on the data published for Europeans and Americans. Reference Man, as characterized by the Task Group itself, is defined as a Caucasian and is a Western European or North American in habitat and custom. Reference Man, so far, is not directly applicable to other populations, for instance, the Japanese. Because it is known that differences exist between Asians, and Europeans and Americans with respect to race, customs and the pattern of food consumption. In view of this problem, it has become of necessity to seek standard or reference values for Japanese, i.e., mass and dimension of body and organs, and the daily intake, distribution, and metabolism of elements in Japanese, especially on the basis of more recently obtained data. Average mass of organs of the normal Japanese was studied and the results were presented for Reference Japanese Man. Development of chemical methods for determining stable elements in autopsy tissues was carried out to establish a highly reliable analytical system. Thyroidal uptake and biological half-life of ingested 131 I in relation to the dietal stable element intake was determined for two normal Japanese adult male subjects. (author)

  7. A comparative neutron activation analysis study of common generic manipulated and reference medicines commercialized in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leal, A.S.; Menezes, M.A.B.C.; Rodrigues, R.R.; Andonie, O.; Vermaercke, P.; Sneyers, L.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, a comparative study of neutron activation analysis (NAA) was performed by the nuclear institutes: CDTN/CNEN-Brazil, CCHEN-Chile and the SCK.CEN-Belgium aiming to investigate some generic, manipulated and reference medicines largely commercialized in Brazil. Some impurities such as: As, Ba, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Eu, Fe, Hf, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ti and Zn were found, and the heterogeneity of the samples pointed out the lack of an efficient public system of quality control

  8. Public synthesis of the reference costs study of the electric power production; Synthese publique de l'etude des couts de reference de la production electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Every 3 or 5 years, the DGEC published the reference costs study of the electric power production which evaluates, in a theoretical framework, the total cost of an electrical MWh, from different production ways. These studies bring information for the definition of the energy policy and the elaboration of the investments program. because of the great competition of the market, it was decided not to publish the absolute value of the hypothesis and the results but under indexed form. (A.L.B.)

  9. Case studies of selected Project "Flash" events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Nicolaides

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Flooding is a consequence of the prevailing meteorological situation, the intensity and duration of precipitation, geomorphology, human activities over a geographical region and other factors. Floods result in damage and destruction of infrastructure and private property and, in some cases, in fatalities. Flash floods are sudden and quite localized in extend, characterized by excessive amounts of rainfall within a short period of time and are distinguished from other floods by their degree of severity. The broader knowledge concerning flash floods is useful for the better understanding of the underlying thermodynamic and dynamic mechanisms, as well as the associated physical processes. The wider understanding of flashfloods can form part of an integrated system for short and very short forecasting of these events. In the present study, the synoptic, dynamic and thermodynamic conditions during the development of a baroclinic depression which affected the area of Cyprus on 6 November 2005 are studied. The depression was associated with extreme weather phenomena, such as thunderstorms, a water spout and high precipitation accumulations. The results indicate the importance of the dynamic parameters in the system's development and the thermodynamic analysis has shown the convective potential of the atmosphere.

  10. Feasibility Study for the Development of Plutonium Reference Materials for Age Dating in Nuclear Forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturm, M.; Richter, S.; Aregbe, Y.; Wellum, R.; Altzitzoglou, T.; Verbruggen, A.; Mayer, K.; Prohaska, T.

    2010-01-01

    Isotopic reference materials certified for the age of nuclear material (uranium, plutonium) are needed in the fields of nuclear forensics and environmental measurements. Therefore a feasibility study for the development of plutonium reference materials for age dating has been started recently at the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (EC-JRC-IRMM). The ''age'' of the material is defined as the time that has passed since the last chemical separation of the mother and daughter isotopes (e.g. 241 Pu and 241 Am). Assuming that the separation has been complete and all the daughter isotopes have been removed from the original material during this last separation, the age of the material can be determined by measuring the ratio of daughter and mother radio-nuclides, e.g. 241 Am/ 241 Pu. At a given time after the last separation and depending on the half lives of the radio-nuclides involved, a certain amount of the daughter radionuclide(s) will be present. For the determination of the unknown age of a material different ''clocks'' can be used; ''clocks'' are pairs of mother and daughter radio-nuclides, such as 241 Am/ 241 Pu, 238 Pu/ 234 U, 239 Pu/ 235 U, 240 Pu/ 236 U, and possibly 242 Pu/ 238 U. For the age estimation of a real sample, such as material seized in nuclear forensics investigations or dust samples in environmental measurements, it is advisable to use more than one clock in order to ensure the reliability of the results and to exclude the possibility that the sample under question is a mixture of two or more materials. Consequently, a future reference material certified for separation date should ideally be certified for more than one ''clock'' or several reference materials for different ''clocks'' should be developed. The first step of this study is to verify the known separation dates of different plutonium materials of different ages and isotopic compositions by measuring the mother ( 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 240 Pu, 241 Pu, 242 Pu) and daughter

  11. Selection of water treatment processes special study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    Characterization of the level and extent of groundwater contamination in the vicinity of Title I mill sites began during the surface remedial action stage (Phase 1) of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Some of the contamination in the aquifer(s) at the abandoned sites is attributable to milling activities during the years the mills were in operation. The restoration of contaminated aquifers is to be undertaken in Phase II of the UMTRA Project. To begin implementation of Phase II, DOE requested that groundwater restoration methods and technologies be investigated by the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC). and that the results of the TAC investigations be documented in special study reports. Many active and passive methods are available to clean up contaminated groundwater. Passive groundwater treatment includes natural flushing, geochemical barriers, and gradient manipulation by stream diversion or slurry walls. Active groundwater.cleanup techniques include gradient manipulation by well extraction or injection. in-situ biological or chemical reclamation, and extraction and treatment. Although some or all of the methods listed above may play a role in the groundwater cleanup phase of the UMTRA Project, the extraction and treatment (pump and treat) option is the only restoration alternative discussed in this report. Hence, all sections of this report relate either directly or indirectly to the technical discipline of process engineering

  12. Reference Mission Version 3.0 Addendum to the Human Exploration of Mars: The Reference Mission of the NASA Mars Exploration Study Team. Addendum; 3.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Bret G. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    This Addendum to the Mars Reference Mission was developed as a companion document to the NASA Special Publication 6107, "Human Exploration of Mars: The Reference Mission of the NASA Mars Exploration Study Team." It summarizes changes and updates to the Mars Reference Missions that were developed by the Exploration Office since the final draft of SP 6107 was printed in early 1999. The Reference Mission is a tool used by the exploration community to compare and evaluate approaches to mission and system concepts that could be used for human missions to Mars. It is intended to identify and clarify system drivers, significant sources of cost, performance, risk, and schedule variation. Several alternative scenarios, employing different technical approaches to solving mission and technology challenges, are discussed in this Addendum. Comparing alternative approaches provides the basis for continual improvement to technology investment plan and a general understanding of future human missions to Mars. The Addendum represents a snapshot of work in progress in support of planning for future human exploration missions through May 1998.

  13. Working and reference memory across the estrous cycle of rat: a long-term study in gonadally intact females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompili, Assunta; Tomaz, Carlos; Arnone, Benedetto; Tavares, Maria Clotilde; Gasbarri, Antonella

    2010-11-12

    The results of many studies conducted over the past two decades suggested a role of estrogen on mammal's ability to learn and remember. In the present paper, we analyzed the influence that the endogenous fluctuation of estrogen, naturally present across the different phases of estrous cycle of female rats, can exert over the performance of tasks utilized to assess memory. In particular, we analyzed the performances in an eight arms radial maze task, dependent upon working memory, and in a water maze (WM) task, dependent upon spatial reference memory. The water maze is aversively motivated by the desire to escape onto a safe platform, whereas the radial arm maze (RAM) is motivated by food reward. The difference in reinforcement may affect the speed of learning, the strategy adopted and the necessity for accurate navigation. Therefore, coherent results obtained through the two different tasks can be due to mnemonic factors. The study was conducted during a long period of time, 14 months, utilizing gonadally intact females, without pharmacological and surgical treatments. In order to evaluate the post-acquisition phase we first trained the animals to reach the criterion in performing tasks, and then we submitted them to experimental phase. Our results show that estrogen can have an effect on memory processes, and that this effect may be different in relation to different kinds of memory. In fact, in our study, estrogen selectively improved working memory, but not reference memory, during post-acquisition performance of a RAM task with four baited and four un-baited arms. Moreover, WM performances showed that estrogen have a negative effect on spatial reference memory. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Echocardiographic reference ranges for normal left atrial function parameters: results from the EACVI NORRE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Tadafumi; Robinet, Sébastien; Dulgheru, Raluca; Bernard, Anne; Ilardi, Federica; Contu, Laura; Addetia, Karima; Caballero, Luis; Kacharava, George; Athanassopoulos, George D; Barone, Daniele; Baroni, Monica; Cardim, Nuno; Hagendorff, Andreas; Hristova, Krasimira; Lopez, Teresa; de la Morena, Gonzalo; Popescu, Bogdan A; Penicka, Martin; Ozyigit, Tolga; Rodrigo Carbonero, Jose David; van de Veire, Nico; Von Bardeleben, Ralph Stephan; Vinereanu, Dragos; Zamorano, Jose Luis; Go, Yun Yun; Marchetta, Stella; Nchimi, Alain; Rosca, Monica; Calin, Andreea; Moonen, Marie; Cimino, Sara; Magne, Julien; Cosyns, Bernard; Galli, Elena; Donal, Erwan; Habib, Gilbert; Esposito, Roberta; Galderisi, Maurizio; Badano, Luigi P; Lang, Roberto M; Lancellotti, Patrizio

    2018-02-23

    To obtain the normal ranges for echocardiographic measurements of left atrial (LA) function from a large group of healthy volunteers accounting for age and gender. A total of 371 (median age 45 years) healthy subjects were enrolled at 22 collaborating institutions collaborating in the Normal Reference Ranges for Echocardiography (NORRE) study of the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI). Left atrial data sets were analysed with a vendor-independent software (VIS) package allowing homogeneous measurements irrespective of the echocardiographic equipment used to acquire data sets. The lowest expected values of LA function were 26.1%, 48.7%, and 41.4% for left atrial strain (LAS), 2D left atrial emptying fraction (LAEF), and 3D LAEF (reservoir function); 7.7%, 24.2%, and -0.53/s for LAS-active, LAEF-active, and LA strain rate during LA contraction (SRa) (pump function) and 12.0% and 21.6% for LAS-passive and LAEF-passive (conduit function). Left atrial reservoir and conduit function were decreased with age while pump function was increased. All indices of reservoir function and all LA strains had no difference in both gender and vendor. However, inter-vendor differences were observed in LA SRa despite the use of VIS. The NORRE study provides contemporary, applicable echocardiographic reference ranges for LA function. Our data highlight the importance of age-specific reference values for LA functions.

  15. NAA study on homogeneity of reference materials and their suitability for microanalytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dybczynski, R.; Danko, B.; Polkowska-Motrenko, H.

    2000-01-01

    Homogeneity of the existing (Virginia Tobacco Leaves CTA-VTL-2 (ICHTJ), Apatite Concentrate CTA-AC-1 (ICHTJ), Fine Fly Ash CTA-FFA-1 (ICHTJ)) and candidate certified reference materials (CRMs) (IAEA-338 Lichen, IAEA-413 Algae, Spruce Shoots RMF II (Germany)) was studied by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Several samples of small mass (ca. 1 or 10 mg) taken from various containers were analyzed by instrumental NAA and the results for several elements were compared by Fishers's test and t-test with analogous series of results for samples taken from one container. In the second approach, sampling variance was estimated for some elements from overall variance and the components of analytical variance. The results were interpreted with the aid of Ingamells' sampling constant. Particle size distribution of the reference materials was also measured by several techniques. In addition quantitative determinations for some elements were performed and results compared with the certified values. The results of the present study were discussed with reference to suitability of CRMs to microanalytical techniques. It was pointed out that the term 'microanalysis' itself is not always unequivocally understood and used. (author)

  16. Evaluation of Skin Surface as an Alternative Source of Reference DNA Samples: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albujja, Mohammed H; Bin Dukhyil, Abdul Aziz; Chaudhary, Abdul Rauf; Kassab, Ahmed Ch; Refaat, Ahmed M; Babu, Saranya Ramesh; Okla, Mohammad K; Kumar, Sachil

    2018-01-01

    An acceptable area for collecting DNA reference sample is a part of the forensic DNA analysis development. The aim of this study was to evaluate skin surface cells (SSC) as an alternate source of reference DNA sample. From each volunteer (n = 10), six samples from skin surface areas (forearm and fingertips) and two traditional samples (blood and buccal cells) were collected. Genomic DNA was extracted and quantified then genotyped using standard techniques. The highest DNA concentration of SSC samples was collected using the tape/forearm method of collection (2.1 ng/μL). Cotton swabs moistened with ethanol yielded higher quantities of DNA than swabs moistened with salicylic acid, and it gave the highest percentage of full STR profiles (97%). This study supports the use of SSC as a noninvasive sampling technique and as a extremely useful source of DNA reference samples among certain cultures where the use of buccal swabs can be considered socially unacceptable. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  17. An echocardiographic study of healthy Border Collies with normal reference ranges for the breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Jake H; Boon, June A; Bright, Janice M

    2013-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to obtain standard echocardiographic measurements from healthy Border Collies and to compare these measurements to those previously reported for a general population of dogs. Standard echocardiographic data were obtained from twenty apparently healthy Border Collie dogs. These data (n = 20) were compared to data obtained from a general population of healthy dogs (n = 69). Border Collies were deemed healthy based on normal history, physical examination, complete blood count, serum biochemical profile, electrocardiogram, and blood pressure, with no evidence of congenital or acquired heart disease on echocardiographic examination. Standard two dimensional, M-mode, and Doppler echocardiographic measurements were obtained and normal ranges determined. The data were compared to data previously obtained at our hospital from a general population of normal dogs. Two dimensional, M-mode, and Doppler reference ranges for healthy Border Collies are presented in tabular form. Comparison of the weight adjusted M-mode echocardiographic means from Border Collies to those from the general population of dogs showed Border Collies to have larger left ventricular systolic and diastolic dimensions, smaller interventricular septal thickness, and lower fractional shortening. There are differences in some echocardiographic parameters between healthy Border Collies and the general dog population, and the echocardiographic reference ranges provided in this study should be used as breed specific reference values for Border Collies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Homogeneity study on biological candidate reference materials: the role of neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Daniel P.; Moreira, Edson G., E-mail: dsilva.pereira@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Instrumental Neutron activation Analysis (INAA) is a mature nuclear analytical technique able to accurately determine chemical elements without the need of sample digestion and, hence, without the associated problems of analyte loss or contamination. This feature, along with its potentiality use as a primary method of analysis, makes it an important tool for the characterization of new references materials and in the assessment of their homogeneity status. In this study, the ability of the comparative method of INAA for the within-bottle homogeneity of K, Mg, Mn and V in a mussel reference material was investigated. Method parameters, such as irradiation time, sample decay time and distance from sample to the detector were varied in order to allow element determination in subsamples of different sample masses in duplicate. Sample masses were in the range of 1 to 250 mg and the limitations of the detection limit for small sample masses and dead time distortions for large sample masses were investigated. (author)

  19. Directional selection in temporally replicated studies is remarkably consistent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Michael B; Hadfield, Jarrod D

    2012-02-01

    Temporal variation in selection is a fundamental determinant of evolutionary outcomes. A recent paper presented a synthetic analysis of temporal variation in selection in natural populations. The authors concluded that there is substantial variation in the strength and direction of selection over time, but acknowledged that sampling error would result in estimates of selection that were more variable than the true values. We reanalyze their dataset using techniques that account for the necessary effect of sampling error to inflate apparent levels of variation and show that directional selection is remarkably constant over time, both in magnitude and direction. Thus we cannot claim that the available data support the existence of substantial temporal heterogeneity in selection. Nonetheless, we conject that temporal variation in selection could be important, but that there are good reasons why it may not appear in the available data. These new analyses highlight the importance of applying techniques that estimate parameters of the distribution of selection, rather than parameters of the distribution of estimated selection (which will reflect both sampling error and "real" variation in selection); indeed, despite availability of methods for the former, focus on the latter has been common in synthetic reviews of the aspects of selection in nature, and can lead to serious misinterpretations. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  20. A multicenter nationwide reference intervals study for common biochemical analytes in Turkey using Abbott analyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozarda, Yesim; Ichihara, Kiyoshi; Aslan, Diler; Aybek, Hulya; Ari, Zeki; Taneli, Fatma; Coker, Canan; Akan, Pinar; Sisman, Ali Riza; Bahceci, Onur; Sezgin, Nurzen; Demir, Meltem; Yucel, Gultekin; Akbas, Halide; Ozdem, Sebahat; Polat, Gurbuz; Erbagci, Ayse Binnur; Orkmez, Mustafa; Mete, Nuriye; Evliyaoglu, Osman; Kiyici, Aysel; Vatansev, Husamettin; Ozturk, Bahadir; Yucel, Dogan; Kayaalp, Damla; Dogan, Kubra; Pinar, Asli; Gurbilek, Mehmet; Cetinkaya, Cigdem Damla; Akin, Okhan; Serdar, Muhittin; Kurt, Ismail; Erdinc, Selda; Kadicesme, Ozgur; Ilhan, Necip; Atali, Dilek Sadak; Bakan, Ebubekir; Polat, Harun; Noyan, Tevfik; Can, Murat; Bedir, Abdulkerim; Okuyucu, Ali; Deger, Orhan; Agac, Suret; Ademoglu, Evin; Kaya, Ayşem; Nogay, Turkan; Eren, Nezaket; Dirican, Melahat; Tuncer, GulOzlem; Aykus, Mehmet; Gunes, Yeliz; Ozmen, Sevda Unalli; Kawano, Reo; Tezcan, Sehavet; Demirpence, Ozlem; Degirmen, Elif

    2014-12-01

    A nationwide multicenter study was organized to establish reference intervals (RIs) in the Turkish population for 25 commonly tested biochemical analytes and to explore sources of variation in reference values, including regionality. Blood samples were collected nationwide in 28 laboratories from the seven regions (≥400 samples/region, 3066 in all). The sera were collectively analyzed in Uludag University in Bursa using Abbott reagents and analyzer. Reference materials were used for standardization of test results. After secondary exclusion using the latent abnormal values exclusion method, RIs were derived by a parametric method employing the modified Box-Cox formula and compared with the RIs by the non-parametric method. Three-level nested ANOVA was used to evaluate variations among sexes, ages and regions. Associations between test results and age, body mass index (BMI) and region were determined by multiple regression analysis (MRA). By ANOVA, differences of reference values among seven regions were significant in none of the 25 analytes. Significant sex-related and age-related differences were observed for 10 and seven analytes, respectively. MRA revealed BMI-related changes in results for uric acid, glucose, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, and γ-glutamyltransferase. Their RIs were thus derived by applying stricter criteria excluding individuals with BMI >28 kg/m2. Ranges of RIs by non-parametric method were wider than those by parametric method especially for those analytes affected by BMI. With the lack of regional differences and the well-standardized status of test results, the RIs derived from this nationwide study can be used for the entire Turkish population.

  1. Reference gene selection for quantitative real-time PCR analysis in virus infected cells: SARS corona virus, Yellow fever virus, Human Herpesvirus-6, Camelpox virus and Cytomegalovirus infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Marcel A

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ten potential reference genes were compared for their use in experiments investigating cellular mRNA expression of virus infected cells. Human cell lines were infected with Cytomegalovirus, Human Herpesvirus-6, Camelpox virus, SARS coronavirus or Yellow fever virus. The expression levels of these genes and the viral replication were determined by real-time PCR. Genes were ranked by the BestKeeper tool, the GeNorm tool and by criteria we reported previously. Ranking lists of the genes tested were tool dependent. However, over all, β-actin is an unsuitable as reference gene, whereas TATA-Box binding protein and peptidyl-prolyl-isomerase A are stable reference genes for expression studies in virus infected cells.

  2. Modeling and analysis of PET studies with norepinephrine transporter ligands: the search for a reference region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, Jean [Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)]. E-mail: logan@bnl.gov; Ding, Y.-S. [Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Lin, K.-S. [Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Pareto, Deborah [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Functional Imaging, Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Fowler, Joanna [Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Biegon, Anat [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2005-07-01

    The development of positron emission tomography (PET) ligands for the norepinephrine transporter (NET) has been slow compared to the development of radiotracers for others systems, such as the dopamine (DAT) or the serotonin transporters (SERT). The main reason for this appears to be the high nonspecific (non-NET) binding exhibited by many of these tracers, which makes the identification of a reference region difficult. With other PET ligands the use of a reference region increases the reproducibility of the outcome measure in test/retest studies. The focus of this work is to identify a suitable reference region or means of normalizing data for the NET ligands investigated. Methods: We have analyzed the results of PET studies in the baboon brain with labeled reboxetine derivatives (S,S)-[{sup 11}C]O-methyl reboxetine (SS-MRB), (S,S)-[{sup 18}F]fluororeboxetine (SS-FRB) as well as O-[{sup 11}C]nisoxetine and N-[{sup 11}C]nisoxetine (NIS), and, for comparison, the less active (R,R) enantiomers (RR-MRB, RR-FRB) in terms of the distribution volume (DV) using measured arterial input functions. Results: (1) For a given subject, a large variation in DV for successive baseline studies was observed in regions with both high and low NET density. (2) The occipital cortex and the basal ganglia were found to be the regions with the smallest change between baseline (SS-MRB) and pretreatment with cocaine, and were therefore used as a composite reference region for calculation of a distribution volume ratio (DVR). (3) The variability [as measured by the coefficient of variation (CV)=standard deviation/mean] in the distribution volume ratio (DVR) of thalamus (to reference region) was considerably reduced over that of the DV using this composite reference region. (4) Pretreatment with nisoxetine (1.0 mg/kg 10 min prior to tracer) in one study produced (in decreasing order) reductions in thalamus, cerebellum, cingulate and frontal cortex consistent with known NET densities. (5) [{sup

  3. Modeling and analysis of PET studies with norepinephrine transporter ligands: the search for a reference region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Jean; Ding, Yu-Shin; Lin, Kuo-Shyan; Pareto, Deborah; Fowler, Joanna; Biegon, Anat

    2005-07-01

    The development of positron emission tomography (PET) ligands for the norepinephrine transporter (NET) has been slow compared to the development of radiotracers for others systems, such as the dopamine (DAT) or the serotonin transporters (SERT). The main reason for this appears to be the high nonspecific (non-NET) binding exhibited by many of these tracers, which makes the identification of a reference region difficult. With other PET ligands the use of a reference region increases the reproducibility of the outcome measure in test/retest studies. The focus of this work is to identify a suitable reference region or means of normalizing data for the NET ligands investigated. We have analyzed the results of PET studies in the baboon brain with labeled reboxetine derivatives (S,S)-[(11)C]O-methyl reboxetine (SS-MRB), (S,S)-[(18)F]fluororeboxetine (SS-FRB) as well as O-[(11)C]nisoxetine and N-[(11)C]nisoxetine (NIS), and, for comparison, the less active (R,R) enantiomers (RR-MRB, RR-FRB) in terms of the distribution volume (DV) using measured arterial input functions. (1) For a given subject, a large variation in DV for successive baseline studies was observed in regions with both high and low NET density. (2) The occipital cortex and the basal ganglia were found to be the regions with the smallest change between baseline (SS-MRB) and pretreatment with cocaine, and were therefore used as a composite reference region for calculation of a distribution volume ratio (DVR). (3) The variability [as measured by the coefficient of variation (CV) = standard deviation/mean] in the distribution volume ratio (DVR) of thalamus (to reference region) was considerably reduced over that of the DV using this composite reference region. (4) Pretreatment with nisoxetine (1.0 mg/kg 10 min prior to tracer) in one study produced (in decreasing order) reductions in thalamus, cerebellum, cingulate and frontal cortex consistent with known NET densities. (5) [(11)C]Nisoxetine had a higher

  4. Modeling and analysis of PET studies with norepinephrine transporter ligands: the search for a reference region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, Jean; Ding, Y.-S.; Lin, K.-S.; Pareto, Deborah; Fowler, Joanna; Biegon, Anat

    2005-01-01

    The development of positron emission tomography (PET) ligands for the norepinephrine transporter (NET) has been slow compared to the development of radiotracers for others systems, such as the dopamine (DAT) or the serotonin transporters (SERT). The main reason for this appears to be the high nonspecific (non-NET) binding exhibited by many of these tracers, which makes the identification of a reference region difficult. With other PET ligands the use of a reference region increases the reproducibility of the outcome measure in test/retest studies. The focus of this work is to identify a suitable reference region or means of normalizing data for the NET ligands investigated. Methods: We have analyzed the results of PET studies in the baboon brain with labeled reboxetine derivatives (S,S)-[ 11 C]O-methyl reboxetine (SS-MRB), (S,S)-[ 18 F]fluororeboxetine (SS-FRB) as well as O-[ 11 C]nisoxetine and N-[ 11 C]nisoxetine (NIS), and, for comparison, the less active (R,R) enantiomers (RR-MRB, RR-FRB) in terms of the distribution volume (DV) using measured arterial input functions. Results: (1) For a given subject, a large variation in DV for successive baseline studies was observed in regions with both high and low NET density. (2) The occipital cortex and the basal ganglia were found to be the regions with the smallest change between baseline (SS-MRB) and pretreatment with cocaine, and were therefore used as a composite reference region for calculation of a distribution volume ratio (DVR). (3) The variability [as measured by the coefficient of variation (CV)=standard deviation/mean] in the distribution volume ratio (DVR) of thalamus (to reference region) was considerably reduced over that of the DV using this composite reference region. (4) Pretreatment with nisoxetine (1.0 mg/kg 10 min prior to tracer) in one study produced (in decreasing order) reductions in thalamus, cerebellum, cingulate and frontal cortex consistent with known NET densities. (5) [ 11 C]Nisoxetine had

  5. Marketing strategy and product performance: a study of selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marketing strategy and product performance: a study of selected firms in Nigeria. ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ... This paper therefore recommends that business organisations should accord necessary ...

