WorldWideScience

Sample records for reference sinusoidal trace

  1. An Adaptive Filter for the Removal of Drifting Sinusoidal Noise Without a Reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, John W; Siewiorek, Daniel P; Smailagic, Asim; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a method for filtering sinusoidal noise with a variable bandwidth filter that is capable of tracking a sinusoid's drifting frequency. The method, which is based on the adaptive noise canceling (ANC) technique, will be referred to here as the adaptive sinusoid canceler (ASC). The ASC eliminates sinusoidal contamination by tracking its frequency and achieving a narrower bandwidth than typical notch filters. The detected frequency is used to digitally generate an internal reference instead of relying on an external one as ANC filters typically do. The filter's bandwidth adjusts to achieve faster and more accurate convergence. In this paper, the focus of the discussion and the data is physiological signals, specifically electrocorticographic (ECoG) neural data contaminated with power line noise, but the presented technique could be applicable to other recordings as well. On simulated data, the ASC was able to reliably track the noise's frequency, properly adjust its bandwidth, and outperform comparative methods including standard notch filters and an adaptive line enhancer. These results were reinforced by visual results obtained from real ECoG data. The ASC showed that it could be an effective method for increasing signal to noise ratio in the presence of drifting sinusoidal noise, which is of significant interest for biomedical applications.

  2. Survey of reference materials. V. 2: Environmentally related reference materials for trace elements, nuclides and microcontaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    The present report presently contains over 250 reference materials with trace element and organic contaminant information on fuel, geological and mineral, anthropogenic disposal, soil reference and miscellaneous reference materials. Not included in the current report is information on most biological and environmental reference materials with trace element, stable isotope, radioisotope and organic contaminant information. 8 refs, tabs

  3. INAA Application for Trace Element Determination in Biological Reference Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmodjo, D. P. D.; Kurniawati, S.; Lestiani, D. D.; Adventini, N.

    2017-06-01

    Trace element determination in biological samples is often used in the study of health and toxicology. Determination change to its essentiality and toxicity of trace element require an accurate determination method, which implies that a good Quality Control (QC) procedure should be performed. In this study, QC for trace element determination in biological samples was applied by analyzing the Standard Reference Material (SRM) Bovine muscle 8414 NIST using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Three selected trace element such as Fe, Zn, and Se were determined. Accuracy of the elements showed as %recovery and precision as %coefficient of variance (%CV). The result showed that %recovery of Fe, Zn, and Se were in the range between 99.4-107%, 92.7-103%, and 91.9-112%, respectively, whereas %CV were 2.92, 3.70, and 5.37%, respectively. These results showed that INAA method is precise and accurate for trace element determination in biological matrices.

  4. Determination of toxic trace elements in body fluid reference samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gills, T.E.; McClendon, L.T.; Maienthal, E.J.; Becker, D.A.; Durst, R.A.; LaFleur, P.D.

    1974-01-01

    The measurement of elemental concentration in body fluids has been widely used to give indication of exposures to certain toxic materials and/or a measure of body burden. To understand fully the toxicological effect of these trace elements on our physiological system, meaningful analytical data are required along with accurate standards or reference samples. The National Bureau of Standards has prepared for the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) a number of reference samples containing selected toxic trace elements in body fluids. The reference samples produced include mercury in urine at three concentration levels, five elements (Se, Cu, As, Ni and Cr) in freeze-dried urine at two levels, fluorine in freeze-dried urine at two levels and lead in blood at two concentration levels. These reference samples have been found to be extremely useful for the evaluation of field and laboratory analytical methods for the analysis of toxic trace elements. In particular the use of at least two calibration points (i.e., ''normal'' and ''elevated'' levels) for a given matrix provides a more positive calibration for most analytical techniques over the range of interest for occupational toxicological levels of exposure. (U.S.)

  5. Reference-data modelling for tracking and tracing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorp, van C.A.

    2004-01-01

    Subject headings: supply chain, tracking and tracing, reference-data modelling

  6. Reference material for trace analysis by radioanalytical methods: Bowen's Kale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wainerdi, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    A fairly large volume of published data on 'Bowen's Kale' has been examined critically in order to develop recommendations for the use of this preparation as a 'reference material' in the standardisation and evaluation of the reliability of analytical procedures. Values are now recommended for the contents of twelve elements present in major to trace concentrations in 'Bowen's Kale'. 'Indicated values' for another 16 elements are provided. Values for 15 more elements are listed with no recommendation. The criteria adopted in categorising elements into these groups are discussed. (author)

  7. Neutron activation analysis of trace elements in IAEA reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheema, M.N.; Hasany, S.M.; Hanif, I.; Chaudhry, M.S.; Qureshi, I.H.

    1978-09-01

    Analytical Chemistry Group of Nuclear Chemistry Division at PINSTECH has been participating in IAEA Intercomparison programme of analytical quality control since 1972. So far fifteen samples of a variety of materials received from the Agency have been analyzed for different minor and trace elements. Mostly destructive and non-destructive neutron activation analysis techniques have been used for elemental analysis. In this report the description of the samples and the experimental procedures employed have been mentioned. The results of elemental analysis have been reported and compared with IAEA values which are based on the average computed from the results of different participating laboratories. (authors)

  8. Certified reference materials of trace elements in water

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Many decisions regarding the suitability of material/products are based on the ... In the present scenario of globalization of economy, use of certified reference ... our national accreditation body, National Accreditation Board for Testing and ...

  9. Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valla, Dominique-Charles; Cazals-Hatem, Dominique

    2016-09-01

    Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) is characterized by damage to small hepatic vessels affecting particularly sinusoidal endothelium. Damaged sinusoids can be associated with a partial or complete occlusion of small hepatic veins, hence the previous denomination of hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD). Exposure to certain exogenous toxins appears to be specific to this condition and is frequently included in its definition. Typical histopathological features of SOS in a liver biopsy specimen are presented in the text. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview on the different entities corresponding to this general definition. Such entities include: (i) liver disease related to pyrrolizidine alcaloids; (ii) liver injury related to conditioning for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; (iii) vascular liver disease occurring in patients treated with chemotherapy for liver metastasis of colorectal cancer; and (iv) other liver diseases related to toxic agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Noise upon the Sinusoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karl Kristoffer

    2005-01-01

    Sinusoids are used for making harmonic and other sounds. In order to having life in the sounds and adding a wide variety of noises, irregularities are inserted in the frequency and amplitudes. A simple and intuitive noise model is presented, consisting of a low-pass filtered noise, and having...... control for strength and bandwidth. The noise is added on the frequency and amplitudes of the sinusoids, and the resulting irregularity’s (jitter and shimmer) bandwidth is derived. This, together with an overview of investigation methods of the jitter and shimmer results in an analysis of the necessary...

  11. Reference material IAEA 413: Major, minor and trace elements in algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Reference materials are a basic requirement for any sort of quantitative chemical and radiochemical analysis. Laboratories need them for calibration and quality control throughout their analytical work. The IAEA started to produce reference materials in the early 1960s to meet the needs of the analytical laboratories in its Member States that required reference materials for quality control of their measurements. The initial efforts were focused on the preparation of environmental reference materials containing anthropogenic radionuclides for use by those laboratories employing nuclear analytical techniques. These reference materials were characterized for their radionuclide content through interlaboratory comparison involving a core group of some 10 to 20 specialist laboratories. The success of these early exercises led the IAEA to extend its activities to encompass both terrestrial and marine reference materials containing primordial radionuclides and trace elements. Today, the IAEA has more than 90 reference materials and maintains a customer base of about 5000 members from more than 85 Member States. Within the frame of IAEA activities in production and certification of RM, this report describes the certification of the IAEA 413: Major, minor and trace elements in algae. Details are given on methodologies and data evaluation

  12. SYSTEMATIC ERROR REDUCTION: NON-TILTED REFERENCE BEAM METHOD FOR LONG TRACE PROFILER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    QIAN, S.; QIAN, K.; HONG, Y.; SENG, L.; HO, T.; TAKACS, P.

    2007-01-01

    Systematic error in the Long Trace Profiler (LTP) has become the major error source as measurement accuracy enters the nanoradian and nanometer regime. Great efforts have been made to reduce the systematic error at a number of synchrotron radiation laboratories around the world. Generally, the LTP reference beam has to be tilted away from the optical axis in order to avoid fringe overlap between the sample and reference beams. However, a tilted reference beam will result in considerable systematic error due to optical system imperfections, which is difficult to correct. Six methods of implementing a non-tilted reference beam in the LTP are introduced: (1) application of an external precision angle device to measure and remove slide pitch error without a reference beam, (2) independent slide pitch test by use of not tilted reference beam, (3) non-tilted reference test combined with tilted sample, (4) penta-prism scanning mode without a reference beam correction, (5) non-tilted reference using a second optical head, and (6) alternate switching of data acquisition between the sample and reference beams. With a non-tilted reference method, the measurement accuracy can be improved significantly. Some measurement results are presented. Systematic error in the sample beam arm is not addressed in this paper and should be treated separately

  13. Model selection and comparison for independents sinusoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Kjær; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2014-01-01

    In the signal processing literature, many methods have been proposed for estimating the number of sinusoidal basis functions from a noisy data set. The most popular method is the asymptotic MAP criterion, which is sometimes also referred to as the BIC. In this paper, we extend and improve this me...

  14. Biological and environmental reference materials for trace elements, nuclides and organic microcontaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes Toro, E.; Parr, R.M.; Clements, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    This report has been produced from a database on analytical reference materials of biological and environmental origin, which is maintained at the International Atomic Energy Agency. It is an updated version of an earlier report, published in 1985, which focussed mainly on reference materials for trace elements. In the present version of the report, reference materials for trace elements still constitute the major part of the data; however, information is also now included on a number of other selected analytes of relevance to IAEA programmes, i.e. radionuclides, stable isotopes and organic microcontaminants. The database presently contains 2,694 analyte values for 117 analytes in 116 biological and 77 environmental (non-biological) reference materials produced by 20 different suppliers. Additional information on the cost of the material, the unit size supplied, (weight or volume), and the minimum weight of material recommended for analysis is also provided (if available to the authors). It is expected that this report will help analysts to select the reference material that matches as closely as possible, with respect to matrix type and concentrations of the analytes of interest, the ''real'' samples that are to be analysed. Refs, 12 tabs

  15. Survey of reference materials for trace elements, nuclides and organic microcontaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parr, R.M.; Stone, S.F.; Bel-Amakeletch, T.; Zeisler, R.

    1998-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), in co-operation with the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), has recently prepared a survey on internationally available analytical reference materials for trace elements, nuclides and organic contaminants in biological, environmental and related matrices. The purpose is to help analysts to select reference materials for quality assurance that match as closely as possible, with respect to matrix type and concentrations of the measurands of interest, the ''real'' samples that are to be measured. The present version of the survey, which is available in the form of two cost-free printed volumes [1], contains over 10,000 certified and information values in 650 reference materials from 27 different producers. The 455 measurands listed include trace elements, major and minor elements, organic contaminants, organometallic compounds, radionuclides and stable isotopes. Currently, the database from which the survey has been produced is being modified and extended so as to make the data available in electronic form via the Internet. (orig.)

  16. Sinusoidal Representation of Acoustic Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Masaaki

    Sinusoidal representation of acoustic signals has been an important tool in speech and music processing like signal analysis, synthesis and time scale or pitch modifications. It can be applicable to arbitrary signals, which is an important advantage over other signal representations like physical modeling of acoustic signals. In sinusoidal representation, acoustic signals are composed as sums of sinusoid (sine wave) with different amplitudes, frequencies and phases, which is based on the timedependent short-time Fourier transform (STFT). This article describes the principles of acoustic signal analysis/synthesis based on a sinusoid representation with focus on sine waves with rapidly varying frequency.

  17. Reference Materials for Trace Element Microanalysis of Carbonates by SIMS and other Mass Spectrometric Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layne, G. D.

    2009-12-01

    Today, many areas of geochemical research utilize microanalytical determinations of trace elements in carbonate minerals. In particular, there has been an explosion in the application of Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) to studies of marine biomineralization. SIMS provides highly precise determinations of Mg and Sr at the concentration levels normally encountered in corals, mollusks or fish otoliths. It is also a highly effective means for determining a wide range of other trace elements at ppm levels (e.g., Na, Fe, Mn, Ba, REE, Pb, Th, and U) in a variety of naturally occurring calcite and aragonite matrices - and so is potentially valuable in studies of diagenesis, hydrothermal fluids and carbonatitic magmas. For SIMS, modest time per spot (often sputtered ion yields of most elements with the major element composition of the sample matrix, accuracy of SIMS depends intimately on matrix-matched solid reference materials. Despite its rapidly increasing use for trace element analyses of carbonates, there remains a dearth of certified reference materials suitable for calibrating SIMS. The pressed powders used by some analysts to calibrate LA-ICP-MS do not perform well for SIMS - they are not perfectly dense or homogeneous to the desired level at the micron scale of sampling. Further, they often prove incompatible with the sample high vacuum compatibility requirement for stable SIMS analysis (10-8 to 10-9 torr). Some naturally occurring calcite has apparent utility as a reference material. For example, equigranular calcite from some zones of carbonatite intrusions (sovites) and recrystallized calcites from highly metamorphosed metallic ore deposits. Most calcite marbles, though possibly appropriate as Sr standards, show substantial inhomogeneity in Mg, Mn and Ba. Some hydrothermal “Iceland Spar” calcite may prove useful as a reference for extremely low concentrations of Mg, Sr and Ba. The best carbonatitic calcites currently in use appear homogeneous to

  18. Preparation and certification of trace mercury in water standard reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody, J.R.; Paulsen, P.J.; Rains, T.C.; Rook, H.L.

    1976-01-01

    The study of mercury in natural water supplies requires a Standard Reference Material (SRM) with a certified concentration at the 1 ng/g level. NBS SRM's have been prepared with nominal mercury concentrations of 1.5 μg/g and 1.2 ng/g. Confirmation of these values was obtained by neutron activation, atomic absorption, and isotope dilution-spark source mass spectrometry (IDSSMS). Nitric acid and trace amounts of gold were added to achieve a stable mercury concentration. The precautions observed for cleaning the glass and Teflon containers, preparation of mercury solutions, and the packaging of the SRM's are given. As an example of the care needed in the analysis of mercury at these levels, specific details are presented for the chemistry required to prepare samples for the spark source mass spectrometer

  19. Sinusoids theory and technological applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kythe, Prem K

    2014-01-01

    A Complete Treatment of Current Research Topics in Fourier Transforms and Sinusoids Sinusoids: Theory and Technological Applications explains how sinusoids and Fourier transforms are used in a variety of application areas, including signal processing, GPS, optics, x-ray crystallography, radioastronomy, poetry and music as sound waves, and the medical sciences. With more than 200 illustrations, the book discusses electromagnetic force and sychrotron radiation comprising all kinds of waves, including gamma rays, x-rays, UV rays, visible light rays, infrared, microwaves, and radio waves. It also covers topics of common interest, such as quasars, pulsars, the Big Bang theory, Olbers' paradox, black holes, Mars mission, and SETI.The book begins by describing sinusoids-which are periodic sine or cosine functions-using well-known examples from wave theory, including traveling and standing waves, continuous musical rhythms, and the human liver. It next discusses the Fourier series and transform in both continuous and...

  20. Survey of currently available reference materials for use in connection with the determination of trace elements in biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parr, R.M.

    1983-09-01

    Elemental analysis of biological materials is at present the subject of intensive study by many different research groups throughout the world, in view of the importance of these trace elements in health and medical diagnosis. IAEA and other organizations are now making a variety of suitable reference materials available for use in connection with the determination of trace elements in biological materials. To help analysts in making a selection from among these various materials, the present report provides a brief survey of data for all such biological reference materials known to the author. These data are compiled by the author from January 1982 to June 1983

  1. Trace element assessment of low-alloy and stainless steels with reference to gamma activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goddard, A.J.H.; Macmahon, T.D.; Gamberini, D.; Taylor, J.M.; Duggan, F.

    1984-01-01

    In order to predict the long-lived gamma activities leading to radiation exposure during dismantling operations it is necessary to know the likely trace element content of the reactor vessel and internals. This work has been concerned with measuring the elements Ni, Nb, Mo, Co, Ag, Eu, Sm and Ho in steels, with particular reference to light-water reactors. Various steel samples have been provided by organizations in Europe. Analyses have been carried out principally by neutron activation analysis, but also by atomic absorption (AA), inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and secondary ion microprobe spectrometry (SIMS). Analyses for Ni, Mo and Co were straightforward and results agreed with analyses carried out elsewhere. A variety of techniques were employed for Nb; ICP was the most successful and results were confirmed using SIMS. In the case of Ag only flameless AA yielded results for all samples. The low concentration of rare earth elements required the development of a preliminary ion exchange technique. Low-alloy steels examined had Nb concentrations less than 10 ppm. Ag levels in the vicinity of 1 ppm were found in all steel samples, indicating that Ag may be the most significant element at long cooling times. Rare earth concentrations from this and other work indicate that these elements are unlikely to give gamma activities exceeding those of 60 Co, 59 Ni, sup(108m)Ag and 94 Nb activities. Illustrative gamma activity decay calculations using the Origen code are presented

  2. Final certification of two new reference materials for inorganic trace analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dybczynski, R.; Danko, B.; Kulisa, K.; Chajduk-Maleszewska, E.; Polkowska-Motrenko, H.; Samczynski, Z.; Szopa, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Two new biological reference materials for inorganic trace analysis: Tea Leaves (INCT-TL-1) and Mixed Polish Herbs (INCT-MPH-2) were prepared and certified at the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology (INCT), Warsaw, employing the general strategy of the preparation and certification of CRMs developed in INCT. For both materials ca 40 kg of ground, sieved and carefully homogenized fraction of nominal particle size ≤ 67 mm was obtained. Homogeneity of the materials studied by INAA was shown to be good for samples of masses: m ≥ 100 mg but further investigations indicate that for most of elements these materials can be considered homogeneous down to masses of ca 5 mg or perhaps even lower. The certification was based on results of a worldwide interlaboratory comparison, in which 109 laboratories from 19 countries participated. The results of the analysis of a CRM, which was sent and analyzed along with intercomparison samples and the identity of which was known only to the organizers, were utilized in the process of certification. In addition selected elements were analyzed also by definitive methods based on RNAA. The content of more than 30 elements could be certified in each of the new CRMs. Analytical uncertainties and stability uncertainties were quantified to arrive at combined uncertainties of the certified values. In addition information values were provided for some other elements. (author)

  3. The complementary use of radioanalytical methods and trace analysis methods for the characterisation of environmental IAEA reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Regge, P.; Burns, K.; Campbell, M.; Makarewicz, M.; Markowicz, A.; Mattiuzzi, M.; Tajani, A.; Toervenyi, A.; Zeiller, E.

    2001-01-01

    The IAEA laboratories have access to both nuclear analytical methods and conventional instrumental methods for trace analysis for the characterisation of its environmental and biological reference materials. A technical concept integrating the homogeneity data, the recommended test portion mass and the uncertainty on the trace element concentrations is explored using a combination of INAA, XRF, ICP-MS, ICP-AES, and AAS. The above approach is illustrated by selected examples of reference materials currently under evaluation for their trace element content. They include some or all of the following elements Al, As, Br, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Rb, Se, Sr, Th, U, Zn in environmental biomonitor organisms (lichen, algae) and air dust filters. (author)

  4. Elemental analysis of biological materials. Current problems and techniques with special reference to trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Selected techniques were reviewed for the assay of trace and minor elements in biological materials. Other relevant information is also presented on the need for such analyses, sampling, sample preparation and analytical quality control. In order to evaluate and compare the applicability of the various analytical techniques on a meaningful and objective basis, the materials chosen for consideration were intended to be typical of a wide range of biological matrics of different elemental compositions, namely Bowen's kale, representing a plant material, and NBS bovine liver, IAEA animal muscle, and blood serum, representing animal tissues. The subject is reviewed under the following headings: on the need for trace element analyses in the life sciences (4 papers); sampling and sample preparation for trace element analysis (2 papers); analytical techniques for trace and minor elements in biological materials (7 papers); analytical quality control (2 papers)

  5. Sinusoidal oscillators and waveform generators using modern electronic circuit building blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Senani, Raj; Singh, V K; Sharma, R K

    2016-01-01

    This book serves as a single-source reference to sinusoidal oscillators and waveform generators, using classical as well as a variety of modern electronic circuit building blocks. It provides a state-of-the-art review of a large variety of sinusoidal oscillators and waveform generators and includes a catalogue of over 600 configurations of oscillators and waveform generators, describing their relevant design details and salient performance features/limitations. The authors discuss a number of interesting, open research problems and include a comprehensive collection of over 1500 references on oscillators and non-sinusoidal waveform generators/relaxation oscillators. Offers readers a single-source reference to everything connected to sinusoidal oscillators and waveform generators, using classical as well as modern electronic circuit building blocks; Provides a state-of-the-art review of a large variety of sinusoidal oscillators and waveform generators; Includes a catalog of over 600 configurations of oscillato...

  6. CNNs for sinusoidal signal recognition in hearing rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnimeo, Leonarda; Giaquinto, Antonio

    2003-04-01

    In this paper, a contribution is given to provide a tool to the recognition of sinusoidal signals with a particular reference to the field of pediatric hearing rehabilitation. To this purpose, a synthesis technique previously developed by the authors' is used to design a Cellular Neural Network for an Associative Memory able to compare submitted discrete-time sinusoidal signals with memorized ones. A robustness analysis of the synthesized associative memory is also developed both for noisy inputs and for parameter variations. Simulation results are then reported to illustrate the performances of the designed network.

  7. Comparison of methods for certification of stannic, stibium and lead traces in reference materials for steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Khodakovskaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Development and introduction of new metallurgical technologies, new additional chemical compound indexes controlled in metallurgical materials demand to develop the new, more advanced methods of analytical control. The particular attention should be paid to identify the traces of stannic, stinium and lead because of their influence on metal characteristics.

  8. Cosmology and the Sinusoidal Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, David F.

    2006-06-01

    The nature of dark matter (and dark energy) remains a mystery. An alternative is being explored by several scientists: changing Newton's (and Einstein's) field equations. The sinusoidal potential is the latest attempt[1]. Here the gravitational law is alternately attractive and repulsive:φ = -GM cos(kor)/r, where λo=2π/ko = 1/20 of the distance from the sun to the center of the Milky Way. The proposal accommodates several structural features of the Milky Way including, paradoxically, its spiral shape and flat rotation curve. The sinusoidal potential's unique feature is strong galactic tidal forces (dg/dr). These may explain why the new planetoid Sedna is securely between the Kuiper Belt and the Oort cloud and why distant comets are more influenced by galactic tides that are in the r, rather than the z-direction.At this meeting I discuss the consequences of the sinusoidal potential for cosmology. Here the alternation of attraction and repulsion gives (i) an open universe, and (ii) gravitational lensing which is usually weak, but occasionally very strong. An open universe is one that, asymptotically, has a size R which varies directly as time t. The open universe conflicts both with the old Einstein-deSitter model (R α t2/3} and the new accelerating one. The evidence for an accelerating universe decisively rejects the Einstein-deSitter model. The rejection of an open (or empty) universe is less secure. This rejection is influenced by the different ways the groups studying the brightness of supernovae use the HST. Surprising additional inputs include neutrino masses, the equivalence principle, LSB galaxies, and "over-luminous" Sn1a. I thank Mostafa Jon Dadras and Patrick Motl for early help and John Cumalat for continual support. [1] D.F. Bartlett, "Analogies between electricity and gravity", Metrologia 41, S115-S124 (2004).

  9. Trace contaminants of agriculture, fisheries and food with particular reference to isotope studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winteringham, F.P.W.

    1977-01-01

    Growing world population, industrilization and intensification of agricultural and fisheries practices have greatly increased the need during recent decades to protect the resources concerned, and the quality of food and agricultural environment. These trends have also resulted in a growing range of trace contaminants and excessive nutrient problems of agriculture and fisheries. Isotopic tracer and nuclear analytical techniques are powerful and often unique tools for the study and control of the problems, especially in relation to trace elements, nutrients and contaminants. In addition to the conventional use of radioactive and stable isotopes as tracers there appears to be considerable scope for the use of environmental or natural isotope ratio techniques and the use of labelled reagents and substrates as monitoring tools. Representative applications are described. (author)

  10. Reference Asian man phase-2 entitled 'Ingestion and organ content of trace elements of importance in radiological protection'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhter, P.; Hussain, M.; Orfi, S.D.; Atta, M.A.; Zaidi, J.H.; Arif, M.; Fatima, I.

    1998-01-01

    The second phase of Reference Asian Man project was started with the collaboration of IAEA to strengthen the radiation protection infra-structure of the country. In this regard dietary samples are being collected from various ecological areas of Pakistan. The sample collection is being made on market basket method. Four diet samples were collected, prepared and stored in the refrigerator for analysis with the help of Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) . The stable radio nuclide of our interest are Sr, Cs, Th, U, I. The other minor, essential trace and toxic elements are Ca, K, Mg, Na, Cu, Fe, Mn, Sc, Zn, Cd, Hg, and Pb. (author)

  11. Single ICCII Sinusoidal Oscillators Employing Grounded Capacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Horng

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Two inverting second-generation current conveyors (ICCII based sinusoidal oscillators are presented. The first sinusoidal oscillator is composed of one ICCII, two grounded capacitors and two resistors. The oscillation condition and oscillation frequency can be orthogonally controllable. The second sinusoidal oscillator is composed of one ICCII, two grounded capacitors and three resistors. The oscillation condition and oscillation frequency can be independently controllable through different resistors.

  12. Preparation and certification of the Polish reference material 'Oriental Tobacco Leaves' (CTA-OTL-1) for inorganic trace analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dybczynski, R.; Polkowska-Motrenko, H.; Samczynski, Z.; Szopa, Z.

    1996-01-01

    A new Polish certified reference material 'Oriental Tobacco Leaves' (CTA-OTL-1) for inorganic trace analysis was prepared. Fresh tobacco leaves of variety 'Oriental' were dried, ground and sieved. All precautions were taken to avoid contamination of material with metals. The next step was homogenization. Preliminary homogeneity checking consisted in determining of Ca, Fe and K content by X-ray fluorescence. Final homogeneity testing was performed by neutron activation analysis determining Co, Cr, Fe and Rb. To assure long-term stability, the whole lot of material was sterilized by electron beam radiation. Certification of the candidate reference material was done on the basis of world-wide interlaboratory comparisons exercise in which 61 laboratories, using various analytical methods participated. (author). 30 refs, 12 tabs, 21 figs

  13. Preparation and certification of the Polish reference material `Oriental Tobacco Leaves` (CTA-OTL-1) for inorganic trace analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dybczynski, R.; Polkowska-Motrenko, H.; Samczynski, Z.; Szopa, Z. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    1996-12-31

    A new Polish certified reference material `Oriental Tobacco Leaves` (CTA-OTL-1) for inorganic trace analysis was prepared. Fresh tobacco leaves of variety `Oriental` were dried, ground and sieved. All precautions were taken to avoid contamination of material with metals. The next step was homogenization. Preliminary homogeneity checking consisted in determining of Ca, Fe and K content by X-ray fluorescence. Final homogeneity testing was performed by neutron activation analysis determining Co, Cr, Fe and Rb. To assure long-term stability, the whole lot of material was sterilized by electron beam radiation. Certification of the candidate reference material was done on the basis of world-wide interlaboratory comparisons exercise in which 61 laboratories, using various analytical methods participated. (author). 30 refs, 12 tabs, 21 figs.

  14. Preparation and certification of rice flour reference materials for trace elements analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Kyung Haeng; Park, Chang Joon; Woo, Jin Choon; Suh, Jung Ki; Han, Myung Sub; Lee, Jong Hae

    1998-01-01

    Rice flour reference materials were prepared from the unpolished rice grown in korea and certified for elemental composition. The reference materials consist of two samples containing normal and high level. The reference material at elevated level was prepared by spiking to the normal rice flour six toxic elements of As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Hg, Pb with 1.0μg/g on a dry weight basis. Homogeneity of the prepared materials was evaluated through the determination of Ca, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Small variance of elemental composition among inter-bottled samples assured homogeneity of the prepared materials. The materials were decomposed by high pres-sure digestion and microwave digestion method. INAA, AAS, inductively coupled plasma-atomic absorption spectrometry (ICP-AES), ICP-mass spectrometry (MS) and vapour generation techniques were employed to analyze the reference materials. From this independent analytical results, the certified or reference values are determined for As, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, P, Pb, Se, Zn

  15. Proper use of reference materials for trace element analysis and updates on their availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snell, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: As different spectroscopic methods are used to certify reference materials (RMs) for element content, there is close interrelation between development of new methods and availability of new certified reference materials (CRMs). The Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) monitors changing scientific and regulatory interests, and adapts materials to current and predicted needs. This includes the development of CRMs with new matrices, or changing analytes and concentration levels for existing types of CRMs. Recent examples are CRMs to support the EC Directives on air quality and water, for nanoparticle characterization, and progressing international standards for biofuel measurements. User guidance including appropriate CRM selection, and use of uncertainties in comparing results will be highlighted. (author)

  16. Electronically tunable RC sinusoidal oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florescu, Valeriu

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents two types of active configurations for realizing electronically tunable RC sinusoidal oscillators. The type-1 network employs two grounded scaled resistances KR 1 and KR 2 , where K is scaling factor. The frequency of oscillation W 0 is controlled conveniently by adjusting K, since W 0 appears in the form W 0 =1/K √ R 1 C 1 R 2 C 2 . For realizing the scaled resistances, an active configuration is proposed, which realizes KR 1 =R 1 /(1+f(V B )), where f(V B ) denotes a function of a controlling voltage V B . Thus the frequency tuning can be effected by controlling a voltage V B . The type-2 oscillator uses two periodically switched conductances. It is shown that the tuning of oscillation frequency can be done by varying the pulse width-to-period ratio (t/T) of the periodically switched conductances. (author)

  17. Determination of trace elements in standard reference materials by the ko-standardization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smodis, B.; Jacimovic, R.; Stegnar, P.; Jovanovic, S.

    1990-01-01

    The k o -standardization method is suitable for routine multielement determinations by reactor neutron activation analysis (NAA). Investigation of NIST standard reference materials SRM 1571 Orchard Leaves, SRM 1572 Citrus leaves, and SRM 1573 Tomato Leaves showed the systematic error of 12 certified elements determined to be less than 8%. Thirty-four elements were determined in NIST proposed SRM 1515 Apple Leaves

  18. Mathematical Models of the Sinusoidal Screen Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajana Koren

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will define a family of sinusoidal screening elements and explore the possibilities of their application in graphic arts, securities printing and design solutions in photography and typography editing. For this purpose mathematical expressions of sinusoidal families were converted into a Postscript language. The introduction of a random variable results in a countless number of various mutations which cannot be repeated without knowing the programming code itself. The use of the family of screens in protection of securities is thus of great importance. Other possible application of modulated sinusoidal screens is related to the large format color printing. This paper will test the application of sinusoidal screens in vector graphics, pixel graphics and typography. The development of parameters in the sinusoidal screen element algorithms gives new forms defined within screening cells with strict requirements of coverage implementation. Individual solutions include stochastic algorithms, as well as the autonomy of screening forms in regard to multicolor printing channels.

  19. Neutron activation analysis of trace elements in a marine sediment reference material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esquivel, D.; Eguren, L.; Montoya, E.

    1993-01-01

    As part of the second intercomparison run of ARCAL-IV, it was analyzed the marine sediment, reference materials PACS-NR CC1 by INAA, in the RP-10 Reactor with a thermal flux of 7,8 x 10 13 n/cm 2 s. The results obtained (± 1σ,n=4) were: Co: 17,2±0,8 ppm; Cr:97,8±0,6 ppm; Fe: 46,0± 0,7 ppm; Na: 31,0±1,09/kg; Sb: 175±5 ppm; in good agreement with the certified values. The results in ppm (±18,n=4), for non certified elements were:Ba: 730±58; Ce: 25±3; Cs: 3,8±0,8; Eu: 1,00±0,03; Hf: 3,30±0,07; Lu:0,25±0,04; Rb: 44,0±0,9; Sc: 14,40±0,04; Sm: 3,4±0,5; Ta: 0,60±0,03; Tb: 0,5±0,05; Th: 3,80±0,02; U: 2,6±0,4; which are in good agreement with other three Latin American and one European INAA Laboratories. It was used the comparative method with AGV-1, GSP-1 and G-2 , USGS reference materials, as standards. (authors). 7 refs., 4 tabs

  20. Galalctic Tides & the Sinusoidal Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, David F.

    2011-05-01

    The sinusoidal potential is a nonNewtonian alternative to dark matter. Instead of φ = -GM/r we write φ = -(GM/r) cos kor, where ko= 2π/ λo and λo = Ro/20= 400 pc. Evidence for this choice for the "wavelength” λo has been given in one article and many previous meetings of the AAS & DDA. The solar system and nearby stars are trapped in a local groove of width Δr Quality (4 types) and semi-major axis aoriginal . For 10 of the 12 classes radial tides dominate Z-tides. The classic Oort cloud comets (1851-1996) have a particularly strong modulation with galactic longitude. This modulation is exactly in those directions where a radial tide would be important. The equally numerous recent Oort comets (1996-2008) show a different evidence for strong radial tides. The recent comets generally have much larger perihelion distances q than the classic ones. Here the evidence is that a radial tide is removing angular momentum from the orbit and thus bringing the perihelion closer to the earth and to observers.

  1. Toxicity of 35 trace elements in coal to freshwater biota: a data base with automated retrieval capabilities. [313 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushman, R. M.; Hildebrand, S. G.; Strand, R. H.; Anderson, R. M.

    1977-06-01

    Data are tabulated on the toxicity to freshwater biota of 35 trace elements with the potential for release to the environment from coal conversion effluents. The entire data base is presented on a microfiche appended to the document, in the interest of portability and accessibility. The data were gathered from a variety of research papers, compendia, and reviews. Details of water chemistry and test conditions are presented when available from the documents consulted. The data base may be used by referring directly to the tabulated data as they appear on the microfiche, or, with appropriate computer facilities, by manipulation (sorting, subsetting, or merging) of the data to meet the particular needs of the investigator. The data may be used as they appear in the data base, or the data base may be used to index the cited original papers.

  2. Trace elements determination in silicon and ferrosilicon reference materials by instrumental neutron activation analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Edson Goncalves; Vasconcellos, Marina Beatriz Agostini; Saiki, Mitiko; Iamashita, Celia Omine

    2002-01-01

    The use of certified reference materials, CRM, is of uppermost importance in the rastreability realization of the measurement process. At times, CRM use is restricted by the non existence of a suitable CRM with similarity to the sample in respect to matrix composition or with element levels in different orders of magnitude. IPT Chemical Division launched a project to prepare a metallic silicon CRM, due to the requirements of the industries in this field. To characterize this new CRM, IPEN Nuclear Reactor Center is able to perform instrumental neutron activation analysis, INAA, a very suitable method for silicon matrix samples because they produce basically the short lived radionuclide 3 1 Si under thermal neutrons flux, which after radioactive decay, does not interfere in the determination of other elements. In this paper, it is presented the determination of As, Br, Co, Cr, K, Eu, Fe, La, Mn, Na Nb, Sb, Sm, Sc, Th, Tb, U, V, W and Yb in silicon CRM NBS SRM 57; ferrosilicon CRM IPT 56; IPT 70; NBS SRM 58a; NBS SRM 59a and silicon RM under preparation IPT 132. From the results, the accuracy and the precision of the process were assessed. (author)

  3. Sinusoidal masks for single channel speech separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mowlaee, Pejman; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a new approach for binary and soft masks used in single-channel speech separation. We present a novel approach called the sinusoidal mask (binary mask and Wiener filter) in a sinusoidal space. Theoretical analysis is presented for the proposed method, and we show...... that the proposed method is able to minimize the target speech distortion while suppressing the crosstalk to a predetermined threshold. It is observed that compared to the STFTbased masks, the proposed sinusoidal masks improve the separation performance in terms of objective measures (SSNR and PESQ) and are mostly...

  4. Polish reference material: corn flour (INCT-CF-3)for inorganic trace analysis - preparation and certification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polkowska-Motrenko, H.; Dybczynski, R.; Chajduk, E.; Danko, B.; Kulisa, K.; Samczynski, Z.; Sypula, M.; Szopa, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Preparation, examination and certification of the new matrix reference material of biological origin: Corn Flour (INCT-CF-3) is described. The material was prepared from corn grown in Poland according to Polish standard PN-A-74205:1997. The material was sieved through the 250 mm nylon sieves and stored in a polyethylene (PE) bag. Approximately 50 kg of sieved corn flour was collected. Examination by optical microscopy revealed that Martin's diameter of over 98% of particles was below 25 mm. The whole lot of corn flour was then homogenized by mixing for 20 hours in a 110 dm 3 PE drum rotated in three directions. Preliminary homogeneity testing by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) method and final checking of homogeneity by neutron activation analysis (NAA) after distribution of the material into containers revealed, that it is sufficiently homogeneous at least for a sample size ≥ 100 mg. In order to assure the long-term stability, all containers with INCT-CF-3 were sterilized by electron beam radiation. Long-term stability was checked by analyzing concentrations of selected elements in the material stored in the air-conditioned room at 20 o C. Short-term stability was examined by the determination of concentrations of the selected elements in the bottle stored in the CO 2 incubator at 37 o C. The material was certified on the basis of a worldwide interlaboratory comparison, in which 92 laboratories from 19 countries participated providing 962 laboratory averages (4228 individual determinations) for 57 elements. A method of data evaluation leading to assignment of certified values was the same as that used previously in the Laboratory of the Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. The result for Mo was obtained by definitive methods developed in the Laboratory and used to support the certification process. Analytical uncertainties and stability uncertainties were quantified to arrive at combined uncertainties of the certified

  5. Determination of trace elements in the human hair reference material, HH-I, by neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coetzee, P.; Pieterse, H.

    1986-01-01

    Analytical procedures are presented and problem areas identified with regard to the determination of trace elements in IAEA powdered human hair reference material, HH-I, of limited sample size (100-200 mg), by NAA and graphite furnace AAS. Results obtained for the twelve elements As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Sb, Se, and Zn studied in human hair and other biological reference material like orchard leaves, seaplant material, and copepod compare satisfactorily with the certified values

  6. Inverse modelling and pulsating torque minimization of salient pole non-sinusoidal synchronous machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ait-gougam, Y.; Ibtiouen, R.; Touhami, O. [Laboratoire de Recherche en Electrotechnique, Ecole Nationale Polytechnique, BP 182, El-Harrach 16200 (Algeria); Louis, J.-P.; Gabsi, M. [Systemes et Applications des Technologies de l' Information et de l' Energie (SATIE), CNRS UMR 8029, Ecole Normale Superieure de Cachan, 61 Avenue du President Wilson, 94235 Cachan Cedex (France)

    2008-01-15

    Sinusoidal motor's mathematical models are usually obtained using classical d-q transformation in the case of salient pole synchronous motors having sinusoidal field distribution. In this paper, a new inverse modelling for synchronous motors is presented. This modelling is derived from the properties of constant torque curves in the Concordia's reference frame. It takes into account the non-sinusoidal field distribution; EMF, self and mutual inductances having non-sinusoidal variations with respect to the angular rotor position. Both copper losses and torque ripples are minimized by adapted currents waveforms calculated from this model. Experimental evaluation was carried out on a DSP-controlled PMSM drive platform. Test results obtained demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in reducing torque ripple. (author)

  7. Defibrotide: An Oligonucleotide for Sinusoidal Obstruction Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, May T; Kakadiya, Payal P; Kush, Samantha M; Weigel, Kylie; Lowe, Denise K

    2018-02-01

    To review the efficacy and safety of defibrotide as well as its pharmacology, mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics (PK), drug-drug interactions, dosing, cost considerations, and place in therapy. A PubMed search was performed through August 2017 using the terms defibrotide, oligonucleotide, hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD), sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS), and hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Other data sources were from references of identified studies, review articles, and conference abstracts plus manufacturer product labeling and website, the Food and Drug Administration website, and clinicaltrials.gov. English-language trials that examined defibrotide's pharmacodynamics, mechanism, PK, efficacy, safety, dosing, and cost-effectiveness were included. Trials have confirmed the safety and efficacy of defibrotide for treatment of VOD/SOS in adult and pediatric HCT patients, with complete response rates and day +100 overall survival rates ranging from 25.5% to 76% and 35% to 64%, respectively. The British Committee for Standards in Haematology/British Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Guidelines recommend defibrotide prophylaxis in pediatric and adult HCT patients with risk factors for VOD/SOS; however, its prophylactic use in the United States is controversial. Although there are efficacy data to support this strategy, cost-effectiveness data have not shown it to be cost-effective. Defibrotide has manageable toxicities, with low rates of grade 3 to 4 adverse effects. Defibrotide is the first medication approved in the United States for the treatment of adults and children with hepatic VOD/SOS, with renal or pulmonary dysfunction following HCT. Data evaluating defibrotide for VOD/SOS prevention are conflicting and have not shown cost-effectiveness.

  8. Encryption in Chaotic Systems with Sinusoidal Excitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Obregón-Pulido

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution an encryption method using a chaotic oscillator, excited by “n” sinusoidal signals, is presented. The chaotic oscillator is excited by a sum of “n” sinusoidal signals and a message. The objective is to encrypt such a message using the chaotic behavior and transmit it, and, as the chaotic system is perturbed by the sinusoidal signal, the transmission security could be increased due to the effect of such a perturbation. The procedure is based on the regulation theory and consider that the receiver knows the frequencies of the perturbing signal, with this considerations the algorithm estimates the excitation in such a way that the receiver can cancel out the perturbation and all the undesirable dynamics in order to produce only the message. In this way we consider that the security level is increased.

  9. Development of a certified reference material (NMIJ CRM 7505-a) for the determination of trace elements in tea leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanbei; Narukawa, Tomohiro; Inagaki, Kazumi; Kuroiwa, Takayoshi; Chiba, Koichi

    2011-01-01

    A certified reference material (CRM) for trace elements in tea leaves has been developed in National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ). The CRM was provided as a dry powder (<90 µm) after frozen pulverization of washed and dried fresh tea leaves from a tea plant farm in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan. Characterization of the property value for each element was carried out exclusively by NMIJ with at least two independent analytical methods, including inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), high-resolution (HR-) ICP-MS, isotope-dilution (ID-) ICP-MS, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), graphite-furnace atomic-absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS) and flame atomic-absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Property values were provided for 19 elements (Ca, K, Mg, P, Al, B, Ba, Cd, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, Zn and Co) and informative values for 18 elements (Ti, V, Cr, Y, and all of the lanthanides, except for Pm whose isotopes are exclusively radioactive). The concentration ranges of property values and informative values were from 1.59% (mass) of K to 0.0139 mg kg(-1) of Cd and from 0.6 mg kg(-1) of Ti to 0.0014 mg kg(-1) of Lu, respectively. Combined relatively standard uncertainties of the property values were estimated by considering the uncertainties of the homogeneity, analytical methods, characterization, calibration standard, and dry-mass correction factor. The range of the relative combined standard uncertainties was from 1.5% of Mg and K to 4.1% of Cd.

  10. A compilation of silicon, rare earth element and twenty-one other trace element concentrations in the natural river water reference material SLRS-5 (NRC-CNRC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeghicheyan, Delphine; Cloquet, Christophe; Bossy, Cecile; Bouhnik Le Coz, Martine; Douchet, Chantal; Granier, Guy; Heimburger, Alexie; Losno, Remi; Lacan, Francois; Labatut, Marie; Pradoux, Catherine; Lanzanova, Aurelie; Candaudap, Frederic; Chmeleff, Jerome; Rousseau, Tristan C.C.; Seidel, Jean-Luc; Delpoux, Sophie; Tharaud, Mickael; Sivry, Yann; Sonke, Jeroen E.

    2013-01-01

    The natural river water certified reference material SLRS-5 (NRC-CNRC) was routinely analysed in this study for major and trace elements by ten French laboratories. Most of the measurements were made using ICP-MS. Because no certified values are assigned by NRC-CNRC for silicon and 35 trace element concentrations (rare earth elements, Ag, B, Bi, Cs, Ga, Ge, Li, Nb, P, Rb, Rh, Re, S, Sc, Sn, Th, Ti, Tl, W, Y and Zr), or for isotopic ratios, we provide a compilation of the concentrations and related uncertainties obtained by the participating laboratories. Strontium isotopic ratios are also given. (authors)

  11. A crocodylian trace from the Lance Formation (Upper Cretaceous) of Wyoming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkingham, Peter L; Milàn, Jesper; Manning, Philip L

    2010-01-01

    A 1.5-m-long double sinusoidal trace from the Lance Formation of Wyoming, U.S.A, is attributed a crocodylian origin. The trace forms part of a diverse tracksite containing dinosaur and bird tracks. The double sinusoidal nature of the trace is suggested to have originated from the dual undulatory...

  12. Crashworthiness Analysis and Evaluation of Fuselage Section with Sub-floor Composite Sinusoidal Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.L. Mou

    Full Text Available Abstract Crashworthiness is one of the main concerns in civil aviation safety particularly with regard to the increasing ratio of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP in aircraft primary structures. In order to generate dates for model validations, the mechanical properties of T700/3234 were obtained by material performance tests, and energy-absorbing results were gained by quasi-static crushing tests of composite sinusoidal specimens. The correctness of composite material model and single-layer finite element model of composite sinusoidal specimens were verified based on the simulation results and test results that were in good agreement. A typical civil aircraft fuselage section with composite sinusoidal specimens under cargo floor was suggested. The crashworthiness of finite element model of fuselage section was assessed by simulating the vertical drop test subjected to 7 m/s impact velocity, and the influences of different thickness of sub-floor composite sinusoidal specimens on crashworthiness of fuselage section were also analyzed. The simulation results show that the established finite element model can accurately simulate the crushing process of composite sinusoidal specimens; the failure process of fuselage section is more stable, and the safety of occupants can be effectively improved because of the smaller peak accelerations that was limited to human tolerance, a critical thickness of sub-floor composite sinusoidal specimens can restrict the magnitude of acceleration peaks, which has certain reference values for enhancing crashworthiness capabilities of fuselage section and improving the survivability of passengers.

  13. Estimating Aquifer Properties Using Sinusoidal Pumping Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, T. C.; Haborak, K. G.; Young, M. H.

    2001-12-01

    We develop the theoretical and applied framework for using sinusoidal pumping tests to estimate aquifer properties for confined, leaky, and partially penetrating conditions. The framework 1) derives analytical solutions for three boundary conditions suitable for many practical applications, 2) validates the analytical solutions against a finite element model, 3) establishes a protocol for conducting sinusoidal pumping tests, and 4) estimates aquifer hydraulic parameters based on the analytical solutions. The analytical solutions to sinusoidal stimuli in radial coordinates are derived for boundary value problems that are analogous to the Theis (1935) confined aquifer solution, the Hantush and Jacob (1955) leaky aquifer solution, and the Hantush (1964) partially penetrated confined aquifer solution. The analytical solutions compare favorably to a finite-element solution of a simulated flow domain, except in the region immediately adjacent to the pumping well where the implicit assumption of zero borehole radius is violated. The procedure is demonstrated in one unconfined and two confined aquifer units near the General Separations Area at the Savannah River Site, a federal nuclear facility located in South Carolina. Aquifer hydraulic parameters estimated using this framework provide independent confirmation of parameters obtained from conventional aquifer tests. The sinusoidal approach also resulted in the elimination of investigation-derived wastes.

  14. Unidirectional Motion of Vehicle on Sinusoidal Path

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 4. Unidirectional Motion of Vehicle on Sinusoidal Path: Can it Cause Illusory Forward and Backward Motion? Anuj Bhatnagar. Classroom Volume 17 Issue 4 April 2012 pp 387-392 ...

  15. Riding the Ferris Wheel: A Sinusoidal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittag, Kathleen Cage; Taylor, Sharon E.

    2011-01-01

    When thinking of models for sinusoidal waves, examples such as tides of the ocean, daily temperatures for one year in your town, light and sound waves, and certain types of motion are used. Many textbooks [1, p. 222] also present a "Ferris wheel description problem" for students to work. This activity takes the Ferris wheel problem out of the…

  16. Distribution of trace elements in land plants and botanical taxonomy with special reference to rare earth elements and actinium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Mutsuo

    1989-01-01

    Distribution profiles of trace elements in land plants were studied by neutron activation analysis and radioactivity measurements without activation. Number of botanical samples analyzed were more than three thousand in which more than three hundred botanical species were included. New accumulator plants of Co, Cr, Zn, Cd, rare earth elements, Ac, U, etc., were found. Capabilities of accumulating trace elements can be related to the botanical taxonomy. Discussions are given from view points of inorganic chemistry as well as from botanical physiology

  17. Development of a certified reference material (NMIJ CRM 7512-a) for the determination of trace elements in milk powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanbei; Narukawa, Tomohiro; Miyashita, Shin-ichi; Kuroiwa, Takayoshi; Inagaki, Kazumi; Chiba, Koichi; Hioki, Akiharu

    2013-01-01

    A certified reference material (CRM), NMIJ CRM 7512-a, was developed for the determination of trace elements in milk powder. At least three independent analytical methods were applied to characterize the certified value of each element; all of these analytical methods were based on microwave acid digestions and carried out using different analytical instruments. The certified value was given on a dry-mass basis, where the dry-mass correction factor was obtained by drying the sample at 65°C for 15 to 25 h. The certified values in the units of mass fractions for 13 elements were as follows: Ca, 8.65 (0.38) g kg(-1); Fe, 0.104 (0.007) g kg(-1); K, 8.41 (0.33) g kg(-1); Mg, 0.819 (0.024) g kg(-1); Na, 1.87 (0.09) g kg(-1); P, 5.62 (0.23) g kg(-1); Ba, 0.449 (0.013) mg kg(-1); Cu, 4.66 (0.23) mg kg(-1); Mn, 0.931 (0.032) mg kg(-1); Mo, 0.223 (0.012) mg kg(-1); Rb, 8.93 (0.31) mg kg(-1); Sr, 5.88 (0.20) mg kg(-1); and Zn, 41.3 (1.4) mg kg(-1), where the numbers in the parentheses are the expanded uncertainties with a coverage factor of 2. The expanded uncertainties were estimated considering the contribution of the analytical methods, the method-to-method variance, the sample homogeneity, the dry-mass correction factor, and the concentrations of the standard solutions for calibration. The concentrations of As (2.1 μg kg(-1)), Cd (0.2 μg kg(-1)), Cr (1.3 μg kg(-1)), Pb (0.3 μg kg(-1)), and Y (64 μg kg(-1)) were given as information values for the present CRM.

  18. Evaluation of a new electronic preoperative reference marker for toric intraocular lens implantation by two different methods of analysis: Adobe Photoshop versus iTrace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqui, Javed Hussain; Sharma, Mansi; Koul, Archana; Dutta, Ranjan; Shroff, Noshir Minoo

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare two different methods of analysis of preoperative reference marking for toric intraocular lens (IOL) after marking with an electronic marker. Cataract and IOL Implantation Service, Shroff Eye Centre, New Delhi, India. Fifty-two eyes of thirty patients planned for toric IOL implantation were included in the study. All patients had preoperative marking performed with an electronic preoperative two-step toric IOL reference marker (ASICO AE-2929). Reference marks were placed at 3-and 9-o'clock positions. Marks were analyzed with two systems. First, slit-lamp photographs taken and analyzed using Adobe Photoshop (version 7.0). Second, Tracey iTrace Visual Function Analyzer (version 5.1.1) was used for capturing corneal topograph examination and position of marks noted. Amount of alignment error was calculated. Mean absolute rotation error was 2.38 ± 1.78° by Photoshop and 2.87 ± 2.03° by iTrace which was not statistically significant ( P = 0.215). Nearly 72.7% of eyes by Photoshop and 61.4% by iTrace had rotation error ≤3° ( P = 0.359); and 90.9% of eyes by Photoshop and 81.8% by iTrace had rotation error ≤5° ( P = 0.344). No significant difference in absolute amount of rotation between eyes when analyzed by either method. Difference in reference mark positions when analyzed by two systems suggests the presence of varying cyclotorsion at different points of time. Both analysis methods showed an approximately 3° of alignment error, which could contribute to 10% loss of astigmatic correction of toric IOL. This can be further compounded by intra-operative marking errors and final placement of IOL in the bag.

  19. Preparation and certification of the Polish reference material Virginia Tobacco Leaves (CTA-VTL-2) for inorganic trace analysis including microanalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dybczynski, R.; Polkowska-Motrenko, H.; Samczynski, Z.; Szopa, Z.

    1997-12-31

    A new Polish certified reference material Virginia Tobacco Leaves (CTA-VTL-2) for inorganic trace analysis including microanalysis has been prepared. Certification of the candidate reference material was based on the world-wide interlaboratory comparison in which 60 laboratories from 18 countries, participated using various analytical methods and techniques. Data evaluation performed by means of the new multifunctional software package -SSQC. Recommended values were assigned for 33 and `information` values for 10 elements, respectively. The validity of `certified` values was confirmed for several elements using `very accurate` methods developed in this Laboratory. (author). 47 refs, 28 figs, 12 tabs.

  20. Preparation and certification of the Polish reference material Virginia Tobacco Leaves (CTA-VTL-2) for inorganic trace analysis including microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dybczynski, R.; Polkowska-Motrenko, H.; Samczynski, Z.; Szopa, Z.

    1997-01-01

    A new Polish certified reference material Virginia Tobacco Leaves (CTA-VTL-2) for inorganic trace analysis including microanalysis has been prepared. Certification of the candidate reference material was based on the world-wide interlaboratory comparison in which 60 laboratories from 18 countries, participated using various analytical methods and techniques. Data evaluation performed by means of the new multifunctional software package -SSQC. Recommended values were assigned for 33 and 'information' values for 10 elements, respectively. The validity of 'certified' values was confirmed for several elements using 'very accurate' methods developed in this Laboratory. (author)

  1. Biphase sinusoidal oscillator based on negative resistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayard, Jean

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes a biphase sinusoidal generator which provides two signals: v(ref)=V(M) sin(omegat) and v(out)=V(M) sin(omegat+DeltaPhi), where DeltaPhi is in the range 0, pi/2 or -pi/2, 0 and is not dependent on the frequency value. It is based on a negative resistor and it requires very few components. SPICE simulations and measurements on an experimental setup confirm the theoretical analysis.

  2. Benefit-cost framework for analysis of trace element emissions from coal-fired power plants. [103 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-11-01

    The major conclusions of this report may be summarized in the following four points: (1) It is probable that atmospheric emissions of trace elements from Southwestern coal-fired power plants will not cause major problems over the next 20 years. But monitoring for trace element build-up (especially mercury, selenium, and arsenic) in the mountains of southern Colorado, Navajo Reservoir, and other local hot spots would be an important and desirable step. (2) It appears that damage from trace elements in disposed ash is more likely than damage from atmospheric trace element emissions. But whether damage from disposed ash will actually occur is highly uncertain. We recommend that additional research be conducted on the entire range of issues surrounding ash disposal. (3) In the area of legislation and regulation, there may be some need for review of regulations concerning trace element atmospheric emissions. Present regulation of ash disposal is very likely to need revision and extension. (4) Future research on the environmental problems of coal-fired power plants should place emphasis on atmospheric emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides; consequent problems of acid precipitation also need exploration. Environmental research on coal-fired power plants does not need to exclude other problems. But issues surrounding sulfur emissions, nitrogen emissions, sulfate transformations, and acid precipitation appear to merit major emphasis. Perhaps the most important aspect of the preceding list of conclusions is that more questions are raised than are answered. As work on the subject proceeded, it became apparent that an important task was to point future research in the right direction.

  3. Spatial variations in trace element concentrations of the sea urchin, Paracentrotus lividus, a first reference study in the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternengo, S; Marengo, M; El Idrissi, O; Yepka, J; Pasqualini, V; Gobert, S

    2018-04-01

    A study on Trace Elements (TE) from sea urchin gonads has been conducted in the western Mediterranean Sea. Contamination data were used to determine a Trace Method Pollution Index (TEPI). TE concentrations varied considerably depending on the location of the sampling stations. The results showed that five trace elements (Zn, Fe, As, Al, Cu) are ubiquitous. The geographical area considered (Corsica) represents an important range of environmental conditions and types of pressure that can be found in the western Mediterranean Sea. TEPI was used to classify the studied sites according to their degree of contamination and allowed reliable comparison of TE contamination between local and international sites. TE contamination of the western Mediterranean Sea displayed a north-to-south gradient, from the Italian coasts down through the insular Corsican coasts to the north African littoral. Due to the increasing environmental pressure on the Mediterranean Sea, a regular monitoring of TE levels in marine organisms is necessary to prevent any further environmental deterioration. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Regorafenib suppresses sinusoidal obstruction syndrome in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, Masayuki; Hatano, Etsuro; Nakamura, Kojiro; Miyagawa-Hayashino, Aya; Kasai, Yosuke; Nishio, Takahiro; Seo, Satoru; Taura, Kojiro; Uemoto, Shinji

    2015-02-01

    Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS), a form of drug-induced liver injury related to oxaliplatin treatment, is associated with postoperative morbidity after hepatectomy. This study aimed to examine the impact of regorafenib, the first small-molecule kinase inhibitor to show efficacy against metastatic colorectal cancer, on a rat model of SOS. Rats with monocrotaline (MCT)-induced SOS were divided into two groups according to treatment with either regorafenib (6 mg/kg) or vehicle alone, which were administered at 12 and 36 h, respectively, before MCT administration. Histopathologic examination and serum biochemistry tests were performed 48 h after MCT administration. Sinusoidal endothelial cells were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. To examine whether regorafenib preserved remnant liver function, a 30% hepatectomy was performed in each group. The rats in the vehicle group displayed typical SOS features, whereas these features were suppressed in the regorafenib group. The total SOS scores were significantly lower in the regorafenib group than in the vehicle group. Immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy showed that regorafenib had a protective effect on sinusoidal endothelial cells. The postoperative survival rate after 7 d was significantly better in the regorafenib group than that in the vehicle group (26.7% versus 6.7%, P Regorafenib reduced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, which induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activation and decreased the activity of MMP-9, one of the crucial mediators of SOS development. Regorafenib suppressed MCT-induced SOS, concomitant with attenuating extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation, and MMP-9 activation, suggesting that regorafenib may be a favorable agent for use in combination with oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Trace element determination in plant material by means of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) with special reference to molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnier, C.; Schnug, E.

    1981-01-01

    The instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) permits a non-destructive multielement determination of minute trace element concentrations in organic material. No sample preparation except drying is required. Especially for the determination of molybdenum the INAA offers great advantages compared to the methods used in agricultural chemistry where complicated enrichment and extraction steps are needed. Contamination by reagents or loss of elements are not potential sources of errors. The principle, the advantages and disadvantages of INAA are described. The method is demonstrated with the example of celery samples from an experiment with five different nitrogen fertilizers on contaminated soil and of cabbage samples from an uncontaminated region. Besides molybdenum, 19 other elements (Na, K, Ca, Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Cd, Sb, Ba, La, W, Au, Th) are determined. (orig.) [de

  6. Humic substances in natural waters and their complexation with trace metals and radionuclides: a review. [129 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boggs, S. Jr.; Livermore, D.; Seitz, M.G.

    1985-07-01

    Dissolved humic substances (humic and fulvic acids) occur in surface waters and groundwaters in concentrations ranging from less than 1 mg(C)/L to more than 100 mg(C)/L. Humic substances are strong complexing agents for many trace metals in the environment and are also capable of forming stable soluble complexes or chelates with radionuclides. Concentrations of humic materials as low as 1 mg(C)/L can produce a detectable increase in the mobility of some actinide elements by forming soluble complexes that inhibit sorption of the radionuclides onto rock materials. The stability of trace metal- or radionuclide-organic complexes is commonly measured by an empirically determined conditional stability constant (K'), which is based on the ratio of complexed metal (radionuclide) in solution to the product concentration of uncomplexed metal and humic complexant. Larger values of stability constants indicate greater complex stability. The stability of radionuclide-organic complexes is affected both by concentration variables and envionmental factors. In general, complexing is favored by increased of radionuclide, increased pH, and decreased ionic strength. Actinide elements are generally most soluble in their higher oxidation states. Radionuclides can also form stable, insoluble complexes with humic materials that tend to reduce radionuclide mobility. These insoluble complexes may be radionuclide-humate colloids that subsequently precipitate from solution, or complexes of radionuclides and humic substances that sorb to clay minerals or other soil particulates strongly enough to immobilize the radionuclides. Colloid formation appears to be favored by increased radionuclide concentration and lowered pH; however, the conditions that favor formation of insoluble complexes that sorb to particulates are still poorly understood. 129 refs., 25 figs., 19 tabs.

