WorldWideScience

Sample records for references arranged historically

  1. Summary of a reference book on financing arrangements for nuclear power projects in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The IAEA has recently published a reference book entitled Financing Arrangements for Nuclear Power Projects in Developing Countries (Technical Reports Series No. 353). The book reviews comprehensively the main features and problems concerning the financing of such projects in developing countries and presents innovative approaches for power generation financing. It also discusses the special conditions and requirements of nuclear power projects and the complexities of their financing, focusing on the practical issues to be dealt with to achieve successful financing, as well as the constraints encountered by most developing countries. This booklet summarizes the important features of the financing arrangements discussed in the reference book and was prepared with the aim of widely disseminating the results

  2. Historical change in fish species distribution: shifting reference conditions and global warming effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pont, Didier; Logez, M; Carrel, G; Rogers, C; Haidvogl, G

    Species distributions models (SDM) that rely on estimated relationships between present environmental conditions and species presence-absence are widely used to forecast changes of species distributions caused by global warming but far less to reconstruct historical assemblages. By compiling historical fish data from the turn to the middle of the twentieth century in a similar way for several European catchments (Rhône, Danube), and using already published SDMs based on current observations, we: (1) tested the predictive accuracy of such models for past climatic conditions, (2) compared observed and expected cumulated historical species occurrences at sub-catchment level, and (3) compared the annual variability in the predictions within one sub-catchment (Salzach) under a future climate scenario to the long-term variability of occurrences reconstructed during an extended historical period (1800-2000). We finally discuss the potential of these SDMs to define a "reference condition", the possibility of a shift in baseline condition in relation with anthropogenic pressures, and past and future climate variability. The results of this study clearly highlight the potential of SDM to reconstruct the past composition of European fish assemblages and to analyze the historical ecological status of European rivers. Assessing the uncertainty associated with species distribution projections is of primary importance before evaluating and comparing the past and future distribution of species within a given catchment.

  3. Historical Origins of Information Behavior Research by Reference Publication Year Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faramarz Soheili

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Using a quantitative method named reference publication year spectroscopy (RPYS, this research tried to determine the historical roots of information behavior research. RPYS pave the way for determining the significant years and works in information behavior. Methodology: Using scientometric method, the initial data of this study, have been extracted from the Web of Science. Using RPYS software, the revised data were analyzed and visualized in Excel. Finding: The distribution of cited references in information behavior revealed three peaks within 19th century. Moreover, our analysis identified 6 peaks between 1900 to 1969 in the field of information behavior, respectively in 1948, 1954, 1957, 1960, 1965, and 1967 has occurred. Results: Based on the study findings, it seems that information behavior research has been shaped intellectually by fields such as Psychology, quantitative and qualitative methodologies, etc. Additionally, it has been influenced by some theories and theoretical works.

  4. The Epidemic of Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome, Historical References of Its’ Origins, Assessment, and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Gomez-Pomar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS refers to a constellation of signs that are present in some newborn infants resulting from the abrupt cessation of passive transfer of maternal opioids used during pregnancy. The classic NAS refers to infants born to mothers who used opioids during pregnancy, but the term has broadened to include infants whose mothers have used or abused other psychoactive substances during pregnancy that contribute to the expression of the syndrome. Pregnant women who use opioids do so illicitly, and/or as medically prescribed for pain relief, and/or as medication assisted treatment for opioid dependence. The first case of NAS in infants and the subsequent treatment (or lack thereof was reported in 1875 and was called Congenital Morphinism. By 2012, the incidence of NAS increased to more than 30 per 1,000 hospital live births, along with an increase in the number of infants being treated pharmacologically for NAS, resulting in an increase in the length of stay and healthcare expenses. We present historical references on NAS, the various factors and events that led to its increasing prevalence and today’s current epidemic. We also review the current tools to assess infants with NAS and treatment options in its management.

  5. Sustainable Spaces with Psychological Values: Historical Architecture as Reference Book for Biomimetic Models with Biophilic Qualities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nely Ramzy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Biomimicry is a growing area of interest in architecture due to the potentials it offers for innovative architectural solutions and for more sustainable, regenerative built environment. Yet, a growing body of research identified various deficiencies to the employment of this approach in architecture. Of particular note are that: first, some biomimetic technologies are not inherently more sustainable or Nature-friendly than conventional equivalents; second, they lack any spatial expression of Nature and are visually ill-integrated into it. In a trial to redeem these deficiencies, this paper suggests a frame-work for more sustainable strategy that combines this approach with the relative approach of "Biophilia", with reference to examples from historical architecture. Using pioneering strategies and applications from different historical styles, the paper shows that the combination of these two approaches may lead to enhanced outcomes in terms of sustainability as well as human psychology and well-being. In doing so, architects may go beyond simply mimicking Nature to synthesizing architecture in tune with it and bringing in bio-inspired solutions that is more responsive to human needs and well-being.

  6. Evaluating the effects of alternative forest management plans under various physiographic settings using historical records as a reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yangjian Zhang; Hong S. He; Stephen R. Shifley; Jian Yang; Brian J. Palik

    2011-01-01

    Using historical General Land Office record as a reference, this study employed a landscape-scale disturbance and succession model to estimate the future cumulative effects of six alternative management plans on the tree species composition for various physiographic settings for the Mark Twain National Forest in Missouri. The results indicate that over a 200-year...

  7. What place is this time? Semiotics and the analysis of historical reference in landschape architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assche, van K.A.M.; Duineveld, M.; Jong, de H.C.; Zoest, van A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper revisits the potential contribution of semiotic analysis to heritage design. A case study analyzes lay interpretations of a number of urban landscape designs, displaying different ways to refer to the invisible (archaeological) past. A total of 12 draft designs were produced referring to

  8. Seal arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dempsey, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    A hydraulically balanced face type shaft seal is provided in which the opening and closing seal face areas retain concentricity with each other in the event of lateral shaft displacement. The seal arrangement is for a vertical high pressure pump, indented for use in the cooling system of a nuclear reactor. (Auth.)

  9. Historical sketches of Sandia National Laboratories nuclear field testing. Volume 1: Full discussion except for sensitive references

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banister, J.R.

    1994-10-01

    This report contains historical sketches that cover the major activities of Sandia nuclear field testing, from early atmospheric shots until 1990. It includes a chronological overview followed by more complete discussions of atmospheric, high-altitude, underwater, cratering, and underground nuclear testing. Other activities related to nuclear testing and high-explosive tests are also described. A large number of references are cited for readers who wish to learn more about technical details. Appendices, written by several authors, provide more insight for a variety of special aspects of nuclear testing and related work. Two versions of this history were published: volume 1 has an unlimited distribution, and volume 2 has a limited distribution

  10. Cancer, woman and sexuality: a historic way reference symbol by impact and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grayce Alencar Albuquerque

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The cancer appears in a man’s life as na agressive patology, reing-echo negative at every their spheres, especially above the sexuality female, already sensetized historically for your sort’s relations. Thus, at this crucial moment the sexual upheavals are lived deeply, the emotional alterations, the corporal disfiguraments, the social isolamentos and affective, at last, to break of this conjuncture, interioriza it low auto-they esteem staff. In this way, this literary revision had as objective to disclose, from diverse literary compositions that approached the thematic one, the real historical trajectory of the cancer associated with the feminine sex, mainly reing-echo on its sexuality, until the current days. This is a reality that deserves special attention, a time that the displayed data, are important to inquire the dimension of the impact caused for the cancer in the feminine sex that with certainty, will serve as base for elaboration of strategies for the confrontation of such pathology.

  11. The Teaching of Reference in American Library Schools. Historical Paper 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Frances Neel

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the author proposes to present a superficial view of what is being taught in the 32 American Library Association accredited graduate library schools. She briefly discusses and answers the following three questions: (1) Who is teaching reference?; (2) What is being taught?; and (3) How is it being taught? [For the commentary on…

  12. Examination arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiley, P.A.

    1978-01-01

    Standardization is provided to control system gain of a penetrating radiation testing system by periodically inspecting a reference object in the same manner as the product samples so as to generate a stabilization signal which is compared to a reference signal. The difference, if any, between the stabilization signal and the reference signal is integrated and the integrated signal is used to correct the gain of the system. (C.F.)

  13. Firming Up the Foundations: Reflections on Verifying the Quotations in a Historical Dictionary, with Reference to A Dictionary of South African English on Historical Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Hicks

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT: A Dictionary of South African English on Historical Principles (DSAEHist is rooted in quotation evidence. It contains just over 8 000 South African English entries, with about 45 000 citations to support those words included as headwords in the dictionary. Using the legacy electronic format in which DSAEHist was typeset, the Dictionary Unit for South African English embarked on a digitising process of DSAEHist, during which it became clear that the quotations would benefit from a full review involving the verification of all quotations against their original sources. This article examines the evolution of the quotation verification project from its beginnings as an entirely manual exercise to its current use of software developed for the purpose. Some of the project’s achievements, such as antedatings and primary source identification, are highlighted, and challenges, such as unverifiable quotations and sometimes highly convoluted research paths, are described. In addition to this, the article looks at the necessarily systematic nature of quotation handling and the main types of considerations determining methodology (for example, lexicographic, bibliographic and typographic requirements.

    OPSOMMING: Verstewiging van die fondamente: Gedagtes oor die kontrolering van aanhalings in 'n historiese woordeboek, met verwysing na A Dictionary of South African English on Historical Principles. A Dictionary of South African English on Historical Principles (DSAEHist het ontstaan uit aanhalingsbewysmateriaal. Dit bevat net oor 8 000 inskrywings van Suid-Afrikaanse Engels, met ongeveer 45 000 sitate om daardie woorde te staaf wat as trefwoorde in die woordeboek ingesluit is. Deur die argaïese elektroniese formaat te gebruik waarin die DSAEHist geset is, het die Woordeboekeenheid van Suid-Afrikaanse Engels 'n digitaliseringsproses van die DSAEHist onderneem waartydens die duidelik geword het dat die aanhalings sal baat by 'n volledige

  14. Optical Arrangement and Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    Processing of electromagnetic radiation is described, said incoming electromagnetic radiation comprising radiation in a first wavelength interval and a plurality of spatial frequencies. An arrangement comprises a focusing arrangement for focusing the incoming electromagnetic radiation, a first ca...

  15. Voluntary Environmental Governance Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, J.

    2012-01-01

    Voluntary environmental governance arrangements have focal attention in studies on environmental policy, regulation and governance. The four major debates in the contemporary literature on voluntary environmental governance arrangements are studied. The literature falls short of sufficiently

  16. On arrangements of pseudohyperplanes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    To every realizable oriented matroid there corresponds an arrangement of ... An important object missing in the context of pseudo-arrangements is an analogue ...... to extend this correspondence we use the language of metrical-hemisphere ...

  17. The Literal and the Literary: A Note on the Historical References in Isabel Allende's La casa de los espíritus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Macdonald Frame

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Stripped of much of its individuality as a piece of literature and relegated to the niche set aside for women's writing, Isabel Allende's La casa de los espíritus has sometimes wrongfully been critically condemned as a mere facsimile of García Màrquez's seminal Latin American novel. However, if critics were to reexamine La casa de los espíritus as a work of fiction in which its writer attempts to give voice to, and achieve personal closure of, historical events so tragically real for her, its comparisons with that "other" Latin American novel might be less frequent. This article contends that Allende uses a mixture of traceable historical facts, unsubstantiated personal accounts, and urban myths perpetuated by popular hearsay to present a plausible version of what could have happened during the events surrounding the fall of Salvador Allende on September 11, 1973. The crux of the argument presented will be that by superimposing unsubstantiated or distorted fact and local myth, Allende calls into play an understanding of traceable historical referents and creates a sense of associative identification between the reader and the text and the characters within. This reconstituted image provides a reinterpretation of what happened, a plausible scenario by means of which one can negotiate or interpret the varying shades of "truth" associated with the events as they may have occurred. This article further argues that through the use of familiar and identifiable images of a closer-to-the-fact fictionalization of real historical incidences, Allende is able to create a more credible characterization and historicity in the novel as well as sensitise her target reader to the resultant social and political changes of what many of her countrymen consider the single most fateful day in their nation's history.

  18. Comprehensive profiling of retroviral integration sites using target enrichment methods from historical koala samples without an assembled reference genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin Cui

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Retroviral integration into the host germline results in permanent viral colonization of vertebrate genomes. The koala retrovirus (KoRV is currently invading the germline of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus and provides a unique opportunity for studying retroviral endogenization. Previous analysis of KoRV integration patterns in modern koalas demonstrate that they share integration sites primarily if they are related, indicating that the process is currently driven by vertical transmission rather than infection. However, due to methodological challenges, KoRV integrations have not been comprehensively characterized. Results. To overcome these challenges, we applied and compared three target enrichment techniques coupled with next generation sequencing (NGS and a newly customized sequence-clustering based computational pipeline to determine the integration sites for 10 museum Queensland and New South Wales (NSW koala samples collected between the 1870s and late 1980s. A secondary aim of this study sought to identify common integration sites across modern and historical specimens by comparing our dataset to previously published studies. Several million sequences were processed, and the KoRV integration sites in each koala were characterized. Conclusions. Although the three enrichment methods each exhibited bias in integration site retrieval, a combination of two methods, Primer Extension Capture and hybridization capture is recommended for future studies on historical samples. Moreover, identification of integration sites shows that the proportion of integration sites shared between any two koalas is quite small.

  19. Un referente histórico de la seguridad social en Colombia A historical referent of social security in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Bernal Rodríguez

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available La prestación de los servicios de salud en colombia ha evolucionado a través del tiempo pasando de un sistema higienista sectorial y autoritario a uno de seguridad social amplio, generalizado, estatal y participativo. Las realidades que se vivieron en épocas remotas de la historia del país así como las normas que permitieron los primeros avances en la creación del actual sistema sirven de marco introductorio a los cambios que en el siglo XX vivió la república en esta materia. Se mencionan y describen en forma cronológica la legislación y características principales que actualmente rigen la prestación de los servicios de salud en el país. Por último, el artículo presenta las recientes modificaciones a las leyes vigentes e invita a la reflexión acerca de la necesidad por parte de los funcionarios de la salud de mayores conocimientos en otros campos del saber que influyen en la prestación de dichos servicios. Health attention in Colombia has evolved from a hygienist, sectarian and authoritative system to a general, governmental, wide and participating social security system. Realities lived in the history of the country as well as the first rules in the present system creation are exposed as an introductory reference for the description of changes related to this subject during the past century in this republic. The main laws concerning Colombian health services are described in a chronological order. The article also presents the new laws‘modifications and invites to a reflection by health officers about the need for greater knowledge in other subjects that influence health attention

  20. Topics in hyperplane arrangements

    CERN Document Server

    Aguiar, Marcelo

    2017-01-01

    This monograph studies the interplay between various algebraic, geometric and combinatorial aspects of real hyperplane arrangements. It provides a careful, organized and unified treatment of several recent developments in the field, and brings forth many new ideas and results. It has two parts, each divided into eight chapters, and five appendices with background material. Part I gives a detailed discussion on faces, flats, chambers, cones, gallery intervals, lunes and other geometric notions associated with arrangements. The Tits monoid plays a central role. Another important object is the category of lunes which generalizes the classical associative operad. Also discussed are the descent and lune identities, distance functions on chambers, and the combinatorics of the braid arrangement and related examples. Part II studies the structure and representation theory of the Tits algebra of an arrangement. It gives a detailed analysis of idempotents and Peirce decompositions, and connects them to the classical th...

  1. National arrangements for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    After a presentation of several letters exchanged between the French health ministry and public agencies in charge of public health or nuclear safety after a radiotherapy accident in Epinal, this report comments the evolution of needs in cancerology care and the place given to radiotherapy. It outlines the technological and organisational evolution of radiotherapy and presents the distribution of radiotherapy equipment, of radio-therapists and other radiotherapy professionals in France. Within the context of radiotherapy accidents which occurred in 2007, it presents the regulatory arrangements which aimed at improving the safety, short term and middle term arrangements which are needed to support and structure radiotherapy practice quality. It stresses the fact that the system will deeply evolve by implementing a radiotherapy vigilance arrangement and a permanent follow-on and adaptation plan based on surveys and the creation of a national committee

  2. Nuclear reactor internals arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisch, E.; Andrews, H.N.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear reactor internals arrangement is disclosed which facilitates reactor refueling. A reactor vessel and a nuclear core is utilized in conjunction with an upper core support arrangement having means for storing withdrawn control rods therein. The upper core support is mounted to the underside of the reactor vessel closure head so that upon withdrawal of the control rods into the upper core support, the closure head, the upper core support and the control rods are removed as a single unit thereby directly exposing the core for purposes of refueling

  3. Rotary kiln arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, M.R.

    1983-01-01

    In a rotary kiln arrangement in which a reaction is to occur between counterflowing reactants and material is discharged through a hopper, an injector for at least one reactant extends into a reaction zone of the kiln, means being provided for the reaction zone to be maintained within a desired temperature range. The said means includes heating elements for adjusting the temperature of the injected reactant to a temperature within the desired range while it is in the injector. The arrangement may be used in the production of uranium oxides from uranium hexafluoride. (author)

  4. Best connected rectangular arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnendra Shekhawat

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It can be found quite often in the literature that many well-known architects have employed either the golden rectangle or the Fibonacci rectangle in their works. On contrary, it is rare to find any specific reason for using them so often. Recently, Shekhawat (2015 proved that the golden rectangle and the Fibonacci rectangle are one of the best connected rectangular arrangements and this may be one of the reasons for their high presence in architectural designs. In this work we present an algorithm that generates n-4 best connected rectangular arrangements so that the proposed solutions can be further used by architects for their designs.

  5. Renewable energy and Scottish trading arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This report summarises the findings of a project involving the participation of the Scottish Renewables Forum (SRF) in the ongoing Ofgem consultation process concerning the future electricity trading arrangements in Scotland. The present administrative arrangements, the activities of the SRF, the prospects for the British Electricity Trading and Transmission Arrangements (BETTA), generator connection policy, and transmission access are discussed, and an overview of consultations relating to Scotland-England interconnection access is presented. The appendices cover the SRF responses to the Ofgem consultation, a discussion paper in advance of the SRF meeting with Ofgem in April 2001, an SRF trading update, the SRF's responses to Ofgem's Environmental Action Plan, the Scottish Embedded Generators Working Group's terms of reference and draft paper on issues, and a briefing on prices in administered arrangements

  6. Imaging arrangement and microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertsinidis, Alexandros; Chu, Steven

    2015-12-15

    An embodiment of the present invention is an imaging arrangement that includes imaging optics, a fiducial light source, and a control system. In operation, the imaging optics separate light into first and second tight by wavelength and project the first and second light onto first and second areas within first and second detector regions, respectively. The imaging optics separate fiducial light from the fiducial light source into first and second fiducial light and project the first and second fiducial light onto third and fourth areas within the first and second detector regions, respectively. The control system adjusts alignment of the imaging optics so that the first and second fiducial light projected onto the first and second detector regions maintain relatively constant positions within the first and second detector regions, respectively. Another embodiment of the present invention is a microscope that includes the imaging arrangement.

  7. Cable support arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendleton, E.; Murray, A.

    1983-01-01

    A cable support arrangement extending from a refuelling level floor of a nuclear reactor to the inner shield of a double rotatable shield comprises a linearly extensible cable support and disciplining boom, reaching from the floor to the main shield, and a circumferentially extensible cable support and disciplining means running from the end of the boom to a fixed end on the inner shield. (author)

  8. Package and Assisted Travel Arrangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Tot

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the ordinary legislative procedure before the European Parliament and the Council, there is a proposal of the European Commission for the adoption of a new directive that would bring the regulation of the contract on organized tours into line with current market development of organized trips. The proposal is intended to regulate the various combinations of travel services that are today offered to passengers, particularly online, which are identical or comparable to the travel services provided in a classic pre-arranged package. The subject of the paper are the provisions of the proposal of the directive which govern the field of application of the proposed directive, in particular the proposed changes regarding the concept of "package" contained in the European Commission proposal and amendments of the European Parliament, as well as the analysis of the proposed new concept of "assisted travel arrangements." The paper also critically refers to the method of targeted maximum harmonization as a proposed new intensity of the harmonization. The conclusion is that, despite the welcome updating of an outdated text of the directive on package travel which is line with the current market needs, the proposed text of the new directive is burdened with technical and complex definitions that could lead to significant difficulties in their transposition into the provisions of national law of the Member States.

  9. International arrangements against nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunn, G.

    1987-01-01

    International efforts to show the spread of nuclear weapons have created an international norm of nonproliferation, backed by a variety of enforcement mechanisms. Together they are often referred to as the nonproliferation regime. This regime is reviewed, starting with the 1963 Limited Test Ban Treaty. The centerpiece of the regime, the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), signed in 1968, now has 135 parties, including most of the advanced industrial nuclear countries. Results of the 1985 NPT Review Conference are briefly discussed; the 86 NPT parties that attended reaffirmed the treaty's value, pledged continued support for the IAEA safeguards system, and called upon nonsigners to renounce nuclear weapons and accept IAEA safeguards. A section is devoted to the physical protection of nuclear materials, facilities, and weapons. Finally, recommendations are presented to improve international arrangements against nuclear terrorists

  10. Concepts for institutional arrangements for the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The paper focuses on the role of institutional arrangements in developing a consensus in international nuclear cooperation. Institutional arrangements are defined as undertakings and activities by governments or private entities to facilitate the efficient and secure functioning of the nuclear fuel cycle. The first two sections of the paper explore the historical role of cooperative arrangements, suggest criteria for evaluating the usefulness of institutional arrangements, and review the status of the discussion of institutional arrangements in INFCE Working Groups as of December 1978. The final section of the paper, explores potential relationships between various institutional arrangements and suggests that certain areas such as, the standardization of nuclear practices, joint commercial and development undertakings, nuclear supply assurances, and the settlement of disputes may have broad application for several stages of the fuel cycle and merit further study

  11. Inspection of Emergency Arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The Working Group on Inspection Practices (WGIP) was tasked by the NEA CNRA to examine and evaluate the extent to which emergency arrangements are inspected and to identify areas of importance for the development of good inspection practices. WGIP members shared their approaches to the inspection of emergency arrangements by the use of questionnaires, which were developed from the requirements set out in IAEA Safety Standards. Detailed responses to the questionnaires from WGIP member countries have been compiled and are presented in the appendix to this report. The following commendable practices have been drawn from the completed questionnaires and views provided by WGIP members: - RBs and their Inspectors have sufficient knowledge and information regarding operator's arrangements for the preparedness and response to nuclear emergencies, to enable authoritative advice to be given to the national coordinating authority, where necessary. - Inspectors check that the operator's response to a nuclear emergency is adequately integrated with relevant response organisations. - Inspectors pay attention to consider the integration of the operator's response to safety and security threats. - The efficiency of international relations is checked in depth during some exercises (e.g. early warning, assistance and technical information), especially for near-border facilities that could lead to an emergency response abroad. - RB inspection programmes consider the adequacy of arrangements for emergency preparedness and response to multi-unit accidents. - RBs assess the adequacy of arrangements to respond to accidents in other countries. - The RB's role is adequately documented and communicated to all agencies taking part in the response to a nuclear or radiological emergency. - Inspectors check that threat assessments for NPPs have been undertaken in accordance with national requirements and that up-to-date assessments have been used as the basis for developing emergency plans for

  12. Steam generator arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ssinegurski, E.

    1981-01-01

    A steam flow path arrangement for covering the walls of the rear gas pass of a steam generator is disclosed. The entire flow passes down the sidewalls with a minor portion then passing up through the rear wall to a superheater inlet header at an intermediate elevation. The major portion of the flow passes up the front wall and through hanger tubes to a roof header. From there the major portion passes across the roof and down the rear wall to the superheater inlet header at the intermediate elevation

  13. Port entry arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chicken, J.C.; King, M.A.

    1978-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to describe the safety scheme port authorities should establish to deal with any contingency that may result from the visit of a nuclear powered ship. The safety scheme should be devised to cover both normal operation and any accident conditions that could arise while the ship is in port. The paper is divided into three parts. The three parts being: background information, general instructions, and emergency procedures. The background information will describe the nature of the hazards a port authority has to be prepared to deal with, and the philosophical basis for a berthing policy. In the part dealing with general instructions the objective of the safety scheme will be described. Also this part will describe the composition of the Port Safety Panel, allocation of responsibilities, passage and berthing arrangements, general safety precautions, records required, and rescue arrangements. In the part dealing with emergency procedures the role of: the Ship's Master, Harbour Authorities, Local Police, and local Health Services are discussed. As an Appendix to the paper a copy of the safety scheme that has been devised for visits of nuclear merchant ships to Southampton is given

  14. Power distribution arrangement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    An arrangement and a method for distributing power supplied by a power source to two or more of loads (e.g., electrical vehicular systems) is disclosed, where a representation of the power taken by a particular one of the loads from the source is measured. The measured representation of the amount...... of power taken from the source by the particular one of the loads is compared to a threshold to provide an overload signal in the event the representation exceeds the threshold. Control signals dependant on the occurring of the overload signal are provided such that the control signal decreases the output...... power of the power circuit in case the overload signal occurs...

  15. Thermally actuated linkage arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, P.M.

    1981-01-01

    A reusable thermally actuated linkage arrangement includes a first link member having a longitudinal bore therein adapted to receive at least a portion of a second link member therein, the first and second members being sized to effect an interference fit preventing relative movement there-between at a temperature below a predetermined temperature. The link members have different coefficients of thermal expansion so that when the linkage is selectively heated by heating element to a temperature above the predetermined temperature, relative longitudinal and/or rotational movement between the first and second link members is enabled. Two embodiments of a thermally activated linkage are disclosed which find particular application in actuators for a grapple head positioning arm in a nuclear reactor fuel handling mechanism to facilitate back-up safety retraction of the grapple head independently from the primary fuel handling mechanism drive system. (author)

  16. Inductive circuit arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansfield, Peter; Coxon, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    A switched coil arrangement is connected in a bridge configuration of four switches S 1 , S 2 , S 3 and S 4 which are each shunted by diodes D 1 , D 2 , D 3 and D 4 so that current can flow in either direction through a coil L depending on the setting of the switches. A capacitor C is connected across the bridge through a switch S 5 to receive the inductive energy stored in coil L on breaking the current flow path through the coil. The electrostatic energy stored in capacitor C can then be used to supply current through the coil in the reverse direction either immediately or after a time delay. Coil L may be a superconductive coil. Losses in the circuit can be made up by a trickle charge of capacitor C from a separate supply V 2 . The device may be used in nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. (author)

  17. Camshaft bearing arrangement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoi, K.; Ozawa, T.

    1986-06-10

    A bearing arrangement is described for the camshaft of an internal combustion engine or the like which camshaft is formed along its length in axial order with a first bearing surface, a first cam lobe, a second bearing surface, a second cam lobe, a third bearing surface, a third cam lobe and a fourth bearing surface, the improvement comprising first bearing means extending around substantially the full circumference of the first bearing surface and journaling the first bearing surface, second bearing means extending around substantially less than the circumference of the second bearing surface and journaling the second bearing surface, third bearing means extending around substantially less than the circumference of the third bearing surface and journaling the third bearing surface, and fourth bearing means extending around substantially the full circumference of the fourth bearing surface and journaling the first bearing surface.

  18. High frequency ignition arrangement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canup, R E

    1977-03-03

    The invention concerns an HF ignition arrangement for combustion engines with a transistor oscillator. As this oscillator requires a current of 10A, with peak currents up to about 50A, it is not sensible to take this current through the remote ignition switch for switching it on and off. According to the invention the HF high voltage transformer of the ignition is provided with a control winding, which only requires a few milliamps DC and which can therefore be switched via the ignition switch. If the ignition switch is in the 'running' position, then a premagnetising DC current flows through the control winding, which suppresses the oscillation of the oscillator which has current flowing through it, until this current is interrupted by the interruptor contacts controlled by the combustion engine, so that the oscillations of the oscillator start immediately; the oscillator only continues to oscillate during the period during which the interruptor contacts controlled by the machine are open and interrupt the premagnetisation current. The control winding is short circuited in the 'off' position of the ignition switch.

  19. Population biology of sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana Dougl.) with reference to historical disturbances in the Lake Tahoe Basin: implications for restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia E. Maloney; Detlev R. Vogler; Andrew J. Eckert; Camille E. Jensen; David B. Neale

    2011-01-01

    Historical logging, fire suppression, and an invasive pathogen, Cronartium ribicola, the cause of white pine blister rust (WPBR), are assumed to have dramatically affected sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana) populations in the Lake Tahoe Basin. We examined population- and genetic-level consequences of these disturbances within 10...

  20. APFO Historical Availability of Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — The APFO Historical Availability ArcGIS Online web map provides an easy to use reference of what historical imagery is available by county from the Aerial...

  1. Flexible time arrangements: relevance and impact of part-time work in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Krone-Germann, Irenka

    2010-01-01

    In recent labour market history, one of the most striking features has been the increase of non-standard employment arrangements. These types of arrangements refer to atypical and alternative employment arrangements which are often called flexible staffing arrangements. The utilization of these flexible labour arrangements has been, however, the source of much controversy in the last twenty years but nowadays it is becoming more and more common in the OECD countries, more specifically in Swit...

  2. Classic romance in electronic arrangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kizin M.M.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available this article analyses the transformation of the performing arts of classical romance in the terms of electronic sound and performance via electronic sounds arrangements. The author focuses on the problem of synthesis of electronic sound arrangements and classical romance, offering to acquire the skills of the creative process in constantly changing conditions of live performances.

  3. IAEA paper on institutional arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    At its fifth series of meetings, Working Group 3 received a background paper prepared by the IAEA which had a threefold purpose: firstly, to provide an overview on institutional arrangements under consideration by the INFCE Working Groups; secondly, to explore potential relationships between the various institutional arrangements under consideration; and thirdly, to identify areas where further analysis might be desirable

  4. METHOD FOR DETERMINING THE MAXIMUM ARRANGEMENT FACTOR OF FOOTWEAR PARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRIŞCU Mariana

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available By classic methodology, designing footwear is a very complex and laborious activity. That is because classic methodology requires many graphic executions using manual means, which consume a lot of the producer’s time. Moreover, the results of this classical methodology may contain many inaccuracies with the most unpleasant consequences for the footwear producer. Thus, the costumer that buys a footwear product by taking into consideration the characteristics written on the product (size, width can notice after a period that the product has flaws because of the inadequate design. In order to avoid this kind of situations, the strictest scientific criteria must be followed when one designs a footwear product. The decisive step in this way has been made some time ago, when, as a result of powerful technical development and massive implementation of electronical calculus systems and informatics, This paper presents a product software for determining all possible arrangements of a footwear product’s reference points, in order to automatically acquire the maximum arrangement factor. The user multiplies the pattern in order to find the economic arrangement for the reference points. In this purpose, the user must probe few arrangement variants, in the translation and rotate-translation system. The same process is used in establishing the arrangement factor for the two points of reference of the designed footwear product. After probing several variants of arrangement in the translation and rotation and translation systems, the maximum arrangement factors are chosen. This allows the user to estimate the material wastes.

  5. Long term evaluation of building energy performance : comparison of the test reference year and historical data series in the North Italian climates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pernigotto, G.; Antonacci, G.; Baggio, P.; Gasparella, A.; Hensen, J.L.M.; Baratieri, M.; Corrado, V.; Gasparella, A.; Patuzzi, F.

    2013-01-01

    The pursuit of better energy performance of buildings led o the recourse to more detailed instruments of analysis, requiring more complex and detailed inputs, such as the hourly weather data. In this work, the representativeness of the test reference year (TRYEN) weather data, recently developed in

  6. The nature, use and problems of historical archives for the temporal occurrence of landslides, with specific reference to the south coast of Britain, Ventnor, Isle of Wight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibsen, Maïa-Laura; Brunsden, Denys

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe and evaluate the nature of the European historical archives which are suitable for the assessment of the temporal occurrence and forecasting within landslides studies, using the British south coast as an example. The paper is based upon the British contribution to the Environment programme EPOCH, 1991-1993. A primary requirement of a research programme on process occurrence is to determine the event frequencies on as many time and space scales as possible. Thus, the analysis of archives is, potentially, an essential preliminary to the study of the temporal occurrence of landslide events. The range of such data sources extends from isolated, fortuitously dated sites from the Quaternary assemblage, through inferred event impacts using dendrochronology or lichenometric time series to historical records of causal factors such as rainfall data and more recently, deliberately recorded packages of cumulative or continuous data. Most countries have extensive historical sources which may be of considerable value in establishing the characteristics of geomorphological processes. These include narrative in literature, prints and other artwork, terrestrial and aerial photographs, remote sensing series, newspapers, incidental statements and scientific journals and reports. These are numerous difficulties in accessing, extracting, organising, databasing and analysing such data because they are not usually collated for scientific use. Problems involve such incalculable errors as: the experience, training and conscientiousness of the observer; the editing and recording process; judging the validity of the data used and the haphazard nature of recorded events in time and space. Despite these difficulties, such data do yield a record which adds to the representative temporal sample as a level above some threshold reporting position. It therefore has potential for specific statistical analysis. An example of a reasonable temporal landslide

  7. Determinants of flexible work arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Sarbu, Miruna

    2014-01-01

    Flexible work arrangements such as allowing employees to work at home are used in firms, especially since information and communication technologies have become so widespread. Using individual-level data from 10,884 German employees, this paper analyses the determinants of working at home as a form of flexible work arrangements. The analysis is based on descriptive analyses and a discrete choice model using a probit estimation approach. The results reveal that men have a higher...

  8. The Politics of Legal Arrangements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leander, Anna

    2018-01-01

    This article explores the place of formal legal arrangements in the politics surrounding the hybrid, enmeshed public-in-the-private forms of authority this special issue focuses on. It does so by analyzing the significance of one specific legal arrangement, the Duty of Care, for the politics...... and divisions currently organizing debates about the regulation of commercial security as well as about managerialism in international law more generally....

  9. History, Historical and Historicity in Heidegger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel CHILLÓN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to the “Historie” is possible as “Geschichte”, that is, so that the events are more than mere collections of past vestiges, it is necessary that the historical (geschichtlich of history is understood as enshrined in the historicity, in Geschichtlichkeit. In § 6 of the Introduction to ‘Being and Time’ Heidegger understands that the historicity refers to the temporality of Dasein, to its finitude. Thiking of the historicity requires, as its main task, overcoming history as history of entities, in terms of history of forgotten being. And, of course, to think the being, the happening of being and Dasein which, as such event, is being, is occurring , it is historicizing .

  10. Arranged marriages annulled by law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, H

    1996-06-01

    The arranged marriages of 210 young people in Yongle Town in Zunyi County of Guizhou Province were dissolved in 1995. The proportion of child betrothals, which generally happens among close relatives, is as high as 85% in the town. Some engagements, known as fetus betrothals or belt betrothals, are arranged before the children are born or while they are still infants strapped (belted) to their mothers. Dissemination of information from the Constitution, the Marriage Law, and the Regulations on the Registration of Marriage concerning marriage, healthier births, and good upbringing of children, and other information on reproductive health, has shown young people that they have the freedom to love and marry of their own free will, that their marriage is protected by law, and that consanguineous marriage is harmful to the health of future generations. Some convinced their parents that their arranged marriages should be annulled.

  11. Sealing arrangement for radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, I.L.S.; Sievwright, R.W.T.; Elliott, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    A sealing arrangement for hermetically sealing two mating surfaces comprises two seals arranged to lie between the surfaces. Each seal provides hermetic sealing over a respective different temperature range and lie serially along the surfaces between the regions to be isolated. A main seal integrity test arrangement is provided in the form of a port and passage. This allows for the introduction of a fluid into or the evacuation of a region between the two seals to detect a leak. The port is also provided with at least two test port seals which seal with a plug. The plug is also provided with a test port to allow the integrity of the test port seal to be tested. (UK)

  12. Storage arrangements for nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deacon, D.

    1982-01-01

    A storage arrangement for spent nuclear fuel either irradiated or pre-irradiated or for vitrified waste after spent fuel reprocessing, comprises a plenum chamber which has a base pierced by a plurality of openings each of which has sealed to it an open topped tube extending downwards and closed at its lower end. The plenum chamber, with the tubes, forms an air-filled enclosure associated with an exhaust system for exhausting air from the system through filters to maintain the interior of the enclosure at sub-atmospheric pressure. The tubes are arranged to accommodate the stored fuel and the arrangement includes a means for producing a flow of cooling air over the exterior of the tubes so that the latter effectively form a plurality of heat exchangers in close proximity to the fuel. The air may be caused to flow over the tube surfaces by a natural thermosyphon process. (author)

  13. Patient positioning and supporting arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavens, M.; James, R.C.; Slinn, D.S.

    1980-01-01

    This patent specification describes an E.M.I. claim relating to a patient positioning and support arrangement for a computerised axial tomography system, the arrangement comprising a curved platter upon which the patient can be disposed, a table having a curved groove to accommodate the platter, and means for driving the platter slidably along the groove; the platter being formed of a substantially rigid platform shaped to conform to the groove, and a shroud, secured to the platter and disposed between the platter and the surface of the groove, so as to permit the platter to slide smoothly. (U.K.)

  14. Nuclear reactor core stabilizing arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabsen, F.S.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear reactor core stabilizing arrangement is described wherein a plurality of actuators, disposed in a pattern laterally surrounding a group of elongated fuel assemblies, press against respective contiguous fuel assemblies on the periphery of the group to reduce the clearance between adjacent fuel assemblies thereby forming a more compacted, vibration resistant core structure. 7 claims, 4 drawing figures

  15. Teaching Determinants Using Rook Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Anders O. F.

    2018-01-01

    Teaching determinants poses significant challenges to the instructor of a proof-based undergraduate linear algebra course. The standard definition by cofactor expansion is ugly, lacks symmetry, and is hard for students to use in proofs. We introduce a visual definition of the determinant that interprets permutations as arrangements of…

  16. Special Issue: Flexible Work Arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmstead, Barney, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    Section 1 contains five chapters on flexible work arrangements, self-employment, working from home, part-time professionals, job sharing, and temporary employment. Section 2 includes reviews of four books on working flexibly, concluding with a list of 23 additional readings. (SK)

  17. Arrangement for guiding transport cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This patent relates especially to x-ray equipment such as that used for computerized tomography, and in particular to an arrangement for guiding and supporting a plurality of power transmission cables and cooling hoses in a flexible manner. (U.K.)

  18. Storage arrangements for nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ealing, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    A storage arrangement for nuclear fuel has a plurality of storage tubes connected by individual pipes to manifolds which are connected, in turn, to an exhaust system for maintaining the tubes at sub-atmospheric pressure, and means for producing a flow of a cooling fluid, such as air, over the exterior surfaces of the tubes. (author)

  19. Flow control arrangements for centrifuges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alderton, G.W.; Davidge, P.C.

    1983-01-01

    In a centrifuge plant for the separation of uranium isotopes, when a centrifuge machine breaks down, light gas is produced. This gas can cause adjacent machines to break down, so propagating the fault. The present invention provides flow control arrangements in gas pipes to the centrifuge, whereby sudden egress of gas from a failed machine is inhibited. (author)

  20. Do organizational and political-legal arrangements explain financial wrongdoing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prechel, Harland; Zheng, Lu

    2016-12-01

    The 2008 financial crisis was a systemic problem with deep-rooted structural causes that created opportunities to engage in financial malfeasance, a form of corporate wrongdoing. However, few quantitative studies exist on the effects of organizational and political-legal arrangements on financial malfeasance. In this paper, we examine the effects of organizational and political-legal arrangements that emerged in the 1990s in the FIRE sector (i.e., financial, insurance, and real estate) on financial malfeasance. Our historical contextualization demonstrates how changes in the political-legal arrangements facilitate the emergence of new corporate structures and opportunities for financial malfeasance. Our longitudinal quantitative analysis demonstrates that US FIRE sector corporations with a more complex organizational structure, larger size, lower dividend payment, and higher executive compensation are more prone to commit financial malfeasance. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2016.

  1. Historical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsberg, H. E.

    It was a pleasure to learn, from a recent (May 4) issue of Eos, of the formation of a permanent Committee on History of Geophysics. There is a dire need for reference material, books, and articles on geophysical history.Let me recommend to them that they take a good look at the Dictionary of the History of Science (W.F. Bynum, E.J. Browne, Roy Porter (Eds.), Princeton University Press, 494 pp., 1981). What follows is not a book review, although it may appear so. It is meant to be a challenge to place geophysics on the map in historical context. In this book, hydrology is dealt with in one sentence under the heading ‘cycle,’ geomagnetism under ‘declination and dip,’ and its history ends with Edward Sabine. Seismology appears under earthquakes. No important seismologist is mentioned. In the biographical index, Wiechert is included only for a contribution to physics. Where are Sir Harold Jeffreys, Galitzin, Gutenberg, Mohorovičić, Lehman, and many others? Meteorology ends with V. Bjerknes and Solberg; Köppen, Richardson, Rossby, and other notables [of] the last century do not seem to exist.

  2. X-ray tube arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillard, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    A technique for ensuring the rapid correction of both amplitude and offset errors in the deflectional movement of an electron beam along an X-ray emissive target is described. The movement is monitored at at least two positions during a sweep and differences, between the two movements and a desired movement, at these positions are combined in different proportions to produce a corrective servo signal. Such arrangements find application, for example, in computerised tomographic scanners. (author)

  3. Process arrangement options for Defense waste immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-02-01

    Current plans are to immobilize the SRP high-level liquid wastes in a high integrity form. Borosilicate glass was selected in 1977 as the reference waste form and a mjaor effort is currently underway to develop the required technology. A large new facility, referred to as the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is being designed to carry out this mission, with project authorization targeted for 1982 and plant startup in 1989. However, a number of other process arrangements or manufacturing strategies, including staging the major elements of the project or using existing SRP facilities for some functions, have been suggested in lieu of building the reference DWPF. This study assesses these various options and compares them on a technical and cost basis with the DWPF. Eleven different manufacturing options for SRP defense waste solidification were examined in detail. These cases are: (1) vitrification of acid waste at current generation rate; (2) vitrification of current rate acid waste and caustic sludge; (3 and 4) vitrification of the sludge portion of neutralized waste; (5) decontamination of salt cake and storage of concentrated cesium and strontium for later immobilization; (6) processing waste in a facility with lower capacity than the DWPF; (7) processing waste in a combination of existing and new facilities; (8) waste immobilization in H Canyon; (9) vitrification of both sludge and salt; (10) DWPF with onsite storage; (11) deferred authorization of DWPF

  4. Finding an optimal seating arrangement for employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninoslav Čerkez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with modelling a specifc problem called the Optimal Seating Arrangement (OSA as an Integer Linear Program and demonstrated that the problem can be efficiently solved by combining branch-and-bound and cutting plane methods. OSA refers to a specific scenario that could possibly happen in a corporative environment, i.e. when a company endeavors to minimize travel costs when employees travel to an organized event. Each employee is free to choose the time to travel to and from an event and it depends on personal reasons. The paper differentiates between using different travel possibilities in the OSA problem, such as using company assigned or a company owned vehicles, private vehicles or using public transport, if needed. Also, a user-friendly web application was made and is available to the public for testing purposes.