  6. Fundamental studies, reference values and relationship to menstrual cycle on Prolactin RIA BEAD II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Midori; Sakai, Rinko; Satoh, Shigekiyo; Maruyama, Kiyoji; Kanai, Masamitsu

    1989-01-01

    We have tried fundamental studies, reference values and relationship to menstrual cycle on Prolactin RIA BEAD II kit which has a method of IRMA using monocronal antibody. On clinical studies, we investigated change of serum prolactin level during the menstrual cycle and relationship to other hormones (LH, FSH, estradiol, progesterone). It was the result that prolactin level of follicular phase was lower than that of preavulatory phase and luteal phase. We conclude that change of prolactin level during the menstrual cycle is related with change of estradiol level. (author)

  7. Fundamental studies, reference values and relationship to menstrual cycle on Prolactin RIA BEAD II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Midori; Sakai, Rinko; Satoh, Shigekiyo; Maruyama, Kiyoji; Kanai, Masamitsu (Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1989-06-01

    We have tried fundamental studies, reference values and relationship to menstrual cycle on Prolactin RIA BEAD II kit which has a method of IRMA using monocronal antibody. On clinical studies, we investigated change of serum prolactin level during the menstrual cycle and relationship to other hormones (LH, FSH, estradiol, progesterone). It was the result that prolactin level of follicular phase was lower than that of preavulatory phase and luteal phase. We conclude that change of prolactin level during the menstrual cycle is related with change of estradiol level. (author).

  8. Blood pressure reference values for European non-overweight school children: the IDEFICS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba, G; Buck, C; Bammann, K; Hadjigeorgiou, C; Hebestreit, A; Mårild, S; Molnár, D; Russo, P; Veidebaum, T; Vyncke, K; Ahrens, W; Moreno, L A

    2014-09-01

    To provide oscillometric blood pressure (BP) reference values in European non-overweight school children. Cross-sectional analysis from the IDEFICS study (www.ideficsstudy.eu) database. Standardised BP and anthropometric measures were obtained from children aged 2 to 10.9 years, participating in the 2007-2008 and 2009-2010 IDEFICS surveys. Age- and height-specific systolic and diastolic pressure percentiles were calculated by GAMLSS, separately for boys and girls, in both the entire population (n=16,937) and the non-overweight children only (n=13,547). The robustness of the models was tested by sensitivity analyses carried out in both population samples. Percentiles of BP distribution in non-overweight children were provided by age and height strata, separately for boys and girls. Diastolic BP norms were slightly higher in girls than in boys for similar age and height, while systolic BP values tended to be higher in boys starting from age 5 years. Sensitivity analysis, comparing BP distributions obtained in all children with those of non-overweight children, showed that the inclusion of overweight/obese individuals shifted the references values upward, in particular systolic BP in girls at the extreme percentiles. The present analysis provides updated and timely information about reference values for BP in children aged 2 to <11 years that may be useful for monitoring and planning population strategies for disease prevention.

  9. Systematic identification of human housekeeping genes possibly useful as references in gene expression studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caracausi, Maria; Piovesan, Allison; Antonaros, Francesca; Strippoli, Pierluigi; Vitale, Lorenza; Pelleri, Maria Chiara

    2017-09-01

    The ideal reference, or control, gene for the study of gene expression in a given organism should be expressed at a medium‑high level for easy detection, should be expressed at a constant/stable level throughout different cell types and within the same cell type undergoing different treatments, and should maintain these features through as many different tissues of the organism. From a biological point of view, these theoretical requirements of an ideal reference gene appear to be best suited to housekeeping (HK) genes. Recent advancements in the quality and completeness of human expression microarray data and in their statistical analysis may provide new clues toward the quantitative standardization of human gene expression studies in biology and medicine, both cross‑ and within‑tissue. The systematic approach used by the present study is based on the Transcriptome Mapper tool and exploits the automated reassignment of probes to corresponding genes, intra‑ and inter‑sample normalization, elaboration and representation of gene expression values in linear form within an indexed and searchable database with a graphical interface recording quantitative levels of expression, expression variability and cross‑tissue width of expression for more than 31,000 transcripts. The present study conducted a meta‑analysis of a pool of 646 expression profile data sets from 54 different human tissues and identified actin γ 1 as the HK gene that best fits the combination of all the traditional criteria to be used as a reference gene for general use; two ribosomal protein genes, RPS18 and RPS27, and one aquaporin gene, POM121 transmembrane nucleporin C, were also identified. The present study provided a list of tissue‑ and organ‑specific genes that may be most suited for the following individual tissues/organs: Adipose tissue, bone marrow, brain, heart, kidney, liver, lung, ovary, skeletal muscle and testis; and also provides in these cases a representative

  10. A global reference for caesarean section rates (C-Model): a multicountry cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, J P; Betran, A P; Dumont, A; de Mucio, B; Gibbs Pickens, C M; Deneux-Tharaux, C; Ortiz-Panozo, E; Sullivan, E; Ota, E; Togoobaatar, G; Carroli, G; Knight, H; Zhang, J; Cecatti, J G; Vogel, J P; Jayaratne, K; Leal, M C; Gissler, M; Morisaki, N; Lack, N; Oladapo, O T; Tunçalp, Ö; Lumbiganon, P; Mori, R; Quintana, S; Costa Passos, A D; Marcolin, A C; Zongo, A; Blondel, B; Hernández, B; Hogue, C J; Prunet, C; Landman, C; Ochir, C; Cuesta, C; Pileggi-Castro, C; Walker, D; Alves, D; Abalos, E; Moises, Ecd; Vieira, E M; Duarte, G; Perdona, G; Gurol-Urganci, I; Takahiko, K; Moscovici, L; Campodonico, L; Oliveira-Ciabati, L; Laopaiboon, M; Danansuriya, M; Nakamura-Pereira, M; Costa, M L; Torloni, M R; Kramer, M R; Borges, P; Olkhanud, P B; Pérez-Cuevas, R; Agampodi, S B; Mittal, S; Serruya, S; Bataglia, V; Li, Z; Temmerman, M; Gülmezoglu, A M

    2016-02-01

    To generate a global reference for caesarean section (CS) rates at health facilities. Cross-sectional study. Health facilities from 43 countries. Thirty eight thousand three hundred and twenty-four women giving birth from 22 countries for model building and 10,045,875 women giving birth from 43 countries for model testing. We hypothesised that mathematical models could determine the relationship between clinical-obstetric characteristics and CS. These models generated probabilities of CS that could be compared with the observed CS rates. We devised a three-step approach to generate the global benchmark of CS rates at health facilities: creation of a multi-country reference population, building mathematical models, and testing these models. Area under the ROC curves, diagnostic odds ratio, expected CS rate, observed CS rate. According to the different versions of the model, areas under the ROC curves suggested a good discriminatory capacity of C-Model, with summary estimates ranging from 0.832 to 0.844. The C-Model was able to generate expected CS rates adjusted for the case-mix of the obstetric population. We have also prepared an e-calculator to facilitate use of C-Model (www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/maternal_perinatal_health/c-model/en/). This article describes the development of a global reference for CS rates. Based on maternal characteristics, this tool was able to generate an individualised expected CS rate for health facilities or groups of health facilities. With C-Model, obstetric teams, health system managers, health facilities, health insurance companies, and governments can produce a customised reference CS rate for assessing use (and overuse) of CS. The C-Model provides a customized benchmark for caesarean section rates in health facilities and systems. © 2015 World Health Organization; licensed by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  11. Quality of sleep and selective attention in university students: descriptive cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Alicia Fontana; Waldina Raimondi; María Laura Rizzo

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Sleep quality not only refers to sleeping well at night, but also includes appropriate daytime functioning. Poor quality of sleep can affect a variety of attention processes. PURPOSE The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the relationship between the perceived quality of sleep and selective focus in a group of college students. METHODS A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in a group of 52 Argentinian college students of the Universidad Adven...

  12. Symptoms of delirium: an exploratory factor analytic study among referred patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Gaurav; Chakrabarti, Subho; Kulhara, Parmanand

    2011-01-01

    Factor analytic studies of delirium symptoms among patients referred through consultation-liaison psychiatric services are rare. We examined the factor structure of delirium symptoms in referred patients and determined whether combining items from several delirium rating scales influenced the factor structure of delirium symptoms. Eighty-six patients with delirium (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision) referred though the consultation-liaison services were assessed with structured rating scales. Nineteen symptom items extracted from the Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98 (DRS-R-98), the Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale and the Confusional State Evaluation Scale were subjected to an exploratory (principal component) factor analysis. A second such analysis was conducted on 15 items of the DRS-R-98 for comparison. Compared with prior studies, patients were younger and the majority had hyperactive delirium. Principal components analysis identified two factors: (1) a "cognitive" factor comprising of disturbances in language, thought processes, orientation, attention, short- and long-term memory, visuospatial ability, consciousness (awareness) and perseveration accounted for 28.9% of the variance and (2) a "behavioral" factor consisting of sleep-wake cycle disturbances, delusions, perceptual disturbances, motor agitation, affect-lability, distractibility, irritability and temporal onset accounted for 18.9% of the variance. An identical factor structure was obtained with the DRS-R-98 items. Similar to previous factor analytic studies, the present study supported the existence of two principal dimensions of delirium, cognitive and behavioral. Additionally, it extended the results of earlier investigations to a wider group of patients with delirium, suggesting that these dimensions might provide important clues to the neurobiology of delirium. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Geological, geophysical investigations and seismotectonic analysis with reference to selection of site for nuclear power plants: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaki, Anjan

    2014-01-01

    Geological, geophysical investigations and seismotectonic analysis play a major role in qualifying a proposed site for establishment of nuclear power plants. In an area, it is important to understand the aspects such as regional and local geology, geomorphology, tectonic settings, presence of active faults/capable faults, earthquake history and earthquake proneness, neotectonic activity, slope instability, subsidence, liquefaction, seismically induced flooding, tsunami and geohydrological conditions. Geological investigations comprise use of remote sensing and ground validation followed by geological mapping, identification of faults, near surface geological studies for foundation conditions, stratigraphic drilling, palaeoseismology, studies on engineering properties of rock and soil. Geophysical investigations provide insight into subsurface geology including concealed faults, elastic constants and hydrological conditions. Radon emanometry is a valuable tool in the initial stage to decipher subsurface active weak zones/fault lines. Seismotectonic analysis identifies the provinces of tectonic significance and their earthquake potential, thereby designating lineaments of consequence leading to their evaluation. This, in turn, determines the design basis earthquake parameter for the estimation of vibratory ground motion. This article provides certain measures to evaluate the suitability of the sites for the establishment of nuclear power plants in terms of geological, geophysical investigations and seismotectonic status. Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration and Research (AMD) had carried out seismotectonic analysis of the area around Kaiga, Narora, Kalpakkam, Kakrapar, Tarapur, Kudankulam and Rawatbhata Nuclear Power Projects, which were either in operation or under expansion and construction. Such analysis was extended to a number of proposed sites for establishing nuclear power plants in West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Gujrat, Madhya Pradesh

  14. Expression of acid-sensing ion channels and selection of reference genes in mouse and naked mole rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuhmacher, Laura-Nadine; Smith, Ewan St John

    2016-12-13

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are a family of ion channels comprised of six subunits encoded by four genes and they are expressed throughout the peripheral and central nervous systems. ASICs have been implicated in a wide range of physiological and pathophysiological processes: pain, breathing, synaptic plasticity and excitotoxicity. Unlike mice and humans, naked mole-rats do not perceive acid as a noxious stimulus, even though their sensory neurons express functional ASICs, likely an adaptation to living in a hypercapnic subterranean environment. Previous studies of ASIC expression in the mammalian nervous system have often not examined all subunits, or have failed to adequately quantify expression between tissues; to date there has been no attempt to determine ASIC expression in the central nervous system of the naked mole-rat. Here we perform a geNorm study to identify reliable housekeeping genes in both mouse and naked mole-rat and then use quantitative real-time PCR to estimate the relative amounts of ASIC transcripts in different tissues of both species. We identify RPL13A (ribosomal protein L13A) and CANX (calnexin), and β-ACTIN and EIF4A (eukaryotic initiation factor 4a) as being the most stably expressed housekeeping genes in mouse and naked mole-rat, respectively. In both species, ASIC3 was most highly expressed in dorsal root ganglia (DRG), and ASIC1a, ASIC2b and ASIC3 were more highly expressed across all brain regions compared to the other subunits. We also show that ASIC4, a proton-insensitive subunit of relatively unknown function, was highly expressed in all mouse tissues apart from DRG and hippocampus, but was by contrast the lowliest expressed ASIC in all naked mole-rat tissues.

  15. An observational study of road safety around selected primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: A multistage sampling technique was used to select 46 of the 74 schools in the study area. Some (11) of the selected schools were sited within the same premises and shared a common entrance; thus a total of 35 school premises were eventually observed. Trained research assistants observed the ...

  16. Recruitment and quality academic staff selection: the case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sources from which organizations decide to select personnel from are central to its ability to survive, adapt, and grow (Noe et al, 2004:171). The paper examines a case study of recruitment and selection of quality academic staff into Covenant University. The paper addresses the factors that could affect recruitment ...

  17. Selection of internal reference genes for normalization of reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analysis in the rumen epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Die, Jose V; Baldwin, Ransom L; Rowland, Lisa J; Li, Robert; Oh, Sunghee; Li, Congjun; Connor, Erin E; Ranilla, Maria-Jose

    2017-01-01

    The rumen is lined on the luminal side by a stratified squamous epithelium that is responsible for not only absorption, but also transport, extensive short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) metabolism and protection. Butyrate has been demonstrated to initiate the differentiation of the tissue following introduction of solid feed to the weaning neonate as well as affecting the metabolism of other nutrients and absorption of nutrients in in vitro experiments. The objective of the present study was to validate expression stability of eight putative reference genes bovine rumen, considering the intrinsic heterogeneity of bovine rumen with regard to different luminal characteristics due to direct infusion of butyrate to double the intra-ruminal content of the rumen liquor. Our focus was on identifying stable reference genes which are suitable to normalize real-time RT-qPCR experiments from rumen samples collected from clinical assays, irrespective of localization within the organ and the across physiological state. The most stably expressed genes included: ACTB, UXT, DBNDD2, RPS9, DDX54 and HMBS. Their high stability values suggest these reference genes will facilitate better evaluation of variation of across an array of conditions including: localization within the rumen, differences among cattle fed an array of rations, as well as response to development in the weaning animal. Moreover, we anticipate these reference genes may be useful for expression studies in other ruminants.

  18. Selection of internal reference genes for normalization of reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR analysis in the rumen epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose V Die

    Full Text Available The rumen is lined on the luminal side by a stratified squamous epithelium that is responsible for not only absorption, but also transport, extensive short-chain fatty acid (SCFA metabolism and protection. Butyrate has been demonstrated to initiate the differentiation of the tissue following introduction of solid feed to the weaning neonate as well as affecting the metabolism of other nutrients and absorption of nutrients in in vitro experiments. The objective of the present study was to validate expression stability of eight putative reference genes bovine rumen, considering the intrinsic heterogeneity of bovine rumen with regard to different luminal characteristics due to direct infusion of butyrate to double the intra-ruminal content of the rumen liquor. Our focus was on identifying stable reference genes which are suitable to normalize real-time RT-qPCR experiments from rumen samples collected from clinical assays, irrespective of localization within the organ and the across physiological state. The most stably expressed genes included: ACTB, UXT, DBNDD2, RPS9, DDX54 and HMBS. Their high stability values suggest these reference genes will facilitate better evaluation of variation of across an array of conditions including: localization within the rumen, differences among cattle fed an array of rations, as well as response to development in the weaning animal. Moreover, we anticipate these reference genes may be useful for expression studies in other ruminants.

  19. Intra- and extra-articular planes of reference for use in total hip arthroplasty: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausselle, Jerome; Moreau, Pierre Etienne; Wessely, Loic; de Thomasson, Emmanuel; Assi, Ayman; Parratte, Sebastien; Essig, Jerome; Skalli, Wafa

    2012-08-01

    Acetabular component malalignment in total hip arthroplasty can lead to potential complications such as dislocation, component impingement and excessive wear. Computer-assisted orthopaedic surgery systems generally use the anterior pelvic plane (APP). Our aim was to investigate the reliability of anatomical landmarks accessible during surgery and to define new potential planes of reference. Three types of palpations were performed: virtual, on dry bones and on two cadaveric specimens. Four landmarks were selected, the reproducibility of their positioning ranging from 0.9 to 2.3 mm. We then defined five planes and tested them during palpations on two cadaveric specimens. Two planes produced a mean orientation error of 5.0° [standard deviation (SD 3.3°)] and 5.6° (SD 2.7°). Even if further studies are needed to test the reliability of such planes on a larger scale in vivo during surgery, these results demonstrated the feasibility of defining a new plane of reference as an alternative to the APP.

  20. [Errors in Peruvian medical journals references].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huamaní, Charles; Pacheco-Romero, José

    2009-01-01

    References are fundamental in our studies; an adequate selection is asimportant as an adequate description. To determine the number of errors in a sample of references found in Peruvian medical journals. We reviewed 515 scientific papers references selected by systematic randomized sampling and corroborated reference information with the original document or its citation in Pubmed, LILACS or SciELO-Peru. We found errors in 47,6% (245) of the references, identifying 372 types of errors; the most frequent were errors in presentation style (120), authorship (100) and title (100), mainly due to spelling mistakes (91). References error percentage was high, varied and multiple. We suggest systematic revision of references in the editorial process as well as to extend the discussion on this theme. references, periodicals, research, bibliometrics.

  1. Hydrate studies of northern Cascadia margin off Vancouver Island : a reference source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyndman, R. [Natural Resources Canada, Sidney, BC (Canada). Geological Survey of Canada, Pacific Geoscience Centre]|[Victoria Univ., BC (Canada). School of Earth and Ocean Sciences; Riedel, M. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences; Spence, G.D. [Victoria Univ., BC (Canada). School of Earth and Ocean Sciences

    2008-07-01

    Extensive geophysical studies have been conducted to determine the occurrence, distribution, and concentration of gas hydrate in the Cascadia subduction zone off western Canada. In this paper, the authors compiled a comprehensive reference list of studies involving marine natural gas hydrate surveys and studies on the northern Cascadia margin. The reference categories included general reviews; regional tectonic framework for northern Cascadia hydrate; prism sediment thickening, fluid expulsion and hydrate formation; and, seismic surveys. This paper first addressed the local tectonics and the sedimentary accretionary prism in which the hydrate forms, followed by a description of the geophysical and geological surveys that have been conducted. The surveys included a wide range of seismic surveys such as multichannel, ocean-bottom, high-resolution single channel and very high resolution deep towed surveys. Heat flow, electrical sounding, seafloor compliance, sediment coring, and mapping gas plumes from the seafloor were among the other geophysical studies listed in this paper. The conclusions that have resulted from this work in terms of distribution, concentrations and amounts of hydrate were presented along with a discussion on the process of hydrate formation and dissociation. 96 refs., 3 figs.

  2. The Reference Ability Neural Network Study: Life-time stability of reference-ability neural networks derived from task maps of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habeck, C; Gazes, Y; Razlighi, Q; Steffener, J; Brickman, A; Barulli, D; Salthouse, T; Stern, Y

    2016-01-15

    Analyses of large test batteries administered to individuals ranging from young to old have consistently yielded a set of latent variables representing reference abilities (RAs) that capture the majority of the variance in age-related cognitive change: Episodic Memory, Fluid Reasoning, Perceptual Processing Speed, and Vocabulary. In a previous paper (Stern et al., 2014), we introduced the Reference Ability Neural Network Study, which administers 12 cognitive neuroimaging tasks (3 for each RA) to healthy adults age 20-80 in order to derive unique neural networks underlying these 4 RAs and investigate how these networks may be affected by aging. We used a multivariate approach, linear indicator regression, to derive a unique covariance pattern or Reference Ability Neural Network (RANN) for each of the 4 RAs. The RANNs were derived from the neural task data of 64 younger adults of age 30 and below. We then prospectively applied the RANNs to fMRI data from the remaining sample of 227 adults of age 31 and above in order to classify each subject-task map into one of the 4 possible reference domains. Overall classification accuracy across subjects in the sample age 31 and above was 0.80±0.18. Classification accuracy by RA domain was also good, but variable; memory: 0.72±0.32; reasoning: 0.75±0.35; speed: 0.79±0.31; vocabulary: 0.94±0.16. Classification accuracy was not associated with cross-sectional age, suggesting that these networks, and their specificity to the respective reference domain, might remain intact throughout the age range. Higher mean brain volume was correlated with increased overall classification accuracy; better overall performance on the tasks in the scanner was also associated with classification accuracy. For the RANN network scores, we observed for each RANN that a higher score was associated with a higher corresponding classification accuracy for that reference ability. Despite the absence of behavioral performance information in the

  3. Validation Studies for Numerical Simulations of Flow Phenomena Expected in the Lower Plenum of a Prismatic VHTR Reference Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard W. Johnson

    2005-01-01

    The final design of the very high temperature reactor (VHTR) of the fourth generation of nuclear power plants (Gen IV) has not yet been established. The VHTR may be either a prismatic (block) or pebble bed type. It may be either gas-cooled or cooled with an as yet unspecified molten salt. However, a conceptual design of a gas-cooled VHTR, based on the General Atomics GT-MHR, does exist and is called the prismatic VHTR reference design, MacDonald et al [2003], General Atomics [1996]. The present validation studies are based on the prismatic VHTR reference design. In the prismatic VHTR reference design, the flow in the lower plenum will be introduced by dozens of turbulent jets issuing into a large crossflow that must negotiate dozens of cylindrical support columns as it flows toward the exit duct of the reactor vessel. The jets will not all be at the same temperature due to the radial variation of power density expected in the core. However, it is important that the coolant be well mixed when it enters the power conversion unit to ensure proper operation and long life of the power conversion machinery. Hence, it is deemed important to be able to accurately model the flow and mixing of the variable temperature coolant in the lower plenum and exit duct. Accurate flow modeling involves determining modeling strategies including the fineness of the grid needed, iterative convergence tolerance, numerical discretization method used, whether the flow is steady or unsteady, and the turbulence model and wall treatment employed. It also involves validation of the computer code and turbulence model against a series of separate and combined flow phenomena and selection of the data used for the validation. The present report describes progress made to date for the task entitled ''CFD software validation of jets in crossflow'' which was designed to investigate the issues pertaining to the validation process

  4. Limnological study with reference to fish culture of Bothali (Mendha) reservoir, district - Gadchiroli (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijare, Rajendra V

    2012-04-01

    Limnological study with reference to fish culture was carried out at Bothali (Mendha) reservoir, district Gadchiroli, India. Water samples from different sampling locations were collected and processed for physico-chemical analysis. The physico-chemical analysis revealed that the reservoir is favourable for fish culture as the phosphate content in water is moderate in amount. This reservoir can produce a good yield of fishes. Though the reservoir is presently exploited and is under pisciculture, a better treatment of the reservoir such as prevention of entry of organic matter, reduction of phosphate ion concentration to certain extent is necessary to obtain a maximum fish yield.

