WorldWideScience

Sample records for reference sealed sources

  1. Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning a reference large irradiator and reference sealed sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haffner, D.R.; Villelgas, A.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This report contains the results of a study sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to examine the decommissioning of large radioactive irradiators and their respective facilities, and a broad spectrum of sealed radioactive sources and their respective devices. Conceptual decommissioning activities are identified, and the technology, safety, and costs (in early 1993 dollars) associated with decommissioning the reference large irradiator and sealed source facilities are evaluated. The study provides bases and background data for possible future NRC rulemaking regarding decommissioning, for evaluation of the reasonableness of planned decommissioning actions, and for determining if adequate funds are reserved by the licensees for decommissioning of their large irradiator or sealed source facilities. Another purpose of this study is to provide background and information to assist licensees in planning and carrying out the decommissioning of their sealed radioactive sources and respective facilities.

  2. Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning a reference large irradiator and reference sealed sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haffner, D.R.; Villelgas, A.J.

    1996-01-01

    This report contains the results of a study sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to examine the decommissioning of large radioactive irradiators and their respective facilities, and a broad spectrum of sealed radioactive sources and their respective devices. Conceptual decommissioning activities are identified, and the technology, safety, and costs (in early 1993 dollars) associated with decommissioning the reference large irradiator and sealed source facilities are evaluated. The study provides bases and background data for possible future NRC rulemaking regarding decommissioning, for evaluation of the reasonableness of planned decommissioning actions, and for determining if adequate funds are reserved by the licensees for decommissioning of their large irradiator or sealed source facilities. Another purpose of this study is to provide background and information to assist licensees in planning and carrying out the decommissioning of their sealed radioactive sources and respective facilities

  3. Sealed radioactive sources toolkit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mac Kenzie, C.

    2005-09-01

    The IAEA has developed a Sealed Radioactive Sources Toolkit to provide information to key groups about the safety and security of sealed radioactive sources. The key groups addressed are officials in government agencies, medical users, industrial users and the scrap metal industry. The general public may also benefit from an understanding of the fundamentals of radiation safety

  4. Sealed radioactive source management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Sealed radioactive sources have been used in a wide range of application in medicine, agriculture, geology, industry and other fields. Since its utilization many sources have become out of use and became waste but no proper management. This has lead to many accidents causing deaths and serious radiation injuries worldwide. Spent sources application is expanding but their management has seen little improvements. Sealed radioactive sources have become a security risk calling for prompt action. Source management helps to maintain sources in a good physical status and provide means of source tracking and control. It also provides a well documented process of the sources making any future management options safe, secure and cost effective. Last but not least good source management substantially reduces the risk of accidents and eliminates the risk of malicious use. The International Atomic Energy Agency assists Member States to build the infrastructure to properly manage sealed radioactive sources. The assistance includes training of national experts to handle, condition and properly store the sources. For Member States that do not have proper facilities, we provide the technical assistance to design a proper facility to properly manage the radioactive sources and provide for their proper storage. For Member States that need to condition their sources properly but don't have the required infrastructure we provide direct assistance to physically help them with source recovery and provide an international expert team to properly condition their sources and render them safe and secure. We offer software (Radioactive Waste Management Registry) to properly keep a complete record on the sources and provide for efficient tracking. This also helps with proper planning and decision making for long term management

  5. Production of sealed sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandi, L.N.

    2016-01-01

    Radioisotope production has been an ongoing activity in India since the sixties. Radioisotopes find wide-ranging applications in various fields, including industry, research, agriculture and medicine. Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology, an industrial unit of Department of Atomic Energy is involved in fabrication and supply of wide variety of sealed sources. The main radioisotopes fabricated and supplied by BRIT are Cobalt-60, Iridium-192. These isotopes are employed in industrial and laboratory irradiators, teletherapy machines, radiography exposure devices, nucleonic gauges. The source fabrication facilities of BRIT are located at Rajasthan Atomic Power Project Cobalt-60 Facility (RAPPCOF), Kota, Radiological Laboratories Group (RLG) and High Intensity Radiation Utilization Project (HIRUP) at Trombay

  6. Sealed source peer review plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, Alexander; Leonard, Lee; Burns, Ron

    2009-01-01

    Sealed sources are known quantities of radioactive materials that have been encapsulated in quantities that produce known radiation fields. Sealed sources have multiple uses ranging from instrument calibration sources to sources that produce radiation fields for experimental applications. The Off-Site Source Recovery (OSR) Project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), created in 1999, under the direction of the Waste Management Division of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Albuquerque has been assigned the responsibility to recover and manage excess and unwanted radioactive sealed sources from the public and private sector. LANL intends to ship drums containing qualified sealed sources to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for disposal. Prior to shipping, these drums must be characterized with respect to radiological content and other parameters. The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires that ten radionulcides be quantified and reported for every container of waste to be disposed in the WIPP. The methods traditionally approved by the EPA include non-destructive assay (NDA) in accordance with Appendix A of the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (DOE, 2002) (CH WAC). However, because of the nature and pedigree of historical records for sealed sources and the technical infeasibility of performing NDA on these sources, LANL proposes to characterize the content of these waste drums using qualified existing radiological data in lieu of direct measurement. This plan describes the process and documentation requirements for the use of the peer review process to qualify existing data for sealed radiological sources in lieu of perfonning radioassay. The peer review process will be performed in accordance with criteria provided in 40 CFR (section) 194.22 which specifies the use of the NUREG 1297 guidelines. The plan defines the management approach, resources, schedule, and technical requirements

  7. Fabrication of sealed radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mars, Jean.

    1977-01-01

    The description is given for fabricating a sealed radiation source, consisting in depositing on a metal substrate a thin active coat of a radioelement, termed first coat, submitting this coated substrate to an oxidation treatment in order to obtain on the first coat an inactive coat of an oxide of the metal, termed second coat, and depositing a coat of varnish on this second inactive coat [fr

  8. Handling, conditioning and disposal of spent sealed sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-02-01

    The series entitled ''Technical Manual for the Management of Low and Intermediate Level Wastes Generated at Small Nuclear Research Centres and by Radioisotope Users in Medicine, Research and Industry'' will serve as reference material to experts on technical assistance missions and provide ''direct know-how'' for technical staff in developing countries. This document is the first in the series. It provides the technical guidance and know-how necessary to permit developing Member States to safely handle, condition and store spent sealed radiation sources. It covers: characterization of sealed sources, legislation and regulations, management of spent sealed sources, transportation and disposal of spent sealed sources. 5 refs, 10 figs, 6 tabs

  9. Management of disused sealed sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukauskas, D.; Skridaila, N.

    2003-01-01

    The report presents the requirements on management of disused sealed sources in Lithuania; disused sealed source disposal facilities; performed safety analysis and planed repository safety improvements. The requirements on pre-disposal management of Disused Sealed Sources (DSS) are presented. The requirements on disposal of short lived VLLW and LILW (A, B and C classes) radioactive waste approved in 2002-2003. Generic Waste Acceptance Criteria for Near Surface Disposal, P-2003-01 approved in 2003. Requirements on disposal of Low and intermediate level long lived waste do not exist (D and E classes). Requirements for the disposal of disused sealed sources (F class) do not exist. Disposal method for the F class - Near Surface or Deep geological repository, depending on the waste acceptance criteria. Only one repository for institutional radioactive waste exist in Lithuania - Maisiagala repository. It is near surface RADON type disposal facility, built in 1963 and closed in 1988. It was constructed of the monolithic reinforced concrete with the dimensions 5 m x 15 m x 3 m, the thickness of the sidewalls is about 0.25 m and the thickness of the bottom is about 0.2 m. The overall volume is about 200 m 3 . At time of closure only three fifths of the volume had been filled. The empty two fifths of the vault were filled with concrete, then with sand, then with the concrete (0.01 m), hot bitumen and the 0.05 m asphalt layers. Monolithic concrete that was covered with bitumen and 0.05 m thick layer of asphalt closed the vault. Sand layer the thickness of which was not less than 1.2 m formed the cap. Disused radioactive sources embedded in a biological shielding were buried together with their shielding, the sources without the shielding were buried in two stainless steel containers. The total activity of buried radioactive nuclides is 3.42.10 -15 Bq (calculated according the documentation). There are some uncertainties about the inventory: from 1963 to 1973. After the

  10. Management of spent sealed sources in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisnubroto, D.S.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the effort of the Center for Development of Radioactive Waste Management (CDRWM) to develop and implement activities in maintaining and improving the safety of spent sealed radiation sources and the security of radioactive materials over their life cycle. There is a wide variety of uses of radiation sources and radioactive materials in Indonesia, while the CDRWM plan to cover all spent radiation sources. Primary consideration is given to sealed radiation sources with relatively high levels of radioactivity which might necessitate interventional measures should control over them be lost. The policy of the Government of Indonesia for spent radiation sources is, whenever possible, spent sealed sources should be returned to the supplier. CDRWM has a general principle that sealed sources should not be removed from their holders, or the holders physically modified (except for Ra-226 needles, smoke detector and lighting preventer). (author)

  11. Sealed Source Security and Disposition: Progress and Prospects - 13515

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennison, Meaghan; Martin, David W.; Cuthbertson, Abigail

    2013-01-01

    Due to their high activity and portability, unsecured or abandoned sealed sources could cause significant health or environmental damage. Further, some of these sources could be used either individually or in aggregate in radiological dispersal devices commonly referred to as 'dirty bombs', resulting in significant social disruption and economic impacts in the billions of dollars. Disposal access for disused sealed sources, however, has been a serious challenge. From 2008 to 2012, sealed source disposal was available to only 14 states; additionally, waste acceptance criteria for sealed sources at the low-level waste disposal facilities in operation both prior to and after 2012 exclude some common yet potentially dangerous sealed sources. Recent developments, however, suggest that significant improvement in addressing this challenge is possible, although challenges remain. These developments include 1) the initiation of operations at the Waste Control Specialists (WCS) commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facility in Andrews County, Texas; 2) the potential for significant revisions of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) 1995 'Final Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation' (1995 BTP); and 3) the Utah Department of Environmental Quality's (UDEQ) approval of a license variance for sealed source disposal at the EnergySolutions LLRW disposal facility near Clive, Utah. (authors)

  12. Control of sealed radioactive sources in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez Quijada, R.

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes the inventory of radioactive sources in Peru and assesses the control. Three groups of source conditions are established: controlled sources, known sources, and lost and orphan sources. The potential risk, described as not significant, for producing accidents is established and the needed measures are discussed. The paper concludes that, while the control on sealed sources is good, there is still room for improvement. (author)

  13. Sealed sources in Peru: advances and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, C.G.

    1998-01-01

    Cementation of spent sealed sources is performed by the Radioactive Waste Management Group of the Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy (IPEN). The sealed sources are collected in different areas of the country and brought to the RACSO nuclear centre, a national storage and conditioning facility for spent sources from industry and medical institutions. In addition to its amenities dedicated to research and the production of radioisotopes, the RACSO nuclear centre features a complex of some 1.5 ha for radioactive waste management that includes an infiltration bed and chemical treatment plant for liquid waste, compacting equipment and trenches for solid radioactive waste, a tank for the elimination of biological residues and a temporary storage emplacement for radioactive waste immobilized in cement cylinder casings. The steps described are the unpacking, identification of spent sealed sources, placement of the source in shielding, cementation, solidification, tagging and storage, as well as the actions taken to comply with the appropriate measures of radiological protection. (author)

  14. Radioactive sealed sources inventory and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez C, G.; Mallaupoma G, M.; Cruz C, W.

    1996-01-01

    This report is related to the management of radioactive wastes, that is to say, related to the sealed sources utilized in industry, medicine and research jobs, that can not be used anymore, because of their life time termination or their activity decay to useless limits. Owing to this fact, it is necessary to take them to the Management Plant of Radioactive waste in the 'RACSO' Nuclear Center, as it is specified by the National Authority Technical Office (OTAN) regulations in Peru. The experience gained by IPEN in the sealed source management is shown in the table which informs about the radionuclide types, activity and volume amount for years. In the 'RACSO' Nuclear Center, 63 sealed sources are stored and right measures are being adopted in order to be conditioned by cementation in 200 lt steel reinforced cylinders, which are proper to their transportation and storage. A flow-chart shows the steps that the national users should follow in order to manage radioactive sealed sources and so that minimize the risks. Resulting from the agreement between the users and managers, a systematic coordination is developed, verifying the information related to the source characterization, the way of transportation and the future conditioning. It also involves the cost aspects, which in some cases, represent a big problem in the management. (authors). 3 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  15. Installation for producing sealed radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fradin, J.; Hayoun, C.

    1969-01-01

    This installation has been designed and built for producing sealed sources of fission elements: caesium 137, strontium 90, promethium 147, ruthenium 106 and cerium 144 in particular. The installation consists of sealed and protected cells, each being assigned to a particular production. The safety and the operational reliability of the equipment are the principal considerations which have governed this work. The report describes the installation and, in particular, the apparatus used as well as the various control devices. In conclusion, a review as presented of six years operation. (authors) [fr

  16. Reference Sources in Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Sthapit, Dilip Man

    1995-01-01

    Information plays an important role in the development of every field. Therefore a brief knowledge regarding information sources is necessary to function in any field. There are many information sources about scientific and technical subjects. In this context there are many reference sources in Chemistry too. Chemistry is one important part of the science which deals with the study of the composition of substances and the chemical changes that they undergo. The purpose of this report is...

  17. An ideal sealed source life-cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tompkins, Joseph Andrew

    2009-01-01

    In the last 40 years, barriers to compliant and timely disposition of radioactive sealed sources have become apparent. The story starts with the explosive growth of nuclear gauging technologies in the 1960s. Dozens of companies in the US manufactured sources and many more created nuclear solutions to industrial gauging problems. Today they do not yet know how many Cat 1, 2, or 3 sources there are in the US. There are, at minimum, tens of thousands of sources, perhaps hundreds of thousands of sources. Affordable transportation solutions to consolidate all of these sources and disposition pathways for these sources do not exist. The root problem seems to be a lack of necessary regulatory framework that has allowed all of these problems to accumulate with no national plan for solving the problem. In the 1960s, Pu-238 displaced Pu-239 for most neutron and alpha source applications. In the 1970s, the availability of inexpensive Am-241 resulted in a proliferation of low energy gamma sources used in nuclear gauging, well logging, pacemakers, and X-ray fluorescence applications for example. In the 1980s, rapid expansion of worldwide petroleum exploration resulted in the expansion of Am-241 sources into international locations. Improvements of technology and regulation resulted in a change in isotopic distribution as Am-241 made Pu-239 and Pu-238 obsolete. Many early nuclear gauge technologies have been made obsolete as they were replaced by non-nuclear technoogies. With uncertainties in source end of life disposition and increased requirements for sealed source security, nuclear gauging technology is the last choice for modern process engineering gauging solutions. Over the same period, much was learned about licensing LLW disposition facilities as evident by the closure of early disposition facilities like Maxey Flats. The current difficulties in sealed source disposition start with adoption of the NLLW policy act of 1985, which created the state LLW compact system they

  18. Management of spent sealed radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicente, Roberto; Sordei, Gian-Maria; Hiromoto, Goro

    2002-01-01

    The number of sealed radiation sources used in industrial, medical, and research applications in Brazil amounts to hundreds of thousands. Spent or disused sources are being collected and stored as radioactive waste in nuclear research centers, awaiting for a decision on their final disposal. However, a safe and economically feasible disposal technology is unavailable. The aim of this paper is to report the development of the concept of a repository and a treatment process that will allow the final disposal of all the spent sealed sources in a safe, dedicated, and exclusive repository. The concept of the disposal system is a deep borehole in stable geologic media, meeting the radiological performance standards and safety requirements set by international organizations. (author)

  19. Keeping Sealed Radioactive Sources Safe and Secure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potterton, Louise

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive sources are used in a wide variety of devices in medical, industrial, agricultural and research facilities worldwide. These sources, such as cobalt-60 and caesium-137, emit high levels of ionizing radiation, which can treat cancer, measure materials used in industry and sterilize food and medical appliances. Problems may arise when these sources are no longer needed, or if they are damaged or decayed. If these sources are not properly stored they can be a threat to human health and the environment and pose a security risk. Procedures to secure these spent or 'disused' sources are often highly expensive and need specialized assistance. The IAEA helps its States find long term solutions for the safe and secure storage of disused sealed radioactive sources (DSRSs)

  20. Sure confinement of spent sealed sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lizcano, D.

    2013-10-01

    The industrial and technological development of the last decades produced and increment in the radiations application in different human activities. One of the main effects has been the production of radioactive wastes of all the levels. In Mexico, several stages of the waste management of low and intermediate level have not been completely resolved, as the case of the treatment and the final storage. In this work the confinement of spent sealed sources is described, maintaining as main objective the security of these sources and the protection to the workers and the people. (author)

  1. Repatriation of disused sealed sources in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallaupoma, Mario; Abeyta, Cristy; Matzke, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Sealed radioactive sources are used around the world in medicine, industry and research within a wide range of applications. Sources may contain a large spectrum of radionuclides, which can have different levels of activity as well as different periods of half-life. At the end of their useful life, they are considered as worn-out or obsolete. However, the residual levels of radioactivity, which have those sources, can be high, representing a high radiation risk. This publication describes the technical actions carried out by the specialized group of the Peruvian Institute of Nuclear energy (IPEN) and Los Alamos National Laboratory which supports the program of 'Global Threat Reduction Initiative's' (GTRI) within the implementation of 'Offsite Source Recovery Program' (OSRP)

  2. C-188 cobalt-60 sealed source integrity: source monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defalco, G.M.; Shah, V.

    1995-01-01

    The integrity of C-188 cobalt-60 sealed sources used for radiation processing will be a key factor in the continued industrial acceptance and growth of gamma irradiation technology. Given the public's relatively poor understanding of most nuclear topics and the news media's tendency to sensationalize events, it is appropriate for suppliers and users of gamma technology to be vigilant and conservative regarding the application of cobalt-60 sources to industrial purposes. Nordion's recent decision to extend the optional warranty on its C-188 cobalt-60 sealed source from 15 years to 20 years is based on over 30 years of data generated from its on-going SOURCE SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM. This paper presents an overview of the C-188 SOURCE SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM. (author)

  3. Disposal of disused sealed sources in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Certes, C.

    2003-01-01

    The current status of the disused sealed sources in France is presented and a proposal for future management is given.About 150 000 disused source are registered, most of which are located in the Centre de l'Aube (130 000) and the rest are in about 250 installations. Since 2002 the tracing of the sources are made bu the IRSN/UES. A scheme of sealed sources management is given consisting of collecting, channeling (recycling, reconditioning, interim storage, denaturation) and elimination (surface disposal, long interim or deep disposal). The capacity of the CDA for disposal is 1 mill. m 3 (about 2 mill. tons of waste). It is intended for waste packages containing (basic safety rule I.2) - Low and Intermediate specific activity levels ( ∼ 103 ∼ 106 Bq/g); Short-lived radionuclides (half-life 60 Co). For sources containing one concentrated long-lived radionuclide in case of non-conformity with the basic safety rule I.2 (heterogeneity and long half-life) for example refusal is received for a few sources containing 241 Am). Radiological capacity id base on inventories nad safety evaluation scenarios. Fixed by decree (TBq) are: 60 Co(5.3 y) - 400 000; 3 H(12.3 y) - 4000; 137 Cs(30 y); - 200 000; 90 Sr(29 y) -40 000; Σ alpha (at 300 years) - 750. Waste acceptance criterion is based on the mass activity limit. The importance of the calculation method in this criterion is emphasised. IRSN reflexion basis for disposal is discussed

  4. Evaluation of methods to leak test sealed radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbeau, N.D.; Scott, C.K.

    1987-04-01

    The methods for the leak testing of sealed radiation sources were reviewed. One hundred and thirty-one equipment vendors were surveyed to identify commercially available leak test instruments. The equipment is summarized in tabular form by radiation type and detector type for easy reference. The radiation characteristics of the licensed sources were reviewed and summarized in a format that can be used to select the most suitable detection method. A test kit is proposed for use by inspectors when verifying a licensee's test procedures. The general elements of leak test procedures are discussed

  5. Aspects related to the testing of sealed radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olteanu, C. M.; Nistor, V.; Valeca, S. C.

    2016-01-01

    Sealed radioactive sources are commonly used in a wide range of applications, such as: medical, industrial, agricultural and scientific research. The radioactive material is contained within the sealed source and the device allows the radiation to be used in a controlled way. Accidents can result if the control over a small fraction of those sources is lost. Sealed nuclear sources fall under the category of special form radioactive material, therefore they must meet safety requirements during transport according to regulations. Testing sealed radioactive sources is an important step in the conformity assessment process in order to obtain the design approval. In ICN Pitesti, the Reliability and Testing Laboratory is notified by CNCAN to perform tests on sealed radioactive sources. This paper wants to present aspects of the verifying tests on sealed capsules for Iridium-192 sources in order to demonstrate the compliance with the regulatory requirements and the program of quality assurance of the tests performed. (authors)

  6. Guidelines for testing sealed radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    These guidelines are based on article 16(1) of the Ordinance on the Implementation of Atomic Safety and Radiation Protection dated 11 October 1984 (VOAS), in connection with article 36 of the Executory Provision to the VOAS, of 11 October 1984. They apply to the testing of sealed sources to verify their intactness, tightness and non-contamination as well as observance of their fixed service time. The type, scope and intervals of testing as well as the evaluation of test results are determined. These guidelines also apply to the testing of radiation sources forming part of radiation equipment, unless otherwise provided for in the type license or permit. These guidelines enter into force on 1 January 1990

  7. Reference design for a centralized spent sealed sources facility. Technical manual for the management of low and intermediate level wastes generated at small nuclear research centres and by radioisotope users in medicine, research and industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    To assist Member States in establishing facilities in which the most frequently occurring spent sealed sources can be safely conditioned, the IAEA has financed the development of a generic design for a Spent Sealed Sources Facility (SSS Facility). The purpose of this TECDOC is to provide enough general information about the functions and capabilities of the SSS Facility to enable the reader to understand what the facility can do to contribute towards the management of spent sealed sources without providing all the technical and/or design information available. Sufficient information is provided to enable the reader to judge how and to what extent such a facility can contribute to national radioactive waste management infrastructure. 2 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  8. Reference design for a centralized spent sealed sources facility. Technical manual for the management of low and intermediate level wastes generated at small nuclear research centres and by radioisotope users in medicine, research and industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    To assist Member States in establishing facilities in which the most frequently occurring spent sealed sources can be safely conditioned, the IAEA has financed the development of a generic design for a Spent Sealed Sources Facility (SSS Facility). The purpose of this TECDOC is to provide enough general information about the functions and capabilities of the SSS Facility to enable the reader to understand what the facility can do to contribute towards the management of spent sealed sources without providing all the technical and/or design information available. Sufficient information is provided to enable the reader to judge how and to what extent such a facility can contribute to national radioactive waste management infrastructure. 2 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab.

  9. Sealed radionuclide sources - new technical specifications and current practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brabec, D

    1987-03-01

    Basic technical specifications are discussed valid in Czechoslovakia for sealed radionuclide sources, based on international ISO and CMEA standards. Described are the standardization of terminology, relationships of tests, testing methods, types of sealed sources and their applications, relations to Czechoslovak regulations on radiation protection and to IAEA specifications for radioactive material shipment, etc. Practical impact is shown of the introduction of the new standards governing sealed sources on the national economy, and the purpose is explained of various documents issued with sealed sources. (author). 2 figs., 45 refs.

  10. Management of Disused Radioactive Sealed Sources in Egypt - 13512

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, Y.T.; Hasan, M.A.; Lasheen, Y.F.

    2013-01-01

    The future safe development of nuclear energy and progressive increasing use of sealed sources in medicine, research, industry and other fields in Egypt depends on the safe and secure management of disused radioactive sealed sources. In the past years have determined the necessity to formulate and apply the integrated management program for radioactive sealed sources to assure harmless and ecological rational management of disused sealed sources in Egypt. The waste management system in Egypt comprises operational and regulatory capabilities. Both of these activities are performed under legislations. The Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center HLWMC, is considered as a centralized radioactive waste management facility in Egypt by law 7/2010. (authors)

  11. Rendering harmless and deposition of spent sealed radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cholerzynski, A.

    1999-01-01

    The sealed radiation sources are commonly used in medicine, agriculture, industry and scientific research. There is millions of such sources being used all over the world. The purpose of this article is to present a modes of management and disposal of spent sealed radioactive sources in different countries as well as methods being recommended in Poland

  12. Management of disused long lived sealed radioactive sources (LLSRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-06-01

    The document provides advice the sealed source users and the national waste management organizations with the technical know-how on the management of disused and spent long lived sealed radioactive sources (LLSRS) and with the particular guidelines required for handling, conditioning for storage, and storage of these sources. The guidance is intended to assist in establishing compliance with the present standards, requirements, and adopted practices. It also provides background material for any possible technical assistance to developing countries and serves as a reference for technical staff involved with IAEA programmes on the subject. Because of the historic nature of many of the sources under this category and the lack of well developed technical procedures recognized on the international level, this publication can serve as a basis for establishing future handling and conditioning procedures. The LLSRS addressed in this publication are primarily those containing radionuclides having half-lives greater than 30 years. These sources may contain long lived alpha-emitters, mainly 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 237 Np, 241 Am, 226 Ra; beta-emitters: 14 C, and 63 Ni and could be neutron sources such as PuBe, RaBe and AmBe

  13. 10 CFR 39.35 - Leak testing of sealed sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leak testing of sealed sources. 39.35 Section 39.35 Energy....35 Leak testing of sealed sources. (a) Testing and recordkeeping requirements. Each licensee who uses... record of leak test results in units of microcuries and retain the record for inspection by the...

  14. BOSS: Borehole Disposal of Disused Sealed Sources. A Technical Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The management of disused radioactive sources is the responsibility of individual Member States. Accordingly, interest in technologies to allow the safe, secure and sustainable management of disused sealed radioactive sources is growing. This publication is a technical summary on preparing and planning predisposal and disposal activities with regard to the BOSS (borehole disposal of disused sealed sources) system, a safe, simple and cost effective solution for the management of disused sealed radioactive sources. It advises potential implementers and decision makers on the implementation of BOSS, which is expected to provide Member States with a successful tool to contribute to the safety and security of current and future generations.