  5. Moduli of weighted hyperplane arrangements

    CERN Document Server

    Lahoz, Martí; Macrí, Emanuele; Stellari, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on a large class of geometric objects in moduli theory and provides explicit computations to investigate their families. Concrete examples are developed that take advantage of the intricate interplay between Algebraic Geometry and Combinatorics. Compactifications of moduli spaces play a crucial role in Number Theory, String Theory, and Quantum Field Theory – to mention just a few. In particular, the notion of compactification of moduli spaces has been crucial for solving various open problems and long-standing conjectures. Further, the book reports on compactification techniques for moduli spaces in a large class where computations are possible, namely that of weighted stable hyperplane arrangements.

  6. New arrangements in climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arts, B.J.M.

    2000-01-01

    Climate policy, its content and the way it is being organised, is changing, both nationally and internationally. The Kyoto Protocol and its effects form an important catalyst for this process. The focus in climate discourse is increasingly on 'differentiation' and 'flexibilisation', while the role of the industrial sectors involved has changed since 1997, among other things expressed in the increasing influence exerted by the business community and the declining power of the environmental movement. There is a transition underway, from pluralist to private policy arrangements

  7. Arrangement for selectively irradiating webs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihme, B.

    1975-01-01

    The arrangement for selectively irradiating a web includes a perforated band of a radiation impermeable substance which is guided in an endless path via a pair of guide rollers and has two juxtaposed runs in this path. A take-up roller conveys a web of material past one of the runs at a side thereof remote from the other run, the direction of movement of the web being other than parallel to that of the band and, preferably, normal thereto. An electron accelerator is provided at the far side of the run remote from the web and is effective for directing a radiation beam at the web through the perforations

  8. Historical and Documentary Data Sets

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past climate and environment from historical references and documentary evidence such as church records, harvest dates, and diaries. Parameter keywords...

  9. FEMA Historical Disaster Declarations - shp

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Historical Disaster Declarations provides geospatial view to the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (referred to as the Stafford Act...

  10. Radiation detector arrangements and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, J.

    1989-01-01

    The patent describes a radiation detector arrangement. It comprises at least one detector element in the form of a temperature-sensitive resistor whose electrical resistance changes in response to radiation incident on the detector element, the resistor having a high positive temperature coefficient of electrical resistance at a transition in its electrical conductance, circuit means for applying a voltage across the resistor during operation of the detector arrangement, and temperature-regulation means for regulating the temperature of the resistor so as to operate the resistor in the transition, characterised in that the temperature-regulation means comprises the resistor and the circuit means which passes sufficient current through the resistor by resistance heating to a position in the transition at which a further increase in its temperature in response to incident radiation reduces the resistance heating by reducing the current, thereby stabilizing the temperature of the resistor at the position. The positive temperature coefficient at the position being sufficiently high that the change in the resistance heating produced by a change in the temperature of the resistor at the position is larger than a change in power of the incident radiation required to produce that same change in temperature of the resistor in the absence of any change in resistance heating

  11. 29 CFR 779.229 - Other arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.229 Other arrangements. With respect to those arrangements...” establishment will be considered a part of the same “enterprise.” For example, whether a franchise, lease, or... the enterprise which grants the franchise, right, or concession. (S. Rept. 145, 87th Cong., 1st Sess...

  12. 42 CFR 413.241 - Pharmacy arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pharmacy arrangements. 413.241 Section 413.241... Disease (ESRD) Services and Organ Procurement Costs § 413.241 Pharmacy arrangements. Effective January 1, 2011, an ESRD facility that enters into an arrangement with a pharmacy to furnish renal dialysis...

  13. MUSICAL ARRANGEMENT OF MEDIA ADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernyshov Alexander V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The music-compositional principles of commercial and political advertising and also the self-promotion of electronic media (radio, television, Internet are considered in this mediatext: from the elementary beeps, symbolic functions, emblems/logos and musical brands to the sound engineering technology to underscore the product's name and the complex synthesis between music and intra movements and color-light design of frames. Simultaneously examines, how the musical arrangement of ethereal advertising is involved in creation the emotional drama or bravado which reach the level of explicit or associative counterpoint 'music with the advertised object or subject' and which extend to expression of cultural image of all the broadcast channel. The article explores the works of the next genres like infomercial, teleshopping, film-ad, and autonomous commercials that have been produced in European countries or USA.

  14. High mass isotope separation arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eerkens, J.W.

    1976-01-01

    An isotope separation arrangement for separating a preselected isotope from a mixture of chemically-identical but isotopically-different molecules by either photon-induced pure revibrational or vibronic selective excitation of the molecules containing the atoms of the isotope to be separated from a lower to a higher energy state, and a chemical reaction of the higher energy state molecules with a chemically-reactive agent to form a chemical compound containing primarily the atoms of the isotope to be separated in a physicochemical state different from the physicochemical state of the mixture of chemically-identical but isotopically-different molecules. The chemical compound containing the atoms of the isotope to be separated may be subsequently processed to obtain the isotope. The laser configuration used to generate the photon beam is fully described

  15. Importance of Grid Center Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasaogullari, O.; Usul, N.

    2012-12-01

    In Digital Elevation Modeling, grid size is accepted to be the most important parameter. Despite the point density and/or scale of the source data, it is freely decided by the user. Most of the time, arrangement of the grid centers are ignored, even most GIS packages omit the choice of grid center coordinate selection. In our study; importance of the arrangement of grid centers is investigated. Using the analogy between "Raster Grid DEM" and "Bitmap Image", importance of placement of grid centers in DEMs are measured. The study has been conducted on four different grid DEMs obtained from a half ellipsoid. These grid DEMs are obtained in such a way that they are half grid size apart from each other. Resulting grid DEMs are investigated through similarity measures. Image processing scientists use different measures to investigate the dis/similarity between the images and the amount of different information they carry. Grid DEMs are projected to a finer grid in order to co-center. Similarity measures are then applied to each grid DEM pairs. These similarity measures are adapted to DEM with band reduction and real number operation. One of the measures gives function graph and the others give measure matrices. Application of similarity measures to six grid DEM pairs shows interesting results. These four different grid DEMs are created with the same method for the same area, surprisingly; thirteen out of 14 measures state that, the half grid size apart grid DEMs are different from each other. The results indicated that although grid DEMs carry mutual information, they have also additional individual information. In other words, half grid size apart constructed grid DEMs have non-redundant information.; Joint Probability Distributions Function Graphs

  16. CODAC systems arrangement and connectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulati, Hitesh Kumar, E-mail: hkgulati@gmail.com; Beltran, David; Kuehn, Ingo; Kotamaki, Miikka; Makijarvi, Petri; Wallander, Anders

    2013-10-15

    termination point for CODAC Network infrastructure. The CODAC Network cables running from the nearest CODAC Network hutch will terminate in these panels. Network panels are installed at strategic locations close to plant system I and C cubicles. This paper will describe more details about the physical arrangement of CODAC systems in different buildings on ITER platform for different purpose and their planned connectivity. This paper will also provide more information about the volume allocations for CODAC components, planned cabling arrangement and other infrastructure requirements like electrical and cooling etc.

  17. Transfer arrangement for sealable enclosure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broxup, K.H.

    1991-01-01

    An arrangement for transferring items to or from e.g. a glovebox, in a closed moveable container. The glovebox port has a door having a non-rotatable outer portion and a rotatable inner portion. The container has a lid having a non-rotatable outer portion and a rotatable inner portion, the outer portion having a thin lip. The port has a thin lip which can be aligned with the lip of the lid. The outer portion of the door retains a peripheral sealing ring and the rim of the container retains a similar ring which can sandwich and bridge the two lips. The container is attached to the port by a rotatable locking ring. Via an externally rotatable and slidable shaft, lined at its inner end to the inner portion of the door, the latter is rotatable to disengage the door from the port, couple this inner portion to that of the lid, disengage the lid from the container, and move the coupled door and lid back and laterally away from the port, and vice versa. (author)

  18. Historic timber roof structures

    OpenAIRE

    Magina, Miguel Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Dissertação para obtenção do Grau de Mestre em Engenharia Civil – Estruturas e Geotecnia This dissertation covers the study of historic timber roof structures in Transylvania area - Romania, the structures type, its elements and connection variety between them. Procedures to study a structure of this category are approached. It is also referred semi and non-destructive tests that can be done to better understand the present wood characteristics, and potential reparation or strengthening...

  19. Flexible Working Time Arrangements in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Beleva, Iskra

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze the flexible working time arrangements in Bulgaria, using a life-course perspective. Two important features have to be outlined, namely: underdeveloped flexible forms of employment in the country, including working time arrangement, and lack of previous analysis on flexible working time arrangements from the angle of life-course perspective. The author describes the regulatory framework, collective agreements at national and company level as a frame w...

  20. Alternate ohmic heating coil arrangements for compact tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, J.W.; Moretti, A.; Stevens, H.C.; Thompson, K.

    1978-01-01

    The results for a number of ohmic heating (OH) coil arrangements which will allow the reduction of the major radius of Experimental Power Reactor (EPR) tokamaks will be given. In each case the results are compared, at least indirectly, to the reference case, which has the OH solenoid inside the central core of the reactor. The goal for the alternate geometries studied was to stay within the requirements imposed by the EPR conditions on the plasma and to produce as much or more OH V-s as the reference case

  1. Living Arrangements of Young Adults in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Schwanitz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Comparative research suggests that there are great cross-national and cross-temporal differences in living arrangements of young adults aged 18-34 in Europe. In this paper, we examine young adults’ living arrangements (1 across several European countries and different national contexts, and (2 by taking into account cross-time variability. In doing so, we pay careful attention to a comprehensive conceptualisation of living arrangements (including extended and non-family living arrangements. The aim of this paper is to deepen our understanding of family structure and household arrangements in Europe by examining and mapping the cross-national and cross-temporal variety of young adults’ living arrangements. For our analysis we use data from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series International (IPUMSi for the census rounds 1980, 1990, and 2000 for eight European countries (Austria, France, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Portugal, Romania, and Switzerland. We employ log-linear models to ascertain the influence of individual and contextual factors on living arrangements. The analyses lend further support to a North/West – South/East divide in living arrangements and general gender differentials in extended family living. Other interesting results are the heterogeneity in the living arrangements of single mothers across geographic areas, and the upward trend of extended household living for young men and women between 1980 and 2000.

  2. Correlation analysis of fracture arrangement in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrett, Randall; Gale, Julia F. W.; Gómez, Leonel A.; Laubach, Stephen E.

    2018-03-01

    We present new techniques that overcome limitations of standard approaches to documenting spatial arrangement. The new techniques directly quantify spatial arrangement by normalizing to expected values for randomly arranged fractures. The techniques differ in terms of computational intensity, robustness of results, ability to detect anti-correlation, and use of fracture size data. Variation of spatial arrangement across a broad range of length scales facilitates distinguishing clustered and periodic arrangements-opposite forms of organization-from random arrangements. Moreover, self-organized arrangements can be distinguished from arrangements due to extrinsic organization. Traditional techniques for analysis of fracture spacing are hamstrung because they account neither for the sequence of fracture spacings nor for possible coordination between fracture size and position, attributes accounted for by our methods. All of the new techniques reveal fractal clustering in a test case of veins, or cement-filled opening-mode fractures, in Pennsylvanian Marble Falls Limestone. The observed arrangement is readily distinguishable from random and periodic arrangements. Comparison of results that account for fracture size with results that ignore fracture size demonstrates that spatial arrangement is dominated by the sequence of fracture spacings, rather than coordination of fracture size with position. Fracture size and position are not completely independent in this example, however, because large fractures are more clustered than small fractures. Both spatial and size organization of veins here probably emerged from fracture interaction during growth. The new approaches described here, along with freely available software to implement the techniques, can be applied with effect to a wide range of structures, or indeed many other phenomena such as drilling response, where spatial heterogeneity is an issue.

  3. Leaf arrangements are invalid in the taxonomy of orchid species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Jakubska-Busse

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The selection and validation of proper distinguishing characters are of crucial importance in taxonomic revisions. The modern classifications of orchids utilize the molecular tools, but still the selection and identification of the material used in these studies is for the most part related to general species morphology. One of the vegetative characters quoted in orchid manuals is leaf arrangement. However, phyllotactic diversity and ontogenetic changeability have not been analysed in detail in reference to particular taxonomic groups. Therefore, we evaluated the usefulness of leaf arrangements in the taxonomy of the genus Epipactis Zinn, 1757. Typical leaf arrangements in shoots of this genus are described as distichous or spiral. However, in the course of field research and screening of herbarium materials, we indisputably disproved the presence of distichous phyllotaxis in the species Epipactis purpurata Sm. and confirmed the spiral Fibonacci pattern as the dominant leaf arrangement. In addition, detailed analyses revealed the presence of atypical decussate phyllotaxis in this species, as well as demonstrated the ontogenetic formation of pseudowhorls. These findings confirm ontogenetic variability and plasticity in E. purpurata. Our results are discussed in the context of their significance in delimitations of complex taxa within the genus Epipactis.

  4. Living arrangements of young adults in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwanitz, Katrin; Mulder, Clara H.

    2015-01-01

    Comparative research suggests that there are great cross-national and cross-temporal differences in living arrangements of young adults aged 18-34 in Europe. In this paper, we examine young adults’ living arrangements (1) across several European countries and different national contexts, and (2) by

  5. Contingent and Alternative Work Arrangements, Defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polivka, Anne E.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the definitions of contingent workers and alternative work arrangements used by the Bureau of Labor Statistics to analyze data, and presents aggregate estimates of the number of workers in each group. Discusses the overlap between contingent workers and workers in alternative arrangements. (Author/JOW)

  6. 78 FR 40131 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... INFORMATION: This subsequent arrangement concerns the retransfer of 302,188 kg of U.S.-origin natural uranium..., Saskatchewan, Canada, to Springfields Fuels Ltd. in Lancashire, United Kingdom. The material, which is... arrangement concerning the retransfer of nuclear material of United States origin will not be inimical to the...

  7. Historical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamora C, H.H.

    1989-01-01

    Short history of the ''Instituto de Asuntos Nucleares''. A short historical review about IAN is made: from 1956 when it was called Instituto Colombiano de Asuntos Nucleares, showing its scientific and technical development and the most important events that have occurred in the last 30 years. The people who had contributed to the progress of the institution are also considered, making emphasis in the important happenings that have guided the routes of the IAN

  8. Experimental arrangement to measure dispersion in optical fiber devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armas Rivera, Ivan [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Facultad de Ciencias de la Electronica (Mexico); Beltran Perez, Georgina; Castillo Mixcoatl, Juan; Munoz Aguirre, Severino [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Facultad de Ciencias Fisico Matematicas (Mexico); Zaca Moran, Placido, E-mail: ivan_rr1@hotmail.com [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Fisicoquimica de Materiales ICUAP (Mexico)

    2011-01-01

    Dispersion is a quite important parameter in systems based on optical fiber, especially in pulsed emission lasers, where the temporal width is affected by such parameter. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the dispersion provoked by each component in the cavity. There are various experimental interferometric arrangements to evaluate this parameter. Generally, these systems modify the wavelength to obtain information about the n({lambda}) dependency, which is contained in the interferogram phase. However, this makes the system quite slow and it requires tunable and narrow bandwidth laser sources. In the present work, results obtained from an arrangement based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer where one of the arms is the optical fiber under study, while the reference one is air, are presented. In order to determine the n({lambda}) dependency, a wide spectrum light source was used in the wavelength range of interest. The phase information was evaluated from the interferometric signal measured by an optical spectrum analyzer.

  9. Experimental arrangement to measure dispersion in optical fiber devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armas Rivera, Ivan; Beltran Perez, Georgina; Castillo Mixcoatl, Juan; Munoz Aguirre, Severino; Zaca Moran, Placido

    2011-01-01

    Dispersion is a quite important parameter in systems based on optical fiber, especially in pulsed emission lasers, where the temporal width is affected by such parameter. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the dispersion provoked by each component in the cavity. There are various experimental interferometric arrangements to evaluate this parameter. Generally, these systems modify the wavelength to obtain information about the n(λ) dependency, which is contained in the interferogram phase. However, this makes the system quite slow and it requires tunable and narrow bandwidth laser sources. In the present work, results obtained from an arrangement based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer where one of the arms is the optical fiber under study, while the reference one is air, are presented. In order to determine the n(λ) dependency, a wide spectrum light source was used in the wavelength range of interest. The phase information was evaluated from the interferometric signal measured by an optical spectrum analyzer.

  10. Exchange rate arrangements: From extreme to "normal"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beker Emilija

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies theoretical and empirical location dispersion of exchange rate arrangements - rigid-intermediate-flexible regimes, in the context of extreme arrangements of a currency board, dollarization and monetary union moderate characteristics of intermediate arrangements (adjustable pegs crawling pegs and target zones and imperative-process "normalization" in the form of a managed or clean floating system. It is established that de iure and de facto classifications generate "fear of floating" and "fear of pegging". The "impossible trinity" under the conditions of capital liberalization and globalization creates a bipolar view or hypothesis of vanishing intermediate exchange rate regimes.

  11. Reference Services: A Handmaid's Tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Clare

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of problems in library reference services focuses on the influence of gender roles. A historical overview of gender roles in the development of American librarianship is presented that highlights stereotyped views of and attitudes toward women, which the author suggests still have influences on librarianship today. (17 references) (LRW)

  12. Flood risk governance arrangements in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matczak, P.; Lewandowski, J.; Choryński, A.; Szwed, M.; Kundzewicz, Z. W.

    2015-06-01

    The STAR-FLOOD (Strengthening and Redesigning European Flood Risk Practices Towards Appropriate and Resilient Flood Risk Governance Arrangements) project, funded by the European Commission, investigates strategies for dealing with flood risk in six European countries: Belgium, the UK, France, the Netherlands, Poland and Sweden and in 18 vulnerable urban regions in these countries. The project aims to describe, analyse, explain, and evaluate the main similarities and differences between the selected EU Member States in terms of development and performance of flood risk governance arrangements. It also discusses the scientific and societal importance of these similarities and differences. Attention is paid to identification and characterization of shifts in flood risk governance arrangements and in flood risk management strategies and to determination of triggering factors and restraining factors. An assessment of a change of resilience and appropriateness (legitimacy, effectiveness, efficiency) of flood risk governance arrangements in Poland is presented and comparison with other European countries is offered.

  13. Percentage compensation arrangements: suspect, but not illegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedor, F P

    2001-01-01

    Percentage compensation arrangements, in which a service is outsourced to a contractor that is paid in accordance with the level of its performance, are widely used in many business sectors. The HHS Office of Inspector General (OIG) has shown concern that these arrangements in the healthcare industry may offer incentives for the performance of unnecessary services or cause false claims to be made to Federal healthcare programs in violation of the antikickback statute and the False Claims Act. Percentage compensation arrangements can work and need not run afoul of the law as long as the healthcare organization carefully oversees the arrangement and sets specific safeguards in place. These safeguards include screening contractors, carefully evaluating their compliance programs, and obligating them contractually to perform within the limits of the law.

  14. Flood risk governance arrangements in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Matczak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The STAR-FLOOD (Strengthening and Redesigning European Flood Risk Practices Towards Appropriate and Resilient Flood Risk Governance Arrangements project, funded by the European Commission, investigates strategies for dealing with flood risk in six European countries: Belgium, the UK, France, the Netherlands, Poland and Sweden and in 18 vulnerable urban regions in these countries. The project aims to describe, analyse, explain, and evaluate the main similarities and differences between the selected EU Member States in terms of development and performance of flood risk governance arrangements. It also discusses the scientific and societal importance of these similarities and differences. Attention is paid to identification and characterization of shifts in flood risk governance arrangements and in flood risk management strategies and to determination of triggering factors and restraining factors. An assessment of a change of resilience and appropriateness (legitimacy, effectiveness, efficiency of flood risk governance arrangements in Poland is presented and comparison with other European countries is offered.

  15. Peak load arrangements : Assessment of Nordel guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    Two Nordic countries, Sweden and Finland, have legislation that empowers the TSO to acquire designated peak load resources to mitigate the risk for shortage situations during the winter. In Denmark, the system operator procures resources to maintain a satisfactory level of security of supply. In Norway the TSO has set up a Regulation Power Option Market (RKOM) to secure a satisfactory level of operational reserves at all times, also in winter with high load demand. Only the arrangements in Finland and Sweden fall under the heading of Peak Load Arrangements defined in Nordel Guidelines. NordREG has been invited by the Electricity Market Group (EMG) to evaluate Nordel's proposal for 'Guidelines for transitional Peak Load Arrangements'. The EMG has also financed a study made by EC Group to support NordREG in the evaluation of the proposal. The study has been taken into account in NordREG's evaluation. In parallel to the EMG task, the Swedish regulator, the Energy Markets Inspectorate, has been given the task by the Swedish government to investigate a long term solution of the peak load issue. The Swedish and Finnish TSOs have together with Nord Pool Spot worked on finding a harmonized solution for activation of the peak load reserves in the market. An agreement accepted by the relevant authorities was reached in early January 2009, and the arrangement has been implemented since 19th January 2009. NordREG views that the proposed Nordel guidelines have served as a starting point for the presently agreed procedure. However, NordREG does not see any need to further develop the Nordel guidelines for peak load arrangements. NordREG agrees with Nordel that the market should be designed to solve peak load problems through proper incentives to market players. NordREG presumes that the relevant authorities in each country will take decisions on the need for any peak load arrangement to ensure security of supply. NordREG proposes that such decisions should be

  16. Living arrangements and mental health in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joutsenniemi, Kaisla; Martelin, Tuija; Martikainen, Pekka; Pirkola, Sami; Koskinen, Seppo

    2006-01-01

    Background Non‐married persons are known to have poor mental health compared with married persons. Health differences between marital status groups may largely arise from corresponding differences in interpersonal social bonds. However, official marital status mirrors the social reality of persons to a decreasing extent, and living arrangements may be a better measure of social bonds. Little is known about mental health in different living arrangement groups. This study aims to establish the extent and determinants of mental health differences by living arrangement in terms of psychological distress (GHQ) and DSM‐IV psychiatric disorders (CIDI). Methods Data were used from the nationally representative cross sectional health 2000 survey, conducted in 2000–1 in Finland. Altogether 4685 participants (80%) aged 30–64 years were included in these analyses; comprehensive information was available on measures of mental health and living arrangements. Living arrangements were measured as follows: married, cohabiting, living with other(s) than a partner, and living alone. Results Compared with the married, persons living alone and those living with other(s) than a partner were approximately twice as likely to have anxiety or depressive disorders. Cohabiters did not differ from the married. In men, psychological distress was similarly associated with living arrangements. Unemployment, lack of social support, and alcohol consumption attenuated the excess psychological distress and psychiatric morbidity of persons living alone and of those living with other(s) than a partner by about 10%–50% each. Conclusions Living arrangements are strongly associated with mental health, particularly among men. Information on living arrangements, social support, unemployment, and alcohol use may facilitate early stage recognition of poor mental health in primary health care. PMID:16698975

  17. People management implications of virtual workplace arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    K. Ortlepp; X. Hloma

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors that led to an organisation implementing a particular form of virtual workplace arrangement, namely, home-based work. The benefits and disadvantages associated with this form of work arrangement are explored from both the managers' and home-based employees' perspectives. Design/Methodology/Approach: Given the exploratory nature of the empirical study on which this paper is based, a qualitative research design was adopt...

  18. Historically Speaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Trine Friis

    2015-01-01

    and objects. The article proceeds as a close reading of aspects of Olsson’s performance using three figures described by Walter Benjamin – the collector, the storyteller and the historian – as points of reference. By tracing out the contours of these figures in Olsson’s performance, I am able to elucidate...

  19. Historical overview of immunological tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Ronald H

    2012-04-01

    A fundamental property of the immune system is its ability to mediate self-defense with a minimal amount of collateral damage to the host. The system uses several different mechanisms to achieve this goal, which is collectively referred to as the "process of immunological tolerance." This article provides an introductory historical overview to these various mechanisms, which are discussed in greater detail throughout this collection, and then briefly describes what happens when this process fails, a state referred to as "autoimmunity."

  20. Review of arrangements for the recent transportation of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Codd, M H

    1995-07-01

    The terms of reference of this review were: to examine the adequacy of the arrangements made for the transport of contaminated material from Lucas Heights and St Marys to Woomera, in terms of compliance with the Australian Code for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Substances 1990; to report to the Minister for Industry, Science and Technology on the quality of the planning and preparation for the move; the safety and effectiveness of the move itself; the adequacy of response to any `incidents` involved in the move, and of contingency arrangements; whether planning and transport arrangements might be improved for the future. Thus, the Review was focussed on movements of material in two specific cases - material owned by the CSIRO and stored at Lucas Heights and material owned by the Department of Defence and stored at St Marys. The report concludes that the movements of wastes were carried out consistent with the Transport Code, without any risk to public safety. Additional relevant information in support of the review is contained in 8 appendixes.

  1. Review of arrangements for the recent transportation of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Codd, M.H.

    1995-07-01

    The terms of reference of this review were: to examine the adequacy of the arrangements made for the transport of contaminated material from Lucas Heights and St Marys to Woomera, in terms of compliance with the Australian Code for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Substances 1990; to report to the Minister for Industry, Science and Technology on the quality of the planning and preparation for the move; the safety and effectiveness of the move itself; the adequacy of response to any 'incidents' involved in the move, and of contingency arrangements; whether planning and transport arrangements might be improved for the future. Thus, the Review was focussed on movements of material in two specific cases - material owned by the CSIRO and stored at Lucas Heights and material owned by the Department of Defence and stored at St Marys. The report concludes that the movements of wastes were carried out consistent with the Transport Code, without any risk to public safety. Additional relevant information in support of the review is contained in 8 appendixes

  2. Growth references

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, S. van

    2007-01-01

    A growth reference describes the variation of an anthropometric measurement within a group of individuals. A reference is a tool for grouping and analyzing data and provides a common basis for comparing populations.1 A well known type of reference is the age-conditional growth diagram. The

  3. Meiotic transmission of Drosophila pseudoobscura chromosomal arrangements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard P Meisel

    Full Text Available Drosophila pseudoobscura harbors a rich gene arrangement polymorphism on the third chromosome generated by a series of overlapping paracentric inversions. The arrangements suppress recombination in heterokaryotypic individuals, which allows for the selective maintenance of coadapted gene complexes. Previous mapping experiments used to determine the degree to which recombination is suppressed in gene arrangement heterozygotes produced non-recombinant progeny in non-Mendelian ratios. The deviations from Mendelian expectations could be the result of viability differences between wild and mutant chromosomes, meiotic drive because of achiasmate pairing of homologues in heterokaryotypic females during meiosis, or a combination of both mechanisms. The possibility that the frequencies of the chromosomal arrangements in natural populations are affected by mechanisms other than adaptive selection led us to consider these hypotheses. We performed reciprocal crosses involving both heterozygous males and females to determine if the frequency of the non-recombinant progeny deviates significantly from Mendelian expectations and if the frequencies deviate between reciprocal crosses. We failed to observe non-Mendelian ratios in multiple crosses, and the frequency of the non-recombinant classes differed in only one of five pairs of reciprocal crosses despite sufficient power to detect these differences in all crosses. Our results indicate that deviations from Mendelian expectations in recombination experiments involving the D. pseudoobscura inversion system are most likely due to fitness differences of gene arrangement karyotypes in different environments.

  4. Historical prologue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, D.; Bethe, H.A.; Blair, B.G.; Bracken, P.; Carter, A.B.; Dickinson, H.; Garwin, R.L.; Holloway, D.; Kendall, H.W.

    1988-01-01

    The organizations and machines engaged in a severe nuclear crisis would be its tangible and partially quantifiable factors. For that reason they often dominate our thinking about superpower confrontations. Military organizations, however, are not automatons that can run amok on their own. The perceptions of leaders and populations propel the course of events, and their mindsets are shaped by what experience, history, and myth claim to say about war. Since there has never been combat between nuclear-armed states, it is debatable whether the past has any relevance to what we now face. But the part is all we have to go on. Thus soldiers and statesmen are still haunted by the manner in which this century's two great wars began, and the past thereby influences the thoughts that lead to weapons, to military plans, and to decisions that could turn peace into war. It is therefore essential to have some appreciation for the historical roots that nourish our expectations about international conflict. This paper describes some of these roots

  5. Arrangement for formation perforating and fracturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belyaev, B M; Vitsenii, E M; Zheltov, Yu P; Nikolaev, S I

    1962-03-06

    An arrangement for perforating and hydraulic fracturing, to be lowered on a wire line, consists of a chamber with a shaped charge, a head and a nozzle. This arrangement enables carrying out, simultaneously, the operations of perforating and fracturing. The device may be equipped with separate sections with shaped charges and a powder chamber in which powder charges are placed, designed to be ignited in sequence by slow- acting electric igniters. For controlling the gas pressure and strengthening the arrangement in the zone of perforation, the device is equipped with rubber seals which release the ring elements under pressure of explosive gas. Between the walls of the casing and the rubber seals is an annular space through the gas escapes.

  6. Exchange rate regimes and monetary arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Ribnikar

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a close relationship between a country’s exchange rate regime and monetary arrangement and if we are to examine monetary arrangements then exchange rate regimes must first be analysed. Within the conventional and most widely used classification of exchange rate regimes into rigid and flexible or into polar regimes (hard peg and float on one side, and intermediate regimes on the other there, is a much greater variety among intermediate regimes. A more precise and, as will be seen, more useful classification of exchange rate regimes is the first topic of the paper. The second topic is how exchange rate regimes influence or determine monetary arrangements and monetary policy or monetary policy regimes: monetary autonomy versus monetary nonautonomy and discretion in monetary policy versus commitment in monetary policy. Both topics are important for countries on their path to the EU and the euro area

  7. People management implications of virtual workplace arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ortlepp

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors that led to an organisation implementing a particular form of virtual workplace arrangement, namely, home-based work. The benefits and disadvantages associated with this form of work arrangement are explored from both the managers' and home-based employees' perspectives. Design/Methodology/Approach: Given the exploratory nature of the empirical study on which this paper is based, a qualitative research design was adopted so as to ensure that the data collection process was dynamic and probing in nature. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were therefore used as instruments for data collection. Findings: The research findings indicate that virtual work arrangements such as home-based work arrangements have advantages for both employers and employees. For instance, reduction of costs associated with office space and facilities, decrease in absenteeism rates, increased employee job satisfaction and improvements in employees' general quality of life. However, a number of negative experiences related to this form of virtual work arrangement are also evident, for example, feelings of isolation as well as stress related to the inability to have firm boundaries between work and family responsibilities. Implications: Based on the insights gained from the findings in the empirical study, a number of areas that need to be given specific attention when organisations are introducing virtual workplace arrangements of this nature are identified. Recommendations made in this article are important for human resource management specialists as well as core business policy makers considering different forms of organisational design. Originality/Value: Maximising the quality of production and service provided has become the prime objective in most organisations in the 21st century. Technology has made it possible for some jobs to be performed at any place at any time and has facilitated the

  8. Historical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, E.M.

    1982-01-01

    A historical perspective of the nuclear waste issue is presented, beginning from the Atoms for Peace Legislation which made nuclear technology available to private industry in 1953 to 1954. Once the nuclear process had been demonstrated to be a technically and economically feasible method to convert thermal energy for electric power generation, commercial application began. The issue of nuclear waste management did not keep up with higher priorities. As early as 1957, research into storing the waste in geological structures was conducted by the National Academy of Sciences, and considerable technical progress was made in the 60's. During the 60's and 70's, numerous legislative actions (e.g., Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, Environmental Policy Act) had a significant impact on nuclear waste dipsosal decisions. In 1971 to 1972 the Atomic Energy Commission authorized a nuclear waste repository in Kansas, a decision which was amended the following year and finally abandoned altogether in 1974. The OPEC oil embargo and ensuing price actions moved nuclear power into a more prominent position in the United States' plans for energy independence. This increased the stress between environmental concerns and economic need. The Carter Administration indefinitely deferred reprocessing of spent fuel and initiated a government-wide review of nuclear policy issues. The Congress did not actively begin to fashion a nuclear waste program until February 1980. The legislation which passed the Senate in the Spring of '82, and a compromise version pending before the House, may resolve the issue by establishing a long-term stable policy which will contain milestones, goals and specific decision making processes; it will include a mechanism for the public and the states to be involved; and it will insure adequate financing provisions

  9. Diagnostic profiles of patients with late-onset Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease differ from those of younger Creutzfeldt-Jakob patients: a historical cohort study using data from the German National Reference Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karch, André; Raddatz, Lena Maria; Ponto, Claudia; Hermann, Peter; Summers, David; Zerr, Inga

    2014-05-01

    In contrast to other neurodegenerative diseases, sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) is rarely diagnosed in patients older than 75 years. Data describing the characteristics of sCJD in the very old are rare and inconclusive. Therefore, a historical cohort study was designed to evaluate clinical, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), electroencephalography (EEG), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of this group. Patients older than 75 years identified via the German surveillance program from 2001 to 2012 (n = 73) were compared to a random subsample of sCJD patients younger than 75 (n = 73) from the same time period using an historical cohort design. Older patients showed a faster disease progression represented by an earlier point of diagnosis and a shorter survival time (p disease, older patients presented slightly more often with dementia (p = 0.127) or dysarthria (p = 0.238), whereas disorders of the extrapyramidal (p = 0.056) and visual system (p = 0.015) were more common in the younger group. Atypical MRI profiles such as MRI lesions restricted to one hemisphere (p Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease cases in patients older than 75 years seems likely due to atypical clinical and radiological presentation. This might contribute to lower sCJD incidence rates in this age group.

  10. Military Technology and Conventional Weapons Export Controls: The Wassenaar Arrangement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grimmett, Richard F

    2006-01-01

    This report provides background on the Wassenaar Arrangement, which was formally established in July 1996 as a multilateral arrangement aimed at controlling exports of conventional weapons and related...

  11. [Reference citation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brkić, Silvija

    2013-01-01

    Scientific and professional papers represent the information basis for scientific research and professional work. References important for the paper should be cited within the text, and listed at the end of the paper. This paper deals with different styles of reference citation. Special emphasis was placed on the Vancouver Style for reference citation in biomedical journals established by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. It includes original samples for citing various types of articles, both printed and electronic, as well as recommendations related to reference citation in accordance with the methodology and ethics of scientific research and guidelines for preparing manuscripts for publication.

  12. Canister arrangement for storing radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, D.K.; Van Cleve, J.E. Jr.

    1980-04-23

    The subject invention relates to a canister arrangement for jointly storing high level radioactive chemical waste and metallic waste resulting from the reprocessing of nuclear reactor fuel elements. A cylindrical steel canister is provided with an elongated centrally disposed billet of the metallic waste and the chemical waste in vitreous form is disposed in the annulus surrounding the billet.

  13. Circuit arrangement for indicating radiation dose rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virag, Ernoe; Nyari, Istvan; Simon, Jozsef; Styevko, Mihaly; Krampe, Geza.

    1981-01-01

    The invention presents a dosemeter electronic circuit arrangement indicating hazardous dose rate threshold. If the treshold is reached or exceeded, well distinguished sound and light alarm is turned on immidiately. Moreover, certain critical levels can also be indicated by making the intermittent singalling continuous. (A.L.)

  14. 45 CFR 63.4 - Cooperative arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... another State, to apply for assistance. (b) A joint application made by two or more applicants for... activities performed by each of the joint applicants or may have a combined budget. If joint applications... authorizing separate amounts for each of the joint applicants. (c) In the case of each cooperative arrangement...

  15. Metacognitive Scaffolding in an Innovative Learning Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Inge; van Boxtel, Carla A. M.; Sleegers, Peter J. C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of metacognitive scaffolds on learning outcomes of collaborating students in an innovative learning arrangement. The triads were supported by computerized scaffolds, which were dynamically integrated into the learning process and took a structuring or problematizing form. In an experimental design the two…

  16. 15 CFR 743.1 - Wassenaar Arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wassenaar Arrangement. 743.1 Section 743.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU... following: a. 30 elements or less; or b. Incorporating time delay-and-integration within the element and...

  17. Arrangement of Renal Arteries in Guinea Pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazensky, David; Flesarova, Slavka

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe origin, localization, and variations of renal arteries in guinea pig. The study was carried out on 26 adult guinea pigs. We prepared corrosion casts of the guinea pig arterial system. Batson's corrosion casting kit no. 17 was used as the casting medium. In 57.7% of specimens, a. renalis dextra was present as a single vessel with different level of its origin from aorta abdominalis. In 38.5% of specimens, two aa. renales dextrae were present with variable origin and arrangement. The presence of three aa. renales dextrae we found in one specimen. In 76.9% of specimens, a. renalis sinistra was present as a single vessel with different level of its origin from aorta abdominalis and variable arrangement. In 23.1% of specimens, we found two aa. renales sinistrae with variable origin and arrangement. The anatomical knowledge of the renal arteries, and its variations are of extreme importance for the surgeon that approaches the retroperitoneal region in several experiments, results of which are extrapolated in human. This is the first work dealing with the description of renal arteries arrangement in guinea pig. Anat Rec, 300:556-559, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. 75 FR 346 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... Uses of Nuclear Energy. This subsequent arrangement concerns the retransfer of 28,409 kg of U.S.-origin... Fuels in Kanakawa-ken, Japan. The material, which is currently located at Cameco, Port Hope, Ontario, will be transferred to Global Nuclear Fuel, Kanakawa-ken, Japan to be fabricated into fuel pellets and...

  19. 77 FR 35366 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... arrangement concerns the retransfer of 6,672,212 g of U.S.-origin enriched uranium fuel fabrications scrap, containing 233,977 g of the isotope U-235 (less than five percent enrichment), from Nuclear Fuel Industries... material, which is currently located at Nuclear Fuels Industries, Ltd. in Japan, will be transferred to...

  20. 78 FR 72072 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... g of U.S.-origin atomized low-enriched uranium-7wt. % molybdenum powder, containing 365.638 g in the..., which is located at and was prepared by KAERI, will be used for the irradiation test of full-size fuel... subsequent arrangement concerning the retransfer of nuclear material of United States origin will not be...

  1. 75 FR 82005 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... arrangement concerns the retransfer of 29,887 kg of U.S.-origin natural uranium dioxide (88.00% U), 26,300 kg... Fuel Co. Ltd. in Yuson-Gu, Taejon, South Korea. The material, which is currently located at Cameco, will be transferred for fuel fabrication by Korea Nuclear Fuel Co. Ltd for final use in a civilian...

  2. Reference Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bivens-Tatum, Wayne

    2006-01-01

    This article presents interesting articles that explore several different areas of reference assessment, including practical case studies and theoretical articles that address a range of issues such as librarian behavior, patron satisfaction, virtual reference, or evaluation design. They include: (1) "Evaluating the Quality of a Chat Service"…

  3. National Register Historic Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The National Register Historic District layer is a shape file showing the boundaries of Historic Districts that are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

  4. A European Drought Reference Database: Design and Online Implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stagge, J.H.; Tallaksen, L.M.; Kohn, I.; Stahl, K.; Loon, van A.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents the structure and status of the online European Drought Reference (EDR) database. This website provides detailed historical information regarding major historical European drought events. Each drought event is summarized using climatological drought indices, hydrological drought

  5. Recent references

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramavataram, S.

    1991-01-01

    In support of a continuing program of systematic evaluation of nuclear structure data, the National Nuclear Data Center maintains a complete computer file of references to the nuclear physics literature. Each reference is tagged by a keyword string, which indicates the kinds of data contained in the article. This master file of Nuclear Structure References (NSR) contains complete keyword indexes to literature published since 1969, with partial indexing of older references. Any reader who finds errors in the keyword descriptions is urged to report them to the National Nuclear Data Center so that the master NSR file can be corrected. In 1966, the first collection of Recent References was published as a separate issue of Nuclear Data Sheets. Every four months since 1970, a similar indexed bibliography to new nuclear experiments has been prepared from additions to the NSR file and published. Beginning in 1978, Recent References was cumulated annually, with the third issue completely superseding the two issues previously published during a given year. Due to publication policy changes, cumulation of Recent Reference was discontinued in 1986. The volume and issue number of all the cumulative issues published to date are given. NNDC will continue to respond to individual requests for special bibliographies on nuclear physics topics, in addition to those easily obtained from Recent References. If the required information is available from the keyword string, a reference list can be prepared automatically from the computer files. This service can be provided on request, in exchange for the timely communication of new nuclear physics results (e.g., preprints). A current copy of the NSR file may also be obtained in a standard format on magnetic tape from NNDC. Requests for special searches of the NSR file may also be directed to the National Nuclear Data Center

  6. 46 CFR 180.150 - Survival craft embarkation arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Survival craft embarkation arrangements. 180.150 Section... (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Survival Craft Arrangements and Equipment § 180.150 Survival craft embarkation arrangements. (a) A launching appliance approved under approval...

  7. 46 CFR 188.27-1 - Lifesaving appliances and arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. 188.27-1 Section... VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Lifesaving Appliances and Arrangements § 188.27-1 Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. All lifesaving appliances and arrangements shall be in accordance with the requirements for...

  8. 46 CFR 195.06-1 - Lifesaving appliances and arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. 195.06-1 Section... VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Lifesaving Appliances and Arrangements § 195.06-1 Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. All lifesaving appliances and arrangements shall be...