  5. Reference tissue modeling with parameter coupling: application to a study of SERT binding in HIV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endres, Christopher J; Pomper, Martin G [Russell H Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD 21231 (United States); Hammoud, Dima A, E-mail: endres@jhmi.edu [Radiology and Imaging Sciences, National Institutes of Health/Clinical Center, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2011-04-21

    When applicable, it is generally preferred to evaluate positron emission tomography (PET) studies using a reference tissue-based approach as that avoids the need for invasive arterial blood sampling. However, most reference tissue methods have been shown to have a bias that is dependent on the level of tracer binding, and the variability of parameter estimates may be substantially affected by noise level. In a study of serotonin transporter (SERT) binding in HIV dementia, it was determined that applying parameter coupling to the simplified reference tissue model (SRTM) reduced the variability of parameter estimates and yielded the strongest between-group significant differences in SERT binding. The use of parameter coupling makes the application of SRTM more consistent with conventional blood input models and reduces the total number of fitted parameters, thus should yield more robust parameter estimates. Here, we provide a detailed evaluation of the application of parameter constraint and parameter coupling to [{sup 11}C]DASB PET studies. Five quantitative methods, including three methods that constrain the reference tissue clearance (k{sup r}{sub 2}) to a common value across regions were applied to the clinical and simulated data to compare measurement of the tracer binding potential (BP{sub ND}). Compared with standard SRTM, either coupling of k{sup r}{sub 2} across regions or constraining k{sup r}{sub 2} to a first-pass estimate improved the sensitivity of SRTM to measuring a significant difference in BP{sub ND} between patients and controls. Parameter coupling was particularly effective in reducing the variance of parameter estimates, which was less than 50% of the variance obtained with standard SRTM. A linear approach was also improved when constraining k{sup r}{sub 2} to a first-pass estimate, although the SRTM-based methods yielded stronger significant differences when applied to the clinical study. This work shows that parameter coupling reduces the

  6. Reference manual on the IAEA JRQ correlation monitor steel for irradiation damage studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this report is to provide information on the mechanical properties of the ASTM A533 grade B class 1 steel that was designated as 'JRQ reference steel' and for many years served as a radiation/mechanical property correlation monitor in a number of international and national studies of irradiation embrittlement of reactor pressure vessel steel. This report provides the most comprehensive listing of material test data obtained on the JRQ manufacturing history and material properties in the initial, and as delivered condition during the implementation of two IAEA co-ordinated research projects (CRPs) on behaviour of reactor pressure vessel steels under neutron irradiation

  7. Selective Snapshot of State-of-the-Art Artificial Intelligence & Robotics with Reference to the Icarus Starship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellery, A.

    Since the remarkable British Interplanetary Society starship study of the late 1970s - Daedalus - there have been significant developments in the areas of artificial intelligence and robotics. These will be critical technologies for any starship as indeed they are for the current generation of exploratory spacecraft and in-situ planetary robotic explorers. Although early visions of truly intelligent robots have yet to materialize (reasons for which will be outlined), there are nonetheless revolutionary developments which have attempted to address at least some of these earlier unperceived deficiencies. The current state of the art comprises a number of separate strands of research which provide components of robotic intelligence though no over- arching approach has been forthcoming. The first question to be considered is the level of intelligent functionality required to support a long-duration starship mission. This will, at a minimum, need to be extensive imposed by the requirement for complex reconfigurability and repair. The second question concerns the tools that we have at our disposal to implement the required intelligent functions of the starship. These are based on two very different approaches - good old-fashioned artificial intelligence (GOFAI) based on logical theorem-proving and knowledge-encoding recently augmented by modal, temporal, circumscriptive and fuzzy logics to address the well-known “frame problem”; and the more recent soft computing approaches based on artificial neural networks, evolutionary algorithms and immunity models and their variants to implement learning. The former has some flight heritage through the Remote Agent architecture whilst the latter has yet to be deployed on any space mission. However, the notion of reconfigurable hardware of recent interest in the space community warrants the use of evolutionary algorithms and neural networks implemented on field programmable gate array technology, blurring the distinction between

  8. Surface morphology study of some Cu–Ni reference alloys using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheta, S.A. [National Institute of Laser Enhanced Science (NILES), Cairo University, 12613, Giza (Egypt); Di Carlo, G.; Ingo, G.M. [Istituto per lo Studio dei Materiali Nanostrutturati (ISMN-CNR), Area della Ricerca Roma 1 Montelibretti, 00016, Monterotondo Scalo, Rome (Italy); Harith, M.A., E-mail: mharithm@niles.edu.eg [National Institute of Laser Enhanced Science (NILES), Cairo University, 12613, Giza (Egypt)

    2016-04-15

    In the present work a detailed study of the surface morphology of purposely-prepared Cu–Ni reference alloys has been performed. These alloys have been prepared via tailored casting methods in order to have samples with same chemical composition and different local chemical enrichments of both metals. A micro-LIBS system for surface spatial scanning was set up based on a second harmonic Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm and using a focusing lens of focal length 7 cm to disclose the local chemical composition variation. Surface morphological scanning was performed for some of the binary Cu–Ni reference alloys to differentiate between chemically homogeneous and heterogeneous alloys. LIBS results were compared with the information of the Scanning Electron Microscope coupled with Energy Dispersive X-ray (SEMEDS) investigation carried out to provide surface local large-area chemical analysis via EDS technique. It has been proved that LIBS is a simple, sensitive and direct technique in the determination of homogeneity or heterogeneity of the sample's surface. The LIBS results have been shown to be more sensitive and accurate in the heterogeneity determination than other used conventional analytical techniques. - Highlights: • Surface LIBS scanning was performed for Cu–Ni reference alloy samples. • LIBS system was based on a 2nd harmonic Nd:YAG laser and a focusing lens (f = 7 cm). • LIBS results were compared with SEM imaging and EDS chemical analysis. • Surface homogeneity and heterogeneity have been differentiated successfully. • LIBS is a sensitive analytical tool in surface metallurgical study.

  9. Reference ranges for uterine artery pulsatility index during the menstrual cycle: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Guedes-Martins

    Full Text Available Cyclic endometrial neoangiogenesis contributes to changes in local vascular patterns and is amenable to non-invasive assessment with Doppler sonography. We hypothesize that the uterine artery (UtA impedance, measured by its pulsatility index (PI, exhibits a regular pattern during the normal menstrual cycle. Therefore, the main study objective was to derive normative new day-cycle-based reference ranges for the UtA-PI during the entire cycle from days 1 to 34 according to the isolated time effect and potential confounders such as age and parity.From January 2009 to December 2012, a cross-sectional study of 1,821 healthy women undergoing routine gynaecological ultrasound was performed. The Doppler flow of the right and left UtA-PI was studied transvaginally by colour and pulsed Doppler imaging. The mean right and left values and the presence or absence of a bilateral protodiastolic notch were recorded. Reference intervals for the PI according to the cycle day were generated by classical linear regression.The majority of patients (97.5% presented unilateral or bilateral UtA notches. The crude 5th, 50th, and 95th reference percentile curves of the UtA-PI at 1-34 days of the normal menstrual cycle were derived. In all curves, a progressive significant decrease occurred during the first 13 days, followed by an increase and recovery in the UtA-PI. The adjusted 5th, 50th, and 95th reference percentile curves for the effects of age and parity were also obtained. These two conditions generated an approximately identical UtA-PI pattern during the cycle, except with small but significant reductions at the temporal extremes.The median, 5th, and the 95th percentiles of the UtA-PI decrease during the first third of the menstrual cycle and recover to their initial values during the last two thirds of the cycle. The rates of decrease and recovery depend significantly on age and parity.

  10. Accuracy evaluation of intraoral optical impressions: A clinical study using a reference appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atieh, Mohammad A; Ritter, André V; Ko, Ching-Chang; Duqum, Ibrahim

    2017-09-01

    Trueness and precision are used to evaluate the accuracy of intraoral optical impressions. Although the in vivo precision of intraoral optical impressions has been reported, in vivo trueness has not been evaluated because of limitations in the available protocols. The purpose of this clinical study was to compare the accuracy (trueness and precision) of optical and conventional impressions by using a novel study design. Five study participants consented and were enrolled. For each participant, optical and conventional (vinylsiloxanether) impressions of a custom-made intraoral Co-Cr alloy reference appliance fitted to the mandibular arch were obtained by 1 operator. Three-dimensional (3D) digital models were created for stone casts obtained from the conventional impression group and for the reference appliances by using a validated high-accuracy reference scanner. For the optical impression group, 3D digital models were obtained directly from the intraoral scans. The total mean trueness of each impression system was calculated by averaging the mean absolute deviations of the impression replicates from their 3D reference model for each participant, followed by averaging the obtained values across all participants. The total mean precision for each impression system was calculated by averaging the mean absolute deviations between all the impression replicas for each participant (10 pairs), followed by averaging the obtained values across all participants. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA (α=.05), first to assess whether a systematic difference in trueness or precision of replicate impressions could be found among participants and second to assess whether the mean trueness and precision values differed between the 2 impression systems. Statistically significant differences were found between the 2 impression systems for both mean trueness (P=.010) and mean precision (P=.007). Conventional impressions had higher accuracy with a mean trueness of 17.0

  11. [Critical analysis of reference studies on aluminium-based adjuvants toxicokinetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, J-D; Crépeaux, G; Authier, F-J; Exley, C; Gherardi, R K

    2017-07-01

    We reviewed the three reference toxicokinetic studies commonly used to suggest innocuity of aluminum (Al)-based adjuvants. A single experimental study was carried out using isotopic 26 Al (Flarend et al., 1997). This study ignored adjuvant cell capture. It was conducted over a short period of time (28 days) and used only two rabbits per adjuvant. At the endpoint, Al retention was 78% for aluminum phosphate and 94% for aluminum hydroxide, both results being incompatible with quick elimination of vaccine-derived Al in urines. Tissue distribution analysis omitted three important retention sites: the injected muscle, the draining lymph node and bone. Two theoretical studies have evaluated the potential risk of vaccine Al in infants, by reference to the oral Minimal Risk Level (MRL) extrapolated from animal studies. Keith et al., 2002 used a too high MRL (2mg/kg/d), an erroneous model of 100% immediate absorption of vaccine Al, and did not consider renal and blood-brain barrier immaturity. Mitkus et al. (2011) only considered absorbed Al, with erroneous calculations of absorption duration. They ignored particulate Al captured by immune cells, which play a role in systemic diffusion and the neuro-inflammatory potential of the adjuvant. MRL they used was both inappropriate (oral Al vs injected adjuvant) and far too high (1mg/kg/d) with regard to experimental studies of Al-induced memory and behavioral changes. Both paucity and serious weaknesses of these studies strongly suggest that novel experimental studies of Al adjuvants toxicokinetics should be performed on the long-term, including post-natal and adult exposures, to ensure innocuity and restore population confidence in Al-containing vaccines. Copyright © 2017 Académie Nationale de Pharmacie. All rights reserved.

  12. Distance decay in delivery care utilisation associated with neonatal mortality. A case referent study in northern Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriksson Leif

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efforts to reduce neonatal mortality are essential if the Millennium Development Goal (MDG 4 is to be met. The impact of spatial dimensions of neonatal survival has not been thoroughly investigated even though access to good quality delivery care is considered to be one of the main priorities when trying to reduce neonatal mortality. This study examined the association between distance from the mother's home to the closest health facility and neonatal mortality, and investigated the influence of distance on patterns of perinatal health care utilisation. Methods A surveillance system of live births and neonatal deaths was set up in eight districts of Quang Ninh province, Vietnam, from July 2008 to December 2009. Case referent design including all neonatal deaths and randomly selected newborn referents from the same population. Interviews were performed with mothers of all subjects and GIS coordinates for mothers' homes and all health facilities in the study area were obtained. Straight-line distances were calculated using ArcGIS software. Results A total of 197 neonatal deaths and 11 708 births were registered and 686 referents selected. Health care utilisation prior to and at delivery varied with distance to the health facility. Mothers living farthest away (4th and 5th quintile, ≥1257 meters from a health facility had an increased risk of neonatal mortality (OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.40 - 2.75, adjusted for maternal age at delivery and marital status. When stratified for socio-economic factors there was an increased risk for neonatal mortality for mothers with low education and from poor households who lived farther away from a health facility. Mothers who delivered at home had more than twice as long to a health facility compared to mothers who delivered at a health care facility. There was no difference in age at death when comparing neonates born at home or health facility deliveries (p = 0.56. Conclusion Distance to the

  13. Cuban typical doses for 99mTc-DMSA renal gammagraphy studies: a methodology for the establishment of reference levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Barreto, M.; Varela Corona, C.; Lopez Bejerano, G.M.; Perea Diaz, M.; Paz Viera, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    Since a handful of years ago, international rules on Radiological Protection include the principle of optimization of given dose to patients, if this procedure doesn't lessen diagnosis quality, and the establishment of reference levels of activity. For these reasons, the Radiological Protection staff of Cuban Institute of Nephrology's Nuclear Medicine Service, where morpho functional renal studies are carried out, 70% on infants and young children, started a research on that way. Thus, because their biggest incidence, 99m Tc -DMSA renal gammagraphy studies were chosen, using a General Electric 400 AT Planar Gamma Camera. Studied sample was randomly selected, including adults (12 peoples) and children (23); divided into 4 groups, lessen given dose step by step. Other items were kept in mind in the research, such age, weight, time delayed between administrations and image getting, getting time of each view and total time of the study, as well as radiopharmaceuticals quality and Gamma Camera performance. Image quality was evaluated for each case, using both, objective and subjective criteria. Objective evaluation was done by using contrast/noise ratios and variance of the random noise. They were used to develop clustering and discriminant analysis over the independent variables to detect groups with differentiated image quality from the physical and mathematical point of view. Subjective evaluation was performed using the criteria of two expert observers who had no information about the activity levels used. They evaluated image quality separately, giving a good, regular or bad evaluation for each image. As a conclusion, we found that it is possible to reduce the given activities in 50% and thus, indirectly, to reduce doses for workers and for the public. Additionally, we propose a methodology for the establishment of reference levels for 99m Tc -DMSA renal gammagraphy studies in Cuba, both, for adults and paediatric patients. (author)

  14. Is It Time to Change Our Reference Curve for Femur Length? Using the Z-Score to Select the Best Chart in a Chinese Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huixia; Wei, Yumei; Su, Rina; Wang, Chen; Meng, Wenying; Wang, Yongqing; Shang, Lixin; Cai, Zhenyu; Ji, Liping; Wang, Yunfeng; Sun, Ying; Liu, Jiaxiu; Wei, Li; Sun, Yufeng; Zhang, Xueying; Luo, Tianxia; Chen, Haixia; Yu, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    Objective To use Z-scores to compare different charts of femur length (FL) applied to our population with the aim of identifying the most appropriate chart. Methods A retrospective study was conducted in Beijing. Fifteen hospitals in Beijing were chosen as clusters using a systemic cluster sampling method, in which 15,194 pregnant women delivered from June 20th to November 30th, 2013. The measurements of FL in the second and third trimester were recorded, as well as the last measurement obtained before delivery. Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, we identified FL measurements from 19996 ultrasounds from 7194 patients between 11 and 42 weeks gestation. The FL data were then transformed into Z-scores that were calculated using three series of reference equations obtained from three reports: Leung TN, Pang MW et al (2008); Chitty LS, Altman DG et al (1994); and Papageorghiou AT et al (2014). Each Z-score distribution was presented as the mean and standard deviation (SD). Skewness and kurtosis and were compared with the standard normal distribution using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The histogram of their distributions was superimposed on the non-skewed standard normal curve (mean = 0, SD = 1) to provide a direct visual impression. Finally, the sensitivity and specificity of each reference chart for identifying fetuses 95th percentile (based on the observed distribution of Z-scores) were calculated. The Youden index was also listed. A scatter diagram with the 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile curves calculated from and superimposed on each reference chart was presented to provide a visual impression. Results The three Z-score distribution curves appeared to be normal, but none of them matched the expected standard normal distribution. In our study, the Papageorghiou reference curve provided the best results, with a sensitivity of 100% for identifying fetuses with measurements 95th percentile, and specificities of 99.9% and 81.5%, respectively. Conclusions It

  15. Guidance for Identifying, Selecting and Evaluating Open Literature Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This guidance for Office of Pesticide Program staff will assist in their evaluation of open literature studies of pesticides. It also describes how we identify, select, and ensure that data we use in risk assessments is of sufficient scientific quality.

  16. Nuclear power plants: selected references

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, A.W.

    1982-01-01

    Books, articles, and US government documents cited in this bibliography cover the political, economic, environmental, scientific, and legal aspects of nuclear power. Because the question of safety has been such an important issue in the debate over nuclear power, safety aspects are treated in a substantial number of the publications cited. All material listed was published in the past 15 years, with the majority appearing since 1975

  17. Complement Set Reference after Implicitly Small Quantities: An Event-Related Potentials Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Joanne; Ferguson, Heather J.

    2018-01-01

    An anaphoric reference to the complement-set is a reference to the set that does not fulfil the predicate of the preceding sentence. Preferred reference to the complement-set has been found in eye movements when a character's implicit desire for a high amount has been denied using a negative emotion. We recorded event-related potentials to examine…

  18. Studies on the reference Korean and estimation of radiation exposure dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.J.; Lee, K.S.; Chun, K.J.; Kim, J.B.; Chung, G.H.; Kim, S.R.

    1982-01-01

    For the purpose of establishment of Reference Korean and estimation of internal and external exposure doses in the Reference Korean, we have surveyed reference values for Koreans such as physical standards including height, weight, and body surface area, food consumption rate of daily intake of radioactive substances and exposure dose from natural radiation. (Author)

  19. Lower Columbia River and Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program Reference Site Study: 2011 Restoration Analysis - FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borde, Amy B.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Thom, Ronald M.; Kaufmann, Ronald M.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Sagar, Jina; Buenau, Kate E.; Corbett, C.

    2012-05-31

    The Reference Site (RS) study is part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation (RME) effort developed by the Action Agencies (Bonneville Power Administration [BPA], U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District [USACE], and U.S. Bureau of Reclamation) in response to Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinions (BiOp). While the RS study was initiated in 2007, data have been collected at relatively undisturbed reference wetland sites in the LCRE by PNNL and collaborators since 2005. These data on habitat structural metrics were previously summarized to provide baseline characterization of 51 wetlands throughout the estuarine and tidal freshwater portions of the 235-km LCRE; however, further analysis of these data has been limited. Therefore, in 2011, we conducted additional analyses of existing field data previously collected for the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program (CEERP) - including data collected by PNNL and others - to help inform the multi-agency restoration planning and ecosystem management work underway in the LCRE.

  20. Influence of generic reference pricing on medicine cost in Slovenia: a retrospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marđetko, Nika; Kos, Mitja

    2018-01-01

    Aim To assess the impact of the generic reference pricing (GRP) system on the prices and cost of medicines in Slovenia approximately 8 years after its introduction in 2003 and before the implementation of the therapeutic reference pricing system. Methods A retrospective study of all medicines (N = 789) included in the GRP system on January 31, 2012 was performed. Medicine prices and cost were analyzed between January 31, 2012 and December 31, 2013 after every update (N = 11) of the maximum reimbursable price (MRP) and were compared to the price and cost on January 31, 2012 (index date). Time trends of different types of medicine prices (maximum allowed price, MRP, and actual wholesale price) were graphically analyzed, and actual wholesale price adjustments to the MRP changes and the budget impact of the GRP were assessed. Results In the 2-year study period, the long-term performance of the GRP system was associated with an approximate 45% decrease in the average MRP or an approximate 20% cost reduction. For each MRP update period, the GRP reduced the cost based on the maximum allowed price for approximately 30%. The wholesale price adjustments were mostly made for medicines priced above the MRP and reduced patients’ out-of-pocket cost. Conclusions In the long term, the GRP system effectively reduced medicine prices and the cost of reimbursed products. PMID:29740992

  1. Influence of generic reference pricing on medicine cost in Slovenia: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marđetko, Nika; Kos, Mitja

    2018-04-30

    To assess the impact of the generic reference pricing (GRP) system on the prices and cost of medicines in Slovenia approximately 8 years after its introduction in 2003 and before the implementation of the therapeutic reference pricing system. A retrospective study of all medicines (N=789) included in the GRP system on January 31, 2012 was performed. Medicine prices and cost were analyzed between January 31, 2012 and December 31, 2013 after every update (N=11) of the maximum reimbursable price (MRP) and were compared to the price and cost on January 31, 2012 (index date). Time trends of different types of medicine prices (maximum allowed price, MRP, and actual wholesale price) were graphically analyzed, and actual wholesale price adjustments to the MRP changes and the budget impact of the GRP were assessed. In the 2-year study period, the long-term performance of the GRP system was associated with an approximate 45% decrease in the average MRP or an approximate 20% cost reduction. For each MRP update period, the GRP reduced the cost based on the maximum allowed price for approximately 30%. The wholesale price adjustments were mostly made for medicines priced above the MRP and reduced patients' out-of-pocket cost. In the long term, the GRP system effectively reduced medicine prices and the cost of reimbursed products.

  2. Nanomaterials for environmental studies: Classification, reference material issues, and strategies for physico-chemical characterisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, Vicki, E-mail: v.stone@napier.ac.uk [School of Life Sciences, Edinburgh Napier University, 10 Colinton Road, Edinburgh EH10 5DT (United Kingdom); Nowack, Bernd [Materials, Products and the Environment Group, Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Lerchenfeldstrasse 5 CH - 9014 St. Gallen (Switzerland); Baun, Anders [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, NanoDTU, Building 113, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Brink, Nico van den [Alterra, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Kammer, Frank von der [Department of Environmental Geosciences, Vienna University, Althanstrasse 14, Wien 1090 (Austria); Dusinska, Maria [Health Effects Laboratory, Centre for Ecological Economics, Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU), Instituttveien, 18, 2027 Kjeller (Norway); Handy, Richard [University of Plymouth, Davy Building, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Hankin, Steven [Institute of Occupational Medicine, Research Avenue North, Riccarton, Edinburgh EH14 4AP (United Kingdom); Hasselloev, Martin [Department of Chemistry, Environmental Nanoparticle Research Group, Goeteborg University, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Joner, Erik [Bioforsk Soil and Environment, Fredrik A Dahls vei 20, N-1432 Aas (Norway); Fernandes, Teresa F. [School of Life Sciences, Edinburgh Napier University, 10 Colinton Road, Edinburgh EH10 5DT (United Kingdom)

    2010-03-01

    NanoImpactNet is a European Commission Framework Programme 7 (FP7) funded project that provides a forum for the discussion of current opinions on nanomaterials in relation to human and environmental issues. In September 2008, in Zurich, a NanoImpactNet environmental workshop focused on three key questions: 1.What properties should be characterised for nanomaterials used in environmental and ecotoxicology studies? 2.What reference materials should be developed for use in environmental and ecotoxicological studies? 3.Is it possible to group different nanomaterials into categories for consideration in environmental studies? Such questions have been, at least partially, addressed by other projects/workshops especially in relation to human health effects. Such projects provide a useful basis on which this workshop was based, but in this particular case these questions were reformulated in order to focus specifically on environmental studies. The workshop participants, through a series of discussion and reflection sessions, generated the conclusions listed below. The physicochemical characterisation information identified as important for environmental studies included measures of aggregation/agglomeration/dispersability, size, dissolution (solubility), surface area, surface charge, surface chemistry/composition, with the assumption that chemical composition would already be known. There is a need to have test materials for ecotoxicology, and several substances are potentially useful, including TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles, polystyrene beads labelled with fluorescent dyes, and silver nanoparticles. Some of these test materials could then be developed into certified reference materials over time. No clear consensus was reached regarding the classification of nanomaterials into categories to aid environmental studies, except that a chemistry-based classification system was a reasonable starting point, with some modifications. It was suggested, that additional work may be

  3. Nanomaterials for environmental studies: Classification, reference material issues, and strategies for physico-chemical characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, Vicki; Nowack, Bernd; Baun, Anders; Brink, Nico van den; Kammer, Frank von der; Dusinska, Maria; Handy, Richard; Hankin, Steven; Hasselloev, Martin; Joner, Erik; Fernandes, Teresa F.