  15. Source Reference File

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This file contains a national set of names and contact information for doctors, hospitals, clinics, and other facilities (known collectively as sources) from which...

  16. Vacuum seals design and testing for a linear accelerator of the National Spallation Neutron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Z.; Gautier, C.; Hemez, F.; Bultman, N.K.

    2000-01-01

    Vacuum seals are very important to ensure that the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Linac has an optimum vacuum system. The vacuum joints between flanges must have reliable seals to minimize the leak rate and meet vacuum and electrical requirements. In addition, it is desirable to simplify the installation and thereby also simplify the maintenance required. This report summarizes an investigation of the metal vacuum seals that include the metal C-seal, Energized Spring seal, Helcoflex Copper Delta seal, Aluminum Delta seal, delta seal with limiting ring, and the prototype of the copper diamond seals. The report also contains the material certifications, design, finite element analysis, and testing for all of these seals. It is a valuable reference for any vacuum system design. To evaluate the suitability of several types of metal seals for use in the SNS Linac and to determine the torque applied on the bolts, a series of vacuum leak rate tests on the metal seals have been completed at Los Alamos Laboratory. A copper plated flange, using the same type of delta seal that was used for testing with the stainless steel flange, has also been studied and tested. A vacuum seal is desired that requires significantly less loading than a standard ConFlat flange with a copper gasket for the coupling cavity assembly. To save the intersegment space the authors use thinner flanges in the design. The leak rate of the thin ConFlat flange with a copper gasket is a baseline for the vacuum test on all seals and thin flanges. A finite element analysis of a long coupling cavity flange with a copper delta seal has been performed in order to confirm the design of the long coupling cavity flange and the welded area of a cavity body with the flange. This analysis is also necessary to predict a potential deformation of the cavity under the combined force of atmospheric pressure and the seating load of the seal. Modeling of this assembly has been achieved using both HKS/Abaqus and COSMOS

  17. Vacuum seals design and testing for a linear accelerator of the National Spallation Neutron Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Z. Chen; C. Gautier; F. Hemez; N. K. Bultman

    2000-02-01

    Vacuum seals are very important to ensure that the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Linac has an optimum vacuum system. The vacuum joints between flanges must have reliable seals to minimize the leak rate and meet vacuum and electrical requirements. In addition, it is desirable to simplify the installation and thereby also simplify the maintenance required. This report summarizes an investigation of the metal vacuum seals that include the metal C-seal, Energized Spring seal, Helcoflex Copper Delta seal, Aluminum Delta seal, delta seal with limiting ring, and the prototype of the copper diamond seals. The report also contains the material certifications, design, finite element analysis, and testing for all of these seals. It is a valuable reference for any vacuum system design. To evaluate the suitability of several types of metal seals for use in the SNS Linac and to determine the torque applied on the bolts, a series of vacuum leak rate tests on the metal seals have been completed at Los Alamos Laboratory. A copper plated flange, using the same type of delta seal that was used for testing with the stainless steel flange, has also been studied and tested. A vacuum seal is desired that requires significantly less loading than a standard ConFlat flange with a copper gasket for the coupling cavity assembly. To save the intersegment space the authors use thinner flanges in the design. The leak rate of the thin ConFlat flange with a copper gasket is a baseline for the vacuum test on all seals and thin flanges. A finite element analysis of a long coupling cavity flange with a copper delta seal has been performed in order to confirm the design of the long coupling cavity flange and the welded area of a cavity body with the flange. This analysis is also necessary to predict a potential deformation of the cavity under the combined force of atmospheric pressure and the seating load of the seal. Modeling of this assembly has been achieved using both HKS/Abaqus and COSMOS

  18. Safe management of discussed sealed sources in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallaupoma, M.

    2000-01-01

    The future safe development of nuclear energy and progressive increasing use of sealed sources in medicine, research, industry and other fields in Peru, in the past years have determined the necessity to formulate and apply an Institutional policy to assure harmless and ecologically rational management of disused sealed sources in Peru. Some results of the studies, which served as a basis for design and construction of a facility for treatment, conditioning and storage of conditioned sealed sources are presented in this paper. The waste management system in Peru comprises operational and regulatory capabilities. Both of these activities are performed under a legislation. The Nuclear Research Center RACSO has a radioactive waste management department which is in charge of the management of disused sealed sources produced in the country. It is considered as a centralized waste processing and storage facility (WPSF). (author)

  19. Categorization of In-use Radioactive Sealed Sources in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, M.A.; Mohamed, Y.T.; El Haleim, K.A.

    2006-01-01

    Radioactive sealed sources have widespread applications in industry, medicine, research and education. While most sources are of relatively low activity, there are many of medium or very high activity. The mismanagement of high activity sources is responsible for most of the radiological accidents that result in loss of life or disabling injuries. Because of the variety of applications and activities of radioactive sources, a categorization system is necessary so that the controls that are applied to the sources are adequate with its radiological risk. The aim of this work is to use the international Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) categorization system to provide a simple, logical system for grading radioactive sealed sources in Egypt. The categorizations of radioactive sealed sources are based on their potential to cause harm to human health. This study revealed that total of 1916 sources have been used in Egypt in the different applications with a total activity of 89400 Ci according to available data in October 2005. (authors)

  20. Spent sealed radium sources conditioning in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourao, R.P.

    1999-01-01

    The management of spent sealed sources is considered by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) one of the greatest challenges faced by nuclear authorities today, especially in developing countries. One of the Agency's initiatives to tackle this problem is the Spent Radium Sources Conditioning Project, a worldwide project relying on the regional co-operation between countries. A team from the Brazilian nuclear research institute Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN) was chosen as the expert team to carry out the operations in Latin America; since December 1996 radium sources have been safely conditioned in Uruguay, Nicaragua, Guatemala, Ecuador and Paraguay. A Quality Assurance Program was established, encompassing the qualification of the capsule welding process, written operational procedures referring to all major steps of the operation, calibration of monitors and information retrievability. A 200L carbon steel drum-based packaging concept was used to condition the sources, its cavity being designed to receive the lead shield device containing stainless steel capsules with the radium sources. As a result of these operations, a total amount of 2,897 mg of needles, tubes, medical applicators, standard sources for calibration, lightning rods, secondary wastes and contaminated objects were stored in proper conditions and are now under control of the nuclear authorities of the visited countries

  1. Spent sealed radium sources conditioning in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourao, Rogerio Pimenta

    1999-01-01

    The management of spent sealed sources is considered by the IAEA one of the greatest challenges faced by nuclear authorities today, especially in developing countries. One of the Agency's initiatives to tackle this problem is the 'Spent Radium Sources Conditioning Project', a worldwide project relying on the regional cooperation between countries. A CDTN team was chooses as the expert team to carry out the operations in Latin America; since Dec 96 radium sources have been safely conditioned in Uruguay, Nicaragua, Guatemala and Ecuador. A Quality Assurance Program was established, encompassing the qualification of the capsule welding process, written operational procedures referring to all major steps of the operation, calibration of monitors and information retrievability. A 200L carbon steel drum-based packaging concept was used to condition the sources, its cavity being designed to receive the lead shield device containing stainless steel capsules with the radium sources. As a result of these operations, a total amount of 2,629 mg (approx. 98 GBq) of needles, tubes, medical applicators, standard sources for calibration, lightning rods, secondary wastes (generated during the operations) and contaminated objects were stored in proper conditions and are now under control, of the nuclear authorities of the visited countries. (author)

  2. INEL storage facility for sealed sources from the commercial sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kingsford, C.O.; Satterthwaite, B.C.

    1994-08-01

    Commercially owned sealed radiation sources determine by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to be a public health or safety hazard are accepted by the US Department of Energy, under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as material for reuse of recycle. To implement this policy, the sealed sources must be stored until proper disposition is determined. This report documents the investigation and selection process undertaken to locate a suitable storage facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

  3. Algorithms for the process management of sealed source brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engler, M.J.; Ulin, K.; Sternick, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    Incidents and misadministrations suggest that brachytherapy may benefit form clarification of the quality management program and other mandates of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To that end, flowcharts of step by step subprocesses were developed and formatted with dedicated software. The overall process was similarly organized in a complex flowchart termed a general process map. Procedural and structural indicators associated with each flowchart and map were critiqued and pre-existing documentation was revised. open-quotes Step-regulation tablesclose quotes were created to refer steps and subprocesses to Nuclear Regulatory Commission rules and recommendations in their sequences of applicability. Brachytherapy algorithms were specified as programmable, recursive processes, including therapeutic dose determination and monitoring doses to the public. These algorithms are embodied in flowcharts and step-regulation tables. A general algorithm is suggested as a template form which other facilities may derive tools to facilitate process management of sealed source brachytherapy. 11 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  4. International Catalogue of Sealed Radioactive Sources and Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The international catalogue of sealed radioactive sources and devices have two major objectives. The first objective is to provide vital information for a wide range of individuals and organizations on industrially manufactured radioactive sources and devices. The second objective is to facilitate identification of design specifications based on limited information from orphan sources and devices to allow safe handling of these items.

  5. Reduction of Radioactive Waste Through the Reuse and Recycle Policy of the Sealed Radioactive Sources Management

    OpenAIRE

    Marpaung, T

    2012-01-01

    In the past few years, the utilization of sealed source for medical, industrial and research purposes has shown an accelerating increase. This situation will lead to increases in the amount of sealed radioactive. During its use, a sealed radioactive waste will eventually become either a spent sealed source or disused sealed radioactive source (DSRS), due to certain factors. The reduction of the amount of radioactive waste can be executed through the application of reuse and recycle of sealed ...

  6. R1800: a new Co 60 sealed source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freijo, Jose L.; Gomez, Gonzalo

    2005-01-01

    The increasing demand of Co 60 sealed sources in the international market has made necessary the development of new models of sealed sources. R 1800 type source up to 65 KCi has a design that allows to accommodate a wide spectrum of capsules with different specific activities. The company Dioxitek has developed the fabrication process and the design specifications needed to obtain the approval of the product. A first shipment of 100 KCi has been made with success to the United Kingdom in October of the current year. (author) [es

  7. Management of Disused Sealed Sources in Hungary - 13077

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapitany, Sandor

    2013-01-01

    Since 1976 the spent and disused radioactive sources arisen in Hungary are stored in a central storage facility called Radioactive Waste Treatment and Disposal Facility operated by Public Limited Company for Radioactive Waste Management. The Facility is responsible for the record keeping, the waste acceptance procedure, the shipment and the storage or disposal (whether a certain source meets the waste acceptance criteria for disposal or not) of sources. Based on the more than 35 year old operation of the facility many experiences have been gathered regarding the technology for long-term storage of sources, the attitude of the users of sources, the evolution of the legislation and the national record keeping system. Recently a new legislation for the security of radioactive materials (including sources) was introduced, first in Central-Europe. It requires special security arrangements from the facility for transport and for storage. Due to the ongoing retrieval of radioactive waste formerly disposed of, partly containing sealed sources, there is a new challenge in the physical inventory control of historical waste. The paper would show the effect of the changes in the legislation system of record keeping or security on the users' attitude for discard of sources and on the management of the sources in the facility. The facility has a unique storage technology (shallow boreholes) in the narrow region. The sealed sources are placed into vertical pipes sunk into the surface. In the beginning, each of the sources were dropped into the pipe directly, recently they are placed in a metal tube first ensuring the retrieval. The lessons learned will be presented. There were several issues to introduce the new security arrangements (partly financially supported by US DOE) for storage and for transportation of sealed sources. These issues are addressed. In the past part of the sealed sources were disposed together with solid radioactive waste packaged in plastic bags. A waste

  8. Management of Disused Sealed Sources in Hungary - 13077

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapitany, Sandor [PURAM, Puskas Tivadar street 11, Budaors, Pest 2040 (Hungary)

    2013-07-01

    Since 1976 the spent and disused radioactive sources arisen in Hungary are stored in a central storage facility called Radioactive Waste Treatment and Disposal Facility operated by Public Limited Company for Radioactive Waste Management. The Facility is responsible for the record keeping, the waste acceptance procedure, the shipment and the storage or disposal (whether a certain source meets the waste acceptance criteria for disposal or not) of sources. Based on the more than 35 year old operation of the facility many experiences have been gathered regarding the technology for long-term storage of sources, the attitude of the users of sources, the evolution of the legislation and the national record keeping system. Recently a new legislation for the security of radioactive materials (including sources) was introduced, first in Central-Europe. It requires special security arrangements from the facility for transport and for storage. Due to the ongoing retrieval of radioactive waste formerly disposed of, partly containing sealed sources, there is a new challenge in the physical inventory control of historical waste. The paper would show the effect of the changes in the legislation system of record keeping or security on the users' attitude for discard of sources and on the management of the sources in the facility. The facility has a unique storage technology (shallow boreholes) in the narrow region. The sealed sources are placed into vertical pipes sunk into the surface. In the beginning, each of the sources were dropped into the pipe directly, recently they are placed in a metal tube first ensuring the retrieval. The lessons learned will be presented. There were several issues to introduce the new security arrangements (partly financially supported by US DOE) for storage and for transportation of sealed sources. These issues are addressed. In the past part of the sealed sources were disposed together with solid radioactive waste packaged in plastic bags. A

  9. Reducing Risks from Sealed Radioactive Sources in Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Sealed radioactive sources are commonly used in a variety of medical applications for both diagnosis and therapy. The sources used in medical applications usually have high levels of radioactivity and, therefore, have the potential to cause serious and life threatening injuries if used improperly or maliciously, or risky if they become lost or are stolen

  10. Potential GTCC LLW sealed radiation source recycle initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, D.

    1992-04-01

    This report suggests 11 actions that have the potential to facilitate the recycling (reuse or radionuclide) of surplus commercial sealed radiation sources that would otherwise be disposed of as greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste. The suggestions serve as a basis for further investigation and discussion between the Department of Energy, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Agreement States, and the commercial sector. Information is also given that describes sealed sources, how they are used, and problems associated with recycling, including legal concerns. To illustrate the nationwide recycling potential, Appendix A gives the estimated quantity and application information for sealed sources that would qualify for disposal in commercial facilities if not recycle. The report recommends that the Department of Energy initiate the organization of a forum to explore the suggested actions and other recycling possibilities

  11. The Nonactinide Isotope and Sealed Sources Management Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, J. L.; Polansky, G. F.; Parks, D. L.

    2002-01-01

    The Nonactinide Isotope and Sealed Sources Management Group (NISSMG) is sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management and managed by Albuquerque Operations Office (DOE/AL) to serve as a complex-wide resource for the management of DOE-owned Nonactinide Isotope and Sealed Source (NISS) materials. NISS materials are defined as including: any isotope in sealed sources or standards; and isotopes, regardless of form, with atomic number less than 90. The NISSMG assists DOE sites with the storage, reuse, disposition, transportation, and processing of these materials. The NISSMG has focused its efforts to date at DOE closure sites due to the immediacy of their problems. Recently, these efforts were broadened to include closure facilities at non-closure sites. Eventually, the NISSMG plans to make its resources available to all DOE sites. This paper documents the lessons learned in managing NISS materials at DOE sites to date

  12. Development of radioactive sealed sources in epoxy matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benega, Marcos A.G.; Nagatomi, Helio R.; Rostelato, Maria Elisa C.M.; Karan Junior, Dib; Souza, Carla D.; Tiezzi, Rodrigo; Rodrigues, Bruna T.; Peleias Junior, Fernando S.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to study and develop commercial resins for manufacturing solid sealed sources. The sources are produced with radionuclides of barium-133, cesium-137 and cobalt-57. They are used in radiation detectors verification. For the immobilization of the radionuclides in the epoxy matrix, it is made use of emulsifying agents that ensure the miscibility between resin and aqueous radioactive solution, as well as curing agents for controlling, curing and sealing the standard radioactive solution completely. As a result, it is expected to obtain standard sealed sources and equivalent to water. The equivalence to water is an important and necessary characteristic. The radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine are supplied in an aqueous form and the resin applied must have a very similar density comparing to the water. The sources must also be comparable in quality to sources produced internationally, but with low cost and wide available materials in the market. It is intended to create a national technology able to meet the demand of this product in the domestic market and achieve excellence in quality through accreditation and certification of the product by the appropriate agencies. The study of the necessary parameters used in the production of these sources, will bring technology for the manufacture of other categories of standard sealed sources, those used for nuclear medicine, image, laboratories and industry. (author)

  13. Radiation exposure management over a decade in sealed sources fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chougule, Nitin V.; Swaminathan, N.; Singh, P.; Sreenivas, V.; Bairwa, S.M.; Rath, D.P.; Patil, B.N.; Sastry, K.V.S.

    2008-01-01

    Radioactive sealed sources find innumerable applications in medical and industrial applications. 60 Co teletherapy sources are used for the treatment of cancer. In brachytherapy; 137 Cs and 192 Ir are used. Industrial sources using 60 Co, 137 Cs find applications in nucleonic gauges, tracer studies etc. 60 Co and 192 Ir sources are used in radiography also. In addition, 60 Co is widely used in irradiator facilities. Board of Isotopes and Radiation Technology (BRIT) has committed in supply of these sealed sources to various hospitals and industrial institutions in India. Annually, PetaBq (PBq) level of above mentioned isotopes are handled remotely in hot cells, RLG, BARC. This paper brings out a detailed account on the radiological surveillance provided during the fabrication of these sources implementing ALARA. The decrease in collective dose per activity handled is the outcome of improved operation practices which were carried out at various stages of source fabrication. (author)

  14. Radioactive sealed sources production process for industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Paulo de S.; Ngunga, Daniel M.G.; Camara, Julio R.; Vasquez, Pablo A.S.

    2017-01-01

    providing products and services to the private and governmental Brazilian users of industrial radiography and nucleonic control systems. Radioactive sealed sources are commonly used in nondestructive tests as radiography to make inspections and verify the internal structure and integrity of materials and in nucleonic gauges to control level, density, viscosity, etc. in on-line industrial processes. One of the most important activities carried out by this laboratory is related to the inspection of source projectors devices used in industrial radiography and its constituent parts as well as remote handle control assembly drive cable and guide tube systems. The laboratory also provide for the users iridium-192, cobalt-60 and selenium-75 sealed sources and performs quality control tests replacing spent or contaminated radiative sources. All discard of radioactive source is treated as radioactive waste. Additionally, administrative and commercial processes and protocols for exportation and transport of radioactive material are developed by specialized departments. In this work are presented the mean processes and procedures used by the Sealed Source Production Laboratory such as the arrival of the radioactive material to the laboratory and the source projectors, mechanical inspections, source loading, source leaking tests, etc. (author)

  15. Radioactive sealed sources production process for industrial radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Paulo de S.; Ngunga, Daniel M.G.; Camara, Julio R.; Vasquez, Pablo A.S., E-mail: psantos@ipen.br, E-mail: hobeddaniel@gmail.com, E-mail: jrcamara@ipen.br, E-mail: pavsalva@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energética s e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    providing products and services to the private and governmental Brazilian users of industrial radiography and nucleonic control systems. Radioactive sealed sources are commonly used in nondestructive tests as radiography to make inspections and verify the internal structure and integrity of materials and in nucleonic gauges to control level, density, viscosity, etc. in on-line industrial processes. One of the most important activities carried out by this laboratory is related to the inspection of source projectors devices used in industrial radiography and its constituent parts as well as remote handle control assembly drive cable and guide tube systems. The laboratory also provide for the users iridium-192, cobalt-60 and selenium-75 sealed sources and performs quality control tests replacing spent or contaminated radiative sources. All discard of radioactive source is treated as radioactive waste. Additionally, administrative and commercial processes and protocols for exportation and transport of radioactive material are developed by specialized departments. In this work are presented the mean processes and procedures used by the Sealed Source Production Laboratory such as the arrival of the radioactive material to the laboratory and the source projectors, mechanical inspections, source loading, source leaking tests, etc. (author)

  16. Sealed source and device removal and consolidation feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, J.E.; Carter, J.G.; Meyers, R.L.

    1993-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the feasibility of removing Greater-Than-Class C (GTCC) sealed sources from their containment device and consolidating them for transport to a storage or disposal facility. A sealed source is a sealed capsule containing a radioactive material that is placed in a device providing radioactive containment. It is used in the medical, industrial, research, and food-processing communities for calibrating, measuring, gauging, controlling processes, and testing. This feasibility study addresses the key operational, safety, regulatory, and financial requirements of the removal/consolidation process. This report discusses the process to receive, handle, repackage, and ship these sources to an interim or dedicated storage facility until a final disposal repository can be built and become operational (∼ c. 2010). The study identifies operational and facility requirements to perform this work. Hanford, other DOE facilities, and private hot-cell facilities were evaluated to determine which facilities could perform this work. The personnel needed, design and engineering, facility preparation, process waste disposal requirements, and regulatory compliance were evaluated to determine the cost to perform this work. Cost requirements for items that will have to meet future changing regulatory requirements for transportation, transportation container design and engineering, and disposal were not included in this study. The cost associated with in-process consolidation of the sealed sources reported in this study may have not been modified for inflation and were based on 1992 dollars. This study shows that sealed source consolidation is possible with minimal personnel exposure, and would reduce the risk of radioactive releases to the environment. An initial pilot-scale operation could evaluate the possible methods to reduce the cost and consolidate sources

  17. Management of spent sealed radioactive sources in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecille, L.; Taylor, D.

    2000-01-01

    For several years, the European Commission (EC) has been active in the field of spent sealed radioactive sources (SSRS) to improve management schemes and to prepare Euratom Directives that will impact on national legislation and regulatory schemes in European Member States (MS). The main safety issues related to the management of SSRS are described and recommendations made are presented. Additional projects are outlined. (author)

  18. Dismantling, conditioning and repatriation of disused sealed radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar, S.L.; Miranda, C.A.; Saire, A.E.; Ontiveros, G.P.

    2015-01-01

    In Bolivia sealed radioactive sources for medical, industrial and research applications are used; radioactive sources containing a wide range of radionuclides and have different levels of activity and half-lives, they generated a problem when they stop being used. At the end of its useful life these sources are considered obsolete. However, residual levels of radioactivity, which have these sources can be high constituting a potential hazard to personnel and applies to those who benefit from its use and the general public. The aim of this work has been focused mainly on safety issues in the safe handling and management of disused sealed sources. Assignments listed below: 1. Dismantling; 2. Packaging; 3. Return of disused sealed radioactive sources. The actions taken were carried out by the technical teams of the Bolivian Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (IBTEN) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANS) which supports the program 'Global Threat Reduction Initiative's' (GTRI) in the implementation of 'Off -site Source Recovery Program' (OSRP). [es

  19. Radioactive waste management in sealed sources laboratory production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Gilberto

    2001-01-01

    The laboratory of sealed sources production, of Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, was created in 1983 and since then, has produced radioactive sources for industry and engineering in general, having specialization in assembly of radiation sources for non destructive testings, by gammagraphy, with Iridium-192, that represents 98% of the production of laboratory and 2% with the Cobalt-60, used in nuclear gages. The aim of this work, is to quantify and qualify the radioactive wastes generated annually, taking into account, the average of radioactive sources produced, that are approximately 220 sources per year

  20. R I 800. A new cobalt-60 sealed source design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freijo, Jose L.; Gomez, Gonzalo

    2006-01-01

    The consolidation of the international market of Co-60 sources and the perspective of its growth has encouraged the development of new types of sealed sources. The model R I 800 is designed for activities up to 65 kCi and allows a large spectrum of capsules with different specific activities. During three years Dioxitek developed the process of fabrication and qualifications to comply the design requirements and succeeded in the product approval. Today, the initial lot at an industrial scale of R I 800 sources is under fabrication and a first partial shipment of 100 kCi to the United Kingdom was successfully carried out at the end of October 2005. The whole lot is for export. Due to the versatility of the R I 800 sealed sources it was possible to use as raw material 1 MCi of Co-60 imported from Russia, irradiated in Leningrad nuclear power plant. (author) [es

  1. Characterization of Greater-Than-Class C sealed sources. Volume 2, Sealed source characterization and future production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, G.; Griffel, A.

    1994-09-01

    Sealed sources are small, relatively high-activity radioactive sources typically encapsulated in a metallic container. The activities can range from less than 1 mCi to over 1,000 Ci. They are used in a variety of industries and are commonly available. Many of the sources will be classified as Greater-Than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) for the purpose of waste disposal. The US Department of Energy is responsible for disposing of this class of low-level radioactive waste. The characterization of a sealed source is essentially a function of the type of radiation it emits, the principal use for which it is applied, and the activity it contains. The types of radiation of most interest to the GTCC LLW Program are gamma rays and neutrons, since these are emitted by the highest activity sources. The principal uses of most importance are gamma irradiators, medical teletherapy, well logging probes, and other general neutron applications. Current annual production rates of potential Greater-Than-Class C (PGTCC) sources sold to specific licensees were estimated based on data collected from device manufacturers. These estimates were then adjusted for current trends in the industry to estimate future annual production rates. It is expected that there will be approximately 8,000 PGTCC sealed sources produced annually for specific licensees

  2. Sealed Radioactive Sources. Information, Resources, and Advice for Key Groups about Preventing the Loss of Control over Sealed Radioactive Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-10-01

    Among its many activities to improve the safety and security of sealed sources, the IAEA has been investigating the root causes of major accidents and incidents since the 1980's and publishes findings so that others can learn from them. There are growing concerns today about the possibility that an improperly stored source could be stolen and used for malicious purposes. To improve both safety and security, information needs to be in the hands of those whose actions and decisions can prevent a source from being lost or stolen in the first place. The IAEA developed this booklet to help improve communication with key groups about hazards that may result from the loss of control over sealed radioactive sources and measures that should be implemented to prevent such loss of control. Many people may benefit from the information contained in this booklet, particularly those working with sources and those likely to be involved if control over a source is lost; especially: officials in government agencies, first responders, medical users, industrial users and the metal recycling industry. The general public may also benefit from an understanding of the fundamentals of radiation safety. This booklet is comprised of several stand-alone chapters intended to communicate with these key groups. Various accidents that are described and information that is provided are relevant to more than one key group and therefore, some information is repeated throughout the booklet. This booklet seeks to raise awareness of the importance of the safety and security of sealed radioactive sources. However, it is not intended to be a comprehensive 'how to' guide for implementing safety and security measures for sealed radioactive sources. For more information on these measures, readers are encouraged to consult the key IAEA safety and security-related publications identified in this booklet

  3. Integrated Management Program for Radioactive Sealed Sources in Egypt IMPRSS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, A.; El-Adham, K.