  7. Amplitude Modulated Sinusoidal Signal Decomposition for Audio Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, M. G.; Jacobson, A.; Andersen, S. V.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present a decomposition for sinusoidal coding of audio, based on an amplitude modulation of sinusoids via a linear combination of arbitrary basis vectors. The proposed method, which incorporates a perceptual distortion measure, is based on a relaxation of a nonlinear least......-squares minimization. Rate-distortion curves and listening tests show that, compared to a constant-amplitude sinusoidal coder, the proposed decomposition offers perceptually significant improvements in critical transient signals....

  8. Compressed Domain Packet Loss Concealment of Sinusoidally Coded Speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rødbro, Christoffer A.; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Andersen, Søren Vang

    2003-01-01

    We consider the problem of packet loss concealment for voice over IP (VoIP). The speech signal is compressed at the transmitter using a sinusoidal coding scheme working at 8 kbit/s. At the receiver, packet loss concealment is carried out working directly on the quantized sinusoidal parameters......, based on time-scaling of the packets surrounding the missing ones. Subjective listening tests show promising results indicating the potential of sinusoidal speech coding for VoIP....

  9. Survey of currently available reference materials for use in connection with the determination of trace elements in biological and environmental materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, Y.; Parr, R.M.

    1985-12-01

    This report focuses on analytical reference materials which have been developed for use in connection with the determination of toxic and essential trace elements in biomedical and health-related environmental samples. Data are reported on 60 biological and 40 environmental (non-biological) reference materials from 11 suppliers. Certified concentration values (or their equivalents) and non-certified concentration values (or information values) are presented in various tables which are intended to help the user select a reference material that matches as closely as possible (i.e. with respect to matrix type and concentration of the element of interest) the ''real'' samples that are to be analysed. These tables have been generated from a database characterized by the following parameters: total number of reference materials=100; total number of elements recorded=69; total number of concentration values recorded=1771. Also included in the report is information (where available) on the cost of each material, the unit weight or volume supplied, and the minimum weight of material recommended for analysis. (author)

  10. Parametric modeling for damped sinusoids from multiple channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Zhenhua; So, Hing Cheung; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2013-01-01

    frequencies and damping factors are then computed with the multi-channel weighted linear prediction method. The estimated sinusoidal poles are then matched to each channel according to the extreme value theory of distribution of random fields. Simulations are performed to show the performance advantages......The problem of parametric modeling for noisy damped sinusoidal signals from multiple channels is addressed. Utilizing the shift invariance property of the signal subspace, the number of distinct sinusoidal poles in the multiple channels is first determined. With the estimated number, the distinct...... of the proposed multi-channel sinusoidal modeling methodology compared with existing methods....

  11. Stochastic analysis/synthesis using sinusoidal atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristoffer

    2008-01-01

    This work proposes a method for re-synthesizing music for use in perceptual experiments regarding structural changes and in music creation. Atoms are estimated from music audio, modelled in a stochastic model, and re-synthesized from the model pa- rameters. The atoms are found by splitting...... sinusoids into short segments, and modelled into amplitude and envelope shape, frequency, time and duration. A simple model for creating envelopes with percussive, sustained or crescendo shape is presented. Single variable and joint probability density functions are created from the atom parameters and used...... to re-create sounds with the same distribution of the atoms parameters. A novel method for visualization music, the musigram, permits a better understanding of the re- synthesized sounds....

  12. Sinusoidal Order Estimation Using Angles between Subspaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Holdt Jensen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of determining the order of a parametric model from a noisy signal based on the geometry of the space. More specifically, we do this using the nontrivial angles between the candidate signal subspace model and the noise subspace. The proposed principle is closely related to the subspace orthogonality property known from the MUSIC algorithm, and we study its properties and compare it to other related measures. For the problem of estimating the number of complex sinusoids in white noise, a computationally efficient implementation exists, and this problem is therefore considered in detail. In computer simulations, we compare the proposed method to various well-known methods for order estimation. These show that the proposed method outperforms the other previously published subspace methods and that it is more robust to the noise being colored than the previously published methods.

  13. The standardisation of trace elements in international biological standard reference materials with neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pieterse, H.

    1981-12-01

    An investigation was undertaken into the analytical procedures and the identification of problem areas, for the certification of a new biological standard reference material supplied by the International Atomic Energy Agency, namely, a human hair sample designated as HH-I. The analyses comprised the determination of the elements As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Sb, Se, and Zn in the hair sample by using two analytical techniques, namely, Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and Atomic Absorption. Three other certified biological reference materials, namely, Orchard Leaves (ORCH-L), Sea Plant Material (SPM-I) and Copepod (MAA-I) were used as control standards. Determinations were made of the moisture content of the samples, using varying conditions of drying, and the necessary corrections were applied to all analytical results so that the final elemental values related to dry weight of samples. Attention was also given to the possible loss of specific elements during ashing of the samples prior to the actual instrumental analysis. The results obtained for the hair sample by the two techniques were in good agreement for the elements Co, Fe, Mn, and Zn, but did not agree for the elements Cr and Sb. As, Hg and Se could only be determined with Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis, and Cd, Cu and Ni only with Atomic Absorption. Most of the results obtained for the three control standard reference materials were within the ranges specified for the individual elements in each sample. The analytical procedures used for determining Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Sb with Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and As, Cr, Sb and Se with Atomic Absorption, need further investigation. The measurement of the moisture content and the ashing of samples also require further investigation with a view to improving accuracy

  14. Ingestion and organ content of trace elements of importance in radiological protection. Reference Asian man, phase-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhter, P.; Aslam, M.; Akram, M.; Rashid, A.; Orfi, S.D.

    2000-01-01

    The Second Phase of Reference Asian Man Project is in progress with the collaboration of IAEA under Regional Co-operative Agreement to strengthen the radiation protection infrastructure of the country. In this regard dietary samples are being collected from various ecological areas of Pakistan on market basket method. During this Project year, twenty two (22) diet samples were collected, prepared and stored for Neutron Activation Analysis. The stable radionuclides of our primary interest are Sr, Cs, Th, U, I, Ca and K whereas other essential and toxic elements have secondary importance. (author)

  15. Determination of trace elements in Brazilian rice grains and in biological reference materials by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maihara, V.A.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.

    1989-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to the determination of the elements Na, K, Br, As, Rb, Zn, Co, Fe and Sc in Brazilian rice samples and in biological standards. Hg and Se concentrations were determined by using a simple radiochemical separation. The chemical procedure was carried out by means of distillation of Hg and Se in HBr medium and subsequent precipitation of selenium by sodium methabissulfide and mercury by thioacetamide. The accuracy of the instrumental and radiochemical methods was evaluated by means of analysis of the Reference Materials NBS-Bovine Liver, Bowen's Kale and NBS-Rice Flour. (author) [pt

  16. Determination of trace elements in Brazilian rice grains and in biological reference materials by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maihara, V.A.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.

    1989-01-01

    INAA was applied to the determination of the elements Na, K, Br, As, Rb, Zn, Co, Fe and Sc in Brazilian rice samples and in biological standards. Hg and Se concentrations were determined using a simple radiochemical separation. The chemical procedure was carried out by means of distillation of Hg and Se in HBr medium and subsequent precipitation of Se by sodium metabisulfite and Hg by thioacetamide. The accuracy of the instrumental and radiochemical methods was evaluated by means of analysis of the Reference Materials NBS-Bovine Liver, Bowen's Kale and NBS-Rice Flour. (author) 15 refs.; 5 tabs

  17. Variable Dimension Trellis-Coded Quantization of Sinusoidal Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Holm; Christensen, Mads G.; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2008-01-01

    In this letter, we propose joint quantization of the parameters of a set of sinusoids based on the theory of trellis-coded quantization. A particular advantage of this approach is that it allows for joint quantization of a variable number of sinusoids, which is particularly relevant in variable...

  18. Polish reference material: soya bean flour (INCT-SBF-4) for inorganic trace analysis - preparation and certification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polkowska-Motrenko, H.; Dybczynski, R.; Chajduk, E.; Danko, B.; Kulisa, K.; Samczynski, Z.; Sypula, M.; Szopa, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Preparation, examination and certification of the new matrix reference material of biological origin: Soya Bean Flour (INCT-SBF-4) is described. The material was prepared from soya bean grown in India, not genetically modified. After milling, the material was sieved through the 150 mm nylon sieves and stored in a polyethylene (PE) bag. Approximately 50 kg of sieved soya bean flour was collected. Examination by optical microscopy revealed that Martin's diameter of over 90% of particles was below 50 mm. The whole lot of soya bean flour was then homogenized by mixing for 20 hours in a 110 dm 3 PE drum rotated in three directions. Preliminary homogeneity testing by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) method and final checking of homogeneity by neutron activation analysis (NAA) after distribution of the material into containers revealed, that it is sufficiently homogeneous at least for a sample size ≥ 100 mg. In order to assure the long-term stability, all containers with INCT-SBF-4 were sterilized by electron beam radiation. Long-term stability was checked by analyzing concentrations of selected elements in the material stored in the air-conditioned room at 20 o C. Short-term stability was examined by the determination of concentrations of the selected elements in the bottle stored in the CO 2 incubator at 37 o C. The material was certified on the basis of a worldwide interlaboratory comparison, in which 92 laboratories from 19 countries participated providing 1107 laboratory averages (4873 individual determinations) for 58 elements. A method of data evaluation leading to assignment of certified values was the same as that used previously in the Laboratory of the Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. The results for a few elements were obtained by definitive methods developed in the Laboratory and used to support the certification process. Analytical uncertainties and stability uncertainties were quantified to arrive at combined

  19. Studies in the Philippines on ingestion and organ content of trace elements of importance to radiological protection. Reference Asian man project (phase 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natera, E.S.

    2000-01-01

    The first Coordinated Research Program (CRP) on Reference Asian Man was conducted for a period of six years. This study dealt with the collection of data in four areas namely, anthropometric measurements, organ mass measurements, nutritional and dietary intake, pulmonary and water balance studies. Results of this study participated by eight Asian member states including the Philippines are contained in the IAEA TECDOC-1005. Based on research needs with reference to radiation protection, dietary intake and tissue analysis appears to be important aspects of the RAM. Hence, the first CRM for Phase 2 held in Manila July 1-4, 1996 strengthened the need to continue the project. Protocols on its implementation were discussed during this meeting. The Philippines presented a report that described the sampling and analytical methods that will be applied. This report aim to present the initial samples collected as well as the data generated from these samples. Elements of interest to radiation protection include Sr, Th, U, 1, Cs and trace elements present in food, water and in selected tissues such as liver, lung, kidney, thyroid and bone

  20. Sensorless optimal sinusoidal brushless direct current for hard disk drives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, C. S.; Bi, C.

    2009-04-01

    Initiated by the availability of digital signal processors and emergence of new applications, market demands for permanent magnet synchronous motors have been surging. As its back-emf is sinusoidal, the drive current should also be sinusoidal for reducing the torque ripple. However, in applications like hard disk drives, brushless direct current (BLDC) drive is adopted instead of sinusoidal drive for simplification. The adoption, however, comes at the expense of increased harmonics, losses, torque pulsations, and acoustics. In this paper, we propose a sensorless optimal sinusoidal BLDC drive. First and foremost, the derivation for an optimal sinusoidal drive is presented, and a power angle control scheme is proposed to achieve an optimal sinusoidal BLDC. The scheme maintains linear relationship between the motor speed and drive voltage. In an attempt to execute the sensorless drive, an innovative power angle measurement scheme is devised, which takes advantage of the freewheeling diodes and measures the power angle through the detection of diode voltage drops. The objectives as laid out will be presented and discussed in this paper, supported by derivations, simulations, and experimental results. The proposed scheme is straightforward, brings about the benefits of sensorless sinusoidal drive, negates the need for current sensors by utilizing the freewheeling diodes, and does not incur additional cost.

  1. Sinusoidal Analysis-Synthesis of Audio Using Perceptual Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Ted; Spanias, Andreas

    2003-12-01

    This paper presents a new method for the selection of sinusoidal components for use in compact representations of narrowband audio. The method consists of ranking and selecting the most perceptually relevant sinusoids. The idea behind the method is to maximize the matching between the auditory excitation pattern associated with the original signal and the corresponding auditory excitation pattern associated with the modeled signal that is being represented by a small set of sinusoidal parameters. The proposed component-selection methodology is shown to outperform the maximum signal-to-mask ratio selection strategy in terms of subjective quality.

  2. Perception of the dynamic visual vertical during sinusoidal linear motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomante, A; Selen, L P J; Medendorp, W P

    2017-10-01

    The vestibular system provides information for spatial orientation. However, this information is ambiguous: because the otoliths sense the gravitoinertial force, they cannot distinguish gravitational and inertial components. As a consequence, prolonged linear acceleration of the head can be interpreted as tilt, referred to as the somatogravic effect. Previous modeling work suggests that the brain disambiguates the otolith signal according to the rules of Bayesian inference, combining noisy canal cues with the a priori assumption that prolonged linear accelerations are unlikely. Within this modeling framework the noise of the vestibular signals affects the dynamic characteristics of the tilt percept during linear whole-body motion. To test this prediction, we devised a novel paradigm to psychometrically characterize the dynamic visual vertical-as a proxy for the tilt percept-during passive sinusoidal linear motion along the interaural axis (0.33 Hz motion frequency, 1.75 m/s 2 peak acceleration, 80 cm displacement). While subjects ( n =10) kept fixation on a central body-fixed light, a line was briefly flashed (5 ms) at different phases of the motion, the orientation of which had to be judged relative to gravity. Consistent with the model's prediction, subjects showed a phase-dependent modulation of the dynamic visual vertical, with a subject-specific phase shift with respect to the imposed acceleration signal. The magnitude of this modulation was smaller than predicted, suggesting a contribution of nonvestibular signals to the dynamic visual vertical. Despite their dampening effect, our findings may point to a link between the noise components in the vestibular system and the characteristics of dynamic visual vertical. NEW & NOTEWORTHY A fundamental question in neuroscience is how the brain processes vestibular signals to infer the orientation of the body and objects in space. We show that, under sinusoidal linear motion, systematic error patterns appear in the

  3. Adaptive Feedforward Cancellation of Sinusoidal Disturbances in Superconducting RF Cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Kandil, T H; Hartung, W; Khalil, H; Popielarski, J; Vincent, J; York, R C

    2004-01-01

    A control method, known as adaptive feedforward cancellation (AFC) is applied to damp sinusoidal disturbances due to microphonics in superconducting RF (SRF) cavities. AFC provides a method for damping internal, and external sinusoidal disturbances with known frequencies. It is preferred over other schemes because it uses rudimentary information about the frequency response at the disturbance frequencies, without the necessity of knowing an analytic model (transfer function) of the system. It estimates the magnitude and phase of the sinusoidal disturbance inputs and generates a control signal to cancel their effect. AFC, along with a frequency estimation process, is shown to be very successful in the cancellation of sinusoidal signals from different sources. The results of this research may significantly reduce the power requirements and increase the stability for lightly loaded continuous-wave SRF systems.

  4. Asymptotic Theory of the Least Squares Estimators of Sinusoidal Signal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kundu, Debasis

    1997-01-01

    ... normality are derived for the sinusoidal signal under the assumption of normal error (Kundu; 1993) and under the assumptions of independent and identically distributed random variables in Kundu and Mitra...

  5. Converter for Measurement of non-sinusoidal current peak value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butvin, P.; Nielsen, Otto V; Brauer, Peter

    1997-01-01

    A linear-response toroid with core wound of rapidly quenched soft magnetic metallic ribbon and fitted with two windings is used to enable correct measurement of mean peak value of non-sinusoidal and not noise-free alternating current.......A linear-response toroid with core wound of rapidly quenched soft magnetic metallic ribbon and fitted with two windings is used to enable correct measurement of mean peak value of non-sinusoidal and not noise-free alternating current....

  6. New Polish Certified Reference Materials for inorganic trace analysis: corn flour (INCT-CF-3) and soya bean flour (INCT-SBF-4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polkowska-Motrenko, H.; Dybczynski, R.S.; Chajduk, E.; Danko, B.; Kulisa, K.; Samczynski, Z.; Sypula, M.; Szopa, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Preparation and certification of two new Polish reference materials (CRMs) for inorganic trace analysis: Corn Flour (INCT-CF-3) and Soya Bean Flour (INCT-SBF-4) have been presented. The materials were prepared and certified in the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (INCT). Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was applied to homogeneity and stability studies. Homogeneity tests have shown that both materials are homogeneous for the sample mass 3 100 mg. The results of trend analysis have shown that the materials are stable. Uncertainty caused by instability and, consequently, shelf life of the materials have been estimated. Certification was based on the statistical evaluation of results obtained in worldwide interlaboratory comparison, in which 92 laboratories from 19 countries participated. Results for CRM distributed by the organizer and analyzed together with the intercomparison samples as well as results by definitive methods for selected elements based on radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) were also employed in the certification process. The contents of 16 and 22 elements were certified in Corn Flour and Soya Bean Flour, respectively. Additional information values for 14 elements in INCT-CF-3 and 9 elements in INCT-SBF-4 were given. (authors)

  7. Simultaneous determination of macro and trace elements in biological reference materials by microwave induced plasma optical emission spectrometry with slurry sample introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matusiewicz, Henryk; Golik, Bartosz

    2004-01-01

    A slurry sampling technique (SST) has been utilized for simultaneous multi-element analysis by microwave-induced plasma optical emission spectrometry (MIP-OES). Slurry samples from a spray chamber are fed directly into the microwave cavity-torch assembly (power 300 W) with no desolvation apparatus. The performance of SST-MIP-OES was demonstrated by the determination of macro (Na, K, Ca, Mg, P) and trace (Cd, Cu, Mn, Sr, Zn) elements in three biological certified reference materials using a V-groove, clog-free Babington-type nebulizer. Slurry concentrations up to 1% m/v (particles 3 (pH 1.2) containing 0.01% of Triton X-100, were used with calibration by the standard additions method. The method offers relatively good precision (R.S.D. ranged from 7 to 11%) with measured concentrations being in satisfactory agreement with certified values for NRCC TORT-1 (Lobster hepatopancreas), NRCC LUTS-1 (Lobster hepatopancreas) and IAEA-153 (Milk powder). The concentrations of Na, K, Ca, Mg, P and Cd, Cu, Mn, Sr, Zn were determined in the range 90-22 000 μg/g and 1-420 μg/g, respectively. The method could be useful as a routine procedure

  8. Simultaneous determination of macro and trace elements in biological reference materials by microwave induced plasma optical emission spectrometry with slurry sample introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matusiewicz, Henryk E-mail: Henryk.Matusiewicz@put.poznan.pl; Golik, Bartosz

    2004-05-21

    A slurry sampling technique (SST) has been utilized for simultaneous multi-element analysis by microwave-induced plasma optical emission spectrometry (MIP-OES). Slurry samples from a spray chamber are fed directly into the microwave cavity-torch assembly (power 300 W) with no desolvation apparatus. The performance of SST-MIP-OES was demonstrated by the determination of macro (Na, K, Ca, Mg, P) and trace (Cd, Cu, Mn, Sr, Zn) elements in three biological certified reference materials using a V-groove, clog-free Babington-type nebulizer. Slurry concentrations up to 1% m/v (particles <20 {mu}m), prepared in 10% HNO{sub 3} (pH 1.2) containing 0.01% of Triton X-100, were used with calibration by the standard additions method. The method offers relatively good precision (R.S.D. ranged from 7 to 11%) with measured concentrations being in satisfactory agreement with certified values for NRCC TORT-1 (Lobster hepatopancreas), NRCC LUTS-1 (Lobster hepatopancreas) and IAEA-153 (Milk powder). The concentrations of Na, K, Ca, Mg, P and Cd, Cu, Mn, Sr, Zn were determined in the range 90-22 000 {mu}g/g and 1-420 {mu}g/g, respectively. The method could be useful as a routine procedure.

  9. Development of a certified reference material (NMIJ CRM 7531-a) for the determination of trace cadmium and other elements in brown rice flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Shin-ichi; Inagaki, Kazumi; Narukawa, Tomohiro; Zhu, Yanbei; Kuroiwa, Takayoshi; Hioki, Akiharu; Chiba, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    A certified reference material (CRM) for trace cadmium and other elements in brown rice flour was developed at the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ). The CRM was provided as a dry powder after drying and frozen pulverization of fresh brown rice obtained from a Japanese domestic market. Characterization of the property value for each element was carried out exclusively by NMIJ with at least two independent analytical methods, including inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), ICP high-resolution mass spectrometry, isotope-dilution ICP-MS, ICP optical emission spectrometry, and graphite-furnace atomic-absorption spectrometry. Property values were provided for six elements (Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, and Cd). The concentration range of the property values was from 0.280 mg kg(-1) of As to 31.8 mg kg(-1) of Zn. The combined relative standard uncertainties of the property values were estimated by considering the uncertainties of the homogeneity, characterization, difference among analytical methods, dry-mass correction factor, and calibration standard. The range of the relative combined standard uncertainties was from 1.1% of Zn to 1.6% of As.

  10. Bottomside sinusoidal irregularities in the equatorial F region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares, C. E.; Hanson, W. B.; Mcclure, J. P.; Cragin, B. L.

    1983-01-01

    By using the Ogo 6 satellite, McClure and Hanson (1973) have discovered sinusoidal irregularities in the equatorial F region ion number density. In the present investigation, a description is provided of the properties of a distinct category of sinusoidal irregularities found in equatorial data from the AE-C and AE-E satellites. The observed scale sizes vary from about 300 m to 3 km in the direction perpendicular to B, overlapping with and extending the range observed by using Ogo 6. Attention is given to low and high resolution data, a comparison with Huancayo ionograms, the confinement of 'bottomside sinusoidal' (BSS) irregularities essentially to the bottomside of the F layer, spectral characteristics, and BSS, scintillation, and ionosonde observations.

  11. Mechanical vibration and shock analysis, sinusoidal vibration

    CERN Document Server

    Lalanne, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Everything engineers need to know about mechanical vibration and shock...in one authoritative reference work! This fully updated and revised 3rd edition addresses the entire field of mechanical vibration and shock as one of the most important types of load and stress applied to structures, machines and components in the real world. Examples include everything from the regular and predictable loads applied to turbines, motors or helicopters by the spinning of their constituent parts to the ability of buildings to withstand damage from wind loads or explosions, and the need for cars to m

  12. Some New Results on the Estimation of Sinusoids in Noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Kjær

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the problem of estimating sinusoidal parameters from noisy observations. This field of research is applicable to solving problems in a large number of areas such as music and speech processing, electrocardiography, seismology, radar and sonar processing, astronomy....... Third, an efficient algorithm for performing inference and interpolation in a dynamic sinusoidal model is proposed. This method is applied to packet-loss concealment, and listening tests indicate that the proposed algorithm can be used for this purpose. Fourth, the Capon filtering method for amplitude...

  13. Multielement determination of trace metals in river water (certified reference material, JSAC 0301-1) by high efficiency nebulization ICP-MS after 100-fold preconcentration with a chelating resin-packed minicolumn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yanbei; Hattori, Ryota; Fujimori, Eiji; Umemura, Tomonari; Haraguchi, Hiroki

    2005-01-01

    The determination of 34 trace metals in a river water certified reference material (CRM), i.e. JSAC 0301-1, which was issued by the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry in January 2004, was performed by ICP-MS with a high efficiency nebulizer after preconcentration with a laboratory-made chelating resin-packed minicolumn, with which trace metals were concentrated 100-fold from 50 mL of a river water sample to 0.5 mL of the final analysis solution. Trace metals in JSAC 0301-1 were observed in the concentration range from 19 μg L -1 of Al to 0.000053 μg L -1 of Bi. It was found that most of the concentrations of trace metals, including rare earth elements (REEs), in JSAC 0301-1 were lower than those in JAC 0031, which was also a previously issued CRM prepared with water from the same river as that of JSAC 0301-1. The low concentrations of trace metals in JSAC 0301-1 might be attributed to the fact that there was heavy rain before collecting the original water sample to prepare the present CRM. Furthermore, the REE distribution patterns of JSAC 0301-1, JAC 0031 and the average values of river water samples in Japan were parallel to each other. These results indicate that the distributions of REEs in JSAC 0301-1 and JAC 0031 were the typical ones of river water samples in Japan. (author)

  14. Trans-sinusoidal maxillary distraction in three cleft patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenghoefer, M.H.; Martini, M.; Nadjmi, N.; Schutyser, F.A.C.; Jagtman, A.K.; Bergé, S.J.

    2006-01-01

    The trans-sinusoidal maxillary distractor (TS-MD) was used to achieve maxillary advancement in three patients with repaired cleft lip and palate. After preoperative computer-aided planning of the distraction vectors, each TS-MD was bent on a stereolithographic model of the maxilla of the patient.

  15. Sinusoidal velaroidal shell – numerical modelling of the nonlinear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nonlinearity, applied to a sinusoidal velaroidal shell with the inner radius r0, the outer variables radii from 10m to 20m and the number of waves n=8, will give rise to the investigation of its nonlinear buckling resistance. The building material is a high-performant concrete. The investigation emphasizes more on the ...

  16. Optimization for sinusoidal profiles in surface relief gratings ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-07

    Feb 7, 2014 ... filometry [7–9] and monitoring of surface self-diffusion of solids under ultrahigh vacuum conditions [10]. In the present work, recording parameters, i.e. exposure time and deve- lopment time for fabrication of such holographic gratings have been optimized to obtain nearly perfect sinusoidal profiles in the ...

  17. Evoked responses to sinusoidally modulated sound in unanaesthetized dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielen, A.M.; Kamp, A.; Lopes da Silva, F.H.; Reneau, J.P.; Storm van Leeuwen, W.

    1. 1. Responses evoked by sinusoidally amplitude-modulated sound in unanaesthetized dogs have been recorded from inferior colliculus and from auditory cortex structures by means of chronically indwelling stainless steel wire electrodes. 2. 2. Harmonic analysis of the average responses demonstrated

  18. Deep-etched sinusoidal polarizing beam splitter grating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jijun; Zhou, Changhe; Cao, Hongchao; Lv, Peng

    2010-04-01

    A sinusoidal-shaped fused-silica grating as a highly efficient polarizing beam splitter (PBS) is investigated based on the simplified modal method. The grating structure depends mainly on the ratio of groove depth to grating period and the ratio of incident wavelength to grating period. These ratios can be used as a guideline for the grating design at different wavelengths. A sinusoidal-groove PBS grating is designed at a wavelength of 1310 nm under Littrow mounting, and the transmitted TM and TE polarized waves are mainly diffracted into the zeroth order and the -1st order, respectively. The grating profile is optimized by using rigorous coupled-wave analysis. The designed PBS grating is highly efficient (>95.98%) over the O-band wavelength range (1260-1360 nm) for both TE and TM polarizations. The sinusoidal grating can exhibit higher diffraction efficiency, larger extinction ratio, and less reflection loss than the rectangular-groove PBS grating. By applying wet etching technology on the rectangular grating, which was manufactured by holographic recording and inductively coupled plasma etching technology, the sinusoidal grating can be approximately fabricated. Experimental results are in agreement with theoretical values.

  19. Using piecewise sinusoidal basis functions to blanket multiple wire segments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lysko, AA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses application of the piecewise sinusoidal (PWS) basis function (BF) over a chain of several wire segments, for example as a multiple domain basis function. The usage of PWS BF is compared to results based on the piecewise linear...

  20. Pelagic behaviour of reservoir fishes: sinusoidal swimming and associated behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    JAROLÍM, Oldřich

    2009-01-01

    Annotation Long-term fixed-location hydroacoustic study with uplooking transducer was performed during 2005 in Římov reservoir, Czech Republic. It dealt mainly with fish behaviour in the open water of reservoir, especially with sinusoidal swimming behaviour. The dependence of pelagic fish behaviour on environmental conditions was also studied.

  1. BPM Offset Determination by Sinusoidal Quadrupole K-modulation

    CERN Document Server

    Baer, T; Wenninger, J

    2011-01-01

    To ensure an adequate orbit steering that maximizes the machine aperture, a good knowledge of the BPM measurement offsets is crucial. During this MD, a sinusoidal k-modulation of individually powered quadrupoles was performed to determine the offsets of the nearby BPMs. An accuracy of 10µm for the determination of the absolute beam position is reached.

  2. Development of accurate mass spectrometric routine and reference methods for the determination of trace amounts of iridium and rhodium in photographic emulsionsf

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krystek, Petra; Heumann, Klaus G.

    1999-01-01

    For the determination of trace amounts of iridium and rhodium in photographic emulsions different sample treatment procedures were coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and, for iridium, also with negative thermal ionisation isotope dilution mass spectrometry (NTI-IDMS)

  3. The sinusoidal lining cells in "normal" human liver. A scanning electron microscopic investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, T; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Christoffersen, P

    1986-01-01

    The scanning electron microscopic was used to study the fenestrations of human liver sinusoids. Thirteen biopsies, where light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed normal sinusoidal architecture, were investigated. The number of fenestrae was calculated in acinar zone 3...

  4. Unified design of sinusoidal-groove fused-silica grating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jijun; Zhou, Changhe; Cao, Hongchao; Lu, Peng

    2010-10-20

    A general design rule of deep-etched subwavelength sinusoidal-groove fused-silica grating as a highly efficient polarization-independent or polarization-selective device is studied based on the simplified modal method, which shows that the device structure depends little on the incident wavelength, but mainly on the ratio of groove depth to incident wavelength and the ratio of wavelength to grating period. These two ratios could be used as the design guidelines for wavelength-independent structure from deep ultraviolet to far infrared. The optimized grating profile with a different function as a polarizing beam splitter, a polarization-independent two-port beam splitter, or a polarization-independent grating with high efficiency of -1st order is obtained at a wavelength of 1064 nm, and verified by using the rigorous coupled-wave analysis. The performance of the sinusoidal grating is better than a conventional rectangular one, which could be useful for practical applications.

  5. Investigation of Calibrating Force Transducer Using Sinusoidal Force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Li; Wang Yu; Zhang Lizhe

    2010-01-01

    Sinusoidal force calibration method was studied several years before at Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). A similar dynamic force calibration system is developed at Changcheng Institute of Metrology and Measurement (CIMM). It uses electro-dynamic shakers to generate dynamic force in the range from 1 N to 20 kN, and heterodyne laser interferometers are used for acceleration measurement. The force transducer to be calibrated is mounted on the shaker, and a mass block is screwed on the top of force transducer, the sinusoidal forces realized by accelerated load masses are traceable to acceleration and mass according to the force definition. The methods of determining Spatial-dependent acceleration on mass block and measuring the end mass of force transducer in dynamic force calibration are discussed in this paper.

  6. Electric stimulation with sinusoids and white noise for neural prostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel K Freeman

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We are investigating the use of novel stimulus waveforms in neural prostheses to determine whether they can provide more precise control over the temporal and spatial pattern of elicited activity as compared to conventional pulsatile stimulation. To study this, we measured the response of retinal ganglion cells to both sinusoidal and white noise waveforms. The use of cell-attached and whole cell patch clamp recordings allowed the responses to be observed without significant obstruction from the stimulus artifact. Electric stimulation with sinusoids elicited robust responses. White noise analysis was used to derive the linear kernel for the ganglion cell’s spiking response as well as for the underlying excitatory currents. These results suggest that in response to electric stimulation, presynaptic retinal neurons exhibit bandpass filtering characteristics with peak response that occur 25ms after onset. The experimental approach demonstrated here may be useful for studying the temporal response properties of other neurons in the CNS.

  7. Co-ordinated research project: ingestion and organ content of trace elements of importance in radiological protection. Reference Asian man project, phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This First Research Co-ordination Meeting on Ingestion and Organ Content of Trace Elements was held at the Hotel Rembrandt,Quezon City, the Philippines. Information on individual participant's plans for participation in the CRP, and the progress achieved so far on this and related topics is presented in each country's report. The major themes covered include sampling of diets and tissues, analytical techniques used, analytical quality assurance and data reporting of results

  8. Increased sinusoidal volume and solute extraction during retrograde liver perfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, N.M.; Manning, J.A.; Weisiger, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Retrograde isolated liver perfusion has been used to probe acinar functional heterogeneity, but the hemodynamic effects of backward flow have not been characterized. In this study, extraction of a long-chain fatty acid derivative, 12-N-methyl-7-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-amino stearate (12-NBDS), was greater during retrograde than during anterograde perfusion of isolated rat liver. To determine whether hemodynamic differences between anterograde and retrograde perfused livers could account for this finding, the hepatic extracellular space was measured for both directions of flow by means of [ 14 C]sucrose washout during perfusion as well as by direct measurement of [ 14 C]sucrose entrapped during perfusion. A three- to fourfold enlargement of the total hepatic extracellular space was found during retrograde perfusion by both approaches. Examination of perfusion-fixed livers by light microscopy and morphometry revealed that marked distension of the sinusoids occurred during retrograde perfusion and that this accounts for the observed increase in the [ 14 C]sucrose space. These findings support the hypothesis that maximum resistance to perfusate flow in the isolated perfused rat liver is located at the presinusoidal level. In addition, increased transit time of perfusate through the liver and greater sinusoidal surface area resulting from sinusoidal distension may account for the higher extraction of 12-NBDS and possibly other compounds by retrograde perfused liver

  9. Dietary macronutrients and the aging liver sinusoidal endothelial cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogger, Victoria Carroll; Mohamad, Mashani; Solon-Biet, Samantha Marie; Senior, Alistair M; Warren, Alessandra; O'Reilly, Jennifer Nicole; Tung, Bui Thanh; Svistounov, Dmitri; McMahon, Aisling Clare; Fraser, Robin; Raubenheimer, David; Holmes, Andrew J; Simpson, Stephen James; Le Couteur, David George

    2016-05-01

    Fenestrations are pores within the liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) that line the sinusoids of the highly vascularized liver. Fenestrations facilitate the transfer of substrates between blood and hepatocytes. With pseudocapillarization of the hepatic sinusoid in old age, there is a loss of fenestrations. LSECs are uniquely exposed to gut-derived dietary and microbial substrates delivered by the portal circulation to the liver. Here we studied the effect of 25 diets varying in content of macronutrients and energy on LSEC fenestrations using the Geometric Framework method in a large cohort of mice aged 15 mo. Macronutrient distribution rather than total food or energy intake was associated with changes in fenestrations. Porosity and frequency were inversely associated with dietary fat intake, while fenestration diameter was inversely associated with protein or carbohydrate intake. Fenestrations were also linked to diet-induced changes in gut microbiome, with increased fenestrations associated with higher abundance of Firmicutes and reduced abundance of Bacteroidetes Diet-induced changes in levels of several fatty acids (C16:0, C19:0, and C20:4) were also significantly inversely associated with fenestrations, suggesting a link between dietary fat and modulation of lipid rafts in the LSECs. Diet influences fenestrations and these data reflect both the key role of the LSECs in clearing gut-derived molecules from the vascular circulation and the impact these molecules have on LSEC morphology. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Fibronectin Extra Domain A Promotes Liver Sinusoid Repair following Hepatectomy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget Sackey-Aboagye

    Full Text Available Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs are the main endothelial cells in the liver and are important for maintaining liver homeostasis as well as responding to injury. LSECs express cellular fibronectin containing the alternatively spliced extra domain A (EIIIA-cFN and increase expression of this isoform after liver injury, although its function is not well understood. Here, we examined the role of EIIIA-cFN in liver regeneration following partial hepatectomy. We carried out two-thirds partial hepatectomies in mice lacking EIIIA-cFN and in their wild type littermates, studied liver endothelial cell adhesion on decellularized, EIIIA-cFN-containing matrices and investigated the role of cellular fibronectins in liver endothelial cell tubulogenesis. We found that liver weight recovery following hepatectomy was significantly delayed and that sinusoidal repair was impaired in EIIIA-cFN null mice, especially females, as was the lipid accumulation typical of the post-hepatectomy liver. In vitro, we found that liver endothelial cells were more adhesive to cell-deposited matrices containing the EIIIA domain and that cellular fibronectin enhanced tubulogenesis and vascular cord formation. The integrin α9β1, which specifically binds EIIIA-cFN, promoted tubulogenesis and adhesion of liver endothelial cells to EIIIA-cFN. Our findings identify a role for EIIIA-cFN in liver regeneration and tubulogenesis. We suggest that sinusoidal repair is enhanced by increased LSEC adhesion, which is mediated by EIIIA-cFN.

  11. The geochemistry of environmentally important trace elements in UK coals, with special reference to the Parkgate coal in the Yorkshire-Nottinghamshire Coalfield, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, D.A.; Tewalt, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    The Parkgate coal of Langsettian age in the Yorkshire-Nottinghamshire coalfield is typical of many coals in the UK in that it has a high sulphur (S) content. Detailed information on the distribution of the forms of S, both laterally and vertically through the seam, was known from previous investigations. In the present work, 38 interval samples from five measured sections of the coal were comprehensively analysed for major, minor and trace elements and the significance of the relationships established using both raw and centered log transformed data. The major elements are used to quantify the variations in the inorganic and organic coal components and determine the trace element associations. Pyrite contains nearly all of the Hg, As, Se, Tl and Pb and is also the major source of the Mo, Ni, Cd and Sb. The clays contain the following elements in decreasing order of association: Rb, Cs, Li, Ga, U, Cr, V, Sc, Y, Bi, Cu, Nb, Sn, Te and Th. Nearly all of the Rb is present in the clay fraction, whereas for elements such as V, Cu and U, a significant amount is thought to be present in the organic matter, based on the K vs trace element regression equations. Only Ge, and possibly Be, would appear to have a dominant organic source. The trace element concentrations are calculated for pyrite, the clay fraction and organic matter. For pyrite it is noted that concentrations agree with published data from the Yorkshire-Nottinghamshire coalfield and also that Tl concentrations (median of 0.33 ppm) in the pyrite are greater than either Hg or Cd. Unlike these elements, Tl has attracted less attention and possibly more information is needed on its anthropogenic distribution and impacts on man and the environment. A seawater source is thought to be responsible for the high concentrations of S, Cl and the non-detrital trace elements in the Parkgate coal. Indicative of the seawater control is the Th/U ratio, which expresses the detrital to non-detrital element contributions. Using

  12. Report on the consultants' meeting to: Outline a co-ordinated research project on trace element speciation to enhance technology transfer in this field by the development of suitable methodologies and/or the production of suitably characterised reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    In the environment and in man, the total concentration of a given element in a sample is almost always comprised of two or more discrete chemical forms. The toxicological or nutritive impact of the element in the sample in the environment or when ingested by man will be dependent upon the properties of its individual components. Therefore, in order to make meaningful benefit or risk assessment statements, it is essential to have a knowledge of the forms and relative amounts of an element in a given matrix. When the analyte in question is only present at total concentrations at the trace level (mg.kg -1 ) or below, the problems involved in obtaining this information become much more complex. The term trace metal speciation has been coined to refer to the determination of the chemical forms and quantities of an analyte present in a sample at the trace (and ultra trace) level. Even at such relatively low levels, the presence or absence of specific forms of an analyte can have serious consequences in terms of trade, health and environmental management. In light of the PPAS External Reviewers' Report of the Consultants' Meeting on Analytical Quality Control Services (October 1997, Vienna) which recommended that characterisation of chemical species should be undertaken in AQCS reference materials, the Agency decided to convene a consultants' meeting specifically to advise it on the importance of trace metal speciation, the state of the art and the value of a CRP to address aspects of speciation in order to facilitate technology transfer and equip member states with appropriate tools to meet the challenges posed. Five scientists, recognised as experts in the field of trace metal speciation were identified and invited to the Agency's headquarters to act as consultants. The meeting was held at the Vienna International Centre from 23rd to 26th November 1998. The first day of the meeting was given over to presentations from the consultants on various aspects of trace element

  13. Characterization of national food agency shrimp and plaice reference materials for trace elements and arsenic species by atomic and mass spectrometric techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Pedersen, Gitte Alsing; McLaren, J. W.

    1997-01-01

    , drying, milling and sieving to collect the fraction of particles less than 150 mu m in sizer In this fraction the trace elements were homogeneously distributed using a 400 mg sample intake for analysis, The total track element concentrations were determined by graphite furnace and cold vapour atomic...... mass spectrometry (MS/MS) for qualitative verification, Based on a rigorous statistical analysis of the analytical data using the DANREF software, it was decided to assign certified values for mercury, cadmium and arsenic in the NFA Shrimp, and mercury, selenium and arsenic in the NFA Plaice...

  14. Sinusoidal modulation analysis for optical system MTF measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, J M; Yu, T; Seibert, J A

    1996-12-01

    The modulation transfer function (MTF) is a commonly used metric for defining the spatial resolution characteristics of imaging systems. While the MTF is defined in terms of how an imaging system demodulates the amplitude of a sinusoidal input, this approach has not been in general use to measure MTFs in the medical imaging community because producing sinusoidal x-ray patterns is technically difficult. However, for optical systems such as charge coupled devices (CCD), which are rapidly becoming a part of many medical digital imaging systems, the direct measurement of modulation at discrete spatial frequencies using a sinusoidal test pattern is practical. A commercially available optical test pattern containing spatial frequencies ranging from 0.375 cycles/mm to 80 cycles/mm was sued to determine the MRF of a CCD-based optical system. These results were compared with the angulated slit method of Fujita [H. Fujita, D. Tsia, T. Itoh, K. Doi, J. Morishita, K. Ueda, and A. Ohtsuka, "A simple method for determining the modulation transfer function in digital radiography," IEEE Trans. Medical Imaging 11, 34-39 (1992)]. The use of a semiautomated profiled iterated reconstruction technique (PIRT) is introduced, where the shift factor between successive pixel rows (due to angulation) is optimized iteratively by least-squares error analysis rather than by hand measurement of the slit angle. PIRT was used to find the slit angle for the Fujita technique and to find the sine-pattern angle for the sine-pattern technique. Computer simulation of PIRT for the case of the slit image (a line spread function) demonstrated that it produced a more accurate angle determination than "hand" measurement, and there is a significant difference between the errors in the two techniques (Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test, p < 0.001). The sine-pattern method and the Fujita slit method produced comparable MTF curves for the CCD camera evaluated.

  15. Propiedades de transporte de una superred de grafeno tipo sinusoidal

    OpenAIRE

    J. A. Briones-Torres; I. Rodríguez-Vargas

    2015-01-01

    En este trabajo usamos el método de la matriz de transferencia para estudiar el tunelamiento de los electrones de Dirac a través de superredes en grafeno. Consideramos una superred con potencial sinusoidal o polaridad invertida, para ello consideramos dos maneras de crearla, una por medio de sustratos mixtos junto con la aplicación de un campo perpendicular sobre el sustrato de Óxido de Silicio (SiO2), la otra por medio de potenciales alternados aplicados perpendicularmente sobre la sábana de...

  16. Ageing monitoring in IGBT module under sinusoidal loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghimire, Pramod; Pedersen, Kristian Bonderup; Rannestad, Bjørn

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents monitoring of ageing in high power insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) modules subjected to sinusoidal loading at nominal power level. On-state voltage for IGBT, diode, and rise in interconnection resistance are used as ageing parameters. These are measured in three...... different ways: calibration of power modules after 24 h of operation, offline characterization every 5 min of operation, and continuous measurement during normal converter operation. Four power modules are tested, which are cycled to different degradation levels by number of cycles, where one is tested...

  17. Numerical analysis of beam with sinusoidally corrugated webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górecki, Marcin; Pieńko, Michał; Łagoda, GraŻyna

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents numerical tests results of the steel beam with sinusoidally corrugated web, which were performed in the Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2010. The analysis was preceded by laboratory tests including the beam's work under the influence of the four point bending as well as the study of material characteristics. Significant web's thickness and use of tools available in the software allowed to analyze the behavior of the plate girder as beam, and also to observe the occurrence of stresses in the characteristic element - the corrugated web. The stress distribution observed on the both web's surfaces was analyzed.

  18. Neutron activation analysis and ICP-AES to determine metal traces in antarctic krill. CNEA laboratories participation in the certification of a reference material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smichowski, Patricia N.; Farias, Silvia S.; Resnizky, Sara M.; Marrero, Julieta G.

    1999-01-01

    For the international certification of a reference material based on krill, As and Hg were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis and Br, Co and Se by radiochemical neutron activation analysis. Inductive coupling plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) was used to determine Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn. The results, which are in good agreement with those obtained by other laboratories, are discussed

  19. Co-ordinated research project: Ingestion and organ content of trace elements of importance in radiological protection (CRP: E4.30.08). Reference Asian man project, phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The Second Research Coordination Meeting for the Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'Ingestion and Organ Content of Trace Elements of Importance in Radiological Protection: Reference Asian Man Project, Phase 2' was held at the China Institute for Radiation Protection (CIRP) in Taiyuan, People's Republic of China. During the first technical Session, an overview of the current status of the CRP was presented by the IAEA technical officer, Dr. Parr, and the responsible officer of the Central Reference Laboratory (NIRS, Japan), Dr. Kawamura. They drew attention to the agreed programme of work, as described in the project documentation, and the timetable foreseen for the CRP as summarized in table 1. In general, they concluded that the achievements of the CRP to-date appear to be good, particularly in relation to sample collection (in most countries) and quality control (the development of appropriate reference materials). However, some aspects of the work appear to be a little behind schedule, particularly (1) the final stages of preparation of total diet samples (because of delays in providing a suitable food blender), (2) the analysis of some of the elements of first priority (because of the non-availability, until now, of suitable analytical reference materials), and (3) in some countries, the collection of autopsy specimens. One country (Malaysia) has experienced considerable difficulties in implementing the project due to the retirement of the former Chief Scientific Investigator. For this reason it was unfortunately not possible for the Malaysian representative to be present at the RCM

  20. Propiedades de transporte de una superred de grafeno tipo sinusoidal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Briones-Torres

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo usamos el método de la matriz de transferencia para estudiar el tunelamiento de los electrones de Dirac a través de superredes en grafeno. Consideramos una superred con potencial sinusoidal o polaridad invertida, para ello consideramos dos maneras de crearla, una por medio de sustratos mixtos junto con la aplicación de un campo perpendicular sobre el sustrato de Óxido de Silicio (SiO2, la otra por medio de potenciales alternados aplicados perpendicularmente sobre la sábana de grafeno. Calculamos las propiedades de transmisión, transporte y estructura electrónica, variando diferentes parámetros como ángulo de incidencia, anchos de pozos y barreras y diferente número de barreras. Se encontró (1 el importante papel que juega el efecto Klein en tales estructuras, (2 las propiedades de transmisión y transporte presentan cierta simetría respecto del origen de la energía, y (3 el carácter sinusoidal del sistema trae consigo una baja en el nivel de energía de las subbandas en el espectro de estados acotados, además las degenera y origina que la apertura-cierre de las minibandas sea en el mismo nivel de energía.

  1. Observation of Sinusoidal Voltage Behaviour in Silver Doped YBCO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinkok, Atilgan; Olutas, Murat; Kilic, Kivilcim; Kilic, Atilla

    The influence of bi-directional square wave (BSW) current was investigated on the evolution of the V - t curves at different periods (P) , temperatures and external magnetic fields. It was observed that slow transport relaxation measurements result in regular sinusoidal voltage oscillations which were discussed mainly in terms of the dynamic competition between pinning and depinning.The symmetry in the voltage oscillations was attributed to the elastic coupling between the flux lines and the pinning centers along grain boundaries and partly inside the grains. This case was also correlated to the equality between flux entry and exit along the YBCO/Ag sample during regular oscillations. It was shown that the voltage oscillations can be described well by an empirical expression V (t) sin(wt + φ) . We found that the phase angle φgenerally takes different values for the repetitive oscillations. Fast Fourier Transform analysis of the V - t oscillations showed that the oscillation period is comparable to that (PI) of the BSW current. This finding suggests a physical mechanism associated with charge density waves (CDWs), and, indeed, the weakly pinned flux line system in YBCO/Ag resembles the general behavior of CDWs. At certain values of PI, amplitude of BSW current, H and T, the YBCO/Ag sample behaves like a double-integrator, since it converts the BSW current to sinusoidal voltage oscillations in time.

  2. Removal of Stationary Sinusoidal Noise from Random Vibration Signals.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Brian; Cap, Jerome S.

    2018-02-01

    In random vibration environments, sinusoidal line noise may appear in the vibration signal and can affect analysis of the resulting data. We studied two methods which remove stationary sine tones from random noise: a matrix inversion algorithm and a chirp-z transform algorithm. In addition, we developed new methods to determine the frequency of the tonal noise. The results show that both of the removal methods can eliminate sine tones in prefabricated random vibration data when the sine-to-random ratio is at least 0.25. For smaller ratios down to 0.02 only the matrix inversion technique can remove the tones, but the metrics to evaluate its effectiveness also degrade. We also found that using fast Fourier transforms best identified the tonal noise, and determined that band-pass-filtering the signals prior to the process improved sine removal. When applied to actual vibration test data, the methods were not as effective at removing harmonic tones, which we believe to be a result of mixed-phase sinusoidal noise.

  3. Mapping surface properties of sinusoidal roughness standards by TPM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X; Rubert, P

    2005-01-01

    We report our investigation on the surface properties of sinusoidal roughness standards made from pure electroformed nickel. Two specimens having a sinusoidal profile with nominal R a of 0.36 μm and a peak spacing of 25 μm are chosen for this investigation. One specimen is further treated with a hard protective coating of nickel-boron. The surface topography, friction, hardness and Young's modulus of the specimens were measured by a novel instrument, the multi-function Tribological Probe Microscope (TPM). The results show that hardness of these two specimens is 14.1 GPa for uncoated specimen and 25.7 GPa for the coated one, while the Young's modulus is 188 GPa and 225 GPa, respectively. The ramping force was set to 3mN for both the specimens and the effect of the tip penetration was investigated by comparing the topography measurements before and after hardness mapping. It has been found out that there is no significant change in the averaged profiles over the scanned area, which indicates the topography distortion seen in the multi-function mapping, is recoverable. Cross correlation between topography and its corresponding hardness/Young's modulus has been carried out and the result will be discussed in the paper

  4. Hydraulic testing in granite using the sinusoidal variation of pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, J.H.; Holmes, D.C.; Noy, D.J.

    1982-09-01

    Access to two boreholes at the Carwynnen test site in Cornwall enabled the trial of a number of innovative approaches to the hydrogeology of fractured crystalline rock. These methods ranged from the use of seisviewer data to measure the orientation of fractures to the use of the sinusoidal pressure technique to measure directional hydraulic diffusivity. The testing began with a short programme of site investigation consisting of borehole caliper and seisviewer logging followed by some single borehole hydraulic tests. The single borehole hydraulic testing was designed to assess whether the available boreholes and adjacent rock were suitable for testing using the sinusoidal method. The main testing methods were slug and pulse tests and were analysed using the fissured porous medium analysis proposed in Barker and Black (1983). Derived hydraulic conductivity (K) ranged from 2 x 10 -12 m/sec to 5 x 10 -7 m/sec with one near-surface zone of high K being perceived in both boreholes. The results were of the form which is typical of fractured rock and indicated a combination of high fracture frequency and permeable granite matrix. The results are described and discussed. (author)

  5. Baseline reference range for trace metal concentrations in whole blood of wild and managed West Indian Manatees (Trichechus manatus) in Florida and Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Noel Y.; Walsh, Michael T; Bonde, Robert K.; Powell, James A.; Bass, Dean A.; Gaspard, Joseph C.; Barber, David S.

    2016-01-01

    The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) is exposed to a number of anthropogenic influences, including metals, as they inhabit shallow waters with close proximity to shore. While maintaining homeostasis of many metals is crucial for health, there is currently no baseline reference range that can be used to make clinical and environmental decisions for this endangered species. In this study, whole blood samples from 151 manatees were collected during health assessments performed in Florida and Belize from 2008 through 2011. Whole blood samples (n = 37) from managed care facilities in Florida and Belize from 2009 through 2011 were also used in this study. The concentrations of 17 metals in whole blood were determined, and the data were used to derive a baseline reference range. Impacts of capture location, age, and sex on whole blood metal concentrations were examined. Location and age were related to copper concentrations as values were significantly higher in habitats near urban areas and in calves. Copper may also be a husbandry concern as concentrations were significantly higher in managed manatees (1.17 ± 0.04 ppm) than wild manatees (0.73 ± 0.02 ppm). Zinc (11.20 ± 0.30 ppm) was of special interest as normal concentrations were two to five times higher than other marine mammal species. Arsenic concentrations were higher in Belize (0.43 ± 0.07 ppm), with Placencia Lagoon having twice the concentration of Belize City and Southern Lagoon. Selenium concentrations were lower (0.18 ± 0.09 ppm) than in other marine mammal species. The lowest selenium concentrations were observed in rehabilitating and managed manatees which may warrant additional monitoring in managed care facilities. The established preliminary baseline reference range can be used by clinicians, biologists, and managers to monitor the health of West Indian manatees.

  6. Assessment of stability of trace elements in two natural matrix environmental standard reference materials. NIST-SRM 1547 Peach leaves and NIST-SRM 1566a Oyster Tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, E.A.; Spatz, R.O.

    2009-01-01

    The NIST program for environmental Standard Reference Materials (SRM) includes materials covering a range of matrices, mass fraction values and analytes. For many SRMs, mass fraction data are accumulated, incidentally, over time, as these are used routinely for quality assurance purposes. Although these are not formal stability studies, data generated may be useful in assessing stability. To evaluate the potential for assessing material stability from incidental use of SRMs, results of neutron activation analysis performed from 1992 through 2008 were compiled for SRM 1547 Peach Leaves and SRM 1566a Oyster Tissue. Results indicate that incidental use of SRMs yields useful information on SRM stability. (author)

  7. Sinusoidal voltage protocols for rapid characterisation of ion channel kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, Kylie A; Hill, Adam P; Bardenet, Rémi; Cui, Yi; Vandenberg, Jamie I; Gavaghan, David J; de Boer, Teun P; Mirams, Gary R

    2018-03-24

    Ion current kinetics are commonly represented by current-voltage relationships, time constant-voltage relationships and subsequently mathematical models fitted to these. These experiments take substantial time, which means they are rarely performed in the same cell. Rather than traditional square-wave voltage clamps, we fitted a model to the current evoked by a novel sum-of-sinusoids voltage clamp that was only 8 s long. Short protocols that can be performed multiple times within a single cell will offer many new opportunities to measure how ion current kinetics are affected by changing conditions. The new model predicts the current under traditional square-wave protocols well, with better predictions of underlying currents than literature models. The current under a novel physiologically relevant series of action potential clamps is predicted extremely well. The short sinusoidal protocols allow a model to be fully fitted to individual cells, allowing us to examine cell-cell variability in current kinetics for the first time. Understanding the roles of ion currents is crucial to predict the action of pharmaceuticals and mutations in different scenarios, and thereby to guide clinical interventions in the heart, brain and other electrophysiological systems. Our ability to predict how ion currents contribute to cellular electrophysiology is in turn critically dependent on our characterisation of ion channel kinetics - the voltage-dependent rates of transition between open, closed and inactivated channel states. We present a new method for rapidly exploring and characterising ion channel kinetics, applying it to the hERG potassium channel as an example, with the aim of generating a quantitatively predictive representation of the ion current. We fitted a mathematical model to currents evoked by a novel 8 second sinusoidal voltage clamp in CHO cells overexpressing hERG1a. The model was then used to predict over 5 minutes of recordings in the same cell in response to

  8. Reference standards for quantitative trace analysis of PCB's by GC. Technical PCB formulations for the calibration of ECD and MSD responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupcik, J. (Slovak Technical Univ., Department of Analytical Chemistry, Bratislava (Slovakia)); Kocan, A. (Institute of Preventive Medicine, Bratislava (Slovakia)); Petrik, J. (Institute of Preventive Medicine, Bratislava (Slovakia)); Leclercq, P.A. (Eindhoven University of Technology, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Lab. of Instrumental Analysis (Netherlands)); Ballschmiter, K. (University of Ulm, Dept. of Analytical and Environmental Chemistry (Germany))

    1993-04-01

    The composition of any technical PCB formulation can be determined directly by analyzing the PCB sample by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID), provided the relative molecular masses of the components are known. The response of electron capture and selected-ion monitoring, mass-spectra detectors can then be calibrated for individual PCB congeners by correlation of the chromatographic patterns with those of concentrated PCB samples obtained by GC-FID. This procedure, which uses a given technical PCB formulation as a secondary reference standard mixture, is to be preferred over existing calibration methods, when results with [+-]10% errors are acceptable because commercial PCB formulations cover the whole range of chlorination products. (orig.)

  9. Current and Voltage Mode Multiphase Sinusoidal Oscillators Using CBTAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sagbas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Current-mode (CM and voltage-mode (VM multiphase sinusoidal oscillator (MSO structures using current backward transconductance amplifier (CBTA are proposed. The proposed oscillators can generate n current or voltage signals (n being even or odd equally spaced in phase. n+1 CBTAs, n grounded capacitors and a grounded resistor are used for nth-state oscillator. The oscillation frequency can be independently controlled through transconductance (gm of the CBTAs which are adjustable via their bias currents. The effects caused by the non-ideality of the CBTA on the oscillation frequency and condition have been analyzed. The performance of the proposed circuits is demonstrated on third-stage and fifth-stage MSOs by using PSPICE simulations based on the 0.25 µm TSMC level-7 CMOS technology parameters.

  10. Phonological awareness and sinusoidal amplitude modulation in phonological dislexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñaloza-López, Yolanda; Herrera-Rangel, Aline; Pérez-Ruiz, Santiago J; Poblano, Adrián

    2016-04-01

    Dyslexia is the difficulty of children in learning to read and write as results of neurological deficiencies. The objective was to test the Phonological awareness (PA) and Sinusoidal amplitude modulation (SAM) threshold in children with Phonological dyslexia (PD). We performed a case-control, analytic, cross sectional study. We studied 14 children with PD and 14 control children from 7 to 11 years of age, by means of PA measurement and by SAM test. The mean age of dyslexic children was 8.39 years and in the control group was 8.15. Children with PD exhibited inadequate skills in PA, and SAM. We found significant correlations between PA and SAM at 4 Hertz frequency, and calculated regression equations that predicts between one-fourth and one-third of variance of measurements. Alterations in PA and SAM found can help to explain basis of deficient language processing exhibited by children with PD.

  11. New Realizations of Single OTRA-Based Sinusoidal Oscillators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Chun Chien

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes three new sinusoidal oscillators based on an operational transresistance amplifier (OTRA. Each of the proposed oscillator circuits consists of one OTRA combined with a few passive components. The first circuit is an OTRA-based minimum RC oscillator. The second circuit is capable of providing independent control on the condition of oscillation without affecting the oscillation frequency. The third circuit exhibits independent control of oscillation frequency through a capacitor. This study first introduces the OTRA and the related formulations of the proposed oscillator circuits, and then discusses the nonideal effects, sensitivity analyses, and frequency stability of the presented circuits. The proposed oscillators exhibit low sensitivities and good frequency stability. Because the presented circuits feature low impedance output, they can be connected directly to the next stage without cascading additional voltage buffers. HSPICE simulations and experimental results confirm the feasibility of the new oscillator circuits.

  12. One-dimensional plasma photonic crystals with sinusoidal densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, L.; Shang, L.; Zhang, S.