    2010-01-01

    NanoImpactNet is a European Commission Framework Programme 7 (FP7) funded project that provides a forum for the discussion of current opinions on nanomaterials in relation to human and environmental issues. In September 2008, in Zurich, a NanoImpactNet environmental workshop focused on three key questions: 1.What properties should be characterised for nanomaterials used in environmental and ecotoxicology studies? 2.What reference materials should be developed for use in environmental and ecotoxicological studies? 3.Is it possible to group different nanomaterials into categories for consideration in environmental studies? Such questions have been, at least partially, addressed by other projects/workshops especially in relation to human health effects. Such projects provide a useful basis on which this workshop was based, but in this particular case these questions were reformulated in order to focus specifically on environmental studies. The workshop participants, through a series of discussion and reflection sessions, generated the conclusions listed below. The physicochemical characterisation information identified as important for environmental studies included measures of aggregation/agglomeration/dispersability, size, dissolution (solubility), surface area, surface charge, surface chemistry/composition, with the assumption that chemical composition would already be known. There is a need to have test materials for ecotoxicology, and several substances are potentially useful, including TiO 2 nanoparticles, polystyrene beads labelled with fluorescent dyes, and silver nanoparticles. Some of these test materials could then be developed into certified reference materials over time. No clear consensus was reached regarding the classification of nanomaterials into categories to aid environmental studies, except that a chemistry-based classification system was a reasonable starting point, with some modifications. It was suggested, that additional work may be required

  4. Validation of putative reference genes for gene expression studies in human hepatocellular carcinoma using real-time quantitative RT-PCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicinnati, Vito R; Shen, Qingli; Sotiropoulos, Georgios C; Radtke, Arnold; Gerken, Guido; Beckebaum, Susanne

    2008-01-01

    Reference genes, which are often referred to as housekeeping genes are frequently used to normalize mRNA levels between different samples in quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The selection of reference genes is critical for gene expression studies because the expression of these genes may vary among tissues or cells and may change under certain circumstances. Here, a systematic evaluation of six putative reference genes for gene expression studies in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is presented. Six genes, beta-2-microglobulin (B2M), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), hydroxymethyl-bilane synthase (HMBS), hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl-transferase 1 (HPRT1), succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit A (SDHA) and ubiquitin C (UBC), with distinct functional characteristics and expression patterns were evaluated by qRT-PCR. Inhibitory substances in RNA samples were quantitatively assessed and controlled using an external RNA control. The stability of selected reference genes was analyzed using both geNorm and NormFinder software. HMBS and GAPDH were identified as the optimal reference genes for normalizing gene expression data between paired tumoral and adjacent non-tumoral tissues derived from patients with HCC. HMBS, GAPDH and UBC were identified to be suitable for the normalization of gene expression data among tumor tissues; whereas the combination of HMBS, B2M, SDHA and GAPDH was suitable for normalizing gene expression data among five liver cancer cell lines, namely Hep3B, HepG2, HuH7, SK-HEP-1 and SNU-182. The determined gene stability was increased after exclusion of RNA samples containing relatively higher inhibitory substances. Of six genes studied, HMBS was found to be the single best reference gene for gene expression studies in HCC. The appropriate choice of combination of more than one reference gene to improve qRT-PCR accuracy depends on the kind of liver tissues or cells under investigation

  5. Validation of putative reference genes for gene expression studies in human hepatocellular carcinoma using real-time quantitative RT-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radtke Arnold

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reference genes, which are often referred to as housekeeping genes are frequently used to normalize mRNA levels between different samples in quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. The selection of reference genes is critical for gene expression studies because the expression of these genes may vary among tissues or cells and may change under certain circumstances. Here, a systematic evaluation of six putative reference genes for gene expression studies in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is presented. Methods Six genes, beta-2-microglobulin (B2M, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, hydroxymethyl-bilane synthase (HMBS, hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl-transferase 1 (HPRT1, succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit A (SDHA and ubiquitin C (UBC, with distinct functional characteristics and expression patterns were evaluated by qRT-PCR. Inhibitory substances in RNA samples were quantitatively assessed and controlled using an external RNA control. The stability of selected reference genes was analyzed using both geNorm and NormFinder software. Results HMBS and GAPDH were identified as the optimal reference genes for normalizing gene expression data between paired tumoral and adjacent non-tumoral tissues derived from patients with HCC. HMBS, GAPDH and UBC were identified to be suitable for the normalization of gene expression data among tumor tissues; whereas the combination of HMBS, B2M, SDHA and GAPDH was suitable for normalizing gene expression data among five liver cancer cell lines, namely Hep3B, HepG2, HuH7, SK-HEP-1 and SNU-182. The determined gene stability was increased after exclusion of RNA samples containing relatively higher inhibitory substances. Conclusion Of six genes studied, HMBS was found to be the single best reference gene for gene expression studies in HCC. The appropriate choice of combination of more than one reference gene to improve qRT-PCR accuracy depends on the

  6. Validation of putative reference genes for gene expression studies in human hepatocellular carcinoma using real-time quantitative RT-PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicinnati, Vito R; Shen, Qingli; Sotiropoulos, Georgios C; Radtke, Arnold; Gerken, Guido; Beckebaum, Susanne

    2008-01-01

    Background Reference genes, which are often referred to as housekeeping genes are frequently used to normalize mRNA levels between different samples in quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The selection of reference genes is critical for gene expression studies because the expression of these genes may vary among tissues or cells and may change under certain circumstances. Here, a systematic evaluation of six putative reference genes for gene expression studies in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is presented. Methods Six genes, beta-2-microglobulin (B2M), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), hydroxymethyl-bilane synthase (HMBS), hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl-transferase 1 (HPRT1), succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit A (SDHA) and ubiquitin C (UBC), with distinct functional characteristics and expression patterns were evaluated by qRT-PCR. Inhibitory substances in RNA samples were quantitatively assessed and controlled using an external RNA control. The stability of selected reference genes was analyzed using both geNorm and NormFinder software. Results HMBS and GAPDH were identified as the optimal reference genes for normalizing gene expression data between paired tumoral and adjacent non-tumoral tissues derived from patients with HCC. HMBS, GAPDH and UBC were identified to be suitable for the normalization of gene expression data among tumor tissues; whereas the combination of HMBS, B2M, SDHA and GAPDH was suitable for normalizing gene expression data among five liver cancer cell lines, namely Hep3B, HepG2, HuH7, SK-HEP-1 and SNU-182. The determined gene stability was increased after exclusion of RNA samples containing relatively higher inhibitory substances. Conclusion Of six genes studied, HMBS was found to be the single best reference gene for gene expression studies in HCC. The appropriate choice of combination of more than one reference gene to improve qRT-PCR accuracy depends on the kind of liver tissues

  7. Report of the Reference Designs Study Group on the superconducting super collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-05-01

    The study was based on three different styles of superconducting magnets, each emphasizing a different configuration aimed at sharply decreasing the cost of producing the needed magnet system below that achievable with existing designs. In the study three key areas were addressed: technical feasibility; economic feasibility; and identification of specific R and D needs. Primary emphasis was on estimating the cost range within which SSC construction can confidently be expected to fall. In doing this, attention was focused on the cost of creating the collider itself. The costs of research equipment, preconstruction R and D, and possible site acquisition are not included in this study. The report of the Reference Designs Study is meant neither as a proposal for SSC construction, nor as a site preference statement. We have concluded that the basic principles of design used successfully for existing accelerators can be conservatively extended to a proton collider having the SSC primary specifications of energy and luminosity. Furthermore, each of the three reference magnet styles studied could serve as the foundation for an SSC facility meeting these specifications. A vigorous R and D program of approximately three years duration will be required to refine the cost estimates for the magnets, to determine their actual performance, to determine their manufacturability and reliability, and to develop cost-effective methods for their assembly and quality assurance. It is anticipted that the magnet options can be narrowed to a single one during an early phase of the R and D program. An important R and D goal will be to produce, using mass-production methods, a significant number of magnets of the chosen style. These magnets would then be thoroughly tested under conditions simulating actual accelerator operations

  8. Perils and potentials of self-selected entry to epidemiological studies and surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Niels; Louis, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    Low front-end cost and rapid accrual make Web-based surveys and enrolment in studies attractive, but participants are often self-selected with little reference to a well-defined study base. Of course, high quality studies must be internally valid (validity of inferences for the sample at hand......), but Web-based enrolment reactivates discussion of external validity (generalization of within-study inferences to a target population or context) in epidemiology and clinical trials. Survey research relies on a representative sample produced by a sampling frame, prespecified sampling process and weighting...

  9. Managing the Public Sector Research and Development Portfolio Selection Process: A Case Study of Quantitative Selection and Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    PUBLIC SECTOR RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT PORTFOLIO SELECTION PROCESS: A CASE STUDY OF QUANTITATIVE SELECTION AND OPTIMIZATION by Jason A. Schwartz...PUBLIC SECTOR RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT PORTFOLIO SELECTION PROCESS: A CASE STUDY OF QUANTITATIVE SELECTION AND OPTIMIZATION 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6...describing how public sector organizations can implement a research and development (R&D) portfolio optimization strategy to maximize the cost

  10. Eliminating traditional reference services in an academic health sciences library: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Stephanie J

    2011-01-01

    Question: How were traditional librarian reference desk services successfully eliminated at one health sciences library? Setting: The analysis was done at an academic health sciences library at a major research university. Method: A gap analysis was performed, evaluating changes in the first eleven months through analysis of reference transaction and instructional session data. Main Results: Substantial increases were seen in the overall number of specialized reference transactions and those conducted by librarians lasting more than thirty minutes. The number of reference transactions overall increased after implementing the new model. Several new small-scale instructional initiatives began, though perhaps not directly related to the new model. Conclusion: Traditional reference desk services were eliminated at one academic health sciences library without negative impact on reference and instructional statistics. Eliminating ties to the confines of the physical library due to staffing reference desk hours removed one significant barrier to a more proactive liaison program. PMID:22022221

  11. Results of a Saxitoxin Proficiency Test Including Characterization of Reference Material and Stability Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi Harju

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A saxitoxin (STX proficiency test (PT was organized as part of the Establishment of Quality Assurance for the Detection of Biological Toxins of Potential Bioterrorism Risk (EQuATox project. The aim of this PT was to provide an evaluation of existing methods and the European laboratories’ capabilities for the analysis of STX and some of its analogues in real samples. Homogenized mussel material and algal cell materials containing paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP toxins were produced as reference sample matrices. The reference material was characterized using various analytical methods. Acidified algal extract samples at two concentration levels were prepared from a bulk culture of PSP toxins producing dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii. The homogeneity and stability of the prepared PT samples were studied and found to be fit-for-purpose. Thereafter, eight STX PT samples were sent to ten participating laboratories from eight countries. The PT offered the participating laboratories the possibility to assess their performance regarding the qualitative and quantitative detection of PSP toxins. Various techniques such as official Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC methods, immunoassays, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry were used for sample analyses.

  12. Migraine and Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: A Case-Referent Clinical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Corinne; Foley-Saldena, Katharine; Cowan, Robert P.

    2017-01-01

    We studied clinical phenotype differences between migraineurs with CRPS (Mig + CRPS) and those without (Mig − CRPS). Mig + CRPS cases and Mig − CRPS referents aged ≥18 years were enrolled. Diagnosis was made in accordance with International Classification of Headache Disorders-3 beta (ICHD-3 beta) for migraine and Budapest Criteria for CRPS. Migraines both with and without aura were included. A total of 70 Mig + CRPS cases (13% males, mean age 48 years) and 80 Mig − CRPS referents (17% males, mean age 51 years) were included. 33% of Mig + CRPS and 38% of Mig − CRPS exhibited episodic migraine (EM) while 66% of Mig + CRPS and 62% of Mig − CRPS had chronic migraine (CM) (OR = 0.98, CI 0.36, 2.67). Median duration of CRPS was 3 years among EM + CRPS and 6 years among CM + CRPS cohort (p CRPS (57%) carried higher psychological and medical comorbidities compared to Mig − CRPS (6%) (OR 16.7, CI 10.2, 23.6). Higher migraine frequency was associated with longer CRPS duration. Migraineurs who developed CRPS had higher prevalence of psychological and medical disorders. Alleviating migraineurs' psychological and medical comorbidities may help lower CRPS occurrence. PMID:29214172

  13. Physical and psychosocial risk factors for lateral epicondylitis: a population based case-referent study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, J. P.; Andersen, JH

    2003-01-01

    AIMS: To assess the importance of physical and psychosocial risk factors for lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow). METHODS: Case-referent study of 267 new cases of tennis elbow and 388 referents from the background population enrolled from general practices in Ringkjoebing County, Denmark. RESULTS......: Manual job tasks were associated with tennis elbow (odds ratio (OR) 3.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.9 to 5.1). The self reported physical risk factors "posture" and "forceful work" were related to tennis elbow. Among women, work involving performing repeated movements of the arms was related...... index was established based on posture, repetition, and force. The adjusted ORs for tennis elbow at low, medium, and high strain were 1.4 (CI 0.8 to 2.7), 2.0 (CI 1.1 to 3.7), and 4.4 (CI 2.3 to 8.7). Low social support at work, adjusted for physical strain, was a risk factor among women (OR 2.4, CI 1...

  14. Development of polygonal surface version of ICRP reference phantoms: Preliminary study for posture change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Tat Thang; Yeom, Yeon Soo; Han, Min Cheol; Kim, Chan Hyeong

    2013-01-01

    Even though International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) officially adopted a set of adult male and female voxel phantoms as the ICRP reference phantoms, there are several critical limitations due to the nature of voxel geometry and their low voxel resolutions. In order to overcome these limitations of the ICRP phantoms, we are currently developing polygonal surface version of ICRP reference phantoms by directly converting the ICRP voxel phantoms to polygonal surface geometries. Among the many advantages of the ICRP polygonal surface phantom, especially, it is flexible and deformable. In principle, it is, therefore, possible to make the posture-changed ICRP phantoms which can provide more accurate dose values for exposure situations strongly relevant to worker's postures. As a preliminary study for developing the posture-changed ICRP phantoms, in this work we changed the posture of the preliminary version of ICRP male polygon-surface phantom constructed in the previous study. Organ doses were then compared between original and posture-changed phantoms. In the present study, we successfully changed a posture of the preliminary version of ICRP male polygon-surface phantom to the walking posture. From this results, it was explicitly shown that the polygon-surface version of the ICRP phantoms can be sufficiently modified to be various postures with the posture-changing method used in this study. In addition, it was demonstrated that phantom's posture must be considered in certain exposure situations, which can differ dose values from the conventional standing-posture phantom

  15. The NIST natural-matrix radionuclide standard reference material program for ocean studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inn, K.G.W.; Zhichao Lin; Zhongyu Wu; MacMahon, C.; Filliben, J.J.; Krey, P.; Feiner, M.; Harvey, J.

    2001-01-01

    In 1997, the Low-level Working Group of the International Committee on Radionuclide Metrology met in Boston, MA (USA) to define the characteristics of a new set of environmental radioactivity reference materials. These reference materials were to provide the radiochemist with the same analytical challenges faced when assaying environmental samples. It was decided that radionuclide bearing natural materials should be collected from sites where there had been sufficient time for natural processes to redistribute the various chemically different species of the radionuclides. Over the succeeding years, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), in cooperation with other highly experienced laboratories, certified and issued a number of these as low-level radioactivity Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) for fission and activation product and actinide concentrations. The experience of certifying these SRMs has given NIST the opportunity to compare radioanalytical methods and learn of their limitations. NIST convened an international workshop in 1994 to define the natural-matrix radionuclide SRM needs for ocean studies. The highest priorities proposed at the workshop were for sediment, shellfish, seaweed, fish flesh and water matrix SRMs certified for mBq per sample concentrations of 90 Sr, 137 Cs and 239 Pu + 240 Pu. The most recent low-level environmental radionuclide SRM issued by NIST, Ocean Sediment (SRM 4357) has certified and uncertified values for the following 22 radionuclides: 40 K, 90 Sr, 129 I, 137 Cs, 155 Eu, 210 Pb, 210 Po, 212 Pb, 214 Bi, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 228 Th, 230 Th, 232 Th, 234 U, 235 U, 237 Np, 238 U, 238 Pu, 239 Pu + 240 Pu, and 241 Am. The uncertainties for a number of the certified radionuclides are non-symmetrical and relatively large because of the non-normal distribution of reported values. NIST is continuing its efforts to provide the ocean studies community with additional natural matrix radionuclide SRMs. The freeze

  16. Report of the reference designs study group on the superconducting super collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    In December, 1983, the directors of the US high energy accelerator laboratories chartered the National SSC Reference Designs Study to review in detail the technical and economic feasibility of various options for creating the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) facility, a 20 TeV on 20 TeV proton-proton collider having a luminosity up to 10 33 cm -2 sec -1 . The primary objective of the study was to help the DOE, the high energy physics community, and the scientific community as a whole to decide how best to proceed with SSC R and D directed toward improving the cost effectiveness of applicable accelerator technology. We have concluded that the basic principles of design used successfully for existing accelerators can be conservatively extended to a proton collider having the SSC primary specifications of energy and luminosity. Furthermore, each of the three reference magnet styles studied could serve as the foundation for an SSC facility meeting these specifications. A vigorous R and D program of approximately three years duration will be required to refine the cost estimates for the magnets, to determine their actual performance, to determine their manufacturability and reliability, and to develop cost-effective methods for their assembly and quality assurance. It is anticipated that the magnet options can be narrowed to a single one during an early phase of the R and D program. An important R and D goal will be to produce, using mass-production methods, a significant number of magnets of the chosen style. These magnets would then be thoroughly tested under conditions simulating actual accelerator operations

  17. Normative Reference Values for Handgrip Strength in Colombian Schoolchildren: The FUPRECOL Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Morales, Olimpo; Peña-Ibagon, Jhonatan C; Palacios-López, Adalberto; Prieto-Benavides, Daniel H; Vivas, Andrés; Correa-Bautista, Jorge E; Lobelo, Felipe; Alonso-Martínez, Alicia M; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2017-01-01

    Ramírez-Vélez, R, Morales, O, Peña-Ibagon, JC, Palacios-López, A, Prieto-Benavides, DH, Vivas, A, Correa-Bautista, JE, Lobelo, F, Alonso-Martínez, AM, and Izquierdo, M. Normative reference values for handgrip strength in Colombian schoolchildren: the FUPRECOL study. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 217-226, 2017-The primary aim of this study was to generate normative handgrip (HG) strength data for 10 to 17.9 year olds. The secondary aim was to determine the relative proportion of Colombian children and adolescents that fall into established Health Benefit Zones (HBZ). This cross-sectional study enrolled 7,268 schoolchildren (boys n = 3,129 and girls n = 4,139, age 12.7 [2.4] years). Handgrip was measured using a hand dynamometer with an adjustable grip. Five HBZs (Needs Improvement, Fair, Good, Very Good, and Excellent) have been established that correspond to combined HG. Centile smoothed curves, percentile, and tables for the third, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 97th percentile were calculated using Cole's LMS method. Handgrip peaked in the sample at 22.2 (8.9) kg in boys and 18.5 (5.5) kg in girls. The increase in HG was greater for boys than for girls, but the peak HG was lower in girls than in boys. The HBZ data indicated that a higher overall percentage of boys than girls at each age group fell into the "Needs Improvement" zone, with differences particularly pronounced during adolescence. Our results provide, for the first time, sex- and age-specific HG reference standards for Colombian schoolchildren aged 9-17.9 years.

  18. New decision criteria for selecting delta check methods based on the ratio of the delta difference to the width of the reference range can be generally applicable for each clinical chemistry test item.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Hyuk; Kim, So-Young; Lee, Woochang; Chun, Sail; Min, Won-Ki

    2012-09-01

    Many laboratories use 4 delta check methods: delta difference, delta percent change, rate difference, and rate percent change. However, guidelines regarding decision criteria for selecting delta check methods have not yet been provided. We present new decision criteria for selecting delta check methods for each clinical chemistry test item. We collected 811,920 and 669,750 paired (present and previous) test results for 27 clinical chemistry test items from inpatients and outpatients, respectively. We devised new decision criteria for the selection of delta check methods based on the ratio of the delta difference to the width of the reference range (DD/RR). Delta check methods based on these criteria were compared with those based on the CV% of the absolute delta difference (ADD) as well as those reported in 2 previous studies. The delta check methods suggested by new decision criteria based on the DD/RR ratio corresponded well with those based on the CV% of the ADD except for only 2 items each in inpatients and outpatients. Delta check methods based on the DD/RR ratio also corresponded with those suggested in the 2 previous studies, except for 1 and 7 items in inpatients and outpatients, respectively. The DD/RR method appears to yield more feasible and intuitive selection criteria and can easily explain changes in the results by reflecting both the biological variation of the test item and the clinical characteristics of patients in each laboratory. We suggest this as a measure to determine delta check methods.

  19. Genetic selection and improvement of hard wood tree species for fuelwood production on sodic soil with particular reference to Prosopis juliflora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goel, V.L.; Behl, H.M. [National Botanical Research Inst., Lucknow (India). Dept. of Tree Biology

    2001-07-01

    This study is part of a research programme on selection and improvement of fast growing tree species suitable for wood fuel production on sodic wastelands (pH 8.6-10.5). Field trials of nine legumes (Acacia auriculiformis, A. nilotica, Albizia lebbeck, A. procera, Dalbergia sissoo, Leucaena leucocephala, Pongamia pinnata, Prosopis juliflora, Pithecellobium dulce) and three other tree species (Azadirachta indica, Eucalyptus tereticornis and Terminalai arjuna) were selected for this study. Prosopis juliflora was the most promising species in terms of its biomass productivity (68.7 t ha{sup -1}) and fuel value index (148.8) after 8-yr of growth. Acacia nilotica ranked second. Intra-specific variations were screened at provenance and individual tree level in order to improve fuelwood production potential of P. juliflora through selection and breeding. Successful populations (gene pools) and individuals (genotypes) were closed and conserved in clonal gardens to produce quality germplasm for plantations on sodic wastelands. Genetic testing, selection and multiplication of selected material are under progress. This will optimise gains in future afforestation programmes on sodic soils. (Author)

  20. [Hand eczema in children. Clinical and epidemiological study of the population referred to a tertiary hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Salvador, José María; Subiabre-Ferrer, Daniela; García Rabasco, Ana; Esteve-Martínez, Altea; Zaragoza-Ninet, Violeta; Alegre de Miquel, Víctor

    2017-08-21

    Hand eczema is a frequent disease in adults. Diagnosing the cause of hand eczema is difficult due to different classifications. There is lack of evidence on hand eczema and its causes in children. A total of 389 children between 0 and 16 years were identified between 1996 and 2016, from whom 42 (10.8%) with exclusively hand eczema were selected. In all cases a standard battery of epicutaneous patch tests was performed, as well as additional batteries depending on the clinical suspicion. The clinical and epidemiological features of these children were recorded and compared against children with eczema in other locations. The 42 children with hand eczema included 25 (60.5%) girls, and 17 (40.5%) boys, with a mean age of 10.6 +- 3.9 years, and did not differ from that of children with eczema in other locations. The definitive diagnosis after patch-testing was Atopic Dermatitis in 15 cases, Allergic Contact Dermatitis in 14 patients, Endogenous Vesiculous Eczema in 6 cases, Endogenous Hyperkeratotic Eczema in 5 cases, and Irritant Contact Dermatitis in 2 cases. The most frequent allergens detected were thiomersal (9 cases), nickel (5 cases), mercury (5 cases), and cobalt (4 cases). Hand eczema is a common condition in children. The most common cause is atopic dermatitis, although cases of allergic contact dermatitis manifesting as hand eczema are not uncommon. Any child with eczema of hands in whom an allergic cause is suspected should be referred for patch- testing. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  1. Fundamental studies to develop certified reference material to calibrate spectrophotometer in the ultraviolet region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Conceição, F C; Borges, P P; Gomes, J F S

    2016-01-01

    Spectrophotometry is the technique used in a great number of laboratories around the world. Quantitative determination of a high number of inorganic, organic and biological species can be made by spectrophotometry using calibrated spectrophotometers. International standards require the use of optical filters to perform the calibration of spectrophotometers. One of the recommended materials is the crystalline potassium dichromate (K_2Cr_2O_7), which is used to prepare solutions in specific concentrations for calibration or verification of spectrophotometers in the ultraviolet (UV) spectral regions. This paper presents the results concerning the fundamental studies for developing a certified reference material (CRM) of crystalline potassium dichromate to be used as standard of spectrophotometers in order to contribute to reliable quantitative analyses. (paper)

  2. Study of integration issues to realize OTEC market potential. First quarterly report. [134 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-12-01

    The specific objective of this study is to examine the commercialization of OTEC technology in the electric utility industry in the Gulf region of the United States. To accomplish this, the project staff is identifying the major issues that will arise in the integration of OTEC units into the power delivery systems in the Gulf Region. Among these issues are problems that must be resolved and barriers to be overcome. These are being identified and alternative approaches to resolving or overcoming them will be explored. Their relative importance in the integration will be assessed as well. The alternative approaches to resolving problems and overcoming barriers will be evaluated to determine their relative effectiveness, and the problems and barriers will be conceptually resolved. This evaluation will permit the recommendation of preferred approaches to integration and the preferred approaches will be assembled into a structured strategy for OTEC commercialization. A list of 134 references relevant to OTEC electric power plant integration issues is included.