  9. 46 CFR 90.27-1 - Lifesaving appliances and arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. 90.27-1 Section... VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Lifesaving Appliances and Arrangements § 90.27-1 Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. All lifesaving appliances and arrangements must be in accordance with subchapter W (Lifesaving...

  10. 46 CFR 70.28-1 - Lifesaving appliances and arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. 70.28-1 Section... PROVISIONS Lifesaving Appliances and Arrangements § 70.28-1 Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. All lifesaving appliances and arrangements on passenger vessels must be in accordance with subchapter W...

  11. Creating flexible work arrangements through idiosyncratic deals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornung, Severin; Rousseau, Denise M; Glaser, Jürgen

    2008-05-01

    A survey of 887 employees in a German government agency assessed the antecedents and consequences of idiosyncratic arrangements individual workers negotiated with their supervisors. Work arrangements promoting the individualization of employment conditions, such as part-time work and telecommuting, were positively related to the negotiation of idiosyncratic deals ("i-deals"). Worker personal initiative also had a positive effect on i-deal negotiation. Two types of i-deals were studied: flexibility in hours of work and developmental opportunities. Flexibility i-deals were negatively related and developmental i-deals positively related to work-family conflict and working unpaid overtime. Developmental i-deals were also positively related to increased performance expectations and affective organizational commitment, while flexibility i-deals were unrelated to either. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Storage arrangement for nuclear reactor fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, E.E.

    1977-01-01

    Said invention is intended for providing an arrangement of spent fuel assembly storage inside which the space is efficiently used without accumulating a critical mass. The storage is provided for long fuel assemblies having along their longitudinal axis an active part containing the fuel and an inactive part empty of fuel. Said storage arrangement comprises a framework constituting some long-shaped cells designed so as each of them can receive a fuel assembly. Means of axial positioning of said assembly in a cell make it possible to support the fuel assemblies inside the framework according to a spacing ratio, along the cell axis, such as the active part of an assembly is adjacent to the inactive part of the adjacent assemblies [fr

  13. Method and arrangement of distillation of shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergh, S V

    1920-03-29

    A method is given of distilling shale and other bituminous materials utilizing the heat from the combustion of the residue, possibly with additional heat from other fuels. It is characterized by the shale, which is arranged in layers, being first submitted to a process of distillation utilizing the heat mentioned, and at the same time recovering the products of distillation, and second the shale being burned without disturbing the layers to any appreciable extent. The patent has 16 more claims.

  14. Core arrangement in BWR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Masayuki.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To decrease the number of fuel assemblies whose locations are to be changed upon fuel exchange, as well as unify the power distribution in the core by arranging, in a chess board configuration, a plurality pattern of unit reactor lattices each containing fuel assemblies of different burnup degrees in orthogonal positions to each other. Constitution: A first pattern of unit reactor lattice is formed by disposing fuel assemblies of burnup degree 1 and fuel assemblies of burnup degree 3 at orthogonal positions to each other. A second pattern of unit reactor lattice is formed by disposing fuel assemblies of burnup degree 2 and fuel assemblies of burnup degree 1 at orthogonal positions to each other. The unit lattices each in such a dispositions are arranged in a chess board arrangement. Since, the fuel assemblies of the burnup degree 1 in the first pattern unit lattices proceed to the burnup degree 2 and the fuel assemblies of the burnup degree 2 in the second pattern unit lattices proceed to the burnup degree 3 up to the fuel exchange stage, fuel exchange and movement have only to be made, not for those fuel assemblies, but for another half of the fuel assemblies. (Kawakami, Y.)

  15. Recurring part arrangements in shape collections

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Youyi

    2014-05-01

    Extracting semantically related parts across models remains challenging, especially without supervision. The common approach is to co-analyze a model collection, while assuming the existence of descriptive geometric features that can directly identify related parts. In the presence of large shape variations, common geometric features, however, are no longer sufficiently descriptive. In this paper, we explore an indirect top-down approach, where instead of part geometry, part arrangements extracted from each model are compared. The key observation is that while a direct comparison of part geometry can be ambiguous, part arrangements, being higher level structures, remain consistent, and hence can be used to discover latent commonalities among semantically related shapes. We show that our indirect analysis leads to the detection of recurring arrangements of parts, which are otherwise difficult to discover in a direct unsupervised setting. We evaluate our algorithm on ground truth datasets and report advantages over geometric similarity-based bottom-up co-segmentation algorithms. © 2014 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2014 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The making of local hospital discharge arrangements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burau, Viola; Bro, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Background Timely discharge is a key component of contemporary hospital governance and raises questions about how to move to more explicit discharge arrangements. Although associated organisational changes closely intersect with professional interests, there are relatively few studies in the lite......Background Timely discharge is a key component of contemporary hospital governance and raises questions about how to move to more explicit discharge arrangements. Although associated organisational changes closely intersect with professional interests, there are relatively few studies...... in the literature on hospital discharge that explicitly examine the role of professional groups. Recent contributions to the literature on organisational studies of the professions help to specify how professional groups in hospitals contribute to the introduction and routinisation of discharge arrangements...... for patients with prostate cancer in two hospitals in Denmark. This represents a typical case that involves changes in professional practice without being first and foremost a professional project. The multiple case design also makes the findings more robust. The analysis draws from 12 focus groups...

  17. Recurring part arrangements in shape collections

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Youyi; Cohen-Or, Daniel; Averkiou, Melinos; Mitra, Niloy J.

    2014-01-01

    Extracting semantically related parts across models remains challenging, especially without supervision. The common approach is to co-analyze a model collection, while assuming the existence of descriptive geometric features that can directly identify related parts. In the presence of large shape variations, common geometric features, however, are no longer sufficiently descriptive. In this paper, we explore an indirect top-down approach, where instead of part geometry, part arrangements extracted from each model are compared. The key observation is that while a direct comparison of part geometry can be ambiguous, part arrangements, being higher level structures, remain consistent, and hence can be used to discover latent commonalities among semantically related shapes. We show that our indirect analysis leads to the detection of recurring arrangements of parts, which are otherwise difficult to discover in a direct unsupervised setting. We evaluate our algorithm on ground truth datasets and report advantages over geometric similarity-based bottom-up co-segmentation algorithms. © 2014 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2014 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Frequency Arrangement For 700 MHz Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ancans G.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The 694-790 MHz (700 MHz band was allocated by the 2012 World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC-12 in ITU Region 1 (Europe included, to the mobile service on a co-primary basis with other services to which this band was allocated on the primary basis and identified for the International Mobile Telecommunications (IMT. At the same time, the countries of Region 1 will be able also to continue using these frequencies for their broadcasting services if necessary. This allocation will be effective immediately after 2015 World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC-15. In order to make the best possible use of this frequency band for mobile service, a worldwide harmonized frequency arrangement is to be prepared to allow for large economies of scale and international roaming as well as utilizing the available spectrum in the best possible way, minimizing possible interference between services, facilitating deployment and cross-border coordination. The authors analyze different possible frequency arrangements and conclude on the frequency arrangement most suitable for Europe.

  19. On the cybernetic arrangement of feedback in serious games: A systems-theoretical perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westera, Wim

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the cybernetic regulation of complex human learning and teaching. It provides a theoretical description of the arrangement of adaptive, machine- generated learner feedback which relies on cybernetic principles. Cybernetics — today often referred to as control theory, or

  20. Human Rights: The Essential Reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Carol; Hansen, Carol Rae; Wilde, Ralph; Bronkhorst, Daan; Moritz, Frederic A.; Rolle, Baptiste; Sherman, Rebecca; Southard, Jo Lynn; Wilkinson, Robert; Poole, Hilary, Ed.

    This reference work documents the history of human rights theory, explains each article of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, explores the contemporary human rights movement, and examines the major human rights issues facing the world today. This book is the first to combine historical and contemporary perspectives on these critical…

  1. Jet spoiler arrangement for wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyrus, J. D.; Kablec, E. G.; Klimas, P. C.

    1983-09-01

    An air jet spoiler arrangement is provided for a Darrieus-type vertical axis wind-powered turbine. Air is drawn into hollow turbine blades through air inlets at the end thereof and is ejected in the form of air jets through small holes or openings provided along the lengths of the blades. The air jets create flow separation at the surfaces of the turbine blades, thereby including stal conditions and reducing the output power. A feedback control unit senses the power output of the turbine and controls the amount of air drawn into the air inlets accordingly.

  2. Jet spoiler arrangement for wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyrus, Jack D.; Kadlec, Emil G.; Klimas, Paul C.

    1985-01-01

    An air jet spoiler arrangement is provided for a Darrieus-type vertical axis wind-powered turbine. Air is drawn into hollow turbine blades through air inlets at the ends thereof and is ejected in the form of air jets through small holes or openings provided along the lengths of the blades. The air jets create flow separation at the surfaces of the turbine blades, thereby inducing stall conditions and reducing the output power. A feedback control unit senses the power output of the turbine and controls the amount of air drawn into the air inlets accordingly.

  3. Improved microgrid arrangement for integrated imaging polarimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMaster, Daniel A; Hirakawa, Keigo

    2014-04-01

    For almost 20 years, microgrid polarimetric imaging systems have been built using a 2×2 repeating pattern of polarization analyzers. In this Letter, we show that superior spatial resolution is achieved over this 2×2 case when the analyzers are arranged in a 2×4 repeating pattern. This unconventional result, in which a more distributed sampling pattern results in finer spatial resolution, is also achieved without affecting the conditioning of the polarimetric data-reduction matrix. Proof is provided theoretically and through Stokes image reconstruction of synthesized data.

  4. A Circularly Arranged Sextuple Triptycene Gear Molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ube, Hitoshi; Yamada, Ryo; Ishida, Jun-Ichi; Sato, Hiroyasu; Shiro, Motoo; Shionoya, Mitsuhiko

    2017-11-22

    Herein we report the synthesis of a circularly arranged sextuple triptycene gear molecule, hexakis(10-dodecyloxy-9-triptycyl)ethynylbenzene, via the trimerization of the corresponding triyne with a cobalt catalyst. The six triptycene gears are closely engaged with each other as confirmed by single crystal X-ray structure analysis, and their motion in solution was established by NMR spectroscopy. Notably, when one bulky RuCp* complex was attached to one triptycene gear, the whole movement of the six gears was highly restricted via their mechanical engagement. Development of such a multigear molecule would provide a structural basis for molecular motion transmission systems with a switching function.

  5. Monitoring arrangement for vented nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campana, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    In a nuclear fuel reactor core, fuel elements are arranged in a closely packed hexagonal configuration, each fuel element having diametrically opposed vents permitting 180 0 rotation of the fuel elements to counteract bowing. A grid plate engages the fuel elements and forms passages for communicating sets of three, four or six individual vents with respective monitor lines in order to communicate vented radioactive gases from the fuel elements to suitable monitor means in a manner readily permitting detection of leakage in individual fuel elements

  6. Method of operating an electromagnet arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldie, F.T.D.

    1988-01-01

    A method is described for operating an electromagnet arrangement comprising a main electromagnet and a number of correction coils for applying correction fields to the field produced by the main electromagnet to produce a resultant desired homogeneous magnetic field in a given volume. The method comprises obtaining the least squares fit values for the correction coil currents. If the required current in any coil lies outside a range of permissible values for that coil current a special procedure is described to find the selection of coil currents providing the lowest squared deviation between the desired and actual fields consistent with the permissible currents in the coils. (author)

  7. Calibration of an arbitrarily arranged projection moiré system for 3D shape measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ying; Yao, Jun; Zhou, Yihao; Sun, Chen; Yang, Peng; Miao, Hong; Chen, Jubing

    2018-05-01

    An arbitrarily arranged projection moiré system is presented for three-dimensional shape measurement. We develop a model for projection moiré system and derive a universal formula expressing the relation between height and phase variation before and after we put the object on the reference plane. With so many system parameters involved, a system calibration technique is needed. In this work, we provide a robust and accurate calibration method for an arbitrarily arranged projection moiré system. The system no longer puts restrictions on the configuration of the optical setup. Real experiments have been conducted to verify the validity of this method.

  8. UK nuclear terrorism insurance arrangements: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetley, M. G.

    2004-01-01

    The risk of terrorism in the UK is not new, but since the New York World Trade Centre attacks in 2001, the potential scale of any terrorist attack has required a considerable reassessment. With UK foreign policy closely aligned to that of the USA, the UK security services now consider it is simply a matter of when and no longer if the UK is attacked. For insurers of any type this fact would cause concern; for insurers involved in high profile and potentially catastrophic loss targets such as nuclear power plants, any attack could have a severe impact on solvency and shareholder's funds. This paper's objective is to describe the terrorism insurance arrangements put in place in the U.K. both before and after the September 2001 attacks. These arrangements have been designed both to safeguard insurers' solvency and to ensure that the nuclear industry and general public can continue to be reassured by the availability of insurance should an attack ever occur.(author)

  9. Tax issues in structuring gas process arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iverach, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    The current status of various tax issues regarding ownership, operation and financing of gas processing facilities in Canada was discussed. Frequently, energy companies are not taxed because of their large pools of un-depreciated capital cost and other resource related accounts. In addition, their time horizons for taxability are being extended in line with the expansion of their businesses. However, other investors are fully taxable, hence they wish to shelter their income through the use of tax efficient investment arrangements. This paper provides a detailed description of the tax treatment of gas processing facilities, tax implications of various structures between the producer and the investor such as lease, processing fee arrangements etc., and use of 'Canadian Renewable and Conservation Expense' (CRCE) for cogeneration projects within processing plants. All these need to be considered before completing a financing transaction involving a gas processing facility, since the manner in which the transaction is completed will determine the advantages and benefits from an income tax perspective. The accounting and legal aspects must be similarly scrutinized to ensure that the intended results for all parties are achieved. 8 figs

  10. How children arrange social communities across contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højholt, Charlotte

    and contributing to different activities of their life. Following children in their everyday life across contexts has highlighted a theme about how children ‘arrange’ their social communities and their personal participation in varying and shifting activities. In this way the paper will emphasize the active......The purpose of the CHACDOC section is among other things to create a forum for uniting developmental psychology and childhood research. This raises the question: How can studies of children anchored in historical time and settings contribute to discussions of what development is about...... different life contexts, contradictory demands and social conflicts. One point in the paper will be to illustrate that they are doing this together. Children’s developmental contexts are societal and historical structured and in the same time the children themselves are involved in organising, negotiating...

  11. VT Historic Preservation Grant

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The State-funded Historic Preservation Grant Program helps municipalities and non-profit organizations rehabilitate the historic buildings that are a vital part of...

  12. 48 CFR 28.304 - Risk-pooling arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Insurance 28.304 Risk-pooling arrangements. Agencies may establish risk-pooling arrangements. These arrangements are designed to use the services of the insurance industry for safety engineering and the handling of claims at minimum cost to the Government. The agency...

  13. 22 CFR 92.63 - Arrangement of papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arrangement of papers. 92.63 Section 92.63... and Letters Rogatory § 92.63 Arrangement of papers. Unless special instructions to the contrary are received, the various papers comprising the completed record of the depositions should usually be arranged...

  14. 46 CFR 117.150 - Survival craft embarkation arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Survival craft embarkation arrangements. 117.150 Section... EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Survival Craft Arrangements and Equipment § 117.150 Survival craft embarkation... apparatus when either— (1) The embarkation station for the survival craft is on a deck more than 4.5 meters...

  15. 46 CFR 108.525 - Survival craft number and arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Survival craft number and arrangement. 108.525 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Lifesaving Equipment § 108.525 Survival craft number and arrangement. (a... arrangement of survival craft: (1) Lifeboats with an aggregate capacity to accommodate the total number of...

  16. Entry into and Consequences of Nonstandard Work Arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Donna S.

    1996-01-01

    Explores the impact on workers of being in a nonstandard employment arrangement. Examines the distribution of workers among various arrangements and looks at aspects of work behavior and life events that may have influenced their working in a nonstandard arrangement. (Author/JOW)

  17. European top managers' support for work-life arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Been, W.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/357424662

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, work-life arrangements increasingly became an integral part of the organization of work. Arrangements such as telecommuting, flextime, part-time hours, and various types of leave arrangements are available to employees in many organizations. Top managers, such as CEOs, CFOs and

  18. 47 CFR 1.9020 - Spectrum manager leasing arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Spectrum manager leasing arrangements. 1.9020... Leasing General Policies and Procedures § 1.9020 Spectrum manager leasing arrangements. (a) Overview... may enter into a spectrum manager leasing arrangement, without the need for prior Commission approval...

  19. Democracy and Historical Writing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Baets, Antoon

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, we try to clarify the relationship between democracy and historical writing. The strategy is first exploring the general relationship between democracy and historical awareness, and then, studying the relationship between democracy and historical writing itself to find out whether

  20. Grinding arrangement for ball nose milling cutters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, C. F. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A grinding arrangement for spiral fluted ball nose end mills and like tools includes a tool holder for positioning the tool relative to a grinding wheel. The tool is mounted in a spindle within the tool holder for rotation about its centerline and the tool holder is pivotably mounted for angular movement about an axis which intersects that centerline. A follower arm of a cam follower secured to the spindle cooperates with a specially shaped cam to provide rotation of the tool during the angular movement of the tool holder during the grinding cycle, by an amount determined by the cam profile. In this way the surface of the cutting edge in contact with the grinding wheel is maintained at the same height on the grinding wheel throughout the angular movement of the tool holder during the grinding cycle.

  1. Considerations on impact factors and institutional arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-04-01

    The Delegation makes three comments on the work of the Group. First, the Group should consider the development of international safety standards governing occupational and environmental protection. Non-proliferation measures should not override these standards. Second, safeguards for reprocessing and plutonium recycle must be improved. The Japanese INFCE/DEP./WG-4/122 and French INFCE/DEP./WG-4/58 proposals are valuable contributions to this objective but the Group as a whole should make a broad assessment of safeguards. Lastly, the Delegation supports the development of new institutional arrangements for the fuel cycle which balance the rights and obligations of both suppliers and customers. In particular, the establishment of International Plutonium Storage is supported

  2. High mass isotope separation process and arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eerkens, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    An isotope separation arrangement for separating a preselected isotope from a mixture of chemically identical but isotopically different molecules by either photon-induced pure rovibrational or vibronic selective excitation of the molecules containing the atoms of the isotope to be separated from a lower to a higher energy state, and a chemical reaction of the higher energy state molecules with a chemically reactive agent to form a chemical compound containing primarily the atoms of isotope to be separated in a physicochemical state different from the physicochemical state of the mixture of chemically identical but isotopically different molecules. The chemical compound containing the atoms of the isotope to be separated may be subsequently processed to obtain the isotope

  3. Factored Facade Acquisition using Symmetric Line Arrangements

    KAUST Repository

    Ceylan, Duygu

    2012-05-01

    We introduce a novel framework for image-based 3D reconstruction of urban buildings based on symmetry priors. Starting from image-level edges, we generate a sparse and approximate set of consistent 3D lines. These lines are then used to simultaneously detect symmetric line arrangements while refining the estimated 3D model. Operating both on 2D image data and intermediate 3D feature representations, we perform iterative feature consolidation and effective outlier pruning, thus eliminating reconstruction artifacts arising from ambiguous or wrong stereo matches. We exploit non-local coherence of symmetric elements to generate precise model reconstructions, even in the presence of a significant amount of outlier image-edges arising from reflections, shadows, outlier objects, etc. We evaluate our algorithm on several challenging test scenarios, both synthetic and real. Beyond reconstruction, the extracted symmetry patterns are useful towards interactive and intuitive model manipulations.

  4. Minimum Energy Requirements in Complex Distillation Arrangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halvorsen, Ivar J.

    2001-07-01

    Distillation is the most widely used industrial separation technology and distillation units are responsible for a significant part of the total heat consumption in the world's process industry. In this work we focus on directly (fully thermally) coupled column arrangements for separation of multicomponent mixtures. These systems are also denoted Petlyuk arrangements, where a particular implementation is the dividing wall column. Energy savings in the range of 20-40% have been reported with ternary feed mixtures. In addition to energy savings, such integrated units have also a potential for reduced capital cost, making them extra attractive. However, the industrial use has been limited, and difficulties in design and control have been reported as the main reasons. Minimum energy results have only been available for ternary feed mixtures and sharp product splits. This motivates further research in this area, and this thesis will hopefully give some contributions to better understanding of complex column systems. In the first part we derive the general analytic solution for minimum energy consumption in directly coupled columns for a multicomponent feed and any number of products. To our knowledge, this is a new contribution in the field. The basic assumptions are constant relative volatility, constant pressure and constant molar flows and the derivation is based on Underwood's classical methods. An important conclusion is that the minimum energy consumption in a complex directly integrated multi-product arrangement is the same as for the most difficult split between any pair of the specified products when we consider the performance of a conventional two-product column. We also present the Vmin-diagram, which is a simple graphical tool for visualisation of minimum energy related to feed distribution. The Vmin-diagram provides a simple mean to assess the detailed flow requirements for all parts of a complex directly coupled arrangement. The main purpose in

  5. Minimum Energy Requirements in Complex Distillation Arrangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halvorsen, Ivar J

    2001-07-01

    Distillation is the most widely used industrial separation technology and distillation units are responsible for a significant part of the total heat consumption in the world's process industry. In this work we focus on directly (fully thermally) coupled column arrangements for separation of multicomponent mixtures. These systems are also denoted Petlyuk arrangements, where a particular implementation is the dividing wall column. Energy savings in the range of 20-40% have been reported with ternary feed mixtures. In addition to energy savings, such integrated units have also a potential for reduced capital cost, making them extra attractive. However, the industrial use has been limited, and difficulties in design and control have been reported as the main reasons. Minimum energy results have only been available for ternary feed mixtures and sharp product splits. This motivates further research in this area, and this thesis will hopefully give some contributions to better understanding of complex column systems. In the first part we derive the general analytic solution for minimum energy consumption in directly coupled columns for a multicomponent feed and any number of products. To our knowledge, this is a new contribution in the field. The basic assumptions are constant relative volatility, constant pressure and constant molar flows and the derivation is based on Underwood's classical methods. An important conclusion is that the minimum energy consumption in a complex directly integrated multi-product arrangement is the same as for the most difficult split between any pair of the specified products when we consider the performance of a conventional two-product column. We also present the Vmin-diagram, which is a simple graphical tool for visualisation of minimum energy related to feed distribution. The Vmin-diagram provides a simple mean to assess the detailed flow requirements for all parts of a complex directly coupled arrangement. The main purpose in the first

  6. S. R. Ranganathan's Theory of Reference Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Manoj M.

    A study of S. R. Ranganathan's theory of reference service is undertaken by using an historical methodology. It was evident from the literature review that Ranganathan had established that reference service was the most important work and served as the hub of all library practices. There were six factors that were repeatedly considered by…

  7. Historical Slovenian Language Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Erjavec

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available EXTENDED ABSTRACT:The paper presents three language resources enabling better full-text access to digitised printed historical Slovenian texts: a hand-annotated corpus, a hand-annotated lexicon of historical words and a collection of transcribed texts. The aim of the resources is twofold: on one hand they support empirical linguistic research (corpus, collection and represent a reference tool for the research of historical Slovenian (lexicon while on the other hand they may serve as training data for the development of Human Language Technologies enabling better full-text search in digital libraries containing Slovenian written cultural heritage, modernisation of historical texts, and the development of better technological solutions for text recognition and scanning. The hand annotated corpus of historical Slovenian contains the text from 1,000 pages sampled from the years 1750 to 1900, two texts date to the end of the 16th or 17th century. The corpus contains a little more than 250,000 word tokens; each of them being annotated with hand validated linguistic features: modernised form, lemma or base form, and morhpo-syntactic description. Thus the word token »ajfram« is annotated with the normalised form »ajfrom«, by the lemma »ajfer« and morphosyntactic description »Som« or »Samostalnik« (noun, »občni« (common, »moški« (masculine and a modernised form »gorečnost« (fervour. At first the corpus was annotated automatically and then manually verified and corrected. The lexicon was created automatically from the hand-annotated corpus. It contains only attested word-forms and examples of use. The word-forms are ordered under their modern equivalents. All the modern forms of a particular word constitute a dictionary entry, defined by its lemma with conjoint information i.e. the morpho-syntactic description and the closest contemporary synonyms. Thus the entry »ajfrer/Som/gorečnost« is annotated by two modernised words »ajfra

  8. Local emergency arrangements for radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the local and national framework for public protection during peacetime emergencies with particular reference to major accidents or events with radiological consequences. The basis for the development of emergency plans will be described together with the inter-relationship between the responsibilities of individual organisations. (author)

  9. Tank characterization reference guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Lorenzo, D.S.; DiCenso, A.T.; Hiller, D.B.; Johnson, K.W.; Rutherford, J.H.; Smith, D.J.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-09-01

    Characterization of the Hanford Site high-level waste storage tanks supports safety issue resolution; operations and maintenance requirements; and retrieval, pretreatment, vitrification, and disposal technology development. Technical, historical, and programmatic information about the waste tanks is often scattered among many sources, if it is documented at all. This Tank Characterization Reference Guide, therefore, serves as a common location for much of the generic tank information that is otherwise contained in many documents. The report is intended to be an introduction to the issues and history surrounding the generation, storage, and management of the liquid process wastes, and a presentation of the sampling, analysis, and modeling activities that support the current waste characterization. This report should provide a basis upon which those unfamiliar with the Hanford Site tank farms can start their research

  10. Bands and chromosome arrangement in interphase nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, N.O.; Bianchi, M.A.; Matayoshi, T.

    1977-01-01

    Chromosomes from the vole mouse Akodon dolores and from laboratory mouse showed the presence of G-bands after 3 minutes digestion with trypsin and Giemsa stain. Simultaneously, 30- to 40% of the interphase nuclei exhibited a dark ring parallel to the nuclear contour and a radial array of the chromatin in the internal and external regions of the ring. The origin and meaning of this ring image was analyzed by combining progressive trypsinizations with other methods such as C-banding procedures, autoradiography with 3 HTdR, staining with quinacrine mustard and 33258 Hoechst fluorochromes. Moreover, the presence of the dark ring was also investigated in cells treated with actinomycin and in control cells not subjected to any treatment. The results obtained allowed to assume that in interphase nuclei the chromosomes have chromatin bridges which connect the dark G-bands and that these bridges are probably involved in maintaining an ordered architecture of the nucleus with fixed chromosome positions in regard to the nuclear envelope and in regard to other chromosomes. Trypsinization produces a disruption of the interphase chromatin arrangement and the subsequent appearance of a dark ring formed by the combination of constitutive heterochromatin and dark G-bands. (auth.)

  11. Contractual arrangements for uranium exploration and mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-07-01

    Uranium exploration in WOCA, stabilized since 1985 at a level of annual expenditures of US $120-150 million. About half of this amount is funded by mining companies based in the uranium consumer countries such as the Federal Republic of Germany, France, the Republic of Korea, Japan, United Kingdom etc. and expended outside their home countries, mainly in Australia, Canada and USA, but also in a number of African countries. As WOCA's uranium production is concentrated in a few countries, in 1986, Australia, Canada, South Africa and USA had a combined share of nearly 70% of the total, a stronger diversification of uranium supplies may be desirable in the future. This expected trend may result in the planning or uranium exploration projects by international uranium companies in countries in Africa, Asia and South America. To provide information which can be helpful for both parties in the negotiations of cooperation agreement is the scope of this document. It contains a brief introductory part including an overview of the development of the different forms of international cooperation, a case history provided by Zambia, a report listing the essential subjects to be included in an uranium agreement as well as an example of a structure of contractual arrangements. This part is followed by an extensive annex with three ''no-names-no numbers'' contract texts, which were concluded in the later part of the 1970s and beginning of the 1980s

  12. Strike a balance with flexible working arrangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madison, Alison L.

    2012-12-15

    Monthly Economic Diversity column for the Tri-City Herald - Topic: Telworking - Excerpt below: As the holiday season kicks into high gear, work-life balance is on many of our minds. How can I meet all of my work commitments this month when no one will be in the office, and still strategically use very little vacation time to stretch the holiday break from four days to fourteen? Am I right? I think most all of us want to stay engaged with our professional lives while maintaining the freedom to prioritize our personal lives. And many employers have come up with ways to help us achieve that balance. Teleworking is not a brand new concept, but is certainly gaining steam as employers and employees alike try to find ways to meet a variety of wants and needs. There are benefits to both sides when it comes to offering flexible working arrangements such as teleworking. For businesses attempting to meet sustainability targets by reducing employee commuting and associated impacts to energy and environment, the benefits of this option can really add up.

  13. Optical properties of quasiperiodically arranged semiconductor nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werchner, Marco

    2009-12-18

    This work consists of two parts which are entitled ''One-Dimensional Resonant Fibonacci Quasicrystals'' and ''Resonant Tunneling of Light in Silicon Nanostructures''. A microscopic theory has been applied to investigate the optical properties of the respective semiconductor nanostructures. The studied one-dimensional resonant Fibonacci quasicrystals consist of GaAs quantum wells (QW) that are separated by either a large spacer L or a small one S. These spacers are arranged according to the Fibonacci sequence LSLLSLSL.. The average spacing satisfies a generalized Bragg condition with respect to the 1s-exciton resonance of the QWs. A theory, that makes use of the transfer-matrix method and that allows for the microscopic description of many-body effects such as excitation-induced dephasing caused by the Coulomb scattering of carriers, has been applied to compute the optical spectra of such structures. A pronounced sharp reflectivity minimum is found in the vicinity of the heavy-hole resonance both in the measured as well as in the calculated linear 54-QW spectra. Specifically, the influence of the carrier density, of the QW arrangement, of a detuning away from the exact Bragg condition, of the average spacing as well as of the ratio of the optical path lengths of the large and small spacers L and S, respectively, and of the QW number on the optical properties of the samples have been studied. Additionally, self-similarity among reflection spectra corresponding to different QW numbers that exceed a Fibonacci number by one is observed, which identifies certain spectral features as true fingerprints of the Fibonacci spacing. In the second part, resonant tunneling of light in stacked structures consisting of alternating parallel layers of silicon and air have been studied theoretically.Light may tunnel through the air barrier due to the existence of evanescent waves inside the air layers if the neighboring silicon layer is close

  14. Human Rights Arrangement on Indonesian Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Masribut Sardol

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Article 1 paragraph (3 of the Constitution of 1945 (UUD 1945 stated that Indonesia is a Rule of Law. One feature of the Rule of Law is the existence of human rights in the state administration. Indonesia, since independence on August 17, 1945 has asserted the defense of human rights as stated in the opening clause and in the torso of the 1945 Constitution Article 27-34. In the era of reform, on the Government of President Habibie, the President and the Parliament ratified the UN convention against torture and other cruel, inhuman, or degrading human dignity into Law number 5 of 1998. Then the MPR also publishes the statutes of MPR No. XVII/MPR/1998 on Human Rights, which was followed up with the appearance of Law No. 39 of 1999 on human rights. In accordance with the law in Indonesia based on the sort of Law No. 12 of 2011, the actual products that have been issued by the Government (the MPR, DPR and President that follow up the substance of Human Rights in the Constitution with established Assembly and the law is already correct. But when the MPR then does the second amendment to the Constitution on August 18, 2000 by adding a special article chapters and contains about Human Rights (as mentioned in Chapter X-A section 28 A-J, have made the complexity hierarchy of law in Indonesia because it is not in accordance with the substance of article 7 of Law No. 12 of 2011. How To Cite: Sardol, S. (2014. Human Rights Arrangement on Indonesian Law. Rechtsidee, 1(1, 85-100. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v1i1.105

  15. Institutional arrangements for a multinational reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.B.; Chayes, A.

    1977-01-01

    The paper lists some of the major issues that would have to be faced in negotiating the institutional structure of a multinational nuclear-fuel center. None of the organization problems is inherently insoluble. Difficulties are exacerbated by the large number of questions, their interrelations, and the complexity of the assumed structure. However, the assumptions posed the most difficult case. A reduction in membership and in the ambitious scope of the enterprise, at least at the outset, would greatly reduce the complexity of the organizational structure and the difficulty of negotiations. The analysis suggests that multinational fuel-cycle activities should start out more modestly, perhaps only with joint appraisal by a relatively few countries with existing geographic or economic connections. If operations are contemplated it would seem that the first step should be joint arrangements for spent-fuel storage, with the decision to go forward to more elaborate activities deferred. This approach would not only be simpler and permit the parties to gain experience working together, but it would have the virtue of delaying reprocessing until it was clear that there was a real need for it. Even on this reduced basis, the negotiating task would not be easy. The key, of course, to overcoming difficult technical problems of institutional structure is politial will--the genuine commitment of the participants to the aims and values of the enterprise. This suggests that any effort to cajole--not to say coerce--participation in a multinational fuel-cycle enterprise would be wholly misplaced. A reluctant partner would have available an infinitude of points and issues to create plausible, irritating, and ultimately defeating delay and complication in the negotiating process. Only assent freely given in the perception that the enterprise really serves the interest of the countries involved will be able to surmount the many institutional problems that will inevitably arise

  16. Support mechanism for a mirrored surface or other arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutburth, Ronald W.

    1987-01-01

    An adjustment mechanism such as a three point spherical mount for adjustably supporting a planer mirror or other type of arrangement relative to a plane defined by a given pair of intersecting perpendicular axes is disclosed herein. This mechanism includes first means for fixedly supporting the mirror or other arrangement such that the latter is positionable within the plane defined by the given pair of intersecting perpendicular axes. This latter means and the mirror or other such arrangement are supported by second means for limited movement back and forth about either of the intersecting axes. Moreover, this second means supports the first means and the mirror or other arrangement such that the latter is not movable in any other way whereby the point on the mirror or other arrangement coinciding with the intersection of the given axes does not move or float, thereby making the ability to adjust the mirror or other such arrangement more precise and accurate.

  17. Electricity generation sectors under purchase obligation: support arrangement analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-04-01

    This report aims at assessing the operation of the support arrangement by which currently benefit some electricity production sectors in France (renewable energies, co-generation) with respect to the evolution of the energy mix within the frame of energy transition. Other support arrangements presently adopted in Europe are also addressed as lessons to be learned. Criteria are established for any support arrangement. The report presents the French and European context regarding such support arrangement with purchasing obligation, and addresses the future evolutions of the European Commission. It highlights challenges for the electric system and for the energy market (impact on investments, optimization of market operation), describes and assesses the French purchasing obligation arrangement, and describes and assesses other existing support arrangements

  18. Cooperating internationally. US/Japan Civil Industrial Technologies (CIT) Arrangement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The Civil Industrial Technologies (CIT) Arrangement was signed in July 1994 between governments of the US and Japan. Areas of research range from scientific and technical databases and bioprocessing to precompetitive processing of functionally-gradient materials and ceramics. Papers presented in this symposium include studies on thin polymer films generated by vapor deposition polymerization, development of manufacturing technique of fusing 3D C/C composite materials, measurement and analysis for high performance computing systems, low-cost fabrication of ceramic components, bioprocessing, data exchange for mass spectral databases, development of high performance aluminum nitride ceramics, precompetitive processing of functionally-gradient materials, purity determination of organic reference materials, definitive methods traceable to SI unit, development of biocompatible artificial hard tissue materials, development of photoassisted catalysis technologies, surface analysis for catalysts by electron spectroscopy, development of ultra-solid lubricant with cluster diamond, precise determination of impurities in high-purity rare-earth metals, and highly accurate acceleration measurement system. 22 refs., 86 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. [Historical causality and relative contemporaneity Einsteinian relativity in the historical sciences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontems, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    The construction of historical frame of reference based on the distinction between and articulation of phenomenological and chronological times. As it relativises the notion of simultaneity and inverts its relation to causality, the special theory of relativity can induce analogous modes of reflection on the themes of "contemporaneity" in the history of art (Panofsky) and in epistemology (Bachelard). This "relativist" method, often misunderstood, sheds light on both historical and presentist methods.

  20. Baffle-former arrangement for nuclear reactor vessel internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, O.J.; Berringer, R.T.

    1978-01-01

    A baffle-former arrangement for the reactor vessel internals of a nuclear reactor is described. The arrangement includes positioning of formers at the same elevations as the fuel assembly grids, and positioning flow holes in the baffle plates directly beneath selected former grid elevations. The arrangement reduces detrimental cross flows, maintains proper core barrel and baffle temperatures, and alleviates the potential of overpressurization within the baffle-former assembly under assumed major accident conditions

  1. Optimal support arrangement of piping systems using genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, T.; Okado, S.; Fujii, I.; Itami, K.

    1996-01-01

    The support arrangement is one of the important factors in the design of piping systems. Much time is required to decide the arrangement of the supports. The authors applied a genetic algorithm to find the optimum support arrangement for piping systems. Examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the genetic algorithm. Good results are obtained when applying the genetic algorithm to the actual designing of the piping system

  2. Analysis of the area in which arrangements for emergency preparedness and response should be intensively made

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    In Japan, the local governments have been developing introduction of new concept for the emergency planning zone, in which arrangements for emergency preparedness and response should be intensively made, such as Precautionary Action Zone (PAZ) and Urgent Protective Action Planning Zone (UPZ). This study was planned in order to prepare the reference data for the local governments to determine the zone distances. In this study, examination of the methods for estimating the distance used as reference of these zones in the case where a severe accident would occur in a nuclear power plant was performed, and the calculated results under typical conditions were shown. (author)

  3. Ulysses arrangements in psychiatry: a matter of good care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gremmen, I; Widdershoven, G; Beekman, A; Zuijderhoudt, R; Sevenhuijsen, S

    2008-02-01

    This article concerns the issue of how an ethic of care perspective may contribute to both normative theory and mental health care policy discussions on so called Ulysses arrangements, a special type of advance directives in psychiatry. The debate on Ulysses arrangements has predominantly been waged in terms of autonomy conceived of as the right to non-intervention. On the basis of our empirical investigations into the experiences of persons directly involved with Ulysses arrangements, we argue that a care ethics perspective may broaden and deepen the debate on Ulysses arrangements, by introducing additional concepts, such as vulnerability, responsibility and mutuality, and by refining familiar concepts, such as autonomy.

  4. Spiral phyllotaxis underlies constrained variation in Anemone (Ranunculaceae) tepal arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazawa, Miho S; Fujimoto, Koichi

    2018-05-01

    Stabilization and variation of floral structures are indispensable for plant reproduction and evolution; however, the developmental mechanism regulating their structural robustness is largely unknown. To investigate this mechanism, we examined positional arrangement (aestivation) of excessively produced perianth organs (tepals) of six- and seven-tepaled (lobed) flowers in six Anemone species (Ranunculaceae). We found that the tepal arrangement that occurred in nature varied intraspecifically between spiral and whorled arrangements. Moreover, among the studied species, variation was commonly limited to three types, including whorls, despite five geometrically possible arrangements in six-tepaled flowers and two types among six possibilities in seven-tepaled flowers. A spiral arrangement, on the other hand, was unique to five-tepaled flowers. A spiral phyllotaxis model with stochasticity on initiating excessive primordia accounted for these limited variations in arrangement in cases when the divergence angle between preexisting primordia was less than 144°. Moreover, interspecific differences in the frequency of the observed arrangements were explained by the change of model parameters that represent meristematic growth and differential organ growth. These findings suggest that the phyllotaxis parameters are responsible for not only intraspecific stability but interspecific difference of floral structure. Decreasing arrangements from six-tepaled to seven-tepaled Anemone flowers demonstrate that the stabilization occurs as development proceeds to increase the component (organ) number, in contrast from the intuition that the variation will be larger due to increasing number of possible states (arrangements).

  5. Historical Dictionaries and Historical Dictionary Research: Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    Resensies / Reviews. 309 ... and Historical Dictionary Research: Papers from the International ... "Cambridge, Trinity College Library MS 0.5.4: A Fifteenth-century ... There are among others ten types of manuscript collections that need attention, ..... The collection is rounded off by a selective index, supplementing the Table.

  6. Avoiding legal pitfalls in surrogacy arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Summer; Chilvers, Rebecca; Havemann, Dara; Phelps, John Y

    2010-12-01

    The goal of this article is to discuss the legal pitfalls that reproductive endocrinologists face when participating in gestational surrogacy contracts. This paper was composed using Westlaw and LexisNexis commercial legal search engines to perform a review of statutes and cases pertaining to gestational surrogacy. The search results demonstrated that in the absence of suitable preparation, there is significant potential for litigation while participating in gestational agreements. Providers caring for gestational carriers have been named as parties in lawsuits for failure to provide psychological screening, failure to screen for infectious disease and participation in gestational contracts that are not compliant with state law. There is great disparity in state laws and court rulings pertaining to gestational agreements. When legal disputes arise, individual state laws and court rulings are controlling over the Uniform Parentage Act. Likewise, recommendations by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the American Society for Reproductive Medicine do not supersede state laws. The failure to abide by individual state laws unnecessarily exposes reproductive endocrinologists and their IVF facilities to potential litigation. In order to lessen exposure to litigation, an understanding of individual state legislation or historical court rulings is advised. Copyright © 2010 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Lagos Historical Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Lagos Historical Review is an international and interdisciplinary journal publishing papers with a historical focus. The journal generates and participates in debates to advance the discipline of history and promote its relevance to development. The journal aims to serve the academic community with a bias towards ...

  8. HMI - historical flashback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, B.

    1993-01-01

    This brochure is based on a paper read at a HMI colloquium on 14 Juni 1993. The historical information is based on a detailed historical study published in book form under the title ''Industrial-scale Research in Berlin''. (orig./HSCH) [de

  9. Historizing epistemology in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Gordana

    2010-12-01

    The conflict between the psychometric methodological framework and the particularities of human experiences reported in psychotherapeutic context led Michael Schwarz to raise the question whether psychology is based on a methodological error. I take this conflict as a heuristic tool for the reconstruction of the early history of psychology, which bears witness to similar epistemological conflicts, though the dominant historiography of psychology has largely forgotten alternative conceptions and their valuable insights into complexities of psychic phenomena. In order to work against the historical amnesia in psychology I suggest to look at cultural-historical contexts which decisively shaped epistemological choices in psychology. Instead of keeping epistemology and history of psychology separate, which nurtures individualism and naturalism in psychology, I argue for historizing epistemology and for historical psychology. From such a historically reflected perspective psychology in contemporary world can be approached more critically.