    2014-01-01

    Properties of electromagnetic waves with normal and oblique incidence have been studied for one-dimensional plasma layers with sinusoidal densities. Wave transmittance as a function of wave frequency exhibits photonic band gaps characteristic of photonic crystals. For periodic structures, increasing collision frequency is demonstrated to lead to greater absorption, increasing the modulation factor enlarges the gap width, and increasing incidence angle can change the gap locations of the two polarizations. If a defect layer is introduced by inserting a new plasma layer in the center, a defect mode may appear within the gap. Periodic number, collision frequency, and modulation factor can affect magnitude of the defect mode. The incidence angle enables the frequency to be tuned. Defect layer thickness affects both frequency and number of defect modes. These results may provide theoretical guidance in designing tunable narrow-band filters

  13. Response of resonant gravitational wave detectors to damped sinusoid signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pai, A; Celsi, C; Pallottino, G V; D'Antonio, S; Astone, P

    2007-01-01

    Till date, the search for burst signals with resonant gravitational wave (GW) detectors has been done using the δ-function approximation for the signal, which was reasonable due to the very small bandwidth of these detectors. However, now with increased bandwidth (of the order of 10 or more Hz) and with the possibility of comparing results with interferometric GW detectors (broad-band), it is very important to exploit the resonant detectors' capability to detect also signals with specific wave shapes. As a first step, we present a study of the response of resonant GW detectors to damped sinusoids with given frequency and decay time and report on the development of a filter matched to these signals. This study is a preliminary step towards the comprehension of the detector response and of the filtering for signals such as the excitation of stellar quasi-normal modes

  14. Plasma characteristics in non-sinusoidally excited CCP discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafleur, Trevor; Booth, Jean-Paul

    2012-10-01

    Using particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations we perform a characterization of the plasma response to positive pulse-type voltage excitations (with a repetition frequency of 13.56 MHz) in a geometrically symmetric CCP reactor (with a gap length of 2 cm) operated with argon (for pressures between 20-500 mTorr). Use of these non-sinusoidal waveforms generates an electrical asymmetry effect in the system, which necessitates the formation of a DC bias. This DC bias, together with the shape of the voltage waveforms used, produces a number of new phenomena that are not present in typical sinusoidal discharges: (1) the plasma density and ion flux can be increased as the pulse width is reduced, (2) a significant asymmetry in the ion fluxes to the powered and grounded electrodes develops as the pressure increases, (3) the average ion energy striking the grounded electrode remains low and approximately constant as the pulse width decreases, and (4) the sheath at the grounded electrode never fully collapses; electrons are no longer lost in sharp pulses, but escape essentially throughout the rf cycle. Effects (1) and (3) above offer the possibility for a new form of control in these types of discharges, where the ion flux can be increased while the ion energy on the grounded electrode can be kept small and essentially constant. This effect has recently been exploited to control the crystallinity of silicon thin films [1], where the low ion bombarding energy was found to improve the quality of films grown. [4pt] [1] Johnson E V, Pouliquen S, Delattre P A, and Booth J P, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 2012, in press.

  15. Nematic liquid crystals on sinusoidal channels: the zigzag instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Nuno M; Romero-Enrique, Jose M; Telo da Gama, Margarida M

    2017-01-11

    Substrates which are chemically or topographically patterned induce a variety of liquid crystal textures. The response of the liquid crystal to competing surface orientations, typical of patterned substrates, is determined by the anisotropy of the elastic constants and the interplay of the relevant lengths scales, such as the correlation length and the surface geometrical parameters. Transitions between different textures, usually with different symmetries, may occur under a wide range of conditions. We use the Landau-de Gennes free energy to investigate the texture of nematics in sinusoidal channels with parallel anchoring bounded by nematic-air interfaces that favour perpendicular (hometropic) anchoring. In micron size channels 5CB was observed to exhibit a non-trivial texture characterized by a disclination line, within the channel, which is broken into a zigzag pattern. Our calculations reveal that when the elastic anisotropy of the nematic does not favour twist distortions the defect is a straight disclination line that runs along the channel, which breaks into a zigzag pattern with a characteristic period, when the twist elastic constant becomes sufficiently small when compared to the splay and bend constants. The transition occurs through a twist instability that drives the defect line to rotate from its original position. The interplay between the energetically favourable twist distortions that induce the defect rotation and the liquid crystal anchoring at the surfaces leads to the zigzag pattern. We investigate in detail the dependence of the periodicity of the zigzag pattern on the geometrical parameters of the sinusoidal channels, which in line with the experimental results is found to be non-linear.

  16. Representative Sinusoids for Hepatic Four-Scale Pharmacokinetics Simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Ole Schwen

    Full Text Available The mammalian liver plays a key role for metabolism and detoxification of xenobiotics in the body. The corresponding biochemical processes are typically subject to spatial variations at different length scales. Zonal enzyme expression along sinusoids leads to zonated metabolization already in the healthy state. Pathological states of the liver may involve liver cells affected in a zonated manner or heterogeneously across the whole organ. This spatial heterogeneity, however, cannot be described by most computational models which usually consider the liver as a homogeneous, well-stirred organ. The goal of this article is to present a methodology to extend whole-body pharmacokinetics models by a detailed liver model, combining different modeling approaches from the literature. This approach results in an integrated four-scale model, from single cells via sinusoids and the organ to the whole organism, capable of mechanistically representing metabolization inhomogeneity in livers at different spatial scales. Moreover, the model shows circulatory mixing effects due to a delayed recirculation through the surrounding organism. To show that this approach is generally applicable for different physiological processes, we show three applications as proofs of concept, covering a range of species, compounds, and diseased states: clearance of midazolam in steatotic human livers, clearance of caffeine in mouse livers regenerating from necrosis, and a parameter study on the impact of different cell entities on insulin uptake in mouse livers. The examples illustrate how variations only discernible at the local scale influence substance distribution in the plasma at the whole-body level. In particular, our results show that simultaneously considering variations at all relevant spatial scales may be necessary to understand their impact on observations at the organism scale.

  17. Sinusoidal Obstruction Syndrome (Hepatic Veno-Occlusive Disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Cathy Q.; Crawford, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) is an obliterative venulitis of the terminal hepatic venules, which in its more severe forms imparts a high risk of mortality. SOS, also known as veno-occlusive disease (VOD), occurs as a result of cytoreductive therapy prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), following oxaliplatin-containing adjuvant or neoadjuvant chemotherapy for colorectal carcinoma metastatic to the liver and treated by partial hepatectomy, in patients taking pyrrolizidine alkaloid-containing herbal remedies, and in other particular settings such as the autosomal recessive condition of veno-occlusive disease with immunodeficiency (VODI). A central pathogenic event is toxic destruction of hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells (SEC), with sloughing and downstream occlusion of terminal hepatic venules. Contributing factors are SEC glutathione depletion, nitric oxide depletion, increased intrahepatic expression of matrix metalloproteinases and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and activation of clotting factors. The clinical presentation of SOS includes jaundice, development of right upper-quadrant pain and tender hepatomegaly, ascites, and unexplained weight gain. Owing to the potentially critical condition of these patients, transjugular biopsy may be the preferred route for liver biopsy to exclude other potential causes of liver dysfunction and to establish a diagnosis of SOS. Treatment includes rigorous fluid management so as to avoid excessive fluid overload while avoiding too rapid diuresis or pericentesis, potential use of pharmaceutics such as defibrotide, coagulolytic agents, or methylprednisolone, and liver transplantation. Proposed strategies for prevention and prophylaxis include reduced-intensity conditioning radiation for HSCT, treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid, and inclusion of bevacizumab with oxaliplatin-based chemotherapeutic regimes. While significant progress has been made in understanding the pathogenesis

  18. On the role of neutron activation analysis in the certification of a new reference material for trace-element studies, mixed human diet, H-9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parr, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    A new biological reference material, which is representative of diets consumed in Finland, was characterized by means of an intercomparison exercise conducted by the IAEA in the second half of 1985 and in 1986. Results for 35 elements received from 79 participants in 33 countries were evaluated. A certificate of analysis was issued with provisional certified values for 22 elements and information values for 2 elements. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) provided approximately one third of all the results reported. Instrumental NAA was used approximately 5 times as frequently as radiochemical NAA. Overall, NAA played an important role in providing useful data for the following 20 elements: Al, As, Br, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, F, Fe, Hg, I, K, Mn, Mo, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se and Zn. In comparison with the main competing non-nuclear method (usually atomic absorption spectrometry), NAA showed a larger dispersion of results for Cd, Cu, K and Mg, and a smaller degree of dispersion for Co, Cr, Hg and Se. (author) 17 refs.; 2 figs.; 3 tabs

  19. Determination of trace elements in human blood serum and in the standard reference material ''Bovine Liver'' by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behne, D.; Juergensen, H.

    1978-01-01

    Ag, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Na, Rb, Sb, Se and Zn were determined in biological materials by gamma-spectrometry of long-lived radionuclides after long-time irradiation with thermal neutrons. Blood was taken from a vein in the arm of the test person via an indwelling plastic cannula. The serum was separated from other blood components by centrifugation and stored at a temperature of -20 deg C. Ampoules of high purity silica quartz were chosen as irradiation containers. The vials were cleaned by etching with 40% hydrofluoric acid. For the analysis 300 μl of serum were taken. The ampoules were irradiated for 10 days at a thermal neutron flux density of 5.10 13 n.cm -2 .sec -1 . They were then cleaned by etching for 5 min with hydrofluoric acid. The gamma-ray spectra of the irradiated samples were measured twice. From the first spectra, which were obtained 10 days after irradiation, the concentrations of Br and Na were calculated. From the gamma-peaks after a decay time of 3 months Ag, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Rb, Sc, Se and Zn were determined. The accuracy and precision of the procedure were tested, using the standard reference material ''Bovine Liver'' and identical serum samples. In the case of blood serum the method proved to be suitable for the determination of Br, Cs, Fe, Na, Rb, Se and Zn. By analysing samples from several subjects information about element levels in human serum was obtained. (T.G.)

  20. Determination of trace sulfur in biodiesel and diesel standard reference materials by isotope dilution sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amais, Renata S. [Group of Applied Instrumental Analysis, Department of Chemistry, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Long, Stephen E. [Chemical Sciences Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Charleston, SC (United States); Nóbrega, Joaquim A. [Group of Applied Instrumental Analysis, Department of Chemistry, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Christopher, Steven J., E-mail: steven.christopher@nist.gov [Chemical Sciences Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2014-01-02

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Sulfur mass fractions are measured below 10 mg kg{sup −1} in diesel fuel materials. •SF-ICP-MS resolves molecular interferences, including oxygen and sulfur hydrides. •A detection limit of 0.7 mg kg{sup −1} (in the fuel sample) was obtained. -- Abstract: A method is described for quantification of sulfur at low concentrations on the order of mg kg{sup −1} in biodiesel and diesel fuels using isotope dilution and sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-SF-ICP-MS). Closed vessel microwave-assisted digestion was employed using a diluted nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide decomposition medium to reduce sample dilution volumes. Medium resolution mode was employed to eliminate isobaric interferences at {sup 32}S and {sup 34}S related to polyatomic phosphorus and oxygen species, and sulfur hydride species. The method outlined yielded respective limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) of 0.7 mg kg{sup −1} S and 2.5 mg kg{sup −1} S (in the sample). The LOD was constrained by instrument background counts at {sup 32}S but was sufficient to facilitate value assignment of total S mass fraction in NIST SRM 2723b Sulfur in Diesel Fuel Oil at 9.06 ± 0.13 mg kg{sup −1}. No statistically significant difference at a 95% confidence level was observed between the measured and certified values for certified reference materials NIST SRM 2773 B100 Biodiesel (Animal-Based), CENAM DRM 272b and NIST SRM 2723a Sulfur in Diesel Fuel Oil, validating method accuracy.

  1. DISPLAY OF PIXEL LOSS AND REPLICATION IN REPROJECTING RASTER DATA FROM THE SINUSOIDAL PROJECTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent studies show the sinusoidal projection to be a superior planar projection for representing global raster datasets. This study uses the sinusoidal projection as a basis for evaluating pixel loss and replication in eight other planar map projections. The percent of pixels ...

  2. Trace analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, M.

    1987-01-01

    What is the current state of quantitative trace analytical chemistry? What are today's research efforts? And what challenges does the future hold? These are some of the questions addressed at a recent four-day symposium sponsored by the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) entitled Accuracy in Trace Analysis - Accomplishments, Goals, Challenges. The two plenary sessions held on the first day of the symposium reviewed the history of quantitative trace analysis, discussed the present situation from academic and industrial perspectives, and summarized future needs. The remaining three days of the symposium consisted of parallel sessions dealing with the measurement process; quantitation in materials; environmental, clinical, and nutrient analysis; and advances in analytical techniques

  3. Isothermal sinusoidal analysis of balanced compound Vuilleumier heat pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finkelstein, T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on Vuilleumier heat pumps with balanced compounding which have been under investigation for about fifteen years but have not yet reached the stage of commercial utilization. Previously published analytical treatment based upon isothermal treatment of the variable-volume spaces resulted in closed form solution of considerable complexity of the coupled differential equations but applied only to free piston machines. In contrast, the procedure presented here is based on previously demonstrated sinusoidal excursions of the reciprocators. It is of the same order of accuracy, but much more simple and usable. It was found that there is only negligible difference between the results of the present and the previous approach. Additionally, the treatment presented here is applicable to kinematic machines, as well as to free piston machines. For the latter design, an equation for the natural frequency is also derived. Ideal proportions and practical expressions for the energy streams are derived. Gas forces are plotted versus displacement and it is shown that they are equivalent to a linear spring, which is of importance for the concept of a free-piston design

  4. Sinusoidal Wave Estimation Using Photogrammetry and Short Video Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Rupnik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the work is to model the shape of the sinusoidal shape of regular water waves generated in a laboratory flume. The waves are traveling in time and render a smooth surface, with no white caps or foam. Two methods are proposed, treating the water as a diffuse and specular surface, respectively. In either case, the water is presumed to take the shape of a traveling sine wave, reducing the task of the 3D reconstruction to resolve the wave parameters. The first conceived method performs the modeling part purely in 3D space. Having triangulated the points in a separate phase via bundle adjustment, a sine wave is fitted into the data in a least squares manner. The second method presents a more complete approach for the entire calculation workflow beginning in the image space. The water is perceived as a specular surface, and the traveling specularities are the only observations visible to the  cameras, observations that are notably single image. The depth ambiguity is removed given additional constraints encoded within the law of reflection and the modeled parametric surface. The observation and constraint equations compose a single system of equations that is solved with the method of least squares adjustment. The devised approaches are validated against the data coming from a capacitive level sensor and on physical targets floating on the surface. The outcomes agree to a high degree.

  5. Defibrotide in Severe Sinusoidal Obstruction Syndrome: Medicine and Economic Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steelandt, Julie; Bocquet, François; Cordonnier, Anne-Laure; De Courtivron, Charlotte; Fusier, Isabelle; Paubel, Pascal

    2017-02-01

    In Europe, Defitelio (defibrotide) has a Market Authorization in curative treatment of severe sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) but not in prophylaxis (2013). In France, defibrotide has had a compassionate-use program since 2009. Today, the high cost of defibrotide remains a major hurdle for hospital budgets. Medicine and economic issues were evaluated for the 39 hospitals of the French Public Assistance-Hospitals of Paris (AP-HP). We analyzed literature reviews, consumption, and expenditures through AP-HP data in 2014 and patient profiles with defibrotide in the corresponding diagnostic-related groups (DRGs) and consulted a board of hematologists. Finally, 18 publications were selected. Between 2011 and 2014 consumption increased to €5.2M. In 2014, 80 patients receiving defibrotide were mainly ascribed to the DRG "hematopoietic stem cell transplantation" levels 3 or 4. The tariffs attributed to drugs (€3544 to 4084) cover a small part of treatment costs (€97,524 for an adult). French experts thus recommended a harmonization of indications in prophylaxis (off-label use), improvement of pretransplant care, and optimization of the number of vials used. The economic impact led experts to change their practices. They recommended the restriction of defibrotide use to SOS curative treatment and to high-risk situations in prophylaxis. Copyright © 2017 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Sinusoidal visuomotor tracking: intermittent servo-control or coupled oscillations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, D M; Sternad, D

    2001-12-01

    In visuomotor tasks that involve accuracy demands, small directional changes in the trajectories have been taken as evidence of feedback-based error corrections. In the present study variability, or intermittency, in visuomanual tracking of sinusoidal targets was investigated. Two lines of analyses were pursued: First, the hypothesis that humans fundamentally act as intermittent servo-controllers was re-examined, probing the question of whether discontinuities in the movement trajectory directly imply intermittent control. Second, an alternative hypothesis was evaluated: that rhythmic tracking movements are generated by entrainment between the oscillations of the target and the actor, such that intermittency expresses the degree of stability. In 2 experiments, participants (N = 6 in each experiment) swung 1 of 2 different hand-held pendulums, tracking a rhythmic target that oscillated at different frequencies with a constant amplitude. In 1 line of analyses, the authors tested the intermittency hypothesis by using the typical kinematic error measures and spectral analysis. In a 2nd line, they examined relative phase and its variability, following analyses of rhythmic interlimb coordination. The results showed that visually guided corrective processes play a role, especially for slow movements. Intermittency, assessed as frequency and power components of the movement trajectory, was found to change as a function of both target frequency and the manipulandum's inertia. Support for entrainment was found in conditions in which task frequency was identical to or higher than the effector's eigenfrequency. The results suggest that it is the symmetry between task and effector that determines which behavioral regime is dominant.

  7. IAEA biological reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parr, R.M.; Schelenz, R.; Ballestra, S.

    1988-01-01

    The Analytical Quality Control Services programme of the IAEA encompasses a wide variety of intercomparisons and reference materials. This paper reviews only those aspects of the subject having to do with biological reference materials. The 1988 programme foresees 13 new intercomparison exercises, one for major, minor and trace elements, five for radionuclides, and seven for stable isotopes. Twenty-two natural matrix biological reference materials are available: twelve for major, minor and trace elements, six for radionuclides, and four for chlorinated hydrocarbons. Seven new intercomparisons and reference materials are in preparation or under active consideration. Guidelines on the correct use of reference materials are being prepared for publication in 1989 in consultation with other major international producers and users of biological reference materials. The IAEA database on available reference materials is being updated and expanded in scope, and a new publication is planned for 1989. (orig.)

  8. Full-Band Quasi-Harmonic Analysis and Synthesis of Musical Instrument Sounds with Adaptive Sinusoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Caetano

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sinusoids are widely used to represent the oscillatory modes of musical instrument sounds in both analysis and synthesis. However, musical instrument sounds feature transients and instrumental noise that are poorly modeled with quasi-stationary sinusoids, requiring spectral decomposition and further dedicated modeling. In this work, we propose a full-band representation that fits sinusoids across the entire spectrum. We use the extended adaptive Quasi-Harmonic Model (eaQHM to iteratively estimate amplitude- and frequency-modulated (AM–FM sinusoids able to capture challenging features such as sharp attacks, transients, and instrumental noise. We use the signal-to-reconstruction-error ratio (SRER as the objective measure for the analysis and synthesis of 89 musical instrument sounds from different instrumental families. We compare against quasi-stationary sinusoids and exponentially damped sinusoids. First, we show that the SRER increases with adaptation in eaQHM. Then, we show that full-band modeling with eaQHM captures partials at the higher frequency end of the spectrum that are neglected by spectral decomposition. Finally, we demonstrate that a frame size equal to three periods of the fundamental frequency results in the highest SRER with AM–FM sinusoids from eaQHM. A listening test confirmed that the musical instrument sounds resynthesized from full-band analysis with eaQHM are virtually perceptually indistinguishable from the original recordings.

  9. Computationally Efficient Amplitude Modulated Sinusoidal Audio Coding using Frequency-Domain Linear Prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, M. G.; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2006-01-01

    A method for amplitude modulated sinusoidal audio coding is presented that has low complexity and low delay. This is based on a subband processing system, where, in each subband, the signal is modeled as an amplitude modulated sum of sinusoids. The envelopes are estimated using frequency......-domain linear prediction and the prediction coefficients are quantized. As a proof of concept, we evaluate different configurations in a subjective listening test, and this shows that the proposed method offers significant improvements in sinusoidal coding. Furthermore, the properties of the frequency...

  10. Dynamic performance of maximum power point tracking circuits using sinusoidal extremum seeking control for photovoltaic generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva, R.; Artillan, P.; Cabal, C.; Estibals, B.; Alonso, C.

    2011-04-01

    The article studies the dynamic performance of a family of maximum power point tracking circuits used for photovoltaic generation. It revisits the sinusoidal extremum seeking control (ESC) technique which can be considered as a particular subgroup of the Perturb and Observe algorithms. The sinusoidal ESC technique consists of adding a small sinusoidal disturbance to the input and processing the perturbed output to drive the operating point at its maximum. The output processing involves a synchronous multiplication and a filtering stage. The filter instance determines the dynamic performance of the MPPT based on sinusoidal ESC principle. The approach uses the well-known root-locus method to give insight about damping degree and settlement time of maximum-seeking waveforms. This article shows the transient waveforms in three different filter instances to illustrate the approach. Finally, an experimental prototype corroborates the dynamic analysis.

  11. Influence of sinusoidal flow on the thermal and hydraulic performance of microchannel heat sink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Om, N I; Gunnasegaran, P; Rajasegaran, S

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of sinusoidal flow on the thermal and hydraulic performance of microchannel heat sink (MCHS) is numerically investigated. This investigation covers Reynolds number in the range of 100 ≤ Re ≤ 1000 and pure water is used as a working fluid. The three-dimensional steady, laminar flow and heat transfer governing equations are solved using finite volume method (FVM). The water flow field and heat transfer performance inside the sinusoidal microchannels is simulated and the results are compared with the straight microchannels. The effect of using sinusoidal microchannels on temperature distribution, Nusselt number, friction factor and thermal resistance is presented in this paper. It is found that with same rectangular cross-section, sinusoidal microchannels have a better heat transfer performance compared to the straight microchannels.

  12. An optimized method for mouse liver sinusoidal endothelial cell isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Jeremy, E-mail: jeremy.meyer@hcuge.ch [Division of Digestive and Transplantation Surgery, University Hospitals of Geneva, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, 1211 Genève 14 (Switzerland); Unit of Surgical Research, University of Geneva, Rue Michel-Servet 1, 1206 Genève (Switzerland); Lacotte, Stéphanie, E-mail: stephanie.lacotte@unige.ch [Unit of Surgical Research, University of Geneva, Rue Michel-Servet 1, 1206 Genève (Switzerland); Morel, Philippe, E-mail: philippe.morel@hcuge.ch [Division of Digestive and Transplantation Surgery, University Hospitals of Geneva, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, 1211 Genève 14 (Switzerland); Unit of Surgical Research, University of Geneva, Rue Michel-Servet 1, 1206 Genève (Switzerland); Gonelle-Gispert, Carmen, E-mail: carmen.gonelle@unige.ch [Unit of Surgical Research, University of Geneva, Rue Michel-Servet 1, 1206 Genève (Switzerland); Bühler, Léo, E-mail: leo.buhler@hcuge.ch [Division of Digestive and Transplantation Surgery, University Hospitals of Geneva, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, 1211 Genève 14 (Switzerland); Unit of Surgical Research, University of Geneva, Rue Michel-Servet 1, 1206 Genève (Switzerland)

    2016-12-10

    The objective of the present study was to develop an accurate and reproducible method for liver sinusoidal endothelial cell (LSEC) isolation in mice. Non-parenchymal cells were isolated using a modified two-step collagenase digestion combined with Optiprep density gradient centrifugation. LSEC were further purified using two prevalent methods, short-term selective adherence and CD146+ magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS), and compared in terms of cell yield, viability and purity to our purification technique using CD11b cell depletion combined with long-term selective adherence. LSEC purification using our technique allowed to obtain 7.07±3.80 million LSEC per liver, while CD146+ MACS and short-term selective adherence yielded 2.94±1.28 and 0.99±0.66 million LSEC, respectively. Purity of the final cell preparation reached 95.10±2.58% when using our method. In contrast, CD146+ MACS and short-term selective adherence gave purities of 86.75±3.26% and 47.95±9.82%, respectively. Similarly, contamination by non-LSEC was the lowest when purification was performed using our technique, with a proportion of contaminating macrophages of only 1.87±0.77%. Further, isolated cells analysed by scanning electron microscopy presented typical LSEC fenestrations organized in sieve plates, demonstrating that the technique allowed to isolate bona fide LSEC. In conclusion, we described a reliable and reproducible technique for the isolation of high yields of pure LSEC in mice. This protocol provides an efficient method to prepare LSEC for studying their biological functions. - Highlights: • This protocol provides an efficient method to prepare primary mouse LSEC for studying their biological functions. • The liver cell dispersion step was improved by performing a retrograde cannulation of the liver. • The cell yield and the purity obtained were higher than comparative techniques in mice. • Contaminating macrophages were removed by introducing a CD11b- magnetic

  13. An optimized method for mouse liver sinusoidal endothelial cell isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Jeremy; Lacotte, Stéphanie; Morel, Philippe; Gonelle-Gispert, Carmen; Bühler, Léo

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop an accurate and reproducible method for liver sinusoidal endothelial cell (LSEC) isolation in mice. Non-parenchymal cells were isolated using a modified two-step collagenase digestion combined with Optiprep density gradient centrifugation. LSEC were further purified using two prevalent methods, short-term selective adherence and CD146+ magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS), and compared in terms of cell yield, viability and purity to our purification technique using CD11b cell depletion combined with long-term selective adherence. LSEC purification using our technique allowed to obtain 7.07±3.80 million LSEC per liver, while CD146+ MACS and short-term selective adherence yielded 2.94±1.28 and 0.99±0.66 million LSEC, respectively. Purity of the final cell preparation reached 95.10±2.58% when using our method. In contrast, CD146+ MACS and short-term selective adherence gave purities of 86.75±3.26% and 47.95±9.82%, respectively. Similarly, contamination by non-LSEC was the lowest when purification was performed using our technique, with a proportion of contaminating macrophages of only 1.87±0.77%. Further, isolated cells analysed by scanning electron microscopy presented typical LSEC fenestrations organized in sieve plates, demonstrating that the technique allowed to isolate bona fide LSEC. In conclusion, we described a reliable and reproducible technique for the isolation of high yields of pure LSEC in mice. This protocol provides an efficient method to prepare LSEC for studying their biological functions. - Highlights: • This protocol provides an efficient method to prepare primary mouse LSEC for studying their biological functions. • The liver cell dispersion step was improved by performing a retrograde cannulation of the liver. • The cell yield and the purity obtained were higher than comparative techniques in mice. • Contaminating macrophages were removed by introducing a CD11b- magnetic

  14. Walking strategies of visually impaired people on trapezoidal- and sinusoidal-section tactile groundsurface indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranavolo, A; Conte, C; Iavicoli, S; Serrao, M; Silvetti, A; Sandrini, G; Pierelli, F; Draicchio, F

    2011-03-01

    The visual system in walking serves to perceive feedback or feed-forward signals. Therefore, visually impaired persons (VIP) have biased motor control mechanisms. The use of leading indicators (LIs) and long canes helps to improve their walking efficiency. The aims of this study were to compare the walking efficiency of VIP on trapezoidal- and sinusoidal-section LIs using an optoelectronic motion analysis system. VIP displayed a significantly longer stance phase, a shorter swing phase and shorter step and stride lengths when they walked on the sinusoidal LI than when they walked on the trapezoidal LI. Compared with the trapezoidal LI, VIP walking on the sinusoidal LI displayed significantly lower joint ranges of motion. The centre of mass lateral displacement was wider for VIP walking on the sinusoidal LI than on the trapezoidal LI. Some significant differences were also found in sighted persons walking on both LIs. In conclusion, the trapezoidal shape enabled visually impaired subjects to walk more efficiently, whereas the sinusoidal shape caused dynamic balance problems. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: These findings suggest that VIP can walk more efficiently, with a lower risk of falls, on trapezoidal-section than on sinusoidal-section LIs. These results should be considered when choosing the most appropriate ground tactile surface indicators for widespread use.

  15. Tracing Clues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt, Liv Egholm

    The past is all messiness and blurred relations. However, we tend to sort the messiness out through rigorous analytical studies leaving the messiness behind. Carlo Ginzburgs´ article Clues. Roots of an Evidential Paradigm from 1986 invigorates methodological elements of (historical) research, which...... central methodological elements will be further elaborated and discussed through a historical case study that traces how networks of philanthropic concepts and practices influenced the Danish welfare state in the period from the Danish constitution of 1849 until today. The overall aim of this paper...

  16. Electronically Tunable Quadrature Sinusoidal Oscillator with Equal Output Amplitudes during Frequency Tuning Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Den Satipar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new configuration of voltage-mode quadrature sinusoidal oscillator is proposed. The proposed oscillator employs two voltage differencing current conveyors (VDCCs, two resistors, and two grounded capacitors. In this design, the use of multiple/dual output terminal active building block is not required. The tuning of frequency of oscillation (FO can be done electronically by adjusting the bias current of active device without affecting condition of oscillation (CO. The electronic tuning can be done by controlling the bias current using a digital circuit. The amplitude of two sinusoidal outputs is equal when the frequency of oscillation is tuned. This makes the sinusoidal output voltages meet good total harmonic distortions (THD. Moreover, the proposed circuit can provide the sinusoidal output current with high impedance which is connected to external load or to another circuit without the use of buffer device. To confirm that the oscillator can generate the quadrature sinusoidal output signal, the experimental results using VDCC constructed from commercially available ICs are also included. The experimental results agree well with theoretical anticipation.

  17. New Canonic Active RC Sinusoidal Oscillator Circuits Using Second-Generation Current Conveyors with Application as a Wide-Frequency Digitally Controlled Sinusoid Generator

    OpenAIRE

    Abhirup Lahiri

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports two new circuit topologies using second-generation current conveyors (CCIIs) for realizing variable frequency sinusoidal oscillators with minimum passive components. The proposed topologies in this paper provide new realizations of resistance-controlled and capacitor-controlled variable frequency oscillators (VFOs) using only four passive components. The first topology employs three CCIIs, while the second topology employs two CCIIs. The second topology provides an advantag...

  18. Light scattering by sinusoidal surfaces: illumination windows and harmonics in standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, E; Lettieri, T R; Vorburger, T V

    1995-03-01

    Sinusoidal surfaces can be used as material standards to help calibrate instruments that measure the angular distribution of the intensity of light scattered by arbitrary surfaces, because the power in the diffraction peaks varies over several orders of magnitude. The calculated power in the higher-order diffraction peaks from sinusoidal surfaces expressed in terms of Bessel functions is much smaller than the values determined from angular distributions that are measured or computed from measured profiles, both of which are determined mainly by the harmonic contents of the profile. The finite size of the illuminated area, represented by an illumination window, gives rise to a background that is much larger than the calculated power in the higher-order peaks. For a rectangular window of a size equal to an even number of periods of the sinusoid, a computation of the power distribution produces minima at or near the location of the diffraction angles for higher-order diffraction angles.

  19. New Canonic Active RC Sinusoidal Oscillator Circuits Using Second-Generation Current Conveyors with Application as a Wide-Frequency Digitally Controlled Sinusoid Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhirup Lahiri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports two new circuit topologies using second-generation current conveyors (CCIIs for realizing variable frequency sinusoidal oscillators with minimum passive components. The proposed topologies in this paper provide new realizations of resistance-controlled and capacitor-controlled variable frequency oscillators (VFOs using only four passive components. The first topology employs three CCIIs, while the second topology employs two CCIIs. The second topology provides an advantageous feature of frequency tuning through two grounded elements. Application of the proposed circuits as a wide-frequency range digitally controlled sinusoid generator is exhibited wherein the digital frequency control has been enabled by replacing both the capacitors by two identical variable binary capacitor banks tunable by means of the same binary code. SPICE simulations of the CMOS implementation of the oscillators using 0.35 μm TSMC CMOS technology parameters and bipolar implementation of the oscillators using process parameters for NR200N-2X (NPN and PR200N-2X (PNP of bipolar arrays ALA400-CBIC-R have validated their workability. One of the oscillators (with CMOS implementation is exemplified as a digitally controlled sinusoid generator with frequency generation from 25 kHz to 6.36 MHz, achieved by switching capacitors and with power consumption of 7 mW in the entire operating frequency range.

  20. Trace spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fajstrup, Lisbeth; Goubault, Eric; Haucourt, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    in the interleaving semantics of a concurrent program, but rather some equivalence classes. The purpose of this paper is to describe a new algorithm to compute such equivalence classes, and a representative per class, which is based on ideas originating in algebraic topology. We introduce a geometric semantics...... of concurrent languages, where programs are interpreted as directed topological spaces, and study its properties in order to devise an algorithm for computing dihomotopy classes of execution paths. In particular, our algorithm is able to compute a control-flow graph for concurrent programs, possibly containing...... loops, which is “as reduced as possible” in the sense that it generates traces modulo equivalence. A preliminary implementation was achieved, showing promising results towards efficient methods to analyze concurrent programs, with very promising results compared to partial-order reduction techniques....

  1. Estimation of the second heart sound split using windowed sinusoidal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sæderup, Rasmus Gundorf; Hoang, Poul; Winther, Simon

    2018-01-01

    to the potential overlap between A2 and P2. In this paper, a model-based approach is proposed where both A2 and P2 are modeled as windowed sinusoids with their sum forming the S2 signal. Estimation of the model parameters and the S2 split form a non-convex optimization problem, where a local minimum is obtained...... using a sequential optimization procedure. First, the window parameters are found as the solution to a regularized least squares problem. Then, the frequencies and phases of the sinusoids are found by locating the maximal peaks of the heart signals’ frequency magnitudes, and using the corresponding...

  2. Do We Really Need Sinusoidal Surface Temperatures to Apply Heat Tracing Techniques to Estimate Streambed Fluid Fluxes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, C. H.; Tonina, D.; Applebee, R.; DeWeese, T.

    2017-12-01

    Two common refrains about using the one-dimensional advection diffusion equation to estimate fluid fluxes, thermal conductivity, or bed surface elevation from temperature time series in streambeds are that the solution assumes that 1) the surface boundary condition is a sine wave or nearly so, and 2) there is no gradient in mean temperature with depth. Concerns on these subjects are phrased in various ways, including non-stationarity in frequency, amplitude, or phase. Although the mathematical posing of the original solution to the problem might lead one to believe these constraints exist, the perception that they are a source of error is a fallacy. Here we re-derive the inverse solution of the 1-D advection-diffusion equation starting with an arbitrary surface boundary condition for temperature. In doing so, we demonstrate the frequency-independence of the solution, meaning any single frequency can be used in the frequency-domain solutions to estimate thermal diffusivity and 1-D fluid flux in streambeds, even if the forcing has multiple frequencies. This means that diurnal variations with asymmetric shapes, gradients in the mean temperature with depth, or `non-stationary' amplitude and frequency (or phase) do not actually represent violations of assumptions, and they should not cause errors in estimates when using one of the suite of existing solution methods derived based on a single frequency. Misattribution of errors to these issues constrains progress on solving real sources of error. Numerical and physical experiments are used to verify this conclusion and consider the utility of information at `non-standard' frequencies and multiple frequencies to augment the information derived from time series of temperature.

  3. Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells induce immunosuppressive IL-10-producing Th1 cells via the Notch pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neumann, Katrin; Rudolph, Christine; Neumann, Christian; Janke, Marko; Amsen, Derk; Scheffold, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Under homeostasis, liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) shift intrahepatic T-cell responses towards tolerance. However, the role of LSECs in the regulation of T-cell-induced liver inflammation is less clear. Here, we studied the capacity of LSECs to modulate pro-inflammatory Th1-cell

  4. Band structure and optical properties of sinusoidal superlattices: ZnSe1-xTex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, G.; Lee, S.; Furdyna, J. K.

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the band structure and optical selection rules in superlattices with a sinusoidal potential profile. The analysis is motivated by the recent successful fabrication of high quality ZnSe 1-x Te x superlattices in which the composition x varies sinusoidally along the growth direction. Although the band alignment in the ZnSe 1-x Te x sinusoidal superlattices is staggered (type II), they exhibit unexpectedly strong photoluminescence, thus suggesting interesting optical behavior. The band structure of such sinusoidal superlattices is formulated in terms of the nearly-free-electron (NFE) approximation, in which the superlattice potential is treated as a perturbation. The resulting band structure is unique, characterized by a single minigap separating two wide, free-electron-like subbands for both electrons and holes. Interband selection rules are derived for optical transitions involving conduction and valence-band states at the superlattice Brillouin-zone center, and at the zone edge. A number of transitions are predicted due to wave-function mixing of different subband states. It should be noted that the zone-center and zone-edge transitions are especially easy to distinguish in these superlattices because of the large width of the respective subbands. The results of the NFE approximation are shown to hold surprisingly well over a wide range of parameters, particularly when the period of the superlattice is short. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  5. A Perceptual Model for Sinusoidal Audio Coding Based on Spectral Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Par, S.; Kohlrausch, A.; Heusdens, R.; Jensen, J.; Holdt Jensen, S.

    2005-01-01

    Psychoacoustical models have been used extensively within audio coding applications over the past decades. Recently, parametric coding techniques have been applied to general audio and this has created the need for a psychoacoustical model that is specifically suited for sinusoidal modelling of

  6. A perceptual model for sinusoidal audio coding based on spectral integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Par, S.; Kohlrauch, A.; Heusdens, R.; Jensen, J.; Jensen, S.H.

    2005-01-01

    Psychoacoustical models have been used extensively within audio coding applications over the past decades. Recently, parametric coding techniques have been applied to general audio and this has created the need for a psychoacoustical model that is specifically suited for sinusoidal modelling of

  7. Comparison between the water activation effects by pulsed and sinusoidal helium plasma jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Han; Liu, Dingxin; Xia, Wenjie; Chen, Chen; Wang, Weitao; Liu, Zhijie; Wang, Xiaohua; Kong, Michael G.

    2018-01-01

    Comparisons between pulsed and sinusoidal plasma jets have been extensively reported for the discharge characteristics and gaseous reactive species, but rarely for the aqueous reactive species in water solutions treated by the two types of plasma jets. This motivates us to compare the concentrations of aqueous reactive species induced by a pulsed and a sinusoidal plasma jet, since it is widely reported that these aqueous reactive species play a crucial role in various plasma biomedical applications. Experimental results show that the aqueous H2O2, OH/O2-, and O2-/ONOO- induced by the pulsed plasma jet have higher concentrations, and the proportional difference increases with the discharge power. However, the emission intensities of OH(A) and O(3p5P) are higher for the sinusoidal plasma jet, which may be attributed to its higher gas temperature since more water vapor could participate in the plasma. In addition, the efficiency of bacterial inactivation induced by the pulsed plasma jet is higher than that for the sinusoidal plasma jet, in accordance with the concentration relation of aqueous reactive species for the two types of plasma jets.

  8. Efficiency enhancement of a self-propelled pitching profile using non-sinusoidal trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekadem, M.; Chihani, E.; Oualli, H.; Hanchi, S.; Bouabdallah, A.; Gad-El-Hak, M.

    2017-11-01

    A symmetrical profile is subjected to non-sinusoidal pitching motion. The airfoil has a chord length c = 0.006 m and a semi-circular leading edge with a diameter of D = 0.001 m. The extrados and intrados are two straight lines that intersect at a tapered trailing edge, and the pitching pivot point is positioned at the leading edge. The pitching frequency is in the range of 1 based upon the maximum profile thickness D varies in the range of 35 <= Re <= 210 , which matches insect's Reynolds numbers. The foil movement is executed using the dynamic mesh technique and a user defined function (UDF). The adopted mesh has 70,445 nodes with 5,1960 quadrilateral cells. The results are in good agreement with prior experiments, and, compared to sinusoidal oscillations, show that non-sinusoidal flapping trajectories lead to advancing velocity increase of 550%. Additionally, if improved propulsive efficiency is sought, non-sinusoidal flapping lead to better thrust.

  9. Measurement of definite integral of sinusoidal signal absolute value third power using digital stochastic method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beljić Željko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a special case of digital stochastic measurement of the third power of definite integral of sinusoidal signal’s absolute value, using 2-bit AD converters is presented. This case of digital stochastic method had emerged from the need to measure power and energy of the wind. Power and energy are proportional to the third power of wind speed. Anemometer output signal is sinusoidal. Therefore an integral of the third power of sinusoidal signal is zero. Two approaches are proposed for the third power calculation of the wind speed signal. One approach is to use absolute value of sinusoidal signal (before AD conversion for which there is no need of multiplier hardware change. The second approach requires small multiplier hardware change, but input signal remains unchanged. For the second approach proposed minimal hardware change was made to calculate absolute value of the result after AD conversion. Simulations have confirmed theoretical analysis. Expected precision of wind energy measurement of proposed device is better than 0,00051% of full scale. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR32019

  10. A Perceptual Model for Sinusoidal Audio Coding Based on Spectral Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Søren Holdt

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychoacoustical models have been used extensively within audio coding applications over the past decades. Recently, parametric coding techniques have been applied to general audio and this has created the need for a psychoacoustical model that is specifically suited for sinusoidal modelling of audio signals. In this paper, we present a new perceptual model that predicts masked thresholds for sinusoidal distortions. The model relies on signal detection theory and incorporates more recent insights about spectral and temporal integration in auditory masking. As a consequence, the model is able to predict the distortion detectability. In fact, the distortion detectability defines a (perceptually relevant norm on the underlying signal space which is beneficial for optimisation algorithms such as rate-distortion optimisation or linear predictive coding. We evaluate the merits of the model by combining it with a sinusoidal extraction method and compare the results with those obtained with the ISO MPEG-1 Layer I-II recommended model. Listening tests show a clear preference for the new model. More specifically, the model presented here leads to a reduction of more than 20% in terms of number of sinusoids needed to represent signals at a given quality level.

  11. Iron Losses in Electrical Machines Due to Non Sinusoidal Alternating Fluxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritchie, Ewen; Walker, J.A.; Dorrell, D. G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper shows how the flux waveform in the core of an electrical machine can be vary non- sinusoidally which complicates the calculation of the iron loss in a machine. A set of tests are conducted on a steel sample using an Epstein square where harmonics are injected into the flux waveform which...... of a machine....

  12. Stress singularities in a model of a wood disk under sinusoidal pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay A. Johnson; John C. Hermanson; Steven M. Cramer; Charles Amundson

    2005-01-01

    A thin, solid, circular wood disk, cut from the transverse plane of a tree stem, can be modeled as a cylindrically orthotropic elastic material. It is known that a stress singularity can occur at the center of a cylindrically orthotropic disk subjected to uniform pressure. If a solid cylindrically orthotropic disk is subjected to sinusoidal pressure distributions, then...

  13. An experimental study on flow friction and heat transfer of water in sinusoidal wavy silicon microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Houxue; Wu, Huiying; Zhang, Chi

    2018-05-01

    Sinusoidal wavy microchannels have been known as a more heat transfer efficient heat sink for the cooling of electronics than normal straight microchannels. However, the existing experimental study on wavy silicon microchannels with different phase differences are few. As a result of this, in this paper an experimental study has been conducted to investigate the single phase flow friction and heat transfer of de-ionized water in eight different sinusoidal wavy silicon microchannels (SWSMCs) and one straight silicon microchannel (SMC). The SWSMCs feature different phase differences (α  =  0 to π) and different relative wavy amplitudes (β  =  A/l  =  0.05 to 0.4), but the same average hydraulic diameters (D h  =  160 µm). It is found that both flow friction constant fRe and the Nusselt number depend on the phase difference and relative wavy amplitude. For sinusoidal wavy microchannels with a relative wavy amplitude (β  =  0.05), the Nusselt number increased noticeably with the phase difference for Re  >  250, but the effect was insignificant for Re  reducing the wavy wave length induced higher pressure drop and apparent friction constant fRe, while the Nusselt number increased with relative wavy amplitude for Re  >  300. The results indicate that the thermal resistances of sinusoidal wavy silicon microchannels were generally lower than that of straight silicon microchannels, and the thermal resistance decreased with the increase in relative wavy amplitude. The enhancement of thermal performance is attributed to the flow re-circulation occurring in the corrugation troughs and the secondary flows or Dean vortices introduced by curved channels. It is concluded that silicon sinusoidal wavy microchannels provide higher heat transfer rate albeit with a higher flow friction, making it a better choice for the cooling of high heat flux electronics.

  14. Dynamic Characteristics of Ventilatory and Gas Exchange during Sinusoidal Walking in Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Fukuoka

    Full Text Available Our present study investigated whether the ventilatory and gas exchange responses show different dynamics in response to sinusoidal change in cycle work rate or walking speed even if the metabolic demand was equivalent in both types of exercise. Locomotive parameters (stride length and step frequency, breath-by-breath ventilation (V̇E and gas exchange (CO2 output (V̇CO2 and O2 uptake (V̇O2 responses were measured in 10 healthy young participants. The speed of the treadmill was sinusoidally changed between 3 km·h-1 and 6 km·h-1 with various periods (from 10 to 1 min. The amplitude of locomotive parameters against sinusoidal variation showed a constant gain with a small phase shift, being independent of the oscillation periods. In marked contrast, when the periods of the speed oscillations were shortened, the amplitude of V̇E decreased sharply whereas the phase shift of V̇E increased. In comparing walking and cycling at the equivalent metabolic demand, the amplitude of V̇E during sinusoidal walking (SW was significantly greater than that during sinusoidal cycling (SC, and the phase shift became smaller. The steeper slope of linear regression for the V̇E amplitude ratio to V̇CO2 amplitude ratio was observed during SW than SC. These findings suggested that the greater amplitude and smaller phase shift of ventilatory dynamics were not equivalent between SW and SC even if the metabolic demand was equivalent between both exercises. Such phenomenon would be derived from central command in proportion to locomotor muscle recruitment (feedforward and muscle afferent feedback.

  15. Radioactive certified reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Kazuo

    2010-01-01

    Outline of radioactive certified reference materials (CRM) for the analysis of nuclear materials and radioactive nuclides were described. The nuclear fuel CRMs are supplied by the three institutes: NBL in the US, CETAMA in France and IRMM in Belgium. For the RI CRMs, the Japan Radioisotope Association is engaged in activities concerning supply. The natural-matrix CRMs for the analysis of trace levels of radio-nuclides are prepared and supplied by NIST in the US and the IAEA. (author)

  16. Epidemic contact tracing via communication traces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katayoun Farrahi

    Full Text Available Traditional contact tracing relies on knowledge of the interpersonal network of physical interactions, where contagious outbreaks propagate. However, due to privacy constraints and noisy data assimilation, this network is generally difficult to reconstruct accurately. Communication traces obtained by mobile phones are known to be good proxies for the physical interaction network, and they may provide a valuable tool for contact tracing. Motivated by this assumption, we propose a model for contact tracing, where an infection is spreading in the physical interpersonal network, which can never be fully recovered; and contact tracing is occurring in a communication network which acts as a proxy for the first. We apply this dual model to a dataset covering 72 students over a 9 month period, for which both the physical interactions as well as the mobile communication traces are known. Our results suggest that a wide range of contact tracing strategies may significantly reduce the final size of the epidemic, by mainly affecting its peak of incidence. However, we find that for low overlap between the face-to-face and communication interaction network, contact tracing is only efficient at the beginning of the outbreak, due to rapidly increasing costs as the epidemic evolves. Overall, contact tracing via mobile phone communication traces may be a viable option to arrest contagious outbreaks.

  17. Epidemic contact tracing via communication traces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrahi, Katayoun; Emonet, Rémi; Cebrian, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Traditional contact tracing relies on knowledge of the interpersonal network of physical interactions, where contagious outbreaks propagate. However, due to privacy constraints and noisy data assimilation, this network is generally difficult to reconstruct accurately. Communication traces obtained by mobile phones are known to be good proxies for the physical interaction network, and they may provide a valuable tool for contact tracing. Motivated by this assumption, we propose a model for contact tracing, where an infection is spreading in the physical interpersonal network, which can never be fully recovered; and contact tracing is occurring in a communication network which acts as a proxy for the first. We apply this dual model to a dataset covering 72 students over a 9 month period, for which both the physical interactions as well as the mobile communication traces are known. Our results suggest that a wide range of contact tracing strategies may significantly reduce the final size of the epidemic, by mainly affecting its peak of incidence. However, we find that for low overlap between the face-to-face and communication interaction network, contact tracing is only efficient at the beginning of the outbreak, due to rapidly increasing costs as the epidemic evolves. Overall, contact tracing via mobile phone communication traces may be a viable option to arrest contagious outbreaks.

  18. The two dynamical states in sinusoidal potentials: An analog simulation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawkmie, Ivan Skhem; Mahato, Mangal C.

    2018-04-01

    The phenomenon of stochastic resonance (SR) is usually found to occur theoretically as well as experimentally in bi-stable systems [1]. Recently, it was numerically shown that SR is found to occur in underdamped (friction coefficient γ) sinusoidal potentials also. The occurrence of SR is explained in terms of two competing dynamical states of trajectories as a response to the external periodic drive. We setup an analog simulation experiment similar to the analog simulation work done earlier to study stochastic nonlinear dynamics [2], to verify the existence of the two dynamical states and to investigate the occurrence of SR in sinusoidal potentials obtained earlier [3]. We discuss our experimental setup and the results obtained in detail.

  19. Compact broadband polarization beam splitter using a symmetric directional coupler with sinusoidal bends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Yun, Han; Wang, Yun; Lu, Zeqin; Chrostowski, Lukas; Jaeger, Nicolas A F

    2017-01-15

    We design and demonstrate a compact broadband polarization beam splitter (PBS) using a symmetric directional coupler with sinusoidal bends on a silicon-on-insulator platform. The sinusoidal bends in our PBS suppress the power exchange between two parallel symmetric strip waveguides for the transverse-electric (TE) mode, while allowing for the maximum power transfer to the adjacent waveguide for the transverse-magnetic (TM) mode. Our PBS has a nominal coupler length of 8.55 μm, and it has an average extinction ratio (ER) of 12.0 dB for the TE mode, an average ER of 20.1 dB for the TM mode, an average polarization isolation (PI) of 20.6 dB for the through port, and an average PI of 11.5 dB for the cross port, all over a bandwidth of 100 nm.

  20. Levitation performance of high-T{sub c} superconductor in sinusoidal guideway magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, W. [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China)], E-mail: asclab@asclab.cn; Wang, J.S.; Jing, H.; Jiang, M.; Zheng, J.; Wang, S.Y. [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China)

    2008-12-01

    The vertical component of the Halbach array's magnetic field exhibits a sinusoid distribution because of the closed magnetic flux area between two neighbouring poles, so this field can be regarded as the sinusoidal magnetic field. This article mainly discusses the influence of the closed flux region on the levitation performance of the bulk high-temperature superconductor (HTS). Moreover, the levitation performance is compared between the closed and diverging region of magnetic flux. The experimental results can be analyzed by the magnetic circuit theory and the frozen-image model. The analysis indicates that the closed region of magnetic flux can influence the levitation performance of bulk HTS obviously and provide an extra useful guidance force. These conclusions are helpful to optimize the HTS Maglev system.

  1. New Results on Single-Channel Speech Separation Using Sinusoidal Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mowlaee, Pejman; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2011-01-01

    We present new results on single-channel speech separation and suggest a new separation approach to improve the speech quality of separated signals from an observed mix- ture. The key idea is to derive a mixture estimator based on sinusoidal parameters. The proposed estimator is aimed at finding...... mixture estimator used in binary masks and the Wiener filtering approach, it is observed that the proposed method achieves an acceptable perceptual speech quality with less cross- talk at different signal-to-signal ratios. Moreover, the method is independent of pitch estimates and reduces the computational...... complexity of the separation by replacing the short-time Fourier transform (STFT) feature vectors of high dimensionality with sinusoidal feature vectors. We report separation results for the proposed method and compare them with respect to other benchmark methods. The improvements made by applying...

  2. [Defibrotide therapy for patients with sinusoidal obstruction syndrome after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakushijin, Kimikazu; Okamura, Atsuo; Ono, Kanako; Kawano, Yuko; Kawano, Hiroki; Funakoshi, Yohei; Kawamori, Yuriko; Nishikawa, Shinichiro; Minagawa, Kentaro; Sada, Akiko; Shimoyama, Manabu; Yamamoto, Katsuya; Katayama, Yoshio; Matsui, Toshimitsu

    2009-01-01

    Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) is one of the life-threatening complications caused by endothelial damage to the hepatic sinusoids after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. However, a satisfactory treatment for SOS has not yet been established. Defibrotide has anti-thrombotic, anti-ischemic, anti-inflammatory, and thrombolytic properties without systemic anticoagulant effects. We treated eight post-transplant SOS patients with defibrotide. Three patients responded to the therapy and the initial response was observed within a week. In addition to the improvement of liver function, rapid recovery of response to diuretic drugs followed by the improvement of renal function was observed. All of the five patients with respiratory dysfunction died despite administration of defibrotide, suggesting that early treatment might lead to better outcomes. There were no severe adverse effects directly due to defibrotide administration. Defibrotide seems to be a promising treatment for SOS, and the initiation of a clinical study in Japan would be important.

  3. CFD study on NACA 4415 airfoil implementing spherical and sinusoidal Tubercle Leading Edge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aftab, S M A; Ahmad, K A

    2017-01-01

    The Humpback whale tubercles have been studied for more than a decade. Tubercle Leading Edge (TLE) effectively reduces the separation bubble size and helps in delaying stall. They are very effective in case of low Reynolds number flows. The current Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) study is on NACA 4415 airfoil, at a Reynolds number 120,000. Two TLE shapes are tested on NACA 4415 airfoil. The tubercle designs implemented on the airfoil are sinusoidal and spherical. A parametric study is also carried out considering three amplitudes (0.025c, 0.05c and 0.075c), the wavelength (0.25c) is fixed. Structured mesh is utilized to generate grid and Transition SST turbulence model is used to capture the flow physics. Results clearly show spherical tubercles outperform sinusoidal tubercles. Furthermore experimental study considering spherical TLE is carried out at Reynolds number 200,000. The experimental results show that spherical TLE improve performance compared to clean airfoil.

  4. Flow and heat transfer characteristics in a channel having furrowed wall based on sinusoidal wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jiansheng; Gao, Xiaoming; Li, Weiyi [Tianjin University, Tianjin (Switzerland)

    2015-11-15

    The effect of wall geometry on the flow and heat transfer in a channel with one lower furrowed and an upper flat wall kept at a uniform temperature is investigated by large eddy simulation. Three channels, one with sinusoidal wavy surface having the ratio (amplitude to wavelength) α/λ=0.05 and the other two with furrowed surface derived from the sinusoidal curve, are considered. The numerical results show that the streamwise vortices center is located near the lower wall and vary along the streamwise on various furrow surfaces. The furrow geometry increases the pressure drag and decreases the friction drag of the furrowed surface compared with that of the smooth surface; consequently, the total drag is increased for the augment of pressure drag. As expected, the heat transfer performance has been improved. Finally, a thermal performance factor is defined to evaluate the performance of the furrowed wall.

  5. Realization of Electronically Tunable Current- Mode Multiphase Sinusoidal Oscillators Using CFTAs

    OpenAIRE

    Prungsak Uttaphut

    2012-01-01

    An implementation of current-mode multiphase sinusoidal oscillators is presented. Using CFTA-based lossy integrators, odd and odd/even phase systems can be realized with following advantages. The condition of oscillation and frequency of oscillation can be orthogonally tuned. The high output impedances facilitate easy driving an external load without additional current buffers. The proposed MSOs provide odd or even phase signals that are equally spaced in phase and equal amplitude. The circui...

  6. Highly enhanced avalanche probability using sinusoidally-gated silicon avalanche photodiode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Shingo; Namekata, Naoto, E-mail: nnao@phys.cst.nihon-u.ac.jp; Inoue, Shuichiro [Institute of Quantum Science, Nihon University, 1-8-14 Kanda-Surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan); Tsujino, Kenji [Tokyo Women' s Medical University, 8-1 Kawada-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8666 (Japan)

    2014-01-27

    We report on visible light single photon detection using a sinusoidally-gated silicon avalanche photodiode. Detection efficiency of 70.6% was achieved at a wavelength of 520 nm when an electrically cooled silicon avalanche photodiode with a quantum efficiency of 72.4% was used, which implies that a photo-excited single charge carrier in a silicon avalanche photodiode can trigger a detectable avalanche (charge) signal with a probability of 97.6%.

  7. [The sequential use of local vacuum magnetotherapy and papaverine electrophoresis with sinusoidal modulated currents in impotence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpukhin, I V; Bogomol'nyĭ, V A

    1997-01-01

    105 patients with chronic nonspecific prostatitis were examined and treated with papaverin electrophoresis using sinusoidal modulated currents (SMC) and local vacuum magnetotherapy (LVMT). Papaverin SMC electrophoresis and LVMT stimulated cavernous circulation. The highest stimulation was achieved at successive use of LVMT and the electrophoresis. LVMT followed by the electrophoresis maintained good cavernous circulation for 5-6 hours after the procedure in the course of which several spontaneous erections were observed.

  8. Core losses of a permanent magnet synchronous motor with an amorphous stator core under inverter and sinusoidal excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Atsushi; Sugimoto, Takaya; Odawara, Shunya; Fujisaki, Keisuke

    2018-05-01

    We report core loss properties of permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM) with amorphous magnetic materials (AMM) core under inverter and sinusoidal excitations. To discuss the core loss properties of AMM core, a comparison with non-oriented (NO) core is also performed. In addition, based on both experiments and numerical simulations, we estimate higher (time and space) harmonic components of the core losses under inverter and sinusoidal excitations. The core losses of PMSM are reduced by about 59% using AMM stator core instead of NO core under sinusoidal excitation. We show that the average decrease obtained by using AMM instead of NO in the stator core is about 94% in time harmonic components.

  9. Intravascular Immune Surveillance by CXCR6+ NKT Cells Patrolling Liver Sinusoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geissmann Frederic

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the in vivo behavior of liver natural killer T cells (NKT cells by intravital fluorescence microscopic imaging of mice in which a green fluorescent protein cDNA was used to replace the gene encoding the chemokine receptor CXCR6. NKT cells, which account for most CXCR6+ cells in liver, were found to crawl within hepatic sinusoids at 10-20 µm/min and to stop upon T cell antigen receptor activation. CXCR6-deficient mice exhibited a selective and severe reduction of CD1d-reactive NKT cells in the liver and decreased susceptibility to T-cell-dependent hepatitis. CXCL16, the cell surface ligand for CXCR6, is expressed on sinusoidal endothelial cells, and CXCR6 deficiency resulted in reduced survival, but not in altered speed or pattern of patrolling of NKT cells. Thus, NKT cells patrol liver sinusoids to provide intravascular immune surveillance, and CXCR6 contributes to liver-based immune responses by regulating their abundance.

  10. Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS): A light and electron microscopy study in human liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreuls, C P H; Driessen, A; Olde Damink, S W M; Koek, G H; Duimel, H; van den Broek, M A J; Dejong, C H C; Braet, F; Wisse, E

    2016-05-01

    Oxaliplatin is an important chemotherapeutic agent, used in the treatment of hepatic colorectal metastases, and known to induce the sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS). Pathophysiological knowledge concerning SOS is based on a rat model. Therefore, the aim was to perform a comprehensive study of the features of human SOS, using both light microscopy (LM) and electron microscopy (EM). Included were all patients of whom wedge liver biopsies were collected during a partial hepatectomy for colorectal liver metastases, in a 4-year period. The wedge biopsy were perfusion fixated and processed for LM and EM. The SOS lesions were selected by LM and details were studied using EM. Material was available of 30 patients, of whom 28 patients received neo-adjuvant oxaliplatin. Eighteen (64%) of the 28 patients showed SOS lesions, based on microscopy. The lesions consisted of sinusoidal endothelial cell detachment from the space of Disse on EM. In the enlarged space of Disse a variable amount of erythrocytes were located. Sinusoidal endothelial cell detachment was present in human SOS, accompanied by enlargement of the space of Disse and erythrocytes in this area. These findings, originally described in a rat model, were now for the first time confirmed in human livers under clinically relevant settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysis of Passive Mixing in a Serpentine Microchannel with Sinusoidal Side Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Usman Javaid

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sample mixing is difficult in microfluidic devices because of laminar flow. Micromixers are designed to ensure the optimal use of miniaturized devices. The present study aims to design a chaotic-advection-based passive micromixer with enhanced mixing efficiency. A serpentine-shaped microchannel with sinusoidal side walls was designed, and three cases, with amplitude to wavelength (A/λ ratios of 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2 were investigated. Numerical simulations were conducted using the Navier–Stokes equations, to determine the flow field. The flow was then coupled with the convection–diffusion equation to obtain the species concentration distribution. The mixing performance of sinusoidal walled channels was compared with that of a simple serpentine channel for Reynolds numbers ranging from 0.1 to 50. Secondary flows were observed at high Reynolds numbers that mixed the fluid streams. These flows were dominant in the proposed sinusoidal walled channels, thereby showing better mixing performance than the simple serpentine channel at similar or less mixing cost. Higher mixing efficiency was obtained by increasing the A/λ ratio.