    2004-01-01

    Sealed sources are usually in capsules made of stainless steel. They are the size of a pen or a finger and contain one of hundreds of radioactive elements (e.g., Iridium, Radium) or their isotopes. They are air-tight and very durable, contain the radioactive material but not radiation. They are used in the health sector, industry, military, and universities. Incidents occurred in Met Halfa, Egypt, 2000 (Iridium-192); Goiania, Brazil, 1987 (Cesium-137); Mexico and Southwest U.S., 1977 -1984 (Cobalt-60); Peru, 1999 (Iridium-1992); Poland 2001 (Cobalt-60). The IMPRSS Mission is based on a joined partnership between the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, the Egyptian Ministry of Health, the Sandia National Laboratories, the International Atomic Energy Agency and others. The IMPRSS Mission protects human health and the environment in Egypt from mismanaged sealed sources, is developed jointly with MOH and EAEA, provides capabilities for managing radioactive sealed sources in Egypt, increases public awareness, provides education and training, improves emergency response capabilities, develops a permanent disposal facility, ensures the program is self-sustaining and ensures close coordination with the IAEA. Infrastructure how to manage sealed sources is discussed. It includes awareness, tracking and inventory control, security, recovery, conditioning and storage, recycling and disposal. Emergency response, regulatory reform, education and training and its targets are provided. The government of Egypt can protect the people of Egypt and is ready for emergencies. Prevention is the first line of defence and detection is the second line of defence. Adequate Emergency Response saves lives and adequate control reduces risk of mismanaged uses or deliberate misuses of sources. A Cradle-to-Grave approach is built on existing capabilities at EAEA and MOH

  4. Characterization and packaging of disused sealed radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar, S.L.

    2013-01-01

    In Bolivia are generated disused sealed sources and radioactive waste resulting from the use of radioactive materials in industrial, research and medicine. The last includes the diagnosis and treatment. Whereas exposure to ionizing radiation is a potential hazard to personnel who applies it, to those who benefit from its use or for the community at large, it is necessary to control the activities in this field. The Instituto Boliviano de Ciencia y Tecnologia Nuclear - IBTEN is working on a regional project from International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA, RLA/09/062 Project - TSA 4, Strengthening the National Infrastructure and Regulatory Framework for the Safe Management of Radioactive waste in Latin America. This Project has strengthened the regulatory framework regarding the safe management of radioactive waste. The aim of this work was focused primarily on the security aspects in the safe management of disused sealed sources. The tasks are listed below: 1. Characterization of disused sealed sources 2. Preparation for transport to temporary storage 3. Control of all disused radioactive sources. (author)

  5. Development of methodology for the characterization of radioactive sealed sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Robson de Jesus

    2010-01-01

    Sealed radioactive sources are widely used in many applications of nuclear technology in industry, medicine, research and others. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) estimates tens of millions sources in the world. In Brazil, the number is about 500 thousand sources, if the Americium-241 sources present in radioactive lightning rods and smoke detectors are included in the inventory. At the end of the useful life, most sources become disused, constitute a radioactive waste, and are then termed spent sealed radioactive sources (SSRS). In Brazil, this waste is collected by the research institutes of the Nuclear Commission of Nuclear Energy and kept under centralized storage, awaiting definition of the final disposal route. The Waste Management Laboratory (WML) at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute is the main storage center, having received until July 2010 about 14.000 disused sources, not including the tens of thousands of lightning rod and smoke detector sources. A program is underway in the WML to replacing the original shielding by a standard disposal package and to determining the radioisotope content and activity of each one. The identification of the radionuclides and the measurement of activities will be carried out with a well type ionization chamber. This work aims to develop a methodology for measuring or to determine the activity SSRS stored in the WML accordance with its geometry and determine their uncertainties. (author)

  6. Radiation safety of sealed sources and equipment containing them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The guide gives information and requirements concerning the technical construction, installation, use and licensing of devices containing sealed radioactive sources in order to ensure the operational safety. The requirements are in accordance with the international standards ISO 1677, ISO 2919, ISO 7205 and Nordic Recommendations on radiation protection for radionuclide gauges in permanent installation. The guide explains also the practical measures that must be taken into account when a radiation device is repaired, maintained or removed from the use. (8 refs.)

  7. Conditioning and storage of spent sealed radium sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cholerzynski, A.; Tomczak, W.

    2001-01-01

    In Poland sealed radioactive sources (SRS) are extensively used in medicine and in industry. There are mainly Co-60, Cs-137, lr-192 and also historical sources contain in Ra-226. The Radioactive Waste Management Department (ZDUOP) of the Institute of Atomic Energy at Swierk is the only organization licensed for the management, storage and disposal of radioactive waste in Poland. ZDUOP deals with all radioactive waste in the country. Storage and disposal of SRS is one of the most important part of its activity. Every year ZDUOP collects about 1000 spent SRS which total activity is near 600 GBq. Spent Ra-226 sources are a special case and therefore are required suitable procedures. Due to their production according to earlier standards and their undesirable characteristics, leakage of these sources is highly possible and practically observed. For this reason conditioning of radium sources needs strict requirements and quality assurance procedure to guarantee their safe storage for an extended period of time (e.g. 40-70 years). The National Radioactive Waste Repository is superficial type repository and considered as temporary storage site for long-lived waste. A storage facility for spent SRS has been properly prepared and licensed by the regulatory body. This facility consist of several concrete chambers which floor is lined stainless steel. The existing regulatory framework for sealed radioactive sources entered into force with issue of the Atomic Law in 1986

  8. Radiation safety and inventory of sealed radiation sources in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.; Mannan, A.

    2001-01-01

    Sealed radiation sources (SRS) of various types and activities are widely used in industry, medicine, agriculture, research and teaching in Pakistan. The proper maintenance of records of SRS is mandatory for users/licensees. Since 1956, more than 2000 radiation sources of different isotopes having activities of Bq to TBq have been imported. Of these, several hundred sources have been disposed of and some have been exported/returned to the suppliers. To ensure the safety and security of the sources and to control and regulate the safe use of radiation sources in various disciplines, the Directorate of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection (DNSRP), the implementing arm of the regulatory authority in the country, has introduced a system for notifying, registering and licensing the use of all types of SRS. In order to update the inventory of SRS used throughout the country, the DNSRP has developed a database. (author)

  9. Control of sealed sources and equipments used in gammagraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahyun, A.; Sordi, G.-M.A.A.; Biazzini Filho, F.L.

    1988-01-01

    The Radiation Protection Department of the IPEN-CNEN/SP, in 1987, formed a section incharged to control all radioactive material: a) received by the IPEN-CNEN/SP; b) produced by the IPEN-CNEN/SP; c) delivered from the IPEN-CNEN/SP. The aim of this section is to maintain a permanent control of all radioactive sources movement got at the IPEN-CNEN/SP. This control is performed with a microcomputer, trademark MICRODIGITAL, model TK3000 //e, 256 KBytes of memory, utilizing the TOTALWORKS program. This program permits to have the origin, characteristics and address of the radioactive sources, its sites in the IPEN, its uses, etc. Already we have put in the microcomputer, the control of the sealed sources produced used in nondestructive test, the inspection control of the gamagraphy irradiator and the control of the depleted sources. The next step is to introduce in the computer the inspection of the remote control of the irradiator. The aim of this paper is to describe the control program that was already put on. This radioactive material control was started with the sealed sources used in gamagraphy because we believe that is the field with the most likelihood of accident in the population, and therefore it's that need the most hard control about the site and the performance of the irradiation facility. (author) [pt

  10. Seals and sealing handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Flitney, Robert K

    2014-01-01

    Seals and Sealing Handbook, 6th Edition provides comprehensive coverage of sealing technology, bringing together information on all aspects of this area to enable you to make the right sealing choice. This includes detailed coverage on the seals applicable to static, rotary and reciprocating applications, the best materials to use in your sealing systems, and the legislature and regulations that may impact your sealing choices. Updated in line with current trends this updated reference provides the theory necessary for you to select the most appropriate seals for the job and with its 'Failur

  11. Characterization of Greater-Than-Class C sealed sources. Volume 3, Sealed sources held by general licensees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, G.

    1994-09-01

    This is the third volume in a series of three volumes characterizing the population of sealed sources that may become greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW). In this volume, those sources possessed by general licensees are discussed. General-licensed devices may contain sealed sources with significant amounts of radioactive material. However, the devices are designed to be safe to use without special knowledge of radiological safety practices. Devices containing Am-241 or Cm-244 sources are most likely to become GTCC LLW after concentration averaging. This study estimates that there are about 16,000 GTCC devices held by general licensees; 15,000 of these contain Am-241 sources and 1,000 contain Cm-244 sources. Additionally, this study estimates that there are 1,600 GTCC devices sold to general licensees each year. However, due to a lack of available information on general licensees in Agreement States, these estimates are uncertain. This uncertainty is quantified in the low and high case estimates given in this report, which span approximately an order of magnitude

  12. Prototypes of phosphorus-32 sealed sources for use in Brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anaya Garro, Olgger; Vela Mora, Mariano; Revilla Silva, Angel Revilla

    2005-01-01

    It has developed prototypes of phosphorus-32 sealed sources for use in Brachytherapy. This one was made in two stages, at the first one, we designed and constructed the container (capsule), the filling system and the sealed system; at the second one, we made the irradiation of the capsules containing the 'target'. The prototypes was made of aluminum in cylindrical geometry. During the irradiation test was made using two different dimensions: one of 1 mm outer diameter and 1 cm length and another one of 0.8 mm outer diameter and 5 mm length. They were radiated in the core of the RP-10 research reactor, at 7.93 x10 13 n/cm 2 .s thermal neutron flux during 27 operation cycles. Activities of 144.53 MBq (3.91 mCi) and 107.67 MBq (2.91 mCi) was obtained for each case. This activities are adequate to restenosis and for some tumors treatment. We can observed that the capsules irradiated passed visual inspection in its physical integrity (leakage and geometry). It has been demonstrated, that the beta radiation for his minor power of penetration and its high interaction, causes major local damage to the malignant tissue, minimizing the damage of the healthy surrounding tissues. It has been advisable to use for the treatment of illnesses of the circulatory system and some tumors. At the present, the source of strontium-90 are the most beta ray source used, but of this one are obtained as fission product of uranium target, where valuable radioactive waste is generated, whereas if we were using phosphorus-32 that we propose, radioactive waste would not be generated since it would take place directly as sealed source, for reaction (n, β). (author)

  13. Design and production of activimeters verification sealed radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serra, R.; Hernandez Rivero, A. T.; Oropesa, P.; Rapado, M.; Falcon, L.

    2006-01-01

    Measurement in a radionuclide calibrator (activimeter) of the doses to be administered to a patient for diagnosis or radiotherapeutic treatment is an essential element in Nuclear Medicine practice. To assure that patient will receive the optimal doses that guarantee the necessary quality of the image to be studied or optimum radiotherapeutic effect, the activity determination should fulfil established accuracy requirements. To this aim, the overall uncertainty in activity determination must not surpass a preestablished limit of about 10 % for the expanded uncertainty of the activity value (with a coverage factor k = 3). To have suitable equipment, periodically calibrated for specialized and authorized specialists and frequently verified in inter calibration periods to guarantee detection of any malfunctioning, are essential requirements to assure the compliance with the prescribed regulations and limiting values. This paper describes the design and production of two models of 137 Cs activimeters verification sealed radioactive sources elaborated with this aim at the Radionuclide Metrology Department of the Isotope Centre of Cuba. Taking into account the international experience in this field was defined 3 -10 MBq as convenient activity range, the 137 Cs as a suitable radionuclide, and a classification ISO/99/C22212 (ISO 2919:1999) for the sealed sources to be obtained. In designed and produced models the activity is bonded in a hydrogel copolymer obtained by gamma irradiation, in a 60 Co irradiator, of a mixture of a 137 Cs aqueous solution with an approximate activity of 5 MBq with two proper monomers (acrylamide and methacrylic acid). The density of obtained copolymer is similar to that of the radioactive solutions employed in nuclear medicine departments for diagnosis and therapy. The obtained sources have appropriate physical stability for a temperature range between 40 o C below zero and 80 o C, as well as for defined activity range. The stability of the

  14. Management and disposal of disused sealed radioactive sources in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, D.A.; Angus, M.J.; Cecille, L.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Sealed radioactive sources have been widely used for many decades in industry, medicine and research. Although most countries have laid down a regulatory framework to control sealed sources, there are still a number of uncertainties concerning the management of historical Ra- 226 alpha sources and the possibility of retrieving non-registered sources. Both these uncertainties may represent high radiological risks for the population. In addition, management schemes and practises implemented in different countries can be somewhat conflicting and create problems for storage and disposal. This paper describes the results of three studies that were carried out between 1998 and 2001 to consider the situation relating to the regulation and management of spent sealed radioactive sources (SSRS) in each of the fifteen current European Union (EU) member states and the ten central and eastern European (C and EE) countries that are currently being considered for admission to the European Union (namely, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia). The general aim of the studies was to acquire a thorough understanding of the management of SSRS in each country, in order to recommend improvements in management schemes and to establish whether the application of common disposal criteria would be advantageous. The studies covered the following activities: Estimation of the inventory of SSRS in store and disposed in each country; Analysis of the relevant regulations and regulatory framework in each country; Description and review of the current management practises in each country; Estimation of the number of unregistered SSRS (including identification of the reasons why SSRS are lost' and recommending ways of recovering lost' sources). It was important to understand the full life-cycle of sealed radioactive sources, from manufacture through to disposal. Much of the information contained in these studies was obtained

  15. The management and disposal of sealed sources in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drogou, A.

    2005-01-01

    The utilisation of sealed sources is very widespread in France, both in the medical and industrial fields. The rules for the management and retrieval of the sources are defined in the Decree of 4 April 2002. The principle of the retrieval of the sources is reliant on the supplier who is obliged to take back these sources. Financial guarantee systems have consequently been established to provide compensation for any failure by the supplier to take back the sources. The problems today in France are the absence of a disposal route and the management of the orphan sources. These have been integrated into the drawing up of the National Waste Management Plan (PNGDR) issued by the Minister for the Environment. Certain ideas and principles for the disposal of the sources have already been presented: Development of the principles of justification and recycling, development of disposal routes, development of a retrieval system for orphan sources; the importance of the establishment of financial guarantees for all the sources, the importance of consistency between the European regulations in order to have a simple return to the supplier in the case of imported sources. (author)

  16. Review of Sealed Source Designs and Manufacturing Techniques Affecting Disused Source Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-10-01

    This publication presents an investigation on the influence of the design and technical features of sealed radioactive sources (SRSs) on predisposal and disposal activities when the sources become disused. The publication also addresses whether design modifications could contribute to safer and/or more efficient management of disused sources without compromising the benefits provided by the use of the sealed sources. This technical publication aims to collect information on the most typical design features and manufacturing techniques of sealed radioactive sources and examines how they affect the safe management of disused sealed radioactive sources (DSRS). The publication also aims to assist source designers and manufacturers by discussing design features that are important from the waste management point of view. It has been identified that most SRS manufacturers use similar geometries and materials for their designs and apply improved and reliable manufacturing techniques e.g. double- encapsulation. These designs and manufacturing techniques have been proven over time to reduce contamination levels in fabrication and handling, and improve source integrity and longevity. The current source designs and materials ensure as well as possible that SRSs will maintain their integrity in use and when they become disused. No significant improvement options to current designs have been identified. However, some design considerations were identified as important to facilitate source retrieval, to increase the possibility of re-use and to ensure minimal contamination risk and radioactive waste generation at recycling. It was also concluded that legible identifying markings on a source are critical for DSRS management. The publication emphasizes the need for a common understanding of the radioactive source's recommended working life (RWL) for manufacturers and regulators. The conditions of use (COU) are important for the determination of RWL. A formal system for specification

  17. Seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welsher, R.A.G.

    1982-01-01

    An aperture through a biological shield is sealed by a flexible sheath having a beading at one end located on an annular member slidable in the aperture such that the beading bears in sealing engagement against the sides of the aperture. The annular member is retained by a retractable latch and can be rejected by pushing it out of the aperture using a replacement annular member with a replacement sheath thereon to butt against the annular member to be rejected. The replacement annular member may be mounted on a tubular device having an outer co-axial member for operating the latch when the replacement annular member butts against the annular member to be rejected. Applications include effecting a seal between a remote handling equipment and a wall through which the equipment extends. (author)

  18. Safety considerations of disposal of disused sealed sources in near surface facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pla, E.

    2003-01-01

    The report presents European commission studies on sealed radioactive sources - Management of Spent Radiation Sources in the European Union: Quantities, Storage, Recycling and Disposal. EUR 16960 EN. EC 1996; Management of sealed radioactive sources produced and sold in the Russian Federation. EUR 18191 EN. EC, 1999; Management and Disposal of Disused Sealed Radioactive Sources in the European Union. EUR 18186 EN. EC, 2000; Management of Spent Sealed Radioactive Sources in Central and Eastern Europe. EUR 19842 EN. EC, April 2001; Management of Spent Sealed Radioactive Sources in Bulgaria, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania and Slovakia. EUR 20654 EN. EC, January 2003. The conclusions and recommendations in them are given. The International catalogue of sealed radioactive sources and devices is described

  19. Development and application of test apparatus for classification of sealed source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Hak; Seo, Ki Seog; Bang, Kyoung Sik; Lee, Ju Chan; Son, Kwang Je

    2007-01-01

    Sealed sources have to conducted the tests be done according to the classification requirements for their typical usages in accordance with the relevant domestic notice standard and ISO 2919. After each test, the source shall be examined visually for loss of integrity and pass an appropriate leakage test. Tests to class a sealed source are temperature, external pressure, impact, vibration and puncture test. The environmental test conditions for tests with class numbers are arranged in increasing order of severity. In this study, the apparatus of tests, except the vibration test, were developed and applied to three kinds of sealed source. The conditions of the tests to class a sealed source were stated and the difference between the domestic notice standard and ISO 2919 were considered. And apparatus of the tests were made. Using developed apparatus we conducted the test for 192 Ir brachytherapy sealed source and two kinds of sealed source for industrial radiography. 192 Ir brachytherapy sealed source is classified by temperature class 5, external pressure class 3, impact class 2 and vibration and puncture class 1. Two kinds of sealed source for industrial radiography are classified by temperature class 4, external pressure class 2, impact and puncture class 5 and vibration class 1. After the tests, Liquid nitrogen bubble test and vacuum bubble test were done to evaluate the safety of the sealed sources

  20. Reduction of Radioactive Waste Through the Reuse and Recycle Policy of the Sealed Radioactive Sources Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Marpaung

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years, the utilization of sealed source for medical, industrial and research purposes has shown an accelerating increase. This situation will lead to increases in the amount of sealed radioactive. During its use, a sealed radioactive waste will eventually become either a spent sealed source or disused sealed radioactive source (DSRS, due to certain factors. The reduction of the amount of radioactive waste can be executed through the application of reuse and recycle of sealed source. The reuse and recycle policy for spent and disused sealed sources are not already specified yet. The reuse of spent sealed sources can be applied only for the sources which had been used in the medical field for radiotherapy, namely the reuse of a teletherapy Co-60 source in a calibration facility. The recycle of a spent sealed source can be performed for radioactive sources with relatively high activities and long half-lives; however, the recycling activity may only be performed by the manufacturer. To avoid legal conflicts, in the amendment to the Government Regulation No.27 Year 2002 on Management of Radioactive Waste, there will be a recommendation for a new scheme in the management of radioactive waste to facilitate the application of the principles of reduce, reuse, and recycle

  1. Reduction of Radioactive Waste Through the Reuse and Recycle Policy of the Sealed Radioactive Sources Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marpaung, T.

    2012-01-01

    In the past few years, the utilization of sealed source for medical, industrial and research purposes has shown an accelerating increase. This situation will lead to increases in the amount of sealed radioactive. During its use, a sealed radioactive waste will eventually become either a spent sealed source or disused sealed radioactive source (DSRS), due to certain factors. The reduction of the amount of radioactive waste can be executed through the application of reuse and recycle of sealed source. The reuse and recycle policy for spent and disused sealed sources are not already specified yet. The reuse of spent sealed sources can be applied only for the sources which had been used in the medical field for radiotherapy, namely the reuse of a teletherapy Co-60 source in a calibration facility. The recycle of a spent sealed source can be performed for radioactive sources with relatively high activities and long half-lives; however, the recycling activity may only be performed by the manufacturer. To avoid legal conflicts, in the amendment to the Government Regulation No.27 Year 2002 on Management of Radioactive Waste, there will be a recommendation for a new scheme in the management of radioactive waste to facilitate the application of the principles of reduce, reuse, and recycle (author)

  2. Development of quality assurance procedures for production of sealed radiation source

    CERN Document Server

    Nam, J H; Cho, W K; Han, H S; Hong, S B; Kim, K H; Kim, S D; Lee, Y G; Lim, N J

    2001-01-01

    The quality assurance procedures for sealed radiation sources production using HANARO and RIPF have been developed. The detailed quality assurance procedures are essential to manage the whole work process effectively and ensure the quality of the produced sealed sources. Through applying this quality assurance procedures to the entire production works of the sealed radiation sources, it is expected that the quality of the products, the safety of the works and the satisfaction of the customers will be increased.

  3. The Spallation Neutron Source RF Reference System

    CERN Document Server

    Piller, Maurice; Crofford, Mark; Doolittle, Lawrence; Ma, Hengjie

    2005-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) RF Reference System includes the master oscillator (MO), local oscillator(LO) distribution, and Reference RF distribution systems. Coherent low noise Reference RF signals provide the ability to control the phase relationships between the fields in the front-end and linear accelerator (linac) RF cavity structures. The SNS RF Reference System requirements, implementation details, and performance are discussed.

  4. The backfilling and sealing of radioactive waste repositories. V. 1. Text - Reference - List of symbols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The report is in two volumes: Volume 1 contains the main text, the references and a list of symbols, and Volume 2, all the figues, tables and appendices. In Volume 1, backfilling and sealing is considered in relation to the geological, physical and chemical environments. There follows a detailed evaluation of the role and performance of the backfilling and sealing system in terms of thermal, hydraulic, chemical buffering, radionuclide retention, mechanical properties and behaviour as well as longevity. The results of the listing, screening and classification of a comprehensive range of candidate backfill materials are summarized. The different candidate materials are examined

  5. Reference Sources: Little Known to Basic

    Science.gov (United States)

    RQ, 1970

    1970-01-01

    This article lists seventy-eight reference sources, and is divided into the following four sections: (1) Useful But Little-Known Reference Tools by John Fetros, (2) The Statesman's Year-Book by James Becker, (3) Single Volume Scientific Encyclopedias by Jack Clarke and (4) Ten Basic Sources of Business and Economic Statistics by James Woy. (MF)

  6. 10 CFR 34.27 - Leak testing and replacement of sealed sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leak testing and replacement of sealed sources. 34.27... SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Equipment § 34.27 Leak testing and replacement... radiographic exposure device and leak testing of any sealed source must be performed by persons authorized to...

  7. Management of disused sealed sources from the nuclear industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Xuanlin

    2002-01-01

    Since the founding of the nuclear industry in China, more than 8000 disused sealed sources accumulated of which more than 1800 are Radium sources. Most of these sources were produced during the period 1960-1980. The disused radioactive sources are temporarily stored in a user's interim store. A project to manage these disused sealed sources is under way which includes inventory investigation, inspection, collection, transportation and long-term storage. (author)

  8. The ultimate solution. Disposal of disused sealed radioactive sources (DSRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heard, R.G.

    2011-01-01

    The borehole disposal concept (BDC) was first presented to ICEM by Potier, J-M in 2005. This paper repeats the basics introduced by Potier and relates further developments. It also documents the history of the development of the BDC. For countries with no access to existing or planned geological disposal facilities for radioactive wastes, the only options for managing high activity or long-lived disused radioactive sources are to store them indefinitely, return them to the supplier or find an alternative method of disposal. Disused sealed radioactive sources (DSRS) pose an unacceptable radiological and security risk if not properly managed. Out of control sources have already led to many high-profile incidents or accidents. One needs only to remember the recent accident in India that occurred earlier this year. Countries without solutions in place need to consider the future management of DSRSs urgently. An on-going problem in developing countries is what to do with sources that cannot be returned to the suppliers, sources for which there is no further use, sources that have not been maintained in a working condition and sources that are no longer suitable for their intended purpose. Disposal in boreholes is intended to be simple and effective, meeting the same high standards of long-term radiological safety as any other type of radioactive waste disposal. It is believed that the BDC can be readily deployed with simple, cost-effective technologies. These are appropriate both to the relatively small amounts and activities of the wastes and the resources that can realistically be found in developing countries. The South African Nuclear Energy Corporation Ltd (Necsa) has carried out project development and demonstration activities since 1996. The project looked into the technical feasibility, safety and economic viability of BDC under the social, economic, environmental and infrastructural conditions currently prevalent in Africa. Implementation is near at hand with

  9. Shielding design of disposal container for disused sealed radioactive source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Suk Hoon; Kim, Ju Youl [FNC Technology Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Disused Sealed Radioactive Sources (DSRSs), which are stored temporally in the centralized storage facility of Korea Radioactive Waste Agency (KORAD), will be disposed of in the low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal facility located in Wolsong. Accordingly, the future plan on DSRS disposal should be established as soon as possible in connection with the construction and operation plan of disposal facility. In this study, as part of developing the systematic management plan, the radiation shielding analysis for three types of disposal container was performed for all kinds of radionuclides (excluding mixed sources) contained in DSRSs generated from domestic area using MicroShield and MCNP5 codes in consideration of the preliminary post-closure safety assessment result for disposal options, source-specific characteristics, and etc. In accordance with the analysis result, thickness of inner container for general disposal container and dimensions (i.e. diameter and height) of inner capsule for two types of special disposal container were determined as 3 mm, OD40×H120 mm (for type 1), and OD100× H240 mm (for type 2), respectively. These values were reflected in the conceptual design of DSRS disposal container, and the structural integrity of each container was confrmed through the structural analysis carried out separately from this study. Given the shielding and structural analysis results, the conceptual design derived from this study sufficiently fulfills the technical standards in force and the design performance level. And consequently, it is judged that the safe management for DSRSs to be disposed of is achieved by utilizing the disposal container with the conceptual design devised.