  10. Objectivity: A Subject of Discourse in Historical Writing | Oyewale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the problems confronting historians in historical writing is the question of objectivity. Objectivity holds that any historical writing should be based on solid facts, devoid of sentiments, biases and prejudice irrespective of tribes, gender, race, sex, and nation. It is simply referred to as “respect for the truth”. It also means ...

  11. SEARCHING FOR URBAN PATTERNS; AN ASSESSMENT OF HISTORIC EDGES AND ITS SURROUNDING CONTEXT: HISTORIC CAIRO AS A CASE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Nabil Mohareb

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the urban edges of historic cities. Managing these edges would enhance the success of any intervention projects inside the historic fabric. The paper develops and tests a method of analytical assessment framework that is applicable for quantitative analysis within an urban edge. It is capable of measuring micro and macro levels of analysis of historic urban edges with reference to their spatial configuration. In addition, the paper searches for repetitive spatial configura...

  12. Inequality of pension arrangements among different segments of the labor force in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ling

    2013-01-01

    Social security for older people in China today has been established institutionally. However, there are substantial problems such as coverage, affordability, fund management, and corruption. This paper aims to provide a general picture of China's social security system for older people and to argue that the inequality of pension arrangements among different segments of the labor force is one of the most conspicuous problems challenging the Chinese government. Four unequal aspects of the pension system concerning the financing resources and pension levels are examined in this paper: (1) unequal institutional arrangements among different sectors, (2) unbalanced governmental expenditure in pension provision, (3) an increasing gap in pension levels between urban and rural areas, and (4) uncovered groups such as the unemployed and self-employed. Historical, economic, and political reasons all contribute to this unequal institution under transition from socialism to a market-oriented economy. At present, it is urgent for the central government to take measures to integrate the various pension arrangements into the unified Old Age Insurance and to reduce the gaps among different regions.

  13. Performance comparisons of dish type solar concentrator with mirror arrangements and receiver shapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Joo Hyun; Kim, Yong; Ma, Dae Sung; Seo, Tae Beom [Graduate School, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Inha Univ., Inchon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Yong Heack [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-01

    The performance comparisons of dish type solar concentrators are numerically investigated. The dish type solar concentrator considered in this paper consists of a receiver and multi-faceted mirrors. In order to investigate the performance comparisons of dish type solar concentrators, six different mirror arrangements and four different receivers are considered. A parabolic-shaped perfect mirror of which diameter is 1.40 m is considered as the reference for the mirror arrangements. The other mirror arrangements consist of twelve identical parabolic-shaped mirror facets of which diameter are 0.405 m. Their total collecting areas, which are 1.545 m{sup 2}, are the same. Four different solar receiver shapes are a conical, a dome, a cylindrical, and a unicorn type. In order to investigate the thermal performance of the dish type solar concentrator, the radiative heat loss in the receiver should be calculated. For calculation, the net radiation method and the Monte-Carlo method are used. Also, because the thermal performance of the dish type solar concentrator can vary as the receiver surface temperature, the various surface temperatures are considered. Based on the calculation, the unicorn type has the best performance in receiver shapes and the STAR has the best performance in mirror arrangements except the perfect mirror. (orig.)

  14. What's Wrong with Reference: Coping with Success and Failure at the Reference Desk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, William

    1984-01-01

    This essay on problems associated with library reference service and personnel discusses the pros and cons of four approaches designed to improve staff utilization and quality of performance--hiring additional staff, automation, alternative staffing arrangements, and planning and rearrangement of priorities. Fourteen sources are given. (EJS)

  15. Financial Arrangements and Relationship Quality in Low-Income Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addo, Fenaba R.; Sassler, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the association between household financial arrangements and relationship quality using a representative sample of low-income couples with children. We detailed the banking arrangements couples utilize, assessed which factors relate to holding a joint account versus joint and separate, only separate, or no account, and analyzed…

  16. Flexible Work Arrangements in ARL Libraries. SPEC Kit #180.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabel, Diane, Comp.; And Others

    This report presents the results of a survey of Association of Research Libraries (ARL) members about the current climate and practices regarding flexible work arrangements. Data are reported on the availability of schedule flexibility, job exchange, part-time arrangements, and leaves, as well as information about faculty status, tenure,…

  17. 28 CFR 550.44 - Procedures for arranging drug counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedures for arranging drug counseling... MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.44 Procedures for arranging drug counseling. The contract center staff shall hold a program...

  18. 48 CFR 3001.105-1 - Publication and code arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Publication and code arrangement. 3001.105-1 Section 3001.105-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Purpose, Authority, Issuance 3001.105-1 Publication and code arrangement. (a) The HSAR is published in: (1...

  19. 48 CFR 501.105-1 - Publication and code arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Publication and code arrangement. 501.105-1 Section 501.105-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES... 501.105-1 Publication and code arrangement. The GSAR is published in the following sources: (a) Daily...

  20. Ulysses arrangements in psychiatry: a matter of good care?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gremmen, I.; Widdershoven, G.A.M.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Zuijderhoudt, R.H.; Sevenhuijsen, S.

    2008-01-01

    This article concerns the issue of how an ethic of care perspective may contribute to both normative theory and mental health care policy discussions on so called Ulysses arrangements, a special type of advance directives in psychiatry. The debate on Ulysses arrangements has predominantly been waged

  1. Ulysses Arrangements in psychiatry: A matter of good care?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gremmen, C.C.M.; Widdershoven, G.G; Beekman, A; Zuijderhoudt, R.; Sevenhuijsen, S.

    2008-01-01

    This article concerns the issue of how an ethic of care perspective may contribute to both normative theory and mental health care policy discussions on so called Ulysses arrangements, a special type of advance directives in psychiatry. The debate on Ulysses arrangements has predominantly been waged

  2. 29 CFR 780.126 - Contract arrangements for raising poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contract arrangements for raising poultry. 780.126 Section... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.126 Contract arrangements for raising poultry. Feed dealers and processors sometimes enter into contractual...

  3. Do Knowledge Arrangements Affect Student Reading Comprehension of Genetics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jen-Yi; Tung, Yu-Neng; Hwang, Bi-Chi; Lin, Chen-Yung; Che-Di, Lee; Chang, Yung-Ta

    2014-01-01

    Various sequences for teaching genetics have been proposed. Three seventh-grade biology textbooks in Taiwan share similar key knowledge assemblages but have different knowledge arrangements. To investigate the influence of knowledge arrangements on student understanding of genetics, we compared students' reading comprehension of the three texts…

  4. 29 CFR 779.230 - Franchise and other arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Franchise and other arrangements. 779.230 Section 779.230... Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.230 Franchise and other.... The quotation in § 779.229 from the Senate Report shows that Congress recognized that some franchise...

  5. On capital allocation for stochastic arrangement increasing actuarial risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Xiaoqing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the increasing convex ordering of the optimal discounted capital allocations for stochastic arrangement increasing risks with stochastic arrangement decreasing occurrence times. The application to optimal allocation of policy limits is presented as an illustration as well.

  6. European top managers’ support for work-life arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Been, Wike M.; van der Lippe, Tanja; den Dulk, Laura; Das Dores Horta Guerreiro, Maria; Kanjuo Mrčela, Aleksandra; Niemistö, Charlotta

    2017-01-01

    Top managers—defined as CEOs, CFOs and members of boards of directors—decide to what degree their organization offers employees work-life arrangements. This study focuses on the conditions under which they support such arrangements. A factorial survey of 202 top managers in five European countries

  7. The effects of different source arrangement on the irradiation efficacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hongyue; Shi Peixin; Lin Yin

    1999-01-01

    The effects of 8 different arrangements with 16 pencil sources on irradiation productivity were studied by using a self-designed computer program. The results showed that the fashion of decentralized arrangement had a higher irradiation productivity than that of centralized in a static and uniform field

  8. BIRTHDAY CAKE ACTIVITY STRUCTURED ARRANGEMENT FOR HELPING CHILDREN DETERMINING QUANTITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neni Mariana

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Few researches have been concerned about relation between children’s spatialthinking and number sense. Narrowing for this small research, we focused onone component of spatial thinking, that is structuring objects, and onecomponent of number senses, that is cardinality by determining quantities. Thisstudy focused on a design research that was conducted in Indonesia in which weinvestigated pre-school children’s (between 2 and 3.5 years old ability inmaking structured arrangement and their ability to determine the quantities bylooking at the arrangements. The result shows us that some of the children wereable to make such arrangement. However, the children found difficulties eitherto determine quantities from those arrangements or to compare some structuresto easily recognize number of objects.Keywords: structures, structured arrangement, cardinality DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.1.1.790.53-70

  9. The historical supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, David H

    1977-01-01

    The Historical Supernovae is an interdisciplinary study of the historical records of supernova. This book is composed of 12 chapters that particularly highlight the history of the Far East. The opening chapter briefly describes the features of nova and supernova, stars which spontaneously explode with a spectacular and rapid increase in brightness. The succeeding chapter deals with the search for the historical records of supernova from Medieval European monastic chronicles, Arabic chronicles, astrological works etc., post renaissance European scientific writings, and Far Eastern histories and

  10. To implement REX today: why? How? References for an event-related return on experience as a source of learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bringaud, Violaine; Fayolle, Patrice; Madec, Veronique; Gauthereau, Vincent; Raud, Geraldine; Hernandez, Guillaume; Vautier, Jean-Francois; Le Roy, Guilhem; Maffre, Jean-Francois; Pichancourt, Isabelle; Rousseau, Jean-Marie

    2014-01-01

    The REX (Return on Experience) is an arrangement which is supposed to allow lessons to be learned from dysfunctions occurring during activities in nuclear installations. This report, written by a work group, proposes a synthesis of some references regarding REX arrangements, and aims at deepening the discussion and at the evolution of these arrangements. It presents the different components of a REX arrangement, and outlines its operational objectives: to understand, to share and to act. It highlights the conditions for an efficient REX arrangement: definition of an event, analysis methods, analysis abilities, management approaches, corrective actions, and so on. It indicates how to use this document and some useful references

  11. Premier Hospital Historical Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — To provide a historical overview of the participating hospitals, before the first project report, Premier Healthcare Informatics has used data already available for...

  12. Iowa Historic Cemeteries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This shape file represents Iowa Historic Cemeteries. Originally it was based on an Iowa DNR point file marking cemetery locations as found on 7.5 min. USGS quad...

  13. VT Roadside Historic Markers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Roadside Historic Site Marker program has proven an effective way to commemorate Vermont’s many people, events, and places of regional, statewide, or national...

  14. Historical Climatology Series

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Historical Climatology Series (HCS) is a set of climate-related publications published by NOAA's National Climatic Data Center beginning in 1978. HCS is...

  15. Categorising Resources of Historical Memory in Researching Publicistic Text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konyk Anastasiya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the allocation and analysis of the main resources of historical memory which are considered as peculiar indicators for studying publicist content and conceptual reading of discourses of historical memory in contemporary publications. It is relevant insofar as researching the use and intensification of these or other resources of historical memory allows us to observe changes in world landmarks, socio-political moods, ideological references and temperament and the dynamics of re-interpretation of historical facts and events by authors.

  16. Testing the causal theory of reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domaneschi, Filippo; Vignolo, Massimiliano; Di Paola, Simona

    2017-04-01

    Theories of reference are a crucial research topic in analytic philosophy. Since the publication of Kripke's Naming and Necessity, most philosophers have endorsed the causal/historical theory of reference. The goal of this paper is twofold: (i) to discuss a method for testing experimentally the causal theory of reference for proper names by investigating linguistic usage and (ii) to present the results from two experiments conducted with that method. Data collected in our experiments confirm the causal theory of reference for people proper names and for geographical proper names. A secondary but interesting result is that the semantic domain affects reference assignment: while with people proper names speakers tend to assign the semantic reference, with geographical proper names they are prompted to assign the speaker's reference. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Cooperation arrangements related to technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eysel, G.

    1986-04-01

    A developing country which considers to launch a nuclear program should put as much as possible efforts to elaborate a program which suits the country's needs as well as reflects its capabilities. It deems advantageous that a developing country makes use of the experience and knowledge in the nuclear field of a partner country already in the phase when exploring the technical and commercial aspects of a nuclear power program. For the different stages of cooperation between two countries a three-level concept appears advisable for establishing the basis for individual cooperation agreement. The first level are agreements between the governments of both countries on joint scientific research projects and technical development programs covering a broad spectrum of activities not limited to the energy sector. At the second level cooperation agreements can already concentrate on the energy sector and e.g. specifically investigate the energy structure of the developing country. If this investigation results in the decision of the developing country to establish a nuclear power program the next level will cover a broad based cooperation in the nuclear field including a large number of different cooperation contracts in various fields. In this stage of bilateral cooperation the main emphasis will be put on industrial cooperation. Cooperation agreements to be concluded between respective partners of both countries may cover fields related to research and development, engineering of a nuclear power plant, manufacturing of its components, erection and installation as well as operation of the plant. The most common agreements refer to technical cooperation, which covers not only the transfer of blueprints but also training of the recipient's personnel in the partner's country and delegation of experts to the recipient's country. The most comprehensive form of cooperation is the foundation of a joint venture company where the technology partner does not only transfer his know

  18. Arrangement of magnets for magnetic support or guide system. Magnetanordnung fuer ein magnetisches Trag- oder Fuehrungssystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohn, G; Schwaerzler, P

    1978-01-26

    The invention refers to an arrangement of magnets for a magnetic support or guide system, particularly for a levitation vehicle. A magnetic tape which can be moved without touching along a fixed armature rail is provided, having an additional magnet at its ends. The pole surfaces of each additional magnet increase their spacing from the armature rail with increasing distance from the end of the magnetic tape concerned. The purpose of the invention is to improve such an arrangement of magnets so that the extra expense of additional magnets is avoided. According to the invention, this is achieved by the pole surfaces of the outer electromagnets of the magnetic tape, instead of the additional magnets, having an increased spacing from the armature rail with increasing approach to the end of the core free of connected electromagnets. The part of the pole faces remote from the armature rail is made curved in order to produce great leakage of the magnetic field.

  19. Noise cancellation in magnetoencephalography and electroencephalography with isolated reference sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Jr., Robert H.; Espy, Michelle A.; Matlachov, Andrei; Volegov, Petr

    2010-06-01

    An apparatus measures electromagnetic signals from a weak signal source. A plurality of primary sensors is placed in functional proximity to the weak signal source with an electromagnetic field isolation surface arranged adjacent the primary sensors and between the weak signal source and sources of ambient noise. A plurality of reference sensors is placed adjacent the electromagnetic field isolation surface and arranged between the electromagnetic isolation surface and sources of ambient noise.

  20. Spatial arrangement of faults and opening-mode fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubach, S. E.; Lamarche, J.; Gauthier, B. D. M.; Dunne, W. M.; Sanderson, David J.

    2018-03-01

    Spatial arrangement is a fundamental characteristic of fracture arrays. The pattern of fault and opening-mode fracture positions in space defines structural heterogeneity and anisotropy in a rock volume, governs how faults and fractures affect fluid flow, and impacts our understanding of the initiation, propagation and interactions during the formation of fracture patterns. This special issue highlights recent progress with respect to characterizing and understanding the spatial arrangements of fault and fracture patterns, providing examples over a wide range of scales and structural settings. Five papers describe new methods and improvements of existing techniques to quantify spatial arrangement. One study unravels the time evolution of opening-mode fracture spatial arrangement, which are data needed to compare natural patterns with progressive fracture growth in kinematic and mechanical models. Three papers investigate the role of evolving diagenesis in localizing fractures by mechanical stratigraphy and nine discuss opening-mode fracture spatial arrangement. Two papers show the relevance of complex cluster patterns to unconventional reservoirs through examples of fractures in tight gas sandstone horizontal wells, and a study of fracture arrangement in shale. Four papers demonstrate the roles of folds in fracture localization and the development spatial patterns. One paper models along-fault friction and fluid pressure and their effects on fault-related fracture arrangement. Contributions address deformation band patterns in carbonate rocks and fault size and arrangement above a detachment fault. Three papers describe fault and fracture arrangements in basement terrains, and three document fracture patterns in shale. This collection of papers points toward improvement in field methods, continuing improvements in computer-based data analysis and creation of synthetic fracture patterns, and opportunities for further understanding fault and fracture attributes in

  1. William Barlow and the Determination of Atomic Arrangement in Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauskopf, Seymour H

    2015-04-01

    William Barlow (1845-1934) was an important if unconventional scientist, known for having developed the 'closest-packing' atomic models of crystal structure. He resumed an early nineteenth-century tradition of utilizing crystallographical and chemical data to determine atomic arrangements in crystals. This essay recounts Barlow's career and scientific activity in three parts: (a) His place in the tradition of determining atomic arrangement in context of this earlier tradition and of contemporaneous developments of crystallography and chemistry, (b) his unconventional career, and (c) the 'success' of his program to determine atomic arrangements in crystals and its influence on the work of William Lawrence Bragg.

  2. Circular displays: control/display arrangements and stereotype strength with eight different display locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Alan H S; Hoffmann, Errol R

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments are reported that were designed to investigate control/display arrangements having high stereotype strengths when using circular displays. Eight display locations relative to the operator and control were tested with rotational and translational controls situated on different planes according to the Frame of Reference Transformation Tool (FORT) model of Wickens et al. (2010). (Left. No, Right! Development of the Frame of Reference Transformation Tool (FORT), Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 54th Annual Meeting, 54: 1022-1026). In many cases, there was little effect of display locations, indicating the importance of the Worringham and Beringer (1998. Directional stimulus-response compatibility: a test of three alternative principles. Ergonomics, 41(6), 864-880) Visual Field principle and an extension of this principle for rotary controls (Hoffmann and Chan (2013). The Worringham and Beringer 'visual field' principle for rotary controls. Ergonomics, 56(10), 1620-1624). The initial indicator position (12, 3, 6 and 9 o'clock) had a major effect on control/display stereotype strength for many of the six controls tested. Best display/control arrangements are listed for each of the different control types (rotational and translational) and for the planes on which they are mounted. Data have application where a circular display is used due to limited display panel space and applies to space-craft, robotics operators, hospital equipment and home appliances. Practitioner Summary: Circular displays are often used when there is limited space available on a control panel. Display/control arrangements having high stereotype strength are listed for four initial indicator positions. These arrangements are best for design purposes.

  3. Considerations for reference pump curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockton, N.B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines problems associated with inservice testing (IST) of pumps to assess their hydraulic performance using reference pump curves to establish acceptance criteria. Safety-related pumps at nuclear power plants are tested under the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (the Code), Section 11. The Code requires testing pumps at specific reference points of differential pressure or flow rate that can be readily duplicated during subsequent tests. There are many cases where test conditions cannot be duplicated. For some pumps, such as service water or component cooling pumps, the flow rate at any time depends on plant conditions and the arrangement of multiple independent and constantly changing loads. System conditions cannot be controlled to duplicate a specific reference value. In these cases, utilities frequently request to use pump curves for comparison of test data for acceptance. There is no prescribed method for developing a pump reference curve. The methods vary and may yield substantially different results. Some results are conservative when compared to the Code requirements; some are not. The errors associated with different curve testing techniques should be understood and controlled within reasonable bounds. Manufacturer's pump curves, in general, are not sufficiently accurate to use as reference pump curves for IST. Testing using reference curves generated with polynomial least squares fits over limited ranges of pump operation, cubic spline interpolation, or cubic spline least squares fits can provide a measure of pump hydraulic performance that is at least as accurate as the Code required method. Regardless of the test method, error can be reduced by using more accurate instruments, by correcting for systematic errors, by increasing the number of data points, and by taking repetitive measurements at each data point

  4. Historical gardens of the Banat region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hegedűs Noémi Melitta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is the studying of a frequently seen phenomenon, which is the loss of value as far as some buildings and their surroundings are concerned, which, at the moment of their construction, held great historical and architectural value, but in time they have gradually lost their value due to political, social, and cultural changes. In the Banat region of the first half of the 19th century, we can remark the dominance of the neoclassical style. The parks of the Banat region, apart from their role of satisfying the visual aesthetic appearances, are very well adapted to the place. They are unique, but the pattern after which they were conceived is common, according to the fashion of the era in which they were created. The subject of the research develops around the historical gardens belonging to certain historical monuments. The aim of researching these landscape arrangements is the investigation of the present-day situation and their evolution that has led to their actual transformation.

  5. Fuel arrangement for high temperature gas cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobin, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    Disclosed is a fuel arrangement for a high temperature gas cooled reactor including fuel assemblies with separate directly cooled fissile and fertile fuel elements removably inserted in an elongated moderator block also having a passageway for control elements

  6. Arrangement to reduce the failure frequency of heat condensate pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liskow, E.; Apelt, W.; Krause, W.; Meisel, L.

    1988-01-01

    The arrangement of throttling devices in heat condensate pipes of NPP with WWER-440 type reactors aims at reducing their failure frequency, ensuring an energetically favourable operation, and enhancing the availability and safety of NPP units

  7. Friendship Repertoires and Care Arrangement: A Praxeological Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahmann, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Friends are important companions and serve as sources for diverse dimensions of social support, including elderly care. Rather than researching populations that have already established care arrangements including friends, the author seeks to understand relationship systems with a focus on the inner logic friendship to consequently describe and understand involved care arrangements, be it with family members or friends. To illustrate the diversity of friendship repertoires, qualitative interviews with older adult Germans are analyzed regarding cognitive concepts of friendships in contrast to familiar ties as well as social practices around relationship systems. While some repertoires successfully include chosen ties in their care arrangements, others not only focus on family, they do not wish to receive care from friends. The article's praxeological approach highlights the need to reflect habitual differences when thinking about elderly informal care arrangements. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. The new electricity trading arrangements: prospects for market development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    1999-09-01

    This Briefing Paper from OXERA argues that the OFGEM proposals will not solve the fundamental market problems and might even make things worse. They focus too narrowly on the technical design of one small part of the market (the Balancing Mechanism and associated imbalance settlement process), without considering the market context and dynamics. OXERA argues that the central emphasis of the White Paper was misplaced: reform of the electricity trading arrangements, the basis of the government's strategy, will not solve the upstream and downstream market problems. The Briefing Paper includes analysis of: the structure and operation of the proposed new electricity trading arrangements; risk in the electricity wholesale market, and the responses of market participants; the interaction between the new trading arrangements and other energy market developments - in particular, vertical integration between generators and suppliers; energy supply competition, and wider government policy; the prospects for market development under the new electricity trading arrangements. (author)

  9. Birthday Cake Activity Structured Arrangement for Helping Children Determining Quantities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neni Mariana

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Few researches have been concerned about relation between children’s spatial thinking and number sense. Narrowing for this small research, we focused on one component of spatial thinking, that is structuring objects, and one component of number senses, that is cardinality by determining quantities. This study focused on a design research that was conducted in Indonesia in which we investigated pre-school children’s (between 2 and 3.5 years old ability in making structured arrangement and their ability to determine the quantities by looking at the arrangements. The result shows us that some of the children were able to make such arrangement. However, the children found difficulties either to determine quantities from those arrangements or to compare some structures to easily recognize number of objects.

  10. Evolution of Land Rental Arrangements in Rural Ghana: Evidence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    zones of Ghana, their varied characters, trends of evolution, and the driving forces .... arrangements have not been given the needed attention in policy, perhaps due to ... markets follows a five-stage trajectory, which can broadly be divided into.

  11. Children's postdivorce residence arrangements and parental experienced time pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Franciëlla; Poortman, Anne Rigt; van der Lippe, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Although the rise in postdivorce joint physical custody has fueled scholarly interest in its impact on children, consequences for parents remain understudied. Because children's residence arrangements determine time and coordination demands associated with child care, this study investigated the

  12. Seal and bearing arrangement for use in a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazan, J.M.; Ritz, W.C.; Sharbaugh, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    A combination seal and bearing arrangement for use in a nuclear reactor including a vessel and vessel cover is disclosed herein. The vessel cover itself includes at least one rotatable plug which serves to perform certain position related functions within the reactor vessel and the combination seal and bearing arrangement is provided for sealing the annular opening around the rotation plug while, at the same time, providing a bearing support for the latter

  13. The Implications of Flexible Staffing Arrangements for Job Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Houseman, Susan N.; Polivka, Anne E.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the job stability of workers in a wide range of flexible staffing arrangements: agency temporary, direct-hire temporary, on-call, contract company, independent contractor, and regular part-time work. We draw upon two data sources in our analysis. The first is a nationwide survey of employers on their use of flexible staffing arrangements conducted by the Upjohn Institute for Employment Research. This survey provides evidence on why employers use various types of flex...

  14. Institutional arrangements of Currency Boards - Comparative Macroeconomic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lubomira Anastassova

    1999-01-01

    This paper is concentrated on the comparative macroeconomic analysis of the differences stemming from the extent to which the institutional framework of the currency board arrangement is implemented in the legal and regulatory systems in the different countries. The main objective of taking into consideration and examining the currency board institutional arrangements is to distinguish between the impact that currency board countries and countries with pegged exchange rate have on different m...

  15. Living arrangements in Western Europe: does cultural origin matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Giuliano, Paola

    2006-01-01

    Why are there such large differences in living arrangements across Western European countries? Conventional economic analyses have not been successful in explaining differences in living arrangements and particularly the dramatic increase in the fraction of young adults living with their parents in Mediterranean Europe. This paper presents a cultural interpretation. I argue that the sexual revolution of the 1970s - by liberalizing parental attitudes - had a differential impact on living arran...

  16. National arrangements for incidents involving radioactivity (NAIR) 1982/83

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, G.C.

    1984-01-01

    A summary is presented of the data on incidents notified under the National Arrangements for Incidents involving Radioactivity (NAIR), extending the data previously reported to include information for 1982/83. The categories of incidents discussed include transport, damaged sources or containers, undamaged sources, empty containers found and hoaxes or false alarms. It is concluded that the Arrangements continue to demonstrate their value in minimizing the alarm potentially inherent in even minor incidents involving radioactive materials. (U.K.)

  17. Innovative Nuclear Power Plant Building Arrangement in Consideration of Decommissioning

    OpenAIRE

    Won-Jun Choi; Myung-Sub Roh; Chang-Lak Kim

    2017-01-01

    A new concept termed the Innovative Nuclear Power Plant Building Arrangement (INBA) strategy is a new nuclear power plant building arrangement method which encompasses upfront consideration of more efficient decommissioning. Although existing decommissioning strategies such as immediate dismantling and differed dismantling has the advantage of either early site restoration or radioactive decommissioning waste reduction, the INBA strategy has the advantages of both strategies. In this research...

  18. Labour Arrangements in Cassava Production in Oyo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abila, N.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the effects of labour arrangements on the profitability of cassava enterprises in Oyo North Area of Oyo State, Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling technique was adopted for data collection, while data were analysed using descriptive statistics and budgetary analysis. The results show that the prevalent labour arrangements for cassava enterprises are: a combination of Family, Hired and Contract labour (38.9%; Family-Hired labour (27.8%; Family-Contract labour (31.1%. The gross margin per hectares across labour arrangements are N279481.99 (all-labour, N286044.24 (family-hired, N216940.10 (familycontract, and N235000.00 (family only. The returns on a naira invested on variable costs across different labour arrangements for cassava enterprises are N2.04 (all-labour, N3.66 (family-hired, N2.37 (familycontract, and N2.61 (family only. This implies that a unit (N1 variable cost in the various labour arrangements of all-labour, family/hired, family/contract and family only in cassava production will yield a marginal return of N3.04, N3.66, N2.37 and N2.61 respectively. Family-hired labour arrangement yields higher marginal return per unit of manday and one naira spent than all other arrangements. The study recommends among others the application of laboursaving technologies and an optimum combination of various labour arrangements to reduce the cost of labour used in cassava production.

  19. Study on Pole Arrangement of the CEDM Coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Seok; Lee, Myoung Goo; Kim, Hyun Min; Cho, Yeon Ho; Choi, Taek Sang

    2013-01-01

    The coil stack assembly is important for reliable operation of the CEDM, there have been efforts to improve the design by optimizing the design parameters such as dimensions and winding turns. However, magnetic forces of the CEDM can also change by different pole arrangement even if their design parameters are the same. Since the latch coil and lift coil are installed connected to each other, they produce magnetically coupled field when they are energized at the same time. This coupling field can affect the magnetic force of the CEDM significantly. In this paper, coil pole arrangement effects are studied. Electro-magnetic analysis is performed for the different pole arrangements of the CEDM coils to calculate the magnetic forces. Pole arrangement effects on magnetic forces were studied by static analysis of the CEDM magnetic field. Magnetic forces were calculated and compared for the two different pole arrangements of the coils. The results show that the magnetic poles of the lift coil and latch coil shall be arranged to have the same magnetic pole direction to achieve higher magnetic force

  20. Living Arrangements and Suicidal Ideation among the Korean Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jibum; Lee, Yun-Suk; Lee, Jinkook

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study examines how living arrangements are associated with suicidal ideation for older adults in South Korea, which has the highest suicide rate among OECD countries, and a particularly high suicide rate for older persons. Methods Analyzing a sample of 5,795 women and 3,758 men aged 65 and older from a nationwide representative cross-sectional data set, we examined how many older adults think about suicide over a one-year period, why they think about suicide, and whether living arrangements are associated with suicidal ideation. Results About one out of twelve respondents in our sample reported suicidal ideation. While women and men did not differ in the prevalence of suicidal ideation, women attributed their suicidal feelings to health problems, while men attributed theirs to economic difficulties. Logistic regression results indicated that living arrangements are associated with suicidal ideation for men but not women. Older men living with a spouse were less likely to have suicidal ideation than older men with other living arrangements (i.e., living alone, living with children without spouse, living with spouse and others). Conclusions Our results highlight the importance of living arrangements to older men’s suicidal ideation. We discuss gender differences in the implications of living arrangements to suicidal ideation within the context of Confucian culture. PMID:26317145

  1. Living arrangements and suicidal ideation among the Korean older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jibum; Lee, Yun-Suk; Lee, Jinkook

    2016-12-01

    This study examines how living arrangements are associated with suicidal ideation for older adults in South Korea, which has the highest suicide rate among OECD countries, and a particularly high suicide rate for older persons. Analyzing a sample of 5795 women and 3758 men aged 65 and older from a nationwide representative cross-sectional data-set, we examined how many older adults think about suicide over a one-year period, why they think about suicide, and whether living arrangements are associated with suicidal ideation. About 1 out of 12 respondents in our sample reported suicidal ideation. While women and men did not differ in the prevalence of suicidal ideation, women attributed their suicidal feelings to health problems, while men attributed theirs to economic difficulties. Logistic regression results indicated that living arrangements are associated with suicidal ideation for men but not women. Older men living with a spouse were less likely to have suicidal ideation than older men with other living arrangements (i.e., living alone, living with children without spouse, living with spouse, and others). Our results highlight the importance of living arrangements to older men's suicidal ideation. We discuss gender differences in the implications of living arrangements to suicidal ideation within the context of Confucian culture.

  2. Biblical Interpretation Beyond Historicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biblical Interpretation beyond Historicity evaluates the new perspectives that have emerged since the crisis over historicity in the 1970s and 80s in the field of biblical scholarship. Several new studies in the field, as well as the ‘deconstructive’ side of literary criticism that emerged from...... writers such as Derrida and Wittgenstein, among others, lead biblical scholars today to view the texts of the Bible more as literary narratives than as sources for a history of Israel. Increased interest in archaeological and anthropological studies in writing the history of Palestine and the ancient Near...... and the commitment to a new approach to both the history of Palestine and the Bible’s place in ancient history. This volume features essays from a range of highly regarded scholars, and is divided into three sections: “Beyond Historicity”, which explores alternative historical roles for the Bible, “Greek Connections...

  3. The number of pickers and stock-keeping unit arrangement on a uni-directional picking line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagspihl, Robert

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The order picking process is often the single largest expense in a distribution centre (DC. The DC considered in this paper uses a picking line configuration to perform order picking. The number of pickers in a picking line, and the initial arrangement of stock-keeping units (SKUs, are two important factors that affect the total completion time of the picking lines. In this paper, the picking line configuration is simulated with an agent-based approach to describe the behaviour of an individual picker. The simulation is then used to analyse the effect of the number of pickers and the SKU arrangement. Verification and validation of this model shows that the model represents the real-world picking line to a satisfactory degree. Marginal analysis (MA was chosen to determine a ‘good’ number of pickers by means of the simulation model. A look-up table is presented to provide decision support for the choice of a ‘good’ number of pickers to improve completion times of the picking line, for the properties of a specific picking line. The initial SKU arrangement on a picking line is shown to be a factor that can affect the level of picker congestion and the total completion time. The greedy ranking and partitioning (GRP and organ pipe arrangement (OPA techniques from the literature, as well as the historical SKU arrangements used by the retailer under consideration, were compared with the proposed classroom discipline heuristic (CDH for SKU arrangement. It was found that the CDH provides an more even spread of SKUs that are picked most frequently, thus decreasing congestion and total completion time.

  4. Absorbing device for stationary arrangement in the lattice of a boiling water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredin, B.; Nylund, O.

    1980-01-01

    The invention refers to an absorbing device for stationary arrangement in the lattice of a BWR in a gap between two bundles of vertical fuel rods. It consists of at least one absorbing plate containing burnable absorbing material. Both lateral surfaces of this plate are directed to one surface each of the bundles mentioned above. According to the invention the absorbing material is contained in channels formed by welding together two adjacent sheet elements, at least one of which being corrugated. The welds will be made at the points where to tops of the waves touch the other sheet element. (orig.) [de

  5. Historical Collage Drawings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billington, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Helping students learn how to interpret and analyze imagery is an important skill. With last year's historical election of the first African American president, it was an opportune time to explore where Americans are going as a nation and what kind of future they envision. Middle-school students are eager to give their opinions, but learning to…

  6. Historical centres: changing definitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Lazzarotti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the end of the Second World War, the architectural and planning culture has been showing a fluctuating attention to the theme of historical centres and their enhancement. First of all this uneven progress explains the difficulty to reach a homogeneous definition and this is still lacking. During a long phase of this period, the historical parts of the town were considered as objects to be preserved in an integral way, as urban monuments. This is mostly due to the high symbolic value of these settlements, that represent fundamental landmarks. Identity building and empowerment of local communities are indispensable conditions for any development programme, especially in the case of centres or other historic environments at risk of abandonment. The progressive evolution of this concept brings awareness of the impossibility of separating – either in analytical or in planning terms ­ historical centres from their urban and territorial contexts, which are linked by mutual, deep relationships. This article attempts to retrace the steps signaled by the publication of international documents and conventions, from the Charter of Gubbio (1960 to the Charter of Krakow and the European Landscape Convention (2000; they obviously represent particular points of view, not exhaustive of the richness of the positions in the debate, but extremely significant in terms of diffusion and consensus.

  7. Political Correctness, Historically Speaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipset, Seymour Martin

    1992-01-01

    This historical review examines conservative and liberal attitudes on U.S. campuses in terms of political, ethnic, racial, gender, and religious issues. Discussed are the era of protest (1960s), the era of quiescence and move toward conservatism (1970-84), reversing the trend via increasing faculty liberalism, and contemporary opinion (a…

  8. Historical dictionary of librarianship

    CERN Document Server

    Quinn, Mary Ellen

    2014-01-01

    The Historical Dictionary of Librarianship focuses on librarianship as a modern, organized profession, emphasizing the period beginning in the mid-nineteenth century. Author Mary Ellen Quinn relates the history of this profession through a chronology, an introductory essay, appendixes, and an extensive bibliography.

  9. A historical overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Scurlock; Deborah M. Finch

    1997-01-01

    This chapter reviews the historical: 1) occupancy, use of and impacts on ponderosa pine forests by early American Indians and European settlers; and 2) the human use of and impacts on birds in ponderosa pine forests. Contemporary ecology and human use of ponderosa pine forests are described in this publication by Moir et al. and Raish et al. Recent human impacts on...

  10. New arrangement for the air cleanup system to recover tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Masabumi; Takahashi, Kohsaku; Munakata, Kenzo; Fukada, Satoshi; Kotoh, Kenji; Takeishi, Toshiharu

    1997-01-01

    At present, the standard arrangement of the air cleanup system responsible for emergency tritium recovery from room air is a catalytic oxidation bed with a heater followed by an adsorption bed with a cooler. One disadvantage of this arrangement is that trouble with the heater or the cooler could result in a loss of capacity to recover tritium. Another disadvantage of the catalyst-adsorption-bed arrangement is that tritiated water must be recovered with a high decontamination factor after dilution with a large amount of water vapor in the working atmosphere. The performance of a new arrangement for the air cleanup system, which consists of a precious metal catalyst bed preceded by an adsorption bed without heating equipment, is discussed. According to calculations, most of the tritium released to the room air is recovered in the catalyst bed through oxidation, adsorption, and isotope exchange reaction when the new arrangement is applied. The adsorption bed placed before the catalyst bed dehumidifies the process gas to such a degree that the oxidation reaction of tritium in the catalyst bed is not hindered by water vapor. 15 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs

  11. Role of crystal arrangement on the mechanical performance of enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Bingbing; Wang, Raorao; Zhang, Dongsheng

    2012-10-01

    The superior mechanical properties of enamel, such as excellent penetration and crack resistance, are believed to be related to the unique microscopic structure. In this study, the effects of hydroxyapatite (HAP) crystallite orientation on the mechanical behavior of enamel have been investigated through a series of multiscale numerical simulations. A micromechanical model, which considers the HAP crystal arrangement in enamel prisms, the hierarchical structure of HAP crystals and the inelastic mechanical behavior of protein, has been developed. Numerical simulations revealed that, under compressive loading, plastic deformation progression took place in enamel prisms, which is responsible for the experimentally observed post-yield strain hardening. By comparing the mechanical responses for the uniform and non-uniform arrangement of HAP crystals within enamel prisms, it was found that the stiffness for the two cases was identical, while much greater energy dissipation was observed in the enamel with the non-uniform arrangement. Based on these results, we propose an important mechanism whereby the non-uniform arrangement of crystals in enamel rods enhances energy dissipation while maintaining sufficient stiffness to promote fracture toughness, mitigation of fracture and resistance to penetration deformation. Further simulations indicated that the non-uniform arrangement of the HAP crystals is a key factor responsible for the unique mechanical behavior of enamel, while the change in the nanostructure of nanocomposites could dictate the Young's modulus and yield strength of the biocomposite. Copyright © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Future of family support: Projected living arrangements and income sources of older people in Hong Kong up to 2030.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kok-Hoe

    2016-06-01

    The study aims to project future trends in living arrangements and access to children's cash contributions and market income sources among older people in Hong Kong. A cell-based model was constructed by combining available population projections, labour force projections, an extrapolation of the historical trend in living arrangements based on national survey datasets and a regression model on income sources. Under certain assumptions, the proportion of older people living with their children may decline from 59 to 48% during 2006-2030. Although access to market income sources may improve slightly, up to 20% of older people may have no access to either children's financial support or market income sources, and will not live with their children by 2030. Family support is expected to contract in the next two decades. Public pensions should be expanded to protect financially vulnerable older people. © 2015 AJA Inc.

  13. Joint stockpiling and emergency sharing of oil: Arrangements for regional cooperation in East Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Eui-soon, E-mail: shine@yonsei.ac.k [School of Economics, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Savage, Tim, E-mail: seoul@nautilus.or [Nautilus Institute, 58-14 Shinmun-ro 1-ga, Hangeul Hall Room 503, Jongro-gu, Seoul 110-061 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    The East Asia region includes three of the world's top five oil-importing nations-China, Japan, and the Republic of Korea. As a consequence, international oil supply disruptions and oil price spikes, and their effects on the economies of the region, have historically been of significant concern. Each of these three nations, as well as other nations in East Asia, has developed or is developing their own strategic oil stockpiles, but regional coordination in stockpiling arrangements and sharing of oil stocks in an emergency could provide significant benefits. This article describes the overall oil supply security situation in East Asia, reviews the attributes of different stockpiling arrangements to address energy supply security concerns, summarizes ongoing national approaches to stockpiling in East Asia, describes the development of joint oil stockpile initiatives in the region, and suggests the most attractive options for regional cooperation on oil stockpiling issues. - Highlights: {yields} Rising oil consumption will make East Asia more vulnerable to energy insecurity. {yields} There have been various dialogs on the need for a joint regional oil stockpile. {yields} No serious joint oil stockpiling efforts have been made in East Asia to date. {yields} Despite various impediments, diverse benefits justify oil stockpile cooperation.

  14. Climate services for society: origins, institutional arrangements, and design elements for an evaluation framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Catherine; Dessai, Suraje

    2014-01-01

    Climate services involve the generation, provision, and contextualization of information and knowledge derived from climate research for decision making at all levels of society. These services are mainly targeted at informing adaptation to climate variability and change, widely recognized as an important challenge for sustainable development. This paper reviews the development of climate services, beginning with a historical overview, a short summary of improvements in climate information, and a description of the recent surge of interest in climate service development including, for example, the Global Framework for Climate Services, implemented by the World Meteorological Organization in October 2012. It also reviews institutional arrangements of selected emerging climate services across local, national, regional, and international scales. By synthesizing existing literature, the paper proposes four design elements of a climate services evaluation framework. These design elements include: problem identification and the decision-making context; the characteristics, tailoring, and dissemination of the climate information; the governance and structure of the service, including the process by which it is developed; and the socioeconomic value of the service. The design elements are intended to serve as a guide to organize future work regarding the evaluation of when and whether climate services are more or less successful. The paper concludes by identifying future research questions regarding the institutional arrangements that support climate services and nascent efforts to evaluate them. PMID:25798197

  15. Joint stockpiling and emergency sharing of oil: Arrangements for regional cooperation in East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Eui-soon; Savage, Tim

    2011-01-01

    The East Asia region includes three of the world's top five oil-importing nations-China, Japan, and the Republic of Korea. As a consequence, international oil supply disruptions and oil price spikes, and their effects on the economies of the region, have historically been of significant concern. Each of these three nations, as well as other nations in East Asia, has developed or is developing their own strategic oil stockpiles, but regional coordination in stockpiling arrangements and sharing of oil stocks in an emergency could provide significant benefits. This article describes the overall oil supply security situation in East Asia, reviews the attributes of different stockpiling arrangements to address energy supply security concerns, summarizes ongoing national approaches to stockpiling in East Asia, describes the development of joint oil stockpile initiatives in the region, and suggests the most attractive options for regional cooperation on oil stockpiling issues. - Highlights: → Rising oil consumption will make East Asia more vulnerable to energy insecurity. → There have been various dialogs on the need for a joint regional oil stockpile. → No serious joint oil stockpiling efforts have been made in East Asia to date. → Despite various impediments, diverse benefits justify oil stockpile cooperation.