  12. Evaluation of Steel Shear Walls Behavior with Sinusoidal and Trapezoidal Corrugated Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Hosseinpour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Reinforcement of structures aims to control the input energy of unnatural and natural forces. In the past four decades, steel shear walls are utilized in huge constructions in some seismic countries such as Japan, United States, and Canada to lessen the risk of destructive forces. The steel shear walls are divided into two types: unstiffened and stiffened. In the former, a series of plates (sinusoidal and trapezoidal corrugated with light thickness are used that have the postbuckling field property under overall buckling. In the latter, steel profile belt series are employed as stiffeners with different arrangement: horizontal, vertical, or diagonal in one side or both sides of wall. In the unstiffened walls, increasing the thickness causes an increase in the wall capacity under large forces in tall structures. In the stiffened walls, joining the stiffeners to the wall is costly and time consuming. The ANSYS software was used to analyze the different models of unstiffened one-story steel walls with sinusoidal and trapezoidal corrugated plates under lateral load. The obtained results demonstrated that, in the walls with the same dimensions, the trapezoidal corrugated plates showed higher ductility and ultimate bearing compared to the sinusoidal corrugated plates.

  13. Methodology for the characterization and radioactive tracing of a reference to the control of radioactive material in steel mills; Metodologia para la caracterizacion y trazado radiactivo de un material de referencia para el control radiactivo en acerias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejuto Mendieta, M.; Crespo Vazquez, M. T.; Peyres Medina, V.; Garcia-Torano, E.; Perez del Villar, L.

    2013-07-01

    One of the tasks which corresponded you to the Laboratory of Metrology of Ionizing Radiation CIEMAT, consists of the preparation of the reference standards of a black slag from steel making drawn {sup 2}26Ra, {sup 1}37Cs, {sup 6}0Co. This work summarizes the steps followed for the preparation of the reference standards of the slag, including the physical sample preparation, chemical, mineralogical and radioactive characterization as well as the development of the method of path with the above listed radionuclides. (Author)

  14. Trace element measurements with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, A.L.; Kraner, H.W.; Jones, K.W.; Gordon, B.M.; Mills, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    Aspects of the application of synchrotron radiation to trace element determinations by x-ray fluorescence have been investigated using beams from the Cornell facility, CHESS. Fluoresced x rays were detected with a Si(Li) detector placed 4 cm from the target at 90 0 to the beam. Thick samples of NBS Standard Reference Materials were used to calibrate trace element sensitivity and estimate minimum detectable limits for this method

  15. Trace amount analysis using spark mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefani, Rene

    1975-01-01

    Characteristics of spark mass spectrometers (ion source, properties of the ion beam, ion optics, and performance) and their use in qualitative and quantitative analysis are described. This technique is very interesting for the semi-quantitative analysis of trace amounts, down to 10 -8 atoms. Examples of applications such as the analysis of high purity materials and non-conducting mineral samples, and determination of carbon and gas trace amounts are presented. (50 references) [fr

  16. Growth references

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, S. van

    2007-01-01

    A growth reference describes the variation of an anthropometric measurement within a group of individuals. A reference is a tool for grouping and analyzing data and provides a common basis for comparing populations.1 A well known type of reference is the age-conditional growth diagram. The

  17. Unique cell type-specific junctional complexes in vascular endothelium of human and rat liver sinusoids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyrill Géraud

    Full Text Available Liver sinusoidal endothelium is strategically positioned to control access of fluids, macromolecules and cells to the liver parenchyma and to serve clearance functions upstream of the hepatocytes. While clearance of macromolecular debris from the peripheral blood is performed by liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs using a delicate endocytic receptor system featuring stabilin-1 and -2, the mannose receptor and CD32b, vascular permeability and cell trafficking are controlled by transcellular pores, i.e. the fenestrae, and by intercellular junctional complexes. In contrast to blood vascular and lymphatic endothelial cells in other organs, the junctional complexes of LSECs have not yet been consistently characterized in molecular terms. In a comprehensive analysis, we here show that LSECs express the typical proteins found in endothelial adherens junctions (AJ, i.e. VE-cadherin as well as α-, β-, p120-catenin and plakoglobin. Tight junction (TJ transmembrane proteins typical of endothelial cells, i.e. claudin-5 and occludin, were not expressed by rat LSECs while heterogenous immunreactivity for claudin-5 was detected in human LSECs. In contrast, junctional molecules preferentially associating with TJ such as JAM-A, B and C and zonula occludens proteins ZO-1 and ZO-2 were readily detected in LSECs. Remarkably, among the JAMs JAM-C was considerably over-expressed in LSECs as compared to lung microvascular endothelial cells. In conclusion, we show here that LSECs form a special kind of mixed-type intercellular junctions characterized by co-occurrence of endothelial AJ proteins, and of ZO-1 and -2, and JAMs. The distinct molecular architecture of the intercellular junctional complexes of LSECs corroborates previous ultrastructural findings and provides the molecular basis for further analyses of the endothelial barrier function of liver sinusoids under pathologic conditions ranging from hepatic inflammation to formation of liver metastasis.

  18. Iodine-frequency-stabilized laser diode and displacement-measuring interferometer based on sinusoidal phase modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Quang Anh; Vu, Thanh Tung; Higuchi, Masato; Wei, Dong; Aketagawa, Masato

    2018-06-01

    We propose a sinusoidal phase modulation method to achieve both the frequency stabilization of an external-cavity laser diode (ECLD) to an 127I2 saturated absorption transition near 633 nm and displacement measurement using a Mach–Zehnder interferometer. First, the frequency of the ECLD is stabilized to the b 21 hyperfine component of the P(33) 6-3 transition of 127I2 by combining sinusoidal phase modulation by an electro-optic modulator and frequency modulation spectroscopy by chopping the pump beam using an acousto-optic modulator. Even though a small modulation index of m  =  3.768 rad is utilized, a relative frequency stability of 10‑11 order is obtained over a sampling time of 400 s. Secondly, the frequency-stabilized ECLD is applied as a light source to a Mach–Zehnder interferometer. From the two consecutive modulation harmonics (second and third orders) involved in the interferometer signal, the displacement of the moving mirror is determined for four optical path differences (L 0  =  100, 200, 500, and 1000 mm). The measured modulation indexes for the four optical path differences coincide with the designated value (3.768 rad) within 0.5%. Compared with the sinusoidal frequency modulation Michelson interferometer (Vu et al 2016 Meas. Sci. Technol. 27 105201) which was demonstrated by some of the same authors of this paper, the phase modulation Mach–Zhender interferometer could fix the modulation index to a constant value for the four optical path differences. In this report, we discuss the measurement principle, experimental system, and results.

  19. THE RESONANT OVERVOLTAGE IN NON-SINUSOIDAL MODE OF MAIN ELECTRIC NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Kuznetsov

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The resonant overvoltage arises in main electrical networks as a result of random coincidence of some parameters of circuit and its mode and it may exist for a relatively long time. Therefore, the traditional means of limitation of short duration commutation surges are not effective in this case. The study determines conditions of appearance and development of non-sinusoidal mode after switching idle autotransformer to the overhead line of extra high voltage. The purpose of the paper is to choice measures for prevention overvoltage, too. Methodology. The study has used the result of extra high voltage line testing, the methods of electric circuit theory and the simulation in the MATLAB & Simulink package. Results. The simulation model of the extra high voltage transmission line for the study of resonant non-sinusoidal overvoltage is developed. The conditions for the appearance of resonant circuits in the real power line are found and harmonic frequency in which overvoltage arises are obtained. The study proposes using the controlled switching device as a measure to prevent resonance surges and determines the appropriate settings. Originality. The expression for calculation of resonant length of extra high voltage line was derived. The special investigation of processes in the resonant circuit of the extra high voltage transmission line for higher harmonic components of voltage is carried out. The program of switching for control apparatus that prevents non-sinusoidal overvoltage has been developed at the first time. Practical value. The using of the proposed settings of controlled switchgear will prevent the occurrence of hazardous resonant surge on higher harmonic components of voltage.

  20. 3D hepatic cultures simultaneously maintain primary hepatocyte and liver sinusoidal endothelial cell phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeonhee Kim

    Full Text Available Developing in vitro engineered hepatic tissues that exhibit stable phenotype is a major challenge in the field of hepatic tissue engineering. However, the rapid dedifferentiation of hepatic parenchymal (hepatocytes and non-parenchymal (liver sinusoidal endothelial, LSEC cell types when removed from their natural environment in vivo remains a major obstacle. The primary goal of this study was to demonstrate that hepatic cells cultured in layered architectures could preserve or potentially enhance liver-specific behavior of both cell types. Primary rat hepatocytes and rat LSECs (rLSECs were cultured in a layered three-dimensional (3D configuration. The cell layers were separated by a chitosan-hyaluronic acid polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM, which served to mimic the Space of Disse. Hepatocytes and rLSECs exhibited several key phenotypic characteristics over a twelve day culture period. Immunostaining for the sinusoidal endothelial 1 antibody (SE-1 demonstrated that rLSECs cultured in the 3D hepatic model maintained this unique feature over twelve days. In contrast, rLSECs cultured in monolayers lost their phenotype within three days. The unique stratified structure of the 3D culture resulted in enhanced heterotypic cell-cell interactions, which led to improvements in hepatocyte functions. Albumin production increased three to six fold in the rLSEC-PEM-Hepatocyte cultures. Only rLSEC-PEM-Hepatocyte cultures exhibited increasing CYP1A1/2 and CYP3A activity. Well-defined bile canaliculi were observed only in the rLSEC-PEM-Hepatocyte cultures. Together, these data suggest that rLSEC-PEM-Hepatocyte cultures are highly suitable models to monitor the transformation of toxins in the liver and their transport out of this organ. In summary, these results indicate that the layered rLSEC-PEM-hepatocyte model, which recapitulates key features of hepatic sinusoids, is a potentially powerful medium for obtaining comprehensive knowledge on liver metabolism

  1. Impact Testing and Simulation of a Sinusoid Foam Sandwich Energy Absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Karen E.; Fasanella, Edwin L; Littell, Justin D.

    2015-01-01

    A sinusoidal-shaped foam sandwich energy absorber was developed and evaluated at NASA Langley Research Center through multi-level testing and simulation performed under the Transport Rotorcraft Airframe Crash Testbed (TRACT) research project. The energy absorber, designated the "sinusoid," consisted of hybrid carbon- Kevlar® plain weave fabric face sheets, two layers for each face sheet oriented at +/-45deg with respect to the vertical or crush direction, and a closed-cell ELFOAM(TradeMark) P200 polyisocyanurate (2.0-lb/ft3) foam core. The design goal for the energy absorber was to achieve an average floor-level acceleration of between 25- and 40-g during the full-scale crash test of a retrofitted CH-46E helicopter airframe, designated TRACT 2. Variations in the design were assessed through quasi-static and dynamic crush testing of component specimens. Once the design was finalized, a 5-ft-long subfloor beam was fabricated and retrofitted into a barrel section of a CH-46E helicopter. A vertical drop test of the barrel section was conducted onto concrete to evaluate the performance of the energy absorber prior to retrofit into TRACT 2. Finite element models were developed of all test articles and simulations were performed using LSDYNA ®, a commercial nonlinear explicit transient dynamic finite element code. Test analysis results are presented for the sinusoid foam sandwich energy absorber as comparisons of load-displacement and acceleration-time-history responses, as well as predicted and experimental structural deformations and progressive damage for each evaluation level (component testing through barrel section drop testing).

  2. Generation of hyperchaos from the Chen-Lee system via sinusoidal perturbation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tam, L.M. [Department of Electromechanical Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Macau, Av. Padre Thomas Pereira S.J., Taipa, Macau (China)], E-mail: fstlmt@umac.mo; Chen, J.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chung Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Chen, H.K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hsiuping Institute of Technology, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Wai Meng Si Tou [Department of Electromechanical Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Macau, Av. Padre Thomas Pereira S.J., Taipa, Macau (China)

    2008-11-15

    A system with more than one positive Lyapunov exponent can be classified as a hyperchaotic system. In this study, a sinusoidal perturbation was designed for generating hyperchaos from the Chen-Lee chaotic system. The hyperchaos was identified by the existence of two positive Lyapunov exponents and bifurcation diagrams. The system is hyperchaotic in several different regions of the parameters c, {epsilon}, and {omega}. It was found that this method not only can enhance or suppress chaotic behavior, but also induces chaos in non-chaotic parameter ranges. In addition, two interesting dynamical behaviors, Hopf bifurcation and intermittency, were also found in this study.

  3. A Statistical and Spectral Model for Representing Noisy Sounds with Short-Time Sinusoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Desainte-Catherine

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose an original model for noise analysis, transformation, and synthesis: the CNSS model. Noisy sounds are represented with short-time sinusoids whose frequencies and phases are random variables. This spectral and statistical model represents information about the spectral density of frequencies. This perceptually relevant property is modeled by three mathematical parameters that define the distribution of the frequencies. This model also represents the spectral envelope. The mathematical parameters are defined and the analysis algorithms to extract these parameters from sounds are introduced. Then algorithms for generating sounds from the parameters of the model are presented. Applications of this model include tools for composers, psychoacoustic experiments, and pedagogy.

  4. Generation of hyperchaos from the Chen-Lee system via sinusoidal perturbation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tam, L.M.; Chen, J.H.; Chen, H.K.; Wai Meng Si Tou

    2008-01-01

    A system with more than one positive Lyapunov exponent can be classified as a hyperchaotic system. In this study, a sinusoidal perturbation was designed for generating hyperchaos from the Chen-Lee chaotic system. The hyperchaos was identified by the existence of two positive Lyapunov exponents and bifurcation diagrams. The system is hyperchaotic in several different regions of the parameters c, ε, and ω. It was found that this method not only can enhance or suppress chaotic behavior, but also induces chaos in non-chaotic parameter ranges. In addition, two interesting dynamical behaviors, Hopf bifurcation and intermittency, were also found in this study

  5. Simply Adjustable Sinusoidal Oscillator Based on Negative Three-Port Current Conveyors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sotner

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with sinusoidal oscillator employing two controlled second-generation negative-current conveyors and two capacitors. The proposed oscillator has a simple circuit configuration. Electronic (voltage adjusting of the oscillation frequency and condition of oscillation are possible. The presented circuit is verified in PSpice utilizing macro models of commercially available negative current conveyors. The circuit is also verified by experimental measurements. Important characteristics and drawbacks of the proposed circuit and influences of real active elements in the designed circuit are discussed in detail.

  6. Bottomside sinusoidal irregularities in the equatorial F region. II - Cross-correlation and spectral analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cragin, B. L.; Hanson, W. B.; Mcclure, J. P.; Valladares, C. E.

    1985-01-01

    Equatorial bottomside sinusoidal (BSS) irregularities have been studied by applying techniques of cross-correlation and spectral analysis to the Atmosphere Explorer data set. The phase of the cross-correlations of the plasma number density is discussed and the two drift velocity components observed using the retarding potential analyzer and ion drift meter on the satellite are discussed. Morphology is addressed, presenting the geographical distributions of the occurrence of BSS events for the equinoxes and solstices. Physical processes including the ion Larmor flux, interhemispheric plasma flows, and variations in the lower F region Pedersen conductivity are invoked to explain the findings.

  7. Scintillations associated with bottomside sinusoidal irregularities in the equatorial F region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, S.; Basu, S.; Valladares, C. E.; Dasgupta, A.; Whitney, H. E.

    1986-01-01

    Multisatellite scintillation observations and spaced receiver drift measurements are presented for a category of equatorial F region plasma irregularities characterized by nearly sinusoidal waveforms in the ion number density. The observations were made at Huancayo, Peru, and the measurements at Ancon, Peru, associated with irregularities observed by the Atmospheric-Explorer-E satellite on a few nights in December 1979. Utilizing ray paths to various geostationary satellites, it was found that the irregularities grow and decay almost simultaneously in long-lived patches extending at least 1000 km in the east-west direction.

  8. Sinusoidal Obstruction Syndrome During Chemotherapy of Pediatric Cancers and its Successful Management With Defibrotide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizilocak, Hande; Dikme, Gürcan; Özdemir, Nihal; Kuruğoğlu, Sebuh; Adaletli, İbrahim; Erkan, Tülay; Celkan, Tiraje

    2017-10-01

    Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) is a life-threatening complication generally occurring after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. SOS after standard dose chemotherapy in malignancies is rare. Between the year 1995 and 2016, 414 patients were diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and 113 patients were diagnosed with Wilms tumor in our institution. Among these patients, 4 patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (0.96%) and 2 patients with Wilms tumor (1.7%) developed SOS during treatment. SOS behaves like a local disseminated intravascular coagulation. Defibrotide has proved to be effective in SOS. In this article, we report our experience with defibrotide in SOS.

  9. Exact solution of unsteady flow generated by sinusoidal pressure gradient in a capillary tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abdulhameed

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the mathematical modeling of unsteady second grade fluid in a capillary tube with sinusoidal pressure gradient is developed with non-homogenous boundary conditions. Exact analytical solutions for the velocity profiles have been obtained in explicit forms. These solutions are written as the sum of the steady and transient solutions for small and large times. For growing times, the starting solution reduces to the well-known periodic solution that coincides with the corresponding solution of a Newtonian fluid. Graphs representing the solutions are discussed.

  10. Electromagnetic characterization of current transformer with toroidal core under sinusoidal conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koprivica, Branko, E-mail: branko.koprivica@ftn.kg.ac.rs; Milovanovic, Alenka, E-mail: alenka.milovanovic@ftn.kg.ac.rs

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a new procedure for the electromagnetic analysis of a measuring current transformer under sinusoidal conditions in its electrical and magnetic circuit. The influence of the magnetic hysteresis has been taken into account using the measured inverse magnetization curve and phase lag between the time waveforms of the magnetic field and the magnetic induction. Using the proposed analysis, ratio and phase errors of the current transformer have been calculated. The results of the calculation have been compared with experimental results and a good agreement has been found.

  11. Sinusoidal excitation on the Chua's circuit simulation of limit cycles and chaos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Erik

    1994-01-01

    of charging”, and stable limit cycle behaviour based on the balance between the energy lost in the regions with mainly positive losses and the energy gained in the regions with mainly negative losses. Convergence problems observed in connection with simulation of the ideal piecewise-linear model are solved......Experiments with modelling and simulation of sinusoidal excitation on Chua's circuit are presented. It is demonstrated that the behaviour of the circuit is based on the interaction of two different kinds of energy balance: chaotic behaviour based on a balance between two unstable “states...

  12. Voltage-Mode Four-Phase Sinusoidal Generator and Its Useful Extensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhanshu Maheshwari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a new voltage-mode second-order sinusoidal generator circuit with four active elements and six passive elements, including grounded capacitors. The frequency and condition of oscillation can be independently controlled. The effect of active element’s nonidealities and parasitic effects is also studied; the proposed topology is good in absorbing several parasitic elements involved with the active elements. The circuit is advantageous for generating high frequency signals which is demonstrated for 25 MHz outputs. Several circuit extensions are also given which makes the new proposal useful for real circuit adoption. The proposed theory is validated through simulation results.

  13. [Reference citation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brkić, Silvija

    2013-01-01

    Scientific and professional papers represent the information basis for scientific research and professional work. References important for the paper should be cited within the text, and listed at the end of the paper. This paper deals with different styles of reference citation. Special emphasis was placed on the Vancouver Style for reference citation in biomedical journals established by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. It includes original samples for citing various types of articles, both printed and electronic, as well as recommendations related to reference citation in accordance with the methodology and ethics of scientific research and guidelines for preparing manuscripts for publication.

  14. Scavenger receptor-mediated endocytosis by sinusoidal cells in rat bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geoffroy, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    Endocytosis of serum albumin by sinusoidal endothelial cells in rat bone marrow was investigated initially at the ultrastructural level with subsequent biochemical investigation of the specificity mediating this event. Bovine serum albumin adsorbed to 20nm colloidal gold particles (AuBSA) was chosen as the electron microscopic probe. Morphological data strongly suggested that a receptor was involved in uptake of AuBSA. Confirmation of receptor involvement in the uptake of AuBSA by marrow sinusoidal endothelial cells was achieved utilizing an in situ isolated hind limb perfusion protocol in conjunction with unlabeled, radiolabeled, and radio-/colloidal gold labeled probes. The major findings of competition and saturation experiments were: (1) endocytosis of AuBSA was mediated by a receptor for modified/treated serum albumin; (2) endocytosis of formaldehyde-treated serum albumin was mediated by a binding site which may be the same or closely related to the site responsible for the uptake of AuBSA; and (3) endocytosis of native untreated albumin was not mediated by receptor and probably represents fluid-phase pinocitosis

  15. Diffraction Efficiency Testing of Sinusoidal and Blazed Off-Plane Reflection Gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutt, James H.; McEntaffer, Randall L.; Marlowe, Hannah; Miles, Drew M.; Peterson, Thomas J.; Deroo, Casey T.; Scholze, Frank; Laubis, Christian

    2016-09-01

    Reflection gratings in the off-plane mount have the potential to enhance the performance of future high resolution soft X-ray spectrometers. Diffraction efficiency can be optimized through the use of blazed grating facets, achieving high-throughput on one side of zero-order. This paper presents the results from a comparison between a grating with a sinusoidally grooved profile and two gratings that have been blazed. The results show that the blaze does increase throughput to one side of zero-order; however, the total throughput of the sinusoidal gratings is greater than the blazed gratings, suggesting the method of manufacturing the blazed gratings does not produce precise facets. The blazed gratings were also tested in their Littrow and anti-Littrow configurations to quantify diffraction efficiency sensitivity to rotations about the grating normal. Only a small difference in the energy at which efficiency is maximized between the Littrow and anti-Littrow configurations is seen with a small shift in peak efficiency towards higher energies in the anti-Littrow case. This is due to a decrease in the effective blaze angle in the anti-Littrow mounting. This is supported by PCGrate-SX V6.1 modeling carried out for each blazed grating which predicts similar response trends in the Littrow and anti-Littrow orientations.

  16. Biliary obstruction dissipates bioelectric sinusoidal-canalicular barrier without altering taurocholate uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotting, J.; Zysset, T.; Reichen, J.

    1989-01-01

    To study immediate events during extrahepatic cholestasis, we investigated the effect of short-term biliary obstruction on the bioelectrical sinusoidal-canalicular barrier in the rat using molecular weight-matched uncharged and negatively charged inert solute pairs. The bioelectrical barrier averaged -22 +/- 5 and -18 +/- 4 mV (NS) using the pair carboxy-/methoxyinulin and ferrocyanide/sucrose, respectively. After a 20-min biliary obstruction both decreased by 61 and 11%, respectively, but only the large molecular weight pair (the inulins) returned to base line after release of the obstruction. Inert solute clearances were increased after short biliary obstruction depending on molecular size and negative charge (ferrocyanide greater than sucrose greater than carboxyinulin greater than inulin), suggesting that both permeability and bioelectrical barriers were affected by obstruction. The hepatic extraction in vivo of a passively transported drug not excreted into bile (D-propranolol) was not affected by obstruction, whereas that of an actively transported drug (glycocholate) decreased from 66 +/- 8 to 41 +/- 20% during biliary obstruction (P less than 0.01). Unidirectional transfer of glycocholate was not affected by short-term biliary obstruction in the situ perfused rat liver; however, 2 min after [14C]glycocholate administration, increased return was observed in hepatic venous effluent in obstructed animals. Our findings demonstrate a loss of the bioelectrical barrier immediately after short-term biliary obstruction. Decreased hepatic extraction in the view of unaltered sinusoidal uptake demonstrates regurgitation of bile into blood during short-term biliary obstruction

  17. "Artificial micro organs"--a microfluidic device for dielectrophoretic assembly of liver sinusoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütte, Julia; Hagmeyer, Britta; Holzner, Felix; Kubon, Massimo; Werner, Simon; Freudigmann, Christian; Benz, Karin; Böttger, Jan; Gebhardt, Rolf; Becker, Holger; Stelzle, Martin

    2011-06-01

    In order to study possible toxic side effects of potential drug compounds in vitro a reliable test system is needed. Predicting liver toxicity presents a major challenge of particular importance as liver cells grown in a cell culture suffer from a rapid loss of their liver specific functions. Therefore we are developing a new microfluidic test system for liver toxicity. This test system is based on an organ-like liver 3D co-culture of hepatocytes and endothelial cells. We devised a microfluidic chip featuring cell culture chambers with integrated electrodes for the assembly of liver sinusoids by dielectrophoresis. Fluid channels enable an organ-like perfusion with culture media and test compounds. Different chamber designs were studied and optimized with regard to dielectrophoretic force distribution, hydrodynamic flow profile, and cell trapping rate using numeric simulations. Based on simulation results a microchip was injection-moulded from COP. This chip allowed the assembly of viable hepatocytes and endothelial cells in a sinusoid-like fashion.

  18. The 3-D alignment of objects in dynamic PET scans using filtered sinusoidal trajectories of sinogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostopoulos, Aristotelis E.; Happonen, Antti P.; Ruotsalainen, Ulla

    2006-01-01

    In this study, our goal is to employ a novel 3-D alignment method for dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) scans. Because the acquired data (i.e. sinograms) often contain noise considerably, filtering of the data prior to the alignment presumably improves the final results. In this study, we utilized a novel 3-D stackgram domain approach. In the stackgram domain, the signals along the sinusoidal trajectory signals of the sinogram can be processed separately. In this work, we performed angular stackgram domain filtering by employing well known 1-D filters: the Gaussian low-pass filter and the median filter. In addition, we employed two wavelet de-noising techniques. After filtering we performed alignment of objects in the stackgram domain. The local alignment technique we used is based on similarity comparisons between locus vectors (i.e. the signals along the sinusoidal trajectories of the sinogram) in a 3-D neighborhood of sequences of the stackgrams. Aligned stackgrams can be transformed back to sinograms (Method 1), or alternatively directly to filtered back-projected images (Method 2). In order to evaluate the alignment process, simulated data with different kinds of additive noises were used. The results indicated that the filtering prior to the alignment can be important concerning the accuracy

  19. The Relationship between fenestrations, sieve plates and rafts in liver sinusoidal endothelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitri Svistounov

    Full Text Available Fenestrations are transcellular pores in endothelial cells that facilitate transfer of substrates between blood and the extravascular compartment. In order to understand the regulation and formation of fenestrations, the relationship between membrane rafts and fenestrations was investigated in liver sinusoidal endothelial cells where fenestrations are grouped into sieve plates. Three dimensional structured illumination microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, internal reflectance fluorescence microscopy and two-photon fluorescence microscopy were used to study liver sinusoidal endothelial cells isolated from mice. There was an inverse distribution between sieve plates and membrane rafts visualized by structured illumination microscopy and the fluorescent raft stain, Bodipy FL C5 ganglioside GM1. 7-ketocholesterol and/or cytochalasin D increased both fenestrations and lipid-disordered membrane, while Triton X-100 decreased both fenestrations and lipid-disordered membrane. The effects of cytochalasin D on fenestrations were abrogated by co-administration of Triton X-100, suggesting that actin disruption increases fenestrations by its effects on membrane rafts. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF depleted lipid-ordered membrane and increased fenestrations. The results are consistent with a sieve-raft interaction, where fenestrations form in non-raft lipid-disordered regions of endothelial cells once the membrane-stabilizing effects of actin cytoskeleton and membrane rafts are diminished.

  20. Automatic fringe enhancement with novel bidimensional sinusoids-assisted empirical mode decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenxing; Kemao, Qian; Da, Feipeng

    2017-10-02

    Fringe-based optical measurement techniques require reliable fringe analysis methods, where empirical mode decomposition (EMD) is an outstanding one due to its ability of analyzing complex signals and the merit of being data-driven. However, two challenging issues hinder the application of EMD in practical measurement. One is the tricky mode mixing problem (MMP), making the decomposed intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) have equivocal physical meaning; the other is the automatic and accurate extraction of the sinusoidal fringe from the IMFs when unpredictable and unavoidable background and noise exist in real measurements. Accordingly, in this paper, a novel bidimensional sinusoids-assisted EMD (BSEMD) is proposed to decompose a fringe pattern into mono-component bidimensional IMFs (BIMFs), with the MMP solved; properties of the resulted BIMFs are then analyzed to recognize and enhance the useful fringe component. The decomposition and the fringe recognition are integrated and the latter provides a feedback to the former, helping to automatically stop the decomposition to make the algorithm simpler and more reliable. A series of experiments show that the proposed method is accurate, efficient and robust to various fringe patterns even with poor quality, rendering it a potential tool for practical use.

  1. Identification of a single sinusoidal bile salt uptake system in skate liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fricker, G.; Hugentobler, G.; Meier, P.J.; Kurz, G.; Boyer, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    To identify the sinusoidal bile acid uptake system(s) of skate liver, photoaffinity labeling and kinetic transport studies were performed in isolated plasma membranes as well as intact hepatocytes. In both preparations photoaffinity labeling with the photolabile bile salt derivative revealed the presence of a predominant bile salt binding polypeptide with an apparent molecular weight of 54,000. The [ 3 H]-labeling of this polypeptide was inhibited by taurocholate and cholate in a concentration-dependent manner and was virtually abolished by 1 mM of the anion transport inhibitor 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid. Kinetic studies of hepatic uptake with taurocholate, cholate, and the photoreactive bile salt derivative indicated the involvement of a single transport system, and all three substrates mutually competed with the uptake of each other. Finally, irreversible inhibition of the bile salt uptake system of photoaffinity labeling of hepatocytes with high concentrations of photolabile derivative reduced the V max but the K m of taurocholate uptake. These findings strongly indicate that a single polypeptide with an apparent molecular weight of 54,000 is involved in sinusoidal bile salt uptake into skate hepatocytes. These findings contrast with similar studies in rat liver that implicate both a 54,000- and 48,000-K polypeptide in bile salt uptake and are consistent with a single Na + -independent transport mechanism for hepatic bile salt uptake in this primitive vertebrate

  2. Aerosol absorption measurement with a sinusoidal phase modulating fiber optic photo thermal interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuwang; Shao, Shiyong; Mei, Haiping; Rao, Ruizhong

    2016-10-01

    Aerosol light absorption plays an important role in the earth's atmosphere direct and semi-direct radiate forcing, simultaneously, it also has a huge influence on the visibility impairment and laser engineering application. Although various methods have been developed for measuring aerosol light absorption, huge challenge still remains in precision, accuracy and temporal resolution. The main reason is that, as a part of aerosol light extinction, aerosol light absorption always generates synchronously with aerosol light scattering, and unfortunately aerosol light scattering is much stronger in most cases. Here, a novel photo-thermal interferometry is proposed only for aerosol absorption measurement without disturbance from aerosol scattering. The photo-thermal interferometry consists of a sinusoidal phase-modulating single mode fiber-optic interferometer. The thermal dissipation, caused by aerosol energy from photo-thermal conversion when irritated by pump laser through interferometer, is detected. This approach is completely insensitive to aerosol scattering, and the single mode fiber-optic interferometer is compact, low-cost and insensitive to the polarization shading. The theory of this technique is illustrated, followed by the basic structure of the sinusoidal phase-modulating fiber-optic interferometer and demodulation algorithms. Qualitative and quantitative analysis results show that the new photo-thermal interference is a potential approach for aerosol absorption detection and environmental pollution detection.

  3. CFD study on NACA 4415 airfoil implementing spherical and sinusoidal Tubercle Leading Edge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S M A Aftab

    Full Text Available The Humpback whale tubercles have been studied for more than a decade. Tubercle Leading Edge (TLE effectively reduces the separation bubble size and helps in delaying stall. They are very effective in case of low Reynolds number flows. The current Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD study is on NACA 4415 airfoil, at a Reynolds number 120,000. Two TLE shapes are tested on NACA 4415 airfoil. The tubercle designs implemented on the airfoil are sinusoidal and spherical. A parametric study is also carried out considering three amplitudes (0.025c, 0.05c and 0.075c, the wavelength (0.25c is fixed. Structured mesh is utilized to generate grid and Transition SST turbulence model is used to capture the flow physics. Results clearly show spherical tubercles outperform sinusoidal tubercles. Furthermore experimental study considering spherical TLE is carried out at Reynolds number 200,000. The experimental results show that spherical TLE improve performance compared to clean airfoil.

  4. A Comparison Study of Sinusoidal PWM and Space Vector PWM Techniques for Voltage Source Inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Türksoy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the methods used to control voltage source inverters which have been intensively investigated in recent years are compared. Although the most efficient result is obtained with the least number of switching elements in the inverter topologies, the method used in the switching is at least as effective as the topology. Besides, the selected switching method to control the inverter will play an effective role in suppressing harmonic components while producing the ideal output voltage. There are many derivatives of pulse width modulation techniques that are commonly used to control voltage source inverters. Some of widespread methods are sinusoidal pulse width modulation and space vector pulse width modulation techniques. These modulation techniques used for generating variable frequency and amplitude output voltage in voltage source inverters, have been simulated by using MATLAB/SIMULINK. And, the total harmonic distortions of the output voltages are compared. As a result of simulation studies, sinusoidal pulse width modulation has been found to have more total harmonic distortion in output voltages of voltage source inverters in the simulation. Space vector pulse width modulation has been shown to produce a more efficient output voltage with less total harmonic distortion.

  5. Controlled generation of nonlinear resonances through sinusoidal lattice modes in Bose–Einstein condensate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Priyam; Panigrahi, Prasanta K

    2015-01-01

    We study Bose–Einstein condensate in the combined presence of time modulated optical lattice and harmonic trap in the mean-field approach. Through the self-similar method, we show the existence of sinusoidal lattice modes in this inhomogeneous system, commensurate with the lattice potential. A significant advantage of this system is wide tunability of the parameters through chirp management. The combined effect of the interaction, harmonic trap and lattice potential leads to the generation of nonlinear resonances, exactly where the matter wave changes its direction. When the harmonic trap is switched off, the BEC undergoes a nonlinear compression for the static optical lattice potential. For better understanding of chirp management and the nature of the sinusoidal excitation, we investigate the energy spectrum of the condensate, which clearly reveals the generation of nonlinear resonances in the appropriate regime. We have also identified a classical dynamical phase transition occurring in the system, where loss of superfluidity takes the superfluid phase to an insulating state. (paper)

  6. Application of a modified BCR sequential extraction (three-step) procedure for the determination of extractable trace metal contents in a sewage sludge amended soil reference material (CRM 483), complemented by a three-year stability study of acetic acid and EDTA extractable metal content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauret, G; López-Sánchez, J F; Sahuquillo, A; Barahona, E; Lachica, M; Ure, A M; Davidson, C M; Gomez, A; Lück, D; Bacon, J; Yli-Halla, M; Muntau, H; Quevauviller, P

    2000-06-01

    This paper provides additional data on a sewage sludge amended soil certified reference material, CRM 483, which was certified in 1997 for its EDTA and acetic acid extractable contents of some trace metals, following standardised extraction procedures. The additional work aimed to test the long-term stability of the material and the applicability of an improved version of the BCR three-step sequential extraction procedure on the sewage sludge amended soil (CRM 483). The paper demonstrates the CRM 483 long-term stability for EDTA and acetic acid extractable contents of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn and gives the results (obtained in the framework of an interlaboratory study) for the extractable contents of the same elements in the CRM 483, following the BCR three-step sequential extraction scheme. The aqua regia extractable contents following the ISO 11466 Standard are also given. The data are given as indicative (not certified) values.

  7. A Refined Self-Tuning Filter-Based Instantaneous Power Theory Algorithm for Indirect Current Controlled Three-Level Inverter-Based Shunt Active Power Filters under Non-sinusoidal Source Voltage Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yap Hoon

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a refined reference current generation algorithm based on instantaneous power (pq theory is proposed, for operation of an indirect current controlled (ICC three-level neutral-point diode clamped (NPC inverter-based shunt active power filter (SAPF under non-sinusoidal source voltage conditions. SAPF is recognized as one of the most effective solutions to current harmonics due to its flexibility in dealing with various power system conditions. As for its controller, pq theory has widely been applied to generate the desired reference current due to its simple implementation features. However, the conventional dependency on self-tuning filter (STF in generating reference current has significantly limited mitigation performance of SAPF. Besides, the conventional STF-based pq theory algorithm is still considered to possess needless features which increase computational complexity. Furthermore, the conventional algorithm is mostly designed to suit operation of direct current controlled (DCC SAPF which is incapable of handling switching ripples problems, thereby leading to inefficient mitigation performance. Therefore, three main improvements are performed which include replacement of STF with mathematical-based fundamental real power identifier, removal of redundant features, and generation of sinusoidal reference current. To validate effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed algorithm, simulation work in MATLAB-Simulink and laboratory test utilizing a TMS320F28335 digital signal processor (DSP are performed. Both simulation and experimental findings demonstrate superiority of the proposed algorithm over the conventional algorithm.

  8. Reference Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bivens-Tatum, Wayne

    2006-01-01

    This article presents interesting articles that explore several different areas of reference assessment, including practical case studies and theoretical articles that address a range of issues such as librarian behavior, patron satisfaction, virtual reference, or evaluation design. They include: (1) "Evaluating the Quality of a Chat Service"…

  9. Recent references

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramavataram, S.

    1991-01-01

    In support of a continuing program of systematic evaluation of nuclear structure data, the National Nuclear Data Center maintains a complete computer file of references to the nuclear physics literature. Each reference is tagged by a keyword string, which indicates the kinds of data contained in the article. This master file of Nuclear Structure References (NSR) contains complete keyword indexes to literature published since 1969, with partial indexing of older references. Any reader who finds errors in the keyword descriptions is urged to report them to the National Nuclear Data Center so that the master NSR file can be corrected. In 1966, the first collection of Recent References was published as a separate issue of Nuclear Data Sheets. Every four months since 1970, a similar indexed bibliography to new nuclear experiments has been prepared from additions to the NSR file and published. Beginning in 1978, Recent References was cumulated annually, with the third issue completely superseding the two issues previously published during a given year. Due to publication policy changes, cumulation of Recent Reference was discontinued in 1986. The volume and issue number of all the cumulative issues published to date are given. NNDC will continue to respond to individual requests for special bibliographies on nuclear physics topics, in addition to those easily obtained from Recent References. If the required information is available from the keyword string, a reference list can be prepared automatically from the computer files. This service can be provided on request, in exchange for the timely communication of new nuclear physics results (e.g., preprints). A current copy of the NSR file may also be obtained in a standard format on magnetic tape from NNDC. Requests for special searches of the NSR file may also be directed to the National Nuclear Data Center

  10. Core losses of a permanent magnet synchronous motor with an amorphous stator core under inverter and sinusoidal excitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Yao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We report core loss properties of permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM with amorphous magnetic materials (AMM core under inverter and sinusoidal excitations. To discuss the core loss properties of AMM core, a comparison with non-oriented (NO core is also performed. In addition, based on both experiments and numerical simulations, we estimate higher (time and space harmonic components of the core losses under inverter and sinusoidal excitations. The core losses of PMSM are reduced by about 59% using AMM stator core instead of NO core under sinusoidal excitation. We show that the average decrease obtained by using AMM instead of NO in the stator core is about 94% in time harmonic components.

  11. Calculation of the mean path length of the Epstein frame under non-sinusoidal excitations using the double Epstein method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marketos, Philip; Zurek, Stan; Moses, Anthony J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the effect of non-sinusoidal excitation on the mean path length of the Epstein frame. Two different steels, a non-oriented (NO) steel and a high-permeability grain-oriented (HGO) electrical steel have been tested under pure sinusoidal and non-sinusoidal excitations and the mean path length of the Epstein frame has been re-calculated. Results indicate that the actual mean path of the Epstein frame depends not only on the material permeability and anisotropy but also on the peak flux density and magnetising frequency. The amount of distortion of the excitation frequency also has an effect on the value of the actual mean path length of the Epstein frame

  12. The FXR agonist PX20606 ameliorates portal hypertension by targeting vascular remodelling and sinusoidal dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabl, Philipp; Hambruch, Eva; Seeland, Berit A; Hayden, Hubert; Wagner, Michael; Garnys, Lukas; Strobel, Bastian; Schubert, Tim-Lukas; Riedl, Florian; Mitteregger, Dieter; Burnet, Michael; Starlinger, Patrick; Oberhuber, Georg; Deuschle, Ulrich; Rohr-Udilova, Nataliya; Podesser, Bruno K; Peck-Radosavljevic, Markus; Reiberger, Thomas; Kremoser, Claus; Trauner, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Steroidal farnesoid X receptor (FXR) agonists demonstrated potent anti-fibrotic activities and lowered portal hypertension in experimental models. The impact of the novel non-steroidal and selective FXR agonist PX20606 on portal hypertension and fibrosis was explored in this study. In experimental models of non-cirrhotic (partial portal vein ligation, PPVL, 7days) and cirrhotic (carbon tetrachloride, CCl 4 , 14weeks) portal hypertension, PX20606 (PX,10mg/kg) or the steroidal FXR agonist obeticholic acid (OCA,10mg/kg) were gavaged. We then measured portal pressure, intrahepatic vascular resistance, liver fibrosis and bacterial translocation. PX decreased portal pressure in non-cirrhotic PPVL (12.6±1.7 vs. 10.4±1.1mmHg; p=0.020) and cirrhotic CCl 4 (15.2±0.5 vs. 11.8±0.4mmHg; p=0.001) rats. In PPVL animals, we observed less bacterial translocation (-36%; p=0.041), a decrease in lipopolysaccharide binding protein (-30%; p=0.024) and splanchnic tumour necrosis factor α levels (-39%; p=0.044) after PX treatment. In CCl 4 rats, PX decreased fibrotic Sirius Red area (-43%; p=0.005), hepatic hydroxyproline (-66%; pportal pressure (-14%; p=0.041) by restoring endothelial function, 14week PX therapy additionally inhibited sinusoidal remodelling and decreased portal pressure to a greater extent (-22%; p=0.001). In human liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, PX increased eNOS and DDAH expression. The non-steroidal FXR agonist PX20606 ameliorates portal hypertension by reducing liver fibrosis, vascular remodelling and sinusoidal dysfunction. The novel drug PX20606 activates the bile acid receptor FXR and shows beneficial effects in experimental liver cirrhosis: In the liver, it reduces scarring and inflammation, and also widens blood vessels. Thus, PX20606 leads to an improved blood flow through the liver and decreases hypertension of the portal vein. Additionally, PX20606 improves the altered intestinal barrier and decreases bacterial migration from the gut. Copyright

  13. Trace explosives sensor testbed (TESTbed)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Greg E.; Malito, Michael P.; Tamanaha, Cy R.; Hammond, Mark H.; Giordano, Braden C.; Lubrano, Adam L.; Field, Christopher R.; Rogers, Duane A.; Jeffries, Russell A.; Colton, Richard J.; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L.

    2017-03-01

    A novel vapor delivery testbed, referred to as the Trace Explosives Sensor Testbed, or TESTbed, is demonstrated that is amenable to both high- and low-volatility explosives vapors including nitromethane, nitroglycerine, ethylene glycol dinitrate, triacetone triperoxide, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, pentaerythritol tetranitrate, and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine. The TESTbed incorporates a six-port dual-line manifold system allowing for rapid actuation between a dedicated clean air source and a trace explosives vapor source. Explosives and explosives-related vapors can be sourced through a number of means including gas cylinders, permeation tube ovens, dynamic headspace chambers, and a Pneumatically Modulated Liquid Delivery System coupled to a perfluoroalkoxy total-consumption microflow nebulizer. Key features of the TESTbed include continuous and pulseless control of trace vapor concentrations with wide dynamic range of concentration generation, six sampling ports with reproducible vapor profile outputs, limited low-volatility explosives adsorption to the manifold surface, temperature and humidity control of the vapor stream, and a graphical user interface for system operation and testing protocol implementation.

  14. Sinusoidal potential cycling operation of a direct ethanol fuel cell to improving carbon dioxide yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, Pasha; Pickup, Peter G.

    2014-12-01

    A direct ethanol fuel cell has been operated under sinusoidal (AC) potential cycling conditions in order to increase the yield of carbon dioxide and thereby increase cell efficiency relative to operation at a fixed potential. At 80 °C, faradaic yields of CO2 as high as 25% have been achieved with a PtRu anode catalyst, while the maximum CO2 production at constant potential was 13%. The increased yields under cycling conditions have been attributed to periodic oxidative stripping of adsorbed CO. These results will be important in the optimization of operating conditions for direct ethanol fuel cells, where the benefits of potential cycling are projected to increase as catalysts that produce CO2 more efficiently are implemented.

  15. Identical phase oscillators with global sinusoidal coupling evolve by Mobius group action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvel, Seth A; Mirollo, Renato E; Strogatz, Steven H

    2009-12-01

    Systems of N identical phase oscillators with global sinusoidal coupling are known to display low-dimensional dynamics. Although this phenomenon was first observed about 20 years ago, its underlying cause has remained a puzzle. Here we expose the structure working behind the scenes of these systems by proving that the governing equations are generated by the action of the Mobius group, a three-parameter subgroup of fractional linear transformations that map the unit disk to itself. When there are no auxiliary state variables, the group action partitions the N-dimensional state space into three-dimensional invariant manifolds (the group orbits). The N-3 constants of motion associated with this foliation are the N-3 functionally independent cross ratios of the oscillator phases. No further reduction is possible, in general; numerical experiments on models of Josephson junction arrays suggest that the invariant manifolds often contain three-dimensional regions of neutrally stable chaos.

  16. Exponential sinusoidal model for predicting temperature inside underground wine cellars from a Spanish region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazarron, Fernando R.; Canas, Ignacio [Departamento de Construccion y Vias Rurales, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Agronomos, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-07-01

    This article develops a mathematical model for determining the annual cycle of air temperature inside traditional underground wine cellars in the Spanish region of ''Ribera del Duero'', known because of the quality of its wines. It modifies the sinusoidal analytical model for soil temperature calculation. Results obtained when contrasting the proposed model with experimental data of three subterranean wine cellars for 2 years are satisfactory. The RMSE is below 1 C and the index of agreement is above 0.96 for the three cellars. When using the average of experimental data corresponding to the 2 years' time, results improve noticeably: the RMSE decreases by more than 30% and the mean d reaches 0.99. This model should be a useful tool for designing underground wine cellars making the most of soil energy advantages. (author)

  17. Real-time detection of musical onsets with linear prediction and sinusoidal modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, John; Lazzarini, Victor; Timoney, Joseph

    2011-12-01

    Real-time musical note onset detection plays a vital role in many audio analysis processes, such as score following, beat detection and various sound synthesis by analysis methods. This article provides a review of some of the most commonly used techniques for real-time onset detection. We suggest ways to improve these techniques by incorporating linear prediction as well as presenting a novel algorithm for real-time onset detection using sinusoidal modelling. We provide comprehensive results for both the detection accuracy and the computational performance of all of the described techniques, evaluated using Modal, our new open source library for musical onset detection, which comes with a free database of samples with hand-labelled note onsets.

  18. A pre-heating method based on sinusoidal alternating current for lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wentao; Sun, Fengchun; Guo, Shanshan

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a method of low temperature pre-heating of sinusoidal alternating current (SAC) is proposed. Generally, the lower the frequency of the AC current, the higher the heat generation rate. Yet at low frequency, there is a risk of lithium-ion deposition during the half cycle of charging. This study develops a temperature-adaptive, deposition-free AC pre-heating method. a equivalent electric circuit(EEC) model is established to predict the heat generation rate and temperature status, whose parameters are calibrated from the EIS impedance measurements. The effects of current frequency and amplitude on the heating effect are investigated respectively. A multistep temperature-adaptive amplitude strategy is proposed and the cell can be heated from -20°C to 5°C within 509s at 100Hz frequency with this method.

  19. A feedback control system for vibration of magnetostrictive plate subjected to follower force using sinusoidal shear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghorbanpour Arani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the vibrational behavior of magnetostrictive plate (MsP as a smart component is studied. The plate is subjected to an external follower force and a magnetic field in which the vibration response of MsP has been investigated for both loading combinations. The velocity feedback gain parameter is evaluated to study the effect of magnetic field which is generated by the coil. Sinusoidal shear deformation theory is utilized due to its accuracy of polynomial function with respect to other plate theories. Equations of motion are derived using Hamilton’s principle and solved by differential quadrature method (DQM considering general boundary conditions. The effects of aspect ratio, thickness ratio, follower force and velocity feedback gain are investigated on the frequency response of MsP. Results indicate that magneto-mechanical coupling in MsM helps to control vibrational behaviors of systems such as electro-hydraulic actuator, wireless linear Motors and sensors.

  20. Sensitivity of echo enabled harmonic generation to sinusoidal electron beam energy structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Hemsing

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We analytically examine the bunching factor spectrum of a relativistic electron beam with sinusoidal energy structure that then undergoes an echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG transformation to produce high harmonics. The performance is found to be described primarily by a simple scaling parameter. The dependence of the bunching amplitude on fluctuations of critical parameters is derived analytically, and compared with simulations. Where applicable, EEHG is also compared with high gain harmonic generation (HGHG and we find that EEHG is generally less sensitive to several types of energy structure. In the presence of intermediate frequency modulations like those produced by the microbunching instability, EEHG has a substantially narrower intrinsic bunching pedestal.

  1. Iron losses evaluation in soft magnetic materials with a sinusoidal voltage supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedelcu, Steluţa; Ritchie, Ewen; Leban, Krisztina Monika

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation method of for specific iron losses in non-oriented laminated steel suitable for electric motors and transformers in the case of a sinusoidal excitation. The model is based on the separation of loss contribution due to hysteresis, eddy currents and excess losses...... (between 0.35 mm and 0.65 mm) and alloy compositions. Hysteresis and eddy currents loss coefficients have been considered as dependent on the frequency. For curve fitting of these coefficients third and fourth polynomials were employed, with good result for all the frequencies and magnetic flux density...... and it is proposing an identification procedure for the model coefficients from multi-frequency single sheet tests. The frequencies used are in the range 10 Hz and 150 Hz and with the values of magnetic flux density in the range 0.1 T and 1.4 T. The model was applied on six magnetic materials of different thicknesses...

  2. Tissue responses to fractional transient heating with sinusoidal heat flux condition on skin surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzat, Magdy A; El-Bary, Alaa A; Al-Sowayan, Noorah S

    2016-10-01

    A fractional model of Bioheat equation for describing quantitatively the thermal responses of skin tissue under sinusoidal heat flux conditions on skin surface is given. Laplace transform technique is used to obtain the solution in a closed form. The resulting formulation is applied to one-dimensional application to investigate the temperature distribution in skin with instantaneous surface heating for different cases. According to the numerical results and its graphs, conclusion about the fractional bioheat transfer equation has been constructed. Sensitivity analysis is performed to explore the thermal effects of various control parameters on tissue temperature. The comparisons are made with the results obtained in the case of the absence of time-fractional order. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  3. Biological trace element measurements using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giauque, R.D.; Jaklevic, J.M.; Thompson, A.C.

    1985-07-01

    The feasibility of performing x-ray fluorescence trace element determinations at concentrations substantially below the ppM level for biological materials is demonstrated. Conditions for achieving optimum sensitivity were ascertained. Results achieved for five standard reference materials were, in most cases, in excellent agreement with listed values. Minimum detectable limits of 20 ppM were measured for most elements

  4. New reference materials improvement of methods of measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchandise, H.

    1985-01-01

    The report summarizes the development of about 120 reference materials in a variety of fields (non ferrous metals, trace element analysis, food products, biomedical analysis, physical and technical properties of solid materials). The document also provides practical advice for trace element analyses, describes the principles followed for certifying reference materials and provides recommendations for their use

  5. Interactive Stable Ray Tracing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dal Corso, Alessandro; Salvi, Marco; Kolb, Craig

    2017-01-01

    Interactive ray tracing applications running on commodity hardware can suffer from objectionable temporal artifacts due to a low sample count. We introduce stable ray tracing, a technique that improves temporal stability without the over-blurring and ghosting artifacts typical of temporal post-pr...

  6. Automated computer analysis of plasma-streak traces from SCYLLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitman, R.L.; Jahoda, F.C.; Kruger, R.P.

    1977-01-01

    An automated computer analysis technique that locates and references the approximate centroid of single- or dual-streak traces from the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory SCYLLAC facility is described. The technique also determines the plasma-trace width over a limited self-adjusting region. The plasma traces are recorded with streak cameras on Polaroid film, then scanned and digitized for processing. The analysis technique uses scene segmentation to separate the plasma trace from a reference fiducial trace. The technique employs two methods of peak detection; one for the plasma trace and one for the fiducial trace. The width is obtained using an edge-detection, or slope, method. Timing data are derived from the intensity modulation of the fiducial trace. To smooth (despike) the output graphs showing the plasma-trace centroid and width, a technique of ''twicing'' developed by Tukey was employed. In addition, an interactive sorting algorithm allows retrieval of the centroid, width, and fiducial data from any test shot plasma for post analysis. As yet, only a limited set of sixteen plasma traces has been processed using this technique

  7. Automated computer analysis of plasma-streak traces from SCYLLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whiteman, R.L.; Jahoda, F.C.; Kruger, R.P.

    1977-11-01

    An automated computer analysis technique that locates and references the approximate centroid of single- or dual-streak traces from the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory SCYLLAC facility is described. The technique also determines the plasma-trace width over a limited self-adjusting region. The plasma traces are recorded with streak cameras on Polaroid film, then scanned and digitized for processing. The analysis technique uses scene segmentation to separate the plasma trace from a reference fiducial trace. The technique employs two methods of peak detection; one for the plasma trace and one for the fiducial trace. The width is obtained using an edge-detection, or slope, method. Timing data are derived from the intensity modulation of the fiducial trace. To smooth (despike) the output graphs showing the plasma-trace centroid and width, a technique of ''twicing'' developed by Tukey was employed. In addition, an interactive sorting algorithm allows retrieval of the centroid, width, and fiducial data from any test shot plasma for post analysis. As yet, only a limited set of the plasma traces has been processed with this technique

  8. Background levels of some trace elements in weathered soils from the Brazilian Northern region Valores de referência de alguns elementos-traço em solos intemperizados da região Norte brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Souza Fadigas

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Soils formed from the Barreiras Group sediments, located mainly along the coast of Brazil Northern and Northeastern regions, generally present low concentrations of iron oxides and total organic carbon, high quantities of quartz in the sand fraction, and kaolinitic clay mineralogy. The objective of the present study was to quantify the pseudo total concentrations of Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Mn, Ni, Zn and Fe in Xhantic Udox and Xhantic Udult soils derived from these sediments. The reference sites were covered by native vegetation and located in the States of Pará and Amapá, Brazil. Multiple linear regression analysis was applied to determine correlations between soil parameters and the levels of these metals. The best correlation was obtained between Fe, Mn, clay, and silt contents, and Cd, Co, Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni. A correlation between pH and these metal levels was not found. Clay and sand contents showed a negative inverse correlation with the metal levels,of same magnitude but with a different sign; this was the reason for excluding one of the parameters in the regression model. In general, the contents of the elements were lower than those found in soils formed from other parent materials. The Mn content was included in the model of multiple linear regression for Cd and Co, due to its association with these last metals. Silt level showed to have a significant influence in the equations for Cr and Co, which is attributed to the presence of clay minerals and Fe and Mn oxides in ferruginous and clay aggregates of silt size. The equations obtained in this paper, are useful to predict, in general terms, the amounts of those heavy metals in an unknown soil sample, if the soil material were not contaminated or affected by land usage. Thus, they may be applied to evaluate soil contamination by the studied heavy metals.Solos formados a partir de sedimentos do Grupo Barreiras apresentam, em geral, baixos teores de ferro, mineralogia caulinítica, elevadas

  9. Nuclear traces in glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segovia A, M. de N.

    1978-01-01

    The charged particles produce, in dielectric materials, physical and chemical effects which make evident the damaged zone along the trajectory of the particle. This damaged zone is known as the latent trace. The latent traces can be enlarged by an etching of the detector material. This treatment attacks preferently the zones of the material where the charged particles have penetrated, producing concavities which can be observed through a low magnification optical microscope. These concavities are known as developed traces. In this work we describe the glass characteristics as a detector of the fission fragments traces. In the first chapter we present a summary of the existing basic theories to explain the formation of traces in solids. In the second chapter we describe the etching method used for the traces development. In the following chapters we determine some chatacteristics of the traces formed on the glass, such as: the development optimum time; the diameter variation of the traces and their density according to the temperature variation of the detector; the glass response to a radiation more penetrating than that of the fission fragments; the distribution of the developed traces and the existing relation between this ditribution and the fission fragments of 252 Cf energies. The method which has been used is simple and cheap and can be utilized in laboratories whose resources are limited. The commercial glass which has been employed allows the registration of the fission fragments and subsequently the realization of experiments which involve the counting of the traces as well as the identification of particles. (author)

  10. Bibliography on cycling of trace metals in freshwater ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaRiviere, M.G.; Scott, A.J.; Woodfield, W.G.; Cushing, C.E.

    1978-07-01

    This bibliography is a listing of pertinent literature directly addressing the cycling of trace metals in freshwater ecosystems. Data on cycling, including the influences of environmental mediators, are included. 151 references

  11. Research on a new magnetic-field-modulated brushless double-rotor machine with sinusoidal-permeance modulating ring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Zheng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The magnetic-field-modulated brushless double-rotor machine (MFM-BDRM, composed of a stator, a modulating ring rotor, and a PM rotor, is a kind of power-split device for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs. In this paper, a new MFM-BDRM with sinusoidal-permeance modulating ring named Sinusoidal-Permeance-Modulating-Ring Brushless Double-Rotor Machine (SPMR-BDRM is proposed to solve the problem of poor mechanical strength and large iron loss. The structure and the operating principle of the MFM-BDRM are introduced. The design principle of the sinusoidal-permeance modulating ring is analyzed and derived. The main idea of that is to minimize the harmonic permeance of air gap, thereby the harmonic magnetic fields can be restrained. There are comparisons between a MFM-BDRM with sinusoidal-permeance modulating ring and a same size MFM-BDRM with traditional modulating ring, including magnetic field distributions and electromagnetic performances. Most importantly, the iron losses are compared under six different conditions. The result indicates that the harmonic magnetic fields in the air gap are restrained; the electromagnetic torque and power factor are almost the same with same armature current; the torque ripples of the modulating ring rotor and the PM rotor are reduced; the stator loss is reduced by 13% at least and the PM loss is reduced by 20% at least compared with the same size traditional MFM-BDRM under the same operating conditions.

  12. On the Fully-Developed Heat Transfer Enhancing Flow Field in Sinusoidally, Spirally Corrugated Tubes Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hærvig, Jakob; Sørensen, Kim; Condra, Thomas Joseph

    2017-01-01

    A numerical study has been carried out to investigate heat transfer enhancing flow field in 28 geometrically different sinusoidally, spirally corrugated tubes. To vary the corrugation, the height of corrugation e/D and the length between two successive corrugated sections p/D are varied in the ra...

  13. Additional Energy Losses from Asymmetric and Non-Sinusoidal Current in an Electrical Facility and Methods of their Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Tarasov, Evgeny Vladimirovich; Bulyga, Leonid Leonidovich; Ushakov, Vasily Yakovlevich; Kharlov, Nikolay Nikolaevich

    2015-01-01

    Influence of the asymmetry and higher harmonics of current on the operation of an electrical facility is analyzed. The level of additional losses from the asymmetric and non-sinusoidal currents is evaluated for a 110 kV electrical network in the Siberian Region of the Russian Federation. Methods for reducing the additional energy losses in the electrical facility are suggested.

  14. Generation of sinusoidal fringes with a holographic phase grating and a phase-only spatial light modulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berberova, Natalia; Stoykova, Elena; Sainov, Ventseslav

    2012-01-01

    A variety of pattern projection methods for the three-dimensional capture of objects is based on the generation of purely sinusoidal fringes. This is not an easy task, especially when a portable non-interferometric system for outdoor usage is required. The use of phase gratings with coherent illumination as a possible solution has the advantage of providing good stability and a large measurement volume. In this work, we analyze the quality of fringes projected with two sinusoidal phase gratings. The first grating is recorded on a silver-halide holographic plate by means of a Michelson interferometer. The spatial resolution of the silver-halide material used is greater than 6000 lines per millimeter, and the recorded grating is practically analogous to a smooth variation of the phase profile. The second grating is formed as a sinusoidal phase variation on a liquid crystal-on-silicon phase-only reflective display with a resolution of 1920×1080 pixels, a pixel pitch of 8 μm and 256 phase levels. The frequency content of the fringes projected with both gratings is analyzed and compared on the basis of the calculated Fresnel diffraction pattern, taking into account that the sinusoidal phase distribution in the case of a spatial light modulator is both sampled and quantized. Experimental fringe patterns projected using both gratings are also provided.