  3. Assessment of brain reference genes for RT-qPCR studies in neurodegenerative diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rydbirk, Rasmus; Folke, Jonas; Winge, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of gene expression levels by reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) has for many years been the favourite approach for discovering disease-associated alterations. Normalization of results to stably expressed reference genes (RGs) is pivotal to obtain reliable results......, and Progressive Supranuclear Palsy patients. Using RefFinder, a web-based tool for evaluating RG stability, we identified the most stable RGs to be UBE2D2, CYC1, and RPL13 which we recommend for future RT-qPCR studies on human brain tissue from these patients. None of the investigated genes were affected...... by experimental variables such as RIN, PMI, or age. Findings were further validated by expression analyses of a target gene GSK3B, known to be affected by AD and PD. We obtained high variations in GSK3B levels when contrasting the results using different sets of common RG underlining the importance of a priori...

  4. Nasal cancer and occupational exposures. Preliminary report of a joint Nordic case-referent study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernberg, S; Collan, Y; Degerth, R

    1983-01-01

    Nasal and sinus paranasal cancers have been associated with several occupational exposures, for example, dust from hardwood, nickel and unspecific agents occurring in the boot and shoe industry. A joint Danish-Finnish-Swedish case-referent investigation was initiated in 1977 to study further...... showed associations between nasal or sinus paranasal cancer and exposure to hardwood or mixed wood dust (discordant pairs 14/2); softwood dust alone (13/4); chromium 16/6); nickel (12/5, not significant); welding, flamecutting, and soldering (17/16); and lacquers and paints (12/0). Hardwood dust exposure...... the connection between nasal and sinus paranasal cancers and various occupational exposures. All new cases of these cancers were collected from the national cancer registers (Finland & Sweden) or from hospitals (Denmark). Those still alive who agreed to the interview (N = 167) were individually matched for age...

  5. Studies of localized corrosion in welded aluminum alloys by the scanning reference electrode technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danford, M. D.; Nunes, A. C.

    1995-01-01

    Localized corrosion in welded samples of 2219-T87 Al alloy (2319 filler), 2090 Al-Li alloy (4043 and 2319 fillers), and 2195 Al-Li alloy (4043 and 2319 fillers) has been investigated using the relatively new scanning reference electrode technique. The weld beads are cathodic in all cases, leading to reduced anode/cathode ratios. A reduction in anode/cathode ratio leads to an increase in the corrosion rates of the welded metals, in agreement with results obtained in previous electrochemical and stress corrosion studies involving the overall corrosion rates of welded samples. The cathodic weld beads are bordered on both sides by strong anodic regions, with high propensity for corrosion.

  6. Validity Study of a Jump Mat Compared to the Reference Standard Force Plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogan, Slavko; Radlinger, Lorenz; Imhasly, Caroline; Kneubuehler, Andrea; Hilfiker, Roger

    2015-12-01

    In the field of vertical jump diagnostics, force plates (FP) are the reference standard. Recently, despite a lack of evidence, jump mats have been used increasingly. Important factors in favor of jumping mats are their low cost and portability. This validity study compared the Haynl-Elektronik jump mat (HE jump mat) with the reference standard force plate. Ten healthy volunteers participated and each participant completed three series of five drop jumps (DJ). The parameters ground contact time (GCT) and vertical jump height (VJH) from the HE jump mat and the FP were used to evaluate the concurrent validity. The following statistical calculations were performed: Pearson's correlation (r), Bland-Altman plots (standard and for adjusted trend), and regression equations. The Bland-Altman plots suggest that the HE jump mat measures shorter contact times and higher jump heights than the FP. The trend-adjusted Bland-Altman plot shows higher mean differences and wider wing-spreads of confidence limits during longer GCT. During the VJH the mean differences and the wing-spreads of the confidence limits throughout the range present as relatively constant. The following regression equations were created, as close as possible to the true value: GCT = 5.920385 + 1.072293 × [value HE jump mat] and VJH = -1.73777 + 1.011156 × [value HE jump mat]. The HE jump mat can be recommended in relation to the validity of constraints. In this study, only a part of the quality criteria were examined. For the final recommendation it is advised to examine the HE jump mat on the other quality criteria (test-retest reliability, sensitivity change).

  7. A study of goiter among female adolescents referred to centre for nuclear medicine, Lahore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elahi, S; Hassan, M.; Syed, Z.; Hyder, S.W.; Nazeer, L.; Nagra, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study goiter and thyroid dysfunction in female adolescents residing in Lahore referred to Centre for Nuclear Medicine (CENUM), Mayo Hospital for thyroid scanning and thyroid function tests. Design: Retrospective study of thyroid size, thyroid scan patterns and serum FT/sub 4/ and TSH levels. Setting: Centre for Nuclear Medicine (CENUM), Mayo Hospital, Lahore. Patients: 350 female adolescent referred during September 2002 to April 2003. Main outcome measures: adolescent goiter, thyroid nodules, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, Graves' disease, toxic multi nodular goiter. Results: Among 350 adolescents 212(60.6%) had goiter of various grades mostly visible. Among goiterous patients 136(64.2%) had diffuse and 76 (35.8%) had nodular presentation. The number of patients with solitary nodular goiter (20.7%) was more than multi nodular goiter (15.1%) and number of patients with solitary cold nodule (16.5%) was more than functioning nodule (4.2%). The incidence of biochemical thyroid dysfunction, both overt and subclinical, was detected in 42(19.8%) patients and was significantly more frequent in patients with nodular than diffuse presentation (29% VS 14.7%; p<0.001) and in multinodular than solitary nodular goiter (p<0.005). More than 80% of the patients with solitary nodular goiter were euthyroid. Simple goiter was detected in 116(54.7%), Graves' disease in 5(2.4%) and toxic multinodular goiter in 4(1.9%) patients. Overall incidence of hypothyroidism was more than double as compared to hyperthyroidism. Incidence of nodularity and hypothyroidism was more in large goiter but duration of goiter was not significant in promoting nodularity. Conclusion: Goiterous adolescents need urgent attention because they don't have just diffuse hypertrophy with normal thyroid function. Many are afflicted with dysfunction and nodularity, particularly solitary cold nodule bearing risk of thyroid malignancy. (author)

  8. A study to establish international diagnostic reference levels for paediatric computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassileva, J.; Rehani, M.; Kostova-Lefterova, D.; Al-Naemi, H.M.; Al Suwaidi, J.S.; Arandjic, D.; Bashier, E.H.O.; Kodlulovich Renha, S.; El-Nachef, L.; Aguilar, J.G.; Gershan, V.; Gershkevitsh, E.; Gruppetta, E.; Hustuc, A.; Jauhari, A.; Hassan Kharita, Mohammad; Khelassi-Toutaoui, N.; Khosravi, H.R.; Khoury, H.; Kralik, I.; Mahere, S.; Mazuoliene, J.; Mora, P.; Muhogora, W.; Muthuvelu, P.; Nikodemova, D.; Novak, L.; Pallewatte, A.; Pekarovic, D.; Shaaban, M.; Shelly, E.; Stepanyan, K.; Thelsy, N.; Visrutaratna, P.; Zaman, A.

    2015-01-01

    The article reports results from the largest international dose survey in paediatric computed tomography (CT) in 32 countries and proposes international diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in terms of computed tomography dose index (CTDI vol ) and dose length product (DLP). It also assesses whether mean or median values of individual facilities should be used. A total of 6115 individual patient data were recorded among four age groups: <1 y, >1-5 y, >5-10 y and >10-15 y. CTDI w , CTDI vol and DLP from the CT console were recorded in dedicated forms together with patient data and technical parameters. Statistical analysis was performed, and international DRLs were established at rounded 75. percentile values of distribution of median values from all CT facilities. The study presents evidence in favour of using median rather than mean of patient dose indices as the representative of typical local dose in a facility, and for establishing DRLs as third quartile of median values. International DRLs were established for paediatric CT examinations for routine head, chest and abdomen in the four age groups. DRLs for CTDI vol are similar to the reference values from other published reports, with some differences for chest and abdomen CT. Higher variations were observed between DLP values, based on a survey of whole multi-phase exams. It may be noted that other studies in literature were based on single phase only. DRLs reported in this article can be used in countries without sufficient medical physics support to identify non-optimised practice. Recommendations to improve the accuracy and importance of future surveys are provided. (authors)

  9. Feasibility study on production of a matrix reference material for cyanobacterial toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingdale, Christie; Thomas, Krista; Lewis, Nancy; Békri, Khalida; McCarron, Pearse; Quilliam, Michael A

    2015-07-01

    The worldwide increase in cyanobacterial contamination of freshwater lakes and rivers is of great concern as many cyanobacteria produce potent hepatotoxins and neurotoxins (cyanotoxins). Such toxins pose a threat to aquatic ecosystems, livestock, and drinking water supplies. In addition, dietary supplements prepared from cyanobacteria can pose a risk to consumers if they contain toxins. Analytical monitoring for toxins in the environment and in consumer products is essential for the protection of public health. Reference materials (RMs) are an essential tool for the development and validation of analytical methods and are necessary for ongoing quality control of monitoring operations. Since the availability of appropriate RMs for cyanotoxins has been very limited, the present study was undertaken to examine the feasibility of producing a cyanobacterial matrix RM containing various cyanotoxins. The first step was large-scale culturing of various cyanobacterial cultures that produce anatoxins, microcystins, and cylindrospermopsins. After harvesting, the biomass was lyophilized, blended, homogenized, milled, and bottled. The moisture content and physical characteristics were assessed in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the production process. Toxin levels were measured by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry and ultraviolet detection. The reference material was found to be homogeneous for toxin content. Stability studies showed no significant degradation of target toxins over a period of 310 days at temperatures up to +40 °C except for the anatoxin-a, which showed some degradation at +40 °C. These results show that a fit-for-purpose matrix RM for cyanotoxins can be prepared using the processes and techniques applied in this work.

  10. A selection of reference genes and early-warning mRNA biomarkers for environmental monitoring using Mytilus spp. as sentinel species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, C; Coquillé, V; Guyomarch, J; Auffret, M; Moraga, D

    2014-09-15

    mRNA biomarkers are promising tools for environmental health assessment and reference genes are needed to perform relevant qPCR analyses in tissue samples of sentinel species. In the present study, potential reference genes and mRNA biomarkers were tested in the gills and digestive glands of native and caged mussels (Mytilus spp.) exposed to harbor pollution. Results highlighted the difficulty to find stable reference genes in wild, non-model species and suggested the use of normalization indices instead of single genes as they exhibit a higher stability. Several target genes were found differentially expressed between mussel groups, especially in gills where cyp32, π-gst and CuZn-sod mRNA levels could be biomarker candidates. Multivariate analyses confirmed the ability of mRNA levels to highlight site-effects and suggested the use of several combined markers instead of individual ones. These findings support the use of qPCR technology and mRNA levels as early-warning biomarkers in marine monitoring programs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Basic study of intraoperative radiation on the stomach. With particular reference to histopathologic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, T [Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1978-07-01

    In a basic study of intraoperative radiation on the stomach, adult dogs were laparotomized, and radiated on the stomach and gastroduodenal anastomosed part with an electron beam to 1,000 to 4,000 rads to observe its effects on hematologic and histologic findings. 1) No leukopenia occurred with the radiation, but secondary effects such as anemia and hypoproteinemia were noted. 2) On the gastric wall, the mucosa was most severely effected by the radiation, presenting such changes as erosion, atrophy, disappearance of glandular tissue, and fibrosis with the lapse of time. 3) The radiation on the stomach to 3,000 rads was followed by ulceration in one month, by the start of repair of the ulceration in three months, and by its healing in eight months. Histologic examination disclosed no evident damages to the blood vessels by the radiation. 4) Delayed healing of the anastomosed part was noted as an effect of the radiation on this part. 5) The findings in this experiment appear to suggest that the single tolerable dose of electron beam radiation on the stomach and the gastroduodenal anastomosed part should be 3,000 rads.

  12. Reference values of urinary trans,trans-muconic acid: Italian Multicentric Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprea, C; Sciarra, G; Bozzi, N; Pagliantini, M; Perico, A; Bavazzano, P; Leandri, A; Carrieri, M; Scapellato, M L; Bettinelli, M; Bartolucci, G B

    2008-08-01

    This article reports the results of a study, conducted in the framework of the scientific activities of the Italian Society for Reference Values, aimed at defining reference values of urinary trans,trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA) in the general population not occupationally exposed to benzene. t,t-MA concentrations detected in 376 subjects of the resident population in three areas of Italy, two in central (Florence and southern Tuscany) and one in northern Italy (Padua), by three laboratories, compared by repeated interlaboratory controls, showed an interval of 14.4-225.0 microg/L (5th-95th percentile) and a geometric mean of 52.5 microg/L. The concentrations measured were influenced by tobacco smoking in a statistically significant way: Geometric mean concentrations were 44.8 microg/L and 76.1 microg/Ll in nonsmokers (264 subjects) and smokers (112 subjects), respectively. In the nonsmoking population, a significant influence of gender was found when concentrations were corrected for urinary creatinine, geometric mean concentrations being 36.7 microg/g creatinine in males (128 subjects) and 44.7 microg/g creatinine in females (136 subjects). The place of residence of subjects did not seem to influence urinary excretion of the metabolite, although personal inhalation exposure to benzene over a 24-h period showed slightly higher concentrations in Padua and Florence (geometric means of 6.5 microg/m(3) and 6.6 microg/m(3), respectively) than in southern Tuscany (geometric mean of 3.9 microg/m(3)). Concentration of t,t-MA in urine samples collected at the end of personal air sampling showed little relationship to personal inhalation exposure to benzene, confirming the importance of other factors in determining excretion of t,t-MA when concentrations in personal air samples are very low.

  13. Optimization of instrumental neutron activation analysis for the within-bottle homogeneity study of reference materials of marine origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Daniel Pereira da

    2017-01-01

    The use of reference materials has been increasing in chemical analysis laboratories as its use is important for measurement validation in analytical chemistry. Such materials are generally imported, which require high financial investments in order to acquire them, and therefore it impacts on the difficulty to many national laboratories to use reference materials in their chemical analysis routine. Certification of reference materials is a complex process that assumes that the user is given appropriate assigned values of the properties of interests in the material. In this process, the homogeneity of the material must be checked. In this study, the within-bottle homogeneity study for the elements K, Mg, Mn, Na and V was performed for two reference materials of marine origin: the mussel reference material produced at the Neutron Activation Laboratory (LAN) of IPEN - CNEN/SP and an oyster tissue reference material produced abroad. For this purpose, the elements were determined in subsamples with masses varying between 1 and 250 mg by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and minimum sample intakes were estimated, ranging from 0.015 g for Na in the mussel reference material to 0.100 g for V in the two reference materials. (author)

  14. Gene expression studies of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR: an overview in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeel, Muhammad; Rodriguez, Alicia; Tahir, Urfa Bin; Jin, Fengliang

    2018-02-01

    Whenever gene expression is being examined, it is essential that a normalization process is carried out to eliminate non-biological variations. The use of reference genes, such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, actin, and ribosomal protein genes, is the usual method of choice for normalizing gene expression. Although reference genes are used to normalize target gene expression, a major problem is that the stability of these genes differs among tissues, developmental stages, species, and responses to abiotic factors. Therefore, the use and validation of multiple reference genes are required. This review discusses the reasons that why RT-qPCR has become the preferred method for validating results of gene expression profiles, the use of specific and non-specific dyes and the importance of use of primers and probes for qPCR as well as to discuss several statistical algorithms developed to help the validation of potential reference genes. The conflicts arising in the use of classical reference genes in gene normalization and their replacement with novel references are also discussed by citing the high stability and low stability of classical and novel reference genes under various biotic and abiotic experimental conditions by employing various methods applied for the reference genes amplification.

  15. Chinese students studying at Australian universities with specific reference to nursing students: a narrative literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Carol Chunfeng; Andre, Kate; Greenwood, Kenneth Mark

    2015-04-01

    To report the current knowledge on the Chinese nursing students' learning at Australian universities. The intent is to provide educators and researchers with a background to the contexts, the methodologies, the emphases of various relevant studies, and to provide recommendations for future research. Attracting international students has become an important part of Australian universities' business and contributes to their cultural diversity. Teaching international students has received considerable attention in the educational research literature. Experiences of international students can vary greatly depending on their country of origin. This paper critically reviews current literature relating to issues for Chinese students and in particular, Chinese nursing students, the biggest single group of international nursing students at Australian universities Narrative literature review. A comprehensive search of seven electronic databases for literature between 2003 and 2014 helped to identify qualitative and quantitative studies that addressed issues of Asian international students with English as a second language (ESL) (included nursing students) studying in Australia, New Zealand, the UK, the United States and China. Pertinent websites were also searched. The reference lists and bibliographies of retrieved articles were hand- searched to identify other relevant studies. Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria for the review. The majority of existing literature claimed that there is a range of challenges confronting international students including Chinese nursing students, in assimilation into their host country. These include issues with English language proficiency, cultural barriers, social problems, different learning styles, academic demands, perceived racism, homesickness, lack of assertiveness and financial problems. There is limited research about the Chinese students' study in Australia. In particular, the learning experience of Chinese nursing students

  16. Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning reference nuclear research and test reactors: sensitivity of decommissioning radiation exposure and costs to selected parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konzek, G.J.

    1983-07-01

    Additional analyses of decommissioning at the reference research and test (R and T) reactors and analyses of five recent reactor decommissionings are made that examine some parameters not covered in the initial study report (NUREG/CR-1756). The parameters examined for decommissioning are: (1) the effect on costs and radiation exposure of plant size and/or type; (2) the effects on costs of increasing disposal charges and of unavailability of waste disposal capacity at licensed waste disposal facilities; and (3) the costs of and the available alternatives for the disposal of nuclear R and T reactor fuel assemblies

  17. Application of INAA complementary gamma ray photopeaks to homogeneity study of candidate reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Edson G.; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A.; Lima, Ana P.S.; Catharino, Marilia G.M.; Maihara, Vera A.; Saiki, Mitiko

    2009-01-01

    Characterization and certification of reference materials, RMs, is a complex task involving many steps. One of them is the homogeneity testing to assure that key property values will not present variation among RM bottles. Good precision is the most important figure of merit of an analytical technique to allow it to be used in the homogeneity testing of candidate RMs. Due to its inherent characteristics, Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis, INAA, is an analytical technique of choice for homogeneity testing. Problems with sample digestion and contamination from reagents are not an issue in INAA, as solid samples are analyzed directly. For element determination via INAA, the activity of a suitable gamma ray decay photopeak for an element is chosen and it is compared to the activity of a standard of the element. An interesting possibility is the use of complementary gamma ray photopeaks (for the elements that present them) to confirm the homogeneity test results for an element. In this study, an investigation of the use of the complementary gamma ray photopeaks of 110 mAg, 82 Br, 60 Co, 134 Cs, 152 Eu, 59 Fe, 140 La, 233 Pa (for Th determination), 46 Sc and 75 Se radionuclides was undertaken in the between bottle homogeneity study of a mussel candidate RM under preparation at IPEN - CNEN/SP. Although some photopeaks led to biased element content results, the use of complementary gamma ray photopeaks proved to be helpful in supporting homogeneity study conclusions of new RMs. (author)

  18. Baseline Assessment of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Reference Material and Proficiency Testing/External Quality Assurance Material Commutability: A Vitamin D Standardization Program Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phinney, Karen W; Sempos, Christopher T; Tai, Susan S-C; Camara, Johanna E; Wise, Stephen A; Eckfeldt, John H; Hoofnagle, Andrew N; Carter, Graham D; Jones, Julia; Myers, Gary L; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon; Miller, W Greg; Bachmann, Lorin M; Young, Ian S; Pettit, Juanita; Caldwell, Grahame; Liu, Andrew; Brooks, Stephen P J; Sarafin, Kurtis; Thamm, Michael; Mensink, Gert B M; Busch, Markus; Rabenberg, Martina; Cashman, Kevin D; Kiely, Mairead; Galvin, Karen; Zhang, Joy Y; Kinsella, Michael; Oh, Kyungwon; Lee, Sun-Wha; Jung, Chae L; Cox, Lorna; Goldberg, Gail; Guberg, Kate; Meadows, Sarah; Prentice, Ann; Tian, Lu; Brannon, Patsy M; Lucas, Robyn M; Crump, Peter M; Cavalier, Etienne; Merkel, Joyce; Betz, Joseph M

    2017-09-01

    The Vitamin D Standardization Program (VDSP) coordinated a study in 2012 to assess the commutability of reference materials and proficiency testing/external quality assurance materials for total 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in human serum, the primary indicator of vitamin D status. A set of 50 single-donor serum samples as well as 17 reference and proficiency testing/external quality assessment materials were analyzed by participating laboratories that used either immunoassay or LC-MS methods for total 25(OH)D. The commutability test materials included National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material 972a Vitamin D Metabolites in Human Serum as well as materials from the College of American Pathologists and the Vitamin D External Quality Assessment Scheme. Study protocols and data analysis procedures were in accordance with Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. The majority of the test materials were found to be commutable with the methods used in this commutability study. These results provide guidance for laboratories needing to choose appropriate reference materials and select proficiency or external quality assessment programs and will serve as a foundation for additional VDSP studies.

  19. Selective hydride generation- cryotrapping- ICP-MS for arsenic speciation analysis at picogram levels: analysis of river and sea water reference materials and human bladder epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoušek, Tomáš; Currier, Jenna M.; Trojánková, Nikola; Saunders, R. Jesse; Ishida, María C.; González-Horta, Carmen; Musil, Stanislav; Mester, Zoltán; Stýblo, Miroslav; Dědina, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    An ultra sensitive method for arsenic (As) speciation analysis based on selective hydride generation (HG) with preconcentration by cryotrapping (CT) and inductively coupled plasma- mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection is presented. Determination of valence of the As species is performed by selective HG without prereduction (trivalent species only) or with L-cysteine prereduction (sum of tri- and pentavalent species). Methylated species are resolved on the basis of thermal desorption of formed methyl substituted arsines after collection at −196°C. Limits of detection of 3.4, 0.04, 0.14 and 0.10 pg mL−1 (ppt) were achieved for inorganic As, mono-, di- and trimethylated species, respectively, from a 500 μL sample. Speciation analysis of river water (NRC SLRS-4 and SLRS-5) and sea water (NRC CASS-4, CASS-5 and NASS-5) reference materials certified to contain 0.4 to 1.3 ng mL−1 total As was performed. The concentrations of methylated As species in tens of pg mL−1 range obtained by HG-CT-ICP-MS systems in three laboratories were in excellent agreement and compared well with results of HG-CT-atomic absorption spectrometry and anion exchange liquid chromatography- ICP-MS; sums of detected species agreed well with the certified total As content. HG-CT-ICP-MS method was successfully used for analysis of microsamples of exfoliated bladder epithelial cells isolated from human urine. Here, samples of lysates of 25 to 550 thousand cells contained typically tens pg up to ng of iAs species and from single to hundreds pg of methylated species, well within detection power of the presented method. A significant portion of As in the cells was found in the form of the highly toxic trivalent species. PMID:24014931

  20. Selected, annotated bibliography of studies relevant to the isolation of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyder, L.K.; Fore, C.S.; Vaughan, N.D.; Faust, R.A.