  16. Assessing historical empathy through simulation – How do Finnish teacher students achieve contextual historical empathy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka Rantala

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been a great deal of international debate about introducing historical empathy as the focus in teaching history. However, as it is, the contents of the concept have been included in the curricula in many countries. Nevertheless, practising stepping into the shoes of a person from a previous era is still in its infancy in schools in many locations – Finland included. This article discusses Finnish class teacher students' understanding of historical empathy. The article is based on a study where 360 class teacher students played a game simulating the Cuban Missile Crisis. Their task was to assume the roles of the superpower leaders and make decisions on the basis of these roles. The simulation showed that a majority of the student teachers are able to attain a level of contextual historical empathy. They were able to empathize with the historical context in question and make such decisions that would have been possible for the historical actors. Some of the playing groups on the other hand, referred to their current knowledge and attitudes, which, according to Ashby and Lee's empathy classification, shows lower-level empathy. The study corroborates previous research results concerning great discrepancies in the understanding of empathy prevalent within one age group. Moreover, the study raises the question of how historical empathy should be handled in teaching if many future teachers have difficulties in understanding it.

  17. Emergency response arrangements for the transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan-Warren, E.

    2004-01-01

    Response arrangements are required for the transport of radioactive materials, under both transport and health and safety legislation, to safeguard persons, property and the environment in the event of incidents and emergencies. Responsibilities fall on both government and industry: government is responsible for ensuring public safety and providing information and reassurance. This responsibility is discharged for each type of incident by a nominated ''lead department'', supported as appropriate by other government departments and agencies; for their part, operators are obliged to have arrangements in place for dealing with the practicalities of any reasonably foreseeable incident, including recovery and onward transport of a package, and any required clean-up or restoration of the environment. This paper outlines both the government and industry arrangements in Great Britain. The principles of response and intervention are discussed, together with the lead department concept, regulatory requirements, and the plans developed by the transport industry to ensure a nation-wide response capability

  18. Patient sensing and indicating arrangement for a computed tomography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, D.M.

    1979-01-01

    An arrangement is provided for sensing and indicating if a cross section of a patient extends beyond an image reconstruction circle during examination. The arrangement is positioned within a generally vertical gantry having a generally cylindrical opening for receiving the patient. The arrangement includes a plurality of light emitting sources disposed within the gantry and which are closely adjacent the reconstruction circle. Each light emitting source projects a light beam along a line which is parallel with the plane of the reconstruction circle and tangent to a cylinder having a diameter and central axis in agreement with the reconstruction circle. The light beams extend substantially across the opening in the gantry and generally inscribe the reconstruction circle. A plurality of photodetectors are disposed within the gantry and aligned to receive each of the light beams. The photodetectors are interconnected to the system by means for indicating an interruption of any of the light beams between any of the sources and detectors

  19. Standard Reference Tables -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Standard Reference Tables (SRT) provide consistent reference data for the various applications that support Flight Standards Service (AFS) business processes and...

  20. 29 CFR 779.228 - Types of arrangements contemplated by exception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.228 Types of arrangements... section 3(s) would not otherwise apply: (a) Any arrangement, whether by agreement, franchise or otherwise...

  1. Improvements in or relating to radiation detection arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, G.P.

    1977-01-01

    A radiation detection arrangement is described that that comprises a number of scintillator devices, and a single multi-channel photomultiplier tube. Light from the scintillator devices is incident on the photocathode through an entrance window in the tube and multiplier entrance separating means are provided whereby light from each of the devices is made to be incident upon the channel entrances of photomultiplier tube. Various geometrical forms for the scintillator devices are described. This arrangement avoids the use of large number of small photomultiplier tubes, which is expensive and gives rise to difficulties in stacking the tubes in closely spaced side-by-side relationship. (U.K.)

  2. Six-strut arrangements for cartesian movements of mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noll, T.; Zeschke, Th.; Reichardt, G.; Lammert, H.; Gudat, W.

    2001-01-01

    At BESSY a new six-strut arrangement for general small travel mirror adjustment mechanisms has been developed. This patented (Patent DE 10042802.5) arrangement allows very simple movements in all six linear and rotational degrees of freedom. The movements of the mirror are simply determined by moving either one drive, or up to three drives by the same amount. The first mirror adjustment systems of this design is successfully in operation since the start of BESSY II. Their performance and reliability is very satisfactory. This contribution will present the concepts

  3. Concepts for institutional arrangements for the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    These concepts deal with establishing a framework for the analysis of institutional arrangements, with institutional arrangements under consideration in the working groups on fuel and heavy water availability, enrichment availability, assurances of long-term supply, reprocessing-plutonium handling-recycling, fast breeder reactors, spent fuel management, waste management and disposal, and advanced reactor concepts. The standardization of nuclear practices, joint commercial and development undertakings, nuclear supply assurances, developing a consensus in international nuclear co-operation, and settlements of disputes are treated

  4. Editorial: Spatial arrangement of faults and opening-mode fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubach, Stephen E.; Lamarche, Juliette; Gauthier, Bertand D. M.; Dunne, William M.

    2018-03-01

    This issue of the Journal of Structural Geology titled Spatial arrangement of faults and opening-mode fractures explores a fundamental characteristic of fault and fracture arrays. The pattern of fault and opening-mode fracture positions in space defines structural heterogeneity and anisotropy in a rock volume, governs how faults and fractures affect fluid flow, and impacts our understanding of the initiation, propagation and interactions during the formation of fracture patterns. This special issue highlights recent progress with respect to characterizing and understanding the spatial arrangements of fault and fracture patterns, providing examples over a wide range of scales and structural settings.

  5. Support system, excavation arrangement, and process of supporting an object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Bill W.

    2017-08-01

    A support system, an excavation arrangement, and a process of supporting an object are disclosed. The support system includes a weight-bearing device and a camming mechanism positioned below the weight-bearing device. A downward force on the weight-bearing device at least partially secures the camming mechanism to opposing surfaces. The excavation arrangement includes a borehole, a support system positioned within and secured to the borehole, and an object positioned on and supported by the support system. The process includes positioning and securing the support system and positioning the object on the weight-bearing device.

  6. Historic Eastern Canadian earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmis, G.J.K.; Atchinson, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    Nuclear power plants licensed in Canada have been designed to resist earthquakes: not all plants, however, have been explicitly designed to the same level of earthquake induced forces. Understanding the nature of strong ground motion near the source of the earthquake is still very tentative. This paper reviews historical and scientific accounts of the three strongest earthquakes - St. Lawrence (1925), Temiskaming (1935), Cornwall (1944) - that have occurred in Canada in 'modern' times, field studies of near-field strong ground motion records and their resultant damage or non-damage to industrial facilities, and numerical modelling of earthquake sources and resultant wave propagation to produce accelerograms consistent with the above historical record and field studies. It is concluded that for future construction of NPP's near-field strong motion must be explicitly considered in design

  7. Identification and classification of Serbia's historic floods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prohaska Stevan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available River flooding in Serbia is a natural phenomenon which largely exceeds the scope of water management and hydraulic engineering, and has considerable impact on the development of Serbian society. Today, the importance and value of areas threatened by floods are among the key considerations of sustainable development. As a result, flood protection techniques and procedures need to be continually refined and updated, following innovations in the fields of science and technology. Knowledge of high flows is key for sizing hydraulic structures and for gauging the cost-effectiveness and safety of the component structures of flood protection systems. However, sizing of hydraulic structures based on computed high flows does not ensure absolute safety; there is a residual flood risk and a risk of structural failure, if a flood exceeds computed levels. In hydrological practice, such floods are often referred to as historic/loads. The goal of this paper is to present a calculation procedure for the objective identification of historic floods, using long, multiple-year series of data on high flows of natural watercourses in Serbia. At its current stage of development, the calculation procedure is based on maximum annual discharges recorded at key monitoring stations of the Hydro-Meteorological Service of Serbia (HMS Serbia. When applied, the procedure results in the identification of specific historic maximum stages/floods (if any at all gauge sites included in the analysis. The probabilistic theory is then applied to assess the statistical significance of each identified historic flood and to classify the historic flood, as appropriate. At the end of the paper, the results of the applied methodology are shown in tabular and graphic form for various Serbian rivers. All identified historic floods are ranked based on their probability of occurrence (i.e., return period.

  8. Historical review of radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onai, Yoshio

    1993-01-01

    The techniques of radiotherapy have been improved by development of particle accelerators, radionuclides and computers. This paper presents a historical review of the physical and technical aspects of radiotherapy in Japan. Changes in the kinds of radiation, such as X-rays, gamma rays, electrons, neutrons and protons used for external radiotherapy, and the equipment involved are described chronologically, and historical changes in the quality of radiotherapy apparatus are outlined. Patient data acquisition equipment, such as X-ray simulator and X-ray CT, beam modifying devices, patient setup devices, and devices to verify treatment fields and patient doses are reviewed historically. Radiation sources for brachytherapy and internal radiotherapy, and remotely controlled afterloading systems are reviewed chronologically. Historical changes in methods to evaluate absorbed doses, dose monitor systems and beam data acquisition systems are outlined. Changes in methods of calculating dose distributions for external X-ray and electron therapy, brachytherapy and internal radiotherapy by unsealded radionuclides are described and calculation techniques for treatment planning system are reviewed. Annual figures in the numbers of radiotherapy equipment, such as telecobalt and telecesium units, linear accelerators, betatrons, microtrons, stereotactic gamma units, conformation radiotherapy units, remotely controlled afterloading systems, and associated equipment such as X-ray simulators and treatment planning systems are provided, as are changes in the number of accelerators by maximum X-ray energy and maximum electron energy, and in the number of licensed hospitals and clinics using small sealed sources. Changes in techniques of external radiotherapy and brachytherapy are described briefly from the point of view of dose distributions. (author)

  9. Why Digitise Historical Television?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ellis

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Digitisation of historic TV material is driven by the widespread perception that archival material should be made available to diverse users. Yet digitisation alters the material, taking away any lingering sense of presence. Digitisation and online access, however, offer startling new possibilities. The article offers three: use of material in language teaching and learning; use in dementia therapy; and applications as data in medical research. All depend on ordinary TV for their effectivity.

  10. Mitigating the consequences of future earthquakes in historical centres: what perspectives from the joined use of past information and geological-geophysical surveys?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terenzio Gizzi, Fabrizio; Moscatelli, Massimiliano; Potenza, Maria Rosaria; Zotta, Cinzia; Simionato, Maurizio; Pileggi, Domenico; Castenetto, Sergio

    2015-04-01

    To mitigate the damage effects of earthquakes in urban areas and particularly in historical centres prone to high seismic hazard is an important task to be pursued. As a matter of fact, seismic history throughout the world informs us that earthquakes have caused deep changes in the ancient urban conglomerations due to their high building vulnerability. Furthermore, some quarters can be exposed to an increase of seismic actions if compared with adjacent areas due to the geological and/or topographical features of the site on which the historical centres lie. Usually, the strategies aimed to estimate the local seismic hazard make only use of the geological-geophysical surveys. Thorough this approach we do not draw any lesson from what happened as a consequences of past earthquakes. With this in mind, we present the results of a joined use of historical data and traditional geological-geophysical approach to analyse the effects of possible future earthquakes in historical centres. The research activity discussed here is arranged into a joint collaboration between the Department of Civil Protection of the Presidency of Council of Ministers, the Institute of Environmental Geology and Geoengineering and the Institute of Archaeological and Monumental Heritage of the National (Italian) Research Council. In order to show the results, we discuss the preliminary achievements of the integrated study carried out on two historical towns located in Southern Apennines, a portion of the Italian peninsula exposed to high seismic hazard. Taking advantage from these two test sites, we also discuss some methodological implications that could be taken as a reference in the seismic microzonation studies.

  11. ACHP | Tribal Historic Preservation Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    preservation of significant historic properties. Those functions include identifying and maintaining Working with Section 106 Federal, State, & Tribal Programs Training & Education Publications Search skip specific nav links Home arrow Historic Preservation Programs & Officers arrow THPOs

  12. USGS Historical Topographic Map Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — USGS Historical Quadrangle in GeoPDF. The USGS Historical Quadrangle Scanning Project (HQSP) is scanning all scales and all editions of topographic maps published by...

  13. Bilateral and multilateral agreements and other arrangements in Europe and North America on the protection and use of transboundary waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The present document presents in a chronological order existing bilateral and multilateral legally binding agreements and other arrangements in Europe and North America on the protection and use of transboundary waters, which had been concluded by may 1992. These include agreements, treaties, conventions, protocols, orders and exchanges of notes. For each agreement the following information is given: title of the agreement, field of application, river basin, area of application, contracting parties, date of agreement and place of signature, joint body, and reference

  14. Valve arrangement for a nuclear plant residual heat removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidler, G.L.; Hill, R.A.; Carrera, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    Disclosed is an improved valve arrangement for a two-train Residual Heat Removal System (RHRS) of a nuclear reactor plant which ensures operational integrity of the system under single failure circumstances including loss of one of two electrical power sources

  15. Contract Hog Production: A Case Study of Financial Arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Brent; Barry, Peter

    2005-01-01

    A case study is presented about the financing arrangements, contract terms, and business relationships of a set of contract hog producers whose loans from community banks have been guaranteed by the Illinois Farm Development Authority. The results reflect the maturity and stability of contract hog production, although agribusiness and farmer integrators largely fill different market niches and contract with different types of producers.

  16. Parental survival, living arrangements and school enrolment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parental survival, living arrangements and school enrolment of children in Malawi in the era of HIV/AIDS. ... findings are consistent with results from other countries that are hit hard by the AIDS epidemic and point to the critical role of the extended family system in taking care of the disadvantaged and vulnerable children.

  17. An Investigation of Selective College and University Libraries' Serial Arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Elizabeth Gates; Teborek, Gay

    Data from a survey on serials arrangement procedures and policies at academic libraries was used by the University of Rhode Island (URI) Library in changing current serials policies. Ten libraries, four of which have similar serial holdings and user populations to URI, responded to a questionnaire. Information was obtained on classification versus…

  18. Parents' experiences of flexible work arrangements in changing European workplaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Lewis (Suzan); L. den Dulk (Laura)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractVarious leaves and other forms of flexible working arrangements have been implemented in workplaces to support employees with family commitments. Some are a response to public policy, others developed voluntarily. However, research examining the effectiveness of these policies in a

  19. Choice of the recording arrangement for bubble chamber holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royer, H.

    1982-01-01

    The main characteristics of the different recording arrangements are compared. The in-line system is the most simple and the cheapest but it does not suit to all types of chambers. The side-band systems yield different sorts of images and require different coherence, stability and energy conditions according to the type of illumination of the bubbles. (orig.)

  20. 48 CFR 1.105-1 - Publication and code arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Publication and code arrangement. 1.105-1 Section 1.105-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Purpose, Authority, Issuance 1.105-1 Publication and code...

  1. 48 CFR 401.105-1 - Publication and code arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Publication and code arrangement. 401.105-1 Section 401.105-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL AGRICULTURE ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Purpose, Authority, Issuance 401.105-1 Publication and...

  2. A survey of UK fertility clinics' approach to surrogacy arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Wendy; Crawshaw, Marilyn; Hudson, Nicky; Culley, Lorraine; Law, Caroline

    2015-09-01

    This paper draws on the findings of the first survey of surrogacy arrangements in Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) licensed fertility clinics since 1998. Given the complex social, ethical and legal issues involved, surrogacy continues to raise debate worldwide and fuel calls for increased domestic provision in developed countries. However, little is known about how recent changes have affected HFEA licensed clinics. A 24-item online survey was undertaken between August and October 2013, designed to improve understanding of recent trends and current practices associated with UK-based surrogacy, and consider the implications for future policy and practice in UK and cross-border surrogacy arrangements. The response rate was 51.4%, comprising 54 clinics. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics, and open-ended qualitative responses analysed for extending understanding. Of the participating clinics, 42.6% offered surrogacy (mostly gestational surrogacy). Heterosexual couples using gestational surrogacy were the largest group currently using services followed by male same-sex couples. Most clinics reported having encountered problems with surrogacy treatments, suggesting barriers still exist to expanding the UK provision of surrogacy arrangements. It is important that professionals are well informed about the legal implications of surrogacy and that clinics have consistent and appropriate operational protocols for surrogacy arrangements. Copyright © 2015 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Flexible Work Arrangements: Accessibility in a University Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafizad, Fleur; Paull, Megan; Omari, Maryam

    2011-01-01

    Attraction and retention of highly qualified employees has become an area of concern for Australian universities. It has been suggested that flexible work arrangements can be utilised to achieve this goal once the factors affecting their uptake have been identified. This mixed-method study of 495 academic and general staff at an Australian…

  4. Accountability after Structural Disaggregation: Comparing Agency Accountability Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overman, Sjors; Van Genugten, Marieke; Van Thiel, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    New accountability instruments – performance indicators, audits, and financial incentives – are expected to replace traditional accountability instruments in NPM reforms. We test this expectation by looking at the accountability arrangements of semi-autonomous agencies as a typical example of NPM

  5. 26 CFR 1.881-3 - Conduit financing arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... satisfaction of a repayment obligation is not an advance of money or other property. A financing arrangement... facts and circumstances, including, without limitation, the factors set forth in paragraph (b)(2) of... predominantly of transactions with customers who are not related persons. An intermediate entity's trade or...

  6. 41 CFR 105-1.109-51 - Arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arrangement. 105-1.109-51 Section 105-1.109-51 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulations System § 105-1...

  7. Individual Differences: Factors Affecting Employee Utilization of Flexible Work Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Alysa D.; Marler, Janet H.; Gueutal, Hal G.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated individual and organizational factors that predict an individual's choice to use flexible work arrangements (FWAs). Survey data was collected from 144 employees in two different organizations. The results revealed several significant predictors of FWAs: tenure, hours worked per week, supervisory responsibilities,…

  8. BEPS Action 2: Neutralizing the Effects on Hybrid Mismatch Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, R.; Marres, O.

    2015-01-01

    Curbing tax arbitrage is one of the main priorities of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) (endorsed by the G20 and the G8) ever since the public debate on base erosion fully erupted. Neutralizing the effect of hybrid mismatch arrangements has become Action No. 2 of the

  9. 48 CFR 1.105-2 - Arrangement of regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Purpose, Authority, Issuance 1.105-2 Arrangement of..., represent, in order, the subpart (one or two digits), and the section (two digits). The number to the right...)” outside the FAR and “9.106-4(d)” within the FAR. (4) Citations of authority (e.g., statutes or executive...

  10. Contracting for engineering services: Experience with innovative fee arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Criner, D.E.; Schenk, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between an engineering firm and a client can be favorably influenced by a clearly defined incentive plan. This paper addresses several approaches and the advantages and disadvantages of each. It also summarizes the lessons learned to date in using incentive fee arrangements

  11. Determinants of Choice of Institutional Marketing Arrangements by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determinants of Choice of Institutional Marketing Arrangements by Small Poultry Businesses in Tanzania: Application of Transaction Cost Theory. ... It indicates in addition that, probability of PFBs to enter into contractual businesses falls with increase in Transaction Costs (TCs). Linear regression analysis shows, in addition ...

  12. 27 CFR 8.23 - Third party arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXCLUSIVE OUTLETS Prohibited Practices § 8.23 Third party arrangements. Industry member requirements, by agreement or otherwise, with non-retailers which result in a retailer being required to purchase the industry member's products are within the exclusive outlet provisions...

  13. Workers in Alternative Employment Arrangements: A Second Look.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohany, Sharon R.

    1998-01-01

    Both the proportion and characteristics of workers in four alternative employment arrangements in February 1997 were little different from two years earlier. The groups--temporary-help-agency workers, contract company workers, workers who are on call, and independent contractors--continue to be highly diverse. (Author/JOW)

  14. Effect of Soybean Population and Spatial Arrangement on Nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field study was conducted in 2007 and 2008 cropping seasons at the research farm of the National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike, Abia State, to determine the effect of soybean population and spatial arrangement on the productivity of ginger/soybean intercrop in South Eastern Nigeria. Treatments comprised ...

  15. Flexible work arrangements and work-family conflict after childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grice, Mira M; McGovern, Patricia M; Alexander, Bruce H

    2008-10-01

    Previous research has revealed that work-family conflict negatively influences women's health following childbirth. To examine if flexible work arrangements were associated with work-family conflict among women, 1 year after childbirth. Employed women, aged >or=18, were recruited while hospitalized for childbirth. Flexible work arrangements were measured at 6 months and work-family conflict was measured at 12 months. General linear models estimated the association between flexible work arrangements and work-family conflict. Of 1157 eligible participants, 522 were included in this analysis giving a 45% response rate. Compared to women who reported that taking time off was very hard, those who reported it was not too hard (beta = -0.80, SE = 0.36, P hours was associated with greater home spillover (beta = 0.46, SE = 0.18, P work home was associated with increased home spillover (beta = 0.35, SE = 0.14, P work hours and the ability to take work home were associated with increased home spillover to work. The ability to take time off was associated with decreased job spillover to home. Additional research is needed to examine the intentional and unintentional consequences of flexible work arrangements.

  16. Intermediate Genre Study. Historical Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelli, Joan; Lasky, Kathryn

    1996-01-01

    Students can learn to appreciate history as readers and writers of historical fiction. This section presents an introduction to historical fiction, a display idea, a mystery history game, discussion of character-building, charts for students to fill in with information on historical characters, suggestions for customizing writing centers and for…

  17. The relationship between work arrangements and work-family conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Christopher; Duxbury, Linda; Julien, Mark

    2014-01-01

    A review of the literature determined that our understanding of the efficacy of flexible work arrangements (FWA) in reducing work-family conflict remains inconclusive. To shed light on this issue by examining the relationship between work-to-family conflict, in which work interferes with family (WFC), family-to-work conflict, in which family interferes with work (FWC), and four work arrangements: the traditional 9-5 schedule, compressed work weeks (CWWs) flextime, and telework. Hypotheses were tested on a sample of 16,145 employees with dependent care responsibilities. MANCOVA analysis was used with work arrangement as the independent variable and work interferes with family (WFC) and family interferes with work (FWC) as dependent variables. Work demands, non-work demands, income, job type and gender were entered into the analysis as covariates. The more flexible work arrangements such as flextime and telework were associated with higher levels of WFC than were fixed 9-to 5 and CWW schedules. Employees who teleworked reported higher FWC than their counterparts working a traditional 9-to-5 schedule particularly when work demands were high. The removal of both temporal and physical boundaries separating work and family domains results in higher levels of work-family interference in both directions. The results from this study suggest that policy makers and practitioners who are interested in improving employee well-being can reduce work-family conflict, and by extension improve employee mental health, by focusing on the effective use of traditional and CWW schedules rather than by implementing flextime and telework arrangements.

  18. 46 CFR 160.005-1 - Incorporation by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Life Preservers, Fibrous Glass, Adult and Child (Jacket Type... makes reference to the following documents: (1) Federal Specification: L-P-375C—Plastic Film, Flexible....005-1: (Sheet 1) Cutting Pattern and General Arrangement (Adult). (Sheet 2) Alternate Stitching of...

  19. FORECASTING AND ADAPTATION METHODS FOR HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT USED FOR TOURIST PURPOSE IN CITIES OF SOUTH-EASTERN CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qai Liu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers methodological statements concerning formation and development of cultural and tourist zones and complexes in the Chinese cities with precious historical and cultural heritage. Characteristic types of historical buildings in the cities of the Tsiansu province which are located in the south-eastern part ofChinaare given in the paper. The paper contains methods for renovation of historical development for tourist purpose and gives proposals pertaining to arrangement of tourist service objects there that permit to preserve individual image of historical regions.

  20. The cultural biography of a street. Memory, cultural heritage and historical notion of the Visserstraat in Breda, the Netherlands (1200-2000)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hupperetz, W.; Kolen, J.; Renes, J.; Hermans, R.

    2015-01-01

    Presented in this article is a scheduling principle that can be used to improve the practicalapproach to cultural history. In short, it means operationalising the three time levels of Fernand Braudel to form a conceptual-historical approach. The wealth of historical-culturaldata can thus be arranged

  1. Comparative Studies: historical, epistemological and methodological notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ignacio Piovani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article some historical, epistemological and methodological issues related to comparative studies in the social sciences are addressed, with specific reference to the field of education. The starting point is a discussion of the meaning of comparison, its logical structure and its presence in science and in everyday life. It follows the presentation and critical appraisal of the perspectives regarding comparison as a scientific method. It is argued that, even rejecting this restrictive meaning of comparison as a method, there is some consensus on the specificity of comparative studies within the social sciences. And in relation to them, the article address in more detail those studies that can be defined as trans-contextual (cross-national and cross-cultural, with emphasis on the main methodological and technical challenges they face. The socio-historical comparative perspective, which has gained importance in recent years in the field of education, is also discussed.

  2. Preserving the acoustical heritage of historical buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindel, Jens Holger

    2005-01-01

    with the present state building. Next step is to identify what historic conditions that should be reconstructions, especially architectural details, surface materials, obstacles, textiles, performing persons and audience, and typical sounds or music. The computer model is then modified according to these data......The use of virtual reality and auralization techniques has opened new possibilities for the study of acoustical conditions in historic buildings. With reference to some recent and current projects the paper describes the steps in the process and how new technology may be used to overcome some...... of the difficulties involved. If the building exists as a whole or partly the first step is collection of geometrical and architectural data from the site. The level of detail may be huge, e.g. if laser scanning is used for providing the geometrical data, and some degree of simplification may be necessary...

  3. Effects of Magnetic Particles Entrance Arrange-ments on Mixing Efficiency of a Magnetic Bead Micromixer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reza Kamali∗; Seyed Alireza Shekoohi; Alireza Binesh

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a computer code is developed to numerically investigate a magnetic bead micromixer under different conditions. The micromixer consists of a microchannel and numerous micro magnetic particles which enter the micromixer by fluid flows and are actuated by an alternating magnetic field normal to the main flow. An important feature of micromixer which is not considered before by researchers is the particle entrance arrangement into the micromixer. This parameter could effectively affect the micromixer efficiency. There are two general micro magnetic particle entrance arrangements in magnetic bead micromixers: determined position entrance and random position entrance. In the case of determined position entrances, micro magnetic particles enter the micromixer at specific positions of entrance cross section. However, in a random position entrance, particles enter the microchannel with no order. In this study mixing efficiencies of identical magnetic bead micromixers which only differ in particle entrance arrangement are numerically investigated and compared. The results reported in this paper illustrate that the prepared computer code can be one of the most powerful and beneficial tools for the magnetic bead micromixer performance analysis. In addition, the results show that some features of the magnetic bead micromixer are strongly affected by the entrance arrangement of the particles.

  4. 2002 reference document; Document de reference 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This 2002 reference document of the group Areva, provides information on the society. Organized in seven chapters, it presents the persons responsible for the reference document and for auditing the financial statements, information pertaining to the transaction, general information on the company and share capital, information on company operation, changes and future prospects, assets, financial position, financial performance, information on company management and executive board and supervisory board, recent developments and future prospects. (A.L.B.)

  5. Einstein: A Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormos-Buchwald, Diana

    2015-04-01

    In late 1915, Albert Einstein (1879-1955) completed as series of papers on a generalized theory of gravitation that were to constitute a major conceptual change in the history of modern physics and the crowning achievement of his scientific career. But this accomplishment came after a decade of intense intellectual struggle and was received with muted enthusiasm. Einstein's previously unpublished writings and massive correspondence, edited by the Einstein Papers Project, provide vivid insights into the historical, personal, and scientific context of the formulation, completion, and reception of GR during the first decades of the 20th century.

  6. [Historical roles of salt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, E; Ritz, C

    2004-12-17

    Recently increasing evidence has been provided pointing to a close relation of salt consumption to hypertension as well as to target organ damage. It is interesting to note that the discussion concerning salt is unusually emotional. This may be explained, at least in part, by the fact that since ancient times salt had deep symbolic significance, as exemplified, mostly subconsciously, by many customs and expressions still in current use. In the past salt was essential to preserve food. The past importance of salt as a commodity can well be compared with that of oil today. These and further historical aspects of the role of salt are briefly dealt with in this article.

  7. Retrieving Historical Electrorefining Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, Meagan Daniella [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-18

    Pyrochemical Operations began at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) during 1962 (1). Electrorefining (ER) has been implemented as a routine process since the 1980’s. The process data that went through the ER operation was recorded but had never been logged in an online database. Without a database new staff members are hindered in their work by the lack of information. To combat the issue a database in Access was created to collect the historical data. The years from 2000 onward were entered and queries were created to analyze trends. These trends will aid engineering and operations staff to reach optimal performance for the startup of the new lines.

  8. Expiration of Historical Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toman, David

    2001-01-01

    We present a technique for automatic expiration of data in a historical data warehouse that preserves answers to a known and fixed set of first-order queries. In addition, we show that for queries with output size bounded by a function of the active data domain size (the number of values that have...... ever appeared in the warehouse), the size of the portion of the data warehouse history needed to answer the queries is also bounded by a function of the active data do-main size and therefore does not depend on the age of the warehouse (the length of the history)....

  9. The INIS Thesaurus: historical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duresa, Bekele Negeri; Vakula, Olga

    2015-01-01

    The INIS Thesaurus is a controlled terminological knowledge base that has been developed over the years through the contribution of INIS Member States in all areas of peaceful applications of nuclear science and technology, which is also the subject scope of the INIS Collection. The thesaurus is primarily used for subject indexing of input into the INIS system and for retrieval of information from the database. Thanks to the vital support of INIS Member States, the thesaurus has been translated into eight languages (i.e. all IAEA official languages plus German and Japanese) and is available online to assist our global users as a tool for retrieval and for general reference. It is a dynamic information resource that is continually updated to cater to new developments of terminologies in nuclear science and technology. Since its inception in the 1960’s, it was decided that the subject analysis for INIS input preparation be based on its own subject categories, which also determines its scope, and keyword indexing using a thesaurus. This article briefly describes the development of the INIS Thesaurus from a historical perspective

  10. Located historical cognition: syllabus expectations and teaching method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geyso Germinari

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This research of qualitative nature has as objective to analyze how a group of elementary school’s teachers formulates its teaching method, under the perspective of located historical cognition. The theoretical and methodological presuppositions of the Historical Education are present in the teaching and learning conception of the State Syllabus Guidelines of History, referring to a located historical cognition. The syllabus affirms that the teachers’ pedagogic work has as purpose the formation of the students’ historical thought, through the historical conscience. In order to do that, it suggests the use of the historical investigation method in classroom, articulated by the historical narratives of the subjects. Based in the theoretical and methodological referential of the “methodological structuralism”, the investigation used standardized questionnaire and semi-structured interview applied to four teachers. The results indicate that the teachers use in their teaching method elements of the historical investigation, which is a practice that potentiates in the student the development of a cognition located in the science of history.

  11. Rethinking historical trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmayer, Laurence J; Gone, Joseph P; Moses, Joshua

    2014-06-01

    Recent years have seen the rise of historical trauma as a construct to describe the impact of colonization, cultural suppression, and historical oppression of Indigenous peoples in North America (e.g., Native Americans in the United States, Aboriginal peoples in Canada). The discourses of psychiatry and psychology contribute to the conflation of disparate forms of violence by emphasizing presumptively universal aspects of trauma response. Many proponents of this construct have made explicit analogies to the Holocaust as a way to understand the transgenerational effects of genocide. However, the social, cultural, and psychological contexts of the Holocaust and of post-colonial Indigenous "survivance" differ in many striking ways. Indeed, the comparison suggests that the persistent suffering of Indigenous peoples in the Americas reflects not so much past trauma as ongoing structural violence. The comparative study of genocide and other forms of massive, organized violence can do much to illuminate both common mechanisms and distinctive features, and trace the looping effects from political processes to individual experience and back again. The ethics and pragmatics of individual and collective healing, restitution, resilience, and recovery can be understood in terms of the self-vindicating loops between politics, structural violence, public discourse, and embodied experience. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  12. VBE reference framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afsarmanesh, H.; Camarinha-Matos, L.M.; Ermilova, E.; Camarinha-Matos, L.M.; Afsarmanesh, H.; Ollus, M.

    2008-01-01

    Defining a comprehensive and generic "reference framework" for Virtual organizations Breeding Environments (VBEs), addressing all their features and characteristics, is challenging. While the definition and modeling of VBEs has become more formalized during the last five years, "reference models"

  13. CMS Statistics Reference Booklet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The annual CMS Statistics reference booklet provides a quick reference for summary information about health expenditures and the Medicare and Medicaid health...

  14. The ORSEC arrangement and the 'nuclear' intervention specific plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenon, C.

    2010-01-01

    In order to take the specific character of a nuclear emergency situation into account, France has developed planning tools within the so-called Crisis National Organisation (ONC, organisation nationale de crise). This organisation involves public bodies, agencies and companies. Thus, intervention specific plans (PPI, plans particuliers d'intervention) are included in the ORSEC general arrangement. The assessment of geographical and chronological consequences of a nuclear accident has lead to the definition of two main categories of measures, depending on the fact they are immediately or progressively applied. They involve the intervention of specialised means. This report also indicates how new measures have been introduced in the ORSEC arrangement to manage the post-accident phase. The author also outlines that crisis communication must also be prepared and tested

  15. How regional non-proliferation arrangements complement international verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, J.

    1999-01-01

    This presentation focuses on international verification in the form of IAEA Safeguards, and discusses the relationship between IAEA safeguards and the relevant regional arrangements, both the existing and the future. For most States the political commitment against acquisition of nuclear weapons has been carefully reached and strongly held. Their observance of treaty commitments does not depend on the deterrent effect of verification activities. Safeguards serve to assist States who recognise it is in their own interest to demonstrate their compliance to others. Thus safeguards are a vital confidence building measure in their own right, as well as being a major complement to the broader range of international confidence building measures. Safeguards can both complement other confidence building measures and in turn be complemented by them. Within consideration of how it could work it is useful to consider briefly current developments of IAEA safeguards, i.e. existing regional arrangements and nuclear weapon free zones

  16. The deep disposal repository - an alternative general arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolofsky, L.

    1996-01-01

    For the disposal of nuclear fuel waste in Canada the current proposal requires a repository at or below 500 m depth in Precambrian plutonic igneous rock in Ontario, consisting of numerous horizontal parallel tunnels arranged in one or more horizontal planes i.e. a room-and-pillar arrangement. The pillars are three times as wide as the tunnels, giving as extraction ratio of 25%. The tunnels are tentatively designed to be excavated by drill and blast, with a flat-arched roof, vertical side walls and a flat invert. The fuel containing canisters are to be surrounded by a low-permeability bentonite-based buffer in vertical holes drilled for the purpose in the invert

  17. Development of the APR+ Auxiliary Building General Arrangement (GA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Hyung Keun; Park, Young Sheop; Kang, Yong Chul

    2011-01-01

    The general arrangement (GA) drawing of a nuclear power plant is the most basic drawing which contains all of the plant equipment, systems, and rooms. Therefore, it should be issued at an early design stage to provide the contours of the overall plant structure. This type of drawing is typically used widely throughout the design stages. The development project of APR+ (Advanced Power Reactor+), as a succeeding model of the APR1400 (Advanced Power Reactor 1400) design, has its own GA that encompasses all of its power buildings. This was developed starting in October of 2009. Among several of the buildings in this design, the Auxiliary Building (AB) is one of the most important buildings to produce electricity, and to protect against undesirable radiation emissions. This paper focuses on the design characteristics of the general arrangement of the AB

  18. Implementation of an Arranged Preventive Consultation in Danish General Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Anne Gram; Kirkegaard, Pia; Thomsen, Janus Laust

    Background: In 2006 an arranged preventive consultation (0106-service) was implemented in Danish general practice. The purpose of the consultation is an attempt to improve the systematic prevention of the main chronic lifestyle diseases. Aim: This study examines the GP's experiences...... with the arranged preventive consultation with focus on facilitators and barriers in the implementation of the consultation. Material & Method: Semi-structured interviews with 10 GPs and nurses in general practice. Results & Conclusions: Economically lucrative services are not an isolated motivation for the GPs....../nurses, but must be accompanied with a basic belief in the effect of preventive consultations in general practice. The better payment of the 0106-service is used to spend more time per consultation and it makes the GPs/nurses feel rewarded for the preventive work they perform. The consultation frames a social...

  19. Vortex structure behind highly heated two cylinders in parallel arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurita, Eiichirou; Yahagi, Yuji

    2008-01-01

    Vortex structures behind twin, highly heated cylinders in parallel arrangements have been investigated experimentally. The experiments were conducted under the following conditions: cylinder diameter, D=4 mm; mean flow velocity, U ∞ =1.0 m/s; Reynolds number, Re=250; cylinder clearance, S/D=0.5 - 1.4; and cylinder heat flux, q=0 - 72.6 kW/m 2 . For S/D > 1.2, the Karman vortex street is formed alternately behind each cylinder divided on the slit flow. The slit flow velocity increases with a decrease in S/D and decreases with increasing heat flux. For S/D 2 ). As a result, the increased local kinematic viscosity and S/D play a key role for the vortex structure and formation behind arrangements of two parallel cylinders. (author)

  20. Self arrangements in occupational safety and health management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail Bahari

    2002-01-01

    The book is written with the awareness of safe work culture where success does not lie to compliance with the law only. Instead it is more of an excellent management based on the principle of self organization. Self arrangements in the management of occupational safety and health do not rest on the shoulders of the employer or the safety management and safety communities, but are committed together with the leadership of the employer. Self arrangements will be more meaningful and successful if those involved have knowledge about the philosophy and principles of why and how this management is done, and so the method can be practiced and eventually cultivated as a working system. (author)

  1. The Dynamics of Decentralization Arrangements in Indonesia Constitutional System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haposan Siallagan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Local autonomy has long been implemented in Indonesia and has been experiencing a number of phases within governmental system. This writing is intended to fathom the dynamics of decentralization arrangement indeed. The discussion it-self shows that according to the substances in a number of decentralization policy which had/has been issued, the dynamics of local autonomy arrangements (as regulated in many decentralization policies are inclining to be captured in a broad meaning, which is frequently known as a broadest local autonomy. Through local autonomy mechanism, local governments are given a flexibility in order to manage and administer their own domestic household. In order to maximize the implementation of widest local autonomy, local government has to be pushed to be well prepared in handling many local governmental tasks. Such preparations are related to human resources capacity, the competences in running the tasks, and financial management capacity.

  2. The chromosomal arrangement of six soybean leghemoglobin genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, Kirsten; Abildsten, Dorte; Jensen, Erik Ø

    1983-01-01

    Clones containing six leghemoglobin (Lb) genes have been isolated from two genomic libraries of soybean. They encompass two independent DNA regions: a 40-kb region containing four genes in the order 5' Lba-Lbc(1)-[unk]Lb-Lbc(3) 3' with the same transcriptional polarity, and another 40-kb region...... containing two genes in the order 5' Lbc(4)-Lbc(2) 3' with the same polarity. The order in which the Lb genes are arranged in the soybean genome imply that they are activated in the opposite order to which they are arranged on the chromosome. There is a close similarity between corresponding DNA regions...... differs from that of the Lb genes. The existence of two very similar Lb gene clusters in soybean suggest that soybean may have evolved from an ancestral form by genome duplication. Udgivelsesdato: 1983-null...

  3. Arrangements for dealing with emergencies at civil nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.J.; Robinson, I.F.

    1989-01-01

    This paper covers arrangements for dealing with nuclear emergencies at sites licensed by the Health and Safety Executive/Nuclear Installations Inspectorate. Such arrangements are over and above the contingency plans required for radiation incidents as required by the Ionising Radiations Regulations. The statutory position of the NII is described and, although the NII is limited to regulating the activities of the operator, the functions of the other organisations that could be involved in dealing with an emergency are briefly covered in order to give as complete a picture as possible. The basis for emergency planning is given together with the consequences and countermeasures for mitigation of a nuclear emergency, including the use of ERLs. The requirements for emergency exercises are explained. (author)

  4. INNOVATION IN BRAZILIAN TERRITORIAL ASSOCIATION: THE EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ARRANGEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo José Grin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the Development Educational Arrangements as ways of territorial association which, in Brasil, since the 2000s, have been one more alternative for municipal consortia. The object of analysis is formed by two cases: the Corredor da Vale (Maranhão and the Chapada Diamantina (Bahia. The research was implemented based on secondary data and a field investigation that interviewed educational municipal managers and representatives from state governments. The selected cases were based on the diverse case methodology that analyzes, controlling variables, different effects of independent variable over dependent variable. The central argument tested is that Educational Arrangements are the independent variables that produce effect on educational territorial governance like dependent variable. We concluded that the larger success in baiano case it was due to factor like regional leadership, social control, path and context of its construction, what didn't happen in the maranhense case.

  5. Innovative Nuclear Power Plant Building Arrangement in Consideration of Decommissioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Jun Choi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A new concept termed the Innovative Nuclear Power Plant Building Arrangement (INBA strategy is a new nuclear power plant building arrangement method which encompasses upfront consideration of more efficient decommissioning. Although existing decommissioning strategies such as immediate dismantling and differed dismantling has the advantage of either early site restoration or radioactive decommissioning waste reduction, the INBA strategy has the advantages of both strategies. In this research paper, the concept and the implementation method of the INBA strategy will be described. Two primary benefits will be further described: (1 early site restoration; and (2 radioactive waste reduction. Several other potential benefits will also be identified. For the estimation of economic benefit, the INBA strategy, with two primary benefits, will be compared with the immediate dismantling strategy. The effect of a short life cycle nuclear power plant in combination with the INBA strategy will be reviewed. Finally, some of the major impediments to the realization of this strategy will be discussed.