  10. Shielding design of disposal container for disused sealed radioactive source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Suk Hoon; Kim, Ju Youl

    2017-01-01

    Disused Sealed Radioactive Sources (DSRSs), which are stored temporally in the centralized storage facility of Korea Radioactive Waste Agency (KORAD), will be disposed of in the low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal facility located in Wolsong. Accordingly, the future plan on DSRS disposal should be established as soon as possible in connection with the construction and operation plan of disposal facility. In this study, as part of developing the systematic management plan, the radiation shielding analysis for three types of disposal container was performed for all kinds of radionuclides (excluding mixed sources) contained in DSRSs generated from domestic area using MicroShield and MCNP5 codes in consideration of the preliminary post-closure safety assessment result for disposal options, source-specific characteristics, and etc. In accordance with the analysis result, thickness of inner container for general disposal container and dimensions (i.e. diameter and height) of inner capsule for two types of special disposal container were determined as 3 mm, OD40×H120 mm (for type 1), and OD100× H240 mm (for type 2), respectively. These values were reflected in the conceptual design of DSRS disposal container, and the structural integrity of each container was confrmed through the structural analysis carried out separately from this study. Given the shielding and structural analysis results, the conceptual design derived from this study sufficiently fulfills the technical standards in force and the design performance level. And consequently, it is judged that the safe management for DSRSs to be disposed of is achieved by utilizing the disposal container with the conceptual design devised

  11. Quality assurance program plan for FRG sealed isotopic heat sources project (C-229)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanke, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    This QAPP implements the Quality Assurance Program Plan for the FRG Sealed Isotopic Heat Sources Project (C-229). The heat source will be relocated from the 324 Building and placed in interim storage at the Central Waste Complex (CWC)

  12. Radiotracer and Sealed Source Applications in Sediment Transport Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The investigation of sediment transport in seas and rivers is crucial for civil engineering and littoral protection and management. Coastlines and seabeds are dynamic regions, with sediments undergoing periods of erosion, transport, sedimentation and consolidation. The main causes for erosion in beaches include storms and human actions such as the construction of seawalls, jetties and the dredging of stream mouths. Each of these human actions disrupts the natural flow of sand. Current policies and practices are accelerating the beach erosion process. However, there are viable options available to mitigate this damage and to provide for sustainable coastlines. Radioactive methods can help in investigating sediment dynamics, providing important parameters for better designing, maintaining and optimizing civil engineering structures. Radioisotopes as tracers and sealed sources have been useful and often irreplaceable tools for sediment transport studies. The training course material is based on lecture notes and practical works delivered by many experts in IAEA supported activities. Lectures and case studies were reviewed by a number of specialists in this field

  13. Management of disused sealed sources from nuclear gauges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, Luiz Carlos Alves; Silva, Fabio

    2001-01-01

    In Brazil there are about 600 Radioactive Facilities that operate 3300 nuclear gauges. The management goal for these sources is minimize the waste that must be stored and disposed, through reutilization or a more efficient method of disposal conditioning. A database is being implemented in order to facilitate the organization and retrieval of information about sources stored at CDTN. Examples of the information being included are: radionuclide, activity and date (e.g. 60 Co, 1 GBq, January 14th 1988); physical and chemical form of radionuclide; producer of the source; source type including dimensions and shape; source serial number; results of tests which have been done, for example leak tests; details of the equipment, i.e. dimensions, material, etc.; measured dose rates (at the surface and at I-m distance from it); whether the source was originally conditioned as special form radioactive material; working life of the equipment, etc. It is intended to reutilize only sealed sources containing certified special form radioactive material. Sources received at CDTN with this certification will be wipe tested in a hot-cell. A special Geiger Muller detector for measuring very low level radiation will be used to detect leakage at detection levels, even lower than the established leakage limit in the CNEN-NE-5.01 Standard. If the source does not exhibit leakage and the shutter operation and shielding of the nuclear gauge is in good condition, it will made available for reuse at a cost savings to the user over the purchase of a new source. Nuclear gauges whose sources do not meet these requirements will be dismantled and the sources efficiently conditioned. The CDTN guidelines for establishing a methodology for conditioning disused sources are: Dismantling the nuclear gauges in the hot-cell; Collecting the sources in an double-lead shielded cylindrical cavity below the hot-cell, until the limit of activity or level is reached; Transferring the internal shielding with the

  14. Archaeology: A Guide to Reference Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Doreen, Comp.

    This bibliographic guide lists reference sources available at McGill University for research in prehistory and non-classical archaeology. No exclusively biographical sources have been included, but many of the encyclopedias and handbooks contain biographical information and are annotated accordingly. Titles are listed in the following categories:…

  15. Offsite source recovery project - ten years of sealed source recovery and disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitworth, Julia Rose [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pearson, Mike [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Witkowski, Ioana [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wald - Hopkins, Mark [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cuthbertson, A [NNSA

    2010-01-01

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative's (GTRI) Offsite Source Recovery Project (OSRP) has been recovering excess and unwanted radioactive sealed sources for ten years. In January 2009, GTRI announced that the project had recovered 20,000 sealed radioactive sources (this number has since increased to more than 23,000). This project grew out of early efforts at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to recover and disposition excess Plutonium-239 (Pu-239) sealed sources that were distributed in the 1960s and 1970s under the Atoms for Peace Program. Decades later, these sources began to exceed their special form certifications or fall out of regular use. As OSRP has collected and stored sealed sources, initially using 'No Path Forward' waste exemptions for storage within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, it has consistently worked to create disposal pathways for the material it has recovered. The project was initially restricted to recovering sealed sources that would meet the definition of Greater-than-Class-C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste, assisting DOE in meeting its obligations under the Low-level Radioactive Waste Policy Act Amendments (PL 99-240) to provide disposal for this type of waste. After being transferred from DOE-Environmental Management (EM) to the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to be part of GTRI, OSRP's mission was expanded to include not only material that would be classified as GTCC when it became waste, but also any other materials that might constitute a 'national security consideration.' It was recognized at the time that the GTCC category was a waste designation having to do with environmental consequence, rather than the threat posed by deliberate or accidental misuse. The project faces barriers to recovery in many areas, but disposal continues to be one of the more difficult to overcome. This paper discusses OSRP's disposal efforts over its 10-year history. For sources

  16. Safety considerations in the disposal of disused sealed radioactive sources in borehole facilities

    CERN Document Server

    International Atomic Energ Agency. Vienna

    2003-01-01

    Sealed radioactive sources are used in medicine, industry and research for a wide range of purposes. They can contain different radionuclides in greatly varying amounts. At the end of their useful lives, they are termed 'disused sources' but their activity levels can still be quite high. They are, for all practical purposes, another type of radioactive waste that needs to be disposed of safely. Disused sealed radioactive sources can represent a significant hazard to people if not managed properly. Many countries have no special facilities for the management or disposal of radioactive waste, as they have no nuclear power programmes requiring such facilities. Even in countries with developed nuclear programmes, disused sealed sources present problems as they often fall outside the common categories of radioactive waste for which disposal options have been identified. As a result, many disused sealed sources are kept in storage. Depending on the nature of the storage arrangements, this situation may represent a ...

  17. Order of 25 March 1981 concerning the approval of special form radioactive materials in sealed sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This order determines the models of sealed sources which constitute special form radioactive materials within the meaning of the Order of 24 November 1977 concerning the characteristics of such materials. (NEA) [fr

  18. Source and special nuclear material sealing and labeling requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, K.N.

    1978-04-01

    Purpose of this document is to define requirements for the use of tamper-indicating seals and identifying labels on SS Material containers at Rockwell Hanford Operations. The requirements defined in this document are applicable to all Rockwell Hanford Operation employees involved in handling, processing, packaging, transferring, shipping, receiving or storing SS Material

  19. Sealed source and device design safety testing. Volume 4: Technical report on the findings of Task 4, Investigation of sealed source for paper mill digester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benac, D.J.; Iddings, F.A.

    1995-10-01

    This report covers the Task 4 activities for the Sealed Source and Device Safety testing program. SwRI was contracted to investigate a suspected leaking radioactive source that was installed in a gauge that was on a paper mill digester. The actual source that was leaking was not available, therefore, SwRI examined another source. SwRI concluded that the encapsulated source examined by SwRI was not leaking. However, the presence of Cs-137 on the interior and exterior of the outer encapsulation and hending tube suggests that contamination probably occurred when the source was first manufactured, then installed in the handling tube

  20. Canadian Reference Sources 1980--A Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Dorothy E.

    1981-01-01

    Provides a bibliography of 52 reference sources and 24 new editions and supplements, excluding annuals. Topics include science and technology, art, history, university courses, regional information, native languages, museums, law, geography, Canadian culture, dissertations, sports, antiques, botany, and a variety of directories. (CHC)

  1. Distribution of sealed sources in use or stored by user on-site in Republic of Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simeonov, G.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Distribution of the sealed sources (SS) in use or stored by user on-site in Republic of Bulgaria has been determined by using the categorization system proposed by Institut National des Radioelements (IRE), Belgium. The criteria used to categorize the SS were the handling and monitoring equipment needed for dismantling, checking and treatment of spent sealed sources (SSS) before storage and/or final disposal. The categorization system was proposed as a basis for estimation of the needs of equipment for the new treatment and storage facility for SSS in the site of Novi Han radioactive waste repository. The categorization used to evaluate the distribution of SS in use or stored by user on-site is shown in Table I. Sealed sources are widely used in Bulgaria for industrial, medical, domestic and scientific purposes. Presently, the list of registered users of sealed beta-gamma and neutron SS consists of 387 industrial users, 78 research and control users and 14 medical users. In addition there are 48 registered users of Pu-239 static eliminators and an estimated number shows about 1000 users of Pu-239, Am- 241 or Kr-85 sources in smoke detectors. Wide range of activities with SS is controlled by CUEAPP, as license is required for use and/or storage by user of every single source. An electronic data base of the licenses for use of atomic energy is operated by CUAEPP. The investigation covered the sealed sources registered in the data base. The number of sources in different categories, their use and typical activity have been determined. The same approach has been used separately for sealed sources in use, as well as for spent sources stored by user on-site. Special attention has been paid to high activity gamma-sources used in teletherapy and irradiators, as their activities were corrected for radioactive decay (reference date: March 2001); the exact location and conditions of use or storage of every such source were established. As a result of the

  2. Conditioning of disused sealed sources in countries without disposal facility: Short term gain - long term pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benitez-Navarro, J.C.; Salgado-Mojena, M.

    2002-01-01

    Owing to the considerable development in managing disused sealed radioactive sources (DSRS), the limited availability of disposal practices for them, and the new recommendations for the use of borehole disposal concept, it was felt that a paper reviewing the existing recommendations could be a starting point of discussion on the retrievability of the sources. Even when no international consensus exists as to an acceptable solution for the challenge of disposal of disused sealed sources, the 'Best Available Technology' for managing most of them, recommended for developing countries, included the cementation of the sources. The waste packages prepared in such a way do not allow any flexibility to accommodate possible future disposal requirements. Therefore, the 'Wait and See' approach could be also recommended for managing not only the sources with long-live radionuclides and high activity, but probably for all kind of existing disused sealed sources. The general aim of the current paper is to identify and review the current recommendations for managing disused sealed sources and to meditate on the most convenient management schemes for disused sealed radioactive sources in Member States without disposal capacities (Latin America, Africa). The risk that cemented DSRS could be incompatible with future disposal requirements was taken into account. (author)

  3. Installation for producing sealed radioactive sources; Installation de fabrication de sources radioactives scellees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fradin, J.; Hayoun, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 91 - Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    This installation has been designed and built for producing sealed sources of fission elements: caesium 137, strontium 90, promethium 147, ruthenium 106 and cerium 144 in particular. The installation consists of sealed and protected cells, each being assigned to a particular production. The safety and the operational reliability of the equipment are the principal considerations which have governed this work. The report describes the installation and, in particular, the apparatus used as well as the various control devices. In conclusion, a review as presented of six years operation. (authors) [French] Cette installation a ete concue et realisee pour effectuer des fabrications de sources scellees d'elements de fission: caesium 137 - strontium 90 - promethium 147 - ruthenium 106 - cerium 144 en particulier. L'installation est composee de cellules etanches et protegees, chacune d'elles etant affectee a une fabrication particuliere. La securite et la surete de fonctionnement de l'ensemble sont parmi les elements principaux qui ont guide l'etude. Le rapport decrit l'installation et plus particulierement l'appareillage utilise ainsi que les divers controles et commandes. Le bilan de fonctionnement apres 6 ans d'exploitation sert de conclusion. (auteurs)

  4. Installation for producing sealed radioactive sources; Installation de fabrication de sources radioactives scellees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fradin, J; Hayoun, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 91 - Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    This installation has been designed and built for producing sealed sources of fission elements: caesium 137, strontium 90, promethium 147, ruthenium 106 and cerium 144 in particular. The installation consists of sealed and protected cells, each being assigned to a particular production. The safety and the operational reliability of the equipment are the principal considerations which have governed this work. The report describes the installation and, in particular, the apparatus used as well as the various control devices. In conclusion, a review as presented of six years operation. (authors) [French] Cette installation a ete concue et realisee pour effectuer des fabrications de sources scellees d'elements de fission: caesium 137 - strontium 90 - promethium 147 - ruthenium 106 - cerium 144 en particulier. L'installation est composee de cellules etanches et protegees, chacune d'elles etant affectee a une fabrication particuliere. La securite et la surete de fonctionnement de l'ensemble sont parmi les elements principaux qui ont guide l'etude. Le rapport decrit l'installation et plus particulierement l'appareillage utilise ainsi que les divers controles et commandes. Le bilan de fonctionnement apres 6 ans d'exploitation sert de conclusion. (auteurs)

  5. Radiation protection rules for handling of sealed radioactive sources in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-02-01

    The rules presented here relate to the use of sealed radioactive sources in medical therapy, with the radioactive sources being temporarily or permanently incorporated into body cavities or body tissues, or fixed to the body surface. They also relate to radioactive sources with dimensions below 5 mm (as e.g. seeds). (orig./HP) [de

  6. Safety considerations in the disposal of disused sealed radioactive sources in borehole facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-08-01

    Sealed radioactive sources are used in medicine, industry and research for a wide range of purposes. They can contain different radionuclides in greatly varying amounts. At the end of their useful lives, they are termed 'disused sources' but their activity levels can still be quite high. They are, for all practical purposes, another type of radioactive waste that needs to be disposed of safely. Disused sealed radioactive sources can represent a significant hazard to people if not managed properly. Many countries have no special facilities for the management or disposal of radioactive waste, as they have no nuclear power programmes requiring such facilities. Even in countries with developed nuclear programmes, disused sealed sources present problems as they often fall outside the common categories of radioactive waste for which disposal options have been identified. As a result, many disused sealed sources are kept in storage. Depending on the nature of the storage arrangements, this situation may represent a high potential risk to workers and to the public. The IAEA has received numerous requests for assistance from Member States faced with the problem of safely managing disused sealed sources. The requests have related to both technical and safety aspects. Particularly urgent requests have involved emergency situations arising from unsafe storage conditions and lost sources. There is therefore an important requirement for the development of safe and cost-effective final disposal solutions. Consequently, a number of activities have been initiated by the IAEA to assist Member States in the management of disused sealed sources. The objective of this report is to address safety issues relevant to the disposal of disused sealed sources, and other limited amounts of radioactive waste, in borehole facilities. It is the first in a series of reports aiming to provide an indication of the present issues related to the use of borehole disposal facilities to safely disposal

  7. Safety assessment of the disposal of sealed radiation sources in boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Rosana Lagua de; Vicente, Roberto; Hiromoto, Goro

    2009-01-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Laboratory (RNML) at the Nuclear Energy Research Institute (NERI) in Sao Paulo, Brazil, is developing the concept of a repository for disused sealed radiation sources in a deep borehole. Several thousands disused sealed radiation sources are stored at NERI awaiting the decision on final disposal and tens of thousands are still under the possession of the licensees. A significant fraction of these sources are long-lived and will require final disposal in a geological repository. The purpose of this paper is to identify and discuss suitable safety assessment strategies for the repository concept and to illustrate a rational approach for a long-term safety assessment methodology. (author)

  8. Experience and problems of the automated measuring and sorting of sealed radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shmidt, G.

    1979-01-01

    It has been shown that with the help of a serial device for samples changing and a mini-computer with a suitable software it is possible to organize the radioactivity measuring and sorting of sealed gamma-sources with activity in the microcuri region. Application of the computer permits to rise accuracy of the data on the radiation sources radioactivity, sorted according to the preset activity level groups and, in the casa of necessity, to perform the activity measurements with lower error. The method listed, gives the working-time economy of nearly 4 hours in measuring and sorting of some 500 sealed radiation sources [ru

  9. Guide for the preparation of applications for licenses for the use of sealed sources in portable gauging devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this regulatory guide is to provide assistance to applicants and licensees in preparing applications for new licenses, license amendments, and license renewals for the use of sealed sources in portable gauging devices. An example of a portable gauging device is a moisture-density gauge that contains a gamma-emitting sealed source, cesium-137, and a sealed neutron source, americium-242-beryllium

  10. Radioactive sealed sources: Reasonable accountability, exemption, and licensing activity thresholds -- A technical basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.W.; Shingleton, K.L.

    1996-01-01

    Perhaps owing to their small size and portability, some radiation accidents/incidents have involved radioactive sealed sources (RSSs). As a result, programs for the control and accountability of RSSs have come to be recommended and emplaced that essentially require RSSs to be controlled in a manner different from bulk, unsealed radioactive material. Crucially determining the total number of RSSs for which manpower-intensive radiation protection surveillance is provided is the individual RSS activity above which such surveillance is required and below which such effort is not considered cost effective. Individual RSS activity thresholds are typically determined through scenarios which impart a chosen internal or external limiting dose to Reference Man under specified exposure conditions. The resultant RSS threshold activity levels have meaning commensurate with the assumed scenario exposure parameters, i.e., if they are realistic and technically based. A review of how the Department of Energy (DOE), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) have determined their respective accountability, exemption, and licensing threshold activity values is provided. Finally, a fully explained method using references readily available to practicing health physicists is developed using realistic, technically-based calculation parameters by which RSS threshold activities may be locally generated

  11. Safety assessment of borehole disposal of unwanted radioactive sealed sources in Egypt using Goldsim

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochran, John Russell; Mattie, Patrick D.

    2004-01-01

    A radioactive sealed source is any radioactive material that is encased in a capsule designed to prevent leakage or escape of the radioactive material. Radioactive sealed sources are used for a wide variety of applications at hospitals, in manufacturing and research. Typical uses are in portable gauges to measure soil compaction and moisture or to determine physical properties of rocks units in boreholes (well logging). Hospitals and clinics use radioactive sealed sources for teletherapy and brachytherapy. Oil exploration and medicine are the largest users. Accidental mismanagement of radioactive sealed sources each year results in a large number of people receiving very high or even fatal does of ionizing radiation. Deliberate mismanagement is a growing international concern. Sealed sources must be managed and disposed effectively in order to protect human health and the environment. Effective national safety and management infrastructures are prerequisites for efficient and safe transportation, treatment, storage, and disposal. The Integrated Management Program for Radioactive Sealed Sources in Egypt (IMPRSS) is a cooperative development agreement between the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority (EAEA), Egyptian Ministry of Health (MOH), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), the University of New Mexico (UNM), and Agriculture Cooperative Development International (ACDI/VOCA). The EAEA, teaming with SNL, is conducting a Preliminary Safety Assessment (PSA) of an intermediate-depth borehole disposal in thick arid alluvium in Egypt based on experience with the U.S. Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD). Goldsim has been selected for the preliminary disposal system assessment for the Egyptian GCD Study. The results of the PSA will then be used to decide if Egypt desires to implement such a disposal system

  12. Storage of low-level radioactive waste and regulatory control of sealed sources in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahola, T.; Markkanen, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper is concentrated on the non nuclear low-level radioactive waste. The cornerstone for maintaining radioactive sources under control in Finland is that all practices involving sources are subject to authorization and all licensing information, including information on each individual source, are entered into a register which is continuously updated based on applications and notifications received from the licenses. Experiences during the past twenty years have shown that source-specific records of sources combined with regular inspections at the places of use have prevented efficiency losing control over sealed radioactive sources. The current capacity in the interim storage for State owned waste is not adequate for all used sealed sources and other small user waste which are currently kept in the possession of the licensees. Thus, expansion of the storage capacity and other options for taking care of the small user waste is under consideration. (N.C.)

  13. Industrial applications of radiotracer and sealed source technology promoted by IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joon-Ha Jin; Thereska, J.

    2004-01-01

    Great technical and economical benefits can be obtained by applying radioisotope technologies to various industries. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has contributed to the development of radiotracer and sealed source technology as applied to industry and environment through coordinated research projects (CRPs). The mature and competitive techniques have been transferred and implemented to developing countries through the Agency's technical co-operation (TC) projects. The paper presents the main achievements in radiotracer and sealed source technology promoted by IAEA as well as the perspective of the technology transfer to developing countries. (author)

  14. Mechanical seals

    CERN Document Server

    Mayer, E

    1977-01-01

    Mechanical Seals, Third Edition is a source of practical information on the design and use of mechanical seals. Topics range from design fundamentals and test rigs to leakage, wear, friction and power, reliability, and special designs. This text is comprised of nine chapters; the first of which gives a general overview of seals, including various types of seals and their applications. Attention then turns to the fundamentals of seal design, with emphasis on six requirements that must be considered: sealing effectiveness, length of life, reliability, power consumption, space requirements, and c

  15. Radiation protection problems with sealed Pu radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naumann, M.; Wels, C.

    1982-01-01

    A brief outline of the production methods and most important properties of Pu-238 and Pu-239 is given, followed by an overview of possibilities for utilizing the different types of radiation emitted, a description of problems involved in the safe handling of Pu radiation sources, and an assessment of the design principles for Pu-containing alpha, photon, neutron and energy sources from the radiation protection point of view. (author)

  16. FRG sealed isotopic heat sources project (C-229) project management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalf, I.L.

    1997-01-01

    This Project Management Plan defines the cost, scope, schedule, organizational responsibilities, and work breakdown structure for the removal of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) Sealed Isotopic Heat Sources from the 324 Building and placed in interim storage at the Central Waste Complex (CWC)

  17. 10 CFR 34.67 - Records of leak testing of sealed sources and devices containing depleted uranium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records of leak testing of sealed sources and devices containing depleted uranium. 34.67 Section 34.67 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL... Requirements § 34.67 Records of leak testing of sealed sources and devices containing depleted uranium. Each...

  18. Factors affecting the repeatability of gamma camera calibration for quantitative imaging applications using a sealed source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anizan, N; Wahl, R L; Frey, E C; Wang, H; Zhou, X C

    2015-01-01

    Several applications in nuclear medicine require absolute activity quantification of single photon emission computed tomography images. Obtaining a repeatable calibration factor that converts voxel values to activity units is essential for these applications. Because source preparation and measurement of the source activity using a radionuclide activity meter are potential sources of variability, this work investigated instrumentation and acquisition factors affecting repeatability using planar acquisition of sealed sources. The calibration factor was calculated for different acquisition and geometry conditions to evaluate the effect of the source size, lateral position of the source in the camera field-of-view (FOV), source-to-camera distance (SCD), and variability over time using sealed Ba-133 sources. A small region of interest (ROI) based on the source dimensions and collimator resolution was investigated to decrease the background effect. A statistical analysis with a mixed-effects model was used to evaluate quantitatively the effect of each variable on the global calibration factor variability. A variation of 1 cm in the measurement of the SCD from the assumed distance of 17 cm led to a variation of 1–2% in the calibration factor measurement using a small disc source (0.4 cm diameter) and less than 1% with a larger rod source (2.9 cm diameter). The lateral position of the source in the FOV and the variability over time had small impacts on calibration factor variability. The residual error component was well estimated by Poisson noise. Repeatability of better than 1% in a calibration factor measurement using a planar acquisition of a sealed source can be reasonably achieved. The best reproducibility was obtained with the largest source with a count rate much higher than the average background in the ROI, and when the SCD was positioned within 5 mm of the desired position. In this case, calibration source variability was limited by the quantum

  19. Comparison of General Purpose Heat Source testing with the ANSI N43.6-1977 (R 1989) sealed source standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigsby, C.O.

    1998-01-01

    This analysis provides a comparison of the testing of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) and RTG components with the testing requirements of ANSI N43.6-1977 (R1989) ''Sealed Radioactive Sources, Categorization''. The purpose of this comparison is to demonstrate that the RTGs meet or exceed the requirements of the ANSI standard, and thus can be excluded from the radioactive inventory of the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research (CMR) building in Los Alamos per Attachment 1 of DOE STD 1027-92. The approach used in this analysis is as follows: (1) describe the ANSI sealed source classification methodology; (2) develop sealed source performance requirements for the RTG and/or RTG components based on criteria from the accident analysis for CMR; (3) compare the existing RTG or RTG component test data to the CMR requirements; and (4) determine the appropriate ANSI classification for the RTG and/or RTG components based on CMR performance requirements. The CMR requirements for treating RTGs as sealed sources are derived from the radiotoxicity of the isotope ( 238 P7) and amount (13 kg) of radioactive material contained in the RTG. The accident analysis for the CMR BIO identifies the bounding accidents as wing-wide fire, explosion and earthquake. These accident scenarios set the requirements for RTGs or RTG components stored within the CMR

  20. UHV seal studies for the advanced photon source storage ring vacuum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonczy, J.D.; Ferry, R.J.; Niemann, R.C.; Roop, B.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) Storage Ring Vacuum Chambers (SRVC) are constructed of aluminum. The chamber design incorporates aluminum alloy 2219-T87 Conflat flanges welded to an aluminum alloy 6063-T5 extruded chamber body. Vacuum connections to the aluminum Conflat chamber flanges are by means of 304 stainless steel Conflat flanges. To evaluate the Conflat seal assemblies relative to vacuum bake cycles, a Conflat Bake Test Assembly (CBTA) was constructed, and thermal cycling tests were performed between room temperature and 150 degrees C on both stainless steel to aluminum Conflat assemblies and aluminum to aluminum Conflat assemblies. A Helicoflex Bake Test Assembly (HBTA) was similarly constructed to evaluate Helicoflex seals. Both Conflat and Helicoflex seals were studied in a SRVC Sector String Test arrangement of five SRVC sections. The CBTA, HBTA and SRVC tests and their results are reported. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Sealed radioactive sources and method of their production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benadik, A.; Tympl, M.; Stopek, K.