  15. Diagnosis of sinusoidal obstruction syndrome by positron emission tomography/computed tomography: report of two cases treated by defibrotide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthé, Mathieu; Bozec, Laurence; Bedossa, Pierre

    2014-11-01

    Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) is a potentially fatal liver injury that mainly occurs after myeloablative chemotherapy. We report two cases of SOS investigated by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography and treated with defibrotide. © 2014 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  16. Computer ray tracing speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, P; Pawlowski, B

    1990-05-01

    The results of measuring the ray trace speed and compilation speed of thirty-nine computers in fifty-seven configurations, ranging from personal computers to super computers, are described. A correlation of ray trace speed has been made with the LINPACK benchmark which allows the ray trace speed to be estimated using LINPACK performance data. The results indicate that the latest generation of workstations, using CPUs based on RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) technology, are as fast or faster than mainframe computers in compute-bound situations.

  17. A dynamic gravimetric standard for trace water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, P J; Goody, B A; Woods, P T; Milton, M J T

    2011-10-01

    A system for generating traceable reference standards of water vapor at trace levels between 5 and 2000 nmol/mol has been developed. It can provide different amount fractions of trace water vapor by using continuous accurate measurements of mass loss from a permeation device coupled with a dilution system based on an array of critical flow orifices. An estimated relative expanded uncertainty of ±2% has been achieved for most amount fractions generated. The system has been used in an international comparison and demonstrates excellent comparability with National Metrology Institutes maintaining standards of water vapor in this range using other methods.

  18. The evaluation of distributed damage in concrete based on sinusoidal modeling of the ultrasonic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehrinezhad, Alireza; Toufigh, Vahab

    2018-05-25

    Ultrasonic wave attenuation is an effective descriptor of distributed damage in inhomogeneous materials. Methods developed to measure wave attenuation have the potential to provide an in-site evaluation of existing concrete structures insofar as they are accurate and time-efficient. In this study, material classification and distributed damage evaluation were investigated based on the sinusoidal modeling of the response from the through-transmission ultrasonic tests on polymer concrete specimens. The response signal was modeled as single or the sum of damping sinusoids. Due to the inhomogeneous nature of concrete materials, model parameters may vary from one specimen to another. Therefore, these parameters are not known in advance and should be estimated while the response signal is being received. The modeling procedure used in this study involves a data-adaptive algorithm to estimate the parameters online. Data-adaptive algorithms are used due to a lack of knowledge of the model parameters. The damping factor was estimated as a descriptor of the distributed damage. The results were compared in two different cases as follows: (1) constant excitation frequency with varying concrete mixtures and (2) constant mixture with varying excitation frequencies. The specimens were also loaded up to their ultimate compressive strength to investigate the effect of distributed damage in the response signal. The results of the estimation indicated that the damping was highly sensitive to the change in material inhomogeneity, even in comparable mixtures. In addition to the proposed method, three methods were employed to compare the results based on their accuracy in the classification of materials and the evaluation of the distributed damage. It is shown that the estimated damping factor is not only sensitive to damage in the final stages of loading, but it is also applicable in evaluating micro damages in the earlier stages providing a reliable descriptor of damage. In addition

  19. Neuronal oscillations with non-sinusoidal morphology produce spurious phase-to-amplitude coupling and directionality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Lozano-Soldevilla

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal oscillations support cognitive processing. Modern views suggest that neuronal oscillations do not only reflect coordinated activity in spatially distributed networks, but also that there is interaction between the oscillations at different frequencies. For example, invasive recordings in animals and humans have found that the amplitude of fast oscillations (> 40 Hz occur non-uniformly within the phase of slower oscillations, forming the so-called cross-frequency coupling (CFC. However, the CFC patterns be influenced by features in the signal that do not relate to underlying physiological interactions. For example, CFC estimates may be sensitive to spectral correlations due to non-sinusoidal properties of the alpha band wave morphology. To investigate this issue, we performed CFC analysis using experimental and synthetic data. The former consisted in a double-blind magnetoencephalography pharmacological study in which participants received either placebo, 0.5 mg or 1.5 mg of lorazepam (LZP; GABAergic enhancer in different experimental sessions. By recording oscillatory brain activity with during rest and working memory (WM, we were able to demonstrate that posterior alpha (8 – 12 Hz phase was coupled to beta-low gamma band (20 – 45 Hz amplitude envelope during all sessions. Importantly, bicoherence values around the harmonics of the alpha frequency were similar both in magnitude and topographic distribution to the cross-frequency coherence (CFCoh values observed in the alpha-phase to beta-low gamma coupling. In addition, despite the large CFCoh we found no significant cross-frequency directionality (CFD. Critically, simulations demonstrated that a sizable part of our empirical CFCoh between alpha and beta-low gamma coupling and the lack of CFD could be explained by two-three harmonics aligned in zero phase-lag produced by the physiologically characteristic alpha asymmetry in the amplitude of the peaks relative to the troughs

  20. Flow and axial dispersion in a sinusoidal-walled tube: Effects of inertial and unsteady flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Marshall C.; Perkins, William A.; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Lambert, Adam; Wood, Brian D.

    2013-12-01

    In this work, we consider a sinusoidal-walled tube (a three-dimensional tube with sinusoidally-varying diameter) as a simplified conceptualization of flow in porous media. Direct numerical simulation using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods was used to compute velocity fields by solving the Navier-Stokes equations, and also to numerically solve the volume averaging closure problem, for a range of Reynolds numbers (Re) spanning the low-Re to inertial flow regimes, including one simulation at Re=449 for which unsteady flow was observed. The longitudinal dispersion observed for the flow was computed using a random walk particle tracking method, and this was compared to the longitudinal dispersion predicted from a volume-averaged macroscopic mass balance using the method of volume averaging; the results of the two methods were consistent. Our results are compared to experimental measurements of dispersion in porous media and to previous theoretical results for both the low-Re, Stokes flow regime and for values of Re representing the steady inertial regime. In the steady inertial regime, a power-law increase in the effective longitudinal dispersion (DL) with Re was found, and this is consistent with previous results. This rapid rate of increase is caused by trapping of solute in expansions due to flow separation (eddies). One unsteady (but non-turbulent) flow case (Re=449) was also examined. For this case, the rate of increase of DL with Re was smaller than that observed at lower Re. Velocity fluctuations in this regime lead to increased rates of solute mass transfer between the core flow and separated flow regions, thus diminishing the amount of tailing caused by solute trapping in eddies and thereby reducing longitudinal dispersion. The observed tailing was further explored through analysis of concentration skewness (third moment) and its assymptotic convergence to conventional advection-dispersion behavior (skewness = 0). The method of volume averaging was

  1. Bioindication of atmospheric trace metals - With special references to megacities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markert, Bernd; Wuenschmann, Simone; Fraenzle, Stefan; Graciana Figueiredo, Ana Maria; Ribeiro, Andreza P.; Wang Meie

    2011-01-01

    After considering the particular problems of atmospheric pollution in megacities, i.e. agglomerations larger than 5 mio. inhabitants, with urbanization of World's population going on steadily, possibilities of active biomonitoring by means of green plants are discussed. Based on specific definitions of active and passive bioindication the chances of monitoring heavy metals in Sao Paulo megacity were demonstrated (first results published before). This is to show that there is need for increased use of bioindication to tackle the particular problems of megacities concerning environmental 'health', the data to be processed according to the Multi-Markered-Bioindication-Concept (MMBC). Comparison to other work shows this approach to be reasonable. - Highlights: → Chemical Pollution. → Bioindication. → Multi-Markered-Bioindication-Concept (MMBC). → Mega cities. - Bioindication is a relevant technique for observing the atmospheric deposition of chemical elements of the environment in megacities.

  2. Traces of Drosophila Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ronald L.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Studies using functional cellullar imaging of living flies have identified six memory traces that form in the olfactory nervous system after conditioning with odors. These traces occur in distinct nodes of the olfactory nervous system, form and disappear across different windows of time, and are detected in the imaged neurons as increased calcium influx or synaptic release in response to the conditioned odor. Three traces form at, or near acquisition and co-exist with short-term behavioral memory. One trace forms with a delay after learning and co-exists with intermediate-term behavioral memory. Two traces form many hours after acquisition and co-exist with long-term behavioral memory. The transient memory traces may support behavior across the time-windows of their existence. The experimental approaches for dissecting memory formation in the fly, ranging from the molecular to the systems, make it an ideal system for dissecting the logic by which the nervous system organizes and stores different temporal forms of memory. PMID:21482352

  3. TraceContract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavelund, Klaus; Barringer, Howard

    2012-01-01

    TraceContract is an API (Application Programming Interface) for trace analysis. A trace is a sequence of events, and can, for example, be generated by a running program, instrumented appropriately to generate events. An event can be any data object. An example of a trace is a log file containing events that a programmer has found important to record during a program execution. Trace - Contract takes as input such a trace together with a specification formulated using the API and reports on any violations of the specification, potentially calling code (reactions) to be executed when violations are detected. The software is developed as an internal DSL (Domain Specific Language) in the Scala programming language. Scala is a relatively new programming language that is specifically convenient for defining such internal DSLs due to a number of language characteristics. This includes Scala s elegant combination of object-oriented and functional programming, a succinct notation, and an advanced type system. The DSL offers a combination of data-parameterized state machines and temporal logic, which is novel. As an extension of Scala, it is a very expressive and convenient log file analysis framework.

  4. A soil sampling reference site: The challenge in defining reference material for sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Zorzi, Paolo; Barbizzi, Sabrina; Belli, Maria; Fajgelj, Ales; Jacimovic, Radojko; Jeran, Zvonka; Sansone, Umberto; Perk, Marcel van der

    2008-01-01

    In the frame of the international SOILSAMP project, funded and coordinated by the Italian Environmental Protection Agency, an agricultural area was established as a reference site suitable for performing soil sampling inter-comparison exercises. The reference site was characterized for trace element content in soil, in terms of the spatial and temporal variability of their mass fraction. Considering that the behaviour of long-lived radionuclides in soil can be expected to be similar to that of some stable trace elements and that the distribution of these trace elements in soil can simulate the distribution of radionuclides, the reference site characterised in term of trace elements, can be also used to compare the soil sampling strategies developed for radionuclide investigations

  5. A soil sampling reference site: The challenge in defining reference material for sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Zorzi, Paolo [Agenzia per la Protezione dell' Ambiente e per i Servizi Tecnici (APAT), Servizio Metrologia Ambientale, Via di Castel Romano, Rome 100-00128 (Italy)], E-mail: paolo.dezorzi@apat.it; Barbizzi, Sabrina; Belli, Maria [Agenzia per la Protezione dell' Ambiente e per i Servizi Tecnici (APAT), Servizio Metrologia Ambientale, Via di Castel Romano, Rome 100-00128 (Italy); Fajgelj, Ales [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agency' s Laboratories Seibersdorf, Vienna A-1400 (Austria); Jacimovic, Radojko; Jeran, Zvonka; Sansone, Umberto [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, Ljubljana 1000 (Slovenia); Perk, Marcel van der [Department of Physical Geography, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80115, TC Utrecht 3508 (Netherlands)

    2008-11-15

    In the frame of the international SOILSAMP project, funded and coordinated by the Italian Environmental Protection Agency, an agricultural area was established as a reference site suitable for performing soil sampling inter-comparison exercises. The reference site was characterized for trace element content in soil, in terms of the spatial and temporal variability of their mass fraction. Considering that the behaviour of long-lived radionuclides in soil can be expected to be similar to that of some stable trace elements and that the distribution of these trace elements in soil can simulate the distribution of radionuclides, the reference site characterised in term of trace elements, can be also used to compare the soil sampling strategies developed for radionuclide investigations.

  6. A soil sampling reference site: the challenge in defining reference material for sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zorzi, Paolo; Barbizzi, Sabrina; Belli, Maria; Fajgelj, Ales; Jacimovic, Radojko; Jeran, Zvonka; Sansone, Umberto; van der Perk, Marcel

    2008-11-01

    In the frame of the international SOILSAMP project, funded and coordinated by the Italian Environmental Protection Agency, an agricultural area was established as a reference site suitable for performing soil sampling inter-comparison exercises. The reference site was characterized for trace element content in soil, in terms of the spatial and temporal variability of their mass fraction. Considering that the behaviour of long-lived radionuclides in soil can be expected to be similar to that of some stable trace elements and that the distribution of these trace elements in soil can simulate the distribution of radionuclides, the reference site characterised in term of trace elements, can be also used to compare the soil sampling strategies developed for radionuclide investigations.

  7. A metabonomic evaluation of the monocrotaline-induced sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conotte, R.; Colet, J.-M.

    2014-01-01

    The main curative treatment of colorectal cancer remains the surgery. However, when metastases are suspected, surgery is followed by a preventive chemotherapy using oxaliplatin which, unfortunately, may cause liver sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS). Such hepatic damage is barely detected during or after chemotherapy due to a lack of effective diagnostic procedures, but liver biopsy. The primary objective of the present study was to identify potential early diagnosis biomarkers of SOS using a metabonomic approach. SOS was induced in rats by monocrotaline, a prototypical toxic substance. 1 H NMR spectroscopy analysis of urine samples collected from rats treated with monocrotaline showed significant metabolic changes as compared to controls. During a first phase, cellular protective mechanisms such as an increased synthesis of GSH (reduced taurine) and the recruitment of cell osmolytes in the liver (betaine) were seen. In the second phase, the disturbance of the urea cycle (increased ornithine and urea reduction) leading to the depletion of NO, the alteration in the GSH synthesis (increased creatine and GSH precursors (glutamate, dimethylglycine and sarcosine)), and the liver necrosis (decrease taurine and increase creatine) all indicate the development of SOS. - Highlights: • Urine metabonomic profiles of SOS have been identified. • Urine osmoprotectants and anti-oxidants indicated an initial liver protection. • Liver necrosis was demonstrated by increased urine levels of taurine and creatine. • NO depletion was suggested by changes in ornithine and urea

  8. Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells induce immunosuppressive IL-10-producing Th1 cells via the Notch pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Katrin; Rudolph, Christine; Neumann, Christian; Janke, Marko; Amsen, Derk; Scheffold, Alexander

    2015-07-01

    Under homeostasis, liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) shift intrahepatic T-cell responses towards tolerance. However, the role of LSECs in the regulation of T-cell-induced liver inflammation is less clear. Here, we studied the capacity of LSECs to modulate pro-inflammatory Th1-cell differentiation in mice. Using in vitro co-culture systems and subsequent cytokine analysis, we showed that LSECs induced high amounts of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in developing Th1 cells. These LSEC-stimulated Th1 cells had no pro-inflammatory capacity in vivo but instead actively suppressed an inflammatory Th1-cell-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction. Blockage of IL-10 signaling in vivo inhibited immunosuppressive activity of LSEC-stimulated Th1 cells. We identified the Notch pathway as a mechanism how LSECs trigger IL-10 expression in Th1 cells. LSECs expressed high levels of the Delta-like and Jagged family of Notch ligands and induced expression of the Notch target genes hes-1 and deltex-1 in Th1 cells. Blockade of Notch signaling selectively inhibited IL-10 induction in Th1 cells by LSECs. Our findings suggest that LSEC-induced IL-10 expression in Th1 cells via the Notch pathway may contribute to the control of hepatic inflammatory immune responses by induction of a self-regulatory mechanism in pro-inflammatory Th1 cells. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Flame Structure and Chemiluminescence Emissions of Inverse Diffusion Flames under Sinusoidally Driven Plasma Discharges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Grazia De Giorgi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Reduction of nitric oxides (NOx in aircraft engines and in gas turbines by lean combustion is of great interest in the design of novel combustion systems. However, the stabilization of the flame under lean conditions is a main issue. In this context, the present work investigates the effects of sinusoidal dielectric barrier discharge (DBD on a lean inverse diffusive methane/air flame in a Bunsen-type burner under different actuation conditions. The flame appearance was investigated with fixed methane loading (mass flux, but with varying inner airflow rate. High-speed flame imaging was done by using an intensified (charge-coupled device CCD camera equipped with different optical filters in order to selectively record signals from the chemiluminescent species OH*, CH*, or CO2* to evaluate the flame behavior in presence of plasma actuation. The electrical power consumption was less than 33 W. It was evident that the plasma flame enhancement was significantly influenced by the plasma discharges, particularly at high inner airflow rates. The flame structure changes drastically when the dissipated plasma power increases. The flame area decreases due to the enhancement of mixing and chemical reactions that lead to a more anchored flame on the quartz exit with a reduction of the flame length.

  10. Using spatiotemporal source separation to identify prominent features in multichannel data without sinusoidal filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Michael X

    2017-09-27

    The number of simultaneously recorded electrodes in neuroscience is steadily increasing, providing new opportunities for understanding brain function, but also new challenges for appropriately dealing with the increase in dimensionality. Multivariate source separation analysis methods have been particularly effective at improving signal-to-noise ratio while reducing the dimensionality of the data and are widely used for cleaning, classifying and source-localizing multichannel neural time series data. Most source separation methods produce a spatial component (that is, a weighted combination of channels to produce one time series); here, this is extended to apply source separation to a time series, with the idea of obtaining a weighted combination of successive time points, such that the weights are optimized to satisfy some criteria. This is achieved via a two-stage source separation procedure, in which an optimal spatial filter is first constructed and then its optimal temporal basis function is computed. This second stage is achieved with a time-delay-embedding matrix, in which additional rows of a matrix are created from time-delayed versions of existing rows. The optimal spatial and temporal weights can be obtained by solving a generalized eigendecomposition of covariance matrices. The method is demonstrated in simulated data and in an empirical electroencephalogram study on theta-band activity during response conflict. Spatiotemporal source separation has several advantages, including defining empirical filters without the need to apply sinusoidal narrowband filters. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Bevacizumab exacerbates sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) in the animal model and increases MMP 9 production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Azin; Matthaei, Hanno; Wehner, Sven; Tonguc, Tolga; Kalff, Jörg C; Manekeller, Steffen

    2018-04-24

    Thanks to modern multimodal treatment the ouctome of patients with colorectal cancer has experienced significant improvements. As a downside, agent specific side effects have been observed such as sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) after oxaliplatin chemotherapy (OX). Bevazicumab targeting VEGF is nowadays comprehensively used in combination protocols with OX but its impact on hepatotoxicity is thus far elusive and focus of the present study. After MCT administration 67% of animals developed SOS. GOT serum concentration significantly increased in animals developing SOS ( p SOS. In contrast, animals receiving VEGF developed SOS merely in 40% while increasing the VEGF dose led to a further decrease in SOS development to 25%. MMP 9 concentration in animals developing SOS was significantly higher compared to controls ( p SOS paralleled by MMP 9 production. Therefore, OX-Bevacizumab combination therapies should be administered with caution, especially if liver parenchyma damage is apparent. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were gavaged Monocrotaline (MCT) to induce SOS. Recombinant VEGF or an Anti-VEGF antibody was administered to MCT-treated rats and the hepatotoxic effect monitored in defined time intervals. MMP 9 expression in the liver was measured by ELISA.

  12. A metabonomic evaluation of the monocrotaline-induced sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conotte, R.; Colet, J.-M., E-mail: jean-marie.colet@umons.ac.be

    2014-04-15

    The main curative treatment of colorectal cancer remains the surgery. However, when metastases are suspected, surgery is followed by a preventive chemotherapy using oxaliplatin which, unfortunately, may cause liver sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS). Such hepatic damage is barely detected during or after chemotherapy due to a lack of effective diagnostic procedures, but liver biopsy. The primary objective of the present study was to identify potential early diagnosis biomarkers of SOS using a metabonomic approach. SOS was induced in rats by monocrotaline, a prototypical toxic substance. {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy analysis of urine samples collected from rats treated with monocrotaline showed significant metabolic changes as compared to controls. During a first phase, cellular protective mechanisms such as an increased synthesis of GSH (reduced taurine) and the recruitment of cell osmolytes in the liver (betaine) were seen. In the second phase, the disturbance of the urea cycle (increased ornithine and urea reduction) leading to the depletion of NO, the alteration in the GSH synthesis (increased creatine and GSH precursors (glutamate, dimethylglycine and sarcosine)), and the liver necrosis (decrease taurine and increase creatine) all indicate the development of SOS. - Highlights: • Urine metabonomic profiles of SOS have been identified. • Urine osmoprotectants and anti-oxidants indicated an initial liver protection. • Liver necrosis was demonstrated by increased urine levels of taurine and creatine. • NO depletion was suggested by changes in ornithine and urea.

  13. Hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome caused by herbal medicine: CT and MRI features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Hua; Lou, Hai Yan [Dept. of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Wang, Yi Xiang J. [Dept. of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Xu, Xiao Jun; Zhang, Min Ming [Dept. of Radiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China)

    2014-04-15

    To describe the CT and MRI features of hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (HSOS) caused by herbal medicine Gynura segetum. The CT and MRI features of 16 consecutive Gynura segetum induced HSOS cases (12 men, 4 women) were analyzed. Eight patients had CT; three patients had MRI, and the remaining five patients had both CT and MRI examinations. Based on their clinical presentations and outcomes, the patients were classified into three categories: mild, moderate, and severe. The severity of the disease was also evaluated radiologically based on the abnormal hepatic patchy enhancement in post-contrast CT or MRI images. Ascites, patchy liver enhancement, and main right hepatic vein narrowing or occlusion were present in all 16 cases. Hepatomegaly and gallbladder wall thickening were present in 14 cases (87.5%, 14/16). Periportal high intensity on T2-weighted images was present in 6 cases (75%, 6/8). Normal liver parenchymal enhancement surrounding the main hepatic vein forming a clover-like sign was observed in 4 cases (25%, 4/16). The extent of patchy liver enhancement was statistically associated with clinical severity classification (kappa = 0.565). Ascites, patchy liver enhancement, and the main hepatic veins narrowing were the most frequent signs of herbal medicine induced HSOS. The grade of abnormal patchy liver enhancement was associated with the clinical severity.

  14. Broadband frequency and angular response of a sinusoidal bull’s eye antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaskoetxea, U.; Navarro-Cía, M.; Beruete, M.

    2016-07-01

    A thorough experimental study of the frequency and beaming angle response of a metallic leaky-wave bull’s eye antenna working at 77 GHz with a sinusoidally corrugated profile is presented. The beam scanning property of these antennas as frequency is varied is experimentally demonstrated and corroborated through theoretical and numerical results. From the experimental results the dispersion diagram of the n  =  -1 and n  =  -2 space harmonics is extracted, and the operation at different frequency regimes is identified and discussed. In order to show the contribution of each half of the antenna, numerical examples of the near-field behavior are also displayed. Overall, experimental results are in good qualitative and quantitative agreement with theoretical and numerical calculations. Finally, an analysis of the beamwidth as a function of frequency is performed, showing that it can achieve values below 1.5° in a fractional bandwidth of 4% around the operation frequency, which is an interesting frequency-stable broadside radiation.

  15. Broadband frequency and angular response of a sinusoidal bull’s eye antenna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaskoetxea, U; Beruete, M; Navarro-Cía, M

    2016-01-01

    A thorough experimental study of the frequency and beaming angle response of a metallic leaky-wave bull’s eye antenna working at 77 GHz with a sinusoidally corrugated profile is presented. The beam scanning property of these antennas as frequency is varied is experimentally demonstrated and corroborated through theoretical and numerical results. From the experimental results the dispersion diagram of the n   =  −1 and n   =  −2 space harmonics is extracted, and the operation at different frequency regimes is identified and discussed. In order to show the contribution of each half of the antenna, numerical examples of the near-field behavior are also displayed. Overall, experimental results are in good qualitative and quantitative agreement with theoretical and numerical calculations. Finally, an analysis of the beamwidth as a function of frequency is performed, showing that it can achieve values below 1.5° in a fractional bandwidth of 4% around the operation frequency, which is an interesting frequency-stable broadside radiation. (paper)

  16. Experimental study of fluid flow in the entrance of a sinusoidal channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oviedo-Tolentino, F.; Romero-Mendez, R.; Hernandez-Guerrero, A.; Giron-Palomares, B.

    2008-01-01

    An experimental flow visualization study of the entrance section of channels formed with sinusoidal plates was made. The experiments were conducted in a water tunnel and a laser illuminated particle tracking was used as the technique of flow visualization. The geometric parameters of the plates were maintained constant while the distance between plates, phase angle, and the Reynolds number were varied during the experiments. The flow regimes that were found in the experiments are steady, unsteady and significantly-mixed flows. Instabilities of the flow first appear near the exit of the channel, and move closer to the inlet waves as the Reynolds number grows, but in the first wave from inlet the flow is always steady. The results show that, for all other parameters fixed, the Reynolds number at which unsteady flow first appears grows with the distance between plates. The phase angle that best promotes unsteady flow depends on the average distance between plates: for certain average distance between plates, there is a phase angle that best disturbs the flow. For the set of parameters used in this experiment, a channel with eight waves is sufficiently long and the flow features presented in the first eight waves of a longer channel will be similar to what was observed here

  17. Richtmyer-Meshkov instability of a sinusoidal interface driven by a cylindrical shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L.; Ding, J.; Zhai, Z.; Luo, X.

    2018-04-01

    Evolution of a single-mode interface triggered by a cylindrically converging shock in a V-shaped geometry is investigated numerically using an adaptive multi-phase solver. Several physical mechanisms, including the Bell-Plesset (BP) effect, the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) effect, the nonlinearity, and the compressibility are found to be pronounced in the converging environment. Generally, the BP and nonlinear effects play an important role at early stages, while the RT effect and the compressibility dominate the late-stage evolution. Four sinusoidal interfaces with different initial amplitudes (a_0 ) and wavelengths (λ ) are found to evolve differently in the converging geometry. For the very small a_0 /λ interfaces, nonlinearity is negligible at the early stages and the sole presence of the BP effect results in an increasing growth rate, confining the linear growth of the instability to a relatively small amount of time. For the moderately small a_0 /λ cases, the BP and nonlinear effects, which, respectively, promote and inhibit the perturbation development, coexist in the early stage. The counterbalancing effects between them produce a very long period of growth that is linear in time, even to a moment when the amplitude over wavelength ratio approaches 0.6. The RT stabilization effect at late stages due to the interface deceleration significantly inhibits the perturbation growth, which can be reasonably predicted by a modified Bell model.

  18. Instrumentation to Measure the Capacitance of Biosensors by Sinusoidal Wave Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavan Kumar KATHUROJU

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Micro Controller based instrumentation to measure the capacitance of biosensors is developed. It is based on frequency domain technique with sinusoidal wave input. Changes in the capacitance of biosensor because of the analyte specific reaction are calculated by knowing the current flowing through the sample. A dedicated 8-bit microcontroller (AT89C52 and its associated peripherals are employed for the hardware and application specific software is developed in ‘C’ language. The paper describes the methodology, instrumentation details along with a specific application to glucose sensing. The measurements are conducted with glucose oxidase based capacitance biosensor and the obtained results are compared with the conventional method of sugar measurements using the UV-Visible spectroscopy (Phenol-Sulphuric acid assay method. Measurement accuracy of the instrument is found to be ± 5 %. Experiments are conducted on glucose sensor with different bias voltages. It is found that for bias voltages varying from 0.5 to 0.7 Volt, the measurements are good for this application.

  19. Fine tuning of optical signals in nanoporous anodic alumina photonic crystals by apodized sinusoidal pulse anodisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Abel; Law, Cheryl Suwen; Chin Lei, Dominique Wong; Pereira, Taj; Losic, Dusan

    2016-11-03

    In this study, we present an advanced nanofabrication approach to produce gradient-index photonic crystal structures based on nanoporous anodic alumina. An apodization strategy is for the first time applied to a sinusoidal pulse anodisation process in order to engineer the photonic stop band of nanoporous anodic alumina (NAA) in depth. Four apodization functions are explored, including linear positive, linear negative, logarithmic positive and logarithmic negative, with the aim of finely tuning the characteristic photonic stop band of these photonic crystal structures. We systematically analyse the effect of the amplitude difference (from 0.105 to 0.840 mA cm -2 ), the pore widening time (from 0 to 6 min), the anodisation period (from 650 to 950 s) and the anodisation time (from 15 to 30 h) on the quality and the position of the characteristic photonic stop band and the interferometric colour of these photonic crystal structures using the aforementioned apodization functions. Our results reveal that a logarithmic negative apodisation function is the most optimal approach to obtain unprecedented well-resolved and narrow photonic stop bands across the UV-visible-NIR spectrum of NAA-based gradient-index photonic crystals. Our study establishes a fully comprehensive rationale towards the development of unique NAA-based photonic crystal structures with finely engineered optical properties for advanced photonic devices such as ultra-sensitive optical sensors, selective optical filters and all-optical platforms for quantum computing.

  20. Hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome caused by herbal medicine: CT and MRI features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Hua; Lou, Hai Yan; Wang, Yi Xiang J.; Xu, Xiao Jun; Zhang, Min Ming

    2014-01-01

    To describe the CT and MRI features of hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (HSOS) caused by herbal medicine Gynura segetum. The CT and MRI features of 16 consecutive Gynura segetum induced HSOS cases (12 men, 4 women) were analyzed. Eight patients had CT; three patients had MRI, and the remaining five patients had both CT and MRI examinations. Based on their clinical presentations and outcomes, the patients were classified into three categories: mild, moderate, and severe. The severity of the disease was also evaluated radiologically based on the abnormal hepatic patchy enhancement in post-contrast CT or MRI images. Ascites, patchy liver enhancement, and main right hepatic vein narrowing or occlusion were present in all 16 cases. Hepatomegaly and gallbladder wall thickening were present in 14 cases (87.5%, 14/16). Periportal high intensity on T2-weighted images was present in 6 cases (75%, 6/8). Normal liver parenchymal enhancement surrounding the main hepatic vein forming a clover-like sign was observed in 4 cases (25%, 4/16). The extent of patchy liver enhancement was statistically associated with clinical severity classification (kappa = 0.565). Ascites, patchy liver enhancement, and the main hepatic veins narrowing were the most frequent signs of herbal medicine induced HSOS. The grade of abnormal patchy liver enhancement was associated with the clinical severity.

  1. Measurement of electroosmotic and electrophoretic velocities using pulsed and sinusoidal electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadek, Samir H; Pimenta, Francisco; Pinho, Fernando T; Alves, Manuel A

    2017-04-01

    In this work, we explore two methods to simultaneously measure the electroosmotic mobility in microchannels and the electrophoretic mobility of micron-sized tracer particles. The first method is based on imposing a pulsed electric field, which allows to isolate electrophoresis and electroosmosis at the startup and shutdown of the pulse, respectively. In the second method, a sinusoidal electric field is generated and the mobilities are found by minimizing the difference between the measured velocity of tracer particles and the velocity computed from an analytical expression. Both methods produced consistent results using polydimethylsiloxane microchannels and polystyrene micro-particles, provided that the temporal resolution of the particle tracking velocimetry technique used to compute the velocity of the tracer particles is fast enough to resolve the diffusion time-scale based on the characteristic channel length scale. Additionally, we present results with the pulse method for viscoelastic fluids, which show a more complex transient response with significant velocity overshoots and undershoots after the start and the end of the applied electric pulse, respectively. © 2016 The Authors. Electrophoresis published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Flagellum motion in 2-D: Work rate and efficiency of the non-sinusoidal approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viridi, Sparisoma; Nuraini, Nuning; Stephanie, Monica; Rifqi, Ainur; Christina, Dina; Thania, Elsa; Sihite, Erland

    2018-03-01

    Today microorganisms have been widely used to support human life. Some examples include foodstuffs (Spirulina.sp), to help with medical needs, for mining purposes and more. On the other hand, the development of technology is also very big influence on human life. The combination of technology and health science will be very useful if we can develop it. One is the cancer treatment by utilizing the movement of the flagella to be made a nanorobot used as a carrier of cancer drugs. Movement of flagella that resembles the shape of the arc and straight line can be searched formulation and then applied to the manufacture of nanorobot tail. Then the nanorobot will carry a cancer drug that leads directly to the cancer cells. So hopefully with this nanorobot, can minimize the death of healthy cells around cancer cells. From the results of research and analysis of the movement of flagella, it can be concluded that the smaller the mass of the flagella, the greater the efficiency will be or will be more efficient. So, the energy needed nanorobot will be smaller. Model with non-sinusoidal approach (Brokaw, 1965) is discussed in this work and formulation to get the energy efficiency is proposed and analyzed. Unfortunately, there is a negative value in the formulation.

  3. Spline-based high-accuracy piecewise-polynomial phase-to-sinusoid amplitude converters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrinović, Davor; Brezović, Marko

    2011-04-01

    We propose a method for direct digital frequency synthesis (DDS) using a cubic spline piecewise-polynomial model for a phase-to-sinusoid amplitude converter (PSAC). This method offers maximum smoothness of the output signal. Closed-form expressions for the cubic polynomial coefficients are derived in the spectral domain and the performance analysis of the model is given in the time and frequency domains. We derive the closed-form performance bounds of such DDS using conventional metrics: rms and maximum absolute errors (MAE) and maximum spurious free dynamic range (SFDR) measured in the discrete time domain. The main advantages of the proposed PSAC are its simplicity, analytical tractability, and inherent numerical stability for high table resolutions. Detailed guidelines for a fixed-point implementation are given, based on the algebraic analysis of all quantization effects. The results are verified on 81 PSAC configurations with the output resolutions from 5 to 41 bits by using a bit-exact simulation. The VHDL implementation of a high-accuracy DDS based on the proposed PSAC with 28-bit input phase word and 32-bit output value achieves SFDR of its digital output signal between 180 and 207 dB, with a signal-to-noise ratio of 192 dB. Its implementation requires only one 18 kB block RAM and three 18-bit embedded multipliers in a typical field-programmable gate array (FPGA) device. © 2011 IEEE

  4. Sensorless Sinusoidal Drives for Fan and Pump Motors by V/f Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuchi, Mitsuyuki; Ohnishi, Tokuo

    This paper proposes sensorless sinusoidal driving methods of permanent magnet synchronous motors for fans and pumps by V/f control. The proposed methods are simple methods that control the motor peak current constant by voltage or frequency control, and are characterized by DC link current detection using a single shunt resistor at carrier wave signal bottom timing. As a result of the dumping factor from square torque load characteristics of fan and pump motors, it is possible to control stable starting and stable steady state by V/f control. In general, pressure losses as a result of the fluid pass of fan and pump systems are nearly constant; therefore, the flow rate and motor torque are determined by revolutions. Accordingly, high efficiency driving is possible by setting corresponding currents to q-axis currents (torque currents) at target revolutions. Because of the simple current detection and motor control methods, the proposed methods are optimum for fan and pump motor driving systems of home appliances.

  5. Sinusoidal Parameter Estimation Using Quadratic Interpolation around Power-Scaled Magnitude Spectrum Peaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt James Werner

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The magnitude of the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT of a discrete-time signal has a limited frequency definition. Quadratic interpolation over the three DFT samples surrounding magnitude peaks improves the estimation of parameters (frequency and amplitude of resolved sinusoids beyond that limit. Interpolating on a rescaled magnitude spectrum using a logarithmic scale has been shown to improve those estimates. In this article, we show how to heuristically tune a power scaling parameter to outperform linear and logarithmic scaling at an equivalent computational cost. Although this power scaling factor is computed heuristically rather than analytically, it is shown to depend in a structured way on window parameters. Invariance properties of this family of estimators are studied and the existence of a bias due to noise is shown. Comparing to two state-of-the-art estimators, we show that an optimized power scaling has a lower systematic bias and lower mean-squared-error in noisy conditions for ten out of twelve common windowing functions.

  6. Defibrotide sodium for the treatment of hepatic veno-occlusive disease/sinusoidal obstruction syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Paul G; Triplett, Brandon M; Ho, Vincent T; Chao, Nelson; Dignan, Fiona L; Maglio, Michelle; Mohty, Mohamad

    2018-02-01

    Hepatic veno-occlusive disease/sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (VOD/SOS) is an unpredictable condition associated with endothelial-cell damage due to conditioning for hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) or chemotherapy without HSCT. Mortality in patients with VOD/SOS and multi-organ dysfunction (MOD) may be >80%. Areas covered: Defibrotide is the only approved drug for the treatment of severe hepatic VOD/SOS after HSCT in the European Union and hepatic VOD/SOS with renal or pulmonary dysfunction in the United States. Its efficacy in patients with VOD/SOS with MOD post-HSCT was demonstrated in a clinical-trial program that included a historically controlled treatment study, a phase 2 trial, and a large T-IND expanded-access program that also included patients without MOD and who received chemotherapy without HSCT. Expert commentary: Defibrotide appears to protect endothelial cells and restore the thrombolytic-fibrinolytic balance. It addresses a significant clinical need and has demonstrated favorable Day +100 survival and overall adverse-event rates that seem similar to control groups receiving supportive care alone. Currently, defibrotide is under investigation for the prevention of VOD/SOS in high-risk pediatric and adult patients.

  7. Safety and effects of prophylactic defibrotide for sinusoidal obstruction syndrome in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Meerim; Park, Hyeon Jin; Eom, Hyeon-Seok; Kwon, Young Joo; Park, Jeong A; Lim, Yeon Jung; Yoon, Jong Hyung; Kong, Sun-Young; Ghim, Thad T; Lee, Hye Won; Yun, Tak; Park, Byung-Kiu

    2013-01-28

    Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) is a serious complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), with a mortality rate of up to 90%. We report our experience on the use of defibrotide for SOS prophylaxis in HSCT. We retrospectively reviewed data of 49 patients who received defibrotide as SOS prophylaxis during the course of HSCT at the National Cancer Center, Goyang, Korea, between August 2005 and July 2008. Thirty-four patients (69.4%) were classified as a high-risk group for developing SOS. Defibrotide was well-tolerated, without any grade 3 or 4 toxicity. The median value of maximum total bilirubin within 100 days after HSCT was within the normal range. SOS was diagnosed in only 1 patient, who underwent autologous HSCT due to relapsed medulloblastoma. There was no day 100 treatment-related mortality in our study. Defibrotide appears to be a safe prophylaxis for SOS. This study suggests that it could be effective to use prophylactic defibrotide in advance to improve HSCT outcomes in patients at risk of SOS.

  8. Successful treatment with defibrotide for sinusoidal obstruction syndrome after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakushijin, Kimikazu; Matsui, Toshimitsu; Okamura, Atsuo; Yamamoto, Katsuya; Ito, Mitsuhiro; Chihara, Kazuo

    2005-01-01

    Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) (formerly known as hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD)) is a life-threatening complication subsequent to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. However, no completely satisfactory strategies for the treatment of SOS have been established yet. Defibrotide is a single-stranded polydeoxyribonucleotide with anti-thrombotic, anti-ischemic, anti-inflammatory and thrombolytic properties, but without systemic anticoagulant effects, and some encouraging results have been reported in western countries. We treated four patients with defibrotide for SOS, since there seemed to be no possibility to cure the patients with conventionally available treatments in Japan. All patients showed evidence of multiple organ failure at the start of the treatment. Defibrotide was administered intravenously in normal saline in four divided doses for 14 to 27 days. Three patients (75%) responded to the therapy, while one died of SOS and cytomegalovirus infection despite intensive therapy. None of the patients suffered from significant adverse effects such as severe hemorrhage. This is the first report dealing with the treatment with defibrotide of Japanese patients with SOS. Because defibrotide is considered to be promising for the treatment of SOS, it is important to start a phase II study as soon as possible.

  9. The Role of Thromboelastography in Pediatric Patients with Sinusoidal Obstructive Syndrome Receiving Defibrotide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendreau, Joanna L; Knoll, Christine; Adams, Roberta H; Su, Leon L

    2017-04-01

    Sinusoidal obstructive syndrome (SOS) is a potentially fatal form of hepatic injury after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Patients can develop liver dysfunction, portal hypertension, ascites, coagulopathies, and multisystem organ failure. The mortality rate of severe SOS has been reported as high as 98% by day 100 after transplantation. Defibrotide, which is now approved for the treatment of SOS, has significantly decreased mortality. Defibrotide is a polynucleotide with profibrinolytic, anti-ischemic, and anti-inflammatory activity. These properties can increase the risk of life-threatening bleeding in this patient population. Previous protocols have suggested maintaining international normalized ratio ≤ 1.5, platelets > 30 k/uL, and fibrinogen ≥ 150 mg/dL to minimize this risk of bleeding. However, this can be challenging in fluid-sensitive patients with SOS. Thromboelastography (TEG) is a functional assay that evaluates the balance of procoagulant and anticoagulant proteins. In this series, TEG was used to guide defibrotide therapy as well as blood product transfusions in SOS patients with abnormal coagulation studies. Each patient recovered from SOS and had no bleeding complications. A randomized clinical trial is the next step in supporting the use of TEG in SOS patients with abnormal coagulation studies receiving defibrotide therapy. Copyright © 2017 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Defibrotide for the treatment of sinusoidal obstruction syndrome: evaluation of response to therapy and patient outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutsouvelis, John; Avery, Sharon; Dooley, Michael; Kirkpatrick, Carl; Spencer, Andrew

    2018-03-01

    Defibrotide is an agent used to treat sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS/VOD) in patients undergoing haemopoietic stem cell transplantation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of defibrotide used within institutional guidelines for the treatment of SOS/VOD in patients undergoing haemopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Data for 23 patients was retrospectively reviewed to evaluate the effectiveness of defibrotide and the utility of response criteria to direct therapy as specified within institution guidelines. Patients met institutional criteria for a diagnosis of SOS/VOD based on predominantly Baltimore criteria and received defibrotide. Stabilisation or improvement in symptoms and biochemical markers was required for continuation of therapy with defibrotide. Overall, 14 patients responded to therapy. Survival at day 100 post HSCT was 70%. Median serum (total) bilirubin concentrations in all evaluable patients had decreased at days 5 and 10 (p defibrotide, there was a decrease in the proportion of patients exhibiting hepatomegaly (p = 0.02), ascites (p Defibrotide to treat SOS/VOD and continued based on attainment of early response was effective management of this condition. Defibrotide should be considered in any consensus protocol providing guidance on the management of SOS/VOD, with future studies considered to assess appropriate time points for response to therapy during treatment.

  11. Diagnostic performance of Contrast-enhanced CT in Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids-induced Hepatic Sinusoidal Obstructive Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Xuefeng; Ye, Jin; Rong, Xinxin; Lu, Zhiwen; Li, Xin; Wang, Yong; Yang, Ling; Xu, Keshu; Song, Yuhu; Hou, Xiaohua

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (HSOS) can be caused by pyrrolizidine alkaloids(PAs)-containing herbals. Since PAs exposure is obscure and clinical presentation of HSOS is unspecific, it is challenge to establish the diagnosis of PAs-induced HSOS. Gynura segetum is one of the most wide-use herbals containing PAs. The aim of our study is to describe the features of contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) in gynura segetum-induced HSOS, and then determine diagnostic performance of radiological signs. We retrospectively analyzed medical records and CT images of HSOS patients (71 cases) and the controls (222 cases) enrolled from January 1, 2008, to Oct 31, 2015. The common findings of contrast CT in PAs-induced HSOS included: ascites (100%), hepatomegaly (78.87%), gallbladder wall thickening (86.96%), pleural effusion (70.42%), hepatic vein narrowing (87.32%), patchy liver enhancement (92.96%), and heterogeneous hypoattenuation (100%); of these signs, patchy enhancement and heterogeneous hypoattenuation were valuable features. Then, the result of diagnostic performance demonstrated that contrast CT possessed better performance in diagnosing PAs-induced HSOS compared with various parameters of Seattle criteria. In conclusion, the patients with PAs-induced HSOS display distinct radiologic features at CT-scan, which reveals that contrast-enhanced CT provides an effective noninvasive method for diagnosing PAs-induced HSOS. PMID:27897243

  12. Engraftment and reconstitution of hematopoiesis is dependent on VEGFR2 mediated regeneration of sinusoidal endothelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Andrea T.; Butler, Jason M.; Nolan, Daniel J; Kranz, Andrea; Iida, Kaoruko; Kobayashi, Mariko; Kopp, Hans-Georg; Shido, Koji; Petit, Isabelle; Yanger, Kilangsungla; James, Daylon; Witte, Larry; Zhu, Zhenping; Wu, Yan; Pytowski, Bronislaw; Rosenwaks, Zev; Mittal, Vivek; Sato, Thomas N.; Rafii, Shahin

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The phenotypic attributes and molecular determinants for the regeneration of bone marrow (BM) sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs) and their contribution to hematopoiesis are unknown. We show that after myelosuppression VEGFR2 activation promotes reassembly of regressed SECs, reconstituting hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). VEGFR2 and VEGFR3 expression are restricted to BM vasculature, demarcating a continuous network of VEGFR2+VEGFR3+Sca1− SECs and VEGFR2+VEGFR3−Sca1+ arterioles. While chemotherapy (5FU) and sublethal irradiation (650 rad) induce minor SEC regression, lethal irradiation (950 rad) induces severe regression of SECs requiring BM transplantation (BMT) for regeneration. Conditional deletion of VEGFR2 in adult mice blocks regeneration of SECs in sublethally irradiated animals, preventing hematopoietic reconstitution. Inhibition of VEGFR2 signaling in lethally irradiated wild type mice rescued with BMT severely impairs SEC reconstruction, preventing engraftment and reconstitution of HSPCs. Therefore, activation of VEGFR2 is critical for regeneration of VEGFR3+Sca1− SECs that are essential for engraftment and restoration of HSPCs and hematopoiesis. PMID:19265665

  13. Unsteady flow damping force prediction of MR dampers subjected to sinusoidal loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, M.; Wang, S. Q.; Fu, J.; Peng, Y. X.

    2013-02-01

    So far quasi-steady models are usually used to design magnetorheological (MR) dampers, but these models are not sufficient to describe the MR damper behavior under unsteady dynamic loading, for fluid inertia is neglected in quasi-steady models, which will bring more error between computer simulation and experimental results. Under unsteady flow model, the fluid inertia terms will bring error calculated upto 10%, so it is necessary to be considered in the governing equation. In this paper, force-stroke behavior of MR damper with flow mode due to sinusoidal loading excitation is mainly investigated, to simplify the analysis, the one-dimensional axisymmetric annular duct geometry of MR dampers is approximated as a rectangular duct. The rectangular duct can be divided into 3 regions for the velocity profile of the incompressible MR fluid flow, in each region, a partial differential equation is composed of by Navier-Stokes equations, boundary conditions and initial conditions to determine the velocity solution. In addition, in this work, not only Bingham plastic model but the Herschel—Bulkley model is adopted to analyze the MR damper performance. The damping force resulting from the pressure drop of unsteady MR dampers can be obtained and used to design or size MR dampers. Compared with the quasi-steady flow damping force, the damping force of unsteady MR dampers is more close to practice, particularly for the high-speed unsteady movement of MR dampers.

  14. Unsteady flow damping force prediction of MR dampers subjected to sinusoidal loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, M; Fu, J; Wang, S Q; Peng, Y X

    2013-01-01

    So far quasi-steady models are usually used to design magnetorheological (MR) dampers, but these models are not sufficient to describe the MR damper behavior under unsteady dynamic loading, for fluid inertia is neglected in quasi-steady models, which will bring more error between computer simulation and experimental results. Under unsteady flow model, the fluid inertia terms will bring error calculated upto 10%, so it is necessary to be considered in the governing equation. In this paper, force-stroke behavior of MR damper with flow mode due to sinusoidal loading excitation is mainly investigated, to simplify the analysis, the one-dimensional axisymmetric annular duct geometry of MR dampers is approximated as a rectangular duct. The rectangular duct can be divided into 3 regions for the velocity profile of the incompressible MR fluid flow, in each region, a partial differential equation is composed of by Navier-Stokes equations, boundary conditions and initial conditions to determine the velocity solution. In addition, in this work, not only Bingham plastic model but the Herschel—Bulkley model is adopted to analyze the MR damper performance. The damping force resulting from the pressure drop of unsteady MR dampers can be obtained and used to design or size MR dampers. Compared with the quasi-steady flow damping force, the damping force of unsteady MR dampers is more close to practice, particularly for the high-speed unsteady movement of MR dampers.

  15. Improvement of stability of sinusoidally driven atmospheric pressure plasma jet using auxiliary bias voltage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Jin Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have proposed the auxiliary bias pulse scheme to improve the stability of atmospheric pressure plasma jets driven by an AC sinusoidal waveform excitation source. The stability of discharges can be significantly improved by the compensation of irregular variation in memory voltage due to the effect of auxiliary bias pulse. From the parametric study, such as the width, voltage, and onset time of auxiliary bias pulse, it has been demonstrated that the auxiliary bias pulse plays a significant role in suppressing the irregular discharges caused by the irregular variation in memory voltage and stable discharge can be initiated with the termination of the auxiliary bias pulse. As a result of further investigating the effects of the auxiliary pulse scheme on the jet stability under various process conditions such as the distance between the jet head and the counter electrode, and carrier gas flow, the jet stability can be improved by adjusting the amplitude and number of the bias pulse depending on the variations in the process conditions.

  16. In-vitro study on haemodiluted blood flow in a sinusoidal microstenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, M J; Ji, H-S; Lee, S J

    2010-01-01

    In-vitro experiments were carried out to investigate the haemodynamic and haemorheological behaviours of haemodiluted blood flow through a microstenosis using a micro-particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique. The micro-PIV system employed in this study consisted of a two-head neodymium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser, a cooled charge-coupled device camera, and a delay generator. To simulate blood flow in a stenosed vascular vessel, a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannel with a sinusoidal throat of 80 per cent severity was employed. The width and depth of the microchannel were 100 microm and 50 microm, respectively. To compare the flow characteristics in the microstenosis, the same experiments were repeated in a straight microchannel under the same flow conditions. Using a syringe pump, human blood with 5 per cent haematocrit was supplied into the microstenosis channel. The flow characteristics and transport of blood cells through the microstenosis were investigated with various flowrates. The mean velocity fields were nearly symmetric with respect to the channel centreline. In the contraction section, the oncoming blood flow was accelerated rapidly, and the maximum velocity at the throat was almost 4.99 times faster than that of the straight microchannel without stenosis. In the diffusion section, the blood cells show rolling, deformation, twisting, and tumbling motion due to the flow-choking characteristics at the stenotic region. The results from this study will provide useful basic data for comparison with those obtained by clinical researchers.

  17. Effects of chronic alcoholism in the sensitivity to luminance contrast in vertical sinusoidal gratings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éllen Dias Nicácio da Cruz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to measure visual contrast sensitivity (CS of luminance using vertical sinusoidal gratings with spatial frequencies of 0.6, 2.5, 5.0 and 20.0 cycles per degree of visual angle in chronic alcoholics in abstinence period. The participants were 20 volunteers (26–59 years of age divided into two groups: the study group (SG consisted of 10 volunteers with a clinical history of chronic alcoholism abstinence and the control group (CG consisted of 10 healthy volunteers. Each group had five female and five male participants. All participants had normal or corrected visual acuity and were free of identifiable diseases. The psychophysical method of forced choice between two temporal alternatives (2AFC was used to measure visual CS of luminance of 41.2 cd/m2. The results showed significant differences between groups for all spatial frequencies tested (p< 0.001. These results suggest alterations in the visual perception related to chronic alcohol consumption even after years of abstinence.

  18. Investigation of secondary flows in turbulent pipe flows with three-dimensional sinusoidal walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Leon; MacDonald, Michael; Chung, Daniel; Hutchins, Nicholas; Ooi, Andrew

    2017-11-01

    The occurrence of secondary flows is systematically investigated via Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of turbulent flow in a rough wall pipe at friction Reynolds numbers of 540. In this study, the peak-to-trough height of the roughness elements, which consist of three-dimensional sinusoidal roughness, is fixed at 120 viscous units while the wavelength of the roughness elements is varied. The solidity or effective slope (ES) of the roughness ranges from the sparse regime (ES = 0.18) to the closely packed roughness/dense regime (ES = 0.72). The time-independent dispersive stresses, which arise due to the stationary features of the flow, are analysed and are found to increase with increasing roughness wavelength. These dispersive stresses are related to the occurrence of secondary flows and are maximum within the roughness canopy. Above the crest of the roughness elements, the dispersive stresses reduce to zero at wall-normal heights greater than half of the roughness wavelength. This study has found that the size and wall-normal extent of the secondary flows scales with the roughness wavelength and can reach wall-normal heights of almost half of the pipe radius.

  19. The electronic states calculated using the sinusoidal potential for Cd1-xZnxS quantum dot superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakly, A.; Safta, N.; Mejri, H.; Lamine, A. Ben

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → This paper is dedicated to structures based on Cd 1-x Zn x S. - Abstract: The present work reports on a theoretical investigation of superlattices based on Cd 1-x Zn x S quantum dots embedded in an insulating material. The system to model is assumed to be a series of flattened cylindrical quantum dots with a finite barrier at the boundary and is studied using a sinusoidal potential. The electronic states of both Γ 1 - (ground) and Γ 2 - (first excited) minibands have been computed as a function of inter-quantum dot separation and Zn composition. An analysis of the results shows that the widths of Γ 1 - and Γ 2 - minibands decrease as the superlattice period and Zn content increase separately. Moreover, the sinusoidal shape of the confining potential accounts for the coupling between quantum dots quantitatively less than the Kronig-Penney potential model.

  20. An all digital phase locked loop for synchronization of a sinusoidal signal embedded in white Gaussian noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, C. P.; Gupta, S. C.

    1973-01-01

    An all digital phase locked loop which tracks the phase of the incoming sinusoidal signal once per carrier cycle is proposed. The different elements and their functions and the phase lock operation are explained in detail. The nonlinear difference equations which govern the operation of the digital loop when the incoming signal is embedded in white Gaussian noise are derived, and a suitable model is specified. The performance of the digital loop is considered for the synchronization of a sinusoidal signal. For this, the noise term is suitably modelled which allows specification of the output probabilities for the two level quantizer in the loop at any given phase error. The loop filter considered increases the probability of proper phase correction. The phase error states in modulo two-pi forms a finite state Markov chain which enables the calculation of steady state probabilities, RMS phase error, transient response and mean time for cycle skipping.

  1. Construction of a liver sinusoid based on the laminar flow on chip and self-assembly of endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Shengli; Yi, Xiaoman; Du, Zhichang; Xu, Yuanyuan; Sun, Wei

    2018-02-20

    The liver is one of the main metabolic organs, and nearly all ingested drugs will be metabolized by the liver. Only a small fraction of drugs are able to come onto the market during drug development, and hepatic toxicity is a major cause for drug failure. Since drug development is costly in both time and materials, an in vitro liver model that can accelerate bioreactions in the liver and reduce drug consumption is imperative in the pharmaceutical industry. The liver on a chip is an ideal alternative for its controllable environment and tiny size, which means constructing a more biomimetic model, reducing material consumption as well as promoting drug diffusion and reaction. In this study, taking advantage of the laminar flow on chips and using natural degradable gel rat tail Collagen-I, we constructed a liver sinusoid on a chip. By synchronously injecting two kinds of cell-laden collagen, HepG2-laden collagen and HUVEC-laden collagen, we formed two collagen layers with a clear borderline. By controlling the HUVEC density and injection of growth factors, HUVECs in collagen formed a monolayer through self-assembly. Thus, a liver sinusoid on a chip was achieved in a more biomimetic environment with a more controllable and uniform distribution of discrete HUVECs. Viability, album secretion and urea synthesis of the live sinusoid on a chip were analysed on days 3, 5 and 7 after collagen injection with acetaminophen treatment at 0 (control), 10 and 20 mM. The results indicated that our liver sinusoid on a chip was able to maintain bioactivity and function for at least 7 d and was beneficial for hepatotoxic drug screening.

  2. Large right ventricular sinusoids in an infant with aorta-left ventricular tunnel and proximal right coronary artery atresia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peter C; Spinner, Joseph A; Heinle, Jeffrey S

    2018-07-01

    We report a 1-month-old infant diagnosed with an aorta-left ventricular tunnel, ventricular septal defect, and right coronary atresia with right ventricular sinusoids. The patient's anatomy and physiology did not indicate right-ventricular-dependent coronary circulation, and therefore right ventricular decompression could be performed without compromising coronary perfusion during surgical correction. A detailed understanding of the coronary anatomy is critical in managing this defect when coronary anomalies are present.

  3. Additional Energy Losses from Asymmetric and Non-Sinusoidal Current in an Electrical Facility and Methods of their Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarasov Evgeniy V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of the asymmetry and higher harmonics of current on the operation of an electrical facility is analyzed. The level of additional losses from the asymmetric and non-sinusoidal currents is evaluated for a 110 kV electrical network in the Siberian Region of the Russian Federation. Methods for reducing the additional energy losses in the electrical facility are suggested.

  4. Sinusoidal oscillators with lower gain requirements at higher frequencies based on an explicit tanh(x) nonlinearity

    KAUST Repository

    Elwakil, Ahmed S.

    2009-04-28

    Two novel sinusoidal oscillator structures with an explicit tanh(x) nonlinearity are proposed. The oscillators have the attractive feature: the higher the operating frequency, the lower the necessary gain required to start oscillations. A nonlinear model for the two oscillators is derived and verified numerically. Spice simulations using AMS BiCMOS 0.35 μ model parameters and experimental results are shown. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Intraoral gothic arch tracing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubel, Barry; Hill, Edward E

    2011-01-01

    In order to create optimum esthetics, function and phonetics in complete denture fabrication, it is necessary to record accurate maxillo-mandibular determinants of occlusion. This requires clinical skill to establish an accurate, verifiable and reproducible vertical dimension of occlusion (VDO) and centric relation (CR). Correct vertical relation depends upon a consideration of several factors, including muscle tone, inter-dental arch space and parallelism of the ridges. Any errors made while taking maxillo-mandibular jaw relation records will result in dentures that are uncomfortable and, possibly, unwearable. The application of a tracing mechanism such as the Gothic arch tracer (a central bearing device) is a demonstrable method of determining centric relation. Intraoral Gothic arch tracers provide the advantage of capturing VDO and CR in an easy-to-use technique for practitioners. Intraoral tracing (Gothic arch tracing) is a preferred method of obtaining consistent positions of the mandible in motion (retrusive, protrusive and lateral) at a comfortable VDO.

  6. Interrogation of transcriptomic changes associated with drug-induced hepatic sinusoidal dilatation in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarzabek, Monika A; Proctor, William R; Vogt, Jennifer; Desai, Rupal; Dicker, Patrick; Cain, Gary; Raja, Rajiv; Brodbeck, Jens; Stevens, Dale; van der Stok, Eric P; Martens, John W M; Verhoef, Cornelis; Hegde, Priti S; Byrne, Annette T; Tarrant, Jacqueline M

    2018-01-01

    Drug-related sinusoidal dilatation (SD) is a common form of hepatotoxicity associated with oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy used prior to resection of colorectal liver metastases (CRLM). Recently, hepatic SD has also been associated with anti-delta like 4 (DLL4) cancer therapies targeting the NOTCH pathway. To investigate the hypothesis that NOTCH signaling plays an important role in drug-induced SD, gene expression changes were examined in livers from anti-DLL4 and oxaliplatin-induced SD in non-human primate (NHP) and patients, respectively. Putative mechanistic biomarkers of bevacizumab (bev)-mediated protection against oxaliplatin-induced SD were also investigated. RNA was extracted from whole liver sections or centrilobular regions by laser-capture microdissection (LCM) obtained from NHP administered anti-DLL4 fragment antigen-binding (F(ab')2 or patients with CRLM receiving oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy with or without bev. mRNA expression was quantified using high-throughput real-time quantitative PCR. Significance analysis was used to identify genes with differential expression patterns (false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.05). Eleven (CCL2, CCND1, EFNB2, ERG, ICAM1, IL16, LFNG, NOTCH1, NOTCH4, PRDX1, and TGFB1) and six (CDH5, EFNB2, HES1, IL16, MIK67, HES1 and VWF) candidate genes were differentially expressed in the liver of anti-DLL4- and oxaliplatin-induced SD, respectively. Addition of bev to oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy resulted in differential changes in hepatic CDH5, HEY1, IL16, JAG1, MMP9, NOTCH4 and TIMP1 expression. This work implicates NOTCH and IL16 pathways in the pathogenesis of drug-induced SD and further explains the hepato-protective effect of bev in oxaliplatin-induced SD observed in CRLM patients.