    1980-09-01

    This annotated bibliography of 705 references represents the first in a series to be published by the Ecological Sciences Information Center containing scientific, technical, economic, and regulatory information relevant to nuclear waste isolation. Most references discuss deep geologic disposal, with fewer studies of deep seabed disposal; space disposal is also included. The publication covers both domestic and foreign literature for the period 1954 to 1980. Major chapters selected are Chemical and Physical Aspects; Container Design and Performance; Disposal Site; Envirnmental Transport; General Studies and Reviews; Geology, Hydrology and Site Resources; Regulatory and Economic Aspects; Repository Design and Engineering; Transportation Technology; Waste Production; and Waste Treatment. Specialized data fields have been incorporated to improve the ease and accuracy of locating pertinent references. Specific radionuclides for which data are presented are listed in the Measured Radionuclides field, and specific parameters which affect the migration of these radionuclides are presented in the Measured Parameters field. The references within each chapter are arranged alphabetically by leading author, corporate affiliation, or title of the document. When the author is not given, the corporate affiliation appears first. If these two levels of authorship are not given, the title of the document is used as the identifying level. Indexes are provided for author(s), keywords, subject category, title, geographic location, measured parameters, measured radionuclides, and publication description

  1. Three New Offset {delta}{sup 11}B Isotope Reference Materials for Environmental Boron Isotope Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosner, M. [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Berlin (Germany); IsoAnalysis UG, Berlin (Germany); Vogl, J. [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Berlin (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    The isotopic composition of boron is a well established tool in various areas of science and industry. Boron isotope compositions are typically reported as {delta}{sup 11}B values which indicate the isotopic difference of a sample relative to the isotope reference material NIST SRM 951. A significant drawback of all of the available boron isotope reference materials is that none of them covers a natural boron isotope composition apart from NIST SRM 951. To fill this gap of required {delta}{sup 11}B reference materials three new solution boric acid reference materials were produced, which cover 60 per mille of the natural boron isotope variation (-20 to 40 per mille {delta}{sup 11}B) of about 100 per mille . The new reference materials are certified for their {delta}{sup 11}B values and are commercially available through European Reference Materials (http://www.erm-crm.org). The newly produced and certified boron isotope reference materials will allow straightforward method validation and quality control of boron isotope data. (author)

  2. Identifying Stable Reference Genes for qRT-PCR Normalisation in Gene Expression Studies of Narrow-Leafed Lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candy M Taylor

    Full Text Available Quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR (qRT-PCR is currently one of the most popular, high-throughput and sensitive technologies available for quantifying gene expression. Its accurate application depends heavily upon normalisation of gene-of-interest data with reference genes that are uniformly expressed under experimental conditions. The aim of this study was to provide the first validation of reference genes for Lupinus angustifolius (narrow-leafed lupin, a significant grain legume crop using a selection of seven genes previously trialed as reference genes for the model legume, Medicago truncatula. In a preliminary evaluation, the seven candidate reference genes were assessed on the basis of primer specificity for their respective targeted region, PCR amplification efficiency, and ability to discriminate between cDNA and gDNA. Following this assessment, expression of the three most promising candidates [Ubiquitin C (UBC, Helicase (HEL, and Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB] was evaluated using the NormFinder and RefFinder statistical algorithms in two narrow-leafed lupin lines, both with and without vernalisation treatment, and across seven organ types (cotyledons, stem, leaves, shoot apical meristem, flowers, pods and roots encompassing three developmental stages. UBC was consistently identified as the most stable candidate and has sufficiently uniform expression that it may be used as a sole reference gene under the experimental conditions tested here. However, as organ type and developmental stage were associated with greater variability in relative expression, it is recommended using UBC and HEL as a pair to achieve optimal normalisation. These results highlight the importance of rigorously assessing candidate reference genes for each species across a diverse range of organs and developmental stages. With emerging technologies, such as RNAseq, and the completion of valuable transcriptome data sets, it is possible that other

  3. Safety Study of the X-Ray Reference Laboratory for Radiation Protection Levels (IR-14D)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, G.

    1999-01-01

    This report is a study about the safety of the X-ray reference laboratory that has been recently constructed in the building 2 of the CIEMAT. After a brief description of the apparatus, we present the method used to calculate the exposure and absorbed dose rates in the most characteristic points of the laboratory. This method takes into account the spectral distribution of the radiation beams as a function of the accelerating voltage. The built-up factors of the absorbent materials have been considered to calculate the transmission of the radiation beams through the filters and shielding. Scattered radiations has been introduced in the calculations by means of a semiempirical method. This model supposes that multiple scattering processes give an isotropic contribution to the reflected beams and the single scattered can be described in terms of the differential cross section of Klein-Nishina. The results of this study have been applied to determine the maximum dose equivalent that the personnel of the laboratory could receive in normal operation conditions. (Author) 5 refs

  4. Assessment of brain reference genes for RT-qPCR studies in neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydbirk, Rasmus; Folke, Jonas; Winge, Kristian; Aznar, Susana; Pakkenberg, Bente; Brudek, Tomasz

    2016-11-17

    Evaluation of gene expression levels by reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) has for many years been the favourite approach for discovering disease-associated alterations. Normalization of results to stably expressed reference genes (RGs) is pivotal to obtain reliable results. This is especially important in relation to neurodegenerative diseases where disease-related structural changes may affect the most commonly used RGs. We analysed 15 candidate RGs in 98 brain samples from two brain regions from Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Multiple System Atrophy, and Progressive Supranuclear Palsy patients. Using RefFinder, a web-based tool for evaluating RG stability, we identified the most stable RGs to be UBE2D2, CYC1, and RPL13 which we recommend for future RT-qPCR studies on human brain tissue from these patients. None of the investigated genes were affected by experimental variables such as RIN, PMI, or age. Findings were further validated by expression analyses of a target gene GSK3B, known to be affected by AD and PD. We obtained high variations in GSK3B levels when contrasting the results using different sets of common RG underlining the importance of a priori validation of RGs for RT-qPCR studies.

  5. Percentile reference values for anthropometric body composition indices in European children from the IDEFICS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, P; Kovacs, E; Moreno, L A; Veidebaum, T; Tornaritis, M; Kourides, Y; Siani, A; Lauria, F; Sioen, I; Claessens, M; Mårild, S; Lissner, L; Bammann, K; Intemann, T; Buck, C; Pigeot, I; Ahrens, W; Molnár, D

    2014-09-01

    To characterise the nutritional status in children with obesity or wasting conditions, European anthropometric reference values for body composition measures beyond the body mass index (BMI) are needed. Differentiated assessment of body composition in children has long been hampered by the lack of appropriate references. The aim of our study is to provide percentiles for body composition indices in normal weight European children, based on the IDEFICS cohort (Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health Effects in Children and infantS). Overall 18,745 2.0-10.9-year-old children from eight countries participated in the study. Children classified as overweight/obese or underweight according to IOTF (N=5915) were excluded from the analysis. Anthropometric measurements (BMI (N=12 830); triceps, subscapular, fat mass and fat mass index (N=11,845-11,901); biceps, suprailiac skinfolds, sum of skinfolds calculated from skinfold thicknesses (N=8129-8205), neck circumference (N=12,241); waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio (N=12,381)) were analysed stratified by sex and smoothed 1st, 3rd, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, 97th and 99th percentile curves were calculated using GAMLSS. Percentile values of the most important anthropometric measures related to the degree of adiposity are depicted for European girls and boys. Age- and sex-specific differences were investigated for all measures. As an example, the 50th and 99th percentile values of waist circumference ranged from 50.7-59.2 cm and from 51.3-58.7 cm in 4.5- to <5.0-year-old girls and boys, respectively, to 60.6-74.5 cm in girls and to 59.9-76.7 cm in boys at the age of 10.5-10.9 years. The presented percentile curves may aid a differentiated assessment of total and abdominal adiposity in European children.

  6. Selection of reference genes for expression analysis using quantitative real-time PCR in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris (Hemiptera, Aphidiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxiao Yang

    Full Text Available To facilitate gene expression study and obtain accurate qRT-PCR analysis, normalization relative to stable expressed housekeeping genes is required. In this study, expression profiles of 11 candidate reference genes, including actin (Actin, elongation factor 1 α (EF1A, TATA-box-binding protein (TATA, ribosomal protein L12 (RPL12, β-tubulin (Tubulin, NADH dehydrogenase (NADH, vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (v-ATPase, succinate dehydrogenase B (SDHB, 28S ribosomal RNA (28S, 16S ribosomal RNA (16S, and 18S ribosomal RNA (18S from the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, under different developmental stages and temperature conditions, were investigated. A total of four analytical tools, geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper, and the ΔCt method, were used to evaluate the suitability of these genes as endogenous controls. According to RefFinder, a web-based software tool which integrates all four above-mentioned algorithms to compare and rank the reference genes, SDHB, 16S, and NADH were the three most stable house-keeping genes under different developmental stages and temperatures. This work is intended to establish a standardized qRT-PCR protocol in pea aphid and serves as a starting point for the genomics and functional genomics research in this emerging insect model.

  7. Narrative Skills in Children with Selective Mutism: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, Alison; Fung, Daniel; Manassis, Katharina; Fiksenbaum, Lisa; Tannock, Rosemary

    2004-01-01

    Selective mutism (SM) is a rare and complex disorder associated with anxiety symptoms and speech-language deficits; however, the nature of these language deficits has not been studied systematically. A novel cross-disciplinary assessment protocol was used to assess anxiety and nonverbal cognitive, receptive language, and expressive narrative…

  8. Which Is More Consequential: Fields of Study or Institutional Selectivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yingyi; Savas, Gokhan

    2014-01-01

    The persisting gender pay gap favoring men among college graduates is a puzzle given women's remarkable success in postsecondary education. This article examines income disparities among recent college graduates by intersecting gender and social class and evaluating the relative importance of fields of study and institutional selectivity.…

  9. Studies of Deactivation of Methanol to Formaldehyde Selective Oxidation Catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun, Kristian Viegaard; Schumann, Max; Høj, Martin

    This work presents a study of the deactivation behavior of Fe-Mo oxide catalyst during selective oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde in a period of 5 days. The structural changes in the catalyst have been investigated in situ for the initial 10 h by Raman spectroscopy, and the structure after 5...

  10. Comparative Study Of Two Non-Selective Cyclooxygenase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The comparative study of the effects of two non-selective cyclooxygenase inhibitors ibuprofen and paracetamol on maternal and neonatal growth was conducted using 15 Sprague dawley rats, with mean body weight ranging between 165 and 179g. The rats were separated at random into three groups (A, B and C).

  11. Reference values for anxiety questionnaires: the Leiden Routine Outcome Monitoring Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte-van Maaren, Yvonne W M; Giltay, Erik J; van Hemert, Albert M; Zitman, Frans G; de Waal, Margot W M; Carlier, Ingrid V E

    2013-09-25

    The monitoring of patients with an anxiety disorder can benefit from Routine Outcome Monitoring (ROM). As anxiety disorders differ in phenomenology, several anxiety questionnaires are included in ROM: Brief Scale for Anxiety (BSA), PADUA Inventory Revised (PI-R), Panic Appraisal Inventory (PAI), Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ), Worry Domains Questionnaire (WDQ), Social Interaction, Anxiety Scale (SIAS), Social Phobia Scale (SPS), and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R). We aimed to generate reference values for both 'healthy' and 'clinically anxious' populations for these anxiety questionnaires. We included 1295 subjects from the general population (ROM reference-group) and 5066 psychiatric outpatients diagnosed with a specific anxiety disorder (ROM patient-group). The MINI was used as diagnostic device in both the ROM reference group and the ROM patient group. To define limits for one-sided reference intervals (95th percentile; P95) the outermost 5% of observations were used. Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) analyses were used to yield alternative cut-off values for the anxiety questionnaires. For the ROM reference-group the mean age was 40.3 years (SD=12.6), and for the ROM patient-group it was 36.5 years (SD=11.9). Females constituted 62.8% of the reference-group and 64.4% of the patient-group. P95 ROM reference group cut-off values for reference versus clinically anxious populations were 11 for the BSA, 43 for the PI-R, 37 for the PAI Anticipated Panic, 47 for the PAI Perceived Consequences, 65 for the PAI Perceived Self-efficacy, 66 for the PSWQ, 74 for the WDQ, 32 for the SIAS, 19 for the SPS, and 36 for IES-R. ROC analyses yielded slightly lower reference values. The discriminative power of all eight anxiety questionnaires was very high. Substantial non-response and limited generalizability. For eight anxiety questionnaires a comprehensive set of reference values was provided. Reference values were generally higher in women than in men

  12. Study of tunnelling through water-bearing fracture zones. Baseline study on technical issues with NE-1 as reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanting Chang; Swindell, Robert; Bogdanoff, Ingvar; Lindstroem, Beatrice; Termen, Jens; Starsec, Peter

    2005-04-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) is responsible for the management of Sweden's nuclear waste. SKB is investigating various designs for the construction of an underground deep repository for spent nuclear fuel at 500-600 m depths. For the construction of an access tunnel for such a deep repository, the possibility of encountering a water-bearing fracture zone cannot be discounted. Such a zone named NE-1 (deformation zone in accordance to SKB's terminology) was encountered during the construction of the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) and difficulties with large water inflows were reported. With the aim to assess the feasibility of different technical solutions, SKB commissioned a baseline study into the passage of an access tunnel through a water-bearing fracture zone at three different depths (200 m, 400 m and 600 m). The objectives of this baseline study are to: Increase the knowledge of possible technical solutions for tunnelling through water-bearing fractures zones with the characteristics of the brittle deformation zone NE-1 at different depths, namely 200, 400 and 600 metres; Form a reference document to assist the engineering design and construction work for the passage through such a water-bearing fracture zone; To highlight the engineering parameters that should be obtained to facilitate design for the passage through water-bearing fracture zones.The study has been carried out in the following five stages: A. Compilation of the relevant data for deformation zone NE-1; B. Problem identification and proposal of technical solutions; C. Identification of hazards to be involved in the tunnel excavation; D. Recommendations and conclusions for further investigations; E. Documentation of the results in a final report. The analyses will be expressed in statistical/probabilistic terms where appropriate. In order to specify the precondition that will be valid for this study, a descriptive model of the water-bearing fracture zone is established

  13. Study of tunnelling through water-bearing fracture zones. Baseline study on technical issues with NE-1 as reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanting Chang; Swindell, Robert; Bogdanoff, Ingvar; Lindstroem, Beatrice; Termen, Jens [WSP Sweden, Stockholm (Sweden) ; Starsec, Peter [SGI, Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2005-04-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) is responsible for the management of Sweden's nuclear waste. SKB is investigating various designs for the construction of an underground deep repository for spent nuclear fuel at 500-600 m depths. For the construction of an access tunnel for such a deep repository, the possibility of encountering a water-bearing fracture zone cannot be discounted. Such a zone named NE-1 (deformation zone in accordance to SKB's terminology) was encountered during the construction of the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) and difficulties with large water inflows were reported. With the aim to assess the feasibility of different technical solutions, SKB commissioned a baseline study into the passage of an access tunnel through a water-bearing fracture zone at three different depths (200 m, 400 m and 600 m). The objectives of this baseline study are to: Increase the knowledge of possible technical solutions for tunnelling through water-bearing fractures zones with the characteristics of the brittle deformation zone NE-1 at different depths, namely 200, 400 and 600 metres; Form a reference document to assist the engineering design and construction work for the passage through such a water-bearing fracture zone; To highlight the engineering parameters that should be obtained to facilitate design for the passage through water-bearing fracture zones.The study has been carried out in the following five stages: A. Compilation of the relevant data for deformation zone NE-1; B. Problem identification and proposal of technical solutions; C. Identification of hazards to be involved in the tunnel excavation; D. Recommendations and conclusions for further investigations; E. Documentation of the results in a final report. The analyses will be expressed in statistical/probabilistic terms where appropriate. In order to specify the precondition that will be valid for this study, a descriptive model of the water-bearing fracture zone is

  14. Challenges in Collating Spirometry Reference Data for South-Asian Children: An Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Sooky; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Quanjer, Philip; Sonnappa, Samatha; Wade, Angela; Beardsmore, Caroline; Chhabra, Sunil K.; Chudasama, Rajesh K.; Cook, Derek G.; Harding, Seeromanie; Kuehni, Claudia E.; Prasad, K. V. V.; Whincup, Peter H.; Lee, Simon; Stocks, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Availability of sophisticated statistical modelling for developing robust reference equations has improved interpretation of lung function results. In 2012, the Global Lung function Initiative(GLI) published the first global all-age, multi-ethnic reference equations for spirometry but these lacked equations for those originating from the Indian subcontinent (South-Asians). The aims of this study were to assess the extent to which existing GLI-ethnic adjustments might fit South-Asian paediatric spirometry data, assess any similarities and discrepancies between South-Asian datasets and explore the feasibility of deriving a suitable South-Asian GLI-adjustment. Methods Spirometry datasets from South-Asian children were collated from four centres in India and five within the UK. Records with transcription errors, missing values for height or spirometry, and implausible values were excluded(n = 110). Results Following exclusions, cross-sectional data were available from 8,124 children (56.3% male; 5–17 years). When compared with GLI-predicted values from White Europeans, forced expired volume in 1s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) in South-Asian children were on average 15% lower, ranging from 4–19% between centres. By contrast, proportional reductions in FEV1 and FVC within all but two datasets meant that the FEV1/FVC ratio remained independent of ethnicity. The ‘GLI-Other’ equation fitted data from North India reasonably well while ‘GLI-Black’ equations provided a better approximation for South-Asian data than the ‘GLI-White’ equation. However, marked discrepancies in the mean lung function z-scores between centres especially when examined according to socio-economic conditions precluded derivation of a single South-Asian GLI-adjustment. Conclusion Until improved and more robust prediction equations can be derived, we recommend the use of ‘GLI-Black’ equations for interpreting most South-Asian data, although ‘GLI-Other’ may be more

  15. Comparison of radiogrammetrical metacarpal indices in children and reference data from the First Zurich Longitudinal Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, David D.; Heckmann, Conrad; Neuhof, Julia; Ranke, Michael B.; Binder, Gerhard [University Children' s Hospital Tuebingen, Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology, Tuebingen (Germany); Jenni, Oskar G. [University Children' s Hospital, Child Development Centre, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2012-08-15

    A number of radiogrammetrical metacarpal indices are in use, some of which have been adapted for children. The purpose of this study was to compare four known indices - bone mineral density (BMD), relative cortical area, Exton-Smith index, bending breaking resistance index - and the more recently defined pediatric bone index (PBI) according to the two criteria of minimum height dependence and minimum variability in children of equal bone age. A total of 3,121 left-hand radiographs from 231 healthy Caucasian children ranging in age from 3 to 19 years old were analysed using BoneXpert {sup registered}, a programme for automatic analysis of hand radiographs and assessment of bone age. Dependence on height for chronological age or bone age and the mean relative standard deviation were lowest in the PBI for both genders pooled. The differences in height dependence were statistically significant and are shown to be clinically relevant. Reference data for PBI are presented. PBI may be a better indicator than BMD for bone health in children; however, verification in a clinical group is needed. (orig.)

  16. Carboxylated nanodiamonds can be used as negative reference in in vitro nanogenotoxicity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moche, H; Paget, V; Chevalier, D; Lorge, E; Claude, N; Girard, H A; Arnault, J C; Chevillard, S; Nesslany, F

    2017-08-01

    Nanodiamonds (NDs) are promising nanomaterials for biomedical applications. However, a few studies highlighted an in vitro genotoxic activity for detonation NDs, which was not evidenced in one of our previous work quantifying γ-H2Ax after 20 and 100 nm high-pressure high-temperature ND exposures of several cell lines. To confirm these results, in the present work, we investigated the genotoxicity of the same 20 and 100 nm NDs and added intermediate-sized NDs of 50 nm. Conventional in vitro genotoxicity tests were used, i.e., the in vitro micronucleus and comet assays that are recommended by the French National Agency for Medicines and Health Products Safety for the toxicological evaluation of nanomedicines. In vitro micronucleus and in vitro comet assays (standard and hOGG1-modified) were therefore performed in two human cell lines, the bronchial epithelial 16HBE14o- cells and the colon carcinoma T84 cells. Our results did not show any genotoxic activity, whatever the test, the cell line or the size of carboxylated NDs. Even though these in vitro results should be confirmed in vivo, they reinforce the potential interest of carboxylated NDs for biomedical applications or even as a negative reference nanoparticle in nanotoxicology. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Comparison of radiogrammetrical metacarpal indices in children and reference data from the First Zurich Longitudinal Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, David D.; Heckmann, Conrad; Neuhof, Julia; Ranke, Michael B.; Binder, Gerhard; Jenni, Oskar G.

    2012-01-01

    A number of radiogrammetrical metacarpal indices are in use, some of which have been adapted for children. The purpose of this study was to compare four known indices - bone mineral density (BMD), relative cortical area, Exton-Smith index, bending breaking resistance index - and the more recently defined pediatric bone index (PBI) according to the two criteria of minimum height dependence and minimum variability in children of equal bone age. A total of 3,121 left-hand radiographs from 231 healthy Caucasian children ranging in age from 3 to 19 years old were analysed using BoneXpert registered , a programme for automatic analysis of hand radiographs and assessment of bone age. Dependence on height for chronological age or bone age and the mean relative standard deviation were lowest in the PBI for both genders pooled. The differences in height dependence were statistically significant and are shown to be clinically relevant. Reference data for PBI are presented. PBI may be a better indicator than BMD for bone health in children; however, verification in a clinical group is needed. (orig.)

  18. Use of a probabilistic safety study in the design of the Italian reference PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, D.C.; Russino, G.; Valentini, V.