  6. Livestock farmer perceptions of successful collaborative arrangements for manure exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asai, Masayasu; Langer, Vibeke; Frederiksen, Pia

    2014-01-01

    to underground water, self-governing manure exchanges have been widely organised among farms in local communities. This allows large livestock farms to achieve the required balance between manure production and the agricultural production area although the importer rarely pays the full nutrient value...... for the manure received. Despite the potential for improved efficiency of manure use, few studies have examined livestock farmers’ perceptions of coordinated arrangements with recipient farms and factors in successful arrangements. A total of 644 manure exporters were asked about factors they consider important...... in identifying and selecting a new partner for manure export, including factors regarding the potential partner and the function of the partnership. They evaluated a total of 18 statements relating to possible perceptions. The results revealed that exporters appreciated especially four qualities: (1) timely...

  7. 3-D printed composites with ultrasonically arranged complex microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn-Jones, Thomas M.; Drinkwater, Bruce W.; Trask, Richard S.

    2016-04-01

    This paper demonstrates the efficacy of implementing ultrasonic manipulation within a modified form of stereolithographic 3D printing to form complex microstructures in printed components. Currently 3D printed components are limited both in terms of structural performance and specialised functionality. This study aims to demonstrate a novel method for 3D printing composite materials, by arranging microparticles suspended within a photocurable resin. The resin is selectively cured by a 3-axis gantry-mounted 405nm laser. Ultrasonic forces are used to arrange the microfibres into predetermined patterns within the resin, with unidirectional microfibre alignment and a hexagonal lattice structure demonstrated. An example of dynamic microstructure variation within a single print layer is also presented.

  8. Effects of thinning, burning, seeding, and slash arrangements on understory communities in pinyon-juniper woodlands of northern Arizona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Irwin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Pinyon-juniper woodlands are a dominant ecosystem in the American Southwest that have been increasing in density over the last century, generating concerns about the effects on wildlife habitat, livestock forage, and wildfire risk. We tested 16 treatment combinations designed to restore stands to historic conditions by examining the impact on understory plant richness and abundance. We thinned three sites comprised of different parent soil materials: limestone, sandstone, and basalt. Each site had one of four slash arrangements: piled, broadcast, clustered, or no thinning. Each of these arrangements received a different burning/seeding treatment: prescribed fire, seeding, prescribed fire and seeding, or none. This study corresponded with the driest period in the last 55 years, and plant species richness decreased by an average of 40% from the previous year in the control plots. Richness was significantly different due to slash arrangement at the basalt site only. Burning or seeding did not affect richness at any of the sites. Plant species abundance was generally low and not influenced by treatment or site. This study demonstrates that extensive ecosystem manipulation in the pinyon-juniper woodlands of northern Arizona did not affect understory richness or abundance the first year after treatment during a drought.

  9. Effects of thinning, burning, seeding, and slash arrangements on understory communities in pinyon-juniper woodlands of northern Arizona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria R. Irwin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pinyon-juniper woodlands are a dominant ecosystem in the American Southwest that have been increasing in density over the last century, generating concerns about the effects on wildlife habitat, livestock forage, and wildfire risk. We tested 16 treatment combinations designed to restore stands to historic conditions by examining the impact on understory plant richness and abundance. We thinned three sites comprised of different parent soil materials: limestone, sandstone, and basalt. Each site had one of four slash arrangements: piled, broadcast, clustered, or no thinning. Each of these arrangements received a different burning/seeding treatment: prescribed fire, seeding, prescribed fire and seeding, or none. This study corresponded with the driest period in the last 55 years, and plant species richness decreased by an average of 40% from the previous year in the control plots. Richness was significantly different due to slash arrangement at the basalt site only. Burning or seeding did not affect richness at any of the sites. Plant species abundance was generally low and not influenced by treatment or site. This study demonstrates that extensive ecosystem manipulation in the pinyon-juniper woodlands of northern Arizona did not affect understory richness or abundance the first year after treatment during a drought.

  10. Changing quantum reference frames

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, Matthew C.; Girelli, Florian; Bartlett, Stephen D.

    2013-01-01

    We consider the process of changing reference frames in the case where the reference frames are quantum systems. We find that, as part of this process, decoherence is necessarily induced on any quantum system described relative to these frames. We explore this process with examples involving reference frames for phase and orientation. Quantifying the effect of changing quantum reference frames serves as a first step in developing a relativity principle for theories in which all objects includ...

  11. Possibilities and limitations of flexible work arrangements in the military

    OpenAIRE

    Kanlis, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    MBA Professional Report Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Employers widely utilize flexible work arrangements (FWAs) both to improve employee work-life balance and to increase organizational effectiveness. To date, the private sector has embraced FWA to a much larger extent than has the military. In this project, I outline the underpinnings of workplace flexibility and describe how it can potentially improve the military labor market. First, I outline a conceptual f...

  12. Mexico; 2013 Review Under the Flexible Credit Line Arrangement

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses Mexico’ Review Under the Flexible Credit Line (FCL) Arrangement. Significant progress has been made in advancing far-reaching structural reforms, signaling Mexico’s commitment to address deep-rooted impediments to growth. The economy slowed down in early 2013, but is expected to recover starting in the second half of the year. Mexico’s financial markets have functioned reasonably well through the recent global volatility, although with some currency depreciation and a ris...

  13. Linking better shiftwork arrangements with safety and health management systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kogi, Kazutaka

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Various support measures useful for promoting joint change approaches to the improvement of both shiftworking arrangements and safety and health management systems were reviewed. A particular focus was placed on enterprise-level risk reduction measures linking working hours and management systems. METHODS: Voluntary industry-based guidelines on night and shift work for department stores and the chemical, automobile and electrical equipment industries were examined. Survey results t...

  14. Employee satisfaction and use of flexible working arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Wheatley, D

    2017-01-01

    This paper considers the impact of flexible working arrangements (FWAs), using the British Household Panel Survey and Understanding Society, 2001-2010/11. Results of panel logit, ANCOVA and change-score analysis are indicative of positive impacts from use of a number of FWAs, including homeworking having positive effects for men and women on job and leisure satisfaction. However,\\ud findings reveal gaps in availability and use of FWAs, and highlight the gendered nature of flexible employment....

  15. Small-Firm Networks: hybrid arrangement or organizational form?

    OpenAIRE

    Verschoore, Jorge Renato; Balestrin, Alsones; Perucia, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    In the field of organizations, one relevant question is whether or not to consider networks as organizational forms. On the one hand, Williamson (1985) says that networks are hybrid arrangements. On the other, authors like Powell (1990) argue that networks constitute themselves as organizational forms. Given this dilemma, the present article proposes the analysis of organizational characteristics of small-firm networks (SFN). To reach such objective, twelve SFNs in distinct stages of developm...

  16. The case for regional exchange rate arrangement in East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Takuji Kinkyo

    2004-01-01

    The Asian crisis highlighted the difficulties for developing countries to actively manage exchange rates in an environment of high capital mobility. Now it became fashionable to argue that the exchange rate should be either allowed to float freely or irrevocably fixed. This paper examines the case for regional exchange rate arrangements as an instrument to enhance the manageability of exchange rates and discusses the options in East Asia. It critically assess the existing proposal of common b...

  17. Nuclear yield determinations using isotope-separator-on-line arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudstam, G.

    1975-01-01

    The delay between the formation of a nuclear reaction product and its collection in front of measuring equipment in ISOL arrangements using integrated target-ion source systems has been analyzed. It is shown that a typical delay function takes the form const x (1-esup(-γt))esup(-μt) with γ >> μ. The results can be used for decay corrections in nuclear yield determinations. (Auth.)

  18. Permanent cavity seal ring for a nuclear reactor containment arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swidwa, K.J.; Salton, R.B.; Marshall, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear reactor containment arrangement. It comprises: a reactor pressure vessel which thermally expands and contracts during cyclic operation of the reactor, the vessel having a peripheral wall and a horizontally outwardly extending flange thereon; a containment wall having a shelf, the wall spaced from and surrounding the peripheral wall of the reactor pressure vessel defining an annular expansion gap therebetween, and an annular ring seal extending across the annular expansion gap to provide a water-tight seal therebetween

  19. Influence of an octupole arrangement of electrodes on drift waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, D.; Piel, A.; Schroeder, Ch.; Klinger, T.

    2001-01-01

    In order to influence drift waves an octupole arrangement of electrodes is placed in direct vicinity of the plasma. By applying sinusoidal signals with proper phase shift to the electrodes synchronisation of drift waves is observed. The width of the synchronisation area is taken to quantify the interaction of the electrodes with the plasma. It turns out that the synchronisability strongly depends on the frequency, amplitude and phase shift and has to be interpreted as spatiotemporal effect. (orig.)

  20. A Historical Comparative Perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJM Venter

    with the free and fair operation of the financial markets by creating an artificial, false or misleading appearance with respect ... to as the Financial Markets Act. See Benade et al Entrepreneurial Law 130; Van Deventer 2008 ...... Financial Institutions (Protection of Funds) Act 28 of 2001 as amended, hereinafter referred to as.

  1. The mutual recognition arrangement and primary standard dosimetry laboratory comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allisy-Roberts, P.J.; Burns, D.T.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The majority of the Member States of the Metre Convention have signed an arrangement for the mutual recognition (MRA) of national measurement standards and calibration and measurement capabilities (CMCs). Part of the MRA involves an open access database of CMCs that in turn need to be supported by key and supplementary comparisons of national standards. This paper outlines the MRA, describing the comparisons of national primary standards in the field of dosimetry that support the claims of the CMCs in the key comparison database (KCDB). The MRA was drawn up by the International Committee for Weights and Measures (Comite International des Poids et Mesures CIPM) and was signed at a meeting held in Paris on 14 October 1999 by the directors of the national metrology institutes (NMIs) of thirty-eight Member States of the Metre Convention and representatives of two international organizations. Since that date, the directors of the NMIs of several other Member States and nine Associates of the General Conference (Conference Generale des Poids et Mesures CGPM) have also signed the MRA. The metrological objectives of the MRA are to establish the degree of equivalence of national measurement standards maintained by NMIs and thus provide the basis for the mutual recognition of calibration and measurement certificates issued by NMIs. The NMIs provide the traceability to the international system of units (SI) required for these services and thus mutual recognition of the capabilities of the NMIs is a prerequisite for the mutual recognition of the metrology services of countries in general. The objectives of the MRA are achieved through a process of: (a) international comparisons of measurements, known as key comparisons (b) supplementary international comparisons of measurements, and (c) quality systems and demonstrations of competence by the NMIs. The outcome of the MRA is a determination of the degrees of equivalence of national standards and a set of statements of

  2. Coccolith arrangement follows Eulerian mathematics in the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kai; Hutchins, David; Gao, Kunshan

    2018-01-01

    The globally abundant coccolithophore, Emiliania huxleyi , plays an important ecological role in oceanic carbon biogeochemistry by forming a cellular covering of plate-like CaCO 3 crystals (coccoliths) and fixing CO 2 . It is unknown how the cells arrange different-sized coccoliths to maintain full coverage, as the cell surface area of the cell changes during daily cycle. We used Euler's polyhedron formula and CaGe simulation software, validated with the geometries of coccoliths, to analyze and simulate the coccolith topology of the coccosphere and to explore the arrangement mechanisms. There were only small variations in the geometries of coccoliths, even when the cells were cultured under variable light conditions. Because of geometric limits, small coccoliths tended to interlock with fewer and larger coccoliths, and vice versa. Consequently, to sustain a full coverage on the surface of cell, each coccolith was arranged to interlock with four to six others, which in turn led to each coccosphere contains at least six coccoliths. The number of coccoliths per coccosphere must keep pace with changes on the cell surface area as a result of photosynthesis, respiration and cell division. This study is an example of natural selection following Euler's polyhedral formula, in response to the challenge of maintaining a CaCO 3 covering on coccolithophore cells as cell size changes.

  3. Coccolith arrangement follows Eulerian mathematics in the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Xu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background The globally abundant coccolithophore, Emiliania huxleyi, plays an important ecological role in oceanic carbon biogeochemistry by forming a cellular covering of plate-like CaCO3 crystals (coccoliths and fixing CO2. It is unknown how the cells arrange different-sized coccoliths to maintain full coverage, as the cell surface area of the cell changes during daily cycle. Methods We used Euler’s polyhedron formula and CaGe simulation software, validated with the geometries of coccoliths, to analyze and simulate the coccolith topology of the coccosphere and to explore the arrangement mechanisms. Results There were only small variations in the geometries of coccoliths, even when the cells were cultured under variable light conditions. Because of geometric limits, small coccoliths tended to interlock with fewer and larger coccoliths, and vice versa. Consequently, to sustain a full coverage on the surface of cell, each coccolith was arranged to interlock with four to six others, which in turn led to each coccosphere contains at least six coccoliths. Conclusion The number of coccoliths per coccosphere must keep pace with changes on the cell surface area as a result of photosynthesis, respiration and cell division. This study is an example of natural selection following Euler’s polyhedral formula, in response to the challenge of maintaining a CaCO3 covering on coccolithophore cells as cell size changes.

  4. Studies on optimal design and operation of integrated distillation arrangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiansen, Atle Christer

    1997-12-31

    During the last decades, there has been growing concern in the chemical engineering environment over the task of developing more cost- and energy efficient process equipment. This thesis discusses measures for improving the end-use energy efficiency of separation systems. It emphasises a certain class of integrated distillation arrangements, in particular it considers means for direct coupling of distillation columns so as to use the underlying physics to facilitate more energy efficient separations. The numerical methods discussed are well suited to solve models of distillation columns. A tear and grid method is proposed that to some extent exploits the sparsity, since the number of tear variables required for solving a distillation model usually is rather small. The parameter continuation method described is well suited for ill-conditioned problems. The analysis of integrated columns is extended beyond the scope of numerical simulations by means of analytical results that applies in certain limiting cases. The consept of preferred separation, which is important for prefractionator arrangements, is considered. From this analysis is derived information that is important for the practical operation of such columns. Finally, the proposed numerical methods are used to optimize Petlyuk arrangements for separating ternary and quaternary mixtures. 166 refs., 130 figs., 20 tabs.

  5. Agronomic performance of velvet bean at different spatial arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Aijanio Gomes de Brito; Goncalves Junior, Murilo; Guerra, Jose Guilherme Marinho; Costa, Janaina Ribeiro; Espindola, Jose Antonio Azevedo; Araujo, Ednaldo da Silva

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different plant spatial arrangements on agronomic performance of velvet-bean (Mucuna pruriens var. utilis). The experiment was performed with eight treatments, distributed in a randomized complete block design in a 2x4 factorial arrangement, with four replicates. The treatments were velvet bean sowing at two spacings between furrows (0.5 and 1.0 m) and four plant densities (2, 4, 8 and 16 plants m -1 ). Determinations were made for the soil covering and biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) rates, and for the dry matter yield and N accumulation in the plant shoots. Total soil cover was accomplished at 50 days after sowing at 16 plants m -1 density and 0.5 m spacing between furrows. The combination of 16 plants m -1 1density with the 1.0 m spacing between furrows provided the greatest dry matter yield and accumulated most N in the plant shoots. Irrespective of the plant spatial arrangement, the estimation of BNF in this species shows that about 70% N present in the shoot is derived from the atmosphere. (author)

  6. Elements for regulating surrogacy arrangements with cross-border effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bordaš Bernadet

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous cases of international surrogacy arrangements and their legal effects in different national legal frameworks have caused a need to weigh the possibility and necessity of regulating the issue on international level. The Hague Conference on Private International Law has been since 2011 involved in preliminary research activities of the issue, on the basis of which it will submit a final report in 2014 on the state of play and on the need to start drafting an international instrument. During the past three years two preliminary reports and four questionnaires have been submitted. Questionnaire 1 have been sent to the member states of the Conference and to other interested countries to collect data on crucial issues of surrogacy and its legal regulation in national legislations. Serbian law de lege lata prohibits surrogacy arrangements, but the 2011 Draft Civil Code introduces it to the domestic legal system as a tool of biomedically assisted fertilization. The present paper suggests that the regulation of surrogacy must also include surrogacy arrangements with cross-border effects for the sake of comprehensiveness of the future legal act on the issue. For this purpose, the paper indicates - based on the preliminary research conducted by the Hague Conference on Private International Law - those elements that should be included in future legislation of Serbia.

  7. Unsteady Flow Interactions Between Pitching Wings In Schooling Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Melike; Moored, Keith

    2017-11-01

    In nature, many fish aggregate into large groups or schools for protection against predators, for social interactions and to save energy during migrations. Regardless of their prime motivation, fish experience three-dimensional flow interactions amongst themselves that can improve or hamper swimming performance and give rise to fluid-mediated forces between individuals. To date, the unsteady, three-dimensional flow interactions among schooling fish remains relatively unexplored. In order to study these interactions, the caudal fins of two interacting fish are idealized as two finite span pitching wings arranged in mixtures of canonical in-line and side-by-side arrangements. The forces and moments acting on the wings in the streamwise and cross-stream directions are quantified as the arrangement and the phase delay between the wings is altered. Particle image velocimetry is employed to characterize the flow physics during high efficiency locomotion. Finally, the forces and flowfields of two-dimensional pitching wings are compared with three-dimensional wings to distinguish how three-dimensionality alters the flow interactions in schools of fish.

  8. Dynamics of dielectric barrier discharges in different arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibalov, Valentin I; Pietsch, Gerhard J

    2012-01-01

    Based on experimental results, numerical investigations of dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) have been performed in three basic configurations: in the volume, coplanar and surface discharge arrangements. It is shown that the DBD dynamics is the same in all arrangements and it is determined by the development of a few principal constituents, i.e. cathode- and anode-directed streamers, discharge channel, cathode layer and surface charges. It is found that the anode- and cathode-directed streamers appear with a highly conductive channel in between. The interaction of the streamers with conductive and dielectric surfaces determines the filamentary or homogeneous appearance of the discharge and its properties. The cathode-directed streamer is a self-sustaining phenomenon, which moves in a gas gap or along an electrode driven by a positive loop-back between photoemission and electron multiplication. The anode-directed streamer plays a subsidiary role. Depending on the kind of gas (electronegative or electropositive) and/or the degree of development of the cathode-directed streamer, the field strength in the conductive channels changes significantly. When the cathode-directed streamer touches the electrode surface, a cathode layer appears with parameters close to those of normal glow discharges. In volume discharge arrangements the movement of the streamers results in the appearance of Lichtenberg figures on dielectric surfaces. (paper)

  9. Emergency response arrangements for the transport of radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan-Warren, E. [Radioactive Materials Transport Div., Dept. for Transport, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    Response arrangements are required for the transport of radioactive materials, under both transport and health and safety legislation, to safeguard persons, property and the environment in the event of incidents and emergencies. Responsibilities fall on both government and industry: government is responsible for ensuring public safety and providing information and reassurance. This responsibility is discharged for each type of incident by a nominated ''lead department'', supported as appropriate by other government departments and agencies; for their part, operators are obliged to have arrangements in place for dealing with the practicalities of any reasonably foreseeable incident, including recovery and onward transport of a package, and any required clean-up or restoration of the environment. This paper outlines both the government and industry arrangements in Great Britain. The principles of response and intervention are discussed, together with the lead department concept, regulatory requirements, and the plans developed by the transport industry to ensure a nation-wide response capability.

  10. Linking better shiftwork arrangements with safety and health management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogi, Kazutaka

    2004-12-01

    Various support measures useful for promoting joint change approaches to the improvement of both shiftworking arrangements and safety and health management systems were reviewed. A particular focus was placed on enterprise-level risk reduction measures linking working hours and management systems. Voluntary industry-based guidelines on night and shift work for department stores and the chemical, automobile and electrical equipment industries were examined. Survey results that had led to the compilation of practicable measures to be included in these guidelines were also examined. The common support measures were then compared with ergonomic checkpoints for plant maintenance work involving irregular nightshifts. On the basis of this analysis, a new night and shift work checklist was designed. Both the guidelines and the plant maintenance work checkpoints were found to commonly cover multiple issues including work schedules and various job-related risks. This close link between shiftwork arrangements and risk management was important as shiftworkers in these industries considered teamwork and welfare services to be essential for managing risks associated with night and shift work. Four areas found suitable for participatory improvement by managers and workers were work schedules, ergonomic work tasks, work environment and training. The checklist designed to facilitate participatory change processes covered all these areas. The checklist developed to describe feasible workplace actions was suitable for integration with comprehensive safety and health management systems and offered valuable opportunities for improving working time arrangements and job content together.

  11. Arrangement for matching a wind rotor to an electrical generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beusse, H

    1978-04-06

    The invention concerns an arrangement for matching a wind power machine to an electrical generator, which feeds a consumer network. According to the invention first generator using the shaft horsepower of the wind power machine feeds an electric water, which is coupled to a second generator, whose power is taken to the consumer network. The output signal of a computer which has the annemometer feeding into it controls the excitation of the motor at sufficient wind speed, so that the speed of rotation of the second generator is practically constant, and a spted regulator takes excess energy via a controlled rectifier (thyristor) to a shunt circuit of the motor, if the wind power exceeds the load taken from the output of the second generator. As an extension of the arrangement according to the invention it is proposed to arrange a Diesel engine in the shaft of the second generator, which can be controlled at constant speed by the control device, so that it takes over the missing output if the wind power is less than the load at the generator output. Apart from this, it is proposed that the loading of the wind rotor should be controlled by the control device so that it only comes in if the wind rotor has reached a stable working point after accelerating on no load.

  12. Mathematics education and comparative historical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner RODRIGUES VALENTE

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper has as its aims: to characterize the area of research «history of mathematics education» and to defend the idea that mathematics education has constituted a privileged research theme within the field of comparative historical studies. To achieve these aims, the text includes references to a review of the literature concerning comparative studies, the analysis of two fundamental moments focused on attempts to internationalize the mathematics curriculum, both of which occurred during the 20th century, and, to end, a case study emanating from an international cooperation between researchers in Brazil and Portugal.

  13. In Situ Preservation of Historic Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, R.; Brooks, R.

    The loss of the Mir space station is shown to symbolize a new consciousness of the value of space artefacts. The reasons why such artefacts as Mir become historic objects worthy of preservation are examined. Preservation of space vehicles in situ is discussed, with particular reference to safety, monitoring and long term costs. An argument is made for a wider definition for World Heritage designations to include material beyond the surface of the Earth, and for international bodies to assess, monitor and oversee these projects. Such heritage sites are seen as an economic driver for the development of space tourism in the 21st century.

  14. Critique of historical reason

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Richardson

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available El enfoque aquí desarrollado presupone una nueva visión del mundo civilizado (Weltanschauungen. La idea del historiador de los hechos históricos presupone una visión global del mundo, a excepción de las sociedades que carecen de un lenguaje escrito. Por eso, la razón histórica discutida aquí se limita al tipo de historia que trata de civilizaciones más elevadas. El análisis de visiones del mundo aquí utilizado presupone que los símbolos son muy importantes y que pierden su poder simbólico si se cristalizan en un único sentido. Como en la teoría de Jung, un símbolo tiene la capacidad de estar activo en la mente como un transformador de la conciencia, libre de asociarse con nuevas experiencias y pensamientos. Esta teoría presta especial atención al problema de Dilthey: es decir, el problema de la calidad racional de los hechos históricos. Las visiones del mundo, que dan un significado profundo a muchos hechos históricos, se componen de símbolos y metáforas, incluyendo ideas, imágenes, valores y emociones. Estos tipos de visiones son casi todos instintivos. Es cierto que los historiadores pueden haber formulado, consciente definiciones de estos tipos de visiones del mundo así como ocurrió por las civilizaciones griega y china. Dado que la actual Weltbilt es mucho más compleja e inconsciente, se necesita algo más que una definición lógica para entenderla. Este artículo indica la forma en que puede ser alcanzada una comprensión racional de estas visiones del mundo._____________ABSTRACT:The approach here entertained presupposes a fresh theory of world pictures (Weltanschauungen of higher civilizations. For the historian's idea of historical facts presupposes a world picture, except for societies which lack a written language. That is why the historical reason discussed here is limited to the kind of history which deals with higher civilizations. The analysis of world pictures used here itself presupposes that symbols are

  15. Basavarajeeyam: A historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishteswar, K

    2011-10-01

    Basavarajeeyam is an important handbook for an Ayurvedic physician of Andhra region. It is a bilingual work and the content was presented in Sanskrit and Telugu languages. With regard to the place and date of Basavarajeeyam there is no common opinion among the present day scholars. Pt Govardhana Sharma Changani in his introduction to the Sanskrit version of Basavarajeeyam exposed a historical profile of Basavrajeeyam picturising him as Basava who was a staunch follower of Veerashaivism and a contemporary of king Bijjala (end of 12(th) cent. AD). The same statement is carried out in the works of Ayurvedic Itihasa written by Atredeva Vidyawalkan and Acharya Priyavrata Sharma. It appears that the historical evidence shown by these scholars is one sided and cannot stand any reason. Basavraju stated that he had started writing this work after a thorough study of many works such as Charaka, Nithyanatheeyam (1360 AD), Revenakalpam, Pujyapadiyam, Bahatam, Kashikhandam (1435 AD) etc. Basavraju has faithfully reproduced certain chapter of Vaidyachintamani, which is considered to be a work of 15(th) century. Basavraju not only mentioned Phirangiroga in the index of diseases described by him at the end of the book, but also indicated Phirangichekka (Madhusnuhi) in the management of Meharoga and Granthi. By this evidence Basavarajiyam should be considered as the work of post Bhavaprakasha period. Basavraju indicates in the Gulmaroga Chikitsa that Sankhadravaka should be administered in the dose of 'Ekanni'. The name Ekanni was given for a copper coin which came in to circulation of money during British India produced from Madras mint (1794 AD). Based on these internal evidences, it can be safely concluded that Basavraju belong to 18(th)century.

  16. IAEA biological reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parr, R.M.; Schelenz, R.; Ballestra, S.

    1988-01-01

    The Analytical Quality Control Services programme of the IAEA encompasses a wide variety of intercomparisons and reference materials. This paper reviews only those aspects of the subject having to do with biological reference materials. The 1988 programme foresees 13 new intercomparison exercises, one for major, minor and trace elements, five for radionuclides, and seven for stable isotopes. Twenty-two natural matrix biological reference materials are available: twelve for major, minor and trace elements, six for radionuclides, and four for chlorinated hydrocarbons. Seven new intercomparisons and reference materials are in preparation or under active consideration. Guidelines on the correct use of reference materials are being prepared for publication in 1989 in consultation with other major international producers and users of biological reference materials. The IAEA database on available reference materials is being updated and expanded in scope, and a new publication is planned for 1989. (orig.)

  17. Historical Semantic Chaining and Efficient Communication: The Case of Container Names

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yang; Regier, Terry; Malt, Barbara C.

    2016-01-01

    Semantic categories in the world's languages often reflect a historical process of "chaining": A name for one referent is extended to a conceptually related referent, and from there on to other referents, producing a chain of exemplars that all bear the same name. The beginning and end points of such a chain might in principle be rather…

  18. Practices and material arrangements in urban planning - a practice theoretical perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders; Harders, Anne Katrine Braagaard

    and to actually contribute to a sustainable transition. On the contrary, the projects seem to strengthen the already unsustainable configuration of our cities. In this paper we will argue that there is no causal relationship between vision and reality in urban planning. With reference to a Schatzkian practice...... theoretical understand of human activity we claim that people act in indeterminate ways and that we must understand planning and strategy as it happens in constellations of social practices and material arrangements. Based on a study of an urban development project in Copenhagen this article shows......A sustainable transition of our cities is more urgent than ever. For that reason, many urban development projects worldwide are assigned ambitious visions about contributing to the sustainable transition. However, it seems that the projects often lack ability to realize these visions...

  19. Organisation of nuclear medicine services. Health physics. Technical and administrative arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanteur, J.; Pellerin, P.

    1975-01-01

    Apart from safety and quality requirements the organisation of nuclear medicine services, or more generally of installations where non-sealed radioactive sources are used, is governed by profitability and efficiency criteria. In view of the high price of products and apparatus the equipment must be based on a rationalisation of options guiding the organisation arrangements as a whole. The following items are dealt with in succession: various categories of installations; general planning of equipment; equipment regulations based on a major requirement, the confinement of contamination sources; working rules examined with respect to the systematics adopted by the International Health Physics Commission and referred in turn to the protection of the patient and that of the surroundings practical observations concerning administrative and technical questions [fr

  20. After all, What variables Characterize the Existence of Local Productive Arrangements and Local Roduction Systems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Mendes Lübeck

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we established a distinction between the various terms used to characterize clusters of firms. Once in the literature, we identified that the terms, Local Productive Arrangements (LPA and Local Production Systems (LPS are used interchangeably. However, these terminologies refer to different stages of development of territorial agglomerations of firms. In the same way, the agglomeration of businesses belonging to a same production chain in a particular region would not necessarily characterize an LPA or LPS. The aim of this paper was to demonstrate the need to combine methods and variables to draw a more accurate and comprehensive territorial productive situation allowing the classification of clusters according to their stage of development and institutional structure. For that purpose, the strength of cooperation between local professionals was considered as a major factor, which creates a competitive advantage that requires exogenous interests to make use of the endogenous capabilities strategically developed and cultivated.

  1. Expanding the Notion of Historical Text through Historic Building Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Christine; Dobbs, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Among the disciplinary skills necessary for understanding in the social studies classroom is the ability to determine context and build meaning from past events. Historical buildings are an important component of historical study, and they serve as a type of nontraditional text that students can decode and use to construct meaning about multiple…

  2. Historical consciousness - Contemporary history and the problem of historical perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Hollander, JC

    2002-01-01

    Historical consciousness is an elusive concept, as long as we try to understand it from the narrow perspective of professional historians. Therefore, a wider perspective is needed. If we accept that historical understanding has become a general trait of modern culture, we may try to explain it in

  3. The Native American Experience. American Historical Images on File.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardwell, Lelia, Ed.

    This photo-documentation reference body presents more than 275 images chronicling the experiences of the American Indian from their prehistoric migrations to the present. The volume includes information and images illustrating the life ways of various tribes. The images are accompanied by historical information providing cultural context. The book…

  4. Historic Gardens Chorbog In The Islamic Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustayev Bahrom Bahodirovich

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In principle any garden reminds us of beauty and unity of nature. But there exist gardens arranged in accordance with the traditional principles of the Islamic Chorbog or architecturally -organized a Four-sides garden which possesses as it seems to me considerably more potential than the gardens planned without such principles. At the present paper an attempt has been made to prove it and it is noted that the Koran is sacred for Moslem people and its references to nature as well as the description of paradise gardens deserves the careful study when considering the meaning of the Islamic gardens. Types and peculiarities of the Islamic countries gardens are also considered in the given paper.

  5. Historicity and theology, and the quest for historical Jesus1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Geyser

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of history and historicity is reviewed in this article. The efforts of New Historicism is brought to bear on this question in an effort to find a way out of the impasse created by the modernist demand for objectivity and the postmodern resignation to radical relativism. The possibility of historiography is explored in conjunction with the pragmatic approach and leads to the conclusion that a kind of historical knowledge is attainable which can be described as useful even if not perfect. The author concurs with Crossan and his working definition of history as the past reconstructed interactively by the present through argued evidence in public discourse. The intersubjective nature of any historical enterprise leads the author to the conclusion that the search for the historical Jesus can only be done in the dialectical approach of a both ... and: both the historical Jesus and the kerygmatic Christ

  6. Zero Point of Historical Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Khakimov

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Historical studies are based on the assumption that there is a reference-starting point of the space-time – the Zero point of coordinate system. Due to the bifurcation in the Zero Point, the course of social processes changes sharply and the probabilistic causality replaces the deterministic one. For this reason, changes occur in the structure of social relations and statehood form as well as in the course of the ethnic processes. In such a way emerges a new discourse of the national behavior. With regard to the history of the Tatars and Tatarstan, such bifurcation points occurred in the periods of the formation: 1 of the Turkic Khaganate, which began to exist from the 6th century onward and became a qualitatively new State system that reformatted old elements in the new matrix introducing a new discourse of behavior; 2 of the Volga-Kama Bulgaria, where the rivers (Kama, Volga, Vyatka became the most important trade routes determining the singularity of this State. Here the nomadic culture was connected with the settled one and Islam became the official religion in 922; 3 and of the Golden Hordе, a powerful State with a remarkable system of communication, migration of huge human resources for thousands of kilometers, and extensive trade, that caused severe “mutations” in the ethnic terms and a huge mixing of ethnic groups. Given the dwelling space of Tatar population and its evolution within Russia, it can be argued that the Zero point of Tatar history, which conveyed the cultural invariants until today, begins in the Golden Horde. Neither in the Turkic khaganate nor in the Bulgar State, but namely in the Golden Horde. Despite the radical changes, the Russian Empire failed to transform the Tatars in the Russians. Therefore, contemporary Tatars preserved the Golden Horde tradition as a cultural invariant.

  7. SEARCHING FOR URBAN PATTERNS; AN ASSESSMENT OF HISTORIC EDGES AND ITS SURROUNDING CONTEXT: HISTORIC CAIRO AS A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil Mohareb

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the urban edges of historic cities. Managing these edges would enhance the success of any intervention projects inside the historic fabric. The paper develops and tests a method of analytical assessment framework that is applicable for quantitative analysis within an urban edge. It is capable of measuring micro and macro levels of analysis of historic urban edges with reference to their spatial configuration. In addition, the paper searches for repetitive spatial configuration patterns. The main case study is Historic Cairo. The paper reveals that there are apparent patterns of cause and effect of both spatial configurations and related activities along the urban edges, forming different type of barriers. The paper discovers the repetitive spatial, architectural, and land-use patterns that exist on various edges. These patterns enable the possibility of learning and acquiring from other successful interventions that have been applied to similar patterns, without being limited to cultural or contextual differences.

  8. Indoor air: Reference bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D.; Staves, D.; McDonald, S.

    1989-07-01

    The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency initially established the indoor air Reference Bibliography in 1987 as an appendix to the Indoor Air Quality Implementation Plan. The document was submitted to Congress as required under Title IV--Radon Gas and Indoor Air Quality Research of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. The Reference Bibliography is an extensive bibliography of reference materials on indoor air pollution. The Bibliography contains over 4500 citations and continues to increase as new articles appear

  9. Electricity transmission arrangements in Great Britain: Time for change?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strbac, Goran; Pollitt, Michael; Konstantinidis, Christos Vasilakos; Konstantelos, Ioannis; Moreno, Rodrigo; Newbery, David; Green, Richard

    2014-01-01

    In Great Britain (GB) and across Europe significant investment in electricity transmission is expected over the coming years as decarbonisation and market integration efforts are intensified. However, there is also significant uncertainty with the amount, location and timing of new generation connection, which in turn will drive the transmission investment needs. Given the absence of efficient market design, we identify three key areas of concern with the current transmission investment arrangements: (i) a mis-aligned incentives framework for transmission investment and operation; (ii) lack of coordination of investment and operation; and (iii) conflicts of interest. We then propose three options for future evolution of transmission regimes, which cover the full spectrum of institutional arrangements with respect to transmission planning and delivery, i.e. how and who plans, owns, builds and operates the transmission system. For each option we present: key characteristics; evolution of the current regimes; the ability of the option to address the concerns; and key strengths and weaknesses. Overall, we conclude in the case of GB (this conclusion could be extended to other European countries) that the most appropriate option would be that of an Independent System Operator (ISO) who would be responsible for planning and operating the transmission system. - Highlights: • We identify three key areas of concern with the current transmission arrangements. • We then propose three options for transmission network planning and delivery. • Key strengths and weaknesses of each above option are identified and studied. • We conclude that the most appropriate option for GB would be that of an ISO

  10. An alternative arrangement of metered dosing fluid using centrifugal pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md. Arafat; Ehsan, Md.

    2017-06-01

    Positive displacement dosing pumps are extensively used in various types of process industries. They are widely used for metering small flow rates of a dosing fluid into a main flow. High head and low controllable flow rates make these pumps suitable for industrial flow metering applications. However their pulsating flow is not very suitable for proper mixing of fluids and they are relatively more expensive to buy and maintain. Considering such problems, alternative techniques to control the fluid flow from a low cost centrifugal pump is practiced. These include - throttling, variable speed drive, impeller geometry control and bypass control. Variable speed drive and impeller geometry control are comparatively costly and the flow control by throttling is not an energy efficient process. In this study an arrangement of metered dosing flow was developed using a typical low cost centrifugal pump using bypass flow technique. Using bypass flow control technique a wide range of metered dosing flows under a range of heads were attained using fixed pump geometry and drive speed. The bulk flow returning from the system into the main tank ensures better mixing which may eliminate the need of separate agitators. Comparative performance study was made between the bypass flow control arrangement of centrifugal pump and a diaphragm type dosing pump. Similar heads and flow rates were attainable using the bypass control system compared to the diaphragm dosing pump, but using relatively more energy. Geometrical optimization of the centrifugal pump impeller was further carried out to make the bypass flow arrangement more energy efficient. Although both the systems run at low overall efficiencies but the capital cost could be reduced by about 87% compared to the dosing pump. The savings in capital investment and lower maintenance cost very significantly exceeds the relatively higher energy cost of the bypass system. This technique can be used as a cost effective solution for

  11. Android quick APIs reference

    CERN Document Server

    Cinar, Onur

    2015-01-01

    The Android Quick APIs Reference is a condensed code and APIs reference for the new Google Android 5.0 SDK. It presents the essential Android APIs in a well-organized format that can be used as a handy reference. You won't find any technical jargon, bloated samples, drawn out history lessons, or witty stories in this book. What you will find is a software development kit and APIs reference that is concise, to the point and highly accessible. The book is packed with useful information and is a must-have for any mobile or Android app developer or programmer. In the Android Quick APIs Refe

  12. Vertical retort with arrangements for special heating, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hengstenberg, R

    1922-02-28

    A vertical retort with arrangements for special heating of upper and lower zones and special gas outlets on the highest and lowest parts of the retort is characterized in that the lower gas outlet on the one side serves for feeding the burner for heating both upper zone as well as the lower, and on the other side runs to the collecting line for the gas, which emerges from the upper opening, while on the lower end of the retort is fastened a coke cooler, whose walls can be cooled with air supplied for the drying of the combustibles or with water, which is supplied for the steam generation.

  13. Working Time Arrangement Options in The Slovak Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kucharčíková Alžbeta

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the standard model for organizing working-time has been placed under strong pressure and the need to make adjustments to changing circumstances is increasing. The Slovak legal practice has had to react to this situation. An amended Labour Code, which came into force on 1 September 2007, has built up an internal labour market conditions for enforcing working time flexibility. The aim of this report is to present options and possibilities of working time arrangement according to the Slovak Labour Code and to design ways on how they should be included in the decision making process of an enterprise.

  14. Progress with the Scottish Trading Arrangements Group (STAG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellows, A.

    1998-01-01

    Since November 1996 STAG has operated as a forum to allow traders in the Scottish market to consider trading arrangements which will facilitate competition while coping with foreseeable trading requirements beyond the 1998 franchise break. The author has promoted the interest of renewables generators on behalf of the Scottish Renewables Forum throughout this process. An Interim Report summarising the high level options considered was submitted to OFFER in June 1997. This paper summarises the interim report content and draws on other aspects of the Scottish market to review the future prospects in Scotland for trading electricity form wind energy schemes. (Author)

  15. Improvements in or relating to information display arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blay, A.G.

    1975-01-01

    An information display arrangement for use in biomedical radiography with either X- or γ-radiation or ultrasonic waves is described. This invention overcomes the drawbacks of conventional three-dimensional displays where certain features may be partially or completely obscured from view by matter which is not of interest. This improvement is achieved by interactive means using a light pen on a cathode ray tube display to effectively draw boundaries between relevant and irrelevant features. The computerised display is then up-dated from the information store containing the transmission data. (U.K.)

  16. TrayGen: Arranging objects for exhibition and packaging

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yongliang

    2013-10-01

    We present a framework, called TrayGen, to generate tray designs for the exhibition and packaging of a collection of objects. Based on principles from shape perception and visual merchandising, we abstract a number of design guidelines on how to organize the objects on the tray for the exhibition of their individual features and mutual relationships. Our framework realizes these guidelines by analyzing geometric shapes of the objects and optimizing their arrangement. We demonstrate that the resultant tray designs not only save space, but also highlight the characteristic of each object and the inter-relations between objects. © 2013 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Arrangement for adjusting the load of a turbine system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aanstadt, O.J.

    1974-01-01

    The invention relates to an adjustment arrangement for steam turbines with at least two stages. The inlet of steam into the two stages is adjusted by means of independant valves, and an adjustment circuit is provided for each of said valves for adjusting same so as to ensure a suitable distribution of power between the stages. The adjustment is carried out by measuring the power generated between the stages thus eliminating the influence of inaccuracies in the valves. This can be applied, in particular, to nuclear power stations [fr

  18. Dual capacity compressor with reversible motor and controls arrangement therefor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisk, Francis J.

    1980-12-02

    A hermetic reciprocating compressor such as may be used in heat pump applications is provided for dual capacity operation by providing the crankpin of the crankshaft with an eccentric ring rotatably mounted thereon, and with the end of the connecting rod opposite the piston encompassing the outer circumference of the eccentric ring, with means limiting the rotation of the eccentric ring upon the crankpin between one end point and an opposite angularly displaced end point to provide different values of eccentricity depending upon which end point the eccentric ring is rotated to upon the crankpin, and a reversible motor in the hermetic shell of the compressor for rotating the crankshaft, the motor operating in one direction effecting the angular displacement of the eccentric ring relative to the crankpin to the one end point, and in the opposite direction effecting the angular displacement of the eccentric ring relative to the crankpin to the opposite end point, this arrangement automatically giving different stroke lengths depending upon the direction of motor rotation. The mechanical structure of the arrangement may take various forms including at least one in which any impact of reversal is reduced by utilizing lubricant passages and chambers at the interface area of the crankpin and eccentric ring to provide a dashpot effect. In the main intended application of the arrangement according to the invention, that is, in a refrigerating or air conditioning system, it is desirable to insure a delay during reversal of the direction of compressor operation. A control arrangement is provided in which the control system controls the direction of motor operation in accordance with temperature conditions, the system including control means for effecting operation in a low capacity direction or alternatively in a high capacity direction in response to one set, and another set, respectively, of temperature conditions and with timer means delaying a restart of the compressor

  19. Engine Power Turbine and Propulsion Pod Arrangement Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robuck, Mark; Zhang, Yiyi

    2014-01-01

    A study has been conducted for NASA Glenn Research Center under contract NNC10BA05B, Task NNC11TA80T to identify beneficial arrangements of the turboshaft engine, transmissions and related systems within the propulsion pod nacelle of NASA's Large Civil Tilt-Rotor 2nd iteration (LCTR2) vehicle. Propulsion pod layouts were used to investigate potential advantages, disadvantages, as well as constraints of various arrangements assuming front or aft shafted engines. Results from previous NASA LCTR2 propulsion system studies and tasks performed by Boeing under NASA contracts are used as the basis for this study. This configuration consists of two Fixed Geometry Variable Speed Power Turbine Engines and related drive and rotor systems (per nacelle) arranged in tilting nacelles near the wing tip. Entry-into-service (EIS) 2035 technology is assumed for both the engine and drive systems. The variable speed rotor system changes from 100 percent speed for hover to 54 percent speed for cruise by the means of a two speed gearbox concept developed under previous NASA contracts. Propulsion and drive system configurations that resulted in minimum vehicle gross weight were identified in previous work and used here. Results reported in this study illustrate that a forward shafted engine has a slight weight benefit over an aft shafted engine for the LCTR2 vehicle. Although the aft shafted engines provide a more controlled and centered CG (between hover and cruise), the length of the long rotor shaft and complicated engine exhaust arrangement outweighed the potential benefits. A Multi-Disciplinary Analysis and Optimization (MDAO) approach for transmission sizing was also explored for this study. This tool offers quick analysis of gear loads, bearing lives, efficiencies, etc., through use of commercially available RomaxDESIGNER software. The goal was to create quick methods to explore various concept models. The output results from RomaxDESIGNER have been successfully linked to Boeing

  20. Saving doses by outage planning strategy and architectural arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlstroem, B.