  7. Removing damped sinusoidal vibrations in adaptive optics systems using a DFT-based estimation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania, Dariusz

    2017-06-01

    The problem of a vibrations rejection in adaptive optics systems is still present in publications. These undesirable signals emerge because of shaking the system structure, the tracking process, etc., and they usually are damped sinusoidal signals. There are some mechanical solutions to reduce the signals but they are not very effective. One of software solutions are very popular adaptive methods. An AVC (Adaptive Vibration Cancellation) method has been presented and developed in recent years. The method is based on the estimation of three vibrations parameters and values of frequency, amplitude and phase are essential to produce and adjust a proper signal to reduce or eliminate vibrations signals. This paper presents a fast (below 10 ms) and accurate estimation method of frequency, amplitude and phase of a multifrequency signal that can be used in the AVC method to increase the AO system performance. The method accuracy depends on several parameters: CiR - number of signal periods in a measurement window, N - number of samples in the FFT procedure, H - time window order, SNR, THD, b - number of A/D converter bits in a real time system, γ - the damping ratio of the tested signal, φ - the phase of the tested signal. Systematic errors increase when N, CiR, H decrease and when γ increases. The value of systematic error for γ = 0.1%, CiR = 1.1 and N = 32 is approximately 10^-4 Hz/Hz. This paper focuses on systematic errors of and effect of the signal phase and values of γ on the results.

  8. Dynamical pattern formation in a low-concentration magnetorheological fluid under two orthogonal sinusoidal fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yépez, L.D.; Carrillo, J.L.; Donado, F.; Sausedo-Solorio, J.M.; Miranda-Romagnoli, P.

    2016-01-01

    The dynamical pattern formation of clusters of magnetic particles in a low-concentration magnetorheological fluid, under the influence of a superposition of two perpendicular sinusoidal fields, is studied experimentally. By varying the frequency and phase shift of the perpendicular fields, this configuration enables us to experimentally analyze a wide range of field configurations, including the case of a pure rotating field and the case of an oscillating unidirectional field. The fields are applied parallel to the horizontal plane where the fluid lies or in the vertical plane. For fields applied in the horizontal plane, we observed that, when the ratio of the frequencies increases, the average cluster size exhibits a kind of periodic resonances. When the phase shift between the fields is varied, the average chain length reaches maximal values for the cases of the rotating field and the unidirectional case. We analyze and discuss these results in terms of a weighted average of the time-dependent Mason number. In the case of a rotating field on the vertical plane, we also observe that the competition between the magnetic and the viscous forces determines the average cluster size. We show that this configuration generates a series of physically meaningful self-organization of clusters and transport phenomena. - Highlights: • A weighted average of the time-dependent Mason number is proposed. • The self-propelling clusters appear when a vertical rotating magnetic field is applied. • The largest average chain lengths are reached when frequencies are multiples one another. • Rotating and unidirectional alternating fields produce the largest average chain length values.

  9. Dynamical pattern formation in a low-concentration magnetorheological fluid under two orthogonal sinusoidal fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yépez, L.D.; Carrillo, J.L. [Instituto de Física de la Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Ciudad Universitaria, Edif. 110 A, Puebla 72570 (Mexico); Donado, F.; Sausedo-Solorio, J.M.; Miranda-Romagnoli, P. [Instituto de Ciencias Básicas e Ingeniería Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Pachuca 42090, Pachuca (Mexico)

    2016-06-15

    The dynamical pattern formation of clusters of magnetic particles in a low-concentration magnetorheological fluid, under the influence of a superposition of two perpendicular sinusoidal fields, is studied experimentally. By varying the frequency and phase shift of the perpendicular fields, this configuration enables us to experimentally analyze a wide range of field configurations, including the case of a pure rotating field and the case of an oscillating unidirectional field. The fields are applied parallel to the horizontal plane where the fluid lies or in the vertical plane. For fields applied in the horizontal plane, we observed that, when the ratio of the frequencies increases, the average cluster size exhibits a kind of periodic resonances. When the phase shift between the fields is varied, the average chain length reaches maximal values for the cases of the rotating field and the unidirectional case. We analyze and discuss these results in terms of a weighted average of the time-dependent Mason number. In the case of a rotating field on the vertical plane, we also observe that the competition between the magnetic and the viscous forces determines the average cluster size. We show that this configuration generates a series of physically meaningful self-organization of clusters and transport phenomena. - Highlights: • A weighted average of the time-dependent Mason number is proposed. • The self-propelling clusters appear when a vertical rotating magnetic field is applied. • The largest average chain lengths are reached when frequencies are multiples one another. • Rotating and unidirectional alternating fields produce the largest average chain length values.

  10. Gemtuzumab ozogamicin-induced sinusoidal obstructive syndrome treated with defibrotide: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannoy, D; Decaudin, B; Grozieux de Laguérenne, A; Barrier, F; Pignon, J M; Wetterwald, M; Odou, P

    2006-08-01

    New treatments for relapse of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), include gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO), an anti-CD33 monoclonal antibody. We describe a second case of GO-induced sinusoidal obstructive syndrome (SOS) effectively treated with defibrotide (DF). No stem-cell transplantation was involved. On day 23 after the first GO dose, a patient presented with ascites, weight gain, liver enlargement and pain in the right upper quadrant. Sudden hepatic cytolysis (transaminases at six times the normal range: grade 3) and cholestasis [alkaline phosphatase ALP and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) respectively at four and eight times the normal range: grade 2] were observed but there was no evidence of increase serum bilirubin. Treatment with DF (Prociclide), Crinos; 10 mg/kg/day, or 200 mg, q.i.d.) improved the hepatic abnormality within a few days (serum transaminases decreased from 312 to 103 IU/L for aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and from 141 to 80 IU/L for alanine aminotransferase (ALT) within 3 days ALP increased from 253 to 383 IU/L and gamma-GT from 238 to 417 IU/L 4 days after administration of DF. The clinical and biological features of our case suggest a direct involvement of GO in causing SOS, even when used as monotherapy, without allogenic stem-cell transplantation. Low dose DF (10 mg/kg/day) given early during the development of SOS associated with GO was effective. Unfortunately, in our case the patient eventually died of multi-organ failure probably because of failure of GO.

  11. Defibrotide for the management of sinusoidal obstruction syndrome in patients who undergo haemopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutsouvelis, John; Avery, Sharon; Dooley, Michael; Kirkpatrick, Carl; Spencer, Andrew

    2016-11-01

    Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome, previously known as veno-occlusive disease (VOD/SOS), is a complication in patients undergoing haemopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Severe VOD/SOS, including progression to multi-organ failure, has resulted in a mortality of greater than 80%. Defibrotide's varying pharmacological actions, particularly on endothelial cells, make it is a useful agent to consider for prophylaxis and treatment of VOD/SOS. Barriers to its routine use include the high acquisition cost and the fact that neither the oral or parenteral formulations are licensed products in many countries at this time. This review summarises available literature on the use of defibrotide in the management of VOD/SOS. Publications consist predominantly of single centre cohort studies and case series. Available evidence indicates that defibrotide is effective in the management of VOD/SOS. Using defibrotide prophylaxis should also be considered, especially in the paediatric setting, where there are available results from a large, open label, randomized controlled trial. Patient outcome data from the larger studies and compassionate programs can inform consensus recommendations on dosing regimen and criteria for the treatment of VOD/SOS with defibrotide in the adult population. The reviewed literature indicates an effective and safe dose for treatment is 25mg/kg/day, continued for at least 14days or until complete response is achieved. Further studies are required to determine the optimal dose and duration of treatment in both paediatric patients and adults. Recent recommendations and a phase 3 trial using historical controls indicate that defibrotide should be included as a pharmacotherapy option in protocols guiding management of VOD/SOS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Treatment of sinusoidal obstruction syndrome with defibrotide: a single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucak, G T; Aki, Z S; Yagcí, M; Yegin, Z A; Ozkurt, Z N; Haznedar, R

    2007-06-01

    Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) is a frequent, troubling, and potentially fatal complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Despite promising results with defibrotide (DF), no treatment has been established as standard. DF is a single-stranded polydeoxyribonucleotide, obtained from controlled depolymerization of porcine intestinal mucosal cells. It has antithrombotic, antiischemic, antiinflammatory, and thrombolytic properties without significant side effects. We retrospectively evaluated the charts of 80 consecutive patients, with 89 hematopoietic stem cell transplants for hematologic malignancies. The results of early initiation of DF treatment in 14 patients with SOS are presented in this study. Fourteen patients, 8 males and 6 females % median age 40.5 years (range, 16-46 years) were diagnosed to have SOS. Disease severity was classified as severe in 6 (42.85%), moderate in 4 (28.57%), and mild in 4 (28.57%) patients. We treated 14 patients with DF for a median of 21.5 days (range, 4-39 days). All 14 patients received DF after the diagnosis of SOS. Three patients with severe and all of the patients with mild to moderate SOS responded to treatment with complete resolution of SOS-related signs and symptoms. All patients responding to DF were alive at 100 days posttransplantation. There was no significant drug-related side effect among patients treated with DF. With an overall response rate of 78.56% and a 50% complete response rate in severe SOS cases and minimal side effects, we suggest that DF is the best available agent to treat SOS.

  13. Sinusoidal Obstruction Syndrome during Treatment for Wilms' Tumor: A Life-threatening Complication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totadri, Sidharth; Trehan, Amita; Bansal, Deepak; Jain, Richa

    2017-01-01

    Context: Survival rates exceed 90% in Wilms' tumor (WT). Actinomycin-D (ACT-D) which is indispensable in the management of WT is associated with the development of sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS), a potentially fatal complication. Aims: The aim is to study the presentation, management, and outcome of SOS complicating ACT-D administration in WT. Settings and Design: Retrospective file review conducted in a Pediatric Hematology-Oncology unit. Materials and Methods: Patients diagnosed and treated for WT from January 2012 to December 2015 were analyzed. SOS was diagnosed clinically, based on McDonalds criteria, requiring two of the following: jaundice, hepatomegaly and/or right upper quadrant pain, weight gain with or without ascites. Results: Of 104 patients treated, SOS occurred in 5 (4.8%). Age: 6 months to 5 years, 3 were girls. Tumor involved left kidney in 3, right in 1 and a horseshoe kidney in 1. Histopathology was consistent with WT in 4 and clear cell sarcoma kidney in 1. One had pulmonary metastases. Three developed SOS preoperatively and two during adjuvant chemotherapy. None received radiotherapy. Clinical manifestations comprised of jaundice, hepatomegaly, ascites/weight gain, respiratory distress, hypotension, and encephalopathy. Laboratory findings included thrombocytopenia, elevated serum transaminases, and coagulopathy. Treatment included fluid restriction, broad spectrum antibiotics, and transfusional support. Two children received N-acetyl cysteine infusion. Defibrotide was administered to two patients. Four recovered and one succumbed to multi-organ failure. Two patients were safely re-challenged with 50% doses of ACT-D. Conclusions: SOS is a clinical diagnosis. Systematic supportive care can enable complete recovery. Under close monitoring, re-challenge of ACT-D can be performed in gradually escalating doses. PMID:29333010

  14. First evidence of pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxide-induced hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mengbi; Ruan, Jianqing; Gao, Hong; Li, Na; Ma, Jiang; Xue, Junyi; Ye, Yang; Fu, Peter Pi-Cheng; Wang, Jiyao; Lin, Ge

    2017-12-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are among the most potent phytotoxins widely distributed in plant species around the world. PA is one of the major causes responsible for the development of hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (HSOS) and exerts hepatotoxicity via metabolic activation to form the reactive metabolites, which bind with cellular proteins to generate pyrrole-protein adducts, leading to hepatotoxicity. PA N-oxides coexist with their corresponding PAs in plants with varied quantities, sometimes even higher than that of PAs, but the toxicity of PA N-oxides remains unclear. The current study unequivocally identified PA N-oxides as the sole or predominant form of PAs in 18 Gynura segetum herbal samples ingested by patients with liver damage. For the first time, PA N-oxides were recorded to induce HSOS in human. PA N-oxide-induced hepatotoxicity was further confirmed on mice orally dosed of herbal extract containing 170 μmol PA N-oxides/kg/day, with its hepatotoxicity similar to but potency much lower than the corresponding PAs. Furthermore, toxicokinetic study after a single oral dose of senecionine N-oxide (55 μmol/kg) on rats revealed the toxic mechanism that PA N-oxides induced hepatotoxicity via their biotransformation to the corresponding PAs followed by the metabolic activation to form pyrrole-protein adducts. The remarkable differences in toxicokinetic profiles of PAs and PA N-oxides were found and attributed to their significantly different hepatotoxic potency. The findings of PA N-oxide-induced hepatotoxicity in humans and rodents suggested that the contents of both PAs and PA N-oxides present in herbs and foods should be regulated and controlled in use.

  15. Sinusoidal Obstruction Syndrome during Treatment for Wilms' Tumor: A Life-threatening Complication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totadri, Sidharth; Trehan, Amita; Bansal, Deepak; Jain, Richa

    2017-01-01

    Survival rates exceed 90% in Wilms' tumor (WT). Actinomycin-D (ACT-D) which is indispensable in the management of WT is associated with the development of sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS), a potentially fatal complication. The aim is to study the presentation, management, and outcome of SOS complicating ACT-D administration in WT. Retrospective file review conducted in a Pediatric Hematology-Oncology unit. Patients diagnosed and treated for WT from January 2012 to December 2015 were analyzed. SOS was diagnosed clinically, based on McDonalds criteria, requiring two of the following: jaundice, hepatomegaly and/or right upper quadrant pain, weight gain with or without ascites. Of 104 patients treated, SOS occurred in 5 (4.8%). Age: 6 months to 5 years, 3 were girls. Tumor involved left kidney in 3, right in 1 and a horseshoe kidney in 1. Histopathology was consistent with WT in 4 and clear cell sarcoma kidney in 1. One had pulmonary metastases. Three developed SOS preoperatively and two during adjuvant chemotherapy. None received radiotherapy. Clinical manifestations comprised of jaundice, hepatomegaly, ascites/weight gain, respiratory distress, hypotension, and encephalopathy. Laboratory findings included thrombocytopenia, elevated serum transaminases, and coagulopathy. Treatment included fluid restriction, broad spectrum antibiotics, and transfusional support. Two children received N-acetyl cysteine infusion. Defibrotide was administered to two patients. Four recovered and one succumbed to multi-organ failure. Two patients were safely re-challenged with 50% doses of ACT-D. SOS is a clinical diagnosis. Systematic supportive care can enable complete recovery. Under close monitoring, re-challenge of ACT-D can be performed in gradually escalating doses.

  16. Design of Helical Capacitance Sensor for Holdup Measurement in Two-Phase Stratified Flow: A Sinusoidal Function Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Lam Ghai; Pao, William K. S.; Hamid, Nor Hisham; Tang, Tong Boon

    2016-01-01

    A 360° twisted helical capacitance sensor was developed for holdup measurement in horizontal two-phase stratified flow. Instead of suppressing nonlinear response, the sensor was optimized in such a way that a ‘sine-like’ function was displayed on top of the linear function. This concept of design had been implemented and verified in both software and hardware. A good agreement was achieved between the finite element model of proposed design and the approximation model (pure sinusoidal function), with a maximum difference of ±1.2%. In addition, the design parameters of the sensor were analysed and investigated. It was found that the error in symmetry of the sinusoidal function could be minimized by adjusting the pitch of helix. The experiments of air-water and oil-water stratified flows were carried out and validated the sinusoidal relationship with a maximum difference of ±1.2% and ±1.3% for the range of water holdup from 0.15 to 0.85. The proposed design concept therefore may pose a promising alternative for the optimization of capacitance sensor design. PMID:27384567

  17. Design of Helical Capacitance Sensor for Holdup Measurement in Two-Phase Stratified Flow: A Sinusoidal Function Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam Ghai Lim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A 360° twisted helical capacitance sensor was developed for holdup measurement in horizontal two-phase stratified flow. Instead of suppressing nonlinear response, the sensor was optimized in such a way that a ‘sine-like’ function was displayed on top of the linear function. This concept of design had been implemented and verified in both software and hardware. A good agreement was achieved between the finite element model of proposed design and the approximation model (pure sinusoidal function, with a maximum difference of ±1.2%. In addition, the design parameters of the sensor were analysed and investigated. It was found that the error in symmetry of the sinusoidal function could be minimized by adjusting the pitch of helix. The experiments of air-water and oil-water stratified flows were carried out and validated the sinusoidal relationship with a maximum difference of ±1.2% and ±1.3% for the range of water holdup from 0.15 to 0.85. The proposed design concept therefore may pose a promising alternative for the optimization of capacitance sensor design.

  18. Design of Helical Capacitance Sensor for Holdup Measurement in Two-Phase Stratified Flow: A Sinusoidal Function Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Lam Ghai; Pao, William K S; Hamid, Nor Hisham; Tang, Tong Boon

    2016-07-04

    A 360° twisted helical capacitance sensor was developed for holdup measurement in horizontal two-phase stratified flow. Instead of suppressing nonlinear response, the sensor was optimized in such a way that a 'sine-like' function was displayed on top of the linear function. This concept of design had been implemented and verified in both software and hardware. A good agreement was achieved between the finite element model of proposed design and the approximation model (pure sinusoidal function), with a maximum difference of ±1.2%. In addition, the design parameters of the sensor were analysed and investigated. It was found that the error in symmetry of the sinusoidal function could be minimized by adjusting the pitch of helix. The experiments of air-water and oil-water stratified flows were carried out and validated the sinusoidal relationship with a maximum difference of ±1.2% and ±1.3% for the range of water holdup from 0.15 to 0.85. The proposed design concept therefore may pose a promising alternative for the optimization of capacitance sensor design.

  19. Atom trap trace analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Z.-T.; Bailey, K.; Chen, C.-Y.; Du, X.; Li, Y.-M.; O' Connor, T. P.; Young, L.

    2000-05-25

    A new method of ultrasensitive trace-isotope analysis has been developed based upon the technique of laser manipulation of neutral atoms. It has been used to count individual {sup 85}Kr and {sup 81}Kr atoms present in a natural krypton sample with isotopic abundances in the range of 10{sup {minus}11} and 10{sup {minus}13}, respectively. The atom counts are free of contamination from other isotopes, elements,or molecules. The method is applicable to other trace-isotopes that can be efficiently captured with a magneto-optical trap, and has a broad range of potential applications.

  20. Atom trap trace analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Z.-T.; Bailey, K.; Chen, C.-Y.; Du, X.; Li, Y.-M.; O'Connor, T. P.; Young, L.

    2000-01-01

    A new method of ultrasensitive trace-isotope analysis has been developed based upon the technique of laser manipulation of neutral atoms. It has been used to count individual 85 Kr and 81 Kr atoms present in a natural krypton sample with isotopic abundances in the range of 10 -11 and 10 -13 , respectively. The atom counts are free of contamination from other isotopes, elements,or molecules. The method is applicable to other trace-isotopes that can be efficiently captured with a magneto-optical trap, and has a broad range of potential applications

  1. Oscilloscope trace photograph digitizing system (TRACE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, M.; Dabbs, R.D.

    1977-10-01

    The digitizing system allows digitization of photographs or sketches of waveforms and then the computer is used to reduce and analyze the data. The software allows for alignment, calibration, removal of baselines, removal of unwanted points and addition of new points which makes for a fairly versatile system as far as data reduction and manipulation are concerned. System considerations are introduced first to orient the potential user to the process of digitizing information. The start up and actual commands for TRACE are discussed. Detailed descriptions of each subroutine and program section are also provided. Three general examples of typical photographs are included. A partial listing of FAWTEK is made available. Once suitable arrays that contain the data are arranged, ''GO FA'' (active FAWTEK) and many mathematical operations to further analyze the data may be performed

  2. Queer Tracings of Genre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balle, Søren Hattesen

    as (re)tracings of genres that appear somehow residual or defunct in a post-modernist poetic context. On the other, they are made to "encode new [and queer, shb] meanings" (Anne Ferry) inasmuch as Ashbery, for instance, doubles and literalizes Dante's false etymology of the word ‘eclogue' (aig- and logos...

  3. The Trace of Superusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine; Abasolo, José

    2013-01-01

    The city and its public spaces can be seen as a fragmented whole carrying meanings and traces of culture, use and politics with it. Whereas architects impose new stories and meanings on the urban fabric, the city itself is layered and assembled, a collective of social flows and routines a result ...

  4. Third order trace formula

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N. Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bangalore 560 064, India. 2Indian Institute of ... for rational functions φ with poles off R. In [5,16], Koplienko's trace formula was derived ... be a sequence of complex numbers such that ..... Again if we set the sum of the second and fourth term inside the integral in (2.3) to be. I2 ≡.

  5. Influence of the Periodicity of Sinusoidal Boundary Condition on the Unsteady Mixed Convection within a Square Enclosure Using an Ag–Water Nanofluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azharul Karim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A numerical study of the unsteady mixed convection heat transfer characteristics of an Ag–water nanofluid confined within a square shape lid-driven cavity has been carried out. The Galerkin weighted residual of the finite element method has been employed to investigate the effects of the periodicity of sinusoidal boundary condition for a wide range of Grashof numbers (Gr (105 to 107 with the parametric variation of sinusoidal even and odd frequency, N, from 1 to 6 at different instants (for τ = 0.1 and 1. It has been observed that both the Grashof number and the sinusoidal even and odd frequency have a significant influence on the streamlines and isotherms inside the cavity. The heat transfer rate enhanced by 90% from the heated surface as the Grashof number (Gr increased from 105 to 107 at sinusoidal frequency N = 1 and τ = 1.

  6. An outline of reference materials for analysis techniques in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuanxun, Zhang; Yine, Qian; Yongping, Zhang; Yongpeng, Tong [Shanghai Institute of Nuclear Research, Academia Sinica (China)

    1994-07-01

    This paper provides background information on the development in the field of reference materials in China. The major considerations in development of reference materials include homogeneity, stability, handling procedures and certification. Further it discusses the plans for development in the near future specific natural-matrix reference materials containing low levels of trace elements and having high degree of homogeneity.

  7. An outline of reference materials for analysis techniques in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yuanxun; Qian Yine; Zhang Yongping; Tong Yongpeng

    1994-01-01

    This paper provides background information on the development in the field of reference materials in China. The major considerations in development of reference materials include homogeneity, stability, handling procedures and certification. Further it discusses the plans for development in the near future specific natural-matrix reference materials containing low levels of trace elements and having high degree of homogeneity

  8. CMOS-based active RC sinusoidal oscillator with four-phase quadrature outputs and single-resistance-controlled (SRC) tuning laws

    OpenAIRE

    Lahiri, Abhirup; Herencsár, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a very compact CMOS realization of active RC sinusoidal oscillator capable of generating four quadrature voltage outputs. The oscillator is based on the cascade of lossless and lossy integrators in loop. The governing laws for the condition of oscillation (CO) and the frequency of oscillation (FO) are single-resistance-controlled (SRC) and which allow independent FO tuning. Unlike previously reported SRC-based sinusoidal oscillators based on the active building block (ABB)...

  9. Dynamic evolution of Rayleigh-Taylor bubbles from sinusoidal, W-shaped, and random perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhi-Rui; Zhang, You-Sheng; Tian, Bao-Lin

    2018-03-01

    Implicit large eddy simulations of two-dimensional Rayleigh-Taylor instability at different density ratios (i.e., Atwood number A =0.05 , 0.5, and 0.9) are conducted to investigate the late-time dynamics of bubbles. To produce a flow field full of bounded, semibounded, and chaotic bubbles, three problems with distinct perturbations are simulated: (I) periodic sinusoidal perturbation, (II) isolated W-shaped perturbation, and (III) random short-wave perturbations. The evolution of height h , velocity v , and diameter D of the (dominant) bubble with time t are formulated and analyzed. In problem I, during the quasisteady stage, the simulations confirm Goncharov's prediction of the terminal speed v∞=Fr√{A g λ /(1 +A ) } , where Fr=1 /√{3 π } . Moreover, the diameter D at this stage is found to be proportional to the initial perturbation wavelength λ as D ≈λ . This differed from Daly's simulation result of D =λ (1 +A )/2 . In problem II, a W-shaped perturbation is designed to produce a bubble environment similar to that of chaotic bubbles in problem III. We obtain a similar terminal speed relationship as above, but Fr is replaced by Frw≈0.63 . In problem III, the simulations show that h grows quadratically with the bubble acceleration constant α ≡h /(A g t2)≈0.05 , and D expands self-similarly with a steady aspect ratio β ≡D /h ≈(1 +A )/2 , which differs from existing theories. Therefore, following the mechanism of self-similar growth, we derive a relationship of β =4 α (1 +A ) /Frw2 to relate the evolution of chaotic bubbles in problem III to that of semibounded bubbles in problem II. The validity of this relationship highlights the fact that the dynamics of chaotic bubbles in problem III are similar to the semibounded isolated bubbles in problem II, but not to that of bounded periodic bubbles in problem I.

  10. Light Source Estimation with Analytical Path-tracing

    OpenAIRE

    Kasper, Mike; Keivan, Nima; Sibley, Gabe; Heckman, Christoffer

    2017-01-01

    We present a novel algorithm for light source estimation in scenes reconstructed with a RGB-D camera based on an analytically-derived formulation of path-tracing. Our algorithm traces the reconstructed scene with a custom path-tracer and computes the analytical derivatives of the light transport equation from principles in optics. These derivatives are then used to perform gradient descent, minimizing the photometric error between one or more captured reference images and renders of our curre...

  11. Reference materials for microanalytical nuclear techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Injuk, Jasna; Grieken, Rene van [Department of Chemistry, Micro and Trace Analysis Centre, University of Antwerp, Wilrijk-Antwerp (Belgium)

    1994-07-01

    This paper discusses some issues concerning reference materials required for microanalysis including physical and chemical properties of the sample matrix and homogeneity of the chemical composition. It gives some examples of the mst common standards used. Further the paper gives background information about the Micro- and Trace Analysis Center of the University of Antwerp, Belgium and discusses recent results of the Center in microanalysis of reference materials.

  12. Software trace cache

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez Bellido, Alejandro; Larriba Pey, Josep; Valero Cortés, Mateo

    2005-01-01

    We explore the use of compiler optimizations, which optimize the layout of instructions in memory. The target is to enable the code to make better use of the underlying hardware resources regardless of the specific details of the processor/architecture in order to increase fetch performance. The Software Trace Cache (STC) is a code layout algorithm with a broader target than previous layout optimizations. We target not only an improvement in the instruction cache hit rate, but also an increas...

  13. On Trace Zero Matrices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this note, we shall try to present an elemen- tary proof of a couple of closely related results which have both proved quite useful, and al~ indicate possible generalisations. The results we have in mind are the following facts: (a) A complex n x n matrix A has trace 0 if and only if it is expressible in the form A = PQ - Q P.

  14. Preconcentration of trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolotov, Yu. A.; Kuz'min, N.M.

    1990-01-01

    This monograph deals with the theory and practical applications of trace metals preconcentration. It gives general characteristics of the process and describes in detail the methods of preconcentration: solvent extraction, sorption, co-precipitation, volatilization, and others. Special attention is given to preconcentration in combination with subsequent determination methods. The use of preconcentration in analysis of environmental and biological samples, mineral raw materials, high purity substances, and various industrial materials is also considered

  15. Practical reference - radiation standards in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    In developing a policy that will require licensees to calibrate their radiation dose measuring devices and trace such calibrations to approved reference standards, the AECB has consulted recognized experts. This document presents the experts' reports and recommendations which will be considered in finalizing the policy

  16. Anisotropic ray trace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Wai Sze Tiffany

    Optical components made of anisotropic materials, such as crystal polarizers and crystal waveplates, are widely used in many complex optical system, such as display systems, microlithography, biomedical imaging and many other optical systems, and induce more complex aberrations than optical components made of isotropic materials. The goal of this dissertation is to accurately simulate the performance of optical systems with anisotropic materials using polarization ray trace. This work extends the polarization ray tracing calculus to incorporate ray tracing through anisotropic materials, including uniaxial, biaxial and optically active materials. The 3D polarization ray tracing calculus is an invaluable tool for analyzing polarization properties of an optical system. The 3x3 polarization ray tracing P matrix developed for anisotropic ray trace assists tracking the 3D polarization transformations along a ray path with series of surfaces in an optical system. To better represent the anisotropic light-matter interactions, the definition of the P matrix is generalized to incorporate not only the polarization change at a refraction/reflection interface, but also the induced optical phase accumulation as light propagates through the anisotropic medium. This enables realistic modeling of crystalline polarization elements, such as crystal waveplates and crystal polarizers. The wavefront and polarization aberrations of these anisotropic components are more complex than those of isotropic optical components and can be evaluated from the resultant P matrix for each eigen-wavefront as well as for the overall image. One incident ray refracting or reflecting into an anisotropic medium produces two eigenpolarizations or eigenmodes propagating in different directions. The associated ray parameters of these modes necessary for the anisotropic ray trace are described in Chapter 2. The algorithms to calculate the P matrix from these ray parameters are described in Chapter 3 for

  17. Tracers and tracing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leclerc, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    The first international congress on 'Tracers and tracing methods' took place in Nancy in May 2001. The objective of this second congress was to present the current status and trends on tracing methods and their applications. It has given the opportunity to people from different fields to exchange scientific information and knowledge about tracer methodologies and applications. The target participants were the researchers, engineers and technologists of various industrial and research sectors: chemical engineering, environment, food engineering, bio-engineering, geology, hydrology, civil engineering, iron and steel production... Two sessions have been planned to cover both fundamental and industrial aspects: 1)fundamental development (tomography, tracer camera visualization and particles tracking; validation of computational fluid dynamics simulations by tracer experiments and numerical residence time distribution; new tracers and detectors or improvement and development of existing tracing methods; data treatments and modeling; reactive tracer experiments and interpretation) 2)industrial applications (geology, hydrogeology and oil field applications; civil engineering, mineral engineering and metallurgy applications; chemical engineering; environment; food engineering and bio-engineering). The program included 5 plenary lectures, 23 oral communications and around 50 posters. Only 9 presentations are interested for the INIS database

  18. Realisation and advanced engineering of true optical rugate filters based on nanoporous anodic alumina by sinusoidal pulse anodisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Abel; Yoo, Jeong Ha; Rohatgi, Charu Vashisth; Kumeria, Tushar; Wang, Ye; Losic, Dusan

    2016-01-01

    This study is the first realisation of true optical rugate filters (RFs) based on nanoporous anodic alumina (NAA) by sinusoidal waves. An innovative and rationally designed sinusoidal pulse anodisation (SPA) approach in galvanostatic mode is used with the aim of engineering the effective medium of NAA in a sinusoidal fashion. A precise control over the different anodisation parameters (i.e. anodisation period, anodisation amplitude, anodisation offset, number of pulses, anodisation temperature and pore widening time) makes it possible to engineer the characteristic reflection peaks and interferometric colours of NAA-RFs, which can be finely tuned across the UV-visible-NIR spectrum. The effect of the aforementioned anodisation parameters on the photonic properties of NAA-RFs (i.e. characteristic reflection peaks and interferometric colours) is systematically assessed in order to establish for the first time a comprehensive rationale towards NAA-RFs with fully controllable photonic properties. The experimental results are correlated with a theoretical model (Looyenga-Landau-Lifshitz - LLL), demonstrating that the effective medium of these photonic nanostructures can be precisely described by the effective medium approximation. NAA-RFs are also demonstrated as chemically selective photonic platforms combined with reflectometric interference spectroscopy (RIfS). The resulting optical sensing system is used to assess the reversible binding affinity between a model drug (i.e. indomethacin) and human serum albumin (HSA) in real-time. Our results demonstrate that this system can be used to determine the overall pharmacokinetic profile of drugs, which is a critical aspect to be considered for the implementation of efficient medical therapies.This study is the first realisation of true optical rugate filters (RFs) based on nanoporous anodic alumina (NAA) by sinusoidal waves. An innovative and rationally designed sinusoidal pulse anodisation (SPA) approach in galvanostatic

  19. Dai-kenchu-to attenuates rat sinusoidal obstruction syndrome by inhibiting the accumulation of neutrophils in the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Masato; Hatano, Etsuro; Tamaki, Nobuyuki; Yamanaka, Kenya; Yanagida, Atsuko; Nagata, Hiromitsu; Asechi, Hiroyuki; Takada, Yasutsugu; Ikai, Iwao; Uemoto, Shinji

    2009-06-01

    Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) is drug-induced liver injury that occurs in patients who receive hematopoietic cell transplantation and oxaliplatin-contained chemotherapy. The aim of study was to investigate the pharmacological treatment of SOS using a traditional Japanese medicine, Dai-kenchu-to (DKT). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with monocrotaline (MCT) to induce SOS. The rats were divided into three groups: control, MCT and MCT+DKT groups. In the MCT+DKT group, DKT was gavaged at 12 h after MCT treatment and given every 12 h until the end of the protocol. The rats of MCT group were treated with water instead of DKT. At 48 h after MCT treatment, blood and liver samples were collected. In the MCT+DKT group, the macroscopic and histological findings revealed liver congestion, sinusoidal alteration and the destruction of sinusoidal lining, which were comparable with those of the MCT group. However, the area of hepatic necrosis and serum AST levels significantly decreased in the MCT+DKT group compared with those of the MCT group. Treatment with DKT resulted in the reduction of neutrophil accumulation, myeloperoxidase activity and the expression of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC) and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) mRNA in the liver compared with those of the MCT group. Treatment with processed ginger, one of the ingredients in DKT, resulted in similar effects to those shown by DKT. Dai-kenchu-to attenuates MCT-induced liver injury by preventing neutrophil-induced liver injury through blockage of upregulation of CINC and ICAM-1 mRNA level.

  20. СURRENT FILTERING IN A THREE-PHASE THREE-WIRE POWER SYSTEM AT ASYMMETRIC SINUSOIDAL VOLTAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Artemenko

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Investigation of the optimal current distribution between source, shunt active filter and reactive compensator of a three-phase three-wire system that provides consumption of a sinusoidal symmetric current under asymmetric source voltages with minimal power losses was provided. Methodology. The tasks were solved by conducting theoretical and experimental studies. The main provisions of the theory of electrical circuits, the apparatus of mathematical analysis, methods for solving linear differential and algebraic equations, elements of matrix and complex calculus and vector algebra are used. During the development, modern methods and software of computer simulation of electrical engineering complexes and dynamic systems were applied: Matlab-Simulink, MATHCAD. Originality. The principle of compensating current distribution between PAF and reactive compensator of a three-phase three-wire power system with asymmetric sinusoidal voltage was proposed at which the input current is equal to the positive-sequence active current and rms value of PAF current is minimal. The feasibility to compensate the inactive sinusoidal Fryze current by reactive elements under arbitrary combination of load and source parameters was proved and expression for direct calculation of the reactive compensator parameters for generation of inactive Fryze current in the source unbalanced mode was obtained. Practical value. The simulative example for transmission line load showed that combined application of PAF and reactive compensator with the specified distribution of compensating currents ensured a reduction of power losses in 3.273 times and rms value of the SAF current is 12.9 % of rms value total compensation current.

  1. [Effect of 50 Hz 1.8 mT sinusoidal electromagnetic fields on bone mineral density in growing rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu-Hai; Zhou, Yan-Feng; Li, Shao-Feng; Li, Wen-Yuan; Xi, Hui-Rong; Yang, Fang-Fang; Chen, Ke-Ming

    2017-12-25

    To study effects of 50 Hz 1.8 mT sinusoidal electromagnetic fields (SEMFs) on bone mineral density (BMD) in SD rats. Thirty SD rats weighted(110±10) and aged 1 month were randomly divided into control group and electromagnetic field group, 15 in each group. Normal control group of 50 Hz 0 mT density and sinusoidal electromagnetic field group of 50 Hz 1.8 mT were performed respectively with 1.5 h/d and weighted weight once a week, and observed food-intake. Rats were anesthesia by intraperitoneal injection and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry were used to detect bone density of whole body, and detected bone density of femur and vertebral body. Osteocalcin and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b were detected by ELSA; weighted liver, kidney and uterus to calculate purtenance index, then detected pathologic results by HE. Compared with control group, there was no significant change in weight every week, food-intake every day; no obvious change of bone density of whole body at 2 and 4 weeks, however bone density of whole body, bone density of excised femur and vertebra were increased at 6 weeks. Expression of OC was increased, and TRACP 5b expression was decreased. No change of HE has been observed in liver, kidney and uterus and organic index. 50 Hz 1.8 mT sinusoidal electromagnetic fields could improve bone formation to decrease relevant factors of bone absorbs, to improve peak bone density of young rats, in further provide a basis for clinical research electromagnetic fields preventing osteoporosis foundation.

  2. Frequency tracking and variable bandwidth for line noise filtering without a reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, John W; Collinger, Jennifer L; Degenhart, Alan D; Siewiorek, Daniel P; Smailagic, Asim; Wang, Wei

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a method for filtering line noise using an adaptive noise canceling (ANC) technique. This method effectively eliminates the sinusoidal contamination while achieving a narrower bandwidth than typical notch filters and without relying on the availability of a noise reference signal as ANC methods normally do. A sinusoidal reference is instead digitally generated and the filter efficiently tracks the power line frequency, which drifts around a known value. The filter's learning rate is also automatically adjusted to achieve faster and more accurate convergence and to control the filter's bandwidth. In this paper the focus of the discussion and the data will be electrocorticographic (ECoG) neural signals, but the presented technique is applicable to other recordings.

  3. Dynamics of the Josephson multi-junction system with junctions characterized by non-sinusoidal current - phase relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abal'osheva, I.; Lewandowski, S.J.

    2004-01-01

    It is shown that the inclusion of junctions characterized by non-sinusoidal current - phase relationship in the systems composed of multiple Josephson junctions - results in the appearance of additional system phase states. Numerical simulations and stability considerations confirm that those phase states can be realized in practice. Moreover, spontaneous formation of the grain boundary junctions in high-T c superconductors with non-trivial current-phase relations due to the d-wave symmetry of the order parameter is probable. Switching between the phase states of multiple grain boundary junction systems can lead to additional 1/f noise in high-T c superconductors. (author)

  4. A dual-trace model for visual sensory memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappiello, Marcus; Zhang, Weiwei

    2016-11-01

    Visual sensory memory refers to a transient memory lingering briefly after the stimulus offset. Although previous literature suggests that visual sensory memory is supported by a fine-grained trace for continuous representation and a coarse-grained trace of categorical information, simultaneous separation and assessment of these traces can be difficult without a quantitative model. The present study used a continuous estimation procedure to test a novel mathematical model of the dual-trace hypothesis of visual sensory memory according to which visual sensory memory could be modeled as a mixture of 2 von Mises (2VM) distributions differing in standard deviation. When visual sensory memory and working memory (WM) for colors were distinguished using different experimental manipulations in the first 3 experiments, the 2VM model outperformed Zhang and Luck (2008) standard mixture model (SM) representing a mixture of a single memory trace and random guesses, even though SM outperformed 2VM for WM. Experiment 4 generalized 2VM's advantages of fitting visual sensory memory data over SM from color to orientation. Furthermore, a single trace model and 4 other alternative models were ruled out, suggesting the necessity and sufficiency of dual traces for visual sensory memory. Together these results support the dual-trace model of visual sensory memory and provide a preliminary inquiry into the nature of information loss from visual sensory memory to WM. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. The application of the sinusoidal model to lung cancer patient respiratory motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, R.; Vedam, S.S.; Chung, T.D.; Ramakrishnan, V.; Keall, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    Accurate modeling of the respiratory cycle is important to account for the effect of organ motion on dose calculation for lung cancer patients. The aim of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of a respiratory model for lung cancer patients. Lujan et al. [Med. Phys. 26(5), 715-720 (1999)] proposed a model, which became widely used, to describe organ motion due to respiration. This model assumes that the parameters do not vary between and within breathing cycles. In this study, first, the correlation of respiratory motion traces with the model f(t) as a function of the parameter n(n=1,2,3) was undertaken for each breathing cycle from 331 four-minute respiratory traces acquired from 24 lung cancer patients using three breathing types: free breathing, audio instruction, and audio-visual biofeedback. Because cos 2 and cos 4 had similar correlation coefficients, and cos 2 and cos 1 have a trigonometric relationship, for simplicity, the cos 1 value was consequently used for further analysis in which the variations in mean position (z 0 ), amplitude of motion (b) and period (τ) with and without biofeedback or instructions were investigated. For all breathing types, the parameter values, mean position (z 0 ), amplitude of motion (b), and period (τ) exhibited significant cycle-to-cycle variations. Audio-visual biofeedback showed the least variations for all three parameters (z 0 , b, and τ). It was found that mean position (z 0 ) could be approximated with a normal distribution, and the amplitude of motion (b) and period (τ) could be approximated with log normal distributions. The overall probability density function (pdf) of f(t) for each of the three breathing types was fitted with three models: normal, bimodal, and the pdf of a simple harmonic oscillator. It was found that the normal and the bimodal models represented the overall respiratory motion pdfs with correlation values from 0.95 to 0.99, whereas the range of the simple harmonic oscillator pdf correlation

  6. Traceability of trace analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Bernard

    2002-01-01

    Traceability provides the terminology, concepts and strategy for ensuring that analytical chemical measurements are comparable. At present the reference points are often internationally agreed methods; they can also be reference materials. Ideally there should be a single reference point, which in the case of chemistry is the SI Unit the mole but much work will be required to achieve such a situation. Traceability does not imply high accuracy and levels of certainty consistent with fitness for purpose criteria is the goal. This paper discusses the relevance of the concept of traceability and reviews developments leading to a conceptual model for analytical chemistry. It also reports some recent work and considers future needs. (author)

  7. Linac particle tracing simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysenko, W.P.

    1979-01-01

    A particle tracing code was developed to study space--charge effects in proton or heavy-ion linear accelerators. The purpose is to study space--charge phenomena as directly as possible without the complications of many accelerator details. Thus, the accelerator is represented simply by harmonic oscillator or impulse restoring forces. Variable parameters as well as mismatched phase--space distributions were studied. This study represents the initial search for those features of the accelerator or of the phase--space distribution that lead to emittance growth

  8. Osteoporosis and trace elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaseth, J.; Boivin, G.; Andersen, Ole

    2012-01-01

    More than 200 million people are affected by osteoporosis worldwide, as estimated by 2 million annual hip fractures and other debilitating bone fractures (vertebrae compression and Colles' fractures). Osteoporosis is a multi-factorial disease with potential contributions from genetic, endocrine...... in new bone and results in a net gain in bone mass, but may be associated with a tissue of poor quality. Aluminum induces impairment of bone formation. Gallium and cadmium suppresses bone turnover. However, exact involvements of the trace elements in osteoporosis have not yet been fully clarified...

  9. Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (veno-occlusive disease in a patient receiving bevacizumab for metastatic colorectal cancer: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal Vijay

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We present the case of a patient with colon cancer who, while receiving bevacizumab, developed sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (veno-occlusive disease (SOSVOD. Certain antitumour agents such as 6-mercaptopurine and 6-thioguanine have also been reported to initiate hepatic SOSVOD in isolated cases. There have been no reports so far correlating bevacizumab with SOSVOD. Case presentation A 77-year-old man was being treated with oxaliplatin and a modified de Gramont regimen of 5-fluorouracil for metastatic colon cancer. Bevacizumab (7.5 mg/kg was added from the seventh cycle onwards. Protracted neutropenia and thrombocytopenia led to discontinuation of oxaliplatin after the ninth cycle. A computed tomography scan showed complete response and bevacizumab was continued for another 3 months, after which time the patient developed right hypochondrial pain, transudative ascites, splenomegaly and abnormal liver function tests. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed oesophageal varices. Liver biopsy showed features considered to be consistent with SOSVOD. Bevacizumab was stopped and a policy of watchful waiting was adopted. He tolerated the acute damage to his liver and subsequently the ascites resolved and liver function tests normalised. Conclusion We need to be aware that bevacizumab can cause sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (veno-occlusive disease and that the occurrence of ascites should not be attributed to progressive disease without appropriate evaluation.

  10. Time-frequency analyses of fluid-solid interaction under sinusoidal translational shear deformation of the viscoelastic rat cerebrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Lauren N.; Haslach, Henry W.

    2018-02-01

    During normal extracellular fluid (ECF) flow in the brain glymphatic system or during pathological flow induced by trauma resulting from impacts and blast waves, ECF-solid matter interactions result from sinusoidal shear waves in the brain and cranial arterial tissue, both heterogeneous biological tissues with high fluid content. The flow in the glymphatic system is known to be forced by pulsations of the cranial arteries at about 1 Hz. The experimental shear stress response to sinusoidal translational shear deformation at 1 Hz and 25% strain amplitude and either 0% or 33% compression is compared for rat cerebrum and bovine aortic tissue. Time-frequency analyses aim to correlate the shear stress signal frequency components over time with the behavior of brain tissue constituents to identify the physical source of the shear nonlinear viscoelastic response. Discrete fast Fourier transformation analysis and the novel application to the shear stress signal of harmonic wavelet decomposition both show significant 1 Hz and 3 Hz components. The 3 Hz component in brain tissue, whose magnitude is much larger than in aortic tissue, may result from interstitial fluid induced drag forces. The harmonic wavelet decomposition locates 3 Hz harmonics whose magnitudes decrease on subsequent cycles perhaps because of bond breaking that results in easier fluid movement. Both tissues exhibit transient shear stress softening similar to the Mullins effect in rubber. The form of a new mathematical model for the drag force produced by ECF-solid matter interactions captures the third harmonic seen experimentally.

  11. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography of hepatocellular carcinoma: Correlation between quantitative parameters and arteries in neoangiogenesis or sinusoidal capillarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei Xiaoqing; Liu Longzhong; Zheng Wei; Cai Muyan; Han Feng; He Jiehua; Li Anhua; Chen Minshan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The quantitative parameters in contrast-enhanced ultrasonography-time–intensity curve of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were studied to explore their potential importance in monitoring the effects of anti-angiogenic therapy for HCC. Methods: 115 HCC patients were studied with contrast-enhanced ultrasonography-time–intensity curve (CEUS-TIC) and with immunohistochemical analysis of tissue sections. The CEUS images were analyzed off-line to obtained quantitative parameters including maximum of intensity (IMAX), rise time (RT), time to peak (TTP), mean transit time (mTT), rise slope (RS), and washout time (WT). Monoclonal antibodies specific for smooth muscle actin and anti-CD34 were used to observe unpaired arteries (UAs) and microvessel area (MVA) of sinusoidal capillarization, respectively. The UAs and MVA of 82 HCC cases were successfully stained. Results: The number of UAs had moderate correlation with RT (r = −0.446), TTP (r = −0.432), and RS (r = 0.431) (P < 0.05), and it had mild correlation with IMAX (r = 0.303) and WT (r = 0.285) (P < 0.05). MVA of sinusoidal capillarization had no correlation with perfusion parameters. Conclusion: Quantitative CEUS-TIC parameters reflecting hemodynamics of tumors are correlated with UAs, but not with MVA, and they might be used to monitor the effects of anti-angiogenic therapy on HCC.

  12. Responses of Medullary Lateral Line Units of the Goldfish, Carassius auratus, to Amplitude-Modulated Sinusoidal Wave Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadan Ali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the responses of brainstem lateral line units in goldfish, Carassius auratus, to constant-amplitude and to amplitude-modulated sinusoidal water motions. If stimulated with constant-amplitude sinusoidal water motions, units responded with phasic (50% or with sustained (50% increases in dicharge rate. Based on isodisplacement curves, units preferred low (33 Hz, 12.5%, mid (50 Hz, 10% and 100 Hz, 30% or high (200 Hz, 47.5% frequencies. In most units, responses were weakly phase locked to the carrier frequency. However, at a carrier frequency of 50 Hz or 100 Hz, a substantial proportion of the units exhibited strong phase locking. If stimulated with amplitude-modulated water motions, units responded with a burst of discharge to each modulation cycle, that is, units phase locked to the amplitude modulation frequency. Response properties of brainstem units were in many respects comparable to those of midbrain units, suggesting that they emerge first in the lateral line brainstem.

  13. Trace conditioning in insects-keep the trace!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dylla, Kristina V; Galili, Dana S; Szyszka, Paul; Lüdke, Alja

    2013-01-01

    Trace conditioning is a form of associative learning that can be induced by presenting a conditioned stimulus (CS) and an unconditioned stimulus (US) following each other, but separated by a temporal gap. This gap distinguishes trace conditioning from classical delay conditioning, where the CS and US overlap. To bridge the temporal gap between both stimuli and to form an association between CS and US in trace conditioning, the brain must keep a neural representation of the CS after its termination-a stimulus trace. Behavioral and physiological studies on trace and delay conditioning revealed similarities between the two forms of learning, like similar memory decay and similar odor identity perception in invertebrates. On the other hand differences were reported also, like the requirement of distinct brain structures in vertebrates or disparities in molecular mechanisms in both vertebrates and invertebrates. For example, in commonly used vertebrate conditioning paradigms the hippocampus is necessary for trace but not for delay conditioning, and Drosophila delay conditioning requires the Rutabaga adenylyl cyclase (Rut-AC), which is dispensable in trace conditioning. It is still unknown how the brain encodes CS traces and how they are associated with a US in trace conditioning. Insects serve as powerful models to address the mechanisms underlying trace conditioning, due to their simple brain anatomy, behavioral accessibility and established methods of genetic interference. In this review we summarize the recent progress in insect trace conditioning on the behavioral and physiological level and emphasize similarities and differences compared to delay conditioning. Moreover, we examine proposed molecular and computational models and reassess different experimental approaches used for trace conditioning.

  14. Trace conditioning in insects – Keep the trace!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina V Dylla

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Trace conditioning is a form of associative learning that can be induced by presenting a conditioned stimulus (CS and an unconditioned stimulus (US following each other, but separated by a temporal gap. This gap distinguishes trace conditioning from classical delay conditioning, where the CS and US overlap. To bridge the temporal gap between both stimuli and to form an association between CS and US in trace conditioning, the brain must keep a neural representation of the CS after its termination – a stimulus trace. Behavioral and physiological studies on trace and delay conditioning revealed similarities between the two forms of learning, like similar memory decay and similar odor identity perception in invertebrates. On the other hand differences were reported also, like the requirement of distinct brain structures in vertebrates or disparities in molecular mechanisms in both vertebrates and invertebrates. For example, in commonly used vertebrate conditioning paradigms the hippocampus is necessary for trace but not for delay conditioning, and Drosophila delay conditioning requires the Rutabaga adenylyl cyclase, which is dispensable in trace conditioning. It is still unknown how the brain encodes CS traces and how they are associated with a US in trace conditioning. Insects serve as powerful models to address the mechanisms underlying trace conditioning, due to their simple brain anatomy, behavioral accessibility and established methods of genetic interference. In this review we summarize the recent progress in insect trace conditioning on the behavioral and physiological level and emphasize similarities and differences compared to delay conditioning. Moreover, we examine proposed molecular and computational models and reassess different experimental approaches used for trace conditioning.

  15. Piezoelectric trace vapor calibrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verkouteren, R. Michael; Gillen, Greg; Taylor, David W.

    2006-01-01

    The design and performance of a vapor generator for calibration and testing of trace chemical sensors are described. The device utilizes piezoelectric ink-jet nozzles to dispense and vaporize precisely known amounts of analyte solutions as monodisperse droplets onto a hot ceramic surface, where the generated vapors are mixed with air before exiting the device. Injected droplets are monitored by microscope with strobed illumination, and the reproducibility of droplet volumes is optimized by adjustment of piezoelectric wave form parameters. Complete vaporization of the droplets occurs only across a 10 deg. C window within the transition boiling regime of the solvent, and the minimum and maximum rates of trace analyte that may be injected and evaporated are determined by thermodynamic principles and empirical observations of droplet formation and stability. By varying solution concentrations, droplet injection rates, air flow, and the number of active nozzles, the system is designed to deliver--on demand--continuous vapor concentrations across more than six orders of magnitude (nominally 290 fg/l to 1.05 μg/l). Vapor pulses containing femtogram to microgram quantities of analyte may also be generated. Calibrated ranges of three explosive vapors at ng/l levels were generated by the device and directly measured by ion mobility spectrometry (IMS). These data demonstrate expected linear trends within the limited working range of the IMS detector and also exhibit subtle nonlinear behavior from the IMS measurement process

  16. The major and trace element geochemistry of garnets from the Vargem 1 Kimberlite pipe, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esperanca, S.; Murray, D.C.; Lambert, D.D.

    1995-01-01

    ICP-MS minor and trace element analysis of four single red garnets and two purple garnet composites show that: Ni contents of the bulk garnets are consistent with temperatures of equilibration in the range of 1050-1100 C; the amount of LREE enrichment appears to correlate with increasing CR contents in the garnets and, overall, the REE patterns of the six samples show normal rather than sinusoidal characteristics; relative to primitive mantle, the incompatible-element enrichment is selective across the samples but Pb shows a positive anomaly relative to La, Ce and Sr. 9 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Stabilization of Phase of a Sinusoidal Signal Transmitted Over Optical Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    DAddario, Larry R.; Trink, Joseph T.

    2010-01-01

    In the process of connecting widely distributed antennas into a coherent array, it is necessary to synchronize the timing of signals at the various locations. This can be accomplished by distributing a common reference signal from a central source, usually over optical fiber. A high-frequency (RF or microwave) tone is a good choice for the reference. One difficulty is that the effective length of the optical fiber changes with temperature and mechanical stress, leading to phase instability in the received tone. This innovation provides a new way to stabilize the phase of the received tone, in spite of variations in the electrical length of the fiber. Stabilization is accomplished by two-way transmission in which part of the received signal is returned to the transmitting end over an identical fiber. The returned signal is detected and used to close an electrical servo loop whose effect is to keep constant the phase of the tone at the receiving end.

  18. The reliability of head film measurements. 3. Tracing superimposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, S; Miller, D; Molthen, R

    1976-12-01

    The superimposition of tracings from lateral skull x-ray films taken at different timepoints is an important method for assessing developmental and treatment changes through time. The usefulness of the data derived is, however, limited by the fact that the physical act of superimposing tracings is performed with some error. The magnitudes of error for superimpositions on different "planes" have not been amenable to quantitation by previously available methods. Using newly developed computer-aided techniques, we have been able to quantitate both the primary errors of tracing superimposition and the associated secondary landmark displacements for four conventionally employed anatomic reference "planes". For each reference "plane," twenty-five independent film pairs were examined independently by each of four judges. Therefore, 100 acts of tracing superimposition were available for each reference "plane." Output data are presented which appear to support the conclusion that measurement errors in tracing superimposition are a consequential factor affecting the confidence which should be placed in head film comparisons, particularly with regard to individual cases. Some consequences of this conclusion with respect to growth prediction and to the evaluation of treatment effects are considered.

  19. Driving and control strategies in alternative current machines of permanent magnet with non-sinusoidal flux; Estrategias de acionamento e controle em maquinas CA de ima permanente com fluxo nao senoidal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Jose Roberto Boffino de Almeida

    1997-07-01

    The aim of this work is to study and analyze the torque performance of brush less machines with non-sinusoidal distributed magnetic fluxes. The machine type considered is a surface mount permanent magnet brush less machine. Three mathematical models for the machine are considered: the per stator phase, the vectorial and the linear second order speed-voltage models. Machines with different stator windings are compared including the permanent magnet synchronous machines with sinusoidal distributed stator windings. The torque outputs of these machines are obtained considering two kinds of open loop driving systems: one with a six-pulse waveform and other with a sinusoidal waveform. Finally, a vectorial control is proposed for the non-sinusoidal machines. The torque ripple as well the overall performance of non-sinusoidal machines with vectorial control is compared to that of sinusoidal machines. (author)

  20. Traces generating what was there

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    Traces keep time contained and make visible what was there. Going back to the art of trace-reading, they continue to be a fundamental resource for scientific knowledge production. The contributions study, from the biology laboratory to the large colliders of particle physics, techniques involved in the production of material traces. Following their changes over two centuries, this collection shows the continuities they have in the digital age.

  1. Newer trace elements measured by RNNA and AAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharib, A.G.

    2004-01-01

    Very recently, special attention has been made on a few more trace elements in foodstuff as newer essential for animal and human health in certain ranges of concentration or intakes. These traces are namely: Aluminium, Nickel, Vanadium and Tin. A1 and Ni have been measured by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and two latter ones measured by Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis in some references laboratories. Here also scandium was analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis as well. These measurements were made for the most of Iranian diets and other participant countries' diets in frame of coordinated research project led by International Atomic Energy Agency period of 1986-1994, but practically it took more years. Here in this work the daily dietary intakes of aforesaid trace elements are given and discussed while the results of other 20 more nutritionally important trace elements were appeared somewhere else

  2. Newer trace elements measured by RNAA and AAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharib, A.G.

    2004-01-01

    Very recently, quite attention has been made on a few more trace elements in foodstuff as essential for animal and human health in certain ranges of concentration or intake. These traces are: aluminum, nickel, vanadium and tin. Al and Ni have been measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), and the two latter ones measured by radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) in few references laboratories. Here, scandium was also analysed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). These measurements were made for the most of the Iranian diets and other participant countries' diets under the framework of a co-ordinated research project (CRP) of the IAEA during the period 1986-1994, but practically it took more years. Here in this work the daily dietary intakes of above mentioned trace elements are given and discussed while the results of 20 other nutritionally important trace elements appeared somewhere else. (author)

  3. Autonomous Real Time Requirements Tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattsmier, George; Stetson, Howard

    2014-01-01

    One of the more challenging aspects of software development is the ability to verify and validate the functional software requirements dictated by the Software Requirements Specification (SRS) and the Software Detail Design (SDD). Insuring the software has achieved the intended requirements is the responsibility of the Software Quality team and the Software Test team. The utilization of Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Auto- Procedures for relocating ground operations positions to ISS automated on-board operations has begun the transition that would be required for manned deep space missions with minimal crew requirements. This transition also moves the auto-procedures from the procedure realm into the flight software arena and as such the operational requirements and testing will be more structured and rigorous. The autoprocedures would be required to meet NASA software standards as specified in the Software Safety Standard (NASASTD- 8719), the Software Engineering Requirements (NPR 7150), the Software Assurance Standard (NASA-STD-8739) and also the Human Rating Requirements (NPR-8705). The Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) test-bed utilizes the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Language for development of autonomous command and control software. The Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) system has the unique feature of providing the current line of the statement in execution during real-time execution of the software. The feature of execution line number internal reporting unlocks the capability of monitoring the execution autonomously by use of a companion Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) sequence as the line number reporting is embedded inside the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) execution engine. This negates I/O processing of this type data as the line number status of executing sequences is built-in as a function reference. This paper will outline the design and capabilities of the AFTS Autonomous Requirements Tracker, which traces and logs SRS requirements as they are being met during real-time execution of the

  4. Trace Mineral Losses in Sweat

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chinevere, Troy D; McClung, James P; Cheuvront, Samuel N

    2007-01-01

    Copper, iron and zinc are nutritionally essential trace minerals that confer vital biological roles including the maintenance of cell structure and integrity, regulation of metabolism, immune function...

  5. Trace analysis of semiconductor materials

    CERN Document Server

    Cali, J Paul; Gordon, L

    1964-01-01

    Trace Analysis of Semiconductor Materials is a guidebook concerned with procedures of ultra-trace analysis. This book discusses six distinct techniques of trace analysis. These techniques are the most common and can be applied to various problems compared to other methods. Each of the four chapters basically includes an introduction to the principles and general statements. The theoretical basis for the technique involved is then briefly discussed. Practical applications of the techniques and the different instrumentations are explained. Then, the applications to trace analysis as pertaining

  6. Trace impurity analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, W.J.; Edwards, D. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The desirability for long-term reliability of large scale helium refrigerator systems used on superconducting accelerator magnets has necessitated detection of impurities to levels of a few ppM. An analyzer that measures trace impurity levels of condensable contaminants in concentrations of less than a ppM in 15 atm of He is described. The instrument makes use of the desorption temperature at an indicated pressure of the various impurities to determine the type of contaminant. The pressure rise at that temperature yields a measure of the contaminant level of the impurity. A LN 2 cryogenic charcoal trap is also employed to measure air impurities (nitrogen and oxygen) to obtain the full range of contaminant possibilities. The results of this detector which will be in use on the research and development helium refrigerator of the ISABELLE First-Cell is described

  7. Losses analysis of soft magnetic ring core under sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM) and space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hezhe; Li, Yongjian; Wang, Shanming; Zhu, Jianguo; Yang, Qingxin; Zhang, Changgeng; Li, Jingsong

    2018-05-01

    Practical core losses in electrical machines differ significantly from those experimental results using the standardized measurement method, i.e. Epstein Frame method. In order to obtain a better approximation of the losses in an electrical machine, a simulation method considering sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM) and space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) waveforms is proposed. The influence of the pulse width modulation (PWM) parameters on the harmonic components in SPWM and SVPWM is discussed by fast Fourier transform (FFT). Three-level SPWM and SVPWM are analyzed and compared both by simulation and experiment. The core losses of several ring samples magnetized by SPWM, SVPWM and sinusoidal alternating current (AC) are obtained. In addition, the temperature rise of the samples under SPWM, sinusoidal excitation are analyzed and compared.