    1985-01-01

    The intent of this paper is to provide a description of the experience gained in having performed a Probabilistic Safety Study (PSS) on the proposed Italian reference pressurized water reactor. The experience revealed that through careful application of probabilistic techniques, Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) can be used as a tool to develop an optimum plant design in terms of safety and cost. Furthermore, the PSS can also be maintained as a living document and a tool to assess additional regulatory requirements that may be imposed during the construction and operational life of the plant. Through the use of flexible probabilistic techniques, the probabilistic safety model can provide a living safety assessment starting from the conceptual design and continuing through the construction, testing and operational phases. Moreover, the probabilistic safety model can be used during the operational phase of the plant as a method to evaluate the operational experience and identify potential problems before they occur. The experience, overall, provided additional insights into the various aspects of the plants design and operation that would not have been identified through the use of traditional safety evaluation techniques

  19. The mechanisms of determiner selection and its relation to lexical selection : An ERP study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Hooge, Elisah; De Baene, W.; Hartsuiker, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    The language production literature has given only little attention to the dynamics of closed class word selection, such as determiner selection, and its temporal relation to the selection of open class words. The goal of this paper was to investigate whether determiner selection follows serially

  20. A global multicenter study on reference values: 2. Exploration of sources of variation across the countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihara, Kiyoshi; Ozarda, Yesim; Barth, Julian H; Klee, George; Shimizu, Yoshihisa; Xia, Liangyu; Hoffmann, Mariza; Shah, Swarup; Matsha, Tandi; Wassung, Janette; Smit, Francois; Ruzhanskaya, Anna; Straseski, Joely; Bustos, Daniel N; Kimura, Shogo; Takahashi, Aki

    2017-04-01

    The intent of this study, based on a global multicenter study of reference values (RVs) for serum analytes was to explore biological sources of variation (SVs) of the RVs among 12 countries around the world. As described in the first part of this paper, RVs of 50 major serum analytes from 13,396 healthy individuals living in 12 countries were obtained. Analyzed in this study were 23 clinical chemistry analytes and 8 analytes measured by immunoturbidimetry. Multiple regression analysis was performed for each gender, country by country, analyte by analyte, by setting four major SVs (age, BMI, and levels of drinking and smoking) as a fixed set of explanatory variables. For analytes with skewed distributions, log-transformation was applied. The association of each source of variation with RVs was expressed as the partial correlation coefficient (r p ). Obvious gender and age-related changes in the RVs were observed in many analytes, almost consistently between countries. Compilation of age-related variations of RVs after adjusting for between-country differences revealed peculiar patterns specific to each analyte. Judged fromthe r p , BMI related changes were observed for many nutritional and inflammatory markers in almost all countries. However, the slope of linear regression of BMI vs. RV differed greatly among countries for some analytes. Alcohol and smoking-related changes were observed less conspicuously in a limited number of analytes. The features of sex, age, alcohol, and smoking-related changes in RVs of the analytes were largely comparable worldwide. The finding of differences in BMI-related changes among countries in some analytes is quite relevant to understanding ethnic differences in susceptibility to nutritionally related diseases. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY AND MANAGEMENT OF LARGE GUT VOLVULUS WITH REFERENCE TO PRIMARY RESECTION AND ANASTOMOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siba Prasad Dash

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Large gut volvulus is a common surgical emergency in many regions of the world with significant morbidity and mortality. Delay in the diagnosis and treatment can lead to serious complications such as like bowel gangrene, perforation, peritonitis and sepsis. Emergency operation is needed in acute large gut volvulus. The purpose of our study was to analyse the mode of presentations and evaluate the outcome of various methods used in surgical management with reference to primary resection and anastomosis of large gut volvulus, mainly sigmoid volvulus, as it is the commonest type encountered. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was conducted in 52 patients with acute sigmoid volvulus randomly out of 214 cases of intestinal obstruction admitted to M.K.C.G. Medical College in the Department of General Surgery from July 2015 to June 2017. Laparotomy were carried out in all 52 patients, primary resection of the affected sigmoid colon with anastomosis in single layer (n=21 and double layer (n=31 were done. Outcome of the two procedures analysed in terms of mortality, postoperative complications and hospital stay. RESULTS The maximum number of cases were found in between 41 to 60 years of age and male-to-female ratio was 2.7:1. Distention of abdomen (96% followed by constipation in 90% were common mode of presentation. Postoperative mortality rate of 6%. Common postoperative complication found to be wound infections and a chest infection. It was 27% and 25%, respectively. Mortality and morbidity associated with single layer anastomosis was lower (14.29% compared with conventional double layer technique (22.58%. CONCLUSION This study demonstrated that resection and anastomosis should be done in acute sigmoid volvulus safely. Single layer extra mucosal technique is safe and desirable in clinical practice with significant advantages than standard two layer technique.

  2. STUDIES REFERED TO SERVICES IN THE 2005-2010 ENANPADS: A BIBLIOMETRIC SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antônio Menezes Varanda

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This bibliometric survey concerns articles published in the Marketing Academic Division of the EnANPADs with the word service(s in the title from 2005 to 2010. The research selected 51 articles with the following characteristics: number of authors per article, their respective institutions of affiliation, the frequency of attendance to the events, the methodological approaches, the means and ends of the researches and the data collection tools used. Data were tabulated and processed with descriptive statistics, and results showed that services are a relevant theme in Marketing research, either with a central or peripheral position. In the conclusions, five alerts were thrown, including the imbalance of research between private and public institutions and the geographic concentration of the participating institutions. Future studies are suggested.

  3. In search of suitable reference genes for gene expression studies of human renal cell carcinoma by real-time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristiansen Glen

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Housekeeping genes are commonly used as endogenous reference genes for the relative quantification of target genes in gene expression studies. No conclusive systematic study comparing the suitability of different candidate reference genes in clear cell renal cell carcinoma has been published to date. To remedy this situation, 10 housekeeping genes for normalizing purposes of RT-PCR measurements already recommended in various studies were examined with regard to their usefulness as reference genes. Results The expression of the potential reference genes was examined in matched malignant and non-malignant tissue specimens from 25 patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Quality assessment of isolated RNA performed with a 2100 Agilent Bioanalyzer showed a mean RNA integrity number of 8.7 for all samples. The between-run variations related to the crossing points of PCR reactions of a control material ranged from 0.17% to 0.38%. The expression of all genes did not depend on age, sex, and tumour stage. Except the genes TATA box binding protein (TBP and peptidylprolyl isomerase A (PPIA, all genes showed significant differences in expression between malignant and non-malignant pairs. The expression stability of the candidate reference genes was additionally controlled using the software programs geNorm and NormFinder. TBP and PPIA were validated as suitable reference genes by normalizing the target gene ADAM9 using these two most stably expressed genes in comparison with up- and down-regulated housekeeping genes of the panel. Conclusion Our study demonstrated the suitability of the two housekeeping genes PPIA and TBP as endogenous reference genes when comparing malignant tissue samples with adjacent normal tissue samples from clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Both genes are recommended as reference genes for relative gene quantification in gene profiling studies either as single gene or preferably in combination.

  4. Essay on Methods in Futures Studies and a Selective Bibliography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Claus

    2005-01-01

    Futures studies is often conflated with science fiction or pop-futurism. Consequently there is a need for demarcation of what is futures studies and what is not. From the same reason the essay stresses the need for quality control to focus on futures research and its methods: Publications in futu...... programme are (only) partly reduced by applying Causal Layered Analysis as an internal quality control. The following selective bibliography is focussed on these methodological issues...

  5. Curry’s Study on the Quality of Public Library Reference Service to LGBTQ Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregg A Stevens

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Curry, A. (2005. If I ask, will they answer? Evaluating public library reference service to gay and lesbian youth. Reference & User Services Quarterly, 45(1, 65-75. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/journal/refuseserq Abstract Objective - To assess the quality of service provided by reference staff in public libraries when presented with a request for LGBTQ information by a young person. Design - Unobtrusive observation without informed consent. Setting - Public library branches in the greater Vancouver area, British Columbia, Canada. Subjects - Reference librarians. Methods - A 19-year-old posing as a high school student approached reference desk staff at 20 public library branches. The student proxy, “Angela”, was instructed to ask for books on forming a gay-straight alliance at her school and, if there was a full reference interview, to also ask for recommendations of novels that the group might read. She recorded the reactions, both verbal and nonverbal, using Reference and User Services Association guidelines as a template. Library administrators were aware of the potential visits and permitted the research, but the reference desk staff were not aware of a potential visit by the student proxy. The researcher claimed that her method, while deceptive, was necessary to obtain authentic reactions from the library staff. Main Results - Most reference librarians approached by Angela made adequate attempts to assist her, although a few library staff reacted negatively to her query. Half of the librarians reacted positively to the patron’s request, with most of the others providing neutral responses. Very few of the librarians actually taught the patron how to use the library’s catalog to search for materials, and most of the librarians were unable to find appropriate materials due to not knowing the appropriate search terms. Only three library staff showed overt disapproval of the search topic, such as frowning or rushing

  6. Quality of claims, references and the presentation of risk results in medical journal advertising: a comparative study in Australia, Malaysia and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Noordin; Vitry, Agnes I; Roughead, Elizabeth E

    2010-05-29

    Journal advertising is used by pharmaceutical companies to disseminate medicine information to doctors. The quality of claims, references and the presentation of risk results in Australia and the US has been questioned in several studies. No recent evidence is available on the quality of claims, references and the presentation of risk results in journal advertising in Australia and the US and no Malaysian data have been published. The aim of this study was to compare the quality of claims, references and the presentation of risk results in journal advertising in these three countries. A consecutive sample of 85 unique advertisements from each country was selected from journal advertising published between January 2004 to December 2006. Claims, references and the presentation of risk results in medical journal advertising were compared between the three countries. Less than one-third of the claims were unambiguous claims (Australia, 30%, Malaysia 17%, US, 23%). In Malaysia significantly less unambiguous claims were provided than in Australia and the US (P review or meta-analysis (Australia, 84%, Malaysia, 81%, US, 76%) with journal articles being the most commonly cited references in all countries. Data on file were significantly more likely to be cited in the US (17%) than in Australia (2%) and Malaysia (4%) (P countries. Evidence from a randomized controlled trial, systematic review or meta- analysis was commonly cited to support claims. However, the more frequent use of data that have not been published and independently reviewed in the US compared to Australia and Malaysia raises questions on the quality of references in the US. The use of relative rather than absolute benefits may overemphasize the benefit of medicines which may leave doctors susceptible to misinterpreting information.

  7. Users Behavior in Selecting Cited Bibliographies-A Case Study of National Taiwan University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu-hsuan Huang

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available This project analyzes the behavior of selecting cited bibliographies of college and graduate students in National Taiwan University when they are writing their term papers and graduate theses. After instruction, 33 subjects searched through the semester, doing 41 searches and finishing 40 papers. This research studies the overlaps between the bibliographies from online searching and the cited references of those subjects’ works. In addition, this project attempts to identify the sources of articles that are not retrieved by the Dialog system and the reasons why students did not cite relevant articles.[Article content in Chinese

  8. Processes in arithmetic strategy selection: A fMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien eTaillan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This neuroimaging (fMRI study investigated neural correlates of strategy selection. Young adults performed an arithmetic task in two different conditions. In both conditions, participants had to provide estimates of two-digit multiplication problems like 54 x 78. In the choice condition, participants had to select the better of two available rounding strategies, rounding-up strategy (RU (i.e., doing 60x80 = 4,800 or rounding-down strategy (RD (i.e., doing 50x70=3,500 to estimate product of 54x78. In the no-choice condition, participants did not have to select strategy on each problem but were told which strategy to use; they executed RU and RD strategies each on a series of problems. Participants also had a control task (i.e., providing correct products of multiplication problems like 40x50. Brain activations and performance were analyzed as a function of these conditions. Participants were able to frequently choose the better strategy in the choice condition; they were also slower when they executed the difficult RU than the easier RD. Neuroimaging data showed greater brain activations in right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, and angular gyrus (ANG, when selecting (relative to executing the better strategy on each problem. Moreover, RU was associated with more parietal cortex activation than RD. These results suggest an important role of fronto-parietal network in strategy selection and have important implications for our further understanding and modelling cognitive processes underlying strategy selection.

  9. Processes in arithmetic strategy selection: a fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taillan, Julien; Ardiale, Eléonore; Anton, Jean-Luc; Nazarian, Bruno; Félician, Olivier; Lemaire, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    This neuroimaging (functional magnetic resonance imaging) study investigated neural correlates of strategy selection. Young adults performed an arithmetic task in two different conditions. In both conditions, participants had to provide estimates of two-digit multiplication problems like 54 × 78. In the choice condition, participants had to select the better of two available rounding strategies, rounding-up (RU) strategy (i.e., doing 60 × 80 = 4,800) or rounding-down (RD) strategy (i.e., doing 50 × 70 = 3,500 to estimate product of 54 × 78). In the no-choice condition, participants did not have to select strategy on each problem but were told which strategy to use; they executed RU and RD strategies each on a series of problems. Participants also had a control task (i.e., providing correct products of multiplication problems like 40 × 50). Brain activations and performance were analyzed as a function of these conditions. Participants were able to frequently choose the better strategy in the choice condition; they were also slower when they executed the difficult RU than the easier RD. Neuroimaging data showed greater brain activations in right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and angular gyrus (ANG), when selecting (relative to executing) the better strategy on each problem. Moreover, RU was associated with more parietal cortex activation than RD. These results suggest an important role of fronto-parietal network in strategy selection and have important implications for our further understanding and modeling cognitive processes underlying strategy selection.

  10. NWTS conceptual reference repository description (CRRD). Volume III. Criteria, bases, special studies, and codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-05-01

    This volume documents the criteria, design bases, and special studies and provides the backup for the design presented in Volume II. The criteria presented here were developed by ONWI as a draft version for consideration in this conceptual report. Since these criteria were developed subsequent to preparation of the reports used as a basis for the CRRD, not all of the criteria could be fully considered in preparation of the CRRD. However, they were used as guidelines wherever possible. The criteria for terminal storage of waste are still in development. The chapter on the design bases identifies the important design considerations and provides the justification for their selection. The design bases were developed not so much to give exact values for parameters as to identify the parameters that are significant to the design. They also serve as a common basis for coordinating analysis and design studies unitl the next design phase is completed. Some of the design bases presented here were taken directly from the Stearns-Roger NWTS-R1 Conceptual Design Report. The special studies document technical aspects of the design that are of particular importance or that furnish additional information pertaining to the design

  11. Growth references

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, S. van

    2007-01-01

    A growth reference describes the variation of an anthropometric measurement within a group of individuals. A reference is a tool for grouping and analyzing data and provides a common basis for comparing populations.1 A well known type of reference is the age-conditional growth diagram. The

  12. Pulse heating tests on two reference Belgian clay formations. Laboratory experiments and numerical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, A.; Romero, E.; Vaunat, J.; Gens, A.; Li, X.L.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Two deep clay formations are being investigated in Belgium in connection with the design of a repository for 'High-Level Radioactive Waste': Boom clay at Mol (located between 160 and 270 m depths), considered the reference host formation, and Ypresian clay at Kallo (located between 300 and 450 m depths) as an alternative one. Thermal impact may play an important role on the behaviour of these low-permeability clayey formations. In this context, heating pulse tests on intact borehole samples retrieved in vertical and horizontal directions were carried out on both clays using an axisymmetric heating cell. Heating tests under nearly constant volume conditions and different target temperatures (maximum 85 C) were performed under controlled hydraulic boundary conditions. Attention is focused on the time evolution of temperature and pore water pressure changes during heating and cooling paths -i.e., pore pressure build-up during quasi-undrained heating and later dissipation to the applied hydraulic boundary conditions-. The finite element program CODE-BRIGHT was used to determine thermal parameters by back-analysis and to simulate the experimental results. Table 1 summarises the main properties of these clays. The experimental programme was carried out on a fully-instrumented cell (sample 75 mm diameter and 100 mm high) with a controlled-power heater housed inside the cell. Two miniature pore water pressure transducers located at different heights of the lateral wall of the cell and three thermocouples were used to monitor the sample response. The cell has top and bottom valves to control hydraulic conditions. The protocol of the tests included three main phases: hydration, heating and cooling. Throughout the heating and cooling phases, the bottom drainage was maintained open at a constant water pressure using an automatic pressure/volume controller, while the upper valve was kept closed. Figures 1a and 1c show the time

  13. Studies on reference mires: 1. Lastensuo and Pesaensuo in 2010-2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haapanen, R.; Aro, L.; Lahdenperae, A.-M.; Helin, J.; Ikonen, A.T.K.

    2013-07-01

    New lakes and mires will develop in the sea area now surrounding Olkiluoto Island due to the postglacial land uplift. Despite the lack of well-developed mires at present Olkiluoto Island, input data for modelling the future development of the region are needed. Therefore, analogue objects in a larger geographical area have been selected. This Working Report presents first results from studies targeted on two such mires, Lastensuo and Pesaensuo. Not all collected samples have been analysed yet, but will appear in further versions of this report. The characteristics of the study locations appeared to correspond generally well with preliminary information based on literature and GIS analyses. Various site types were covered by the study locations on Lastensuo mire, whereas those on Pesaensuo mire were dwarf-shrub pine bog all over. Pine was the dominant tree species on all of the plots. Because sampling occurred in late summer, some berry (and on Pesaensuo also mushroom) samples were obtained of species typical of mires. On the studied plots, the deepest peat depths reached to 6.5 m (Lastensuo) and 5.5 m (Pesaensuo). Decomposition of sampled peat varied from very weakly decomposed to almost completely decomposed. Element analyses and distribution coefficient values (Kd) of the indigenous key elements Cl, Cs, I, Mo, Nb, Ni, Se and Sr were presented for one plot on Lastensuo mire. Procedures have been improved based on experiences gained on the field and laboratory analyses of the samples. Factors causing uncertainties and further ideas to improve the representativeness of the work are presented in this Working Report. Studies have already been continued on August 2012, when four more plots were established on the Lastensuo mire. In the future, sampling will be extended to another mire. (orig.)

  14. Reference values for generic instruments used in routine outcome monitoring: the leiden routine outcome monitoring study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulte-van Maaren Yvonne WM

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI, Mood & Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire −30 (MASQ-D30, Short Form Health Survey 36 (SF-36, and Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Short Form (DAPP-SF are generic instruments that can be used in Routine Outcome Monitoring (ROM of patients with common mental disorders. We aimed to generate reference values usually encountered in 'healthy' and ‘psychiatrically ill’ populations to facilitate correct interpretation of ROM results. Methods We included the following specific reference populations: 1294 subjects from the general population (ROM reference group recruited through general practitioners, and 5269 psychiatric outpatients diagnosed with mood, anxiety, or somatoform (MAS disorders (ROM patient group. The outermost 5% of observations were used to define limits for one-sided reference intervals (95th percentiles for BSI, MASQ-D30 and DAPP-SF, and 5th percentiles for SF-36 subscales. Internal consistency and Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC analyses were performed. Results Mean age for the ROM reference group was 40.3 years (SD=12.6 and 37.7 years (SD=12.0 for the ROM patient group. The proportion of females was 62.8% and 64.6%, respectively. The mean for cut-off values of healthy individuals was 0.82 for the BSI subscales, 23 for the three MASQ-D30 subscales, 45 for the SF-36 subscales, and 3.1 for the DAPP-SF subscales. Discriminative power of the BSI, MASQ-D30 and SF-36 was good, but it was poor for the DAPP-SF. For all instruments, the internal consistency of the subscales ranged from adequate to excellent. Discussion and conclusion Reference values for the clinical interpretation were provided for the BSI, MASQ-D30, SF-36, and DAPP-SF. Clinical information aided by ROM data may represent the best means to appraise the clinical state of psychiatric outpatients.

  15. Comparative validity and reproducibility study of various landmark-oriented reference planes in 3-dimensional computed tomographic analysis for patients receiving orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsiu-Hsia; Chuang, Ya-Fang; Weng, Jing-Ling; Lo, Lun-Jou

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional computed tomographic imaging has become popular in clinical evaluation, treatment planning, surgical simulation, and outcome assessment for maxillofacial intervention. The purposes of this study were to investigate whether there is any correlation among landmark-based horizontal reference planes and to validate the reproducibility and reliability of landmark identification. Preoperative and postoperative cone-beam computed tomographic images of patients who had undergone orthognathic surgery were collected. Landmark-oriented reference planes including the Frankfort horizontal plane (FHP) and the lateral semicircular canal plane (LSP) were established. Four FHPs were defined by selecting 3 points from the orbitale, porion, or midpoint of paired points. The LSP passed through both the lateral semicircular canal points and nasion. The distances between the maxillary or mandibular teeth and the reference planes were measured, and the differences between the 2 sides were calculated and compared. The precision in locating the landmarks was evaluated by performing repeated tests, and the intraobserver reproducibility and interobserver reliability were assessed. A total of 30 patients with facial deformity and malocclusion--10 patients with facial symmetry, 10 patients with facial asymmetry, and 10 patients with cleft lip and palate--were recruited. Comparing the differences among the 5 reference planes showed no statistically significant difference among all patient groups. Regarding intraobserver reproducibility, the mean differences in the 3 coordinates varied from 0 to 0.35 mm, with correlation coefficients between 0.96 and 1.0, showing high correlation between repeated tests. Regarding interobserver reliability, the mean differences among the 3 coordinates varied from 0 to 0.47 mm, with correlation coefficients between 0.88 and 1.0, exhibiting high correlation between the different examiners. The 5 horizontal reference planes were reliable and

  16. Defining an absolute reference frame for 'clumped' isotope studies of CO 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Kate J.; Affek, Hagit P.; Passey, Benjamin H.; Schrag, Daniel P.; Eiler, John M.

    2011-11-01

    We present a revised approach for standardizing and reporting analyses of multiply substituted isotopologues of CO 2 (i.e., 'clumped' isotopic species, especially the mass-47 isotopologues). Our approach standardizes such data to an absolute reference frame based on theoretical predictions of the abundances of multiply-substituted isotopologues in gaseous CO 2 at thermodynamic equilibrium. This reference frame is preferred over an inter-laboratory calibration of carbonates because it enables all laboratories measuring mass 47 CO 2 to use a common scale that is tied directly to theoretical predictions of clumping in CO 2, regardless of the laboratory's primary research field (carbonate thermometry or CO 2 biogeochemistry); it explicitly accounts for mass spectrometric artifacts rather than convolving (and potentially confusing) them with chemical fractionations associated with sample preparation; and it is based on a thermodynamic equilibrium that can be experimentally established in any suitably equipped laboratory using commonly available materials. By analyzing CO 2 gases that have been subjected to established laboratory procedures known to promote isotopic equilibrium (i.e., heated gases and water-equilibrated CO 2), and by reference to thermodynamic predictions of equilibrium isotopic distributions, it is possible to construct an empirical transfer function that is applicable to data with unknown clumped isotope signatures. This transfer function empirically accounts for the fragmentation and recombination reactions that occur in electron impact ionization sources and other mass spectrometric artifacts. We describe the protocol necessary to construct such a reference frame, the method for converting gases with unknown clumped isotope compositions to this reference frame, and suggest a protocol for ensuring that all reported isotopic compositions (e.g., Δ 47 values; Eiler and Schauble, 2004; Eiler, 2007) can be compared among different laboratories and

  17. Studies on the establishment of maximum permissible exposure dose for reference Korean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.J.; Lee, K.S.; Chun, K.C.; Kim, C.B.; Chung, K.H.; Kim, S.L.; Kim, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    In order to establish the Reference Korean and maximum permissible exposure dose of Reference Korean, for the first year a total of 9,758 males and 7,019 females were surveyed for the height, weight, a body surface area, and a total of 879 individuals of 180 households located in different 30 localities were analyzed for food consumption and a total of radioactive substances (β-ray) contained in food per capita per day. In this report the external and internal exposure dose were also estimated on the basis of data mostly published in other country as well as in Korea in part

  18. A study on characteristic of selective membrane for strontium analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Seung Hyun; Choi, Young Woo [Kwang-ju Institute of Science and Technology, Kwangju (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    In this study, supported liquid membranes (SLMs) using crown ether were prepared in order to separate strontium ion selectively from a calcium contained solution However, at the higher than 3 N nitric acid concentration of a strip solution, stability of a SLM was declined remarkably owing to the hasty loss of carrier impregnated in supporter and, on account of this phenomena, facilitated transports were not accomplished. And DC18C6 as a neutral carrier affected remarkably the selectivity of strontium and the factor determining permeabilities of metal ions was as a role of DNNS. Consequently, in order to be a optimal SLM for the high permeability and the stable selectivity of strontium, concentration of DC18C6 and DNNS should be 0.1 M and 25 mM, respectively and, at this condition, the relative removal ratio of strontium to calcium was 93.3%. And the change of calcium concentration in the feed solution affected the permeability of strontium. In particular, when the ratio of strontium to calcium concentration in the feed solution was in the range of 1/5 - 1/50, strontium could be separated selectively at stable permeabilities. (author). 17 refs., 19 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Nuclear power plant site selection: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugasi, Y.; Mehrez, A.; Sinuany-Stern, Z.

    1985-01-01

    Selecting the site for a nuclear power plant involves the evaluation of numerous criteria and the professional judgment of various experts. The Israel Atomic Energy Commission has been concerned with the problem of selecting a site for a nuclear power station. Previous studies have been performed by the commission to identify potential sites. There were initial screenings where potential sites were chosen according to various minimal criteria and international standards. Only sites that met all the criteria were chosen. A study was made to find the most preferred site among the potential sites that met all the criteria. Two mathematical approaches were used: Keeney's multiattribute utility function and Saaty's eigenvalue prioritization technique. Both models ranked the same site as the most desirable; however, the models differed in their ranking of the other sites

  20. Comparing interventions for selective mutism: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manassis, Katharina; Tannock, Rosemary

    2008-10-01

    To examine the outcome within 6 to 8 months of medical and nonmedical intervention for children with severe selective mutism (SM). Children with SM (n = 17) and their mothers, seen in a previous study, attended follow-up appointments with a clinician. Obtained by maternal report were: treatment received, current diagnosis (based on semi-structured interview), speech in various environments, and global improvement. An independent clinician also rated global functioning. The diagnosis of SM persisted in 16 children, but significant symptomatic improvement was evident in the sample. All children had received school consultations. Children who had been treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) (n = 10) showed greater global improvement, improvement in functioning, and improvement in speech outside the family than children who were unmedicated (n = 7). No differences were evident for children receiving and not receiving additional nonmedical intervention. The findings suggest the potential benefit of SSRI treatment in severe SM, but randomized comparative treatment studies are indicated.