    1993-01-01

    All radiation doses come out as a result of dose rate and exposure time, and the main part of the occupational exposure is caused during outages. While every reasonable attempt should be made to lower the dose rates, the other factor, the exposure time, may not be forgotten. The paper presents possible ways of saving man-hours in the controlled zone by outage planning strategy. And every saved man-hour means a saved radiation dose. At Loviisa NPS also some special architectural arrangements contribute to shortening the outage time, thus saving doses

  1. HISTORICAL ASPECTS OF PHALLOPLASTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Kyzlasov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reconstruction of the penis in transgender operations, amputation of the penis, congenital deformities and anomalies of the penis was and remains today an important issue in plastic surgery of the urogenital region. The only method to restore the penis is phalloplasty. In general, over the past decades, generations of clinicians have different ways and flaps for total fallouretheral reconstruction. Thus was formulated the characteristics of an ideal flap for the formation of neophallos, which should be safe, sensitive, without hair, and with long leg. However, despite the fact that the characteristics of a perfect flap, nowadays there is no “gold standard” in the formation of neophallos, as phalloplasty is a fairly complicated surgery, and the choice of method depends on many factors. The choice of methodology is determined by the plastics surgeon and to each patient is individual, depends on the etiology of the disease and the possibility of choosing the form of the donor’s transplant. This article presents a literature review devoted to the historical aspects of phalloplasty. In the article, in chronological order reflected the evolution of the different forming methods neofallos, phallourethrоplasty, describes their advantages and disadvantages.

  2. Analyzing and Interpreting Historical Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kipping, Matthias; Wadhwani, Dan; Bucheli, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    This chapter outlines a methodology for the interpretation of historical sources, helping to realize their full potential for the study of organization, while overcoming their challenges in terms of distortions created by time, changes in context, and selective production or preservation. Drawing....... The chapter contributes to the creation of a language for describing the use of historical sources in management research....

  3. What Is Linked Historical Data?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meroño-Peñuela, Albert; Hoekstra, Rinke; Janowicz, Krzysztof; Schlobach, Stefan; Lambrix, Patrick; Hyvönen, Eero

    2014-01-01

    Datasets that represent historical sources are relative new- comers in the Linked Open Data (LOD) cloud. Following the standard LOD practices for publishing historical sources raises several questions: how can we distinguish between RDF graphs of primary and secondary sources? Should we treat

  4. The Aggregate Dutch Historical Censuses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashkpour, Ashkan; Meroño-Peñuela, Albert; Mandemakers, Kees

    2015-01-01

    Historical censuses have an enormous potential for research. In order to fully use this potential, harmonization of these censuses is essential. During the last decades, enormous efforts have been undertaken in digitizing the published aggregated outcomes of the Dutch historical censuses

  5. The Aggregate Dutch Historical Censuses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Ashkpour (Ashkan); A. Meronõ-Peñuela (Albert); C.A. Mandemakers (Kees)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractHistorical censuses have an enormous potential for research. In order to fully use this potential, harmonization of these censuses is essential. During the last decades, enormous efforts have been undertaken in digitizing the published aggregated outcomes of the Dutch historical censuses

  6. The Return of Historical Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rycik, Mary Taylor; Rosler, Brenda

    2009-01-01

    Recently, historical fiction has begun to dominate major children's book awards. This article describes the values of using high-quality historical fiction in the classroom and presents different ways to respond to this genre including using modern technology. Two tables, one of picture books and one of novels, with paired nonfiction texts, are…

  7. 48 CFR 1201.105-2 - Arrangement of regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... chapter 12 will be cited by “FAR” followed by the FAR numbered cite, and cross reference to the TAM in (TAR) 48 CFR chapter 12 will be cited by “TAM” followed by the TAM numbered cite. References to...

  8. Incorporating historical ecosystem diversity into conservation planning efforts in grass and shrub ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amy C. Ganguli; Johathan B. Haufler; Carolyn A. Mehl; Jimmie D. Chew

    2011-01-01

    Understanding historical ecosystem diversity and wildlife habitat quality can provide a useful reference for managing and restoring rangeland ecosystems. We characterized historical ecosystem diversity using available empirical data, expert opinion, and the spatially explicit vegetation dynamics model SIMPPLLE (SIMulating Vegetative Patterns and Processes at Landscape...

  9. Chromosomal Arrangement of Phosphorelay Genes Couples Sporulation and DNA Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Jatin; Kuchina, Anna; Lee, Dong-Yeon D; Fujita, Masaya; Süel, Gürol M; Igoshin, Oleg A

    2015-07-16

    Genes encoding proteins in a common regulatory network are frequently located close to one another on the chromosome to facilitate co-regulation or couple gene expression to growth rate. Contrasting with these observations, here, we demonstrate a functional role for the arrangement of Bacillus subtilis sporulation network genes on opposite sides of the chromosome. We show that the arrangement of two sporulation network genes, one located close to the origin and the other close to the terminus, leads to a transient gene dosage imbalance during chromosome replication. This imbalance is detected by the sporulation network to produce cell-cycle coordinated pulses of the sporulation master regulator Spo0A∼P. This pulsed response allows cells to decide between sporulation and continued vegetative growth during each cell cycle spent in starvation. The simplicity of this coordination mechanism suggests that it may be widely applicable in a variety of gene regulatory and stress-response settings. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Transport of Radioactive Materials under special arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biaggio, A.L.; Vietri, J.R.L.

    1993-01-01

    The Agency's Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material rule the international transport of these materials and provide the basis of national and regional regulations. The Regulations establish the technical, operational and administrative requirements which shall be accomplished to carry out the transport of radioactive materials (RAM). They also allow the transport in different conditions of those currently applicable and, in such cases, establish that the transport shall be made under special arrangement. To approve a transport under special arrangement the involved Competent Authority shall be satisfied that the alternative provisions are adequate to ensure that the overall level of safety in transport and in-transit storage is at least equivalent to that which would be provided if all the applicable requirements had been met (para. 2ll of the International Atomic Energy Agency Safety Series No. 6). This paper explains some difficulties the Argentine Competent. Authority has experienced trying by comparing the equivalence between the level of safety resulting from the compliance with current requirements and the overall level of safety which is provided by the application of alternative provisions. As most of the experience gained come from the transport of RAM by road, only this mode of transport is considered. (J.P.N.)

  11. An arrangement for the storage of environmentally hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgii, H.

    1991-01-01

    An arrangement for the underwater storage of environmentally hazardous waste, particularly radioactive or chemical waste, includes at least one secondary capsule in the form of a cylindrical concrete body. The concrete body has a central, axially extending storage cavity. The cavity has the form of a shaft which is open at one end thereof and into which a waste-containing primary capsule can be inserted, whereafter the open end of the shaft or cavity is sealed. Arranged in spaced relationship around the circumference of the concrete body are a number of ballast chambers which can be filled with water to varying degrees and the total, combined volume of the chambers is such as to enable the concrete body to be brought to a buoyant state, by emptying the chambers. A plurality of such secondary capsules enclosing waste-containing primary capsules can be stored on the sea bed in an annular concrete structure which is provided with a large number of circumferentially distributed and vertically extending cylindrical compartments each capable of accommodating a secondary capsule. The annular concrete structure resting on the sea bed is also provided with a large number of ballast chambers which can be filled with water to varying degrees and which have a total, combined volume such as to enable the annular concrete structure to be brought to a buoyant state by emptying the ballast chambers. (author)

  12. Field arrangement and dosimetry verification for concave target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Liang; Wang Huankun; Li Yumin

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To provide a method of radiotherapy field arrangement for concave paraspinal target. Methods: Plan was designed for concave target in wax phantom and the selected patients by the guidance of beam eye view (BEV) provided by a 3D treatment planning system (CREAT EXPERT). In BEV, the inner border of all tangential fields was 2 mm out of the organ at risk (OAR) and the outer border was 5 mm beyond the target. Dosimetry films and ion chamber were used to verify the dose distribution and point dose in the wax phantom. Results: Dose distribution in phantom and patient was homogeneous. The mean dose of OAR in phantom did not exceed 16% of the prescribed dose. Isodose curves dropped more than 8% per mm between the target and OAR in the phantom. Film dosimetry coincided well with the calculated results. Position error in high dose region was with- in 4 mm and absolute dose errors were no more than 5%. Conclusion: Tangential field arrangement is valuable and practical in radiotherapy for concave paraspinal targets. (authors)

  13. Novel Arrangements for High Performance and Durable Dielectric Elastomer Actuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runan Zhang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper advances the design of Rod Pre-strained Dielectric Elastomer Actuators (RP-DEAs in their capability to generate comparatively large static actuation forces with increased lifetime via optimized electrode arrangements. RP-DEAs utilize thin stiff rods to constrain the expansion of the elastomer and maintain the in-plane pre-strain in the rod longitudinal direction. The aim is to study both the force output and the durability of the RP-DEA. Initial design of the RP-DEA had poor durability, however, it generated significantly larger force compared with the conventional DEA due to the effects of pre-strain and rod constraints. The durability study identifies the in-electro-active-region (in-AR lead contact and the non-uniform deformation of the structure as causes of pre-mature failure of the RP-DEA. An optimized AR configuration is proposed to avoid actuating undesired areas in the structure. The results show that with the optimized AR, the RP-DEA can be effectively stabilized and survive operation at least four times longer than with a conventional electrode arrangement. Finally, a Finite Element simulation was also performed to demonstrate that such AR design and optimization can be guided by analyzing the DEA structure in the state of pre-activation.

  14. African American college women: constructing a hierarchy of sexual arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, F E

    2003-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand and describe the safer sex decision-making processes of a group of African American college women. The study participants consisted of 15 women aged 19 to 33, who were full-time students attending a four-year university in Texas. The women self-identified as having been sexually active with at least one male partner within the past year. Semi-structured in-depth interviews lasting approximately 1.5 hours provided data. Theme and domain analysis of the interviews and field notes revealed that women employed both emotional and philosophical strategies to determine their safer sex behaviour. These strategies involved the use of a 'self-defined' sexual arrangements hierarchy. This hierarchy served to define the way women ordered and valued different types of sexual arrangement, from casual to committed. The resulting hierarchy also guided the safer sex behaviour of these women. The implications for intervention programmes that are targeted at increasing safer sex behaviour and HIV risk reduction are discussed in light of these findings.

  15. Seed quality and optimal spatial arrangement of fodder radish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa dos Santos Oliveira

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Besides the use of fodder radish (Raphanus sativus var. oleiferus Metzg. as green manure plant cover crops and animal feed, the seeds have high oil content and low viscosity, ideal characteristics for the production of biodiesel. Studies related to the technology of seed production for this species are insufficient to define the best spatial arrangement of plants in the field that provides higher yields associated with high-quality seeds. Thus, we investigated the space and density between plants that would be ideal for the production of high quality fodder radish seeds. We evaluated the agronomic characteristics and physical, physiological and seed health quality in recently harvested fodder radish in row spacings of 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8 m and densities of 10, 30, 50 and 70 seeds m-2. The quality and productivity of the fodder radish's seeds were affected by the spatial arrangement of plants in the field. Seeds harvested under the spacing of 0.2 m and density of 30 seeds m-2 had better performance and physical, physiological and health quality. Alternaria sp. incidence increased with greater spacing, while Fusarium sp. incidence decreased.

  16. Marketing Reference Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, O. Gene

    1995-01-01

    Relates the marketing concept to library reference services. Highlights include a review of the literature and an overview of marketing, including research, the marketing mix, strategic plan, marketing plan, and marketing audit. Marketing principles are applied to reference services through the marketing mix elements of product, price, place, and…

  17. Reference class forecasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    optimisme og misinformation. RCF bygger på teorier, som vandt Daniel Kahneman Nobelprisen i økonomi i 2002. RCF estimerer budgettet for et givet projekt på grundlag af de faktiske udfald for budgetterne i en reference-klasse af projekter. RCF udføres i tre trin: 1. Identifikation af en relevant reference...

  18. Promoting students’ reflections in organisational improvisation arrangement between higher education and workplaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiina Rautkorpi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on how experimentation-based pedagogy has been pursued by one Finnish university of applied sciences (UAS in working life environments in the context of the Triple Helix. This article focuses on efforts to combine together situated learning, organisational improvisation and cultural-historical activity theory. In this higher education organisation, the students’ multidisciplinary innovation projects are used to improve the students’ skills in performing experiments with variations. The article demonstrates how pilot trainings were organised for teachers and their networks to equip them to project facilitators in a new mode of activity. It also reports on the undergraduates’ group demonstrations and evaluations based on a recent sample of their subsequent innovation projects. The small-scale content analysis was conducted to identify areas for further development. According to the activity theory, the crucial learning outcome of the UAS educational projects should be a collective reflection on practices. In addition, the two essentials of reflection and learning are the tools available for mirroring and continuous concept formation. According to the findings, there were prominent achievements in ethnographic fieldwork but more supportive arrangements and training is needed to promote especially the concept formation.

  19. Institutional arrangements in the emerging biodiesel industry: Case studies from Minas Gerais—Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Watanabe, K.; Bijman, J.; Slingerland, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Connecting (small) family farmers to the emerging biodiesel industry requires careful design of the institutional arrangements between the producers of oil crops and the processing companies. According to institutional economics theory, the design of effective and efficient arrangements depends on

  20. Historically White Universities and Plantation Politics: Anti-Blackness and Higher Education in the Black Lives Matter Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancy, T. Elon, II; Edwards, Kirsten T.; Earl Davis, James

    2018-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue that U.S. colleges and universities must grapple with persistent engagements of Black bodies as property. Engaging the research and scholarship on Black faculty, staff, and students, we explain how theorizations of settler colonialism and anti-Blackness (re)interpret the arrangement between historically White…

  1. Uranium reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donivan, S.; Chessmore, R.

    1987-07-01

    The Technical Measurements Center has prepared uranium mill tailings reference materials for use by remedial action contractors and cognizant federal and state agencies. Four materials were prepared with varying concentrations of radionuclides, using three tailings materials and a river-bottom soil diluent. All materials were ground, dried, and blended thoroughly to ensure homogeneity. The analyses on which the recommended values for nuclides in the reference materials are based were performed, using independent methods, by the UNC Geotech (UNC) Chemistry Laboratory, Grand Junction, Colorado, and by C.W. Sill (Sill), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho. Several statistical tests were performed on the analytical data to characterize the reference materials. Results of these tests reveal that the four reference materials are homogeneous and that no large systematic bias exists between the analytical methods used by Sill and those used by TMC. The average values for radionuclides of the two data sets, representing an unbiased estimate, were used as the recommended values for concentrations of nuclides in the reference materials. The recommended concentrations of radionuclides in the four reference materials are provided. Use of these reference materials will aid in providing uniform standardization among measurements made by remedial action contractors. 11 refs., 9 tabs

  2. STL pocket reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lischner, Ray

    2003-01-01

    The STL Pocket Reference describes the functions, classes, and templates in that part of the C++ standard library often referred to as the Standard Template Library (STL). The STL encompasses containers, iterators, algorithms, and function objects, which collectively represent one of the most important and widely used subsets of standard library functionality. The C++ standard library, even the subset known as the STL, is vast. It's next to impossible to work with the STL without some sort of reference at your side to remind you of template parameters, function invocations, return types--ind

  3. Handbook of reference electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Inzelt, György; Scholz, Fritz

    2013-01-01

    Reference Electrodes are a crucial part of any electrochemical system, yet an up-to-date and comprehensive handbook is long overdue. Here, an experienced team of electrochemists provides an in-depth source of information and data for the proper choice and construction of reference electrodes. This includes all kinds of applications such as aqueous and non-aqueous solutions, ionic liquids, glass melts, solid electrolyte systems, and membrane electrodes. Advanced technologies such as miniaturized, conducting-polymer-based, screen-printed or disposable reference electrodes are also covered. Essen

  4. Regular Expression Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Stubblebine, Tony

    2007-01-01

    This handy little book offers programmers a complete overview of the syntax and semantics of regular expressions that are at the heart of every text-processing application. Ideal as a quick reference, Regular Expression Pocket Reference covers the regular expression APIs for Perl 5.8, Ruby (including some upcoming 1.9 features), Java, PHP, .NET and C#, Python, vi, JavaScript, and the PCRE regular expression libraries. This concise and easy-to-use reference puts a very powerful tool for manipulating text and data right at your fingertips. Composed of a mixture of symbols and text, regular exp

  5. Neptunium: a bibliographic reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosley, R.E.

    1979-06-01

    A comprehensive bibliograhy of the literature on the element neptunium published prior to January 1976 is presented. A short abstract is given for each listed reference, with a few exceptions. The references are divided into sections categorized as General, Man-Made Sources (Reactors), Man-Made Sources (Fuel Reprocessing), Chemistry (Solubility), Chemistry (Compounds), Chemistry (Isotopes), Analyses (Instrumental), Analyses (Chemical), Chemical (Animal), Biological (Effects), Biological (Animal-Metabolism-Retention), Biological (Air Movement), Biological (Human Inhalation), Measurement, and Dosimetry. The bibliography contains author and keyword indexes and was compiled to serve as a quick reference source for neptunium-related work. 184 citations

  6. CSS Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Eric

    2011-01-01

    When you're working with CSS and need a quick answer, CSS Pocket Reference delivers. This handy, concise book provides all of the essential information you need to implement CSS on the fly. Ideal for intermediate to advanced web designers and developers, the 4th edition is revised and updated for CSS3, the latest version of the Cascading Style Sheet specification. Along with a complete alphabetical reference to CSS3 selectors and properties, you'll also find a short introduction to the key concepts of CSS. Based on Cascading Style Sheets: The Definitive Guide, this reference is an easy-to-us

  7. Biomedical Engineering Desk Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Ratner, Buddy D; Schoen, Frederick J; Lemons, Jack E; Dyro, Joseph; Martinsen, Orjan G; Kyle, Richard; Preim, Bernhard; Bartz, Dirk; Grimnes, Sverre; Vallero, Daniel; Semmlow, John; Murray, W Bosseau; Perez, Reinaldo; Bankman, Isaac; Dunn, Stanley; Ikada, Yoshito; Moghe, Prabhas V; Constantinides, Alkis

    2009-01-01

    A one-stop Desk Reference, for Biomedical Engineers involved in the ever expanding and very fast moving area; this is a book that will not gather dust on the shelf. It brings together the essential professional reference content from leading international contributors in the biomedical engineering field. Material covers a broad range of topics including: Biomechanics and Biomaterials; Tissue Engineering; and Biosignal Processing* A hard-working desk reference providing all the essential material needed by biomedical and clinical engineers on a day-to-day basis * Fundamentals, key techniques,

  8. LINQ Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Albahari, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Ready to take advantage of LINQ with C# 3.0? This guide has the detail you need to grasp Microsoft's new querying technology, and concise explanations to help you learn it quickly. And once you begin to apply LINQ, the book serves as an on-the-job reference when you need immediate reminders. All the examples in the LINQ Pocket Reference are preloaded into LINQPad, the highly praised utility that lets you work with LINQ interactively. Created by the authors and free to download, LINQPad will not only help you learn LINQ, it will have you thinking in LINQ. This reference explains: LINQ's ke

  9. R quick syntax reference

    CERN Document Server

    Tollefson, Margot

    2014-01-01

    The R Quick Syntax Reference is a handy reference book detailing the intricacies of the R language. Not only is R a free, open-source tool, R is powerful, flexible, and has state of the art statistical techniques available. With the many details which must be correct when using any language, however, the R Quick Syntax Reference makes using R easier.Starting with the basic structure of R, the book takes you on a journey through the terminology used in R and the syntax required to make R work. You will find looking up the correct form for an expression quick and easy. With a copy of the R Quick

  10. Children’s Spatial Representations: 3- and 4-Year-Olds are Affected by Irrelevant Peripheral References

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Markus; Jahn, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Children as young as 3 years can remember an object’s location within an arrangement and can retrieve it from a novel viewpoint (Nardini et al., 2006). However, this ability is impaired if the arrangement is rotated to compensate for the novel viewpoint, or, if the arrangement is rotated and children stand still. There are two dominant explanations for this phenomenon: self-motion induces an automatic spatial updating process which is beneficial if children move around the arrangement, but misleading if the children’s movement is matched by the arrangement and not activated if children stand still and only the arrangement is moved (see spatial updating; Simons and Wang, 1998). Another explanation concerns reference frames: spatial representations might depend on peripheral spatial relations concerning the surrounding room instead on proximal relations within the arrangement, even if these proximal relations are sufficient or more informative. To evaluate these possibilities, we rotated children (N = 120) aged between 3 and 6 years with an occluded arrangement. When the arrangement was in misalignment to the surrounding room, 3- and 4-year-olds’ spatial memory was impaired and 5-year-olds’ was lightly impaired suggesting that they relied on peripheral references of the surrounding room for retrieval. In contrast, 6-years-olds’ spatial representation seemed robust against misalignment indicating a successful integration of spatial representations. PMID:26617537

  11. The arrangement of deformation monitoring project and analysis of monitoring data of a hydropower engineering safety monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wanshun; Chen, Zhuo; Li, Xiuwen

    2018-03-01

    The safety monitoring is very important in the operation and management of water resources and hydropower projects. It is the important means to understand the dam running status, to ensure the dam safety, to safeguard people’s life and property security, and to make full use of engineering benefits. This paper introduces the arrangement of engineering safety monitoring system based on the example of a water resource control project. The monitoring results of each monitoring project are analyzed intensively to show the operating status of the monitoring system and to provide useful reference for similar projects.

  12. Gender and Ethnic Variation in Arranged Marriages in a Chinese City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Xiaowei

    2008-01-01

    Using a data set (N = 1,600) collected in the city of Urumchi in 2005, this article examines ethnic differences in arranged marriages in urban China. Data analysis shows a rapid decline in parental arrangement for both Uyghur Muslims and Han Chinese in Urumchi. Han Chinese are less likely than Uyghur Muslims to report arranged marriages, with main…

  13. 26 CFR 1.1402(a)-18 - Split-dollar life insurance arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... life insurance arrangements. See §§ 1.61-22 and 1.7872-15 for rules relating to the treatment of split-dollar life insurance arrangements. [T.D. 9092, 68 FR 54352, Sept. 17, 2003] ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Split-dollar life insurance arrangements. 1...

  14. Why Employers Use Flexible Staffing Arrangements: Evidence from an Establishment Survey. Upjohn Institute Staff Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houseman, Susan N.

    Use of flexible staffing arrangements--including temporary help agency, short-term, on-call, regular part-time, and contract workers--is widespread and two-thirds of employers believe this trend will increase in the near future. A study examined which employers use flexible staffing arrangements, why they use these arrangements, and their…

  15. 46 CFR 199.220 - Survival craft and rescue boat embarkation arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Survival craft and rescue boat embarkation arrangements... APPLIANCES AND ARRANGEMENTS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS Additional Requirements for Passenger Vessels § 199.220 Survival craft and rescue boat embarkation arrangements. (a) Survival craft...

  16. The Life Course of Children Born to Unmarried Mothers: Childhood Living Arrangements and Young Adult Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilino, William S.

    1996-01-01

    Explored living arrangements among children born to unmarried mothers and the impact of childhood living arrangements on the young adult's life course. Analyses showed that living arrangement patterns after birth to a single mother influenced the likelihood of high school completion, post secondary education, and other conditions. (RJM)

  17. 41 CFR 301-50.2 - How must I arrange my travel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... travel? 301-50.2 Section 301-50.2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ARRANGING FOR TRAVEL SERVICES, PAYING TRAVEL EXPENSES, AND CLAIMING REIMBURSEMENT 50-ARRANGING FOR TRAVEL SERVICES § 301-50.2 How must I arrange my travel? You must...

  18. 46 CFR 167.15-28 - Inspection of lifesaving appliances and arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Inspections § 167.15-28 Inspection of lifesaving appliances and arrangements. The inspection of lifesaving appliances and arrangements must be in accordance with the... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection of lifesaving appliances and arrangements...

  19. 46 CFR 199.245 - Survival craft embarkation and launching arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Survival craft embarkation and launching arrangements... Passenger Vessels § 199.245 Survival craft embarkation and launching arrangements. (a) Each davit-launched liferaft must be arranged to be rapidly boarded by its full complement of persons. (b) All survival craft...

  20. 46 CFR 167.20-17 - Bilge pumps, bilge piping and sounding arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bilge pumps, bilge piping and sounding arrangements. 167... Ships § 167.20-17 Bilge pumps, bilge piping and sounding arrangements. The number, capacity, and arrangement of bilge pumps and bilge piping shall be in accordance with the requirements for cargo vessels...

  1. 29 CFR 794.117 - Effect of franchises and other arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effect of franchises and other arrangements. 794.117... âindependently Owned and Controlled Local Enterpriseâ § 794.117 Effect of franchises and other arrangements. Whether a franchise or other contractual arrangement affects the status of the enterprise as “an...

  2. 29 CFR 779.232 - Franchise or other arrangements which create a larger enterprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Franchise or other arrangements which create a larger... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.232 Franchise or other arrangements which create a larger enterprise. (a) In other instances, franchise...

  3. 46 CFR 31.36-1 - Lifesaving appliances and arrangements-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lifesaving appliances and arrangements-TB/ALL. 31.36-1... CERTIFICATION Lifesaving Appliances and Arrangements § 31.36-1 Lifesaving appliances and arrangements—TB/ALL. All lifesaving appliances and arrangements on tank vessels must be in accordance with subchapter W...

  4. 46 CFR 199.40 - Evaluation, testing and approval of lifesaving appliances and arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... appliances and arrangements. 199.40 Section 199.40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LIFESAVING APPLIANCES AND ARRANGEMENTS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS General § 199.40 Evaluation, testing and approval of lifesaving appliances and arrangements. (a) Each item of...

  5. Arrangement for the storage of spherically shaped material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolten, E.; Patay, J.; Sckuhr, P.

    1974-01-01

    The device is to collect, transport, store and distribute or separate spherical fuel elements. It consists of several pipes which come out of the upper part of a hollow cylinder spreading radially and form coils stacked in one another. The bottom ends open out into outlet connections. The hollow cylinder is arranged coaxially to the coils. Intake branches open out in its lower end for the spheres. They are pushed up inside the hollow cylinder by a spiral conveyor along parallel running holding bars to the coil entrances and fall into the individual coils. The spheres can thus be stored one behind the other without blocking occurring by bridge formation. If the storing device is used in e.g. reprocessing plants, the holding bars can then be developed as sprang pipes to decontaminate the spheres with liquids. (DG) [de

  6. Activity and vulnerability: what family arrangements are at risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Lavinas

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to compare different family models according to the typology proposed by the IBGE (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, or National Census Bureau, to verify whether families headed by women really represent the most vulnerable or "at-risk" family arrangement. The latter is the commonsense notion that legitimizes the framework of feminization of poverty, in vogue in the last two decades and with considerable impact on the design of anti-poverty social policies. The current empirical study disaggregates the employment data (employment rate, mean wages, workweek not only by gender (identifying differences between men and women, but also breaking down the data for women, comparing the situation of women heads-of-families versus wives. In terms of women's full participation in the work market, the effect of conjugality is even more harmful than motherhood (presence of children.

  7. Implications of multinational arrangements for nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muench, E.; Richter, B.; Stein, G.

    1980-01-01

    In the recently concluded INFCE study a variety of possibilities to minimize the proliferation risk was discussed, and their applicability in the nuclear fuel cycle was investigated. It was found that safeguards still play a central part as an anti-proliferation measure. Aspect of institutional arrangements with the aim of placing nuclear material processing and storage facilities under multinational or international auspices is the basis and goal of this study, as in international discussions some degree of proliferation hindrance is attributed to such models. In the assessment of the internationalization of nuclear facilities as an anti-proliferation measure two aspects have to be emphasized: Firstly, internationalization may be understood as a political measure to hinder proliferation, and secondly, no additional control effort should be caused by the possible complementary character to safeguards. 5 refs

  8. Globally optimal superconducting magnets part II: symmetric MSE coil arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieng, Quang M; Vegh, Viktor; Brereton, Ian M

    2009-01-01

    A globally optimal superconducting magnet coil design procedure based on the Minimum Stored Energy (MSE) current density map is outlined. The method has the ability to arrange coils in a manner that generates a strong and homogeneous axial magnetic field over a predefined region, and ensures the stray field external to the assembly and peak magnetic field at the wires are in acceptable ranges. The outlined strategy of allocating coils within a given domain suggests that coils should be placed around the perimeter of the domain with adjacent coils possessing alternating winding directions for optimum performance. The underlying current density maps from which the coils themselves are derived are unique, and optimized to possess minimal stored energy. Therefore, the method produces magnet designs with the lowest possible overall stored energy. Optimal coil layouts are provided for unshielded and shielded short bore symmetric superconducting magnets.

  9. International bilateral and multilateral arrangements in energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-07-01

    This document, the second report in the series, outlines current DOE international commitments under bilateral and multilateral arrangements, as of January 1, 1978. Included are bilateral agreements for cooperation in the civil uses of atomic energy with countries and international organizations, bilateral and multilateral technical exchanges in all energy technology areas, and multilateral agreements under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA). In addition to outlining the terms, scope, and status of these agreements, this document describes DOE's participation in the work of the major international energy organizations. IEA, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). Future reports will update the status of ongoing cooperative projects and provide information on new energy R and D activities

  10. Marital arrangements in Baja California and its young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Ojeda

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Uniones libres or consensual union formation has increased in Mexico and this is not an exception in its Northern region. Information from the Mexican Population and Household Census of 2010 and the Survey on Reproductive Health of Adolescents in Baja California, 2006 show that unión libre as an preferential type of conjugal arrangement is more clearly manifested among the Baja California’s youth of both sexes in general and particularly among those residing in Tijuana and Rosarito. Also, union libre formation among the Baja California’s youth is extensively associated with childbearing what seems to indicate continuity in its traditional role in the Mexican family formation process, but this is happening in higher proportions among the young adults of the new generations.

  11. Dementia prevalence, care arrangement, and access to care in Lebanon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phung, Kieu T T; Chaaya, Monique; Prince, Martin

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In North Africa and the Middle East, studies about dementia prevalence are scarce. A pilot study was conducted in Lebanon to assess dementia prevalence, using the Arabic-validated 10/66 Dementia Research Group (DRG) diagnostic assessment for case ascertainment. The study also examined...... care arrangement and access to care. METHODS: A random sample of 502 persons older than 65 years and their informant were recruited from Beirut and Mount Lebanon governorates through multistage cluster sampling. RESULTS: The crude and age-standardized dementia prevalences were 7.4% and 9.......0%, respectively. People with dementia were mainly cared for by relatives at home. Access to formal care was very limited. DISCUSSION: Dementia prevalence in Lebanon ranks high within the global range of estimates. These first evidence-based data about disease burden and barriers to care serve to raise awareness...

  12. Design optimization of general arrangement in Korean next generation reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. H.; Jung, D. W.; Choi, Y. B.; Cho, S. J.

    1999-01-01

    In order to optimize the general arrangement(GA) of Korean Next Generation Reactor (KNGR), field opinions in domestic nuclear power plants have been collected, and the bench marking on UCN No.1,2 which were estimated to be the most excellent in view of operability and maintenance has been accomplished. Through this work, design optimization items for GA were reviewed. Major items to be selected for optimization are summarized as follows; 'Expanding the compound building function and the mezzanine floor concept in the auxiliary building', 'Including the diesel generator building to the auxiliary building', 'Change of the equipment removal method in the auxiliary building'. With these GA design optimization, the auxiliary building boundary will be improved as a complete rectangular type. The power block volume except the changing effect to the single containment structure will be reduced to about 10% in comparison with that of in KNGR phase II

  13. Dynamics of dielectric barrier discharges in coplanar arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibalov, Valentin I; Pietsch, Gerhard J

    2004-01-01

    The development of a discharge channel in coplanar dielectric barrier arrangements is investigated numerically. Its behaviour in oxygen, like the spatial and temporal distributions of the field strength, charged and neutral particles and energy density, is described in detail. It is found that the streamer development is mainly determined by photoemission. A cathode layer appears near the position where the cathode directed streamer touches the dielectric surface. Secondary electron emission by ion collisions becomes significant and the parameters of the cathode layer are near those of a normal glow discharge. The charge transfer and energy release happen in the conductive channel of the discharge, which appears on the dielectric surface as a result of the cathode streamer development. The field strength in the conductive channel is nearly constant and about 70-100 Td in oxygen and air

  14. Properties of dielectric barrier discharges in different arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietsch, G.J.

    2001-01-01

    Dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) occur in arrangements where at least one dielectric is positioned in a gas space in between conducting electrodes. When breakdown field strength is reached in such a device, charge carriers are created in the gas region, accelerated, multiplied and finally collected on the surface(s) of the dielectric(s). The charge accumulation on the dielectric creates a counter field to that resulting from the power supply and as all of these processes are rather fast, the discharge quenches rapidly. The dielectric has two tasks, it limits the transferred charge and by this the energy conversion and distributes the discharge over the electrode area. That is why DBDs are non-thermal discharges which exist even at atmospheric pressure

  15. NAIR: handbook on the national arrangements for incidents involving radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    A revised handbook on the national arrangements for incidents involving radioactivity (NAIR) has been published. Following brief introductory sections on the administrative aspects and operational aspects, the main part of the handbook is devoted to operational and call-out lists including an index of police forces served by NAIR, an index of establishments providing assistance under NAIR, sources of stage 1 and stage 2 assistance for each police constabulary, hospitals prepared to accept contaminated casualties and to assist with decontamination of personnel, and hospitals prepared to advise on the treatment and admission of casualties exposed to large doses of radiation. Technical appendices are also given on radiological protection in NAIR incidents, instruments and equipment, radionuclide data and a guide to suitable detectors, package and source identification and disposal of radioactive materials involved in NAIR accidents. (U.K.)

  16. Neoliberalism and criticisms of earthquake insurance arrangements in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, I

    1996-03-01

    Global collapse of the Fordist-Keynesian regime of accumulation and an attendant philosophical shift in New Zealand politics to neoliberalism have prompted criticisms of, and changes to, the Earthquake and War Damage Commission. Earthquake insurance arrangements made 50 years ago in an era of collectivist, welfarist political action are now set in an environment in which emphasis is given to competitive relations and individualism. Six specific criticisms of the Commission are identified, each of which is founded in the rhetoric and ideology of a neoliberal political project which has underpinned radical social and economic changes in New Zealand since the early 1980s. On the basis of those criticisms, and in terms of the Earthquake Commission Act 1993, the Commission has been restructured. The new Commission is withdrawing from its primary position as the nation's non-residential property hazards insurer and is restricting its coverage of residential properties.

  17. Evaluation of alternative institutional arrangements in public utilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermishina Anna, V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Since early 2000s a policy of attracting private operators to public utilities, which should help to increase productivity, reduce costs, and as a result, reduce utility prices takes place in Russia. The aim of the study is to identify the relationship between institutional arrangements and pricing for water and wastewater services. Applying statistical and cluster analysis to empirical data on water utilities in 13 largest cities has revealed the differences in the level and dynamics of prices for water and wastewater services in the group of public utilities and public private water utilities. In 2011-2014 the level and growth price rates in the group of public private partnerships were higher than in group of municipal water utilities. Thus, the involvement of private operators has not yet lead to the expected reduction in prices.

  18. Multiple transnational household arrangements in the city of Cochabamba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Ledo García

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Evidence shows that over the last 15 years Bolivia and Cochabamba have experienced increased migration flows and that international emigration has become an important strategy for many households. The purpose of this article is to show intra-family solidarity, as well as how households respond to an absent parent in the Cochabamba urban area. The simultaneous interaction of six analytic dimensions is analysed: the socio-economic situation in the country of origin; the characteristics of migrants in the host country; maternal/paternal communication from a distance; the role of remittances; and political participation and role changes within the family remaining in the country of origin. The procedure of generalized canonical correlation analysis (GCCA allows us to demonstrate the multiple transnational maternity/paternity arrangements and the solidarity of the family networks in Cochabamba.

  19. New arrangements in force in the field of transport

    CERN Multimedia

    Tom Wegelius

    2006-01-01

    Please take note of the following information concerning new arrangements in force in the field of transport: China: Regulations applying to wooden packaging materials as of 1st January 2006 As scheduled, China introduced standard ISPM No. 15 on 1st January 2006. This was officially confirmed in a letter from the Federal Minister for Consumer Protection, Food and Agriculture. Henceforth, China will apply the same conditions to the importation of wooden packaging materials as various other countries, including the United States, Mexico and Brazil. This means that items shipped to China in wooden packaging will no longer need to be accompanied by a certificate relating to the protection of plant species or other phytosanitary documents (such as heat treatment certificates). However, a guarantee that the wooden packaging complies with standard ISPM No. 15 will be required. Phase II of US regulations concerning wooden packaging material Phase II of regulations concerning the importation of wooden packaging ma...

  20. How different institutional arrangements promote integrated river basin management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helle Ørsted; Frederiksen, Pia; Saarikoski, Heli

    2013-01-01

    Management Planning processes in six countries around the Baltic Sea. We use theories on multi-level governance, regime interplay and institutional effectiveness. We find that, in most cases, central governments have played a dominant role in the formulation of river basin management plans, while local......, member states must therefore address both the roles of different institutional actors and the interplay among institutions. In this paper, we will explore strengths and weaknesses of different institutional arrangements for integrated water management through a comparative analysis of River Basin...... influence has been somewhat limited. The tight procedural deadlines of the di-rective appear to have pushed for more centralisation than originally intended by the countries. But the analysis also shows that interplay mechanisms such as norms, ideas and incentives do promote effective institutional...

  1. Licensing arrangements and the development of the solar energy industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, M.

    1979-06-01

    The process by which technology and information related to technology are transferred within industry is explored. Property rights in technology are part of the broader field of intellectual property. The general contours of legal protection for knowledge are explored. The four basic forms of intellectual property - patents, trade secrets (or know-how), trademarks, and copyrights - are covered in varying degrees of depth, depending on their relative applicability to the development of the solar industry. Once this background has been established, the legal aspects of licensing are examined. A license is a legal arrangement whereby a party (licensor) who controls the right to use an idea, invention, etc. shares the right to use the particular intellectual property with someone else (licensee). The advantages and disadvantages of licensing are described from the point of view of potential licensees and licensors. Barriers to licensing are discussed.

  2. Optimal primitive reference frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, David

    2011-01-01

    We consider the smallest possible directional reference frames allowed and determine the best one can ever do in preserving quantum information in various scenarios. We find that for the preservation of a single spin state, two orthogonal spins are optimal primitive reference frames; and in a product state, they do approximately 22% as well as an infinite-sized classical frame. By adding a small amount of entanglement to the reference frame, this can be raised to 2(2/3) 5 =26%. Under the different criterion of entanglement preservation, a very similar optimal reference frame is found; however, this time it is for spins aligned at an optimal angle of 87 deg. In this case 24% of the negativity is preserved. The classical limit is considered numerically, and indicates under the criterion of entanglement preservation, that 90 deg. is selected out nonmonotonically, with a peak optimal angle of 96.5 deg. for L=3 spins.

  3. Reference Climatological Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Reference Climatological Stations (RCS) network represents the first effort by NOAA to create and maintain a nationwide network of stations located only in areas...

  4. Toxicity Reference Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxicity Reference Database (ToxRefDB) contains approximately 30 years and $2 billion worth of animal studies. ToxRefDB allows scientists and the interested...

  5. Python essential reference

    CERN Document Server

    Beazley, David M

    2009-01-01

    Python Essential Reference is the definitive reference guide to the Python programming language — the one authoritative handbook that reliably untangles and explains both the core Python language and the most essential parts of the Python library. Designed for the professional programmer, the book is concise, to the point, and highly accessible. It also includes detailed information on the Python library and many advanced subjects that is not available in either the official Python documentation or any other single reference source. Thoroughly updated to reflect the significant new programming language features and library modules that have been introduced in Python 2.6 and Python 3, the fourth edition of Python Essential Reference is the definitive guide for programmers who need to modernize existing Python code or who are planning an eventual migration to Python 3. Programmers starting a new Python project will find detailed coverage of contemporary Python programming idioms.

  6. Collaborative networks: Reference modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camarinha-Matos, L.M.; Afsarmanesh, H.

    2008-01-01

    Collaborative Networks: Reference Modeling works to establish a theoretical foundation for Collaborative Networks. Particular emphasis is put on modeling multiple facets of collaborative networks and establishing a comprehensive modeling framework that captures and structures diverse perspectives of

  7. Ozone Standard Reference Photometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Standard Reference Photometer (SRP) Program began in the early 1980s as collaboration between NIST and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to design,...