  8. Successful treatment of severe sinusoidal obstruction syndrome despite multiple organ failure with defibrotide after allogeneic stem cell transplantation: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behre Gerhard

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We report a case of sinusoidal obstruction syndrome, a typical and life-threatening complication after allogeneic stem-cell transplantation, successfully treated with defibrotide despite massive multiple organ failure. Case presentation A 64-year-old Caucasian woman underwent allogeneic peripheral blood stem-cell transplantation from her human leukocyte antigen-identical sister against aggressive lymphoplasmocytoid immunocytoma. Seven days later, the patient developed severe sinusoidal obstruction syndrome according to the modified Seattle criteria. We initiated treatment with defibrotide. Despite early treatment, multiple organ failure with kidney failure requiring dialysis and ventilator-dependent lung failure aggravated the clinical course. Furthermore, central nervous dysfunction occurred as well as transfusion refractory thrombocytopenia. Conclusion As highlighted in our report, defibrotide is the most promising drug in the treatment of the formerly, almost lethal, severe sinusoidal obstruction syndrome to date. This is demonstrated very clearly in our patient. She improved completely, even after renal, cerebral and respiratory failure.

  9. Successful treatment of severe sinusoidal obstruction syndrome despite multiple organ failure with defibrotide after allogeneic stem cell transplantation: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behre, Gerhard; Theurich, Sebastian; Christopeit, Maximilian; Weber, Thomas

    2009-03-10

    We report a case of sinusoidal obstruction syndrome, a typical and life-threatening complication after allogeneic stem-cell transplantation, successfully treated with defibrotide despite massive multiple organ failure. A 64-year-old Caucasian woman underwent allogeneic peripheral blood stem-cell transplantation from her human leukocyte antigen-identical sister against aggressive lymphoplasmocytoid immunocytoma. Seven days later, the patient developed severe sinusoidal obstruction syndrome according to the modified Seattle criteria. We initiated treatment with defibrotide. Despite early treatment, multiple organ failure with kidney failure requiring dialysis and ventilator-dependent lung failure aggravated the clinical course. Furthermore, central nervous dysfunction occurred as well as transfusion refractory thrombocytopenia. As highlighted in our report, defibrotide is the most promising drug in the treatment of the formerly, almost lethal, severe sinusoidal obstruction syndrome to date. This is demonstrated very clearly in our patient. She improved completely, even after renal, cerebral and respiratory failure.

  10. A two-level voltage source inverter with differentially sinusoidal pulse width modulation used in the interconnection system of a wind turbine generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros C. Charalampidis

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses an interconnection system based on differentially sinusoidal pulse width modulation, used for the interconnection to the grid of a variable speed wind turbine. The modulation technique used provides specific advantages in comparison with the commonly used sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM technique, such as lower DC bus voltage requirements, smaller switching losses for the same switching frequency as well as less higher harmonic content in the voltage waveforms produced. The respective control system is also described in detail. Thus this study provides a guide enabling the design of any interconnection system based on this modulation technique.

  11. Phase-locking and chaos in a silent Hodgkin-Huxley neuron exposed to sinusoidal electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Che Yanqiu; Wang Jiang; Si Wenjie; Fei Xiangyang

    2009-01-01

    Neuronal firing patterns are related to the information processing in neural system. This paper investigates the response characteristics of a silent Hodgkin-Huxley neuron to the stimulation of externally-applied sinusoidal electric field. The neuron exhibits both p:q phase-locked (i.e. a periodic oscillation defined as p action potentials generated by q cycle stimulations) and chaotic behaviors, depending on the values of stimulus frequencies and amplitudes. In one-parameter space, a rich bifurcation structure including period-adding without chaos and phase-locking alternated with chaos suggests frequency discrimination of the neuronal firing patterns. Furthermore, by mapping out Arnold tongues, we partition the amplitude-frequency parameter space in terms of the qualitative behaviors of the neuron. Thus the neuron's information (firing patterns) encodes the stimulus information (amplitude and frequency), and vice versa

  12. Manifestations and management of veno-occlusive disease/sinusoidal obstruction syndrome in the era of contemporary therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Priti; Wallis, Whitney; Kebriaei, Partow

    2017-02-01

    The concept of veno-occlusive disease (VOD), along with our understanding of it, has historically been and remains an evolving phenomenon. This review presents a broad view of VOD, also known as sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS), including (1) traditional hematopoietic stem cell transplant-associated VOD/SOS, (2) late-onset VOD/SOS, (3) pulmonary VOD, and (4) VOD/SOS associated with chemotherapy only. Several VOD/SOS management modalities exist that include modes for both prophylaxis and treatment. An extensive review of the literature on monoclonal antibodies, both approved and pending approval by the US Food and Drug Administration, reveals that only a few have been associated with an increased risk for VOD/SOS. In fact, bevacizumab appears to have a protective effect against the development of VOD/SOS. As the landscape of cancer treatment changes, careful attention needs to be focused on how new therapies affect the incidence of VOD/SOS.

  13. "Pre-emptive strike"-the case for early treatment of hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome with defibrotide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, Revathi; Phillips, Marianne B; Gottardo, Nicholas G

    2018-07-01

    The initial signs of hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (HSOS) can be challenging to recognize in children, especially outside the hematopoietic stem cell transplantation setting. To assist clinicians to promptly identify HSOS, the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation has proposed pediatric HSOS diagnostic criteria which emphasize unexplained consumptive and transfusion-refractory thrombocytopenia. To highlight the importance of these "bellwether" early signs of HSOS and the efficacy of pre-emptive treatment with defibrotide, we describe the case of a child with a right 11th rib primitive neuroectodermal tumor who developed HSOS following focal radiotherapy and actinomycin-D treatment. © 2018 The Authors. Pediatric Blood & Cancer Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Hepatic Sinusoidal Obstruction Syndrome During Chemotherapy for Childhood Medulloblastoma: Report of a Case and Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckland, Amy; Phillips, Marianne B.; Cole, Catherine H.; Gottardo, Nicholas G.

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (HSOS), also known as veno-occlusive disease, is a well-recognized toxic complication after autologous and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant, during treatment of Wilms tumor and rhabdomyosarcoma associated with actinomycin-D, and during acute lymphoblastic leukemia therapy due to oral 6-thioguanine. However, its occurrence in the context of chemotherapy regimens for other childhood malignancies is rare. We report a 5-year-old girl with high-risk anaplastic medulloblastoma, who developed severe HSOS during her second cycle of maintenance chemotherapy, consisting of vincristine, cisplatin, and cyclophosphamide. She was treated with defibrotide with complete resolution of the HSOS. These findings and a review of the literature, highlight the occurrence of HSOS in children outside the established settings of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, Wilms tumor, rhabdomyosarcoma, and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. PMID:24276042

  15. Evaluation and statistical judgement of neural responses to sinusoidal stimulation in cases with superimposed drift and noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastreboff, P W

    1979-06-01

    Time histograms of neural responses evoked by sinuosidal stimulation often contain a slow drifting and an irregular noise which disturb Fourier analysis of these responses. Section 2 of this paper evaluates the extent to which a linear drift influences the Fourier analysis, and develops a combined Fourier and linear regression analysis for detecting and correcting for such a linear drift. Usefulness of this correcting method is demonstrated for the time histograms of actual eye movements and Purkinje cell discharges evoked by sinusoidal rotation of rabbits in the horizontal plane. In Sect. 3, the analysis of variance is adopted for estimating the probability of the random occurrence of the response curve extracted by Fourier analysis from noise. This method proved to be useful for avoiding false judgements as to whether the response curve was meaningful, particularly when the response was small relative to the contaminating noise.

  16. 3D palmprint and hand imaging system based on full-field composite color sinusoidal fringe projection technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zonghua; Huang, Shujun; Xu, Yongjia; Chen, Chao; Zhao, Yan; Gao, Nan; Xiao, Yanjun

    2013-09-01

    Palmprint and hand shape, as two kinds of important biometric characteristics, have been widely studied and applied to human identity recognition. The existing research is based mainly on 2D images, which lose the third-dimensional information. The biological features extracted from 2D images are distorted by pressure and rolling, so the subsequent feature matching and recognition are inaccurate. This paper presents a method to acquire accurate 3D shapes of palmprint and hand by projecting full-field composite color sinusoidal fringe patterns and the corresponding color texture information. A 3D imaging system is designed to capture and process the full-field composite color fringe patterns on hand surface. Composite color fringe patterns having the optimum three fringe numbers are generated by software and projected onto the surface of human hand by a digital light processing projector. From another viewpoint, a color CCD camera captures the deformed fringe patterns and saves them for postprocessing. After compensating for the cross talk and chromatic aberration between color channels, three fringe patterns are extracted from three color channels of a captured composite color image. Wrapped phase information can be calculated from the sinusoidal fringe patterns with high precision. At the same time, the absolute phase of each pixel is determined by the optimum three-fringe selection method. After building up the relationship between absolute phase map and 3D shape data, the 3D palmprint and hand are obtained. Color texture information can be directly captured or demodulated from the captured composite fringe pattern images. Experimental results show that the proposed method and system can yield accurate 3D shape and color texture information of the palmprint and hand shape.

  17. Detailed comparative study regarding different formulae of predicting the iron losses in a machine excited by non-sinusoidal supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kharashi, Eyhab

    2014-01-01

    Variable-speed drives in any machine provide an accurate control and high-energy efficiency. More and more often machines are excited by non-sinusoidal voltages. Predicting the amount of iron losses in non-sinusoidal excitation is important. The paper aims to achieve accurate efficiency estimation by presenting a new modified calculation method to predict the iron losses. In a switched reluctance motor, the iron losses can't be ignored, it has considered value. This paper presents conventional and modified Steinmetz formulae for the estimation of the iron losses. The conventional Steinmetz formula consists of three terms: hysteresis, eddy current and anomalous losses. The equations of hysteresis and eddy current losses depend mainly on the value of the peak flux density. The reason to modify the Steinmetz formula is to avoid the need of knowing the peak flux density and the anomalous losses in accurate figures. The paper also explains and clarifies the methods of using both the conventional as well as the modified Steinmetz formulae in accurate calculation of the iron losses in different sections of the magnetic circuit. For both formulae, a comparison is made between the distributions of the iron losses in different parts of the magnetic circuit and the efficiencies. - Highlights: • The paper aims to achieve accurate efficiency estimation. • The predicted iron loss by the conventional Steinmetz formula is inaccurate. • The modified Steinmetz formula is more accurate because it includes the minor loops losses caused by each flux density. • The paper compared the predicted losses obtained by the two different formals to stand on the degree of accuracy

  18. Olfactory memory traces in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Jacob; Krause, William C; Davis, Ronald L

    2008-01-01

    In Drosophila, the fruit fly, coincident exposure to an odor and an aversive electric shock can produce robust behavioral memory. This behavioral memory is thought to be regulated by cellular memory traces within the central nervous system of the fly. These molecular, physiological, or structural changes in neurons, induced by pairing odor and shock, regulate behavior by altering the neurons' response to the learned environment. Recently, novel in vivo functional imaging techniques have allowed researchers to observe cellular memory traces in intact animals. These investigations have revealed interesting temporal and spatial dynamics of cellular memory traces. First, a short-term cellular memory trace was discovered that exists in the antennal lobe, an early site of olfactory processing. This trace represents the recruitment of new synaptic activity into the odor representation and forms for only a short period of time just after training. Second, an intermediate-term cellular memory trace was found in the dorsal paired medial neuron, a neuron thought to play a role in stabilizing olfactory memories. Finally, a long-term protein synthesis-dependent cellular memory trace was discovered in the mushroom bodies, a structure long implicated in olfactory learning and memory. Therefore, it appears that aversive olfactory associations are encoded by multiple cellular memory traces that occur in different regions of the brain with different temporal domains.

  19. The major and trace element chemistry of fish and lake water within ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-01-01

    Jan 1, 2016 ... and Abanoz (2011), De La Calle et al. (2012) and Sannac et al. (2012) of the same reference material. Dilution factors were cho- sen to include both major and trace elements in the same analy- ses, which implies that the method was not sensitive enough to analyse some elements at ultra-trace levels.

  20. Trace elements and protein in human milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abusamra, Y.I.H.

    1995-01-01

    The trace elements Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn, Ni and Pb and some related major elements which are Ca, Cl K and total protein contents of human samples from ninety mothers were examined in this study. Samples were collected from Khartoum, Khartoum North and Omdurman, from the second day of delivery up to the third month where the milk reaches a relatively stable levels. These samples representing different stages of lactation which are colostrum ( 1-3 days ), tranitional ( up to 14 days ) and mature milk. The principle aim of this study is to measure the trace elements and protein contents in relation to stage of lactation and to compare with the literature. Atomic absorption spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence were used to measure trace elements in the samples. The methods were found to be quite reliable as proved by the analysis of the standard reference material HM-1. Whereas neutron activation analysis was used for measurements of total protein. Colostrum was found to have the highest amounts of trace elements and protein. Fe mean concentration was 273 g/dm 3 at colostrum stage and it decreased to 146 g/dm 3 in mature milk ( 49% ). Zn decreased from 6000 g/dm 3 in colostrum to 1300 g/dm 3 in mature stage ( 78% ). Mn was 12g/dm 3 in colostrum, and it decreased to 2.9 g/dm 3 in mature milk ( 75% ). Cu decreased from 370 g/dm 3 to 117 g/dm 3 ( 68% ). Ni decreased from 24 g/dm 3 to 8.8 g/dm 3 ( 63% ) and Pb from 12 g/dm 3 to 2.6 g/dm 3 ( 76% ). Total protein was 37.3% of the dry milk in colostrum and it was 12.2% in mature milk. (author). 75 refs., 25 tabs., 30 figs

  1. Cytocompatible cellulose hydrogels containing trace lignin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakasone, Kazuki; Kobayashi, Takaomi

    2016-01-01

    Sugarcane bagasse was used as a cellulose resource to prepare transparent and flexible cellulose hydrogel films. On the purification process from bagasse to cellulose, the effect of lignin residues in the cellulose was examined for the properties and cytocompatibility of the resultant hydrogel films. The cellulose was dissolved in lithium chloride/N,N-dimethylacetamide solution and converted to hydrogel films by phase inversion. In the purification process, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) treatment time was changed from 1 to 12 h. This resulted in cellulose hydrogel films having small amounts of lignin from 1.62 to 0.68%. The remaining lignin greatly affected hydrogel properties. Water content of the hydrogel films was increased from 1153 to 1525% with a decrease of lignin content. Moreover, lower lignin content caused weakening of tensile strength from 0.80 to 0.43 N/mm"2 and elongation from 45.2 to 26.5%. Also, similar tendency was observed in viscoelastic behavior of the cellulose hydrogel films. Evidence was shown that the lignin residue was effective for the high strength of the hydrogel films. In addition, scanning probe microscopy in the morphological observation was suggested that the trace lignin in the cellulose hydrogel affected the cellulose fiber aggregation in the hydrogel network. The trace of lignin in the hydrogels also influenced fibroblast cell culture on the hydrogel films. The hydrogel film containing 1.68% lignin showed better fibroblast compatibility as compared to cell culture polystyrene dish used as reference. - Highlights: • Cellulose hydrogel films with trace lignin were obtained from sugarcane bagasse. • Lignin content was found to be in the range of 1.62 − 0.68% by UV–Vis spectroscopy. • Higher lignin content strengthened mechanical properties of the hydrogel films. • Trace lignin affected the hydrogel morphology such as roughness and porosity. • High cell proliferation was observed in the hydrogel containing 1.68% lignin.

  2. Cytocompatible cellulose hydrogels containing trace lignin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakasone, Kazuki; Kobayashi, Takaomi, E-mail: takaomi@nagaoakut.ac.jp

    2016-07-01

    Sugarcane bagasse was used as a cellulose resource to prepare transparent and flexible cellulose hydrogel films. On the purification process from bagasse to cellulose, the effect of lignin residues in the cellulose was examined for the properties and cytocompatibility of the resultant hydrogel films. The cellulose was dissolved in lithium chloride/N,N-dimethylacetamide solution and converted to hydrogel films by phase inversion. In the purification process, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) treatment time was changed from 1 to 12 h. This resulted in cellulose hydrogel films having small amounts of lignin from 1.62 to 0.68%. The remaining lignin greatly affected hydrogel properties. Water content of the hydrogel films was increased from 1153 to 1525% with a decrease of lignin content. Moreover, lower lignin content caused weakening of tensile strength from 0.80 to 0.43 N/mm{sup 2} and elongation from 45.2 to 26.5%. Also, similar tendency was observed in viscoelastic behavior of the cellulose hydrogel films. Evidence was shown that the lignin residue was effective for the high strength of the hydrogel films. In addition, scanning probe microscopy in the morphological observation was suggested that the trace lignin in the cellulose hydrogel affected the cellulose fiber aggregation in the hydrogel network. The trace of lignin in the hydrogels also influenced fibroblast cell culture on the hydrogel films. The hydrogel film containing 1.68% lignin showed better fibroblast compatibility as compared to cell culture polystyrene dish used as reference. - Highlights: • Cellulose hydrogel films with trace lignin were obtained from sugarcane bagasse. • Lignin content was found to be in the range of 1.62 − 0.68% by UV–Vis spectroscopy. • Higher lignin content strengthened mechanical properties of the hydrogel films. • Trace lignin affected the hydrogel morphology such as roughness and porosity. • High cell proliferation was observed in the hydrogel containing 1.68% lignin.

  3. Tracing Geothermal Fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael C. Adams; Greg Nash

    2004-03-01

    Geothermal water must be injected back into the reservoir after it has been used for power production. Injection is critical in maximizing the power production and lifetime of the reservoir. To use injectate effectively the direction and velocity of the injected water must be known or inferred. This information can be obtained by using chemical tracers to track the subsurface flow paths of the injected fluid. Tracers are chemical compounds that are added to the water as it is injected back into the reservoir. The hot production water is monitored for the presence of this tracer using the most sensitive analytic methods that are economically feasible. The amount and concentration pattern of the tracer revealed by this monitoring can be used to evaluate how effective the injection strategy is. However, the tracers must have properties that suite the environment that they will be used in. This requires careful consideration and testing of the tracer properties. In previous and parallel investigations we have developed tracers that are suitable from tracing liquid water. In this investigation, we developed tracers that can be used for steam and mixed water/steam environments. This work will improve the efficiency of injection management in geothermal fields, lowering the cost of energy production and increasing the power output of these systems.

  4. Standard Reference Tables -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Standard Reference Tables (SRT) provide consistent reference data for the various applications that support Flight Standards Service (AFS) business processes and...

  5. Molecular dynamics simulations of ejecta production from sinusoidal tin surfaces under supported and unsupported shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bao; Wu, FengChao; Zhu, YinBo; Wang, Pei; He, AnMin; Wu, HengAn

    2018-04-01

    Micro-ejecta, an instability growth process, occurs at metal/vacuum or metal/gas interface when compressed shock wave releases from the free surface that contains surface defects. We present molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the ejecta production from tin surface shocked by supported and unsupported waves with pressures ranging from 8.5 to 60.8 GPa. It is found that the loading waveforms have little effect on spike velocity while remarkably affect the bubble velocity. The bubble velocity of unsupported shock loading remains nonzero constant value at late time as observed in experiments. Besides, the time evolution of ejected mass in the simulations is compared with the recently developed ejecta source model, indicating the suppressed ejection of unmelted or partial melted materials. Moreover, different reference positions are chosen to characterize the amount of ejecta under different loading waveforms. Compared with supported shock case, the ejected mass of unsupported shock case saturates at lower pressure. Through the analysis on unloading path, we find that the temperature of tin sample increases quickly from tensile stress state to zero pressure state, resulting in the melting of bulk tin under decaying shock. Thus, the unsupported wave loading exhibits a lower threshold pressure causing the solid-liquid phase transition on shock release than the supported shock loading.

  6. Molecular dynamics simulations of ejecta production from sinusoidal tin surfaces under supported and unsupported shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao Wu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Micro-ejecta, an instability growth process, occurs at metal/vacuum or metal/gas interface when compressed shock wave releases from the free surface that contains surface defects. We present molecular dynamics (MD simulations to investigate the ejecta production from tin surface shocked by supported and unsupported waves with pressures ranging from 8.5 to 60.8 GPa. It is found that the loading waveforms have little effect on spike velocity while remarkably affect the bubble velocity. The bubble velocity of unsupported shock loading remains nonzero constant value at late time as observed in experiments. Besides, the time evolution of ejected mass in the simulations is compared with the recently developed ejecta source model, indicating the suppressed ejection of unmelted or partial melted materials. Moreover, different reference positions are chosen to characterize the amount of ejecta under different loading waveforms. Compared with supported shock case, the ejected mass of unsupported shock case saturates at lower pressure. Through the analysis on unloading path, we find that the temperature of tin sample increases quickly from tensile stress state to zero pressure state, resulting in the melting of bulk tin under decaying shock. Thus, the unsupported wave loading exhibits a lower threshold pressure causing the solid-liquid phase transition on shock release than the supported shock loading.

  7. The reliability of nonlinear least-squares algorithm for data analysis of neural response activity during sinusoidal rotational stimulation in semicircular canal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Pengyu; Li, Bowen; Dong, Shiyao; Chen, Lin; Zhang, Yuelin

    2018-01-01

    Although many mathematical methods were used to analyze the neural activity under sinusoidal stimulation within linear response range in vestibular system, the reliabilities of these methods are still not reported, especially in nonlinear response range. Here we chose nonlinear least-squares algorithm (NLSA) with sinusoidal model to analyze the neural response of semicircular canal neurons (SCNs) during sinusoidal rotational stimulation (SRS) over a nonlinear response range. Our aim was to acquire a reliable mathematical method for data analysis under SRS in vestibular system. Our data indicated that the reliability of this method in an entire SCNs population was quite satisfactory. However, the reliability was strongly negatively depended on the neural discharge regularity. In addition, stimulation parameters were the vital impact factors influencing the reliability. The frequency had a significant negative effect but the amplitude had a conspicuous positive effect on the reliability. Thus, NLSA with sinusoidal model resulted a reliable mathematical tool for data analysis of neural response activity under SRS in vestibular system and more suitable for those under the stimulation with low frequency but high amplitude, suggesting that this method can be used in nonlinear response range. This method broke out of the restriction of neural activity analysis under nonlinear response range and provided a solid foundation for future study in nonlinear response range in vestibular system.

  8. A transgenic model for conditional induction and rescue of portal hypertension reveals a role of VEGF-mediated regulation of sinusoidal fenestrations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalit May

    Full Text Available Portal hypertension (PH is a common complication and a leading cause of death in patients with chronic liver diseases. PH is underlined by structural and functional derangement of liver sinusoid vessels and its fenestrated endothelium. Because in most clinical settings PH is accompanied by parenchymal injury, it has been difficult to determine the precise role of microvascular perturbations in causing PH. Reasoning that Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF is required to maintain functional integrity of the hepatic microcirculation, we developed a transgenic mouse system for a liver-specific-, reversible VEGF inhibition. The system is based on conditional induction and de-induction of a VEGF decoy receptor that sequesters VEGF and preclude signaling. VEGF blockade results in sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs fenestrations closure and in accumulation and transformation of the normally quiescent hepatic stellate cells, i.e. provoking the two processes underlying sinusoidal capillarization. Importantly, sinusoidal capillarization was sufficient to cause PH and its typical sequela, ascites, splenomegaly and venous collateralization without inflicting parenchymal damage or fibrosis. Remarkably, these dramatic phenotypes were fully reversed within few days from lifting-off VEGF blockade and resultant re-opening of SECs' fenestrations. This study not only uncovered an indispensible role for VEGF in maintaining structure and function of mature SECs, but also highlights the vasculo-centric nature of PH pathogenesis. Unprecedented ability to rescue PH and its secondary manifestations via manipulating a single vascular factor may also be harnessed for examining the potential utility of de-capillarization treatment modalities.

  9. Computer program for optical systems ray tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, T. J.; Konn, H.

    1967-01-01

    Program traces rays of light through optical systems consisting of up to 65 different optical surfaces and computes the aberrations. For design purposes, paraxial tracings with astigmation and third order tracings are provided.

  10. EARS: Electronic Access to Reference Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weise, F O; Borgendale, M

    1986-10-01

    Electronic Access to Reference Service (EARS) is a front end to the Health Sciences Library's electronic mail system, with links to the online public catalog. EARS, which became operational in September 1984, is accessed by users at remote sites with either a terminal or microcomputer. It is menu-driven, allowing users to request: a computerized literature search, reference information, a photocopy of a journal article, or a book. This paper traces the history of EARS and discusses its use, its impact on library staff and services, and factors that influence the diffusion of new technology.

  11. Trace formulae for arithmetical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogomolny, E.B.; Georgeot, B.; Giannoni, M.J.; Schmit, C.

    1992-09-01

    For quantum problems on the pseudo-sphere generated by arithmetic groups there exist special trace formulae, called trace formulae for Hecke operators, which permit the reconstruction of wave functions from the knowledge of periodic orbits. After a short discussion of this subject, the Hecke operators trace formulae are presented for the Dirichlet problem on the modular billiard, which is a prototype of arithmetical systems. The results of numerical computations for these semiclassical type relations are in good agreement with the directly computed eigenfunctions. (author) 23 refs.; 2 figs

  12. The Gothic arch (needle point) tracing and condylar inclination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Gheriani, A S; Winstanley, R B

    1987-11-01

    The records of 11 patients referred for treatment of TMJ disorders were used to compare condylar inclination found by drawing a tangent and by using a mathematic technique. Needle point tracing angles were also measured for the same patients and were compared with the condylar inclination. It can be concluded that (1) the mathematic technique outlined records a more accurate condylar angulation, and (2) there is a great variation in condylar inclination values between patients and between left and right sides of the same patient, and (3) there is no direct relationship between condylar inclination and the needle point tracing angle.

  13. Trace-element speciation and partitioning in environmental geochemistry and health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J.G.; Gibson, M.J.; Lovell, M.A.

    1983-09-01

    Establishment of the chemical form and associations of trace elements is important in the scientifc and medical fields related to environmental geochemistry and health. Fundamental understanding of trace-element behavior, the realistic formulation of historical perspectives of trace-element contamination, an assessment of environmental transformation processes and a thorough appraisal of environment-related ill health and disease all depend on knowledge of the chemical speciation and partitioning of trace elements. These topics and the development of analytical speciation techniques and procedures are discussed with reference to trace-element studies in the Department of Forensic Medicine and Science, University of Glasgow, on lacustrine sediments and water, the atmosphere, soil and street dirt of an urban environment, and human biological fluids. 206 references, 4 figures.

  14. Effects of frequency and duration on psychometric functions for detection of increments and decrements in sinusoids in noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, B C; Peters, R W; Glasberg, B R

    1999-12-01

    Psychometric functions for detecting increments or decrements in level of sinusoidal pedestals were measured for increment and decrement durations of 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, and 200 ms and for frequencies of 250, 1000, and 4000 Hz. The sinusoids were presented in background noise intended to mask spectral splatter. A three-interval, three-alternative procedure was used. The results indicated that, for increments, the detectability index d' was approximately proportional to delta I/I. For decrements, d' was approximately proportional to delta L. The slopes of the psychometric functions increased (indicating better performance) with increasing frequency for both increments and decrements. For increments, the slopes increased with increasing increment duration up to 200 ms at 250 and 1000 Hz, but at 4000 Hz they increased only up to 50 ms. For decrements, the slopes increased for durations up to 50 ms, and then remained roughly constant, for all frequencies. For a center frequency of 250 Hz, the slopes of the psychometric functions for increment detection increased with duration more rapidly than predicted by a "multiple-looks" hypothesis, i.e., more rapidly than the square root of duration, for durations up to 50 ms. For center frequencies of 1000 and 4000 Hz, the slopes increased less rapidly than predicted by a multiple-looks hypothesis, for durations greater than about 20 ms. The slopes of the psychometric functions for decrement detection increased with decrement duration at a rate slightly greater than the square root of duration, for durations up to 50 ms, at all three frequencies. For greater durations, the increase in slope was less than proportional to the square root of duration. The results were analyzed using a model incorporating a simulated auditory filter, a compressive nonlinearity, a sliding temporal integrator, and a decision device based on a template mechanism. The model took into account the effects of both the external noise and an assumed internal

  15. 2002 reference document; Document de reference 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This 2002 reference document of the group Areva, provides information on the society. Organized in seven chapters, it presents the persons responsible for the reference document and for auditing the financial statements, information pertaining to the transaction, general information on the company and share capital, information on company operation, changes and future prospects, assets, financial position, financial performance, information on company management and executive board and supervisory board, recent developments and future prospects. (A.L.B.)

  16. Generation of equivalent forms of operational trans-conductance amplifier-RC sinusoidal oscillators: the nullor approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Senani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown in two earlier papers published from this study that corresponding to a given single-operational trans-conductance amplifier (single-OTA-RC and dual-OTA-RC sinusoidal oscillators, there are three other structurally distinct equivalent forms having the same characteristic equation, one of which employs both grounded capacitors (GC. In this study, an earlier nullor-based theory of generating equivalent op-amp oscillator circuits, proposed by the first author, is extended to derive equivalent OTA-RC circuits which discloses the existence of an additional number of equivalent forms for the same given OTA-RC oscillators than those predicted by the quoted earlier works, and thereby considerably enlarging the set of equivalents of a given OTA-RC oscillator. Furthermore, the presented nullor-based theory of generating equivalent OTA-RC oscillators results in three additional interesting outcomes: (i the revelation that corresponding to any given OTA-RC oscillator there are two ‘both-GC’ oscillators (and not merely one, as derived in the quoted earlier works; (ii the availability of explicit current outputs in several of the derived equivalents and (iii the realisability explicit-current-output ‘quadrature oscillators’ in some of the generated equivalent oscillators. The workability of the generated equivalent OTA-RC oscillators has been verified by SPICE simulations, based on CMOS OTAs using 0.18 µm CMOS technology process parameters, and some sample results are given.

  17. Mesenchymal stem cell-conditioned medium prevents radiation-induced liver injury by inhibiting inflammation and protecting sinusoidal endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yixing; Zeng Zhaochong; Sun Jing; Huang Yan; Zhang Zhenyu; Zeng Haiying

    2015-01-01

    Current management of radiation-induced liver injury is limited. Sinusoidal endothelial cell (SEC) apoptosis and inflammation are considered to be initiating events in hepatic damage. We hypothesized that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory actions during hepatic irradiation, acting via paracrine mechanisms. This study aims to examine whether MSC-derived bioactive components are protective against radiation-induced liver injury in rats. MSC-conditioned medium (MSC-CM) was generated from rat bone marrow–derived MSCs. The effect of MSC-CM on the viability of irradiated SECs was examined by flow cytometric analysis. Activation of the Akt and ERK pathways was analyzed by western blot. MSC-CM was also delivered to Sprague–Dawley rats immediately before receiving liver irradiation, followed by testing for pathological features, changes in serum hyaluronic acid, ALT, and inflammatory cytokine levels, and liver cell apoptosis. MSC-CM enhanced the viability of irradiated SECs in vitro and induced Akt and ERK phosphorylation in these cells. Infusion of MSC-CM immediately before liver irradiation provided a significant anti-apoptotic effect on SECs and improved the histopathological features of injury in the irradiated liver. MSC-CM also reduced the secretion and expression of inflammatory cytokines and increased the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines. MSC-derived bioactive components could be a novel therapeutic approach for treating radiation-induced liver injury. (author)

  18. Benthic Uptake Rate due to Hyporheic Exchange: The Effects of Streambed Morphology for Constant and Sinusoidally Varying Nutrient Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Tonina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyporheic exchange carries reactive solutes, which may include biological oxygen demand (BOD, dissolved oxygen (DO and reactive dissolved inorganic nitrogen (Nr, into the sediment, where biochemical reactions consume DO. Here, we study the impact of streambed morphology, stream-reactive solute loads and their diel oscillations on the DO benthic uptake rate (BUR due to hyporheic processes. Our model solves the hyporheic flow field and the solute transport equations analytically, within a Lagrangian framework, considering advection, longitudinal diffusion and reactions modeled as first order kinetics. The application of the model to DO field measurements over a gravel bar-pool sequence shows a good match with measured DO concentrations with an overall agreement of 58% and a kappa index of 0.46. We apply the model to investigate the effects of daily constant and sinusoidally time varying stream BOD, DO and Nr loads and of the morphodynamic parameters on BUR. Our modeling results show that BUR varies as a function of bedform size and of nutrient loads and that the hyporheic zone may consume up to 0.06% of the stream DO at the pool-riffle bedform scale. Daily oscillations of stream BOD and DO loads have small effects on BUR, but may have an important influence on local hyporheic processes and organisms’ distribution.

  19. Characterization of Wet Air Plasma Jet Powered by Sinusoidal High Voltage and Nanosecond Pulses for Plasma Agricultural Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, Keisuke; Shimada, Keisuke; Konishi, Hideaki; Kaneko, Toshiro

    2015-09-01

    Not only for the plasma sterilization but also for many of plasma life-science applications, atmospheric pressure plasma devices that allowed us to control its state and reactive species production are deserved to resolve the roles of the chemical species. Influence of the hydroxyl radical and ozone on germination of conidia of a strawberry pathogen is presented. Water addition to air plasma jet significantly improves germination suppression performance, while measured reactive oxygen species (ROS) are reduced. Although the results show a negative correlation between ROS and the germination suppression, this infers the importance of chemical composition generated by plasma. For further control of the plasma product, a plasma jet powered by sinusoidal high voltage and nanosecond pulses is developed and characterized with the voltage-charge Lissajous. Control of breakdown phase and discharge power by pulse-imposed phase is presented. This work is supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists (B) Grant Number 15K17480 and Exploratory Research Grant Number 23644199.

  20. TRAIL enhances paracetamol-induced liver sinusoidal endothelial cell death in a Bim- and Bid-dependent manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badmann, A; Langsch, S; Keogh, A; Brunner, T; Kaufmann, T; Corazza, N

    2012-01-01

    Paracetamol (acetaminophen, APAP) is a universally used analgesic and antipyretic agent. Considered safe at therapeutic doses, overdoses cause acute liver damage characterized by centrilobular hepatic necrosis. One of the major clinical problems of paracetamol-induced liver disease is the development of hemorrhagic alterations. Although hepatocytes represent the main target of the cytotoxic effect of paracetamol overdose, perturbations within the endothelium involving morphological changes of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) have also been described in paracetamol-induced liver disease. Recently, we have shown that paracetamol-induced liver damage is synergistically enhanced by the TRAIL signaling pathway. As LSECs are constantly exposed to activated immune cells expressing death ligands, including TRAIL, we investigated the effect of TRAIL on paracetamol-induced LSEC death. We here demonstrate for the first time that TRAIL strongly enhances paracetamol-mediated LSEC death with typical features of apoptosis. Inhibition of caspases using specific inhibitors resulted in a strong reduction of cell death. TRAIL appears to enhance paracetamol-induced LSEC death via the activation of the pro-apoptotic BH3-only proteins Bid and Bim, which initiate the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Taken together this study shows that the liver endothelial layer, mainly LSECs, represent a direct target of the cytotoxic effect of paracetamol and that activation of TRAIL receptor synergistically enhances paracetamol-induced LSEC death via the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. TRAIL-mediated acceleration of paracetamol-induced cell death may thus contribute to the pathogenesis of paracetamol-induced liver damage. PMID:23254290

  1. Associations between levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 and sinusoidal obstruction syndrome after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weischendorff, Sarah; Kielsen, Katrine; Sengeløv, H

    2017-01-01

    . We hypothesised that insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), a mediator of growth and proliferation of various tissues, may attenuate chemotherapy-induced tissue damage after HSCT. We prospectively measured plasma levels of IGF-1 and its binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) in 41 patients undergoing...... myeloablative HSCT. IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels were inversely correlated with C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 levels post HSCT. In multivariate analyses, low levels of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 before conditioning were associated with increased risk of developing sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS; OR=5.00 per 1...... SDS decrease in IGF-1 (95% CI: 1.45-16.67), P=0.011 and OR=5.00 (1.37-20.00), P=0.015, respectively). Furthermore, low pre-transplant levels of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 were associated with increased fluid retention during the first 21 days post transplant (OR=7.69 (95% CI: 1.59-33.33), P=0.012, and OR=2...

  2. Analysis and Adaptive Synchronization of Two Novel Chaotic Systems with Hyperbolic Sinusoidal and Cosinusoidal Nonlinearity and Unknown Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vaidyanathan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This research work describes the modelling of two novel 3-D chaotic systems, the first with a hyperbolic sinusoidal nonlinearity and two quadratic nonlinearities (denoted as system (A and the second with a hyperbolic cosinusoidal nonlinearity and two quadratic nonlinearities (denoted as system (B. In this work, a detailed qualitative analysis of the novel chaotic systems (A and (B has been presented, and the Lyapunov exponents and Kaplan-Yorke dimension of these chaotic systems have been obtained. It is found that the maximal Lyapunov exponent (MLE for the novel chaotic systems (A and (B has a large value, viz. for the system (A and for the system (B. Thus, both the novel chaotic systems (A and (B display strong chaotic behaviour. This research work also discusses the problem of finding adaptive controllers for the global chaos synchronization of identical chaotic systems (A, identical chaotic systems (B and nonidentical chaotic systems (A and (B with unknown system parameters. The adaptive controllers for achieving global chaos synchronization of the novel chaotic systems (A and (B have been derived using adaptive control theory and Lyapunov stability theory. MATLAB simulations have been shown to illustrate the novel chaotic systems (A and (B, and also the adaptive synchronization results derived for the novel chaotic systems (A and (B.

  3. Approach for discrimination and quantification of electroactive species: kinetics difference revealed by higher harmonics of Fourier transformed sinusoidal voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yishan; Huang, Xinjian; Wang, Lishi

    2015-01-06

    Discrimination and quantification of electroactive species are traditionally realized by a potential difference which is mainly determined by thermodynamics. However, the resolution of this approach is limited to tens of millivolts. In this paper, we described an application of Fourier transformed sinusoidal voltammetry (FT-SV) that provides a new approach for discrimination and quantitative evaluation of electroactive species, especially thermodynamic similar ones. Numerical simulation indicates that electron transfer kinetics difference between electroactive species can be revealed by the phase angle of higher order harmonics of FT-SV, and the difference can be amplified order by order. Thus, even a very subtle kinetics difference can be amplified to be distinguishable at a certain order of harmonics. This method was verified with structurally similar ferrocene derivatives which were chosen as the model systems. Although these molecules have very close redox potential (harmonics. The results demonstrated the feasibility and reliability of the method. It was also implied that the combination of the traditional thermodynamic method and this kinetics method can form a two-dimension resolved detection method, and it has the potential to extend the resolution of voltammetric techniques to a new level.

  4. Improvement of the growth and yield of lettuce plants by elf sinusoidal non-uniform magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souzal, A. De; Gonzalez, L.M.; Sueirol, L.; Peralta, O.; Liceal, L.; Porras, E.; Gilart, F.

    2008-01-01

    Influence of pre-sowing magnetic treatments on plant growth and final yield of lettuce (cv. Black Seeded Simpson) were studied under organoponic conditions. Lettuce seeds were exposed to full-wave rectified sinusoidal non-uniform magnetic fields (MFs) induced by an electromagnet at 120 mT(rms) for 3 min, 160 mT(rms) for 1 min and to 160 mT (rms) for 5 min. Non-treated seeds were considered as controls. Plants were grown in experimental stonemasons (25.2 m2) of an organoponic and cultivated according to standard agricultural practices. During nursery and vegetative growth stages, samples were collected at regular intervals for seedling growth assessment and growth rate analyses. At physiological maturity, the plants were harvested from each stonemason and the final yield and yield parameters were determined. In the nursery stage, the magnetic treatments induced a significant increase of root length and shoot height in plants derived from magnetically-treated seeds. In the vegetative stage, the relative growth rates of plants derived from magnetically-exposed seeds were greater than those shown by the control plants. At maturity stage, all magnetic treatments increased significantly (p<0.05) the plant height, the leaf area per plant, the final yield per area and the fresh mass per plant in comparison with the controls. Pre-sowing magnetic treatments would enhance the growth and final yield of lettuce crop

  5. Metrology of trace radionuclides in environment. Standardization and traceability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calmet, D.

    1999-01-01

    Widespread concern over radioactive substances in the environment regularly requires environmental and public health assessments. The credibility of an assessment will depend on the quality and reliability on measurement results that often are of paramount significance in the environmental domain. Those man made radionuclides present in the various environmental components of the French territory are however found at trace, even ultra-trace levels. This article gives an overview of standardization work and required reference materials and rules for measuring radionuclides in environmental matrices as well as the international and national systems to manage standardization and traceability. Some achievements as well as the many difficulties that the metrologist must overcome when using nuclear techniques to measure trace quantities of radionuclides are presented. (author)

  6. TraceContract: A Scala DSL for Trace Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, Howard; Havelund, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we describe TRACECONTRACT, an API for trace analysis, implemented in the SCALA programming language. We argue that for certain forms of trace analysis the best weapon is a high level programming language augmented with constructs for temporal reasoning. A trace is a sequence of events, which may for example be generated by a running program, instrumented appropriately to generate events. The API supports writing properties in a notation that combines an advanced form of data parameterized state machines with temporal logic. The implementation utilizes SCALA's support for defining internal Domain Specific Languages (DSLs). Furthermore SCALA's combination of object oriented and functional programming features, including partial functions and pattern matching, makes it an ideal host language for such an API.

  7. Determination of Trace Elements in Thai Cereal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permnamtip, Vorapot; Busamongkol, Arporn; Laoharojanaphand, Sirinart; Chaiyasith, Suwan

    2007-08-01

    Full text: Trace elements were analyzed in Thai cereal, e.g. rice and bean, by using neutron activation analysis (NAA). The selected cereals are major food items for Thai population. The data obtained from this work will be useful for nutrition and safety consumption of Thai cereal. Trace elements verified include Al, As, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Cr, Cu, Fe, I, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Se, Sn, V and Zn. It was found that Al, As, Br, Cl, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Ca, K and Mg are presented in the range of 2.2 to 35.7, 0.15 to 0.21, 0.44 to 13.5, 55.6 to 640.3, 16.3 to 16.5, 158.9 to 161.1, 12.2 to 55.7, 8.2 to 58.1 (g/g (ppm) , 0.02 to 0.28, 0.09 to 1.99 and 0.03 to 0.26 %, respectively. For Cd, Cr, I, Mo, Se, Sn and V were not found in sample because the concentrations were lower than detection limit. Precision and accuracy were determined by analyzing standard reference materials: NIST 1568a, NIST 8704, ACSP DORM-1, NIES No.9 and NMIJ 7302 to a

  8. VBE reference framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afsarmanesh, H.; Camarinha-Matos, L.M.; Ermilova, E.; Camarinha-Matos, L.M.; Afsarmanesh, H.; Ollus, M.

    2008-01-01

    Defining a comprehensive and generic "reference framework" for Virtual organizations Breeding Environments (VBEs), addressing all their features and characteristics, is challenging. While the definition and modeling of VBEs has become more formalized during the last five years, "reference models"

  9. CMS Statistics Reference Booklet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The annual CMS Statistics reference booklet provides a quick reference for summary information about health expenditures and the Medicare and Medicaid health...

  10. Measurement of Selected Organic Trace Gases During TRACE-P

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlas, Elliot

    2004-01-01

    Major goals of the TRACE-P mission were: 1) to investigate the chemical composition of radiatively important gases, aerosols, and their precursors in the Asian outflow over the western Pacific, and 2) to describe and understand the chemical evolution of the Asian outflow as it is transported and mixed into the global troposphere. The research performed as part of this proposal addressed these major goals with a study of the organic chemical composition of gases in the TRACE-P region. This work was a close collaboration with the Blake/Rowland research group at UC-Irvine, and they have provided a separate report for their funded effort.

  11. Toxic trace elements in Chilean seafoods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Gregori, I.; Delgado, D.; Pinochet, H.; Gras, N.; Thieck, M.; Munoz, L.; Bruhn, C.; Navarrete, G.

    1992-01-01

    Chile is a well known producer and exporter of shell fish. These seafoods, like other specimens of marine origin, are susceptible to environmental and other contaminations like trace elements, including toxicants. Therefore adequate analytical quality assurance is mandatory before accepting analytical results. In this context, use of at least 2 independent methods of determination and validation with certified reference materials (CRM) provides acceptable criteria for judging the reliability of the data. This paper describes sample treatments and analytical procedures for Cd, Cu and Hg determinations in mollusc samples. Three independent analytical techniques, namely differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry, neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry, were used. CRM standards of the IAEA, NIST and BCR were analyzed to evaluate quality assurance. Following the quality control phase, the concentrations of cadmium, copper, and mercury in fresh and canned mollusc samples Tagelus dombeii and Semelle solida (Navajuelas and Almejas chilenas respectively) from different locations were determined. (author). 32 refs.; 4 figs.; 7 tabs

  12. A Theory of Network Tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Hrishikesh B.; Gouda, Mohamed G.

    Traceroute is a widely used program for computing the topology of any network in the Internet. Using Traceroute, one starts from a node and chooses any other node in the network. Traceroute obtains the sequence of nodes that occur between these two nodes, as specified by the routing tables in these nodes. Each use of Traceroute in a network produces a trace of nodes that constitute a simple path in this network. In every trace that is produced by Traceroute, each node occurs either by its unique identifier, or by the anonymous identifier"*". In this paper, we introduce the first theory aimed at answering the following important question. Is there an algorithm to compute the topology of a network N from a trace set T that is produced by using Traceroute in network N, assuming that each edge in N occurs in at least one trace in T, and that each node in N occurs by its unique identifier in at least one trace in T? We prove that the answer to this question is "No" if N is an even ring or a general network. However, it is "Yes" if N is a tree or an odd ring. The answer is also "No" if N is mostly-regular, but "Yes" if N is a mostly-regular even ring.

  13. Changing quantum reference frames

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, Matthew C.; Girelli, Florian; Bartlett, Stephen D.

    2013-01-01

    We consider the process of changing reference frames in the case where the reference frames are quantum systems. We find that, as part of this process, decoherence is necessarily induced on any quantum system described relative to these frames. We explore this process with examples involving reference frames for phase and orientation. Quantifying the effect of changing quantum reference frames serves as a first step in developing a relativity principle for theories in which all objects includ...

  14. Optimum off-line trace synchronization of computer clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabbarifar, Masoume; Dagenais, Michel; Roy, Robert; Sendi, Alireza Shameli

    2012-01-01

    A tracing and monitoring framework produces detailed execution trace files for a system. Each trace file contains events with associated timestamps based on the local clock of their respective system, which are not perfectly synchronized. To monitor all behavior in multi-core distributed systems, a global time reference is required, thus the need for traces synchronization techniques. The synchronization is time consuming when there is a cluster of many computers. In this paper we propose an optimized technique to reduce the total synchronization time. Compared with related techniques that have been used on kernel level traces, this method improves the performance while maintaining a high accuracy. It uses the packet rate and the hop count as two major criteria to focus the computation on more accurate network links during synchronization. These criteria, tested in real-word experiments, were identified as most important features of a network. Furthermore, we present numerical and analytical evaluation results, and compare these with previous methods demonstrating the accuracy and the performance of the method.

  15. [Trace elements of bone tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalashnikov, V M; Zaĭchik, V E; Bizer, V A

    1983-01-01

    Due to activation analysis involving the use of neutrons from a nuclear reactor, the concentrations of 11 trace elements: scandium, iron, cobalt, mercury, rubidium, selenium, silver, antimony, chrome, zinc and terbium in intact bone and skeletal tumors were measured. 76 specimens of bioptates and resected material of operations for bone tumors and 10 specimens of normal bone tissue obtained in autopsies of cases of sudden death were examined. The concentrations of trace elements and their dispersion patterns in tumor tissue were found to be significantly higher than those in normal bone tissue. Also, the concentrations of some trace elements in tumor differed significantly from those in normal tissue; moreover, they were found to depend on the type and histogenesis of the neoplasm.

  16. Trace elements in human milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parr, R M [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Div. of Life Sciences

    1983-06-01

    Trace elements are those elements having a concentration lower than 10 ppm in body fluids or tissues. A total of 24 elements, both trace and minor elements, present in human milk have been analysed in this study, employing neutron activation analysis and absorption spectroscopy. The analyses have been carried out collaboratively by several different laboratories and the Agency which has also served as a coordinating centre. Although the evaluation of the results, altogether 8500 separate values, is still in progress, enough evidence is already available, however, to show some very interesting differences between different study areas and, in some cases, between different socio-economic groups within a single country. The main value of these data will probably be to throw new light on the nutritional requirements of young babies for trace elements.

  17. Analytical solution to the problem of heat transfer in an MHD flow inside a channel with prescribed sinusoidal wall heat flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zniber, K.; Oubarra, A.; Lahjomri, J.

    2005-01-01

    An MHD laminar flow through a two dimensional channel subjected to a uniform magnetic field and heated at the walls of the conduit over the whole length with a sinusoidal heat flux of vanishing mean value or not, is studied analytically. General expressions of the temperature distribution and of the local and mean Nusselt numbers are obtained by using the technique of linear operators in the case of negligible Joule and viscous dissipation and by taking into account the axial conduction effect. The principal results show that an increase of the local Nusselt number with Hartmann number is observed, and, far from the inlet section, the average heat transfer between the fluid and the walls shows a significant improvement at all values of Hartmann number used when the frequency of the prescribed sinusoidal wall heat flux is increasing in the case of vanishing mean value of the heat flux and this is true especially at low Peclet numbers

  18. Analytical quality control service programme, intercomparison runs, certified reference materials, reference materials 1987-88

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    The purpose of the Analytical Quality Control Services (AQCS) programme provided by the IAEA, is to assist laboratories engaged in the analysis of nuclear, environmental, biological, and materials of marine origin for radionuclide, major, minor and trace elements, as well as stable isotopes using atomic and nuclear analytical techniques, to check the quality of their work. The tables give details of the intercomparison samples and reference materials distributed by the IAEA in the period 1987 to 1988. 2 tabs

  19. Corrigendum to "Sinusoidal potential cycling operation of a direct ethanol fuel cell to improving carbon dioxide yields" [J. Power Sources 268 (5 December 2014) 439-442

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, Pasha; Pickup, Peter G.

    2016-09-01

    The authors regret that Equation (5) is incorrect and has resulted in errors in Fig. 4 and the efficiencies stated on p. 442. The corrected equation, figure and text are presented below. In addition, the title should be 'Sinusoidal potential cycling operation of a direct ethanol fuel cell to improve carbon dioxide yields', and the reversible cell potential quoted on p. 441 should be 1.14 V. The authors would like to apologise for any inconvenience caused.

  20. Upregulation of miR21 and repression of Grhl3 by leptin mediates sinusoidal endothelial injury in experimental nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Pourhoseini

    Full Text Available Sinusoidal endothelial dysfunction (SED has been found to be an early event in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH progression but the molecular mechanisms underlying its causation remains elusive. We hypothesized that adipokine leptin worsens sinusoidal injury by decreasing functionally active nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3 via miR21. Using rodent models of NASH, and transgenic mice lacking leptin and leptin receptor, results showed that hyperleptinemia caused a 4-5 fold upregulation of hepatic miR21 as assessed by qRTPCR. The upregulation of miR21 led to a time-dependent repression of its target protein Grhl3 levels as shown by western blot analyses. NOS3-p/NOS3 ratio which is controlled by Grhl3 was significantly decreased in NASH models. SED markers ICAM-1, VEGFR-2, and E-selectin as assessed by immunofluorescence microscopy were significantly up regulated in the progressive phases of NASH. Lack of leptin or its receptor in vivo, reversed the upregulation of miR21 and restored the levels of Grhl3 and NOS3-p/NOS3 ratio coupled with decreased SED dysfunction markers. Interestingly, leptin supplementation in mice lacking leptin, significantly enhanced miR21 levels, decreased Grhl3 repression and NOS3 phosphorylation. Leptin supplementation in isolated primary endothelial cells, Kupffer cells and stellate cells showed increased mir21 expression in stellate cells while sinusoidal injury was significantly higher in all cell types. Finally miR21 KO mice showed increased NOS3-p/NOS3 ratio and reversed SED markers in the rodent models of NASH. The experimental results described here show a close association of leptin-induced miR21 in aiding sinusoidal injury in NASH.

  1. Cytotoxicity of pyrrolizidine alkaloid in human hepatic parenchymal and sinusoidal endothelial cells: Firm evidence for the reactive metabolites mediated pyrrolizidine alkaloid-induced hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mengbi; Ruan, Jianqing; Fu, Peter P; Lin, Ge

    2016-01-05

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) widely distribute in plants and can cause hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (HSOS), which typically presents as a primary sinusoidal endothelial cell damage. It is well-recognized that after ingestion, PAs undergo hepatic cytochromes P450 (CYPs)-mediated metabolic activation to generate dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids (DHPAs), which are hydrolyzed to dehydroretronecine (DHR). DHPAs and DHR are reactive metabolites having same core pyrrole moiety, and can bind proteins to form pyrrole-protein adducts, which are believed as the primary cause for PA-induced HSOS. However, to date, the direct evidences supporting the toxicity of DHPAs and DHR in the liver, in particular in the sinusoidal endothelial cells, are lacking. Using human hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells (HSEC) and HepG2 (representing hepatic parenchymal cells), cells that lack CYPs activity, this study determined the direct cytotoxicity of dehydromonocrotaline, a representative DHPA, and DHR, but no cytotoxicity of the intact PA (monocrotaline) in both cell lines, confirming that reactive metabolites mediate PA intoxication. Comparing with HepG2, HSEC had significantly lower basal glutathione (GSH) level, and was significantly more susceptible to the reactive metabolites with severer GSH depletion and pyrrole-protein adducts formation. The toxic potency of two reactive metabolites was also compared. DHPA was more reactive than DHR, leading to severer toxicity. In conclusion, our results unambiguously provided the first direct evidence for the critical role of DHPA and DHR in the reactive metabolites-mediated PA-induced hepatotoxicity, which occurs predominantly in HSEC due to severe GSH depletion and the significant formation of pyrrole-protein adducts in HSEC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Scattering of atoms by a stationary sinusoidal hard wall: Rigorous treatment in (n+1) dimensions and comparison with the Rayleigh method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, F.O.

    1977-01-01

    A rigorous treatment of the scattering of atoms by a stationary sinusoidal hard wall in (n+1) dimensions is presented, a previous treatment by Masel, Merrill, and Miller for n=1 being contained as a special case. Numerical comparisons are made with the GR method of Garcia, which incorporates the Rayleigh hypothesis. Advantages and disadvantages of both methods are discussed, and it is concluded that the Rayleigh GR method, if handled properly, will probably work satisfactorily in physically realistic cases

  3. Manual tracing versus smartphone application (app) tracing: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayar, Gülşilay; Kilinc, Delal Dara

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to compare the results of conventional manual cephalometric tracing with those acquired with smartphone application cephalometric tracing. The cephalometric radiographs of 55 patients (25 females and 30 males) were traced via the manual and app methods and were subsequently examined with Steiner's analysis. Five skeletal measurements, five dental measurements and two soft tissue measurements were managed based on 21 landmarks. The durations of the performances of the two methods were also compared. SNA (Sella, Nasion, A point angle) and SNB (Sella, Nasion, B point angle) values for the manual method were statistically lower (p < .001) than those for the app method. The ANB value for the manual method was statistically lower than that of app method. L1-NB (°) and upper lip protrusion values for the manual method were statistically higher than those for the app method. Go-GN/SN, U1-NA (°) and U1-NA (mm) values for manual method were statistically lower than those for the app method. No differences between the two methods were found in the L1-NB (mm), occlusal plane to SN, interincisal angle or lower lip protrusion values. Although statistically significant differences were found between the two methods, the cephalometric tracing proceeded faster with the app method than with the manual method.

  4. Tracing a planar algebraic curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Falai; Kozak, J.

    1994-09-01

    In this paper, an algorithm that determines a real algebraic curve is outlined. Its basic step is to divide the plane into subdomains that include only simple branches of the algebraic curve without singular points. Each of the branches is then stably and efficiently traced in the particular subdomain. Except for the tracing, the algorithm requires only a couple of simple operations on polynomials that can be carried out exactly if the coefficients are rational, and the determination of zeros of several polynomials of one variable. (author). 5 refs, 4 figs

  5. The Influence of Chordwise Flexibility on the Flow Structure and Streamwise Force of a Sinusoidally Pitching Airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, David Arthur

    Many natural flyers and swimmers need to exploit unsteady mechanisms in order to generate sufficient aerodynamic forces for sustained flight and propulsion. This is, in part, due to the low speed and length scales at which they typically operate. In this low Reynolds number regime, there are many unanswered questions on how existing aerodynamic theory for both steady and unsteady flows can be applied. Additionally, most of these natural flyers and swimmers have deformable wing/fin structures, three dimensional wing planforms, and exhibit complex kinematics during motion. While some biologically-inspired studies seek to replicate these complex structures and kinematics in the laboratory or in numerical simulations, it becomes difficult to draw explicit connections to the existing knowledge base of classical unsteady aerodynamic theory due to the complexity of the problems. In this experimental study, wing kinematics, structure, and planform are greatly simplified to investigate the effect of chordwise flexibility on the streamwise force (thrust) and wake behavior of a sinusoidally pitching airfoil. The study of flexibility in the literature has typically utilized flat plates with varying thicknesses or lengths to change their chordwise flexibility. This choice introduces additional complexities when comparing to the wealth of knowledge originally developed on streamlined aerodynamic shapes. The current study capitalizes on the recent developments in 3D printer technology to create accurate shapes out of materials with varying degrees of flexibility by creating two standard NACA 0009 airfoils: one rigid and one flexible. Each of the two airfoils are sinusoidally pitched about the quarter chord over a range of oscillation amplitudes and frequencies while monitoring the deformation of the airfoil. The oscillation amplitude is selected to be small enough such that leading edge vortices do not form, and the vortical structures in the wake are formed from the trailing

  6. Trace element impurity determination in aspirin tablets by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyoshi, E.K.; Saiki, M.

    2009-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was applied to assess trace element concentrations in six samples of aspirin tablets acquired in Sao Paulo city, Brazil. Concentrations of the elements Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, K, La, Na, Sc and Zn were determined. Comparisons were made between the results obtained with published data for aspirins from foreign countries. Certified reference materials, INCT-MPH-2 Mixed Polish Herbs were analyzed for quality control of the analytical results. (author)

  7. Analytical techniques and quality control in biomedical trace element research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, K.

    1994-01-01

    The small number of analytical results in trace element research calls for special methods of quality control. It is shown that when the analytical methods are in statistical control, only small numbers of duplicate or replicate results are needed to ascertain the absence of systematic errors....../kg. Measurement compatibility is obtained by control of traceability to certified reference materials, (C) 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc....