    1985-01-01

    The active layer of the proposed sources consists of an inorganic sorbent activated with a radioactive component in form of gel, xerogel or glass. The active particles of the inorganic sorbent have the shape of spheres 2 to 2000 μm in diameter. The sources have a tubular, cylindrical or needle shape and are compact with low leachability. They feature minimal radionuclide leakage, they are reliable and safe. Their production technology is proposed. The inorganic sorbent is put in contact with the sollution of the radioactive compound, then separated from the liquid phase, filled into containers, dried, calcined or sintered or otherwise heat-processed into glass at temperatures of 250 -1800 degC. (M.D.)

  2. Applications of sealed sources in chemical engineering. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyn, J.; Pokorny, J.; Cabrnoch, J.

    1977-01-01

    The vertical and horizontal distribution of the concentration of milling balls was observed radiometrically ( 241 Am) on a model (1:4) of the vertical mill of the MOLINEX type. The basic relations are derived for the calculation of the distribution of the density of solid particles and relations for the estimation of errors in measurement. A description is given of the model equipment, of the configuration of the radiation source, of the detector and of the experimental conditions. The results are discussed of measurements for three configurations on the shaft of the excentrically mounted mixing discs (4, 6 and 9 pieces) at 10 rev.s -1 for one revolution direction. The effect of the number of revolutions and of the revolution direction was observed for 6 mixing elements. (B.S.)

  3. Structural and Shielding Safety of a Transport Package for Radioisotope Sealed Source Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Kiseog; Cho, Ilje; Kim, Donghak [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    As some kinds of radioisotope (RI) sealed source are produced by HANARO research reactor, a demand of RI transport package is increasing gradually. Foreign countries, which produce the various RIs, have the intrinsic model of the RI transport package. It is necessary to develop a RI and its transport package simultaneously. It is difficult to design a shielding part for this transport package because the passage for this source assembly should be provided from the center of shielding part to the outside of the package. In order to endure the accident conditions such as a 9 m drop and puncture, this transport package consists of the guide tubes, a gamma shield and a shock absorber. This paper describe that a shielding and structural safety of RI sealed source transport package are evaluated under the accident conditions.

  4. Structural and Shielding Safety of a Transport Package for Radioisotope Sealed Source Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Kiseog; Cho, Ilje; Kim, Donghak

    2006-01-01

    As some kinds of radioisotope (RI) sealed source are produced by HANARO research reactor, a demand of RI transport package is increasing gradually. Foreign countries, which produce the various RIs, have the intrinsic model of the RI transport package. It is necessary to develop a RI and its transport package simultaneously. It is difficult to design a shielding part for this transport package because the passage for this source assembly should be provided from the center of shielding part to the outside of the package. In order to endure the accident conditions such as a 9 m drop and puncture, this transport package consists of the guide tubes, a gamma shield and a shock absorber. This paper describe that a shielding and structural safety of RI sealed source transport package are evaluated under the accident conditions

  5. Code of practice for the use of sealed radioactive sources in borehole logging (1998)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    The purpose of this code is to establish working practices, procedures and protective measures which will aid in keeping doses, arising from the use of borehole logging equipment containing sealed radioactive sources, to as low as reasonably achievable and to ensure that the dose-equivalent limits specified in the National Health and Medical Research Council s radiation protection standards, are not exceeded. This code applies to all situations and practices where a sealed radioactive source or sources are used through wireline logging for investigating the physical properties of the geological sequence, or any fluids contained in the geological sequence, or the properties of the borehole itself, whether casing, mudcake or borehole fluids. The radiation protection standards specify dose-equivalent limits for two categories: radiation workers and members of the public. 3 refs., tabs., ills

  6. Lesson Learned from Conditioning of Disused Sealed Radioactive Sources (DSRS) in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nik Marzukee Nik Ibrahim; Mohd Abdul Wahab Yusof; Norasalwa Zakaria

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the conditioning of disused sealed radioactive source (DSRS) in Malaysia. In Malaysia, sealed radioactive sources (SRS) are widely used in Malaysia especially in industry, medicine and research. Once SRS are no longer in use, they are declared disused and managed as radioactive waste. In order to reduce the risk associated with disused sealed radioactive sources (DSRS), the first priority would be to bring them under appropriate controls. This paper describes the experience developed and activities performed by Nuclear Malaysia throughout the period in conditioning of DSRS as well as future programme to further enhancing the infrastructure. Collaborative efforts with the various relevant groups such as Loji and Prototaip Development Centre (PDC) and Industrial Technology Division (BTI) provide an effective avenue in ensuring successful implementation of the programme. Currently, until August 2015, Malaysia has in possession about 12,154 unit of DSRS categories 3-5 and 4 units of DSRS category 2 sources which being stored at the interim storage facility Nuclear Malaysia. A national activity was implemented for the on-the-job training of personnel tasked with the conditioning of DSRS, at the Waste Technology Development Centre (WasTeC) facilities. This is part of -cradle-to-grave- control of radioactive sources to protect the workers and public from the hazards of ionizing radiation. (author)

  7. Experience and Lessons Learned from Conditioning of Spent Sealed Sources in Singapore - 13107

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Dae-Seok; Kang, Il-Sik; Jang, Kyung-Duk; Jang, Won-Hyuk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hoo, Wee-Teck [National Environment Agency, 40 Scotts Road 228231 (Singapore)

    2013-07-01

    In 2010, IAEA requested KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) to support Singapore for conditioning spent sealed sources. Those that had been used for a lightning conductor, check source, or smoke detector, various sealed sources had been collected and stored by the NEA (National Environment Agency) in Singapore. Based on experiences for the conditioning of Ra-226 sources in some Asian countries since 2000, KAERI sent an expert team to Singapore for the safe management of spent sealed sources in 2011. As a result of the conditioning, about 575.21 mCi of Am-241, Ra-226, Co-60, and Sr-90 were safely conditioned in 3 concrete lining drums with the cooperation of the KAERI expert team, the IAEA supervisor, the NEA staff and local laborers in Singapore. Some lessons were learned during the operation: (1) preparations by a local authority are very helpful for an efficient operation, (2) a preliminary inspection by an expert team is helpful for the operation, (3) brief reports before and after daily operation are useful for communication, and (4) a training opportunity is required for the sustainability of the expert team. (authors)

  8. Schematic designs for penetration seals for a reference repository in bedded salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelsall, P.C.; Case, J.B.; Meyer, D.; Coons, W.E.

    1982-11-01

    The isolation of radioactive wastes in geologic repositories requires that man-made penetrations such as shafts, tunnels, or boreholes are adequately sealed. This report describes schematic seal designs for a repository in bedded salt referenced to the straitigraphy of southeastern New Mexico. The designs are presented for extensive peer review and will be updated as site-specific conceptual designs when a site for a repository in salt has been selected. The principal material used in the seal system is crushed salt obtained from excavating the repository. It is anticipated that crushed salt will consolidate as the repository rooms creep close to the degree that mechanical and hydrologic properties will eventually match those of undisturbed, intact salt. For southeastern New Mexico salt, analyses indicate that this process will require approximately 1000 years for a seal located at the base of one of the repository shafts (where there is little increase in temperature due to waste emplacement) and approximately 400 years for a seal located in an access tunnel within the repository. Bulkheads composed of contrete or salt bricks are also included in the seal system as components which will have low permeability during the period required for salt consolidation

  9. Development of a sealed source radiation detector system for gamma ray scanning of petroleum distillation columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasquez Salvador, Pablo Antonio

    2004-01-01

    Gamma Ray Scanning is an online technique to 'view' the hydraulic performance of an operating column, with no disruption to operating processes conditions (pressure and temperature), as a cost-effective solution. The principle of this methodology consists of a small suitably sealed gamma radiation source and a radiation detector experimentally positioned to the column, moving concurrently in small increments on opposite sides and the quantity of gamma transmitted. The source-detector system consists of: a sealed ''6 0 Co radioactive source in a panoramic lead radiator, a scintillator detector coupled to a ratemeter / analyzer and a mobile system. In this work, a gamma scanning sealed source-detector system for distillation columns, was developed, comparing two scintillator detectors: NaI(Tl) (commercial) and CsI(Tl) (IPEN). In order to project the system, a simulated model of a tray-type distillation column was used. The equipment developed was tested in an industrial column for water treatment (6.5 m diameter and 40 m height). The required activities of 6 ''0Co, laboratory (11.1 MBq) and industrial works (1.48 TBq) were calculated by simulation software. Both, the NaI(Tl) and the CsI(Tl) detectors showed good proprieties for gamma scanning applications, determining the position and presence or absence of trays. (author)

  10. Standard review plan for applications for sealed source and device evaluations and registrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the reviewer of a request for a sealed source or device safety evaluation with the information and materials necessary to make a determination that the product is acceptable for licensing purposes. It provides the reviewer with a listing of the applicable regulations and industry standards, policies affecting evaluation and registration, certain administrative procedures to be followed, and information on how to perform the evaluation and write the registration certificate. Standard review plans are prepared for the guidance of the Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards staff responsible for the review of a sealed source or device application. This document is made available to the public as part of the Commission's policy to inform the nuclear industry and the general public of regulatory procedures and policies. Standard review plans are not substitutes for regulatory guides or the Commission's regulations and compliance with them is not required

  11. Standard review plan for applications for sealed source and device evaluations and registrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the reviewer of a request for a sealed source or device safety evaluation with the information and materials necessary to make a determination that the product is acceptable for licensing purposes. It provides the reviewer with a listing of the applicable regulations and industry standards, policies affecting evaluation and registration, certain administrative procedures to be followed, and information on how to perform the evaluation and write the registration certificate. Standard review plans are prepared for the guidance of the Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards staff responsible for the review of a sealed source or device application. This document is made available to the public as part of the Commission`s policy to inform the nuclear industry and the general public of regulatory procedures and policies. Standard review plans are not substitutes for regulatory guides or the Commission`s regulations and compliance with them is not required.

  12. Identification of radioisotopes in bulks with disused sealed sources using a high performance portable spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata, Luis; Mallaupoma, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Sealed radioactive sources are widely used in many industrial applications, and after completing its useful life must be managed as radioactive wastes. One of the most common problems of disused sealed radioactive sources is that many times they lack proper identification and their certificates of manufacture. In that context, it is necessary to identify them, prior to any other management step. There are a number of techniques which can be used; however they are sometimes complex. This technical paper shows a simple way for its identification using the InSpector 1000 monitor which allows to know their energy spectra. These modern instruments and detectors have been obtained thanks to the Project Global Threat Reduction Initiative (Programa de Reduccion de Amenazas) between IPEN and the US DOE. (authors).

  13. Management of disused high-activity sealed radioactive sources: Opting for removal from the national territory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourão, Rogério Pimenta, E-mail: mouraor@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Since 2007 Brazil has been using the removal from its territory as a strategy for the management of sealed sources. Three campaigns have been carried out so far, each aiming at specific source types or categories. In the first of these campaigns in 2007, 126 neutron sources of American origin were repatriated to the USA, followed in 2010 by around 900 low activity sources (Categories 3 to 5, according to the IAEA classification system). Both operations were conducted by teams of the American institute Los Alamos National Laboratory. A third campaign, focused on high activity sources – essentially Cobalt-60 sources for teletherapy – was carried out between 2016 and 2017 and resulted in 81 spent high activity radioactive sources of American- and Canadian-origin been sent to Germany and the USA. This operation was carried out by a team of South Africa using a dedicated Mobile Hot Cell. The benefits to Brazil resulting from these operations are clear: increase in safety and security; availability of new precious storage space; less effort dedicated to the disused sealed sources storage; less space in the future borehole facility; financial gains in the selling or reuse of steel, lead and depleted uranium from the original shields. An overexposure incident occurred during the operation, in which a worker was exposed to a dose above the annual statutory limit. (author)

  14. Development of sealed sheet sources for calibration of whole-body counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Mai; Ishigure, Nobuhito; Ogata, Yoshimune; Narita, Norihiko; Kawaura, Chiyo; Nakano, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    Whole body counters are usually calibrated with the aid of a whole body phantom assembled with simply-shaped plastic vessels that are filled with an aqueous solution of the relevant radioisotopes. Most vessel-type phantoms represent only a human body in which radioisotopes are homogeneously distributed, whereas the radioisotopes in vivo are sometimes localized to specific organs. Each set of the vessels is usually applicable only to a specific combination of radioisotopes, because the replacement of radioisotopes requires troublesome procedures. Possible leakage of the solution is another disadvantage of the vessel-type phantom. The authors are developing a new-type calibration phantom that is free from these disadvantages, in which sealed sheet sources are sandwiched between sections of a sliced anthropomorphic phantom. This paper describes a method to prepare sealed sheet sources for this calibration phantom. Instead of γ-ray emitters a pure β-ray emitter 32 P was used. This isotope is suitable for autoradiography and is easy to handle as its half-life is relatively short. An ink-jet printer was used to spread the solution of 32 P mixed with ink on a sheet of paper. The surface concentration of radioactivity was regulated by the function of color density adjustment of an image processing software. The radioisotope-printed paper was laminated for sealing. Through the measurement of surface concentration of radioactivity with a liquid scintillation counter, the autoradiographical investigation of the pattern of the radioactivity distributed on the sheet sources, the immersion test of the sealed sheet sources and the monitoring of the concentration of 32 P in air during the printing, it was demonstrated that sealed sheet sources for the calibration phantom can be prepared safely by the method described in this paper. Furthermore, by using sheet sources of 99m Tc prepared as a trial it was confirmed that discrete arrangement of sheet sources in a phantom at a

  15. Systematic management of sealed source and nucleonic counting system in field service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadi Mustapha; Mohd Fitri Abdul Rahman; Jaafar Abdullah

    2005-01-01

    PAT group have received a lot of service from the oil and gas plant. All the services use sealed source and nucleonic counting system. This paper described the detail of management before going to the field service. This management is important to make sure the job is smoothly done and safe to the radiation worker and public. Furthermore this management in line with the regulation from LPTA. (Author)

  16. Collaboration and Commitment to Sealed Source Safety, Security, and Disposition - 13627

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennison, Meaghan; Martin, David W.

    2013-01-01

    EnergySolutions, the Division of Radiation Control at the Utah Department of Environmental Quality (UDEQ), the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors (CRCPD), and the Department of Energy's Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) are collaborating on a truly innovative effort to expand opportunities for cost-effective sealed source disposal. These entities have developed a first-of-its-kind initiative to dispose of certain sealed sources at the EnergySolutions disposal facility near Clive, Utah, which normally cannot accept sealed sources of any type. This creative and collaborative effort to improve radiation health, safety, and security exemplifies the spirit and commitment represented by the Richard S. Hodes, M.D. Honor Lecture Award, which is presented annually at the Waste Management Symposia by the Southeast Compact Commission to encourage environmental professionals and political leaders to develop innovative approaches to waste management in the United States. The participants in the collaborative initiative are honored to receive special recognition for their efforts thus far. They also recognize that the hard work remains to be done. (authors)

  17. Strategic planning as a competitive differential: A case study of the Sealed Sources Production Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Imário; Nascimento, Fernando C.; Calvo, Wilson A. Parejo

    2017-01-01

    Strategic planning has always been and continues to be one of the most important management tools for decision making. Amidst the uncertainties of the 21"s"t century, public, private and third sector organizations are steadily struggling to improve their strategic plans by using more effective results management tools such as BSC-Balanced Scorecard. Nuclear research institutes and research centers around the world have been using more and more these types of tools in their strategic planning and management. The objective of this article was to recommend the use the BSC as a strategic tool for decision making for the Sealed Sources Production Laboratory located in the Radiation Technology Center, at Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP), in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The methodology used in this academic article was a case study, which considered the object of the study, the Sealed Sources Production Laboratory, from January 2014 to August 2016. Among the main results obtained with this study can be cited: the improvement of the information flow, the visualization and proposition to change the periodicity of analysis of the results, among others. In view of the expected results, it was possible to conclude that this study may be of value to the Sealed Sources Production Laboratory for Industrial Radiography and Industrial Process Control and also to other research centers, as it will allow and contribute with an additional management support tool. (author)

  18. Strategic planning as a competitive differential: A case study of the Sealed Sources Production Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Imário; Nascimento, Fernando C.; Calvo, Wilson A. Parejo, E-mail: imariovieira@yahoo.com, E-mail: wapcalvo@ipen.br, E-mail: fcodelo@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Faculdade SENAI de Tecnologia Ambiental, Sao Bernardo do Campo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    Strategic planning has always been and continues to be one of the most important management tools for decision making. Amidst the uncertainties of the 21{sup st} century, public, private and third sector organizations are steadily struggling to improve their strategic plans by using more effective results management tools such as BSC-Balanced Scorecard. Nuclear research institutes and research centers around the world have been using more and more these types of tools in their strategic planning and management. The objective of this article was to recommend the use the BSC as a strategic tool for decision making for the Sealed Sources Production Laboratory located in the Radiation Technology Center, at Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP), in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The methodology used in this academic article was a case study, which considered the object of the study, the Sealed Sources Production Laboratory, from January 2014 to August 2016. Among the main results obtained with this study can be cited: the improvement of the information flow, the visualization and proposition to change the periodicity of analysis of the results, among others. In view of the expected results, it was possible to conclude that this study may be of value to the Sealed Sources Production Laboratory for Industrial Radiography and Industrial Process Control and also to other research centers, as it will allow and contribute with an additional management support tool. (author)

  19. Awareness and perception of reference sources and services by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... e-mail, telephone and social media (e.g. facebook). It was also revealed that 228 (70.45%) have good knowledge of what reference source are; 192 (59.08%) have good understanding of what reference services are, and 241 (74.15%) make use of reference sources in the Federal University of Technology, Owerri library.

  20. Soil Monitor: an open source web application for real-time soil sealing monitoring and assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langella, Giuliano; Basile, Angelo; Giannecchini, Simone; Iamarino, Michela; Munafò, Michele; Terribile, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    Soil sealing is one of the most important causes of land degradation and desertification. In Europe, soil covered by impermeable materials has increased by about 80% from the Second World War till nowadays, while population has only grown by one third. There is an increasing concern at the high political levels about the need to attenuate imperviousness itself and its effects on soil functions. European Commission promulgated a roadmap (COM(2011) 571) by which the net land take would be zero by 2050. Furthermore, European Commission also published a report in 2011 providing best practices and guidelines for limiting soil sealing and imperviousness. In this scenario, we developed an open source and an open source based Soil Sealing Geospatial Cyber Infrastructure (SS-GCI) named as "Soil Monitor". This tool merges a webGIS with parallel geospatial computation in a fast and dynamic fashion in order to provide real-time assessments of soil sealing at high spatial resolution (20 meters and below) over the whole Italy. Common open source webGIS packages are used to implement both the data management and visualization infrastructures, such as GeoServer and MapStore. The high-speed geospatial computation is ensured by a GPU parallelism using the CUDA (Computing Unified Device Architecture) framework by NVIDIA®. This kind of parallelism required the writing - from scratch - all codes needed to fulfil the geospatial computation built behind the soil sealing toolbox. The combination of GPU computing with webGIS infrastructures is relatively novel and required particular attention at the Java-CUDA programming interface. As a result, Soil Monitor is smart because it can perform very high time-consuming calculations (querying for instance an Italian administrative region as area of interest) in less than one minute. The web application is embedded in a web browser and nothing must be installed before using it. Potentially everybody can use it, but the main targets are the

  1. Sure confinement of spent sealed sources; Confinamiento seguro de fuentes selladas gastadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizcano, D., E-mail: david.lizcano@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Departamento de Desechos Radiactivos, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    The industrial and technological development of the last decades produced and increment in the radiations application in different human activities. One of the main effects has been the production of radioactive wastes of all the levels. In Mexico, several stages of the waste management of low and intermediate level have not been completely resolved, as the case of the treatment and the final storage. In this work the confinement of spent sealed sources is described, maintaining as main objective the security of these sources and the protection to the workers and the people. (author)

  2. Arkansas Reference Sources. Bibliographic Series No. 26.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Joan; Roberts, Joan

    Varied sources for information on Arkansas held by the Arkansas University library are listed. Bibliographies and indexes of Arkansas publications are included, as well as materials dealing with the state's folklore and literature, arts and humanities, government and law, business and economics, social conditions, labor, history and biography,…

  3. Radioactivity determination of sealed pure beta-sources by surface dose measurements and Monte Carlo simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Chang Heon [Interdisciplinary Program in Radiation Applied Life Science, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Seongmoon [Program in Biomedical Radiation Sciences, Department of Transdisciplinary Studies, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Kanghyuk; Son, Kwang-Jae; Lee, Jun Sig [Hanaro Applications Research, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ye, Sung-Joon, E-mail: sye@snu.ac.kr [Interdisciplinary Program in Radiation Applied Life Science, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Program in Biomedical Radiation Sciences, Department of Transdisciplinary Studies, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Center for Convergence Research on Robotics, Advance Institutes of Convergence Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-21

    This study aims to determine the activity of a sealed pure beta-source by measuring the surface dose rate using an extrapolation chamber. A conversion factor (cGy s{sup −1} Bq{sup −1}), which was defined as the ratio of surface dose rate to activity, can be calculated by Monte Carlo simulations of the extrapolation chamber measurement. To validate this hypothesis the certified activities of two standard pure beta-sources of Sr/Y-90 and Si/P-32 were compared with those determined by this method. In addition, a sealed test source of Sr/Y-90 was manufactured by the HANARO reactor group of KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) and used to further validate this method. The measured surface dose rates of the Sr/Y-90 and Si/P-32 standard sources were 4.615×10{sup −5} cGy s{sup −1} and 2.259×10{sup −5} cGy s{sup −1}, respectively. The calculated conversion factors of the two sources were 1.213×10{sup −8} cGy s{sup −1} Bq{sup −1} and 1.071×10{sup −8} cGy s{sup −1} Bq{sup −1}, respectively. Therefore, the activity of the standard Sr/Y-90 source was determined to be 3.995 kBq, which was 2.0% less than the certified value (4.077 kBq). For Si/P-32 the determined activity was 2.102 kBq, which was 6.6% larger than the certified activity (1.971 kBq). The activity of the Sr/Y-90 test source was determined to be 4.166 kBq, while the apparent activity reported by KAERI was 5.803 kBq. This large difference might be due to evaporation and diffusion of the source liquid during preparation and uncertainty in the amount of weighed aliquot of source liquid. The overall uncertainty involved in this method was determined to be 7.3%. We demonstrated that the activity of a sealed pure beta-source could be conveniently determined by complementary combination of measuring the surface dose rate and Monte Carlo simulations.

  4. Safe management of sealed radioactive sources at Karachi nuclear power complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, T.B.; Qamar, A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the conditioning of sealed radioactive sources, carried out at the Karachi Nuclear Power Complex (KNPC) in co-operation with the IAEA. The radioactive sources were radium needles of various size, used by various radiotherapy units in different hospitals throughout the country. For some time the use of radium needles had been abandoned and they were stored in hospitals awaiting proper disposal. Since their storage conditions were not ideal and there was a potential of leakage of radioactive material into the environment, it was decided to condition and store them safely. A significant logistic effort was required to identify these sources, bring them to a central facility and condition them according to current international standards. Various steps were involved in conditioning the sources: place it in a stainless steel capsule, weld the capsule, test it for a leak, place the capsule in a lead shielded package, put and seal the shielded package in a concrete-lined steel drum and finally store it at the waste storage facility. A total amount of about 1500 mg of Radium needles were conditioned. Radiation exposure during the entire operation was within acceptable limits. (author)

  5. Management for the prevention of accidents from disused sealed radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    The objective of this report is to provide advice to sealed radiation source (SRS) users, radioactive waste operators, and other concerned public sectors on the measures to be taken to reduce the risk of accidents associated with disused or spent SRS. The report also explains policies as well as technical and administrative procedures to minimize the risk of accidents and to mitigate the consequences should an accident occur. The report emphasizes areas of high risk in handling disused or spent SRS in any form and condition to help to save health, life and financial resources

  6. Current approaches on the management of disused sealed sources in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benitez-Navarro, J. C.; Canizares, J.; Asuar, O.; Tapia, J.; Demireva, E.; Yordanova, O.; Stefanova, I.; Karadzhov, S.

    2005-01-01

    The main options for the safe management of existing Disused Sealed Radioactive Sources (DSRS) in Bulgaria are discussed. The specific installations for handling and conditioning of all type of DSRS are being designed. The necessary equipment and materials for all conditioning operations have been defined. As the final disposal route for the radioactive wastes in Bulgaria is not defined yet, the proposed conditioning process for the DSRS ensures that end-point disposal of DSRS is not jeopardized by actions taken at present. All the DSRS would be packaged in secure, safe, monitorable and retrievable manner for interim storage

  7. Zotero : a free and open-source reference manager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courraud, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Zotero is a free, open-source reference management program compatible with Linux®, Mac®, and Windows® operating systems. Libraries are backed up online allowing sharing between computers and even multiple users. Zotero makes it easy to keep your reference library organised and ‘clean’. Reference...