  1. Novel target configurations for selective ionization state studies in molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilcisin, K.J.; Feldman, U.; Schwob, J.L.; Wouters, A.; Suckewer, S.; Princeton Univ., NJ

    1990-03-01

    Details of experiments aimed at achieving low ionization state selectivity in molybdenum are presented. Targets are excited with a 10 J CO 2 laser and the resultant VUV spectrum (300--700 Angstrom) has been studied. Combinations of focal spot size, target depth, and target geometries are compared. Simple attenuation of energy is shown not to vary ionization stage composition significantly. Experiments conducted with grazing incidence targets result only in a hot plasma. Modular targets with cooling cylinders of various radii demonstrated good selectivity of the ionization states, but with low absolute signals. Finally, results from combinations of focal spot adjustment and radiative cooling illustrate increased control over desired plasma temperature and density for spectroscopic studies of molybdenum. 7 refs., 14 figs

  2. An EPMA study on KNbO3 and NaNbO3 single crystals - potential reference materials for quantitative microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samardzzija, Z.; Bernik, S.; Malic, B.; Ceh, M.; Marinenko, R.B.

    2004-01-01

    Single crystals of KNbO 3 and NaNbO 3 were selected from the limited number of suitable alkali compounds that are available and evaluated as possible reference materials for the electron-probe microanalysis (EPMA) of alkaline niobates with a composition described by the general formula K 1-x Na x NbO 3 . The EPMA study verified that KNbO 3 and NaNbO 3 single crystals are stable under the electron beam and compositionally homogeneous. A quantitative microanalysis confirmed the composition of pure KNbO 3 , while the NaNbO 3 crystal contained 0.3 mass fraction % of Ca. A significant improvement in the accuracy of the quantitative EPMA of polycrystalline potassium-sodium niobates was achieved using these single crystals as standards. The crystals can also be useful as reference materials for the analysis of sodium and potassium in other materials. (author)

  3. Study of the butyl acetate synthesis - 1. Catalyst selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Orjuela Londoño

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a laboratory scale selection study over eight catalytic agents was made, in the acetic acid and butyl alcohol esterification reaction (seven lon exchange resins and a zeolytic solid. Considering some physicochemical characteristics as the activation pre-treating requirements, acidity, thermal stability, reaction performance, etc., it was found that macroporous ion exchange resins are the most efficient catalysts, especially Lewatit K-2431 resin.

  4. A PROSPECTIVE STUDY OF CENTCHROMAN USERS WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ITS CONTRACEPTIVE BENEFIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hema Sreedharan Nair

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Centchroman is a novel nonsteroidal contraceptive that offers a unique combination of weak estrogenic and potent antiestrogenic properties. Centchroman inhibits the fertilised ovum from implantation and thus prevents pregnancy. The development of the steroidal contraceptive in the late 1950s was a big event in reproductive research. The pill has, however, some inherent logistic limitations such as the need for continuous administration and thus associated likelihood of side effects. This underscored the need for a safer alternative for preventing pregnancy such as postcoital contraceptives and those that interfere with events between ovulation and implantation. Hence, in this study, a clinical evaluation of centchroman for its contraceptive study was carried out on 153 women and the contraceptive benefit was evaluated at monthly intervals. MATERIALS AND METHODS It was a prospective study done in the family planning department of Sree Avittom Thirunal Hospital. Postnatal patients reporting to the family planning department at 6 weeks postpartum and also patients opting for medical termination of pregnancy or cases following spontaneous abortion were selected for the study. Contraceptive efficacy of centchroman was studied over a 12-month period. RESULTS 153 subjects were studied. 63% of the subjects were in the age group of 20-24 years. 93% subjects used centchroman as a spacing method after first delivery and 6% after second delivery. 43% of acceptors were following MTP or abortion, 35% were postpartum cases and 22% were interval acceptors. 5.2% of subjects in the study group had rheumatic heart disease, 2% had hypertension and 2.6% had diabetes mellitus. Duration of use ranged from 3 months in 153 subjects to 12 months in 130 subjects. The main cause for discontinuation of centchroman was menstrual irregularity. Menstrual complaints were noted in 45% of the subjects. The major menstrual complaint was delayed cycle in 26% subjects and

  5. A study of production of radioactive environmental reference materials used for proficiency testing program in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, En-Chi; Wang, Jeng-Jong

    2013-01-01

    To realise radioactive environmental reference materials in Taiwan, seven environmental materials of soil, water, vegetation, meat, airborne particles (filter paper), milk and mushroom samples that are frequently encountered were used to establish the preparation of the reference materials. These seven environmental materials were collected, checked for freedom from radioactivity and prepared according to their properties. The preparation was carried out by using activity about 10–100 times that of the minimum detectable activity (MDA) in routine measurements in the radioactive standard used to spike the inactive material and this standard is traceable to national ionising radioactivity standards (TAF, 2004). To demonstrate sample traceability to the added standard, each sample was carefully measured and its uncertainty evaluated. Based on the recommendations of ISO Guide 35 for evaluation of reference materials and with the above assessment and verification procedures, the uncertainties (k=1) of the spike activity used in making reference materials were: 60 Co≤4.6%, 134 Cs≤4.7%, 137 Cs≤5.0%, total β≤0.6% and 3 H≤1.3%. - Highlights: • Seven kinds environmental materials were used to establish the production of the RMs. • Spiking the traceable standard radioactive source to the blank substance. • Each sample was carefully evaluated for its uncertainty. • The performance of the RMs was estimated with the Proficiency Testing program report. • The ability of the environment RMs in the configuration is quite good

  6. Combined astrometric catalogue EOC-3 An improved reference frame for long-term Earth rotation studies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vondrák, Jan; Štefka, Vojtěch

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 463, č. 2 (2007), s. 783-788 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC506 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : reference systems * astrometry * catalogs Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2007

  7. Successful Treatment of Olfactory Reference Syndrome with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Pichora, Andrea L.; Antony, Martin M.

    2011-01-01

    Olfactory reference syndrome (ORS) is characterized by a preoccupation with the belief that one's body emits a foul odor. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) was used to treat a woman in her 50s who presented in our outpatient anxiety disorders specialty clinic with ORS, accompanied by embarrassment, shame, distress, avoidance behavior, and social…

  8. A clinical study for radiotherapy positioning with references images on CT simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Bo; Sun Xiaoyang; Luo Huiqun; Wu Hong; Pang Haowen

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore a new method of comparing the references images first to enhance the precision of the central point of the radiation treatment planning (RTP), try to establish a reference standard for this method in the nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) and carcinoma of utercin cervix in the work of position verification. Methods: For 50 RTPs of NPC and 20 RTPs of carcinoma of utercin cervix, the reference-CT-images in set-up and in position verification were compared, and to measure the difference between the two images. Then, in the same way, compare and measure the difference in the central-point-images. Results: For NPC, there was over 90% RTPs in which every difference measured was less than 2 mm;for carcinoma of utercin cervix, over 80% RTPs meet the criterion:the value of ΔMU 1 ' or ΔMU 2 ' was less than 5 mm and the others are less than 3 mm. Conclusions: By comparing the references-CT-images in set-up and in position verification, the precision of the central point of the RTP is enhanced. The marks on the skin become more credible. So, it is feasible to perform the criterions in the work of position verification: for NPC every difference measured is less than 2 mm; for carcinoma of utercin cervix the value of ΔMU 1 ' or ΔMU 2 ' is less than 5 mm and the others are less than 3 mm. (authors)

  9. A retrospective chart study: The pathway to a diagnosis for adults referred for ASD assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, H.M.; Jansen, M.D.

    2012-01-01

    Charts of 125 adults (18 to 82 years), referred to an autism expert team for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) assessment, were reviewed to explore the pathway to an adulthood ASD diagnosis. The participants first contacted the mental health care clinic at a median age of 19 years (range 2 to 78

  10. Intercomparison of enriched stable isotope reference materials for medical and biological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parr, R.M.; Clements, S.A.

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of an intercomparison exercise organized by the IAEA during the latter part of 1988 and 1989. Data are presented for 13 different kinds of enriched stable isotope reference material containing 2 H, 13 C, 15 N and 18 O. Results were submitted by forty participants in twenty countries. 2 refs, 13 figs, 18 tabs

  11. Chemistry of reference waters of the crystalline basement of Northern Switzerland for safety assessment studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, F.J. Jr.; Scholtis, A.

    1993-08-01

    The chemistry of groundwater in formations being considered as host rocks for nuclear waste repositories must be known to assess the performance of those repositories, and as media for laboratory experiments. Two potential repository siting areas in the crystalline basement of northern Switzerland are being assessed. This report gives the chemistry of water in both areas for reference use in this assessment. The western area is in the region defined by the Kaisten, Leuggern, Boettstein, and Zurzach boreholes. The western reference water is based on samples from the Leuggern, Boettstein, and Zurzach boreholes. Kaisten water is of higher salinity (1.3 g/l). The concentration ranges of the reference water include Kaisten values, however. High quality samples and analyses, particularly from long term sampling at Zurzach and Leuggern, define the concentration ranges of many trace elements. The definition of this water assumes saturation with respect to calcite, baryte, fluorites, chalcedony, and kaolinite. The reference pe is based on the assumption that dissolved iron concentrations are controlled by the solubility of the mineral goethite, and is consistent with other redox indicators such as the measured Pt-electrode potential and the ratio of dissolved As(V) to As(III). The eastern area is characterized by the Siblingen boreholes. The eastern reference water is a Na-HCO 3 -SO 4 -(Cl) type with a total dissolved solids content of about 0.5 g/l. Only three samples taken during borehole drilling are available to define this water, so it can be specified in less detail and with less precision than the western water. Its definition assumes saturation with respect to calcite, baryte, and fluorites. The samples permit only a broad definition of its oxidation potential and content of redox-sensitive metals such as Fe, As, Mn, and U. Trace element data for the most part are lacking. (author) figs., tabs., 28 refs

  12. Age- and size-related reference ranges: a case study of spirometry through childhood and adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, T J; Stanojevic, S; Stocks, J; Coates, A L; Hankinson, J L; Wade, A M

    2009-02-28

    Age-related reference ranges are useful for assessing growth in children. The LMS method is a popular technique for constructing growth charts that model the age-changing distribution of the measurement in terms of the median, coefficient of variation and skewness. Here the methodology is extended to references that depend on body size as well as age, by exploiting the flexibility of the generalised additive models for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS) technique. GAMLSS offers general linear predictors for each moment parameter and a choice of error distributions, which can handle kurtosis as well as skewness. A key question with such references is the nature of the age-size adjustment, additive or multiplicative, which is explored by comparing the identity link and log link for the median predictor.There are several measurements whose reference ranges depend on both body size and age. As an example, models are developed here for the first four moments of the lung function variables forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)), forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV(1)/FVC in terms of height and age, in a data set of 3598 children and adults aged 4 to 80 years. The results show a strong multiplicative association between spirometry, height and age, with a large and nonlinear age effect across the age range. Variability also depends nonlinearly on age and to a lesser extent on height. FEV(1) and FVC are close to normally distributed, while FEV(1)/FVC is appreciably skew to the left. GAMLSS is a powerful technique for the construction of such references, which should be useful in clinical medicine. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Surgery resident selection and evaluation. A critical incident study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, J C; Currie, M L; Wade, T P; Kaminski, D L

    1993-03-01

    This article reports a study of the process of selecting and evaluating general surgery residents. In personnel psychology terms, a job analysis of general surgery was conducted using the Critical Incident Technique (CIT). The researchers collected 235 critical incidents through structured interviews with 10 general surgery faculty members and four senior residents. The researchers then directed the surgeons in a two-step process of sorting the incidents into categories and naming the categories. The final essential categories of behavior to define surgical competence were derived through discussion among the surgeons until a consensus was formed. Those categories are knowledge/self-education, clinical performance, diagnostic skills, surgical skills, communication skills, reliability, integrity, compassion, organization skills, motivation, emotional control, and personal appearance. These categories were then used to develop an interview evaluation form for selection purposes and a performance evaluation form to be used throughout residency training. Thus a continuum of evaluation was established. The categories and critical incidents were also used to structure the interview process, which has demonstrated increased interview validity and reliability in many other studies. A handbook for structuring the interviews faculty members conduct with applicants was written, and an interview training session was held with the faculty. The process of implementation of the structured selection interviews is being documented currently through qualitative research.

  14. A study of acute muscle dysfunction with particular reference to dengue myopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Verma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute myopathy is a common cause of acute motor quadriparesis which has various etiologies with different courses of illness and prognosis depending on the cause. Understanding this diversity helps us in proper approach toward diagnosis, predicting the prognosis, and possible complications and in improving the treatments that are being provided. This study was planned to study the clinical, electrophysiological, and etiological profile of patients presenting with acute myopathy. We also studied how dengue-related acute myopathy differs from other causes and also difference between myopathy due to myositis and hypokalemia in cases of dengue. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective, observational study involving all clinically suspected cases of acute myopathy of not more than 4 weeks duration with raised serum creatine kinase (CK level. They were subjected to detailed clinical evaluation along with hematological, biochemical, microbiological, and electrophysiological studies and followed-up for outcome at 1 and 3 months. Muscle biopsy and histopathological examination were done in selected patients after taking informed consent. Statistical analysis was performed by appropriate methods using SPSS version 16.0 (Chicago, IL, USA. Results: We evaluated thirty patients of acute myopathy with raised CK level. Seventeen patients had fever, 11 had myalgia, and 5 had skin lesions. All presented with symmetric weakness, 17 (56.7% patients having predominantly proximal weakness, neck or truncal weakness in 6 (20%, hyporeflexia in 12 (40%, with mean Medical Research Council (MRC sum score of 46.67 ± 6.0. Eight (mean modified Barthel index [MBI] at presentation - 15 ± 3.7 patients had poor functional status according to MBI and 15 according to modified Rankin scale (MRS (mean MRS score - 2.5 ± 1.2. Etiology was dengue viral infection in 14 patients; hypokalemia due to various causes other than dengue in 8; pyomyositis in 3

  15. A Comparison of ASCE and FAO56 Reference Evapotranspiration at Different Subdaily Timescales: a Numerical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzin Parchami-Araghi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Subdaily estimates of reference evapotranspiration (ETo are needed in many applications such as dynamic agro-hydrological modeling. The ASCE and FAO56 Penman–Monteith models (ASCE-PM and FAO56-PM, respectively has received favorable acceptance and application over much of the world, including the United States, for establishing a reference evapotranspiration (ETo index as a function of weather parameters. In the past several years various studies have evaluated ASCE-PM and FAO56-PM models for calculating the commonest hourly or 15-min ETo either by comparing them with lysimetric measurements or by comparison with one another (2, 3, 5, 9, 10, 11, 16, 17, 19. In this study, sub-daily ET o estimates made by the ASCE-PM and FAO56-PM models at different timescales (1-360 min were compared through conduction of a computational experiment, using a daily to sub-daily disaggregation framework developed by Parchami-Araghi et al. (14. Materials and Methods: Daily and sub-daily weather data at different timescales (1-360 min were generated via a daily-to-sub-daily weather data disaggregation framework developed by Parchami-Araghi et al. (14, using long-term (59 years daily weather data obtained from Abadan synoptic weather station. Daily/sub-daily net long wave radiation (Rnl was estimated through 6 different approaches, including using two different criteria for identifying the daytime/nighttime periods : 1 the standard criteria implemented in both ASCE-PM and FAO56-PM models and 2 criterion of actual time of sunset and sunrise in combination with 1 estimation of clear-sky radiation (Rso based on the standard approach implemented in both ASCE-PM and FAO56-PM models (1st and 2nd Rnl estimation approaches, respectively, 2 integral of the Rso estimates derived via a physically based solar radiation model developed by Yang et al. (25, YNG model, for one-second time-steps (3rd and 4th Rnl estimation approaches, respectively, and 3 integral of

  16. CHRONIC OSTEOMYELITIS: A BACTERIOLOGICAL STUDY WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjoy Chakravarty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in the identification of infections and early diagnosis of Osteomyelitis have led to the improved management of Osteomyelitis. This study was undertaken to determine the bacteriological profile of Osteomyelitis and the antibiotic resistance pattern of various isolates obtained as it is an important cause of morbidity. A total of 50 patients of Osteomyelitis either attending the outpatient department or admitted in the wards of a teaching and tertiary care hospita l in Sikkim from October 2013 to October, 2014 were included in the study. All those patients who were clinically and/ or radiologically suspected of having Osteomyelitis were enrolled as cases. Pus/ pus swabs or sequestrum samples taken aseptically were c ultured aerobically at 37 0 C for 18 - 24 hours in Blood and Mac Conkey agar plates. Culture isolates were identified by a series of standard biochemical reactions. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested on Mueller Hinton agar by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion met hod. Betalactamase production of S. aureus strains were verified by iodometric filter paper and acidometric agar plate methods. S. aureus strains were screened for methicillin resistance by using conventional microbiological methods. S. aureus turned out t o be the most common organism isolated. Other organism isolated were P. Aeruginosa, Proteus spp., Klebsiella spp., E. coli, Enterobacter spp., S. epidermitis, Streptococcus pyogens and Enterococcus spp. Beta - lactamase production and methicillin resistance was seen in S. aureus strains respectively. Multidrug resistance was observed in other strains. Infection caused by Methicillin resistant S. aureus and multidrug resistant organisms are posing a major challenge in the treatment of Osteomyelitis. So, appropriate drug selected by antibiotic sensitivity testing should be used to treat Osteomyelitis

  17. Identification and validation of reference genes for qRT-PCR studies of the obligate aphid pathogenic fungus Pandora neoaphidis during different developmental stages

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Shutao; Chen, Chun; Xie, Tingna; Ye, Sudan

    2017-01-01

    The selection of stable reference genes is a critical step for the accurate quantification of gene expression. To identify and validate the reference genes in Pandora neoaphidis-an obligate aphid pathogenic fungus-the expression of 13classical candidate reference genes were evaluated by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction(qPCR) at four developmental stages (conidia, conidia with germ tubes, short hyphae and elongated hyphae). Four statistical algorithms, inc...

  18. Results from a CFD reference study into the modelling of heat and smoke transport by different CFD-practitioners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, M.G.L.C.; Lemaire, A.D.; Plas, van der M.

    2009-01-01

    The paper describes results from a reference study that focuses on the application of the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD-) technique for heat and smoke transport in practice. Goal of the study is to obtain insight into the amount and causes of the spread of CFD-results when applied by different

  19. Biomass energy policy in Africa: selected case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kgathi, D.L.; Hall, D.O.; Hategeka, A.; Sekhwela, M.B.M.

    1997-01-01

    The majority of the population in the continent of Africa depend on biomass as a source of energy. Woodfuel (charcoal and fuelwood), the most important source of energy, is a subject of major concern in developing countries mainly because of its increasing scarcity, and recently because of its importance to the debate on climate change as its use is associated with emission on the greenhouse gases (GHG's). The book discusses the biomass energy problem and the policy options for addressing it in Botswana and Rwanda. Though the studies mainly draw their material from the surveys undertaken in these countries, extensive use is made of the existing general literature on this subject. The two case studies on Botswana address the nature, extent, and policy implications of the fuelwood problem, including the extent to which it contributes to deforestation. The Rwanda case studies examine the seasonal and spatial variation of the consumption of biomass energy (woodfuel and residues) and the evolution of the energy policy process with particular reference to biomass energy. A number of policy recommendations are made which may not only be relevant to Botswana and Rwanda, but also to other developing countries in a similar situation. The book thus makes a valuable contribution to the scarce literature on energy and environment in Africa. The multi-disciplinarity of the book makes it more valuable to a large number of readers. It will be an important reference material for policy makers and researchers in Africa as well as other developing countries. AFREPREN The African Energy Policy Research Network (AFREPREN) promotes research on energy issues relevant to the formulation and implementation of policy by African governments. It also aims to build research capability as well as mobilize existing expertise to address both near- and long-term challenges faced by the energy sector in Africa. (UK)

  20. A preliminary comparative study on the content of cesium, thorium and uranium in IAEA standard reference material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jing; Liu Husheng; Wang Xiaoyan; Wang Naifen

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the detection of Cs, Th and U in 6 standard reference materials provided by IAEA, using the ICP-MS method. The bismuth (Bi) was selected as internal standard element for the range compensation of matrix inhibitory effect and flow of the sensibility. The detection limit of the 3 elements was limited in the range of 0.0006∼2ng/ml, 0.4∼0.5g sample was taken and digested by acid, and detected directly by ICP-MS. The recovery of standard addition was 82.1∼100.1%

  1. 'Aussie normals': an a priori study to develop clinical chemistry reference intervals in a healthy Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerbin, G; Cavanaugh, J A; Potter, J M; Abhayaratna, W P; West, N P; Glasgow, N; Hawkins, C; Armbruster, D; Oakman, C; Hickman, P E

    2015-02-01

    Development of reference intervals is difficult, time consuming, expensive and beyond the scope of most laboratories. The Aussie Normals study is a direct a priori study to determine reference intervals in healthy Australian adults. All volunteers completed a health and lifestyle questionnaire and exclusion was based on conditions such as pregnancy, diabetes, renal or cardiovascular disease. Up to 91 biochemical analyses were undertaken on a variety of analytical platforms using serum samples collected from 1856 volunteers. We report on our findings for 40 of these analytes and two calculated parameters performed on the Abbott ARCHITECTci8200/ci16200 analysers. Not all samples were analysed for all assays due to volume requirements or assay/instrument availability. Results with elevated interference indices and those deemed unsuitable after clinical evaluation were removed from the database. Reference intervals were partitioned based on the method of Harris and Boyd into three scenarios, combined gender, males and females and age and gender. We have performed a detailed reference interval study on a healthy Australian population considering the effects of sex, age and body mass. These reference intervals may be adapted to other manufacturer's analytical methods using method transference.

  2. Quality of claims, references and the presentation of risk results in medical journal advertising: a comparative study in Australia, Malaysia and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitry Agnes I

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Journal advertising is used by pharmaceutical companies to disseminate medicine information to doctors. The quality of claims, references and the presentation of risk results in Australia and the US has been questioned in several studies. No recent evidence is available on the quality of claims, references and the presentation of risk results in journal advertising in Australia and the US and no Malaysian data have been published. The aim of this study was to compare the quality of claims, references and the presentation of risk results in journal advertising in these three countries. Methods A consecutive sample of 85 unique advertisements from each country was selected from journal advertising published between January 2004 to December 2006. Claims, references and the presentation of risk results in medical journal advertising were compared between the three countries. Results Less than one-third of the claims were unambiguous claims (Australia, 30%, Malaysia 17%, US, 23%. In Malaysia significantly less unambiguous claims were provided than in Australia and the US (P Conclusions The majority of claims were vague suggesting poor quality of claims in journal advertising in these three countries. Evidence from a randomized controlled trial, systematic review or meta- analysis was commonly cited to support claims. However, the more frequent use of data that have not been published and independently reviewed in the US compared to Australia and Malaysia raises questions on the quality of references in the US. The use of relative rather than absolute benefits may overemphasize the benefit of medicines which may leave doctors susceptible to misinterpreting information.

  3. [Reference citation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brkić, Silvija

    2013-01-01

    Scientific and professional papers represent the information basis for scientific research and professional work. References important for the paper should be cited within the text, and listed at the end of the paper. This paper deals with different styles of reference citation. Special emphasis was placed on the Vancouver Style for reference citation in biomedical journals established by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. It includes original samples for citing various types of articles, both printed and electronic, as well as recommendations related to reference citation in accordance with the methodology and ethics of scientific research and guidelines for preparing manuscripts for publication.

  4. Age and gender leucocytes variances and references values generated using the standardized ONE-Study protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kverneland, Anders H.; Streitz, Mathias; Geissler, Edward

    2016-01-01

    blood flow cytometry. The performance of our protocols was challenged here by profiling samples from healthy volunteers to reveal age- and gender-dependent differences and to establish a standardized reference cohort for use in clinical trials. Whole blood samples from two different cohorts were...... analyzed (first cohort: n = 52, second cohort: n = 46, both