  8. Further characterization of cadmium uptake by rat liver sinusoidal plasma membrane vesicles as a carrier mediated process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eastman, H.B.; Frazier, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Previously we have reported that cadmium (Cd) transport by rat hepatic sinusoidal plasma membrane vesicles (SPMV's) occurs by both carrier mediated process and simple diffusion. This study was undertaken in order to further characterize the carrier mediated component of Cd transport as a carrier mediated process. Efflux of Cd from SPMV's was measured by first loading the vesicles with 1 μM Cd, containing 109 Cd (Amersham, 0.25 mCi/ml, carrier free) as a tracer, and then diluting the vesicles 1 to 5 into efflux buffer containing 0.25 M sucrose, 150 mM NaCl and 50 mM Tris/HCl (pH 7.4). Under standard conditions, no efflux of Cd from the vesicles was observed. However, the presence of 4mM CdCl 2 or 4.0% BSA in the efflux buffer was able to release 109 Cd from the vesicles. When the vesicles were lysed with 0.1% Triton X-100, approximately 75% of the internalized Cd could be released from the vesicles. Efflux of Cd from the vesicles was also determined to be a temperature dependent process. At 0 C the efflux of Cd from the vesicles, in the presence of a 4 mM CdCl 2 or 4.0% BSA chase, was blocked. The specificity of the carrier mediated component of Cd transport for Cd was investigated by determining whether other metals could compete for Cd uptake. Zinc was a competitive inhibitor of the carrier mediated component of Cd uptake while calcium had no effect on Cd uptake. Using this system, we have demonstrated that one component of Cd transport exhibits the basic characteristics of a carrier mediated process: saturation, reversibility, specificity and temperature dependence

  9. New ways of looking at very small holes - using optical nanoscopy to visualize liver sinusoidal endothelial cell fenestrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øie, Cristina I.; Mönkemöller, Viola; Hübner, Wolfgang; Schüttpelz, Mark; Mao, Hong; Ahluwalia, Balpreet S.; Huser, Thomas R.; McCourt, Peter

    2018-02-01

    Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy, also known as nanoscopy, has provided us with a glimpse of future impacts on cell biology. Far-field optical nanoscopy allows, for the first time, the study of sub-cellular nanoscale biological structures in living cells, which in the past was limited to electron microscopy (EM) (in fixed/dehydrated) cells or tissues. Nanoscopy has particular utility in the study of "fenestrations" - phospholipid transmembrane nanopores of 50-150 nm in diameter through liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) that facilitate the passage of plasma, but (usually) not blood cells, to and from the surrounding hepatocytes. Previously, these fenestrations were only discernible with EM, but now they can be visualized in fixed and living cells using structured illumination microscopy (SIM) and in fixed cells using single molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) techniques such as direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy. Importantly, both methods use wet samples, avoiding dehydration artifacts. The use of nanoscopy can be extended to the in vitro study of fenestration dynamics, to address questions such as the following: are they actually dynamic structures, and how do they respond to endogenous and exogenous agents? A logical further extension of these methodologies to liver research (including the liver endothelium) will be their application to liver tissue sections from animal models with different pathological manifestations and ultimately to patient biopsies. This review will cover the current state of the art of the use of nanoscopy in the study of liver endothelium and the liver in general. Potential future applications in cell biology and the clinical implications will be discussed.

  10. Production of factor VIII by human liver sinusoidal endothelial cells transplanted in immunodeficient uPA mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina E Fomin

    Full Text Available Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs form a semi-permeable barrier between parenchymal hepatocytes and the blood. LSECs participate in liver metabolism, clearance of pathological agents, immunological responses, architectural maintenance of the liver and synthesis of growth factors and cytokines. LSECs also play an important role in coagulation through the synthesis of Factor VIII (FVIII. Herein, we phenotypically define human LSECs isolated from fetal liver using flow cytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy. Isolated LSECs were cultured and shown to express endothelial markers and markers specific for the LSEC lineage. LSECs were also shown to engraft the liver when human fetal liver cells were transplanted into immunodeficient mice with liver specific expression of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA transgene (uPA-NOG mice. Engrafted cells expressed human Factor VIII at levels approaching those found in human plasma. We also demonstrate engraftment of adult LSECs, as well as hepatocytes, transplanted into uPA-NOG mice. We propose that overexpression of uPA provides beneficial conditions for LSEC engraftment due to elevated expression of the angiogenic cytokine, vascular endothelial growth factor. This work provides a detailed characterization of human midgestation LSECs, thereby providing the means for their purification and culture based on their expression of CD14 and CD32 as well as a lack of CD45 expression. The uPA-NOG mouse is shown to be a permissive host for human LSECs and adult hepatocytes, but not fetal hepatoblasts. Thus, these mice provide a useful model system to study these cell types in vivo. Demonstration of human FVIII production by transplanted LSECs encourages further pursuit of LSEC transplantation as a cellular therapy for the treatment of hemophilia A.

  11. Variations in DNA synthesis and mitotic indices in hepatocytes and sinusoid litoral cells of adult intact male mouse along a circadian time span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surur, J M; Moreno, F R; Badrán, A F; Llanos, J M

    1985-01-01

    Variations of DNA synthesis (DNAS) and mitotic indices along a circadian time span are described in the hepatocyte and sinusoid litoral cell populations of adult intact male mouse liver. Standardized (light from 0600 to 1800) mice were killed in groups of six to nine animals, every 2-4 hr along a circadian time span. Hepatocytes show significant peaks in the synthesis of DNA and the mitotic activity at 0200 and 1400, respectively. These results correspond to those previously described by us in young immature liver, regenerating liver and hepatomas. The phase differences between these peaks and the differences between their absolute values are discussed. Also considered are the practical consequences of our findings for experimental design. The curve of DNA synthesis of sinusoid litoral cells show a peak at 0200. The mitotic index show a bimodal waveform with peaks at 0800 and 2000. The existence of four different cell populations composing the so called sinusoid litoral cells and also the migration into and out of the liver of some macrophages considered as litoral (Kupffer) cells in our counts, makes interpretation of the curves somewhat complicated and deserves further analysis.

  12. Trace elements in brazilian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, Geraldo Cesar

    1995-01-01

    A literature revision on trace elements (Zn, B, Mn, Mo, Cu, Fe, and Cl) in Brazilian soils was prepared, with special attention to the chemical form and range in the soil, extraction methods and correlation of the amount in soils with soil properties

  13. Digital Traces of Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedman, Jonas; Srinivasan, Nikhil; Lindgren, Rikard

    2013-01-01

    . This disconcerting result suggests that IS researchers must pay more attention to the changing landscape of data sources. To motivate and guide fellow colleagues to establish the credibility and reliability of digital traces, we develop a future research agenda that covers both opportunities in theory generation...

  14. Reference materials for micro-analytical nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkovic, V.; Zeisler, R.; Bernasconi, G.; Danesi, P.R.

    1994-01-01

    Direct application of many existing reference materials in micro-analytical procedures such as energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), particle induced x-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE) and ion probe techniques for the determination of trace elements is often impossible or difficult because: 1) other constituents present in large amounts interfere with the determination; 2) trace components are not sufficiently homogeneously distributed in the sample. Therefore specific natural-matrix reference materials containing very low levels of trace elements and having high degree of homogeneity are required for many micro-analytical procedures. In this report, selection of the types of environmental and biological materials which are suitable for micro-analytical techniques will be discussed. (author)

  15. Reference samples for the earth sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, F.J.

    1974-01-01

    A revised list of reference samples of interest to geoscientists has been extended to include samples for the agronomist, the archaeologist and the environmentalist. In addition to the source from which standard samples may be obtained, references or pertinent notes for some samples are included. The number of rock reference samples is now almost adequate, and the variety of ore samples will soon be sufficient. There are very few samples for microprobe work. Oil shales will become more important because of the outlook for world petroleum resources. The dryland equivalent of a submarine basalt might be useful in studies of sea-floor spreading and of the geochemistry of basalts. The Na- and K-feldspars of BCS (British Chemical Standards-Bureau of Analysed Samples), NBS (National Bureau of Standards), and ANRT (Association Kationale de la Recherche Technique) could serve as trace-element standards if such data were available. Similarly, the present NBS flint and plastic clays, as well as their predecessors, might be useful for archaeological pottery studies. The International Decade for Ocean Exploration may stimulate the preparation of ocean-water standards for trace elements or pollutants and a standard for manganese nodules. ?? 1974.

  16. Indoor air: Reference bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D.; Staves, D.; McDonald, S.

    1989-07-01

    The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency initially established the indoor air Reference Bibliography in 1987 as an appendix to the Indoor Air Quality Implementation Plan. The document was submitted to Congress as required under Title IV--Radon Gas and Indoor Air Quality Research of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. The Reference Bibliography is an extensive bibliography of reference materials on indoor air pollution. The Bibliography contains over 4500 citations and continues to increase as new articles appear

  17. Android quick APIs reference

    CERN Document Server

    Cinar, Onur

    2015-01-01

    The Android Quick APIs Reference is a condensed code and APIs reference for the new Google Android 5.0 SDK. It presents the essential Android APIs in a well-organized format that can be used as a handy reference. You won't find any technical jargon, bloated samples, drawn out history lessons, or witty stories in this book. What you will find is a software development kit and APIs reference that is concise, to the point and highly accessible. The book is packed with useful information and is a must-have for any mobile or Android app developer or programmer. In the Android Quick APIs Refe

  18. Catalogue of reference materials of interest to nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-12-01

    A provisional list of available chemical, isotopic and trace elements reference materials of interest to nuclear energy has been established. Emphasis has been given to the substances containing uranium and plutonium. Certified values, sample sizes, prices and addresses of suppliers are indicated

  19. AQCS 1990. Intercomparison runs, reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the Analytical Quality Control Services (AQCS) programme provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency (Agency) is to assist laboratories engaged in the analysis of nuclear, environmental, biological, and materials of marine origin for radionuclide, major, minor and trace elements, as well as stable isotopes using atomic and nuclear analytical techniques, to check the quality of their work. Such a control is necessary since results of analytical activities may be the basis upon which economic, administrative, medical or legal decisions are taken; they must, therefore, be documented to be sufficiently reliable. The Agency has instituted the AQCS-programme which for 1990 will involve distributing samples for Intercomparison Runs and Reference Materials in a way similar to that of previous years. The Agency's Analytical Quality Control Services (AQCS) programme provides mainly three types of materials: materials which can be used in analytical laboratories working in the fields of nuclear technology and isotope hydrology. These include uranium ore Reference Materials and other substances of interest for nuclear fuel technology as well as stable isotope Reference Materials for mass spectrometric determination of isotope ratios in natural waters; materials with known content of uranium, thorium and/or transuranium elements or fission products for the determination of environmental radioactivity or control of nuclear safety; materials for use in the determination of stable trace elements in environmental, biomedical and marine research. Radiochemical methods such as neutron activation or isotope dilution analysis are often used in the determination of such trace elements and constitute an important contribution of nuclear techniques to applied science. Tabs

  20. AQCS intercomparison runs, reference materials 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the Analytical Quality Control Services programme provided by the IAEA is to assist laboratories engaged in the analysis of nuclear, environmental, biological, and materials of marine origin for radionuclide, major, minor and trace elements, as well as stable isotopes using atomic and nuclear analytical techniques, to check the quality of their work. The determination of accuracy requires special procedures such as analysis to be carried out by as many different and independent methods, analysts and techniques as possible, control analysis with reference materials and participation in interlaboratory comparison studies. This document gives details of the specimens and samples which the IAEA intends to distribute in 1991. Tabs

  1. Massively parallel algorithms for trace-driven cache simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, David M.; Greenberg, Albert G.; Lubachevsky, Boris D.

    1991-01-01

    Trace driven cache simulation is central to computer design. A trace is a very long sequence of reference lines from main memory. At the t(exp th) instant, reference x sub t is hashed into a set of cache locations, the contents of which are then compared with x sub t. If at the t sup th instant x sub t is not present in the cache, then it is said to be a miss, and is loaded into the cache set, possibly forcing the replacement of some other memory line, and making x sub t present for the (t+1) sup st instant. The problem of parallel simulation of a subtrace of N references directed to a C line cache set is considered, with the aim of determining which references are misses and related statistics. A simulation method is presented for the Least Recently Used (LRU) policy, which regradless of the set size C runs in time O(log N) using N processors on the exclusive read, exclusive write (EREW) parallel model. A simpler LRU simulation algorithm is given that runs in O(C log N) time using N/log N processors. Timings are presented of the second algorithm's implementation on the MasPar MP-1, a machine with 16384 processors. A broad class of reference based line replacement policies are considered, which includes LRU as well as the Least Frequently Used and Random replacement policies. A simulation method is presented for any such policy that on any trace of length N directed to a C line set runs in the O(C log N) time with high probability using N processors on the EREW model. The algorithms are simple, have very little space overhead, and are well suited for SIMD implementation.

  2. Hepatic sinusoid is not well-stirred: estimation of the degree of axial mixing by analysis of lobular concentration gradients formed during uptake of thyroxine by the perfused rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisiger, R.A.; Mendel, C.M.; Cavalieri, R.R.

    1986-01-01

    Two general models have been proposed for predicting the effects of metabolism, protein binding, and plasma flow on the removal of drugs by the liver. These models differ in the degree of plasma mixing assumed to exist within each hepatic sinusoid. The venous equilibrium model treats the sinusoid as a single well-stirred compartment, whereas the sinusoidal model effectively breaks up the sinusoid into a large number of sequentially perfused compartments which do not exchange their contents except through plasma flow. As a consequence, the sinusoidal model, but not the venous equilibrium model, predicts that the concentration of highly extracted drugs will decline as the plasma flows through the hepatic lobule. To determine which of these alternative models best describes the hepatic uptake process, we looked for evidence that concentration gradients are formed during the uptake of [ 125 I]thyroxine by the perfused rat liver. Autoradiography of tissue slices after perfusion of the portal vein at physiologic flow rates with protein-free buffer containing [ 125 I]thyroxine demonstrated a rapid exponential fall in grain density with distance from the portal venule, declining by half for each 8% of the mean length of the sinusoid. Reversing the direction of perfusate flow reversed the direction of the autoradiographic gradients, indicating that they primarily reflect differences in the concentration of thyroxine within the hepatic sinusoids rather than differences in the uptake capacity of portal and central hepatocytes. Analysis of the data using models in which each sinusoid was represented by different numbers of sequentially perfused compartments (1-20) indicated that at least eight compartments were necessary to account for the magnitude of the gradients seen

  3. Defibrotide for Patients with Hepatic Veno-Occlusive Disease/Sinusoidal Obstruction Syndrome: Interim Results from a Treatment IND Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Paul G; Smith, Angela R; Triplett, Brandon M; Kernan, Nancy A; Grupp, Stephan A; Antin, Joseph H; Lehmann, Leslie; Shore, Tsiporah; Iacobelli, Massimo; Miloslavsky, Maja; Hume, Robin; Hannah, Alison L; Nejadnik, Bijan; Soiffer, Robert J

    2017-06-01

    Hepatic veno-occlusive disease, or sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (VOD/SOS), is a serious and potentially fatal complication of conditioning for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) or of chemotherapy regimens alone. Defibrotide is a complex mixture of single-stranded polydeoxyribonucleotides that is approved in the United States for treating hepatic VOD/SOS with renal or pulmonary dysfunction post-HSCT and in the European Union, Israel, and South Korea for treating severe hepatic VOD/SOS post-HSCT. Defibrotide was previously available in the United States as an investigational drug through a treatment protocol (treatment IND) study. Interim results of that large, treatment IND study of patients with VOD/SOS and with or without multiorgan dysfunction (MOD; also known as multiorgan failure) are presented here. Defibrotide was administered i.v. at 6.25 mg/kg every 6 hours (25 mg/kg/day), with a recommended treatment duration of at least 21 days. Enrolled patients (n = 681) were diagnosed with VOD/SOS based on Baltimore or modified Seattle criteria or liver biopsy analysis. Among the 573 HSCT recipients, 288 (50.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 46.2% to 54.4%) were alive at day +100 post-HSCT. Day +100 survival for the pediatric (≤16 years) and adult (>16 years) subgroups was 54.5% (95% CI, 49.1% to 60.0%; n = 174 of 319) and 44.9% (95% CI, 38.8% to 51.0%; n = 114 of 254), respectively. In the MOD subgroup, 159 of 351 patients (45.3%; 95% CI, 40.1% to 50.5%) of patients were alive at day +100 post-HSCT. Treatment with defibrotide was generally well tolerated, and drug-related toxicities were consistent with previous studies. Adverse events were reported in 69.6% of safety-evaluable patients (399 of 573). Other than VOD/SOS and associated MOD symptoms, the most commonly reported treatment-emergent adverse event was hypotension (13.8%). Day +100 survival results observed in this trial were consistent with results seen in previous trials of

  4. Blood pyrrole-protein adducts as a diagnostic and prognostic index in pyrrolizidine alkaloid-hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hong; Ruan, Jianqing Q; Chen, Jie; Li, Na; Ke, Changqiang Q; Ye, Yang; Lin, Ge; Wang, Jiyao Y

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (HSOS) induced by pyrrolizidine alkaloids is mainly based on clinical investigation. There is currently no prognostic index. This study evaluated the quantitative measurement of blood pyrrole-protein adducts (PPAs) as a diagnostic and prognostic index for pyrrolizidine alkaloid-induced HSOS. Suspected drug-induced liver injury patients were prospectively recruited. Blood PPAs were quantitatively measured using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Patients' age, sex, biochemistry test results, and a detailed drug history were recorded. The patients were divided into two groups, ie, those with HSOS induced by pyrrolizidine alkaloid-containing drugs and those with liver injury induced by drugs without pyrrolizidine alkaloids. The relationship between herb administration, clinical outcomes, blood sampling time, and blood PPA concentration in pyrrolizidine alkaloid-associated HSOS patients was analyzed using multiple linear regression analysis. Forty patients met the entry criteria, among whom 23 had pyrrolizidine alkaloid-associated HSOS and 17 had liver injury caused by drugs without pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Among the 23 patients with pyrrolizidine alkaloid-associated HSOS, ten recovered, four developed chronic disease, eight died, and one underwent liver transplantation within 6 months after onset. Blood PPAs were detectable in 24 of 40 patients with concentrations from 0.05 to 74.4 nM. Sensitivity and specificity of the test for diagnosis of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-associated HSOS were 100% (23/23) and 94.1% (23/24), respectively. The positive predictive value was 95.8% and the negative predictive value was 100%, whereas the positive likelihood ratio was 23.81. The level of blood PPAs in the severe group (died or received liver transplantation) was significantly higher than that in the recovery/chronicity group (P=0.004). Blood PPAs measured by ultra-performance liquid

  5. Marketing Reference Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, O. Gene

    1995-01-01

    Relates the marketing concept to library reference services. Highlights include a review of the literature and an overview of marketing, including research, the marketing mix, strategic plan, marketing plan, and marketing audit. Marketing principles are applied to reference services through the marketing mix elements of product, price, place, and…

  6. Reference class forecasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    optimisme og misinformation. RCF bygger på teorier, som vandt Daniel Kahneman Nobelprisen i økonomi i 2002. RCF estimerer budgettet for et givet projekt på grundlag af de faktiske udfald for budgetterne i en reference-klasse af projekter. RCF udføres i tre trin: 1. Identifikation af en relevant reference...

  7. Report on intercomparison A-13 of the determination of trace elements in freeze dried animal blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pszonicki, L.; Hanna, A.N.; Suschny, O.

    1983-03-01

    This document deals with the comparative evaluation of the analytical data on the trace elements in beef blood obtained by 38 laboratories in 23 countries. The evaluations were based on 799 laboratory mean values of concentration of 41 elements. It was one of the series of IAEA intercomparisons on the determination of trace elements in animal materials. It was organized for the purpose of assisting the participating laboratories to check the accuracy of their work and to prepare a new reference material

  8. Trace Metals Bioaccumulation Potentials of Three Indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    grasses as bioaccumulators of trace metals from polluted soils. Seeds of ... transfer factor (TF) showed that Zn was the most bioaccumulated trace metals by all the grasses followed by. Pb, Mn ... was used to de-contaminate copper (Cu) and.

  9. Distributed trace using central performance counter memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterfield, David L.; Sexton, James C.

    2013-01-22

    A plurality of processing cores, are central storage unit having at least memory connected in a daisy chain manner, forming a daisy chain ring layout on an integrated chip. At least one of the plurality of processing cores places trace data on the daisy chain connection for transmitting the trace data to the central storage unit, and the central storage unit detects the trace data and stores the trace data in the memory co-located in with the central storage unit.

  10. Semiclassical structure of trace formulas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littlejohn, R.G.

    1990-01-01

    Trace formulas provide the only general relations known connecting quantum mechanics with classical mechanics in the case that the classical motion is chaotic. In particular, they connect quantal objects such as the density of states with classical periodic orbits. In this paper, several trace formulas, including those of Gutzwiller, Balian and Bloch, Tabor, and Berry, are examined from a geometrical standpoint. New forms of the amplitude determinant in asymptotic theory are developed as tools for this examination. The meaning of caustics in these formulas is revealed in terms of intersections of Lagrangian manifolds in phase space. The periodic orbits themselves appear as caustics of an unstable kind, lying on the intersection of two Lagrangian manifolds in the appropriate phase space. New insight is obtained into the Weyl correspondence and the Wigner function, especially their caustic structures

  11. Measuring Trace Hydrocarbons in Silanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, L. A.

    1984-01-01

    Technique rapid and uses standard analytical equipment. Silane gas containing traces of hydrocarbons injected into carrier gas of moist nitrogen having about 0.2 percent water vapor. Carrier, water and silane pass through short column packed with powdered sodium hydroxide which combines moisture and silane to form nonvolatile sodium silicate. Carrier gas free of silane but containing nonreactive hydrocarbons, pass to silica-gel column where chromatographic separation takes place. Hydrocarbons measured by FID.

  12. Olfactory memory traces in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Berry, Jacob; Krause, William C.; Davis, Ronald L.

    2008-01-01

    In Drosophila the fruit fly, coincident exposure to an odor and an aversive electric shock can produce robust behavioral memory. This behavioral memory is thought to be regulated by cellular memory traces within the central nervous system of the fly. These molecular, physiological or structural changes in neurons, induced by pairing odor and shock, regulate behavior by altering the neurons’ response to the learned environment. Recently, novel in vivo functional imaging techniques have allowed...

  13. Trace element emissions from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    Trace elements are emitted during coal combustion. The quantity, in general, depends on the physical and chemical properties of the element itself, the concentration of the element in the coal, the combustion conditions and the type of particulate control device used, and its collection efficiency as a function of particle size. Some trace elements become concentrated in certain particle streams following combustion such as bottom ash, fly ash, and flue gas particulate matter, while others do not. Various classification schemes have been developed to describe this partitioning behaviour. These classification schemes generally distinguish between: Class 1: elements that are approximately equally concentrated in the fly ash and bottom ash, or show little or no fine particle enrichment, examples include Mn, Be, Co and Cr; Class 2: elements that are enriched in the fly ash relative to bottom ash, or show increasing enrichment with decreasing particle size, examples include As, Cd, Pb and Sb; Class 3: elements which are emitted in the gas phase (primarily Hg (not discussed in this review), and in some cases, Se). Control of class 1 trace elements is directly related to control of total particulate matter emissions, while control of the class 2 elements depends on collection of fine particulates. Due to the variability in particulate control device efficiencies, emission rates of these elements can vary substantially. The volatility of class 3 elements means that particulate controls have only a limited impact on the emissions of these elements.

  14. Traces et espaces de consommation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck Cochoy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available L’avènement des technologies numériques mobiles contribue à une évolution des modalités de distribution et de consommation. Le présent article porte sur l’usage des QR-codes, ces codes-barres bidimensionnels qui offrent à tout usager équipé d’un smartphone l’accès à des contenus commerciaux en ligne. Ils participent à l’Internet des objets et donc au couplage entre espace physique et univers numérique. Ils permettent aussi la collecte de traces numériques porteuses de sens pour les professionnels mais aussi pour les sciences sociales. Grâce à ces traces, on peut comprendre les nouveaux liens marchands tissés entre l’espace physique et le développement de flux informationnels continus. À partir de l’analyse des traces enregistrées à l’occasion de la visite des QR-codes apposés sur trois produits alimentaires (une boîte de sel, une barre chocolatée, une bouteille d’eau, notre enquête s’attache à expliciter les enjeux théoriques, méthodologiques et analytiques du processus de numérisation de l’espace de mobilité physique marchand.

  15. Uranium reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donivan, S.; Chessmore, R.

    1987-07-01

    The Technical Measurements Center has prepared uranium mill tailings reference materials for use by remedial action contractors and cognizant federal and state agencies. Four materials were prepared with varying concentrations of radionuclides, using three tailings materials and a river-bottom soil diluent. All materials were ground, dried, and blended thoroughly to ensure homogeneity. The analyses on which the recommended values for nuclides in the reference materials are based were performed, using independent methods, by the UNC Geotech (UNC) Chemistry Laboratory, Grand Junction, Colorado, and by C.W. Sill (Sill), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho. Several statistical tests were performed on the analytical data to characterize the reference materials. Results of these tests reveal that the four reference materials are homogeneous and that no large systematic bias exists between the analytical methods used by Sill and those used by TMC. The average values for radionuclides of the two data sets, representing an unbiased estimate, were used as the recommended values for concentrations of nuclides in the reference materials. The recommended concentrations of radionuclides in the four reference materials are provided. Use of these reference materials will aid in providing uniform standardization among measurements made by remedial action contractors. 11 refs., 9 tabs

  16. STL pocket reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lischner, Ray

    2003-01-01

    The STL Pocket Reference describes the functions, classes, and templates in that part of the C++ standard library often referred to as the Standard Template Library (STL). The STL encompasses containers, iterators, algorithms, and function objects, which collectively represent one of the most important and widely used subsets of standard library functionality. The C++ standard library, even the subset known as the STL, is vast. It's next to impossible to work with the STL without some sort of reference at your side to remind you of template parameters, function invocations, return types--ind

  17. Handbook of reference electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Inzelt, György; Scholz, Fritz

    2013-01-01

    Reference Electrodes are a crucial part of any electrochemical system, yet an up-to-date and comprehensive handbook is long overdue. Here, an experienced team of electrochemists provides an in-depth source of information and data for the proper choice and construction of reference electrodes. This includes all kinds of applications such as aqueous and non-aqueous solutions, ionic liquids, glass melts, solid electrolyte systems, and membrane electrodes. Advanced technologies such as miniaturized, conducting-polymer-based, screen-printed or disposable reference electrodes are also covered. Essen

  18. Regular Expression Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Stubblebine, Tony

    2007-01-01

    This handy little book offers programmers a complete overview of the syntax and semantics of regular expressions that are at the heart of every text-processing application. Ideal as a quick reference, Regular Expression Pocket Reference covers the regular expression APIs for Perl 5.8, Ruby (including some upcoming 1.9 features), Java, PHP, .NET and C#, Python, vi, JavaScript, and the PCRE regular expression libraries. This concise and easy-to-use reference puts a very powerful tool for manipulating text and data right at your fingertips. Composed of a mixture of symbols and text, regular exp

  19. Neptunium: a bibliographic reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosley, R.E.

    1979-06-01

    A comprehensive bibliograhy of the literature on the element neptunium published prior to January 1976 is presented. A short abstract is given for each listed reference, with a few exceptions. The references are divided into sections categorized as General, Man-Made Sources (Reactors), Man-Made Sources (Fuel Reprocessing), Chemistry (Solubility), Chemistry (Compounds), Chemistry (Isotopes), Analyses (Instrumental), Analyses (Chemical), Chemical (Animal), Biological (Effects), Biological (Animal-Metabolism-Retention), Biological (Air Movement), Biological (Human Inhalation), Measurement, and Dosimetry. The bibliography contains author and keyword indexes and was compiled to serve as a quick reference source for neptunium-related work. 184 citations

  20. CSS Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Eric

    2011-01-01

    When you're working with CSS and need a quick answer, CSS Pocket Reference delivers. This handy, concise book provides all of the essential information you need to implement CSS on the fly. Ideal for intermediate to advanced web designers and developers, the 4th edition is revised and updated for CSS3, the latest version of the Cascading Style Sheet specification. Along with a complete alphabetical reference to CSS3 selectors and properties, you'll also find a short introduction to the key concepts of CSS. Based on Cascading Style Sheets: The Definitive Guide, this reference is an easy-to-us

  1. Biomedical Engineering Desk Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Ratner, Buddy D; Schoen, Frederick J; Lemons, Jack E; Dyro, Joseph; Martinsen, Orjan G; Kyle, Richard; Preim, Bernhard; Bartz, Dirk; Grimnes, Sverre; Vallero, Daniel; Semmlow, John; Murray, W Bosseau; Perez, Reinaldo; Bankman, Isaac; Dunn, Stanley; Ikada, Yoshito; Moghe, Prabhas V; Constantinides, Alkis

    2009-01-01

    A one-stop Desk Reference, for Biomedical Engineers involved in the ever expanding and very fast moving area; this is a book that will not gather dust on the shelf. It brings together the essential professional reference content from leading international contributors in the biomedical engineering field. Material covers a broad range of topics including: Biomechanics and Biomaterials; Tissue Engineering; and Biosignal Processing* A hard-working desk reference providing all the essential material needed by biomedical and clinical engineers on a day-to-day basis * Fundamentals, key techniques,

  2. LINQ Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Albahari, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Ready to take advantage of LINQ with C# 3.0? This guide has the detail you need to grasp Microsoft's new querying technology, and concise explanations to help you learn it quickly. And once you begin to apply LINQ, the book serves as an on-the-job reference when you need immediate reminders. All the examples in the LINQ Pocket Reference are preloaded into LINQPad, the highly praised utility that lets you work with LINQ interactively. Created by the authors and free to download, LINQPad will not only help you learn LINQ, it will have you thinking in LINQ. This reference explains: LINQ's ke

  3. R quick syntax reference

    CERN Document Server

    Tollefson, Margot

    2014-01-01

    The R Quick Syntax Reference is a handy reference book detailing the intricacies of the R language. Not only is R a free, open-source tool, R is powerful, flexible, and has state of the art statistical techniques available. With the many details which must be correct when using any language, however, the R Quick Syntax Reference makes using R easier.Starting with the basic structure of R, the book takes you on a journey through the terminology used in R and the syntax required to make R work. You will find looking up the correct form for an expression quick and easy. With a copy of the R Quick

  4. The Determination Of Trace Element Levels In Diet By Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukuh, Ratnawati; Djojosubroto, Harjoto

    2002-01-01

    Trace element levels in foodstuff are normally low. Although the levels are low, certain trace elements which are called essential trace elements have an important role in metabolism process. Deficiency or intoxication of essential trace elements may lead to abnormal health. In this study the levels of Zn, Fe, AI, Mn, and Co in diet samples were determined by neutron activation analysis, and then the daily intakes of these elements were estimated. The samples were prepared by duplicate diet method, representing those that were consumed by population from West, Central and East Java. Following the collection the respective samples were blended, then were freeze dried at-54 o c. The elemental quantification were performed by neutron activation analysis. The traceability of the determination was ensured using standard reference material NIST-SRM-1548a. The results show that the daily intake for Zn were 2.8-22.8 mg/day (reference value were 5- 40 mg/day), Fe were 3.1-26.5 mg/day (reference value were 6-40 mg/day), AI were 4,2-32.9 mg/day (reference value were 2-45 mg/day), Mn were 1.0-5,6 mg/day (reference value were 0.4-10,0 mg/day), and Co were 0,005-0,074 mg/day (reference value were 0.005 -1.8 mg/day

  5. Mobilisation of toxic trace elements under various beach nourishments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pit, Iris R.; Dekker, Stefan C.; Kanters, Tobias J.; Wassen, Martin J.; Griffioen, Jasper

    2017-01-01

    To enhance protection and maintain wide beaches for recreation, beaches are replenished with sand: so-called beach nourishments. We compared four sites: two traditional beach nourishments, a mega beach nourishment and a reference without beach nourishment. Two sites contain calcareous-rich sand, whereas the other two sites have calcareous-poor sand. We aimed to understand hydrogeochemical processes to indicate factors critical for the mobility of trace elements at nourishments. We therefore analysed the chemical characteristics of sediment and pore water to ascertain the main drivers that mobilise toxic trace elements. With Dutch Quality Standards for soil and groundwater, the characteristics of sediment and pore water were compared to Target Values (the values at which there is a sustainable soil quality) and Intervention Values (the threshold above which the soil's functions are at risk). The pore water characteristics revealed that Target Values were regularly exceeded, especially for the nourishment sites and mainly for Mo (78%), Ni (24%), Cr (55%), and As (21%); Intervention Values for shallow groundwater were occasionally exceeded for As (2%), Cr (2%) and Zn (2%). The sediment characteristics did not exceed the Target Values and showed that trace elements were mainly present in the fine fraction of <150 μm. The oxidation of sulphide minerals such as pyrite resulted into the elevated concentration for all nourishment sites, especially when an unsaturated zone was present and influence of rainwater was apparent. To prevent trace metal mobility at a mega beach nourishment it is important to retain seawater influences and limit oxidation processes. In this respect, a shoreface nourishment is recommended rather than a mega beach nourishment with a thick unsaturated zone. Consequently, we conclude that whether a site is carbonate-rich or carbonate-poor is unimportant, as the influence of seawater will prevent decalcification, creating a low risk of

  6. Optimal primitive reference frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, David

    2011-01-01

    We consider the smallest possible directional reference frames allowed and determine the best one can ever do in preserving quantum information in various scenarios. We find that for the preservation of a single spin state, two orthogonal spins are optimal primitive reference frames; and in a product state, they do approximately 22% as well as an infinite-sized classical frame. By adding a small amount of entanglement to the reference frame, this can be raised to 2(2/3) 5 =26%. Under the different criterion of entanglement preservation, a very similar optimal reference frame is found; however, this time it is for spins aligned at an optimal angle of 87 deg. In this case 24% of the negativity is preserved. The classical limit is considered numerically, and indicates under the criterion of entanglement preservation, that 90 deg. is selected out nonmonotonically, with a peak optimal angle of 96.5 deg. for L=3 spins.

  7. Reference Climatological Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Reference Climatological Stations (RCS) network represents the first effort by NOAA to create and maintain a nationwide network of stations located only in areas...

  8. Toxicity Reference Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxicity Reference Database (ToxRefDB) contains approximately 30 years and $2 billion worth of animal studies. ToxRefDB allows scientists and the interested...

  9. Python essential reference

    CERN Document Server

    Beazley, David M

    2009-01-01

    Python Essential Reference is the definitive reference guide to the Python programming language — the one authoritative handbook that reliably untangles and explains both the core Python language and the most essential parts of the Python library. Designed for the professional programmer, the book is concise, to the point, and highly accessible. It also includes detailed information on the Python library and many advanced subjects that is not available in either the official Python documentation or any other single reference source. Thoroughly updated to reflect the significant new programming language features and library modules that have been introduced in Python 2.6 and Python 3, the fourth edition of Python Essential Reference is the definitive guide for programmers who need to modernize existing Python code or who are planning an eventual migration to Python 3. Programmers starting a new Python project will find detailed coverage of contemporary Python programming idioms.

  10. Collaborative networks: Reference modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camarinha-Matos, L.M.; Afsarmanesh, H.

    2008-01-01

    Collaborative Networks: Reference Modeling works to establish a theoretical foundation for Collaborative Networks. Particular emphasis is put on modeling multiple facets of collaborative networks and establishing a comprehensive modeling framework that captures and structures diverse perspectives of

  11. Ozone Standard Reference Photometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Standard Reference Photometer (SRP) Program began in the early 1980s as collaboration between NIST and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to design,...

  12. Determination of Trace Elements In Soil and Plants In Coastal Basin of Syria By Using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassem, A.

    2004-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) methods have been used for the determination of some major, minor and trace elements (As, Cr, Co, Ni, Zn, Sb, Sc Ce, Ti, Fe, Mn and V) in some kinds of plant leaves with their soil. Accuracy of measurements have been evaluated by analyzing a number of plant and soil reference materials, precision have been estimated by triplicate the sample as well as the reference. The obtained accurate and reliable data in microgram quantities of some trace elements in plants and soil will serve as baseline values and will be helpful to monitor the changes in the trace elements content of soil and plant leaves. (Author)

  13. Enterprise Reference Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickham, Grandin; Saile, Lynn; Havelka, Jacque; Fitts, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Johnson Space Center (JSC) offers two extensive libraries that contain journals, research literature and electronic resources. Searching capabilities are available to those individuals residing onsite or through a librarian s search. Many individuals have rich collections of references, but no mechanisms to share reference libraries across researchers, projects, or directorates exist. Likewise, information regarding which references are provided to which individuals is not available, resulting in duplicate requests, redundant labor costs and associated copying fees. In addition, this tends to limit collaboration between colleagues and promotes the establishment of individual, unshared silos of information The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) team has utilized a centralized reference management tool during the development, test, and operational phases of this project. The Enterprise Reference Library project expands the capabilities developed for IMM to address the above issues and enhance collaboration across JSC. Method: After significant market analysis for a multi-user reference management tool, no available commercial tool was found to meet this need, so a software program was built around a commercial tool, Reference Manager 12 by The Thomson Corporation. A use case approach guided the requirements development phase. The premise of the design is that individuals use their own reference management software and export to SharePoint when their library is incorporated into the Enterprise Reference Library. This results in a searchable user-specific library application. An accompanying share folder will warehouse the electronic full-text articles, which allows the global user community to access full -text articles. Discussion: An enterprise reference library solution can provide a multidisciplinary collection of full text articles. This approach improves efficiency in obtaining and storing reference material while greatly reducing labor, purchasing and

  14. Comparability of reference values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossbach, M.; Stoeppler, M.

    1993-01-01

    Harmonization of certified values in Reference Materials (RMs) can be carried out by applying nuclear analytical techniques to RMs of various matrix types and concentration levels. Although RMs generally should not be used as primary standards the cross evaluation of concentrations in RMs leads to better compatibility of reference values and thus to a greater agreement between analytical results from different laboratories using these RMs for instrument calibration and quality assurance. (orig.)

  15. Electronics engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, L W

    1976-01-01

    Electronics Engineer's Reference Book, 4th Edition is a reference book for electronic engineers that reviews the knowledge and techniques in electronics engineering and covers topics ranging from basics to materials and components, devices, circuits, measurements, and applications. This edition is comprised of 27 chapters; the first of which presents general information on electronics engineering, including terminology, mathematical equations, mathematical signs and symbols, and Greek alphabet and symbols. Attention then turns to the history of electronics; electromagnetic and nuclear radiatio

  16. 2002 reference document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This 2002 reference document of the group Areva, provides information on the society. Organized in seven chapters, it presents the persons responsible for the reference document and for auditing the financial statements, information pertaining to the transaction, general information on the company and share capital, information on company operation, changes and future prospects, assets, financial position, financial performance, information on company management and executive board and supervisory board, recent developments and future prospects. (A.L.B.)

  17. Determination of ancient ceramics reference material by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Huhou; Sun Jingxin; Wang Yuqi; Lu Liangcai

    1986-01-01

    Contents of trace elements in the reference material of ancient ceramics (KPS-1) were determined by means of activation analysis, using thermal neutron irradiation produced in nuclear reactor. KPS-1 favoured the analysis of ancient ceramics because it had not only many kinds of element but also appropriate contents of composition. The values presented here are reliable within the experimental precision, and have shown that the reference material had a good homogeneity. So KPS-1 can be used as a suitable reference material for the ancient ceramics analysis

  18. Trace metal speciation: Finally, correctly addressing trace metal issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donard, O.F.X.

    2001-01-01

    The history of the development of trace metal speciation was discussed and the reasons behind the relatively slow widespread acceptance of its importance were presented. Partially, this was due to the lack of availability of commercial instrumentation and partly to the drive towards improving sensitivity in analytical chemistry which had focused attention on total concentration determinations. The sophistication and control of analytical instrumentation is now such that the spotlight must be turned onto the chemical species of an element present in a sample since this is what governs its behaviour in the biosphere. Indeed, several companies are currently considering the introduction of instrumentation specifically designed for metal species determination

  19. Trace element analysis in the serum and hair of Antarctic leopard seal, Hydrurga leptonyx, and Weddell seal, Leptonychotes weddellii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Rachael [Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 Australia (Australia); Australian Marine Mammal Research Centre PO Box 20 Mosman, NSW 2088 (Australia)], E-mail: rgray@vetsci.usyd.edu.au; Canfield, Paul [Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Rogers, Tracey [Australian Marine Mammal Research Centre PO Box 20 Mosman, NSW 2088 (Australia); Evolution and Ecology Research Centre and School of Biological Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2008-07-25

    Leopard seal, Hydrurga leptonyx, and Weddell seal, Leptonychotes weddellii, occupy an upper trophic level within the Antarctic ecosystem and are useful indicator species in the Southern Ocean of trace element concentrations. Reference values for the concentration of 19 trace elements were determined in the serum and hair of leopard and Weddell seals sampled in Eastern Antarctica. These reference values can be used as 'baseline' levels for monitoring trace element concentrations in these species. Greater trace element concentrations were determined in hair compared to serum, indicating different time scales of trace element accumulation in these samples. For the majority of trace elements, except for Se in the leopard seal samples and Cr in the Weddell seal samples, significant regression relationships for trace element concentrations in hair and serum were not elucidated. Significant differences were determined in the concentrations of seven out of 15 elements with hair type, moult and new, in the leopard seal; concentrations in moult hair were determined to be greater than in new hair for all elements except Zn. Hair analysis was determined to be useful for monitoring exposure to trace elements and when collected off the ice from moulting seals, hair can be employed as a non-invasive sample for trace element analysis in leopard and Weddell seals.

  20. Hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome during maintenance therapy of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia is associated with continuous asparaginase therapy and mercaptopurine metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toksvang, Linea Natalie; De Pietri, Silvia; Nielsen, Stine N.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) during treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has mainly been associated with 6-thioguanine. The occurrence of several SOS cases after the introduction of extended pegylated asparaginase (PEG-asparaginase) therapy...... in the Nordic Society of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology (NOPHO) ALL2008 protocol led us to hypothesize that PEG-asparaginase, combined with other drugs, may trigger SOS during 6-thioguanine-free maintenance therapy. PROCEDURE: In children with ALL treated in Denmark according to the NOPHO ALL2008 protocol...... children receiving PEG-asparaginase biweekly, 29 developed SOS (≥2 criteria: hyperbilirubinemia, hepatomegaly, ascites, weight gain ≥2.5%, unexplained thrombocytopenia

  1. Severe Hepatic Sinusoidal Obstruction Syndrome in a Child Receiving Vincristine, Actinomycin-D, and Cyclophosphamide for Rhabdomyosarcoma: Successful Treatment with Defibrotide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Aery; Kang, Young Kyung; Lim, Sewon; Kim, Dong Ho; Lim, Jung Sub; Lee, Jun Ah

    2016-10-01

    Hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) is a life-threatening syndrome that generally occurs as a complication after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation or, less commonly, after conventional chemotherapy. Regarding SOS in rhabdomyosarcoma patients who received conventional chemotherapy, the doses of chemotherapeutic agents are associated with the development of SOS. Several cases of SOS in rhabdomyosarcoma patients after receiving chemotherapy with escalated doses of cyclophosphamide have been reported. Here, we report on a 9-year-old female with rhabdomyosarcoma who developed severe SOS after receiving chemotherapy consisting of vincristine, actinomycin-D, and a moderate dose of cyclophosphamide. She was treated successfully with defibrotide without sequelae to the liver.

  2. Blood pyrrole-protein adducts as a diagnostic and prognostic index in pyrrolizidine alkaloid-hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao H

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hong Gao,1,* Jianqing Q Ruan,2,* Jie Chen,1 Na Li,2 Changqiang Q Ke,3 Yang Ye,3–5 Ge Lin,2,4,5 Jiyao Y Wang1,61Department of Gastroenterology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2School of Biomedical Sciences, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; 3Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 4Joint Research Laboratory for Promoting Globalization of Traditional Chinese Medicines, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, 5Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; 6Center of Evidence-Based Medicine Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this work and share first authorship Background: The diagnosis of hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (HSOS induced by pyrrolizidine alkaloids is mainly based on clinical investigation. There is currently no prognostic index. This study evaluated the quantitative measurement of blood pyrrole-protein adducts (PPAs as a diagnostic and prognostic index for pyrrolizidine alkaloid-induced HSOS.Methods: Suspected drug-induced liver injury patients were prospectively recruited. Blood PPAs were quantitatively measured using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Patients’ age, sex, biochemistry test results, and a detailed drug history were recorded. The patients were divided into two groups, ie, those with HSOS induced by pyrrolizidine alkaloid-containing drugs and those with liver injury induced by drugs without pyrrolizidine alkaloids. The relationship between herb administration, clinical outcomes, blood sampling time, and blood PPA concentration in pyrrolizidine alkaloid-associated HSOS patients was analyzed using multiple linear regression analysis.Results: Forty patients met the entry criteria, among whom 23 had pyrrolizidine alkaloid-associated HSOS and 17 had liver injury caused by drugs without pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Among the 23

  3. A multi-reference filtered-x-Newton narrowband algorithm for active isolation of vibration and experimental investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-yu; He, Lin; Li, Yan; Shuai, Chang-geng

    2018-01-01

    In engineering applications, ship machinery vibration may be induced by multiple rotational machines sharing a common vibration isolation platform and operating at the same time, and multiple sinusoidal components may be excited. These components may be located at frequencies with large differences or at very close frequencies. A multi-reference filtered-x Newton narrowband (MRFx-Newton) algorithm is proposed to control these multiple sinusoidal components in an MIMO (multiple input and multiple output) system, especially for those located at very close frequencies. The proposed MRFx-Newton algorithm can decouple and suppress multiple sinusoidal components located in the same narrow frequency band even though such components cannot be separated from each other by a narrowband-pass filter. Like the Fx-Newton algorithm, good real-time performance is also achieved by the faster convergence speed brought by the 2nd-order inverse secondary-path filter in the time domain. Experiments are also conducted to verify the feasibility and test the performance of the proposed algorithm installed in an active-passive vibration isolation system in suppressing the vibration excited by an artificial source and air compressor/s. The results show that the proposed algorithm not only has comparable convergence rate as the Fx-Newton algorithm but also has better real-time performance and robustness than the Fx-Newton algorithm in active control of the vibration induced by multiple sound sources/rotational machines working on a shared platform.

  4. Survey of reference materials. V. 1: Biological and environmental reference materials for trace elements, nuclides and microcontaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    Irradiation in combination with other food process/treatments, at sterilizing or at substerilizing doses, has long been known to be capable of yielding shelf-stable foods, particularly dry-packed meat, poultry and fish/shellfish products having very good eating quality and nutritional value. However, other than highly specific, targeted used with astronauts and cosmonauts in space, with immune-suppressed medical patients at one US hospital, and for military feeding plus supplying small nich 'markets' in the Republic of South Africa, there has been no commercial exploitation of the research and development that has gone into establishing this potentially very useful and valuable food irradiation application category. But what with rising global energy costs, and immune-comprised/suppressed populations on the increase, together with increasing consumer demand for minimally processed superior eating quality foods in developed countries especially, the potential and need for industrial use of this largely neglected food irradiation areas is becoming more and more apparent. 8 refs, 12 tabs

  5. Trace emissions from gaseous combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seebold, J.G. [Chevron Research and Technology Co., Richmond, CA (United States)

    2000-07-01

    The U.S. Clean Air Act (CAA) was amended in 1990 to include the development of maximum achievable control technology (MACT) emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) for certain stationary sources by November 2000. MACT emissions standards would affect process heaters and industrial boilers since combustion processes are a potential source for many air toxins. The author noted that one of the problems with MACT is the lack of a clear solid scientific footing which is needed to develop environmentally responsible regulations. In order to amend some of these deficiencies, a 4-year, $7 million research project on the origin and fate of trace emissions in the external combustion of gaseous hydrocarbons was undertaken in a collaborative effort between government, universities and industry. This collaborative project entitled the Petroleum Environmental Research Forum (PERF) Project 92-19 produced basic information and phenomenological understanding in two important areas, one basic and one applied. The specific objectives of the project were to measure emissions while operating different full-scale burners under various operating conditions and then to analyze the emission data to identify which operating conditions lead to low air toxic emissions. Another objective was to develop new chemical kinetic mechanisms and predictive models for the formation of air toxic species which would explain the origin and fate of these species in process heaters and industrial boilers. It was determined that a flame is a very effective reactor and that trace emissions from a typical gas-fired industry burner are very small. An unexpected finding was that trace emissions are not affected by hydrocarbon gaseous fuel composition, nor by the use of ultra low nitrous oxide burners. 2 refs., 8 figs.

  6. Tracing Utopia in 'Utopia Station'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarzbart, Judith

    This paper will discuss how avant-garde rhetoric and working methods are used to rethink exhibition-making in the wake of the ‘relational aesthetics’ and visual art of the 90s. With Utopia Station curated by Molly Nesbit, Hans Ulrich Obrist, and Rirkrit Tiravanija as key example, we will look...... at the many layers of discourse, ‘thinking-in-process’ and collaboration. These processes led to particular presentational formats (display) and architectural frameworks for activities, and gave way to a variety of other material and situated performative modes of audience encounters. Here, we can trace avant...

  7. Trace elements in human pituitary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanabrocki, E.L.; Greco, J.; Graham, L.A.; Kaplan, E.; Rubnitz, M.E.; Oester, Y.T.; Brar, S.; Gustafson, P.S.; Nelson, D.M.; Molinari, F.; Moore, C.E.; Kanabrocki, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis was used to determine several trace elements in human pituitaries from adult subjects aged 42 to 83 years who had died of ischemic heart disease, carcinoma and cirrhosis of the liver. None of these subjects suffered from mental disease. The concentrations of Fe, Zn, Rb, Se, Br, Cr, Hg, Cs and Co in dried tissue showed no correlation with the diseases, and the results may therefore be representative of the general population. These elements may play a very fundamental role in pituitary function. (U.K.)

  8. Reference Japanese man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Giichiro

    1985-01-01

    To make real and accurate dose assessment method so far, it is necessitated to provide ''Reference Japanese Man'' based on anotomical, physiological and biochemical data of Japanese people instead of the Reference Man presented in ICRP Publications 23 and 30. This review describes present status of researched for the purpose of establishing of Reference Japanese Man. The Reference Japanese Man is defined as a male or female adult who lives in Japan with a Japanese life-style and food custom. His stature and body weight, and the other data was decided as mean values of male or female people of Japan. As for food custom, Japanese people take significantly smaller amount of meat and milk products than Western people, while larger intake amount of cereals and marine products such as fish or seaweeds. Weight of organs is a principal factor for internal dose assessment and mean values for living Japanese adult has been investigated and the value employable for dose assessment for organs and tissues are shown. To employ these values of Reference Japanese Man, it should be taken into account of age. Metabolic parameters should also be considered. Iodine metabolism in Japanese is quite different from that of Western people. The above-mentioned data are now tentatively employing in modification of table of MIRD method and others. (Takagi, S.)

  9. Mobilisation of toxic trace elements under various beach nourishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pit, Iris R; Dekker, Stefan C; Kanters, Tobias J; Wassen, Martin J; Griffioen, Jasper

    2017-12-01

    To enhance protection and maintain wide beaches for recreation, beaches are replenished with sand: so-called beach nourishments. We compared four sites: two traditional beach nourishments, a mega beach nourishment and a reference without beach nourishment. Two sites contain calcareous-rich sand, whereas the other two sites have calcareous-poor sand. We aimed to understand hydrogeochemical processes to indicate factors critical for the mobility of trace elements at nourishments. We therefore analysed the chemical characteristics of sediment and pore water to ascertain the main drivers that mobilise toxic trace elements. With Dutch Quality Standards for soil and groundwater, the characteristics of sediment and pore water were compared to Target Values (the values at which there is a sustainable soil quality) and Intervention Values (the threshold above which the soil's functions are at risk). The pore water characteristics revealed that Target Values were regularly exceeded, especially for the nourishment sites and mainly for Mo (78%), Ni (24%), Cr (55%), and As (21%); Intervention Values for shallow groundwater were occasionally exceeded for As (2%), Cr (2%) and Zn (2%). The sediment characteristics did not exceed the Target Values and showed that trace elements were mainly present in the fine fraction of <150 μm. The oxidation of sulphide minerals such as pyrite resulted into the elevated concentration for all nourishment sites, especially when an unsaturated zone was present and influence of rainwater was apparent. To prevent trace metal mobility at a mega beach nourishment it is important to retain seawater influences and limit oxidation processes. In this respect, a shoreface nourishment is recommended rather than a mega beach nourishment with a thick unsaturated zone. Consequently, we conclude that whether a site is carbonate-rich or carbonate-poor is unimportant, as the influence of seawater will prevent decalcification, creating a low risk of mobilisation

  10. A Comparative Study on Pulse Sinusoidal High Frequency Voltage Injection and INFORM Methods for PMSM Position Sensorless Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ni, Ronggang; Lu, Kaiyuan; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    and Indirect Flux detection by On-line Reactance Measurement (INFORM) method in the α-β reference frame. Implementation methods are deliberated in detail and the position estimation error caused by magnetic field distorsion is also discussed. Experiments using a commercial PMSM are carried out...

  11. Reference costs of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terraz, N.

    1997-01-01

    The calculation of electric power production reference costs is used in France, even in the present case of over-capacity, for comparing the relative interest of the various means of power generation (nuclear plants, coal plants, hydroelectricity, gas combined cycles, etc.) and as an aid for future investment decisions. Reference costs show a sharp decrease between 1993 and 1997 due to advancements in nuclear plant operating ability and fossil fuel price decrease. Actuarial rates, plant service life, fuel costs and exchange rates are important parameters. The various costs from the research stage to the waste processing stages are discussed and the reference costs of the various power generation systems are presented and compared together with their competitiveness; the future of wind energy and cogeneration and the prospective of the renewal of nuclear plants at the 2010 horizon are also addressed

  12. Setting reference targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruland, R.E.

    1997-04-01

    Reference Targets are used to represent virtual quantities like the magnetic axis of a magnet or the definition of a coordinate system. To explain the function of reference targets in the sequence of the alignment process, this paper will first briefly discuss the geometry of the trajectory design space and of the surveying space, then continue with an overview of a typical alignment process. This is followed by a discussion on magnet fiducialization. While the magnetic measurement methods to determine the magnetic centerline are only listed (they will be discussed in detail in a subsequent talk), emphasis is given to the optical/mechanical methods and to the task of transferring the centerline position to reference targets

  13. Axial gravity, massless fermions and trace anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonora, L. [International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA), Trieste (Italy); KEK, Tsukuba (Japan). KEK Theory Center; INFN, Sezione di Trieste (Italy); Cvitan, M.; Giaccari, S.; Stemberga, T. [Zagreb Univ. (Croatia). Dept. of Physics; Prester, P.D. [Rijeka Univ. (Croatia). Dept. of Physics; Pereira, A.D. [UERJ-Univ. Estadual do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica Teorica; UFF-Univ. Federal Fluminense, Niteroi (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2017-08-15

    This article deals with two main topics. One is odd parity trace anomalies in Weyl fermion theories in a 4d curved background, the second is the introduction of axial gravity. The motivation for reconsidering the former is to clarify the theoretical background underlying the approach and complete the calculation of the anomaly. The reference is in particular to the difference between Weyl and massless Majorana fermions and to the possible contributions from tadpole and seagull terms in the Feynman diagram approach. A first, basic, result of this paper is that a more thorough treatment, taking account of such additional terms and using dimensional regularization, confirms the earlier result. The introduction of an axial symmetric tensor besides the usual gravitational metric is instrumental to a different derivation of the same result using Dirac fermions, which are coupled not only to the usual metric but also to the additional axial tensor. The action of Majorana and Weyl fermions can be obtained in two different limits of such a general configuration. The results obtained in this way confirm the previously obtained ones. (orig.)

  14. Axial gravity, massless fermions and trace anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonora, L.; Cvitan, M.; Giaccari, S.; Stemberga, T.; Prester, P.D.; Pereira, A.D.; UFF-Univ. Federal Fluminense, Niteroi

    2017-01-01

    This article deals with two main topics. One is odd parity trace anomalies in Weyl fermion theories in a 4d curved background, the second is the introduction of axial gravity. The motivation for reconsidering the former is to clarify the theoretical background underlying the approach and complete the calculation of the anomaly. The reference is in particular to the difference between Weyl and massless Majorana fermions and to the possible contributions from tadpole and seagull terms in the Feynman diagram approach. A first, basic, result of this paper is that a more thorough treatment, taking account of such additional terms and using dimensional regularization, confirms the earlier result. The introduction of an axial symmetric tensor besides the usual gravitational metric is instrumental to a different derivation of the same result using Dirac fermions, which are coupled not only to the usual metric but also to the additional axial tensor. The action of Majorana and Weyl fermions can be obtained in two different limits of such a general configuration. The results obtained in this way confirm the previously obtained ones. (orig.)

  15. Amelioration of cirrhotic portal hypertension by targeted cyclooxygenase-1 siRNA delivery to liver sinusoidal endothelium with polyethylenimine grafted hyaluronic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Liteng; Cai, Mingyue; Deng, Shaohui; Huang, Wensou; Huang, Jingjun; Huang, Xinghua; Huang, Mingsheng; Wang, Yong; Shuai, Xintao; Zhu, Kangshun

    2017-10-01

    Portal hypertension (PH), a leading cause of mortality in cirrhosis, lacks effective clinical therapeutic strategies. The increased thromboxane A 2 (TXA 2 ), derived primarily from the upregulation of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) in cirrhotic liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs), is responsible for hepatic endothelial dysfunction and PH. Thus, blocking the COX-1 pathway in cirrhotic LSECs may benefit the treatment of PH. In this study, hyaluronate-graft-polyethylenimine (HA-PEI) was synthesized for the targeted delivery of COX-1 siRNA to LSECs. Compared to non-targeted PEI, HA-PEI mediated much more efficient siRNA delivery, which resulted in potent targeted gene silencing in LSECs. In vivo, HA-PEI notably increased the accumulation of siRNA along the sinusoidal lining of the liver, inhibited over-activation of the COX-1/TXA 2 pathway in LSECs, and successfully reduced portal pressure in cirrhotic mice. These results highlight the potential of HA-PEI complexed siRNA to serve as a LSECs-specific nanomedical system for effective gene therapy in PH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Electrical engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, G R

    2013-01-01

    A long established reference book: radical revision for the fifteenth edition includes complete rearrangement to take in chapters on new topics and regroup the subjects covered for easy access to information.The Electrical Engineer's Reference Book, first published in 1945, maintains its original aims: to reflect the state of the art in electrical science and technology and cater for the needs of practising engineers. Most chapters have been revised and many augmented so as to deal properly with both fundamental developments and new technology and applications that have come to the fore since

  17. Python pocket reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lutz, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This is the book to reach for when you're coding on the fly and need an answer now. It's an easy-to-use reference to the core language, with descriptions of commonly used modules and toolkits, and a guide to recent changes, new features, and upgraded built-ins -- all updated to cover Python 3.X as well as version 2.6. You'll also quickly find exactly what you need with the handy index. Written by Mark Lutz -- widely recognized as the world's leading Python trainer -- Python Pocket Reference, Fourth Edition, is the perfect companion to O'Reilly's classic Python tutorials, also written by Mark

  18. The Reference Return Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Jeppe; Faber Frandsen, Tove

    2008-01-01

    The paper introduces a new journal impact measure called The Reference Return Ratio (3R). Unlike the traditional Journal Impact Factor (JIF), which is based on calculations of publications and citations, the new measure is based on calculations of bibliographic investments (references) and returns...... (citations). A comparative study of the two measures shows a strong relationship between the 3R and the JIF. Yet, the 3R appears to correct for citation habits, citation dynamics, and composition of document types - problems that typically are raised against the JIF. In addition, contrary to traditional...

  19. Perl Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Vromans, Johan

    2011-01-01

    If you have a Perl programming question, you'll find the answer quickly in this handy, easy-to-use quick reference. The Perl Pocket Reference condenses and organizes stacks of documentation down to the most essential facts, so you can find what you need in a heartbeat. Updated for Perl 5.14, the 5th edition provides a summary of Perl syntax rules and a complete list of operators, built-in functions, and other features. It's the perfect companion to O'Reilly's authoritative and in-depth Perl programming books, including Learning Perl, Programming Perl, and the Perl Cookbook..

  20. HTML & XHTML Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Robbins, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    After years of using spacer GIFs, layers of nested tables, and other improvised solutions for building your web sites, getting used to the more stringent standards-compliant design can be intimidating. HTML and XHTML Pocket Reference is the perfect little book when you need answers immediately. Jennifer Niederst-Robbins, author Web Design in a Nutshell, has revised and updated the fourth edition of this pocket guide by taking the top 20% of vital reference information from her Nutshell book, augmenting it judiciously, cross-referencing everything, and organizing it according to the most com