  8. Global threat reduction initiative efforts to address transportation challenges associated with the recovery of disused radioactive sealed sources - 10460

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitworth, Julie; Abeyta, Cristy L.; Griffin, Justin M.; Matzke, James L.; Pearson, Michael W.; Cuthbertson, Abigail; Rawl, Richard; Singley, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Proper disposition of disused radioactive sources is essential for their safe and secure management and necessary to preclude their use in malicious activities. Without affordable, timely transportation options, disused sealed sources remain in storage at hundreds of sites throughout the country and around the world. While secure storage is a temporary measure, the longer sources remain disused or unwanted the chances increase that they will become unsecured or abandoned. The Global Threat Reduction Initiative's Off-Site Source Recovery Project (GTRIlOSRP), recovers thousands of disused and unwanted sealed sources annually as part of GTRl's larger mission to reduce and protect high risk nuclear and radiological materials located at civilian sites worldwide. Faced with decreasing availability of certified transportation containers to support movement of disused and unwanted neutron- and beta/gamma-emitting radioactive sealed sources, GTRIlOSRP has initiated actions to ensure the continued success of the project in timely recovery and management of sealed radioactive sources. Efforts described in this paper to enhance transportation capabilities include: (sm b ullet) Addition of authorized content to existing and planned Type B containers to support the movement of non-special form and other Type B-quantity sealed sources; (sm b ullet) Procurement of vendor services for the design, development, testing and certification of a new Type B container to support transportation of irradiators, teletherapy heads or sources removed from these devices using remote handling capabilities such as the IAEA portable hot cell facility; (sm b ullet) Expansion of shielded Type A container inventory for transportation of gamma-emitting sources in activity ranges requiring use of shielding for conformity with transportation requirements; (sm b ullet) Approval of the S300 Type A fissile container for transport of Pu-239 sealed sources internationally; (sm b ullet) Technology transfer of

  9. Study of classification and disposed method for disused sealed radioactive source in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Suk Hoon; Kim, Ju Youl; Lee, Seung Hee [FNC Technology Co., Ltd.,Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    In accordance with the classification system of radioactive waste in Korea, all the disused sealed radioactive sources (DSRSs) fall under the category of EW, VLLW or LILW, and should be managed in compliance with the restrictions for the disposal method. In this study, the management and disposal method are drawn in consideration of half-life of radionuclides contained in the source and A/D value (i.e. the activity A of the source dividing by the D value for the relevant radionuclide, which is used to provide an initial ranking of relative risk for sources) in addition to the domestic classification scheme and disposal method, based on the characteristic analysis and review results of the management practices in IAEA and foreign countries. For all the DSRSs that are being stored (as of March 2015) in the centralized temporary disposal facility for radioisotope wastes, applicability of the derivation result is confirmed through performing the characteristic analysis and case studies for assessing quantity and volume of DSRSs to be managed by each method. However, the methodology derived from this study is not applicable to the following sources; i) DSRSs without information on the radioactivity, ii) DSRSs that are not possible to calculate the specific activity and/or the source-specific A/D value. Accordingly, it is essential to identify the inherent characteristics for each of DSRSs prior to implementation of this management and disposal method.

  10. Proposal of conditioning of the not-in-use sealed sources which are stored in the Radioactive Wastes Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jova, L.; Garcia, N.; Benitez, J.C.; Salgado, M.; Hernandez, A.

    1996-01-01

    There is a considerable number of sealed sources which are no longer in use at the radioactive wastes treatment facility. In the present work a methodology is proposed for the final conditioning of these sources, based on their immobilization in a cement matrix. This cementation is accomplished within a 200-liter tank

  11. Assessment of the properties of disused sealed radioactive sources for disposal in a borehole facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adjepong, K.

    2015-01-01

    Radioactive wastes arise from applications in which radioactive materials are used. Medicine, industries and agriculture are examples of areas where radioactive materials are used. Most of the radioactive materials used in nuclear applications are in the form of sealed radioactive sources (SRS). After a number of usages, the SRS may no longer be useful enough for its original purpose and will be considered as a disused sealed radioactive source (DSRS). DSRS are potentially dangerous to human health and the environment, and therefore important to manage them safely. Currently in Ghana, DSRS are collected and stored awaiting a final disposal option. There are ongoing plans to implement the Borehole Disposal of Disused Sealed Sources (BOSS) system in Ghana as a final disposal option. There are, however, concerns about the number of DSRS disposal packages that can safely be disposed in a narrow borehole underground in a long term without posing any harm to people and the environment. It is therefore necessary to assess the properties of DSRS that need to be placed into the borehole to determine the safety of this disposal option. For this study, 160 DSRS were selected from the DSRS inventory. The present activity, volume, A/D ratio and thermal output of all the DSRS were determined. The SIMBOD database tool was used to determine the number of capsules and disposal packages that will be required with respect to the DSRS registered into it. Also, verification measurements to confirm the DSRS inventory data were conducted. The assessment have shown that DSRS used in this study would require a total of seven (7) capsules. The estimated total activity of the disposal packages were below the waste acceptance criteria and the thermal output for each disposal package were also below the 50W limit. One borehole with an estimated length of 57 m will be safe to dispose the DSRS used in this study. The verification measurements confirmed the confirmed the DSRS inventory data. It

  12. Radiological Risk Assessment and Cask Materials Qualification for Disposed Sealed Radioactive Sources Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margeanu, C.A.; Olteanu, G.; Bujoreanu, D.

    2009-01-01

    The hazardous waste problem imposes to respect national and international agreed regulations regarding their transport, taking into account both for maintaining humans, goods and environment exposure under specified limits, during transport and specific additional operations, and also to reduce impact on the environment. The paper follows to estimate the radiological risk and cask materials qualification according to the design specifications for disposed sealed radioactive sources normal transport situation. The shielding analysis has been performed by using Oak Ridge National Laboratory's SCALE 5 programs package. For thermal analysis and cask materials qualification ANSYS computer code has been used. Results have been obtained under the framework of Advanced system for monitoring of hazardous waste transport on the Romanian territory Research Project which main objective consists in implementation of a complex dual system for on-line monitoring both for transport special vehicle and hazardous waste packages, with data automatic transmission to a national monitoring center

  13. Development of the doubly sealed Ir192 sources for industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, C.; Sabio Calvett, Manuel; Bianchi, Daniel R.; Banchik, Abraham D.; Mender, Alberto; Gonzalez, Alfredo J.

    2003-01-01

    A Program for Developing Double Sealed Irradiation Sources for industrial and medical applications is in progress at the Argentine Atomic Energy Commission. The present work describes the mechanical and metallurgical procedures for designing and welding dummy capsules of the two types that are required for making double sealed Ir 192 industrial sources with the designation ISO/98/C43515 according to ISO 2919 and leak tight according to ISO/98/9978 standards. That is part of a Project with INVAP company. Four different models, including the typical international model, were designed, machined and TIG-welded. Both the internal and external capsules and the end caps were made from AISI 316L stainless steel. Two types of welding station were made. In the first one the 'end cap' was welded to the capsule keeping the torch and the capsule fixed (stationary process), while in the second type the capsule rotates around its own axes during the process (out of cell dynamic semiautomatic controlled process). The welding parameters for the second welding process were selected from the different parameters used to process 120 'international type' capsules. All the processed units were subject to a visual inspection, 85% of them were considered acceptable, while the rest were rejected because of having, at naked eyes and/or under magnification glasses, different types of welding defects. Metallographic examination of the microstructure at the welding seam and the matrix were made in welded unit selected at random from different lots of all processed units in order to determine the penetration of the weld and the microstructure of the weld seam. Present results are encouraging enough to consider to start with the next step, where the capsules are process inside a 'hot cell' and with a Ir 192 foil inside the inner capsule to reproduce actual fabrication conditions. (author)

  14. Spent sealed radioactive sources conditioning technology for the disposal at the national repository Baita-Bihor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bujoreanu, D.; Popescu, I.V.

    2006-01-01

    A spent sealed radioactive source(SRS) is a high integrity capsule which contains a small amount of concentrated radionuclide with an activity which ranges from a few MBq up to levels of hundreds TBq. Presently, there are now many spent and unusable SRS in Romania, which have been used a long time in various industrial applications (smoke detectors, weld testing etc.). Considering the activity of the Radioactive Waste Treatment Plant (STDR) at the Institute for Nuclear Research Pitesti regarding radioactive source collecting from various economic agents, several radioactive sources are held in the intermediate storage deposit facility on the institute platform awaiting conditioning for the final disposal. This paper presents the conditioning technology for this sources, which has as ultimate purpose to completion of a product which matches the waste acceptance requirements imposed by the National Authority Control of Nuclear Activities, CNCAN, for the disposal site DNDR Baita - Bihor. The technology used for obtaining the final product allows two options for the immobilization of the sources in the 218 L steel drum and these are: Sources placed in the original packages and which can not be dismantled will be isolated by encapsulation in 10 litters metal capsules and then conditioned in 218 l steel drum, with a concrete biological shielding; Sources removed from the initial package are isolated in stainless steel capsules, which are to be conditioned in the same 218 L steel drum. The final product obtained as a result of the concrete conditioning operations of the spent SRS in 218 L steel drum is the steel drum - concrete - low radioactive waste assembly which presents itself as a concrete block which includes one or more capsules containing SRS. (author)

  15. Characterization of sealed radioactive sources. Uncertainty analysis to improve detection methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, D.G.; Sommers, J.D.; Adamic, M.L.; Jimenez, M.; Giglio, J.J.; Carney, K.P.

    2009-01-01

    A radioactive 137 Cs source has been analyzed for the radioactive parent 137 Cs and stable decay daughter 137 Ba. The ratio of the daughter to parent atoms is used to estimate the date when Cs was purified prior to source encapsulation (an 'age' since purification). The isotopes were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after chemical separation. In addition, Ba was analyzed by isotope dilution ICP-MS (ID-ICP-MS). A detailed error analysis of the mass spectrometric work has been undertaken to identify areas of improvement, as well as quantifying the effect the errors have on the 'age' determined. This paper reports an uncertainty analysis to identifying areas of improvement and alternative techniques that may reduce the uncertainties. In particular, work on isotope dilution using ICP-MS for the 'age' determination of sealed sources is presented. The results will be compared to the original work done using external standards to calibrate the ICP-MS instrument. (author)

  16. Management of Spent Sealed Radioactive Sources in Bulgaria, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania and Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angus, M.; Cowley, M.; Moreton, T.; Wells, D.

    2003-01-01

    This study has been performed to consider the situation relating to the regulation and management of spent sealed radioactive sources (SSRS) in five of the Central and Eastern European (C and EE) countries that are being considered for admission to the EU, namely, Bulgaria, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania and Slovakia. Two previous studies have considered the situation in the current EU member states(1) and in the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Poland and Slovenia(2). The general aim of this study has been to acquire a thorough understanding of the management of SSRS in the five countries, in order to recommend improvements in management schemes and to establish whether the application of common disposal criteria would be advantageous. This report is structured in the following manner; following the Introduction (Section 1), there is a description of the current and proposed regulatory requirements in the EU, together with a summarised comparison of the regulatory systems in the five countries with EU standards (Section 2). Sections 3 to 7 are dedicated to each of the five countries. Each of these sections is similarly sub-divided to enable country-by-country and topic-by-topic comparison. In each of Sections 3 to 7 there is an overview, description of the sealed source inventory, regulations, current management practices, retrieval of unregistered (sometimes known as lost or orphan sources) SSRS, conclusions and a description of possible future technical assistance projects. In addition, there is a description in each of Sections 3 to 7 of the management of 226 Ra sources, which is receiving special attention in many countries (Table I provides a summary and comparison of the management of 226 Ra in the five countries).both country-specific and generic recommendations. A common concern in the five countries and many other countries, including the EU member states, is the problem of accidental inclusion of SSRS in consignments of scrap metal. The detection of

  17. Active Infrared Thermography for Seal Contamination Detection in Heat-Sealed Food Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlien D’huys

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Packaging protects food products from environmental influences, assuring quality and safety throughout shelf life if properly performed. Packaging quality depends on the quality of the packaging material and of the closure or seal. A common problem possibly jeopardizing seal quality is the presence of seal contamination, which can cause a decreased seal strength, an increased packaging failure risk and leak formation. Therefore, early detection and removal of seal contaminated packages from the production chain is crucial. In this work, a pulsed-type active thermography method using the heated seal bars as an excitation source was studied for detecting seal contamination. Thermal image sequences of contaminated seals were recorded shortly after sealing. The detection performances of six thermal image processing methods, based on a single frame, a fit of the cooling profiles, thermal signal reconstruction, pulsed phase thermography, principal component thermography and a matched filter, were compared. High resolution digital images served as a reference to quantify seal contamination, and processed thermal images were mapped to these references. The lowest detection limit (equivalent diameter 0.60 mm was obtained for the method based on a fit of the cooling profiles. Moreover, the detection performance of this method did not depend strongly on the time after sealing at which recording of the thermal images was started, making it a robust and generally applicable method.

  18. U Y 105 standard use of non sealed radioactive sources in nuclear medicine: approve for Industry energy and Mining Ministry 28/6/2002 Resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Establish minimal requirements radiological safety for use non sealed radioactive sources in nuclear medicine.The present standard is used in operation or nuclear medicine practices using non sealed radioactive sources with diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in vivo and in vitro

  19. Carbon sources and trophic relationships of ice seals during recent environmental shifts in the Bering Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiway W; Springer, Alan M; Budge, Suzanne M; Horstmann, Lara; Quakenbush, Lori T; Wooller, Matthew J

    2016-04-01

    Dramatic multiyear fluctuations in water temperature and seasonal sea ice extent and duration across the Bering-Chukchi continental shelf have occurred in this century, raising a pressing ecological question: Do such environmental changes alter marine production processes linking primary producers to upper trophic-level predators? We examined this question by comparing the blubber fatty acid (FA) composition and stable carbon isotope ratios of individual FA (δ¹³CFA) of adult ringed seals (Pusa hispida), bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus), spotted seals (Phoca largha), and ribbon seals (Histriophoca fasciata), collectively known as "ice seals," sampled during an anomalously warm, low sea ice period in 2002-2005 in the Bering Sea and a subsequent cold, high sea ice period in 2007-2010. δ¹³C(FA) values, used to estimate the contribution to seals of carbon derived from sea ice algae (sympagic production) relative to that derived from water column phytoplankton (pelagic production), indicated that during the cold period, sympagic production accounted for 62-80% of the FA in the blubber of bearded seals, 51-62% in spotted seals, and 21-60% in ringed seals. Moreover, the δ¹³CFA values of bearded seals indicated a greater incorporation of sympagic FAs during the cold period than the warm period. This result provides the first empirical evidence of an ecosystem-scale effect of a putative change in sympagic production in the Western Arctic. The FA composition of ice seals showed clear evidence of resource partitioning among ringed, bearded, and spotted seals, and little niche separation between spotted and ribbon seals, which is consistent with previous studies. Despite interannual variability, the FA composition of ringed and bearded seals showed little evidence of differences in diet between the warm and cold periods. The findings that sympagic production contributes significantly to food webs supporting ice seals, and that the contribution apparently is less in

  20. Management of spent and disused sealed radiation sources in Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobolev, I.A.; Ojovan, M.I.; Karlina, O.K.; Arustamov, A.E.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The system of management of spent and disused sealed radiation sources (SDSRS) in Russian Federation is based on centralised approach. This system involves 16 regional facilities of the system 'Radon' which provide safe management of SDSRS. The scientific and methodical guidance on activities of regional facilities 'Radon' carries out the Scientific and Industrial Association 'Radon', Moscow. Recently the Moscow SIA 'Radon' examined activities at regional facilities 'Radon' accordingly with the program approved by the State Supervision Authority of Russia (GAN). It was revealed that the main type of radioactive waste at these facilities comprises SDSRS. This is the case both on summarised quantity of accumulated radioactivity (more than 99%) and on general quantity of the containers with waste (more than 80%). The average radionuclide composition of the SDSRS accumulated at regional facilities 'Radon' is as follows: Cs-137 (40%), Co-60 (25%), Sr-90 (22%), Ir-192 (8%) and Tm-170 (4%). The content of other radionuclides in SDSRS is not more than 1%. At regional facilities 'Radon' SDSRS mainly are disposed of in bore hole type repositories. Nevertheless SDSRS are also stored in containers being placed into repositories for solid radioactive waste. SDSRS which contain long lived radionuclides are stored until the decision on their final disposal into a deep geological formation. So far as free (not conditioned) storage of SDSRS can not provide safe conditions for environment for a long time, it is necessary to immobilise sources additionally into a suitable matrix material. Supplemental sources inclusion in a lead (or lead based alloy) matrix using Moscow SIA 'Radon' mobile plant was carried out at five regional 'Radon' facilities as follows: Zagorsk branch of Moscow SIA 'Radon', Volgograd, Ekaterinburg, Nizhny Novgorod, and Ufa. More than 1 million Ci of SDSRS are stored at present time in conditioned form in bore hole repositories. In 1998-1999 the Moscow

  1. Radiotracer and sealed source techniques for sediment management. Report of the consultants meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Radioisotopes as tracers and sealed sources have been a useful and often irreplaceable tool for sediment transport studies. Gamma scattering and transmission gauges are used for sediment monitoring. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling is now an essential tool for the management of the natural systems and are increasingly used to study the fate and behaviour of particulates and contaminants. Radiotracer techniques are often employed to validate CFD models to enhance confidence in the predictive value of the models. Experimental tracing and numerical modelling are complementary methods of studying complex systems. During the last few decades, many radiotracer studies for the investigation of sediment transport in natural systems have been conducted worldwide, and various techniques for tracing and monitoring sediment have been developed by individual tracer groups. However, the developed techniques and methods for sediment tracing have not been compiled yet as a technical document, which is essential for the preservation of the knowledge and transfer of the technology to developing countries. Standard procedures or guidelines for the tracer experiments, which are vital for the reliability of the experiments and the acceptance of end-users, have not been established by the international tracer community either. The use of radiotracers in sediment transport studies demands the additional attention of the community to further develop these techniques and to ensure their transfer to developing countries. The Consultants' Meeting on 'Radiotracer and sealed source techniques for sediment management' was convened at the headquarters of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna, Austria, from 21 to 25 April 2008. Experts from Argentina, Brazil, France, India, Republic of Korea and United Kingdom have been invited to discuss the current status of the tracer and nucleonic gauge technologies as applied for sediment transport investigations and to evaluate

  2. Radiotracer and sealed source techniques for sediment management. Report of the consultants meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Radioisotopes as tracers and sealed sources have been a useful and often irreplaceable tool for sediment transport studies. Gamma scattering and transmission gauges are used for sediment monitoring. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling is now an essential tool for the management of the natural systems and are increasingly used to study the fate and behaviour of particulates and contaminants. Radiotracer techniques are often employed to validate CFD models to enhance confidence in the predictive value of the models. Experimental tracing and numerical modelling are complementary methods of studying complex systems. During the last few decades, many radiotracer studies for the investigation of sediment transport in natural systems have been conducted worldwide, and various techniques for tracing and monitoring sediment have been developed by individual tracer groups. However, the developed techniques and methods for sediment tracing have not been compiled yet as a technical document, which is essential for the preservation of the knowledge and transfer of the technology to developing countries. Standard procedures or guidelines for the tracer experiments, which are vital for the reliability of the experiments and the acceptance of end-users, have not been established by the international tracer community either. The use of radiotracers in sediment transport studies demands the additional attention of the community to further develop these techniques and to ensure their transfer to developing countries. The Consultants' Meeting on 'Radiotracer and sealed source techniques for sediment management' was convened at the headquarters of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna, Austria, from 21 to 25 April 2008. Experts from Argentina, Brazil, France, India, Republic of Korea and United Kingdom have been invited to discuss the current status of the tracer and nucleonic gauge technologies as applied for sediment transport investigations and to evaluate

  3. Musicking Online: Organizing Reference Sources in the Digital Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeto, Kimmy

    2012-01-01

    Online music research resources took center stage at the second plenary session "Wrangling the Information Universe: Moving From Institutional Portals to a Shared Resource for Online Music Sources" held on Friday, February 17, 2012, at the Music Library Association (MLA) 2012 Annual Meeting in Dallas, Texas. The Reference Sources…

  4. Diagnosis of Catalyst Cooler and Riser in RFCC using Sealed gamma-ray Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Seop; Kim, Jong Bum; Jung, Sung Hee; Kim, Jae Ho

    2005-12-01

    With a quantitative growth of the petroleum industry, a lot of budget are spent for the maintenance and repairs of facilities related to the process annually. Among them, the RFCC(residual fluid catalytic cracking) is a highly value-added unit which converts gas oil and heavier streams to lighter, more valuable products such as propylene, gasoline by an injection of atmospheric residue into the fluided catalyst. In this study, field experiments were performed to analyze the reasons of an abnormal operation in the catalyst cooler and the catalyst riser belonged to the RFCC unit respectively and to estimate the amount of seriousness using sealed gamma-ray source( 60 Co). The catalyst cooler functions cooling for the regeneration of a catalyst, which will be used to a new media in the RFCC unit. The catalyst riser, while, plays an important part in transporting to next cyclotron steps by mixing of an oil, steam and a catalyst mechanically. The purposes of this study is what was the condition of catalyst flow pattern and whether the coke was produced in an inside process or not. Gamma radiation counts were measured by the detector(NaI) positioned outside the pipe-wall diametrically opposite to the gamma source with a regular space. From the results, the section different from the distribution pattern of nearby catalyst in a facility was found. And this became the definitive information to a process operator. Diagnosis technique using gamma radiation source is proved to be the effective and reliable method in providing information on the media distribution in a facility

  5. The production of Co-60 sealed sources at the National Atomic Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freijo, Jose L.

    2002-01-01

    The production and sale of Cobalt 60 by CNEA is in a key momentum for its consolidation, after passing through situations dose to un viability. The sealed sources demand is assured for the next six years and strongly concentrated in the exportation, mainly to the United States and Europe. The project is economically viable even keeping in mind the necessary investments to assure the growing and sustentability of the business. Therefore, it is possible to have realistic and optimists expectation of growing in the medium and long term. To this respect it results fundamental to confront these activities with a medium and long term vision in order to avoid future uncertainties in the project and, at the same time, to guide and motivate the personnel involved in the efforts that necessarily must be performed to achieve the proposed target. The fundamental steps to be concreted are the construction of new production cells and the transformation of the activities into a private development frame through the creation of a commercial society. (author)

  6. High Flux Isotope Reactor cold neutron source reference design concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selby, D.L.; Lucas, A.T.; Hyman, C.R.

    1998-05-01

    In February 1995, Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) deputy director formed a group to examine the need for upgrades to the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) system in light of the cancellation of the Advanced neutron Source Project. One of the major findings of this study was that there was an immediate need for the installation of a cold neutron source facility in the HFIR complex. In May 1995, a team was formed to examine the feasibility of retrofitting a liquid hydrogen (LH 2 ) cold source facility into an existing HFIR beam tube. The results of this feasibility study indicated that the most practical location for such a cold source was the HB-4 beam tube. This location provides a potential flux environment higher than the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) vertical cold source and maximizes the space available for a future cold neutron guide hall expansion. It was determined that this cold neutron beam would be comparable, in cold neutron brightness, to the best facilities in the world, and a decision was made to complete a preconceptual design study with the intention of proceeding with an activity to install a working LH 2 cold source in the HFIR HB-4 beam tube. During the development of the reference design the liquid hydrogen concept was changed to a supercritical hydrogen system for a number of reasons. This report documents the reference supercritical hydrogen design and its performance. The cold source project has been divided into four phases: (1) preconceptual, (2) conceptual design and testing, (3) detailed design and procurement, and (4) installation and operation. This report marks the conclusion of the conceptual design phase and establishes the baseline reference concept

  7. High Flux Isotope Reactor cold neutron source reference design concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selby, D.L.; Lucas, A.T.; Hyman, C.R. [and others

    1998-05-01

    In February 1995, Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL`s) deputy director formed a group to examine the need for upgrades to the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) system in light of the cancellation of the Advanced neutron Source Project. One of the major findings of this study was that there was an immediate need for the installation of a cold neutron source facility in the HFIR complex. In May 1995, a team was formed to examine the feasibility of retrofitting a liquid hydrogen (LH{sub 2}) cold source facility into an existing HFIR beam tube. The results of this feasibility study indicated that the most practical location for such a cold source was the HB-4 beam tube. This location provides a potential flux environment higher than the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) vertical cold source and maximizes the space available for a future cold neutron guide hall expansion. It was determined that this cold neutron beam would be comparable, in cold neutron brightness, to the best facilities in the world, and a decision was made to complete a preconceptual design study with the intention of proceeding with an activity to install a working LH{sub 2} cold source in the HFIR HB-4 beam tube. During the development of the reference design the liquid hydrogen concept was changed to a supercritical hydrogen system for a number of reasons. This report documents the reference supercritical hydrogen design and its performance. The cold source project has been divided into four phases: (1) preconceptual, (2) conceptual design and testing, (3) detailed design and procurement, and (4) installation and operation. This report marks the conclusion of the conceptual design phase and establishes the baseline reference concept.