  8. The Wassenaar Arrangement and Russian High-Tech Export

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia S. Revenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current military and political situation in the world raises the necessity of use by Russia of all existing tools to counter actions targeted against it. Participation of the country in international export control regimes, including the Wassenaar Arrangement (the WA, is one of these tools. Membership in the WA allows to Russia to maintain its international status, to contribute to strengthening of international stability, to ensure the non-targeting of this forum against the country, to participate in the development of decisions affecting its interests. Participation in the WA is also important from the view of modernizations of Russian economy towards transition to a new technological mode accompanied by emergence of new groups of innovative products and modification of existing ones. Control of crossing the country's borders by dual-use goods and services is one of conditions for carrying out their export. The Wassenaar Arrangement was established in 1995 to replace COCOM in order to contribute to regional and international security and stability. A huge work is carried out within the forum aimed at enhancing control over transfers of conventional weapons and high-tech dual-use goods. Russian export control system fully meets requirements of international export control regime, including the WA, and effectively functions. Export of the controlled goods from Russia or their transfer to foreign individuals and legal entities are possible only on the basis of decisions of the Export control Commission of the Russian Federation. The dilemma between the need to support exporters by reducing administrative barriers and the ensuring security interests of the country gain momentum in current stage of scientific-and-technological advance development.

  9. Enterprise Reference Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickham, Grandin; Saile, Lynn; Havelka, Jacque; Fitts, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Johnson Space Center (JSC) offers two extensive libraries that contain journals, research literature and electronic resources. Searching capabilities are available to those individuals residing onsite or through a librarian s search. Many individuals have rich collections of references, but no mechanisms to share reference libraries across researchers, projects, or directorates exist. Likewise, information regarding which references are provided to which individuals is not available, resulting in duplicate requests, redundant labor costs and associated copying fees. In addition, this tends to limit collaboration between colleagues and promotes the establishment of individual, unshared silos of information The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) team has utilized a centralized reference management tool during the development, test, and operational phases of this project. The Enterprise Reference Library project expands the capabilities developed for IMM to address the above issues and enhance collaboration across JSC. Method: After significant market analysis for a multi-user reference management tool, no available commercial tool was found to meet this need, so a software program was built around a commercial tool, Reference Manager 12 by The Thomson Corporation. A use case approach guided the requirements development phase. The premise of the design is that individuals use their own reference management software and export to SharePoint when their library is incorporated into the Enterprise Reference Library. This results in a searchable user-specific library application. An accompanying share folder will warehouse the electronic full-text articles, which allows the global user community to access full -text articles. Discussion: An enterprise reference library solution can provide a multidisciplinary collection of full text articles. This approach improves efficiency in obtaining and storing reference material while greatly reducing labor, purchasing and

  10. Comparability of reference values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossbach, M.; Stoeppler, M.

    1993-01-01

    Harmonization of certified values in Reference Materials (RMs) can be carried out by applying nuclear analytical techniques to RMs of various matrix types and concentration levels. Although RMs generally should not be used as primary standards the cross evaluation of concentrations in RMs leads to better compatibility of reference values and thus to a greater agreement between analytical results from different laboratories using these RMs for instrument calibration and quality assurance. (orig.)

  11. Electronics engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, L W

    1976-01-01

    Electronics Engineer's Reference Book, 4th Edition is a reference book for electronic engineers that reviews the knowledge and techniques in electronics engineering and covers topics ranging from basics to materials and components, devices, circuits, measurements, and applications. This edition is comprised of 27 chapters; the first of which presents general information on electronics engineering, including terminology, mathematical equations, mathematical signs and symbols, and Greek alphabet and symbols. Attention then turns to the history of electronics; electromagnetic and nuclear radiatio

  12. 2002 reference document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This 2002 reference document of the group Areva, provides information on the society. Organized in seven chapters, it presents the persons responsible for the reference document and for auditing the financial statements, information pertaining to the transaction, general information on the company and share capital, information on company operation, changes and future prospects, assets, financial position, financial performance, information on company management and executive board and supervisory board, recent developments and future prospects. (A.L.B.)

  13. Systematic musicology meets historical musicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels Chr.

    findings for Austro-German (linear increase, Adj. R2 = .489, F(1, 19) = 20.138, p analysis, we provide quantitative support for music-historical accounts of an Italian-dominated Baroque (composer birth years 1600...

  14. 2nd Historic Mortars Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, John; Groot, Caspar; Historic Mortars : Characterisation, Assessment and Repair

    2012-01-01

    This volume focuses on research and practical issues connected with mortars on historic structures. The book is divided into four sections: Characterisation of Historic Mortars, Repair Mortars and Design Issues, Experimental Research into Properties of Repair Mortars, and Assessment and Testing. The papers present the latest work of researchers in their field. The individual contributions were selected from the contributions to the 2nd Historic Mortars Conference, which took place in Prague, September, 22-24, 2010. All papers were reviewed and improved as necessary before publication. This peer review process by the editors resulted in the 34 individual contributions included in here. One extra paper reviewing and summarising State-of-the-Art knowledge covered by this publication was added as a starting and navigational point for the reader. The editors believe that having these papers in print is important and they hope that it will stimulate further research into historic mortars and related subjects. 

  15. Historical change and evolutionary theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Roger D

    2007-09-01

    Despite advances in fields like genetics, evolutionary psychology, and human behavior and evolution--which generally focus on individual or small group behavior from a biological perspective--evolutionary biology has made little impact on studies of political change and social history. Theories of natural selection often seem inapplicable to human history because our social behavior is embedded in language (which makes possible the concepts of time and social identity on which what we call "history" depends). Peter Corning's Holistic Darwinism reconceptualizes evolutionary biology, making it possible to go beyond the barriers separating the social and natural sciences. Corning focuses on two primary processes: "synergy" (complex multivariate interactions at multiple levels between a species and its environment) and "cybernetics" (the information systems permitting communication between individuals and groups over time). Combining this frame of reference with inclusive fitness theory, it is possible to answer the most important (and puzzling) question in human history: How did a species that lived for millennia in hunter-gatherer bands form centralized states governing large populations of non-kin (including multi-ethnic empires as well as modern nation-states)? The fragility and contemporary ethnic violence in Kenya and the Congo should suffice as evidence that these issues need to be taken seriously. To explain the rise and fall of states as well as changes in human laws and customs--the core of historical research--it is essential to show how the provision of collective goods can overcome the challenge of self-interest and free-riding in some instances, yet fail to do so in others. To this end, it is now possible to consider how a state providing public goods can--under circumstances that often include effective leadership--contribute to enhanced inclusive fitness of virtually all its members. Because social behavior needs to adapt to ecology, but ecological

  16. Social History and Historical Sociology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Knöbl

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with exchanges and misunderstandings between the German school of social history (most prominently represented by scholars from the University of Bielefeld (such as Hans-Ulrich Wehler and Anglo-American trends in historical sociology (exemplified by the works of Barrington Moore, Theda Skocpol and Michael Mann. The social historians tended to dismiss historical sociology as too dependent on modernization theory, without taking into account the critique of that tradition by authors who brought processes of state formation and revolutionary change into the debate. On the other side, mainstream historical sociology worked with assumptions that limited its ability to change the terms and directions of sociological discourse, and to assimilate lessons from history. Among these inbuilt biases, organizational realism and materialism – particularly pronounced in the work of Michael Mann – stand out as particularly important. The paper closes with arguments in favour of bringing more history into historical sociology, with particular emphasis on three sets of problems. There is a need for more historical approaches to differentiation, less dependent on functionalist premises than the hitherto prevalent paradigm. A more explicit thematization of temporality in history and society would, among other things, help to clarify issues linked to the notion of path dependency. Finally, a reconsideration of the models and types of explanation in historical sociology would place more emphasis on their interpretive dimension.

  17. Social History and Historical Sociology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Knöbl

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with exchanges and misunderstandings between the German school of social history (most prominently represented by scholars from the University of Bielefeld (such as Hans-Ulrich Wehler and Anglo-American trends in historical sociology (exemplified by the works of Barrington Moore, Theda Skocpol and Michael Mann. The social historians tended to dismiss historical sociology as too dependent on modernization theory, without taking into account the critique of that tradition by authors who brought processes of state formation and revolutionary change into the debate. On the other side, mainstream historical sociology worked with assumptions that limited its ability to change the terms and directions of sociological discourse, and to assimilate lessons from history. Among these inbuilt biases, organizational realism and materialism - particularly pronounced in the work of Michael Mann - stand out as particularly important. The paper closes with arguments in favour of bringing more history into historical sociology, with particular emphasis on three sets of problems. There is a need for more historical approaches to differentiation, less dependent on functionalist premises than the hitherto prevalent paradigm. A more explicit thematization of temporality in history and society would, among other things, help to clarify issues linked to the notion of path dependency. Finally, a reconsideration of the models and types of explanation in historical sociology would place more emphasis on their interpretive dimension.

  18. Financial arrangements for health systems in low-income countries: an overview of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiysonge, Charles S; Paulsen, Elizabeth; Lewin, Simon; Ciapponi, Agustín; Herrera, Cristian A; Opiyo, Newton; Pantoja, Tomas; Rada, Gabriel; Oxman, Andrew D

    2017-09-11

    is uncertain whether they improve completion of treatment for active tuberculosis. Conditional cash transfer programmes probably lead to an increase in service utilisation (moderate-certainty evidence), but their effects on health outcomes are uncertain. Vouchers may improve health service utilisation (low-certainty evidence), but the effects on health outcomes are uncertain (very low-certainty evidence). Introducing a restrictive cap may decrease use of medicines for symptomatic conditions and overall use of medicines, may decrease insurers' expenditures on medicines (low-certainty evidence), and has uncertain effects on emergency department use, hospitalisations, and use of outpatient care (very low-certainty evidence). Reference pricing, maximum pricing, and index pricing for drugs have mixed effects on drug expenditures by patients and insurers as well as the use of brand and generic drugs. Provider incentives: the effects of provider incentives are uncertain (very low-certainty evidence), including: the effects of provider incentives on the quality of care provided by primary care physicians or outpatient referrals from primary to secondary care, incentives for recruiting and retaining health professionals to serve in remote areas, and the effects of pay-for-performance on provider performance, the utilisation of services, patient outcomes, or resource use in low-income countries. Research based on sound systematic review methods has evaluated numerous financial arrangements relevant to low-income countries, targeting different levels of the health systems and assessing diverse outcomes. However, included reviews rarely reported social outcomes, resource use, equity impacts, or undesirable effects. We also identified gaps in primary research because of uncertainty about applicability of the evidence to low-income countries. Financial arrangements for which the effects are uncertain include external funding (aid), caps and co-payments, pay-for-performance, and

  19. FID Statutes, Rules of Procedures, Terms of Reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Federation for Documentation, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Following a brief historical chronology of the International Federation for Documentation (FID), the organization's statutes are presented in the original French text and in English. The rules of procedures outline membership policy, conduct of technical bodies, FID conferences, publications, and regional commissions. Terms of reference are…

  20. Biological reference points for fish stocks in a multispecies context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collie, J.S.; Gislason, Henrik

    2001-01-01

    Biological reference points (BRPs) are widely used to define safe levels of harvesting for marine fish populations. Most BRPs are either minimum acceptable biomass levels or maximum fishing mortality rates. The values of BRPs are determined from historical abundance data and the life...

  1. Open Distant Learning: Pedagogical Terms of Reference and Dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatkovic, Nevenka; Ruzic, Maja; Tatkovic, Sanja

    2006-01-01

    The paper first presents the essential viewpoints of general characteristics of open distance learning (OLD) and the short historical origins. The second part presents some pedagogical terms of reference for Open distance learning as the quality of ODL, the criteria of successful ODL (planning, successful interaction, work and emotional climate,…

  2. Reference Japanese man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Giichiro

    1985-01-01

    To make real and accurate dose assessment method so far, it is necessitated to provide ''Reference Japanese Man'' based on anotomical, physiological and biochemical data of Japanese people instead of the Reference Man presented in ICRP Publications 23 and 30. This review describes present status of researched for the purpose of establishing of Reference Japanese Man. The Reference Japanese Man is defined as a male or female adult who lives in Japan with a Japanese life-style and food custom. His stature and body weight, and the other data was decided as mean values of male or female people of Japan. As for food custom, Japanese people take significantly smaller amount of meat and milk products than Western people, while larger intake amount of cereals and marine products such as fish or seaweeds. Weight of organs is a principal factor for internal dose assessment and mean values for living Japanese adult has been investigated and the value employable for dose assessment for organs and tissues are shown. To employ these values of Reference Japanese Man, it should be taken into account of age. Metabolic parameters should also be considered. Iodine metabolism in Japanese is quite different from that of Western people. The above-mentioned data are now tentatively employing in modification of table of MIRD method and others. (Takagi, S.)

  3. Executive Summary - Historical background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    matter physics experiments at the High Flux Reactor of The Laue Langevin Institute and the ISIS spallation source at Rutherford-Appleton. Recently, we very actively entered the ICARUS neutrino collaboration and were invited to the PIERRE AUGER collaboration which will search for the highest energies in the Universe. Having close ties with CERN we are very actively engaged in CROSS-GRID, a large computer network project. To better understand the historical background of the INP development, it is necessary to add a few comments on financing of science in Poland. During the 70's and the 80's, research was financed through the so-called Central Research Projects for Science and Technical Development. The advantage of this system was that state-allocated research funds were divided only by a few representatives of the scientific community, which allowed realistic allocation of money to a small number of projects. After 1989 we were able to purchase commercially available equipment, which led to the closure of our large and very experienced electronic workshop. We also considerably reduced our well equipped mechanical shop. During the 90's the reduced state financing of science was accompanied by a newly established Committee of Scientific Research which led to the creation of a system of small research projects. This precluded the development of more ambitious research projects and led to the dispersion of equipment among many smaller laboratories and universities. A large research establishment, such as our Institute, could not develop properly under such conditions. In all, between 1989 and 2004 we reduced our personnel from about 800 to 470 and our infrastructure became seriously undercapitalised. However, with energetic search for research funds, from European rather than national research programs, we hope to improve and modernize our laboratories and their infrastructure in the coming years

  4. Church music inculturation by way of an experiment of arrangement of Dolo-Dolo mass ordinarium accompaniment- composed by Mateus Weruin for woodwind quintet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohanes Ruswanto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Inculturation of Church music in an experiment of creating this arrangement aims to bring a different form of musical ordinarium accompaniment form of Dolo-Dolo Mass from Flores, with a different media that uses the woodwind quintet (flute, oboe, clarinet, French horn, and Basson. The experiment took one of the ordinary songs from Madah Bakti “Tuhan Kasihanilah Kami”. The harmonization fine-tunes to the chorus arrangement composed by Mateus Weruin. The literature study was conducted through collecting references on the art of Dolo-Dolo and woodwind quintet so it can be used to create an idea for this arrangement. The result shows that a rhythmic character that characterizes the traditional Flores music lies in a dotted sixteenth pattern. The richness of sounds and agile characters coming from each instrument creates a percussive atmosphere of Flores folk music. The result of the arrangement experiment can be used to enrich the reference of accompaniment music to the general public and specifically, the Catholic Church. 

  5. Vascular trauma: selected historical reflections from the

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rich Norman M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】In the spirit of international exchanges of knowledge with colleagues from all over the world, who are interested in the care and treatment of vascular trauma, we offer selected historical reflections from the western world on vascular trauma. Whereas there are a number of key individuals and a variety of events that are important to us in our writing, we know essentially nothing about what is written by other cultures and, particularly, the Chinese. It is well recognized around the world that Chinese surgeons are among the first to be highly successful in re-plantation of severed extremities, repairing both injured arteries and veins. Also, we recognize that there are contributions in other parts of the world, which are not well known to us collectively. Contributions from the Arabic speaking part of the world come to mind because there is periodic brief reference. We offer our perspective hoping that there will be one or more Chinese surgeons who will offer us the benefit of sharing their perspective on important historical contributions to the managing of vascular trauma outside of the western world, and, particularly, the English speaking literature. Once again, we encourage our colleagues in the Arabic speaking world to provide us with their perspective of the development and management of vascular trauma. Key words: Vascular system injuries; History; Western world; International educational exchange

  6. Historical review of quartz crystal growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Fumiko; Iwasaki, Hideo

    2002-04-01

    The history of quartz crystal growth is reviewed from the origin to the industrialization. The developing process of growth techniques is divided into the following three stages: (1) The fundamental work based on the mineralogical genetic view point, which was performed in Italy during the end of the 19th to the beginning of the 20th centuries. (2) The works to attempt the industrial application made in Germany and in England during World War II. (3) The industrialization of quartz growth after World War II. These were initiated in England, in USA and independently in Russia. The highest mass production process was developed in Japan. The historical flow is traced by the interview of several persons based on the original references.

  7. An historical ophthalmic study of Jane Austen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Graham A

    2012-11-01

    Today, no other classic novelist has the popularity or power of Jane Austen, and in 2013 the world will celebrate 200 years of her comic masterpiece Pride and Prejudice. Her millions of fans have an abiding fascination with all aspects of her life, including her health and the cause of her death. This historical ophthalmic study of Jane Austen, based on very incomplete medical bibliographic data, finds that she had a mild ocular surface disorder from age 23. This disorder did not significantly impact on her visual performance for writing. There are many references to eyes in her novels, but Jane's eyes and those of her characters cannot contribute further to the debate around the cause of her death at age 41.

  8. Reference costs of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terraz, N.

    1997-01-01

    The calculation of electric power production reference costs is used in France, even in the present case of over-capacity, for comparing the relative interest of the various means of power generation (nuclear plants, coal plants, hydroelectricity, gas combined cycles, etc.) and as an aid for future investment decisions. Reference costs show a sharp decrease between 1993 and 1997 due to advancements in nuclear plant operating ability and fossil fuel price decrease. Actuarial rates, plant service life, fuel costs and exchange rates are important parameters. The various costs from the research stage to the waste processing stages are discussed and the reference costs of the various power generation systems are presented and compared together with their competitiveness; the future of wind energy and cogeneration and the prospective of the renewal of nuclear plants at the 2010 horizon are also addressed

  9. Setting reference targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruland, R.E.

    1997-04-01

    Reference Targets are used to represent virtual quantities like the magnetic axis of a magnet or the definition of a coordinate system. To explain the function of reference targets in the sequence of the alignment process, this paper will first briefly discuss the geometry of the trajectory design space and of the surveying space, then continue with an overview of a typical alignment process. This is followed by a discussion on magnet fiducialization. While the magnetic measurement methods to determine the magnetic centerline are only listed (they will be discussed in detail in a subsequent talk), emphasis is given to the optical/mechanical methods and to the task of transferring the centerline position to reference targets

  10. New Zealand optometrists 2006: demographics, working arrangements and hours worked.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederikson, Lesley G; Chamberlain, Kerry; Sangster, Andrew J

    2008-07-01

    Optometry is a regulated health profession in NZ, with limited student places. With 650 registered optometrists in 2005, the optometrist to population ratio was 1 : 6,291 with no apparent national shortage. If optometrists registered in NZ do not actually live there, a workforce shortage is possible. This paper presents findings from the New Zealand Association of Optometrists 2006 workforce survey of members, which aimed to profile the NZ optometric workforce and to explore factors relating to workforce capacity, job stress and future planning. A questionnaire was developed to collect information on employment status, hours worked and gender distribution of optometrists in New Zealand. It was circulated to 530 active members of the NZ Association of Optometrists representing 86 per cent of the available optometrists. Direct comparisons with the Australian optometric workforce numbers were also undertaken. Of the 243 respondents, 129 (53 per cent) were male. The median age of all respondents was 39 years (46 for males and 34 for females) and 75 per cent of the respondents were aged younger than 50 years. Fifty per cent had practised 15 years or less. Ten per cent of respondents had 'time-out' during their career and this was significantly more likely for females. Nearly half the respondents were self-employed (46 per cent) and eight per cent worked as locums. Part-time employees were more likely to be female and males were more likely to be in full-time self-employment. Half the group was under 40 (51 per cent), which accounted for 86 per cent of the full-time salaried arrangements. Those aged 30 to 39 included 52 per cent of the total part-time salaried workers. The average working week was 34 hours for women and 39 hours for men; the median was 40 hours for both groups. In the typical working week, 80 per cent of an optometrist's time was spent consulting with patients and five per cent was patient-related paperwork. The distribution of work arrangements was

  11. Electrical engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, G R

    2013-01-01

    A long established reference book: radical revision for the fifteenth edition includes complete rearrangement to take in chapters on new topics and regroup the subjects covered for easy access to information.The Electrical Engineer's Reference Book, first published in 1945, maintains its original aims: to reflect the state of the art in electrical science and technology and cater for the needs of practising engineers. Most chapters have been revised and many augmented so as to deal properly with both fundamental developments and new technology and applications that have come to the fore since

  12. Python pocket reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lutz, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This is the book to reach for when you're coding on the fly and need an answer now. It's an easy-to-use reference to the core language, with descriptions of commonly used modules and toolkits, and a guide to recent changes, new features, and upgraded built-ins -- all updated to cover Python 3.X as well as version 2.6. You'll also quickly find exactly what you need with the handy index. Written by Mark Lutz -- widely recognized as the world's leading Python trainer -- Python Pocket Reference, Fourth Edition, is the perfect companion to O'Reilly's classic Python tutorials, also written by Mark

  13. The Reference Return Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Jeppe; Faber Frandsen, Tove

    2008-01-01

    The paper introduces a new journal impact measure called The Reference Return Ratio (3R). Unlike the traditional Journal Impact Factor (JIF), which is based on calculations of publications and citations, the new measure is based on calculations of bibliographic investments (references) and returns...... (citations). A comparative study of the two measures shows a strong relationship between the 3R and the JIF. Yet, the 3R appears to correct for citation habits, citation dynamics, and composition of document types - problems that typically are raised against the JIF. In addition, contrary to traditional...

  14. Perl Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Vromans, Johan

    2011-01-01

    If you have a Perl programming question, you'll find the answer quickly in this handy, easy-to-use quick reference. The Perl Pocket Reference condenses and organizes stacks of documentation down to the most essential facts, so you can find what you need in a heartbeat. Updated for Perl 5.14, the 5th edition provides a summary of Perl syntax rules and a complete list of operators, built-in functions, and other features. It's the perfect companion to O'Reilly's authoritative and in-depth Perl programming books, including Learning Perl, Programming Perl, and the Perl Cookbook..

  15. HTML & XHTML Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Robbins, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    After years of using spacer GIFs, layers of nested tables, and other improvised solutions for building your web sites, getting used to the more stringent standards-compliant design can be intimidating. HTML and XHTML Pocket Reference is the perfect little book when you need answers immediately. Jennifer Niederst-Robbins, author Web Design in a Nutshell, has revised and updated the fourth edition of this pocket guide by taking the top 20% of vital reference information from her Nutshell book, augmenting it judiciously, cross-referencing everything, and organizing it according to the most com

  16. CSS Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Eric A

    2007-01-01

    They say that good things come in small packages, and it's certainly true for this edition of CSS Pocket Reference. Completely revised and updated to reflect the latest Cascading Style Sheet specifications in CSS 2.1, this indispensable little book covers the most essential information that web designers and developers need to implement CSS effectively across all browsers. Inside, you'll find: A short introduction to the key concepts of CSS A complete alphabetical reference to all CSS 2.1 selectors and properties A chart displaying detailed information about CSS support for every style ele

  17. JDBC Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Bales, Donald

    2003-01-01

    JDBC--the Java Database Connectivity specification--is a complex set of application programming interfaces (APIs) that developers need to understand if they want their Java applications to work with databases. JDBC is so complex that even the most experienced developers need to refresh their memories from time to time on specific methods and details. But, practically speaking, who wants to stop and thumb through a weighty tutorial volume each time a question arises? The answer is the JDBC Pocket Reference, a data-packed quick reference that is both a time-saver and a lifesaver. The JDBC P

  18. Reference values for electrooculography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrientos Castanno, Alberto; Herrera Mora, Maritza; Garcia Baez, Obel

    2012-01-01

    Obtain electrooculographic reference values based on the patterns set by the Standardization Committee of the International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision (ISCEV). the lowest amplitude values of the potential ranged between 388 and 882 μv in the dark phase. The light peak was obtained between 9 and 10 minutes, and during this phase the potential reached an amplitude ranging between 808 and 1 963 μv. This amplitude variability may be related to the fact that the test was conducted without pupillary mydriasis. The reference value obtained for Arden index was 1,55 to 2,87

  19. NASCAP programmer's reference manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, M. J.; Stannard, P. R.; Katz, I.

    1993-05-01

    The NASA Charging Analyzer Program (NASCAP) is a computer program designed to model the electrostatic charging of complicated three-dimensional objects, both in a test tank and at geosynchronous altitudes. This document is a programmer's reference manual and user's guide. It is designed as a reference to experienced users of the code, as well as an introduction to its use for beginners. All of the many capabilities of NASCAP are covered in detail, together with examples of their use. These include the definition of objects, plasma environments, potential calculations, particle emission and detection simulations, and charging analysis.

  20. 48 CFR 2301.105-2 - Arrangement of regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... right of the decimal point) is the subpart number, “05” (always two digits) is the section number, “2... numbers to the right of the decimal point are identical to and reflect the same divisions as in the FAR... to as the Social Security Acquisition Regulation (SSAR). Any reference may be cited as “SSAR...

  1. Historical earthquake research in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerl, Christa

    2017-12-01

    Austria has a moderate seismicity, and on average the population feels 40 earthquakes per year or approximately three earthquakes per month. A severe earthquake with light building damage is expected roughly every 2 to 3 years in Austria. Severe damage to buildings ( I 0 > 8° EMS) occurs significantly less frequently, the average period of recurrence is about 75 years. For this reason the historical earthquake research has been of special importance in Austria. The interest in historical earthquakes in the past in the Austro-Hungarian Empire is outlined, beginning with an initiative of the Austrian Academy of Sciences and the development of historical earthquake research as an independent research field after the 1978 "Zwentendorf plebiscite" on whether the nuclear power plant will start up. The applied methods are introduced briefly along with the most important studies and last but not least as an example of a recently carried out case study, one of the strongest past earthquakes in Austria, the earthquake of 17 July 1670, is presented. The research into historical earthquakes in Austria concentrates on seismic events of the pre-instrumental period. The investigations are not only of historical interest, but also contribute to the completeness and correctness of the Austrian earthquake catalogue, which is the basis for seismic hazard analysis and as such benefits the public, communities, civil engineers, architects, civil protection, and many others.

  2. Computerized simulation of sintering process through single geometric arrangements utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Lameiras, Fernando Soares; Vasconcelos, Wander L.

    1995-01-01

    In materials science and engineering, microstructure is of crucial importance in determining the properties and therefore the performance of the designed products. However, the parameters and processes which control microstructural evolution in multi-phase polycrystalline systems have not been systematically examined yet. This is specially true in the case of powder processing of ceramics, where the final microstructure is related not only to the densification process, but also to the characteristics of the green compact, such as particle size distribution and packing density. One way to carry out the study of this problem with the of a computer is to consider the green compact as a periodic arrangement of mono-sized hard spheres, e.g., the simple cubic, the body-centered cubic (b.c.) and the face-centered cubic (f.c.c.) arrays. That simplification allows to foresee the resultant morphology when the array is sintered to full density through a simulation algorithm that allows the spheres to penetrate one another and conserve their mass. Typical powder compacts have a random, rather than regular, structures. An element of randomness is introduced and various parameters for this case (e.g. density, coordination number, morphology) are compared with the simple ones. Thermodynamic features of the simulated microstructures which may reveal which one resembles a more realistic equilibrium configuration are also included. (author). 8 refs., 2 figs

  3. Assessing operability of a novel polisher arrangement using MMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shor, S.W.W.

    1987-01-01

    A condensate polisher is intended to remove both particulate matter and ionic material from the condensate. Condensate polishers have normally been placed directly in the condensate system downstream of the condensate pumps. This inline location has certain disadvantages. These disadvantages are discussed. Placing the polisher in a sidestream location, where water is removed from the condensate system, pumped through the polisher, and then returned to the condensate system provides a solution to these disadvantages. Several possible types of sidestream installations is described. This has a polisher taking unpolished condensate from one compartment from one compartment of a divided hotwell in a specially modified condenser and returning polished condensate to the other compartment. The polisher is supplied by its own dedicated pumps, which have a head requirement sufficient only to overcome the pressure drop through the polisher circuit at a flow rate of 110% of maximum condensate flow. This concept is very attractive but has not yet been tested even though it is being installed in several new units. A simulation was, therefore, performed using MMS to provide confidence that this particular sidestream polisher arrangement was operationally viable

  4. New perspectives about molecular arrangement of primary and permanent dentin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanches Borges, Ana Flavia [Department of Dental Materials at Piracicaba Dental School, State University of Campinas, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Andrade Bitar, Renata [Biomedical Engineering, Valley of Paraiba University (UNIVAP) (Brazil); Kantovitz, Kamila Rosamilia [Department of Pediatric Dentistry at Piracicaba Dental School, State University of Campinas, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Bortollazo Correr, Americo [Department of Dental Materials at Piracicaba Dental School, State University of Campinas, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Martin, Airton Abrahao [Biomedical Engineering Post Graduation, Valley of Paraiba University (UNIVAP) (Brazil); Puppin-Rontani, Regina Maria [Department of Pediatric Dentistry at Piracicaba Dental School, State University of Campinas, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: rmpuppin@fop.unicamp.br

    2007-12-30

    The dentin quality of primary and permanent teeth was inspected by Fourier transformed Raman spectroscopy (FT-Raman); scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and hardness test. Middle dentin of crowns were reached by carbide bur abrading providing a uniform smear layer. Phosphoric acid was applied in order to simulate the etching of total etching adhesive systems. The groups were (n = 10): G1 (primary dentin smear layer); G2 (35% phosphoric acid etched primary dentin); G3 (permanent dentin smear layer); G4 (35% phosphoric acid etched permanent dentin). FT-Raman results were subjected to cluster analysis. SEM/EDS were made in order to add the data obtained by FT-Raman. The hardness data were subjected to ANOVA and Tukey test. FT-Raman showed differences among groups, either to organic or inorganic content. For the organic content, primary and permanent dentin became similar after the etching; conversely, the inorganic content showed differences for the two substrates. Hardness test showed no significant differences between primary and permanent dentin, before or after etching, but the etching decreased these values. The mineral content arrangement of primary dentin is different from permanent dentin, independently of the etching. The substrate type did no influence the hardness, but the etching decreased it.

  5. Effect of nozzle arrangement on Venturi scrubber performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ananthanarayanan, N.V.; Viswanathan, S.

    1999-12-01

    The effect of nozzle arrangement on flux distribution is studied in a rectangular, pilot-scale, Pease-Anthony-type Venturi scrubber. The annular, two-phase, heterogeneous, three-dimensional gas-liquid flow inside the scrubber is modeled using a commercial computational fluid dynamic (CFD) package, FLUENT. The comparison of predicted liquid drop concentration shows good agreement with experimental data. The model predicts the fraction of liquid flowing as film on the walls reasonably well. Visualization of flux patterns studied using four typical nozzle configurations indicate that the nonuniformity in flux distribution increases when the nozzle-to-nozzle distance is greater than 10% of the width of the side on which the nozzles are placed. An analysis of the effect of multiple jet penetration lengths on liquid flux distribution yielded a comparable distribution at 10--45% less liquid than uniform penetration for a particular nozzle configuration. This would lead to significant improvements in scrubber performance by achieving comparable collection efficiency at a lower pressure drop.

  6. The organization of honeybee ocelli: Regional specializations and rhabdom arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribi, Willi; Warrant, Eric; Zeil, Jochen

    2011-11-01

    We have re-investigated the organization of ocelli in honeybee workers and drones. Ocellar lenses are divided into a dorsal and a ventral part by a cusp-shaped indentation. The retina is also divided, with a ventral retina looking skywards and a dorsal retina looking at the horizon. The focal plane of lenses lies behind the retina in lateral ocelli, but within the dorsal retina in the median ocellus of both workers and drones. Ventral retinula cells are ca. 25μm long with dense screening pigments. Dorsal retinula cells are ca. 60μm long with sparse pigmentation mainly restricted to their proximal parts. Pairs of retinula cells form flat, non-twisting rhabdom sheets with elongated, straight, rectangular cross-sections, on average 8.7μm long and 1μm wide. Honeybee ocellar rhabdoms have shorter and straighter cross-sections than those recently described in the night-active bee Megalopta genalis. Across the retina, rhabdoms form a fan-shaped pattern of orientations. In each ocellus, ventral and dorsal retinula cell axons project into two separate neuropils, converging on few large neurons in the dorsal, and on many small neurons in the ventral neuropil. The divided nature of the ocelli, together with the particular construction and arrangement of rhabdoms, suggest that ocelli are not only involved in attitude control, but might also provide skylight polarization compass information. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Arranged marriages, unlikely partners. How will their offspring look?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, E J

    1995-05-01

    In the new era of managed care, many religious healthcare providers are making "arranged marriages"--permanent partnerships with secular organizations. As they do so, the religious partners naturally ponder how best to ensure that their values permeate the new entity and thus prevail in later organizational "offspring." The organizations most likely to perpetuate their values are those with ethical corporate cultures and climates. These include religiously based healthcare providers, but such providers seem to lack confidence today in their ability to maintain culture and climate in newly formed partnerships. That may be fortunate because it prevents them from trying to impose their values on secular partners. Nevertheless, such values are often attractive to a prospective partner. A religious healthcare provider will need market leverage, as well as attractive values, to make a good "marriage." Even so, religious providers and secular investor-owned organizations are unlikely partners, because their motives and incentives differ radically. But religious providers can form solid relationships with secular, not-for-profit healthcare organizations if they take care to negotiate a binding commitment to maintain an ethical culture and climate. However, Catholic providers are at a disadvantage in such negotiations because Catholic religious congregations are unlikely to continue as owner-sponsors much beyond another decade. It is crucial that a stable source of influence develop to ensure a religious presence in the offspring of new partnerships.

  8. General arrangement and systems integration of the BPX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, T.G.; Mueller, J.P.; Shampinato, P.T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on the integration of Burning Plasma Experiment (BPX) tokamak components, peripheral equipment, service lines, and the test cell facility which are being carried out to satisfy the functional requirements of all systems, maximize hands-on maintenance of peripheral equipment, and maximize access space around the machine for remote maintenance. The test cell configuration provides a center cell to house the tokamak device, close-in North and South Cells for locating peripheral equipment for hands-on maintenance and trenches are located in the test cell floor to carry away service lines to East, West, and South Diagnostic Areas. Equipment lines that service the device core components have been integrated in the design of the cryostat and locally arranged to maximize remote maintenance access to the device core and center cell peripheral equipment. a circular pipe corridor has been located in the basement to localize floor penetrations, prevent activation of the basement, and provide support structure directly under the machine. These and other configurational design details have been developed in the process of fully integrating all BPX systems and subsystems

  9. Polymer-Assisted Hydrothermal Synthesis of Hierarchically Arranged Hydroxyapatite Nanoceramic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Joseph Nathanael

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Flower-like hydroxyapatite (HA nanostructures were synthesized by a polymer-assisted hydrothermal method. The thickness of the petals/plates decreased from 200 nm to 40 nm as the polymer concentration increased. The thickness also decreased as the hydrothermal treatment time increased from 6 to 12 hr. The HRTEM and SAED patterns suggest that the floral-like HA nanostructures are single crystalline in nature. Structural analysis based on XRD and Raman experiments implied that the produced nanostructure is a pure form of HA without any other impurities. The possible formation mechanism was discussed for the formation of flower-like HA nanostructures during polymer-assisted hydrothermal synthesis. Finally, in vitro cellular analysis revealed that the hierarchically arranged HA nanoceramic had improved cell viability relative to other structures. The cells were actively proliferated over these nanostructures due to lower cytotoxicity. Overall, the size and the crystallinity of the nanostructures played a role in improving the cell proliferation.

  10. Marital Processes, Arranged Marriage, and Contraception to Limit Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Dirgha J.; Axinn, William G.

    2013-01-01

    An international transition away from familially-arranged marriages toward participation in spouse choice has endured for decades and continues to spread through rural Asia today. Though we know this transformation has important consequences for childbearing early in marriage, we know much less about longer-term consequences of this marital revolution. This study draws upon theories of family and fertility change and a rural Asian panel study designed to investigate changes in both marital and childbearing behaviors to investigate these long-term consequences. Controlling for social changes that shape both marital practices and childbearing behaviors, and explicitly considering multiple dimensions of marital processes, we find evidence consistent with an independent, long-standing association of participation in spouse choice with higher rates of contraception to terminate childbearing. These results add a new dimension to the evidence linking revolutions in marital behavior to long-term declines in fertility, but also motivate new research to consider a broader range of long-term consequences of changing marital processes. PMID:23709184

  11. Cosmetics Europe compilation of historical serious eye damage/eye irritation in vivo data analysed by drivers of classification to support the selection of chemicals for development and evaluation of alternative methods/strategies: the Draize eye test Reference Database (DRD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, João; Pfannenbecker, Uwe; Adriaens, Els; Alépée, Nathalie; Cluzel, Magalie; De Smedt, Ann; Hibatallah, Jalila; Klaric, Martina; Mewes, Karsten R; Millet, Marion; Templier, Marie; McNamee, Pauline

    2017-02-01

    A thorough understanding of which of the effects assessed in the in vivo Draize eye test are responsible for driving UN GHS/EU CLP classification is critical for an adequate selection of chemicals to be used in the development and/or evaluation of alternative methods/strategies and for properly assessing their predictive capacity and limitations. For this reason, Cosmetics Europe has compiled a database of Draize data (Draize eye test Reference Database, DRD) from external lists that were created to support past validation activities. This database contains 681 independent in vivo studies on 634 individual chemicals representing a wide range of chemical classes. A description of all the ocular effects observed in vivo, i.e. degree of severity and persistence of corneal opacity (CO), iritis, and/or conjunctiva effects, was added for each individual study in the database, and the studies were categorised according to their UN GHS/EU CLP classification and the main effect driving the classification. An evaluation of the various in vivo drivers of classification compiled in the database was performed to establish which of these are most important from a regulatory point of view. These analyses established that the most important drivers for Cat 1 Classification are (1) CO mean ≥ 3 (days 1-3) (severity) and (2) CO persistence on day 21 in the absence of severity, and those for Cat 2 classification are (3) CO mean ≥ 1 and (4) conjunctival redness mean ≥ 2. Moreover, it is shown that all classifiable effects (including persistence and CO = 4) should be present in ≥60 % of the animals to drive a classification. As a consequence, our analyses suggest the need for a critical revision of the UN GHS/EU CLP decision criteria for the Cat 1 classification of chemicals. Finally, a number of key criteria are identified that should be taken into consideration when selecting reference chemicals for the development, evaluation and/or validation of alternative methods and

  12. Book Catalogs; Selected References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, Wesley T.

    The 116 citations on book catalogs are divided into the following two main sections: (1) Selected References, in alphabetic sequence by personal or institutional author and (2) Anonymous Entries, in alphabetic sequence by title. One hundred and seven of the citations cover the years 1960 through March 1969. There are five scattered citations in…

  13. ROOT Reference Documentation

    CERN Document Server

    Fuakye, Eric Gyabeng

    2017-01-01

    A ROOT Reference Documentation has been implemented to generate all the lists of libraries needed for each ROOT class. Doxygen has no option to generate or add the lists of libraries for each ROOT class. Therefore shell scripting and a basic C++ program was employed to import the lists of libraries needed by each ROOT class.

  14. Hospitality Services Reference Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This reference book provides information needed by employees in hospitality services occupations. It includes 29 chapters that cover the following topics: the hospitality services industry; professional ethics; organization and management structures; safety practices and emergency procedures; technology; property maintenance and repair; purchasing…

  15. Quantum frames of reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufherr, T.

    1981-01-01

    The idea that only relative variables have physical meaning came to be known as Mach's principle. Carrying over this idea to quantum theory, has led to the consideration of finite mass, macroscopic reference frames, relative to which all physical quantities are measured. During the process of measurement, a finite mass observer receives a kickback, and this reaction of the measuring device is not negligible in quantum theory because of the quantization of the action. Hence, the observer himself has to be included in the system that is being considered. Using this as the starting point, a number of thought experiments involving finite mass observers is discussed which have quantum uncertainties in their time or in their position. These thought experiments serve to elucidate in a qualitative way some of the difficulties involved, as well as pointing out a direction to take in seeking solutions to them. When the discussion is extended to include more than one observer, the question of the covariance of the theory immediately arises. Because none of the frames of reference should be preferred, the theory should be covariant. This demand expresses an equivalence principle which here is extended to include reference frames which are in quantum uncertainties relative to each other. Formulating the problem in terms of canonical variables, the ensueing free Hamiltonian contains vector and scalar potentials which represent the kick that the reference frame receives during measurement. These are essentially gravitational type potentials, resulting, as it were, from the extension of the equivalence principle into the quantum domain

  16. Pollen reference collection digitization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ercan, F.E.Z.; Donders, T.H.; Bijl, P.K.; Wagner, F.

    2016-01-01

    The extensive Utrecht University pollen reference collection holds thousands of pollen samples of many species and genera from all over the world and has been a basis for the widely-used North West European Pollen Flora. These samples are fixed on glass slides for microscopy use, but the aging

  17. Virtual Reference Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Sally

    2003-01-01

    As the need to access information increases, school librarians must create virtual libraries. Linked to reliable reference resources, the virtual library extends the physical collection and library hours and lets students learn to use Web-based resources in a protected learning environment. The growing number of virtual schools increases the need…

  18. Reference-Dependent Sympathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Deborah A.

    2010-01-01

    Natural disasters and other traumatic events often draw a greater charitable response than do ongoing misfortunes, even those that may cause even more widespread misery, such as famine or malaria. Why is the response disproportionate to need? The notion of reference dependence critical to Prospect Theory (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979) maintains that…

  19. Genetics Home Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Page Search Home Health Conditions Genes Chromosomes & mtDNA Resources Help Me Understand Genetics Share: Email Facebook Twitter Genetics Home Reference provides consumer-friendly information about the effects of genetic variation on human health. Health Conditions More than 1,200 health ...

  20. Python library reference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. van Rossum (Guido)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractPython is an extensible, interpreted, object-oriented programming language. It supports a wide range of applications, from simple text processing scripts to interactive WWW browsers. While the Python Reference Manual describes the exact syntax and semantics of the language, it does not