  8. Automation system for quality control in manufacture of iodine-125 sealed sources used in brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somessari, Samir L.; Feher, Anselmo; Sprenger, Francisco E.; Rostellato, Maria E.C.M.; Moura, Joao A.; Costa, Osvaldo L.; Calvo, Wilson A.P.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work is to develop an automation system for Quality Control in the production of Iodine-125 sealed sources, after undergoing the process of laser beam welding. These sources, also known as Iodine-125 seeds are used, successfully, in the treatment of cancer by brachytherapy, with low-dose rates. Each small seed is composed of a welded titanium capsule with 0.8 mm diameter and 4.5 mm in length, containing Iodine-125 adsorbed on an internal silver wire. The seeds are implanted in the human prostate to irradiate the tumor and treat the cancerous cells. The technology to automate the quality control system in the manufacture of Iodine-125 seeds consists in developing and associate mechanical parts, electronic components and pneumatic circuits to control machines and processes. The automation technology for Iodine-125 seed production developed in this work employs programmable logic controller, step motors, drivers of control, electrical-electronic interfaces, photoelectric sensors, interfaces of communication and software development. Industrial automation plays an important role in the production of Iodine-125 seeds, with higher productivity and high standard of quality, facilitating the implementation and operation of processes with good manufacturing practices. Nowadays, the Radiation Technology Center at IPEN-CNEN/SP imports and distributes 36,000 Iodine-125 seeds per year for clinics and hospitals in the whole country. However, the Brazilian potential market is of 8,000 Iodine-125 seeds per month. Therefore, the local production of these radioactive seeds has become a priority for the Institute, aiming to reduce the price and increase the supply to the population in Brazil. (author)

  9. Automation system for quality control in manufacture of iodine-125 sealed sources used in brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somessari, Samir L.; Feher, Anselmo; Sprenger, Francisco E.; Rostellato, Maria E.C.M.; Moura, Joao A.; Costa, Osvaldo L.; Calvo, Wilson A.P., E-mail: somessar@ipen.b, E-mail: afeher@ipen.b, E-mail: sprenger@ipen.b, E-mail: elisaros@ipen.b, E-mail: olcosta@ipen.b, E-mail: wapcalvo@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this work is to develop an automation system for Quality Control in the production of Iodine-125 sealed sources, after undergoing the process of laser beam welding. These sources, also known as Iodine-125 seeds are used, successfully, in the treatment of cancer by brachytherapy, with low-dose rates. Each small seed is composed of a welded titanium capsule with 0.8 mm diameter and 4.5 mm in length, containing Iodine-125 adsorbed on an internal silver wire. The seeds are implanted in the human prostate to irradiate the tumor and treat the cancerous cells. The technology to automate the quality control system in the manufacture of Iodine-125 seeds consists in developing and associate mechanical parts, electronic components and pneumatic circuits to control machines and processes. The automation technology for Iodine-125 seed production developed in this work employs programmable logic controller, step motors, drivers of control, electrical-electronic interfaces, photoelectric sensors, interfaces of communication and software development. Industrial automation plays an important role in the production of Iodine-125 seeds, with higher productivity and high standard of quality, facilitating the implementation and operation of processes with good manufacturing practices. Nowadays, the Radiation Technology Center at IPEN-CNEN/SP imports and distributes 36,000 Iodine-125 seeds per year for clinics and hospitals in the whole country. However, the Brazilian potential market is of 8,000 Iodine-125 seeds per month. Therefore, the local production of these radioactive seeds has become a priority for the Institute, aiming to reduce the price and increase the supply to the population in Brazil. (author)

  10. Characterization and packaging of disused sealed radioactive sources; Caracterizacion y acondicionamiento de fuentes radiactivas selladas en desuso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar, S.L. [Instituto Boliviano de Ciencia y Tecnologia Nuclear (IBTEN), La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of)

    2013-07-01

    In Bolivia are generated disused sealed sources and radioactive waste resulting from the use of radioactive materials in industrial, research and medicine. The last includes the diagnosis and treatment. Whereas exposure to ionizing radiation is a potential hazard to personnel who applies it, to those who benefit from its use or for the community at large, it is necessary to control the activities in this field. The Instituto Boliviano de Ciencia y Tecnologia Nuclear - IBTEN is working on a regional project from International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA, RLA/09/062 Project - TSA 4, Strengthening the National Infrastructure and Regulatory Framework for the Safe Management of Radioactive waste in Latin America. This Project has strengthened the regulatory framework regarding the safe management of radioactive waste. The aim of this work was focused primarily on the security aspects in the safe management of disused sealed sources. The tasks are listed below: 1. Characterization of disused sealed sources 2. Preparation for transport to temporary storage 3. Control of all disused radioactive sources. (author)

  11. Safety Problems of Disposal of Disused Sealed Sources in the Baldone Near Surface Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreimanis, A.

    2003-01-01

    long-term storage; 3. To dispose only those sources capable to decay during functioning of disposal site. 4. To revise and update Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC), especially for disused sealed sources. 5. To build a 5 m thick cap over the vaults. The activity related criteria and predisposal packing of DSS are presented. The problems and solutions for the construction of new storage and disposal spaces are discussed

  12. Safety considerations of disposal of disused sealed sources in Puspokszilagy Repository, Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The report presents the management of radioactive waste in Hungary Puspokszilagy Repository (RWTDF) including waste acceptance criteria, safety assessments, Action Plan for the safety improvement and present projects. The Puspokszilagy Repository is a typical near-surface repository, sink into the ground 6 m depth. The facility is a shallow land disposal type, appropriated for disposal of short and medium lived LILW, acceptable for temporary storage of long lived LILW. It consists of vaults containing cells for solidified drummed waste, wells for spent sealed sources, work building for treatment and interim storage and office building for environmental measurements. Two safety assessments have been performed in 2000 and 2002. The new safety assessment confirms the main statements of SA 2000, according to which several waste types can cause serious problems in the distant future: Until the finish of passive control the safety of the environment is guaranteed. After that time it is possible to arise events leading to exceeding of dose restricts (more then 10 mSv/yr but less then 100 mSv/yr), because of disposal of long lived radionuclides (mainly C-14,Tc-99, Ra-226, Th-232, U-234) and significant activities of Cs-137 sources.There are uncertainties in radionuclide amounts and distributions, as well as in the physical and chemical characteristics of the wastes that determine radionuclide mobility and toxicity. The recommendations to improve the safety include: Long lived SSRS in the 'B' and 'D' wells should be removed before the closure of repository. Large Cs-137 sources and long lived sources in the 'A' vaults should be recovered (if its feasible); All vaults should be backfilled to provide chemical conditioning; The waste packaged in plastic bags should be repackaged and compacted into drums or containers; The inventory should be revise. Waste acceptance requirements in the future are: The disposal of long lived radionuclides is no permitted. The long lived waste

  13. Radiological Characterization Technical Report on Californium-252 Sealed Source Transuranic Debris Waste for the Off-Site Source Recovery Project at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, Alexander [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-04-24

    This document describes the development and approach for the radiological characterization of Cf-252 sealed sources for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The report combines information on the nuclear material content of each individual source (mass or activity and date of manufacture) with information and data on the radionuclide distributions within the originating nuclear material. This approach allows for complete and accurate characterization of the waste container without the need to take additional measurements. The radionuclide uncertainties, developed from acceptable knowledge (AK) information regarding the source material, are applied to the summed activities in the drum. The AK information used in the characterization of Cf-252 sealed sources has been qualified by the peer review process, which has been reviewed and accepted by the Environmental Protection Agency.

  14. Cost Analysis Sources and Documents Data Base Reference Manual (Update)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    M: Refcrence Manual PRICE H: Training Course Workbook 11. Use in Cost Analysis. Important source of cost estimates for electronic and mechanical...Nature of Data. Contains many microeconomic time series by month or quarter. 5. Level of Detail. Very detailed. 6. Normalization Processes Required...Reference Manual. Moorestown, N.J,: GE Corporation, September 1986. 64. PRICE Training Course Workbook . Moorestown, N.J.: GE Corporation, February 1986

  15. Development of sealed radioactive sources immobilized in epoxy resin for verification of detectors used in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiezzi, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    The radioactive sealed sources are used in verification ionization chamber detectors, which measure the activity of radioisotopes used in several areas, such as in nuclear medicine. The measurement of the activity of radioisotopes must be made with accuracy, because it is administered to a patient. To ensure the proper functioning of the ionization chamber detectors, standardized tests are set by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the National Nuclear Energy Commission using sealed radioactive sources of Barium-133, Cesium-137 and Cobalt-57. The tests assess the accuracy, precision, reproducibility and linearity of response of the equipment. The focus of this work was the study and the development of these radioactive sources with standard Barium-133 and Cesium-137,using a polymer, in case commercial epoxy resin of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) and a curing agent based on modified polyamine diethylenetriamine (DETA), to immobilize the radioactive material. The polymeric matrix has the main function of fix and immobilize the radioactive contents not allowing them to leak within the technical limits required by the standards of radiological protection in the category of characteristics of a sealed source and additionally have the ability to retain the emanation of any gases that may be formed during the manufacture process and the useful life of this artifact. The manufacturing process of a sealed source standard consists of the potting ,into bottle standardized geometry, in fixed volume of a quantity of a polymeric matrix within which is added and dispersed homogeneously to need and exact amount in activity of the radioactive materials standards. Accordingly, a study was conducted for the choice of epoxy resin, analyzing its characteristics and properties. Studies and tests were performed, examining the maximum miscibility of the resin with the water (acidic solution, simulating the conditions of radioactive solution), loss of mechanical and

  16. Development of sealed radioactive sources immobilized in epoxy resin for verification of detectors used in nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiezzi, Rodrigo; Rostelato, Maria Elisa C.M.; Nagatomi, Helio R.; Zeituni, Calos A.; Benega, Marcos A.G.; Souza, Daiane B. de; Costa, Osvaldo L. da; Souza, Carla D.; Rodrigues, Bruna T.; Souza, Anderson S. de; Peleias Junior, Fernando S.; Santos, Rafael Melo dos; Melo, Emerson Ronaldo de, E-mail: rktiezzi@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Karan Junior, Dib [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The radioactive sealed sources are used in verification ionization chamber detectors, which measure the activity of radioisotopes used in several areas, such as in nuclear medicine. The measurement of the activity of radioisotopes must be made with accuracy, because it is administered to a patient. To ensure the proper functioning of the ionization chamber detectors, standardized tests are set by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the National Nuclear Energy Commission using sealed radioactive sources of Barium-133, Cesium-137 and Cobalt-57. The tests assess the accuracy, precision, reproducibility and linearity of response of the equipment. The focus of this work was the study and the development of these radioactive sources with standard Barium-133, Cesium-137 and Cobalt-57,using a polymer, in case commercial epoxy resin of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) and a curing agent based on modified polyamine diethylenetriamine (DETA), to immobilize the radioactive material. The polymeric matrix has the main function of fix and immobilize the radioactive contents not allowing them to leak within the technical limits required by the standards of radiological protection in the category of characteristics of a sealed source and additionally have the ability to retain the emanation of any gases that may be formed during the manufacture process and the useful life of this artifact. The manufacturing process of a sealed source standard consists of the potting ,into bottle standardized geometry, in fixed volume of a quantity of a polymeric matrix within which is added and dispersed homogeneously to need and exact amount in activity of the radioactive materials standards. Accordingly, a study was conducted for the choice of epoxy resin, analyzing its characteristics and properties. Studies and tests were performed, examining the maximum solubility of the resin in water (acidic solution, simulating the conditions of radioactive solution), loss of mechanical

  17. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Materials and Energy Corporation Sealed Sources at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shott, Gregory [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States)

    2017-05-15

    This special analysis (SA) evaluates whether the Materials and Energy Corporation (M&EC) Sealed Source waste stream (PERM000000036, Revision 0) is suitable for shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). Disposal of the M&EC Sealed Source waste meets all U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Manual DOE M 435.1-1, “Radioactive Waste Management Manual,” Chapter IV, Section P performance objectives (DOE 1999). The M&EC Sealed Source waste stream is recommended for acceptance without conditions.

  18. Device for verification of seals by optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuilly, M.; Guitaud, M.H.; Dufour, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    The seal is built around an optical fiber with a verification device. This device is made of a lighting source and photographic means supported by a rotating assembly which allow to take an image of each optical fiber end. These images are compared with reference images taken just after the sealing. (A.B.). 5 refs., 6 figs

  19. Reference volumetric samples of gamma-spectroscopic sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taskaev, E.; Taskaeva, M.; Grigorov, T.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to determine the requirements for matrices of reference volumetric radiation sources necessary for detector calibration. The first stage of this determination consists in analysing some available organic and nonorganic materials. Different sorts of food, grass, plastics, minerals and building materials have been considered, taking into account the various procedures of their processing (grinding, screening, homogenizing) and their properties (hygroscopy, storage life, resistance to oxidation during gamma sterilization). The procedures of source processing, sample preparation, matrix irradiation and homogenization have been determined. A rotation homogenizing device has been elaborated enabling to homogenize the matrix activity irrespective of the vessel geometry. 33 standard volumetric radioactive sources have been prepared: 14 - on organic matrix and 19 - on nonorganic matrix. (author)

  20. Use of reports on accidents with sealed sources to conceive scenarios of human intrusion into waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite, Eliana Rodrigues; Oliveira, Rosana Lagua de; Vicente, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Department (GRR) at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN) develops the concept of a repository for disposal of disused sealed radioactive sources (SRS) in a deep borehole. In this concept, the estimated few hundred thousand SRS of the Brazilian inventory will be packaged in lead containers stacked in an encased and cemented borehole, drilled to a depth of a few hundred meters, in a crystalline bedrock geological setting. A generic safety analysis for this concept of repository must achieve two goals: to be acceptable by regulatory bodies and be simple enough so that the engineering of licensing a facility has technical and economical feasibility. It must be kept in mind that the disposition of the SRS must be paid by the users of the sources, and thal the costs of applying the existing methods for the performance and safety assessment of a geological repository dedicated exclusively for sealed sources may be exceedingly high. In this respect, the disposal concept development work includes the search for methodologies that could be applied to the disposal facility for demonstrating safety without unduly increasing the project costs. One line of research is to identify and characterize human intrusion scenarios that could result in significant radiation exposures. Results of a survey on the published literature and on databases of reported accidents involving sealed sources are being used to construct a number of model accident scenarios with which the time evolution of the exposure risks can be assessed for each radioisotope inventory and each relevant disposed of source. Among the 252 accident descriptions recovered in the survey, the 1954 Russian accident report with Po-210 is the oldest, and that of the 2010 accident in Mayapuri, India, with a Co-60 source is the latest. The results of this assessment will be used as a safety indicator of the disposal concept. (author)

  1. Seals and sealing handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Flitney, Robert K

    2007-01-01

    Wherever machinery operates there will be seals of some kind ensuring that the machine remains lubricated, the fluid being pumped does not leak, or the gas does not enter the atmosphere. Seals are ubiquitous, in industry, the home, transport and many other places. This 5th edition of a long-established title covers all types of seal by application: static, rotary, reciprocating etc. The book bears little resemblance to its predecessors, and Robert Flitney has re-planned and re-written every aspect of the subject. No engineer, designer or manufacturer of seals can afford to be without this uniq

  2. Reference sources for radionuclide calibrations in nuclear programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, M.C.M. de; Delgado, J.U.; Poledna, R.; Silva, R.L. da; Oliveira, E.M. de; Di Prinzio, M.A.R.

    2009-01-01

    The radionuclide metrology laboratories aim to provide radioactive standards for detector calibrations in nuclear safety areas. To produce the reference sources to be furnished to users the following standards of 57 Co, 60 Co, 133 Ba, 241 Am, 152 Eu and 166 Ho are commonly used. In this work was made a verifying of the uncertainties obtained for the two methods: comparative (sample-standards) and efficiency curve. The total uncertainties obtained by sample-standard method varied from 0.4 to 1.2% (k = 1). The results using efficiency curve method to the same radioisotopes and same conditions are between 0.9 to 2.2% (k = 1). (author)

  3. Comparative Study on Radiological Impact Due To Direct Exposure to a Radiological Dispersal Device Using A Sealed Radiation Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margeanu, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, one of the most serious terrorist threats implies radiological dispersal devices (RDDs), the so-called dirty bombs, that combine a conventional explosive surrounded by an inflammatory material (like thermit) with radioactive material. The paper objective is to evaluate the radiological impact due to direct exposure to a RDD using a sealed radiation source (used for medical and industrial applications) as radioactive material. The simulations were performed for 60Co, 137Cs and 192Ir radiation sources. In order to model the contamination potential level and radiation exposure due to radioactive material spreading from RDD, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's HOTSPOT 2.07 computer code was used. The worst case scenario has been considered, calculations being performed for two radioactive material dispersion models, namely General radioactive Plume and General Explosion. Following parameters evolution with distance from the radiation source was investigated: total effective dose equivalent, time-integrated air concentration, ground surface deposition and ground shine dose rates. Comparisons between considered radiation sources and radioactive material dispersion models have been performed. The most drastic effects on population and the environment characterize 60Co sealed radiation source use in RDD.

  4. Development of Reference Source Terms for EU-APR1400

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, ByungIl; Lee, Chonghui; Lee, Dongsu; Ko, Heejin; Kang, Sangho [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Co. Inc., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    These source terms are developed for the typical U. S. NPP and do not reflect the design characteristics of EU-APR1400 (1,400 MWe PWR) which will be applied for the EUR certification in European countries. The process of developing the RST for EU-APR1400 is to undergo a similar process that NUREG-1465 had gone through when it came out with its proposed source terms. The purpose of this study is to develop the EU-APR1400 design-specific RST complied with the EUR. The Large LOCA is the reference equence used in the NUREG-1465 evaluation, whereas the EUAPR1400 risk-significant sequences are dominated by small LOCA and non-LOCA sequences. Moreover, when considering the EU-APR1400 has many design features to mitigate the consequences of severe accident phenomena, it is not surprising that the aspects of both release fractions and durations are distinctly different from NUREG-1465. This RST will be continuously updated to reflect to the design features of EU-APR1400, and then, be used as the reference for design purposes such as criteria satisfaction of radioactivity releases, equipment survivability, control room habitability for severe accident, and so on.

  5. Adaptive Sliding Mode Control of MEMS AC Voltage Reference Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Ranjbar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of physical parameters of a tunable MEMS capacitor, as the major part of MEMS AC voltage reference, is of great importance to achieve an accurate output voltage free of the malfunctioning noise and disturbance. Even though strenuous endeavors are made to fabricate MEMS tunable capacitors with desiderated accurate physical characteristics and ameliorate exactness of physical parameters’ values, parametric uncertainties ineluctably emerge in fabrication process attributable to imperfections in micromachining process. First off, this paper considers applying an adaptive sliding mode controller design in the MEMS AC voltage reference source so that it is capable of giving off a well-regulated output voltage in defiance of jumbling parametric uncertainties in the plant dynamics and also aggravating external disturbance imposed on the system. Secondly, it puts an investigatory comparison with the designed model reference adaptive controller and the pole-placement state feedback one into one’s prospective. Not only does the tuned adaptive sliding mode controller show remarkable robustness against slow parameter variation and external disturbance being compared to the pole-placement state feedback one, but also it immensely gets robust against the external disturbance in comparison with the conventional adaptive controller. The simulation results are promising.

  6. A vacuum-sealed, gigawatt-class, repetitively pulsed high-power microwave source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xun, Tao; Fan, Yu-wei; Yang, Han-wu; Zhang, Zi-cheng; Chen, Dong-qun; Zhang, Jian-de

    2017-06-01

    A compact L-band sealed-tube magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO) has been developed that does not require bulky external vacuum pump for repetitive operations. This device with a ceramic insulated vacuum interface, a carbon fiber array cathode, and non-evaporable getters has a base vacuum pressure in the low 10-6 Pa range. A dynamic 3-D Monte-Carlo model for the molecular flow movement and collision was setup for the MILO chamber. The pulse desorption, gas evolution, and pressure distribution were exactly simulated. In the 5 Hz repetition rate experiments, using a 600 kV diode voltage and 48 kA beam current, the average radiated microwave power for 25 shots is about 3.4 GW in 45 ns pulse duration. The maximum equilibrium pressure is below 4.0 × 10-2 Pa, and no pulse shortening limitations are observed during the repetitive test in the sealed-tube condition.

  7. Food source and residual efficacy of chlorfenapyr on sealed and unsealed concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), the red flour beetle, were exposed at 1 day, and 2, 4, and 6 weeks post-treatment on sealed and unsealed concrete arenas treated with chlorfenapyr at rates of 2.8, 6.9, 13.5, 20.6, 27.5 mg active ingredient/m2. Beetles were held either with or without flour, and a...

  8. MODIFIED APPROACH FOR SITE SELECTION OF UNWANTED RADIOACTIVE SEALED SOURCES DISPOSAL IN ARID COUNTRIES (CASE STUDY - EGYPT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABDEL AZIZ, M.A.H.; COCHRAN, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present a systematic methodology for siting of radioactive sealed sources disposal in arid countries and demonstrate the use of this methodology in Egypt. Availing from the experience gained from the greater confinement disposal (GCD) boreholes in Nevada, USA, the IAEA's approach for siting of near disposal was modified to fit the siting of the borehole disposal which suits the unwanted radioactive sealed sources. The modifications are represented by dividing the surveyed area into three phases; the exclusion phase in which the areas that meet exclusion criteria should be excluded, the site selection phase in which some potential sites that meet the primary criteria should be candidate and the preference stage in which the preference between the potential candidate sites should be carried out based on secondary criteria to select one or two sites at most. In Egypt, a considerable amount of unwanted radioactive sealed sources wastes have accumulated due to the peaceful uses of radio-isotopes.Taking into account the regional aspects and combining of the proposed developed methodology with geographic information system (GIS), the Nile Delta and its valley, the Sinai Peninsula and areas of historical heritage value are excluded from our concern as potential areas for radioactive waste disposal. Using the primary search criteria, some potential sites south Kharga, the Great Sand Sea, Gilf El-Kebear and the central part of the eastern desert have been identified as candidate areas meeting the primary criteria of site selection. More detailed studies should be conducted taking into account the secondary criteria to prefer among the above sites and select one or two sites at most

  9. Standard operational radiation protection instructions for process instrumentation and control engineering applying radiometric equipment containing sealed sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    According to article 16(3) of the Ordinance on the Implementation of Atomic Safety and Radiation Protection of 11 October 1984, operational radiation protection instructions have to be worked out for each type of nuclear energy application. Based on the valid legal provisions of the GDR and on experience and knowledge gained in practice, the most important operational instructions and procedures for the operation of radiometric equipment containing sealed sources were compiled. The example should enable the management to make the instructions directly applicable and, if necessary, to modify or supplement them

  10. Reference sources for radionuclide calibrations in nuclear programmes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, M.C.M. de; Delgado, J.U.; Poledna, R.; Silva, R.L. da; Oliveira, E.M. de; Di Prinzio, M.A.R., E-mail: marcandida@yahoo.com.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes (LNMRI)

    2009-07-01

    The radionuclide metrology laboratories aim to provide radioactive standards for detector calibrations in nuclear safety areas. To produce the reference sources to be furnished to users the following standards of {sup 57}Co, {sup 60}Co, {sup 133}Ba, {sup 241}Am, {sup 152}Eu and {sup 166}Ho are commonly used. In this work was made a verifying of the uncertainties obtained for the two methods: comparative (sample-standards) and efficiency curve. The total uncertainties obtained by sample-standard method varied from 0.4 to 1.2% (k = 1). The results using efficiency curve method to the same radioisotopes and same conditions are between 0.9 to 2.2% (k = 1). (author)

  11. THE PROBLEMS OF USING EXEMPTION ACTIVITY VALUES FOR REGULATING THE MANAGEMENT OF SEALED RADIONUCLIDE SOURCES OF GAMMA-RADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Barkovsky

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the procedure for exemption of the sealed and unsealed radionuclide sources of gamma radiation from regulatory control. The contradictory nature of the existing set of exemption criteria has been noted, leading, in some cases, to paradoxical situations. It is shown that the exempt activity values determined in NRB-99/2009 and in the international basic safety standards of the IAEA are significantly overestimated (in comparison with the activity values of a point source creating the ambient dose equivalent rate of 1 μSv / h at a distance of 0.1 m for a number of the most widely used gamma-emitting radionuclides, including 22Na, 54Mn, 75Se, 152Eu and 154Eu. It is proposed to revise the current values of exempt activity, bringing them in line with the dose rate criterion for the exempt of sealed radionuclide sources of gamma radiation, and to present them with one significant digit. The corrected values of exempt activity for  seven selected radionuclides are proposed for further use in the process of revision of the national radiation safety standards.

  12. Post-closure safety assessment of near surface disposal facilities for disused sealed radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seunghee; Kim, Juyoul

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Post-closure safety assessment of near surface disposal facility for DSRS was performed. • Engineered vault and rock-cavern type were considered for normal and well scenario. • 14 C, 226 Ra, 241 Am were primary nuclides contributing large portion of exposure dose. • Near surface disposal of DSRSs containing 14 C, 226 Ra and 241 Am should be restricted. - Abstract: Great attention has been recently paid to the post-closure safety assessment of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW) disposal facility for disused sealed radioactive sources (DSRSs) around the world. Although the amount of volume of DSRSs generated from industry, medicine and research and education organization was relatively small compared with radioactive wastes from commercial nuclear power plants, some DSRSs can pose a significant hazard to human health due to their high activities and long half-lives, if not appropriately managed and disposed. In this study, post-closure safety assessment was carried out for DSRSs generated from 1991 to 2014 in Korea in order to ensure long-term safety of near surface disposal facilities. Two kinds of disposal options were considered, i.e., engineered vault type disposal facility and rock-cavern type disposal facility. Rock-cavern type disposal facility has been under operation in Gyeongju city, republic of Korea since August 2015 and engineered vault type disposal facility will be constructed until December 2020 in the vicinity of rock-cavern disposal facility. Assessment endpoint was individual dose to the member of critical group, which was modeled by GoldSim, which has been widely used as probabilistic risk analysis software based on Monte Carlo simulation in the area of safety assessment of radioactive waste facilities. In normal groundwater scenario, the maximum exposure dose was extremely low, approximately 1 × 10 −7 mSv/yr, for both disposal options and satisfied the regulatory limit of 0.1 mSv/yr. However, in the

  13. Post-closure safety assessment of near surface disposal facilities for disused sealed radioactive sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seunghee; Kim, Juyoul, E-mail: gracemi@fnctech.com

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Post-closure safety assessment of near surface disposal facility for DSRS was performed. • Engineered vault and rock-cavern type were considered for normal and well scenario. • {sup 14}C, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 241}Am were primary nuclides contributing large portion of exposure dose. • Near surface disposal of DSRSs containing {sup 14}C, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 241}Am should be restricted. - Abstract: Great attention has been recently paid to the post-closure safety assessment of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW) disposal facility for disused sealed radioactive sources (DSRSs) around the world. Although the amount of volume of DSRSs generated from industry, medicine and research and education organization was relatively small compared with radioactive wastes from commercial nuclear power plants, some DSRSs can pose a significant hazard to human health due to their high activities and long half-lives, if not appropriately managed and disposed. In this study, post-closure safety assessment was carried out for DSRSs generated from 1991 to 2014 in Korea in order to ensure long-term safety of near surface disposal facilities. Two kinds of disposal options were considered, i.e., engineered vault type disposal facility and rock-cavern type disposal facility. Rock-cavern type disposal facility has been under operation in Gyeongju city, republic of Korea since August 2015 and engineered vault type disposal facility will be constructed until December 2020 in the vicinity of rock-cavern disposal facility. Assessment endpoint was individual dose to the member of critical group, which was modeled by GoldSim, which has been widely used as probabilistic risk analysis software based on Monte Carlo simulation in the area of safety assessment of radioactive waste facilities. In normal groundwater scenario, the maximum exposure dose was extremely low, approximately 1 × 10{sup −7} mSv/yr, for both disposal options and satisfied the regulatory limit

  14. Detection of seal contamination in heat-sealed food packaging based on active infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'huys, Karlien; Saeys, Wouter; De Ketelaere, Bart

    2015-05-01

    In the food industry packaging is often applied to protect the product from the environment, assuring quality and safety throughout shelf life if properly performed. Packaging quality depends on the material used and the closure (seal). The material is selected based on the specific needs of the food product to be wrapped. However, proper closure of the package is often harder to achieve. One problem possibly jeopardizing seal quality is the presence of food particles between the seal. Seal contamination can cause a decreased seal strength and thus an increased packaging failure risk. It can also trigger the formation of microchannels through which air and microorganisms can enter and spoil the enclosed food. Therefore, early detection and removal of seal-contaminated packages from the production chain is essential. In this work, a pulsed-type active thermography method using the heat of the sealing bars as an excitation source was studied for detecting seal contamination. The cooling profile of contaminated seals was recorded. The detection performance of four processing methods (based on a single frame, a fit of the cooling profile, pulsed phase thermography and a matched filter) was compared. High resolution digital images served as a reference to quantify contamination. The lowest detection limit (equivalent diameter of 0.63 mm) and the lowest processing time (0.42 s per sample) were obtained for the method based on a single frame. Presumably, practical limitations in the recording stage prevented the added value of active thermography to be fully reflected in this application.

  15. S.I. No 17 of 1972, Factories Ionising Radiations (Sealed Sources) Regulations, 1972

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-03-01

    The purpose of the Regulations in general is to prescribe measures which must be taken to ensure the adequate protection of persons employed in factories and other places to which the Factories Act 1955 applies, against ionizing radiations arising from radioactive substances sealed in a container and from any machine or apparatus including irradiating apparatus that is intended to produce ionizing radiations in which charged particles are accelerated by a voltage of not less than 5 kilovolts. The Schedule lays down the maximum permissible doses of radiation for the different categories of workers. The Regulations entered into force on 1 March 1972 [fr

  16. Assessment of the Proposed Design of a New Spent Sealed Radioactive Sources Storage Facility at Novi Han

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alardin, J.M.; Lacroix, J.P.; Glibert, R.; Marneffe, L. de

    2001-09-01

    The NOVI HAN radioactive waste repository (NHRWR) in Bulgaria, built according to a Soviet design, was commissioned in 1964. The State Committee on the Use of Atomic Energy for Peaceful Purposes (CUAEPP) temporarily stopped operations at the repository from October 1994 until measures for improvement of the facility are undertaken. Since 1994, the Spent Sealed Radioactive Sources (SSRS) have been temporarily stored at the facilities at IRT-2000 research reactor of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (BAS) in Sofia. In view of the importance of the radiological risks associated with the present management of the SSRS in Bulgaria, the present study contract has been launched to critically review the proposal to provide a new interim storage facility for SSRS at NHRWR. A comprehensive critical review was performed of the feasibility study for the construction of a new SSRS facility at Novi Han, carried out by the local consultant engineering company (EQE), and detailed recommendations were made concerning the proposed new development at the site. The authors think that new concepts and procedures in the management of all categories of SSRS including smoke detectors have to be introduced, taking into account the regulatory framework and the inventories of existing and anticipated SSRS. This should be the basis for the technical specification of the new facilities for conditioning and storage of spent sealed radioactive sources (not only SHARS). (author)

  17. Evaluation of the uniformity of wide circular reference source and application of correction factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Junior, I.A.; Xavier, M.; Siqueira, P.T.D.; Sordi, G.A.A.; Potiens, M.P.A.

    2017-01-01

    In this work the uniformity of wide circular reference sources is evaluated. This kind of reference source is still widely used in Brazil. In previous works wide rectangular reference sources were analyzed and it was shown the importance of the application of correction factors in calibration procedures of radiation monitors. Now a transposition of the methods used formerly is performed, evaluating the uniformities of circular reference sources and calculating the associated correction factors. (author)

  18. Safety quality classification test of the sealed neutron sources used in start-up neutron source rods for Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Chunbing; Guo Gang; Chao Jinglan; Duan Liming

    1992-01-01

    According to the regulations listed in the GB4075, the safety quality classification tests have been carried out for the neutron sources. The test items include temperature, external pressure, impact, vibration and puncture, Two dummy sealed sources are used for each test item. The testing equipment used have been examined and verified to be qualified by the measuring department which is admitted by the National standard Bureau. The leak rate of each tested sample is measured by UL-100 Helium Leak Detector (its minimum detectable leak rate is 1 x 10 -10 Pa·m 3 ·s -1 ). The samples with leak rate less than 1.33 x 10 -8 Pa·m 3 ·s -1 are considered up to the standard. The test results show the safety quality classification class of the neutron sources have reached the class of GB/E66545 which exceeds the preset class

  19. Study and methodology development for quality control in the production process of iodine-125 radioactive sealed sources applied to brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, Joao Augusto

    2009-01-01

    Today cancer is the second cause of death by disease in several countries, including Brazil. Excluding skin cancer, prostate cancer is the most incident in the population. Prostate tumor can be treated by several ways, including brachytherapy, which consists in introducing sealed radioactive sources (Iodine - 125 seeds) inside the tumor. The target region of treatment receives a high radiation dose, but healthy neighbor tissues receive a significantly reduced radiation dose. The seed is made of a welding sealed titanium capsule, 0.8 mm external diameter and 4.5 mm length, enclosing a 0.5 mm diameter silver wire with Iodine-125 adsorbed. After welded, the seeds have to be submitted to a leak test to prevent any radioactive material release. The aims of this work were: (a) the study of the different leakage test methods applied to radioactive seeds and recommended by the ISO 997820, (b) the choice of the appropriate method and (c) the flowchart determination of the process to be used during the seeds production. The essays exceeded the standards with the use of ultra-sound during immersion and the corresponding benefits to leakage detection. Best results were obtained with the immersion in distilled water at 20 degree C for 24 hours and distilled water at 70 degree C for 30 minutes. These methods will be used during seed production. The process flowchart has all the phases of the leakage tests according to the sequence determined in the experiments. (author)

  20. Procedure to carry out leakage test in beta radiation sealed sources emitters of 90Sr/90Y

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez R, J. T.

    2010-09-01

    In the alpha-beta room of the Secondary Laboratory of Dosimetric Calibration of the Metrology Department of Ionizing Radiations ophthalmic applicators are calibrated in absorbed dose terms in water D w ; these applicators, basically are emitter sealed sources of pure beta radiation of 90 Sr / 90 Y. Concretely, the laboratory quality system indicates to use the established procedure for the calibration of these sources, which establishes the requirement of to carry out a leakage test, before to calibrate the source. However, in the Laboratory leakage test certificates sent by specialized companies in radiological protection services have been received, in which are used gamma spectrometry equipment s for beta radiation leakage tests, since it is not reliable to detect pure beta radiation with a scintillating detector with NaI crystal, (because it could detect the braking radiation produced in the detector). Therefore the Laboratory has had to verify the results of the tests with a correct technique, with the purpose of determining the presence of sources with their altered integrity and radioactive material leakage. The objective of this work is to describe a technique for beta activity measurement - of the standard ISO 7503, part 1 (1988) - and its application with a detector Gm plane (type pankage) in the realization of leakage tests in emitter sources of pure beta radiation, inside the mark of quality assurance indicated by the report ICRU 76. (Author)

  1. Disposal of disused sealed sources and approach for safety assessment of near surface disposal facilities (national practice of Ukraine)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseeva, Z.; Letuchy, A.; Tkachenko, N.V.

    2003-01-01

    The main sources of wastes are 13 units of nuclear power plants under operation at 4 NPP sites (operational wastes and spent sealed sources), uranium-mining industry, area of Chernobyl exclusion zone contaminated as a result of ChNPP accident, and over 8000 small users of sources of ionising radiation in different fields of scientific, medical and industrial applications. The management of spent sources is carried out basing on the technology from the early sixties. In accordance with this scheme accepted sources are disposed of either in the near surface concrete vaults or in borehole facilities of typical design. Radioisotope devices and gamma units are placed into near surface vaults and sealed sources in capsules into borehole repositories respectively. Isotope content of radwaste in the repositories is multifarious including Co-60, Cs-137, Sr-90, Ir-192, Tl-204, Po-210, Ra-226, Pu-239, Am-241, H-3, Cf-252. A new programme for waste management has been adopted. It envisions the modifying of the 'Radon' facilities for long-term storage safety assessment and relocation of respective types of waste in 'Vector' repositories.Vector Complex will be built in the site which is located within the exclusion zone 10Km SW of the Chernobyl NPP. In Vector Complex two types of disposal facilities are designed to be in operation: 1) Near surface repositories for short lived LLRW and ILRW disposal in reinforced concrete containers. Repositories will be provided with multi layer waterproofing barriers - concrete slab on layer composed of mixture of sand and clay. Every layer of radwaste is supposed to be filled with 1cm clay layer following disposal; 2) Repositories for disposal of bulky radioactive waste without cans into concrete vaults. Approaches to safety assessment are discussed. Safety criteria for waste disposal in near surface repositories are established in Radiation Protection Standards (NRBU-97) and Addendum 'Radiation protection against sources of potential exposure

  2. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Neutron Products Incorporated Sealed Source Waste Stream at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2014-08-31

    The purpose of this special analysis (SA) is to determine if the Neutron Products Incorporated (NPI) Sealed Sources waste stream (DRTK000000056, Revision 0) is suitable for disposal by shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The NPI Sealed Sources waste stream consists of 850 60Co sealed sources (Duratek [DRTK] 2013). The NPI Sealed Sources waste stream requires a special analysis (SA) because the waste stream 60Co activity concentration exceeds the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) Action Levels.

  3. Cradle to Grave: Managing Disused Sealed Radioactive Sources in the Mediterranean Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriques, Sasha

    2014-01-01

    Some countries in the Mediterranean region lack appropriate facilities for the safe management or disposal of radioactive waste such as disused radioactive sources. Disused radioactive sources could be lost, stolen or abandoned and thus fall outside the regulatory control. Such loss of control over disused sources presents a significant risk to the public and the environment

  4. Glass sealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brow, R.K.; Kovacic, L.; Chambers, R.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Hernetic glass sealing technologies developed for weapons component applications can be utilized for the design and manufacture of fuel cells. Design and processing of of a seal are optimized through an integrated approach based on glass composition research, finite element analysis, and sealing process definition. Glass sealing procedures are selected to accommodate the limits imposed by glass composition and predicted calculations.

  5. Feasibility of sealed D-T neutron generator as neutron source for liver BNCT and its beam shaping assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng; Li, Gang; Liu, Linmao

    2014-04-01

    This paper involves the feasibility of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for liver tumor with four sealed neutron generators as neutron source. Two generators are placed on each side of the liver. The high energy of these emitted neutrons should be reduced by designing a beam shaping assembly (BSA) to make them useable for BNCT. However, the neutron flux decreases as neutrons pass through different materials of BSA. Therefore, it is essential to find ways to increase the neutron flux. In this paper, the feasibility of using low enrichment uranium as a neutron multiplier is investigated to increase the number of neutrons emitted from D-T neutron generators. The neutron spectrum related to our system has a proper epithermal flux, and the fast and thermal neutron fluxes comply with the IAEA recommended values. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Pre-Columbian mycobacterial genomes reveal seals as a source of New World human tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Kirsten I.; Harkins, Kelly M.; Herbig, Alexander; Coscolla, Mireia; Weber, Nico; Comas, Iñaki; Forrest, Stephen A.; Bryant, Josephine M.; Harris, Simon R.; Schuenemann, Verena J.; Campbell, Tessa J.; Majander, Kerrtu; Wilbur, Alicia K.; Guichon, Ricardo A.; Wolfe Steadman, Dawnie L.; Cook, Della Collins; Niemann, Stefan; Behr, Marcel A.; Zumarraga, Martin; Bastida, Ricardo; Huson, Daniel; Nieselt, Kay; Young, Douglas; Parkhill, Julian; Buikstra, Jane E.; Gagneux, Sebastien; Stone, Anne C.; Krause, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Modern strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from the Americas are closely related to those from Europe, supporting the assumption that human tuberculosis was introduced post-contact1. This notion, however, is incompatible with archaeological evidence of pre-contact tuberculosis in the New World2. Comparative genomics of modern isolates suggests that M. tuberculosis attained its worldwide distribution following human dispersals out of Africa during the Pleistocene epoch3, although this has yet to be confirmed with ancient calibration points. Here we present three 1,000-year-old mycobacterial genomes from Peruvian human skeletons, revealing that a member of the M. tuberculosis complex caused human disease before contact. The ancient strains are distinct from known human-adapted forms and are most closely related to those adapted to seals and sea lions. Two independent dating approaches suggest a most recent common ancestor for the M. tuberculosis complex less than 6,000 years ago, which supports a Holocene dispersal of the disease. Our results implicate sea mammals as having played a role in transmitting the disease to humans across the ocean. PMID:25141181

  7. Sealing device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose

    2013-12-10

    A sealing device for sealing a gap between a dovetail of a bucket assembly and a rotor wheel is disclosed. The sealing device includes a cover plate configured to cover the gap and a retention member protruding from the cover plate and configured to engage the dovetail. The sealing device provides a seal against the gap when the bucket assemply is subjected to a centrifugal force.

  8. Handling, conditioning and storage of spent sealed radioactive sources. Technical manual for the management of low and intermediate level wastes generated at small nuclear research centres and by radioisotope users in medicine, research and industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-05-01

    This report is intended to provide reference material, guidance and know-how on handling, conditioning and storage of spent sealed radioactive sources (SRS) to both users of SRS and operators of waste management facilities. The scope of this report covers all types of SRS except those exempted from regulatory control. The report contains in some detail technical procedures for the conditioning of spent SRS, describes the means required to assure the quality of the resulting package and discusses the measures to prepare waste packages with a certain flexibility to accommodate possible future disposal requirements

  9. Simulation of wind wave growth with reference source functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badulin, Sergei I.; Zakharov, Vladimir E.; Pushkarev, Andrei N.

    2013-04-01

    We present results of extensive simulations of wind wave growth with the so-called reference source function in the right-hand side of the Hasselmann equation written as follows First, we use Webb's algorithm [8] for calculating the exact nonlinear transfer function Snl. Second, we consider a family of wind input functions in accordance with recent consideration [9] ( )s S = ?(k)N , ?(k) = ? ? ?- f (?). in k 0 ?0 in (2) Function fin(?) describes dependence on angle ?. Parameters in (2) are tunable and determine magnitude (parameters ?0, ?0) and wave growth rate s [9]. Exponent s plays a key role in this study being responsible for reference scenarios of wave growth: s = 4-3 gives linear growth of wave momentum, s = 2 - linear growth of wave energy and s = 8-3 - constant rate of wave action growth. Note, the values are close to ones of conventional parameterizations of wave growth rates (e.g. s = 1 for [7] and s = 2 for [5]). Dissipation function Sdiss is chosen as one providing the Phillips spectrum E(?) ~ ?5 at high frequency range [3] (parameter ?diss fixes a dissipation scale of wind waves) Sdiss = Cdissμ4w?N (k)θ(? - ?diss) (3) Here frequency-dependent wave steepness μ2w = E(?,?)?5-g2 makes this function to be heavily nonlinear and provides a remarkable property of stationary solutions at high frequencies: the dissipation coefficient Cdiss should keep certain value to provide the observed power-law tails close to the Phillips spectrum E(?) ~ ?-5. Our recent estimates [3] give Cdiss ? 2.0. The Hasselmann equation (1) with the new functions Sin, Sdiss (2,3) has a family of self-similar solutions of the same form as previously studied models [1,3,9] and proposes a solid basis for further theoretical and numerical study of wave evolution under action of all the physical mechanisms: wind input, wave dissipation and nonlinear transfer. Simulations of duration- and fetch-limited wind wave growth have been carried out within the above model setup to check its

  10. Identification of radioactive sources and devices. Reference manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This publication is intended to be a basic guide and not a comprehensive tool kit to identify and provide detailed emergency handling instructions for radioactive sources, devices and transport containers. In addition, this publication helps to identify sources and highlight the risks they present, and provides information on appropriate action. It is a small but significant step in the international community's continuing efforts to strengthen control of radioactive sources and nuclear material, increase safety and security, and thereby make the benefits of radioactive sources ever more broadly accessible. This publication was partly funded through the Nuclear Security Fund established under the Nuclear Security Plan

  11. Production of the sealed gamma-radiation sources of with iridium-192 radionuclide at the WWR-K research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petukhov, V.K.; Chernayev, V.P.; Chabeyev, N.T.; Ermakov, E.L.; Chakrov, P.V.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Conversion orientation of the WWR-K research reactor activity was established after renewal of its operation in 1997. A priority in reactor works was determined in the decision of tasks of practical use of nuclear technologies in a national economy in the next directions: in an industry, public health services and agriculture. The items of prime tasks: development and introduction of radiation technologies and manufacturing of radioisotopes for industry. This task included both scientific and technical program in the list of works of the Republican goals. At the WWR-K reactor within the framework of the this task solution the works on pilot production of the sealed sources of radioactive radiations (SSRR) with Ir-192 radionuclide for an industry of Republic of Kazakhstan were made. Organizational questions related to the Kazakhstan authority body and the regulating documentation were solved the first of all. The second stage was the development of the techniques of creating of devices providing an samples irradiation in reactor, control of sources sealing, measurements of the equivalent radiation doze from sources and high-quality support of SSRR manufacture over all technological way. At the third stage was made a little quantity SSRR with Ir-192 radionuclide, such as GIID-A1 (G6), for 'TEKOPS-660' Gammaray Projectors. This work served as experimental check of the decisions correctness, and has allowed to remove those lacks, to find out which it was possible only during direct manufacturing of radioactive sources. During performance of all these works the following was carried out: development and release of the documents and specifications regulating work on SSRR manufacture at the Institute of Nuclear Physics; personnel preparation and certification; preparation and equipment providing of reactor hot chambers by additional devices for work with irradiated iridium samples; development and manufacturing of the devices for iridium samples irradiation in

  12. The Poisson alignment reference system implementation at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feier, I.

    1998-01-01

    The Poisson spot was established using a collimated laser beam from a 3-mW diode laser. It was monitored on a quadrant detector and found to be very sensitive to vibration and air disturbances. Therefore, for future work we strongly recommend a sealed vacuum tube in which the Poisson line may be propagated. A digital single-axis feedback system was employed to generate an straight line reference (SLR) on the X axis. Pointing accuracy was better than 8 ± 2 microns at a distance of 5 m. The digital system was found to be quite slow with a maximum bandwidth of 47 ± 9 Hz. Slow drifts were easily corrected but any vibration over 5 Hz was not. We recommend an analog proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller for high bandwidth and smooth operation of the kinematic mirror. Although the Poisson alignment system (PAS) at the Advanced Photon Source is still in its infancy, it already shows great promise as a possible alignment system for the low-energy undulator test line (LEUTL). Since components such as wigglers and quadruples will initially be aligned with respect to each other using conventional means and mounted on some kind of rigid rail, the goal would be to align six to ten such rails over a distance of about 30 m. The PAS could be used to align these rails by mounting a sphere at the joint between two rails. These spheres would need to be in a vacuum pipe to eliminate the refractive effects of air. Each sphere would not be attached to either rail but instead to a flange connecting the vacuum pipes of each rail. Thus the whole line would be made up of straight, rigid segments that could be aligned by moving the joints. Each sphere would have its own detector, allowing the operators to actively monitor the position of each joint and therefore the overall alignment of the system

  13. Industrial meters with sealed sources: an overview of the situation in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cateriano, Miguel A.; Truppa, Walter A.

    2003-01-01

    During 2002 the Argentine Nuclear Regulatory Authority decided that it should audit all the owners of licenses to operate industrial meters to verify the sources declared by the users and to evaluate the radiological safety of the installations within the regulatory framework as well as the safety of the sources. This audit has taken place at a national level and included all users that own industrial meters. Almost 380 facilities were inspected in 60 days. An ad-hoc committee was created to achieve this goal; it was made up of 5 groups of three inspectors each who were distributed along different areas of the country where the facilities operate. The knowledge of the situation is an important tool that allows a better planning of the source control policy in order to prevent radiological emergency situations in which radioactive sources might be involved. In this paper the satisfactory results of the audits are presented. No orphan sources were detected. The anomalies found and all the actions taken to early correct these anomalies are described. Additionally, an updated description of the situation concerning all the users of industrial meters is presented. Their distribution per province, an inventory of sources and equipment as well as the number of licenses and individual authorizations are also shown in this paper. (author)

  14. Radiation protection: data sheets for use of 11C, 18F, 22Na, 24Na, 33P, 35S, 36Cl, 45Ca in non sealed sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    These data sheets give the essential datas for the use of non sealed radioactive sources They are made for users in view of their radiation protection and give the administrative procedures, the radiation protection procedures and equipments to be used in function of the activity

  15. Numeric data services and sources for the general reference librarian

    CERN Document Server

    Kellam, Lynda

    2011-01-01

    The proliferation of online access to social science statistical and numeric data sources, such as the U.S. Census Bureau's American Fact Finder, has lead to an increased interest in supporting these sources in academic libraries. Many large libraries have been able to devote staff to data services for years, and recently smaller academic libraries have recognized the need to provide numeric data services and support. This guidebook serves as a primer to developing and supporting social science statistical and numerical data sources in the academic library. It provides strategies for the estab

  16. Sources of inspiration? Making sense of scientific references in patents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Callaert, Julie; Pellens, Maikel; van Looy, Bart

    2013-01-01

    Scientific references in patent documents can be used as indicators signaling science-technology interactions. Whether they reflect a direct ‘knowledge flow’ from science to technology is subject of debate. Based on 33 interviews with inventors at Belgian firms and knowledge-generating institutes

  17. Shakespeare: A Student's Guide to Basic Reference Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claener, Anne, Comp.

    Basic and standard reference materials dealing with William Shakespeare are listed in this bibliography. Annotated entries are grouped under the following headings: concordances, dictionaries, encyclopedias and handbooks, and bibliographies. The section on bibliographies is further divided into lists of editions of Shakespeare's work, general…

  18. The Web as a Reference Tool: Comparisons with Traditional Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janes, Joseph; McClure, Charles R.

    1999-01-01

    This preliminary study suggests that the same level of timeliness and accuracy can be obtained for answers to reference questions using resources in freely available World Wide Web sites as with traditional print-based resources. Discusses implications for library collection development, new models of consortia, training needs, and costing and…

  19. Reclamation of greater than Class C sealed sources at the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, R.G.; Jones, S.W.

    1995-01-01

    One of the important overriding themes of the Los Alamos National Laboratory as a world-class scientific institution is to utilize its expertise in enhancing the long-term welfare of society by minimizing negative side effects of nuclear technology over the past five decades. The Los Alamos National Laboratory is therefore committed to the use of its technical competencies and nuclear facilities, developed through programs in the areas of defense and civilian nuclear research, to support activities which will benefit the United States as a whole. As such, this paper discusses the organizational details and requirements of the Neutron Source Reclamation Program at Los Alamos. This program has as its mission the retrieval, interim storage, and chemical reprocessing of 238 PuBe, 239 PuBe and 24l AmBe neutron sources residing in the hands of private companies and industries, academic institutions, and various state and Federal government agencies

  20. Security seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobeli, Garth W.

    1985-01-01

    Security for a package or verifying seal in plastic material is provided by a print seal with unique thermally produced imprints in the plastic. If tampering is attempted, the material is irreparably damaged and thus detectable. The pattern of the imprints, similar to "fingerprints" are recorded as a positive identification for the seal, and corresponding recordings made to allow comparison. The integrity of the seal is proved by the comparison of imprint identification records made by laser beam projection.

  1. Seal arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dempsey, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    A hydraulically balanced face type shaft seal is provided in which the opening and closing seal face areas retain concentricity with each other in the event of lateral shaft displacement. The seal arrangement is for a vertical high pressure pump, indented for use in the cooling system of a nuclear reactor. (Auth.)

  2. Proposal for radioactive liquid waste management in a brachytherapy sealed sources development laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, C.D.; Peleias Jr, F.S.; Rostelato, M.E.C.M.; Zeituni, C.A.; Benega, M.A.G.; Tiezzi, R.; Mattos, F.R.; Rodrigues, B.T.; Oliveira, T.B.; Feher, A.; Moura, J.A.; Costa, O.L.

    2014-01-01

    The radioactive waste management is addressed in several regulations. Literature survey indicates limited guidance on liquid waste management in Brachytherapy I-125 seeds production. Laboratories for those seeds are under implementation not only in Brazil but in several countries such as Poland, South Korea, Iran, China, and others. This paper may be used as reference to these other groups. For the correct implementation, a plan for radiological protection that has the management of radioactive waste fully specified is necessary. The proposal is that the waste will be deposited in a 20 L and 60 L containers which will take 2 years to fill. For glove box 1, the final activity of this container is 1.91 x 10 10 Bq (3.19 years to safe release in the environment). For glove box 3, the final activity of this container is 1.28 x 10 10 Bq (2.85 years to safe release in the environment). (authors)

  3. Sources and performance criteria of uncertainty of reference measurement procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosca, Andrea; Paleari, Renata

    2018-05-29

    This article wants to focus on the today available Reference Measurement Procedures (RMPs) for the determination of various analytes in Laboratory Medicine and the possible tools to evaluate their performance in the laboratories who are currently using them. A brief review on the RMPs has been performed by investigating the Joint Committee for Traceability in Laboratory Medicine (JCTLM) database. In order to evaluate their performances, we have checked the organization of three international ring trials, i.e. those regularly performed by the IFCC External Quality assessment scheme for Reference Laboratories in Laboratory Medicine (RELA), by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cholesterol network and by the IFCC Network for HbA 1c . Several RMPs are available through the JCTLM database, but the best way to collect information about the RMPs and their uncertainties is to look at the reference measurement service providers (RMS). This part of the database and the background on how to listed in the database is very helpful for the assessment of expanded uncertainty (MU) and performance in general of RMPs. Worldwide, 17 RMS are listed in the database, and for most of the measurands more than one RMS is able to run the relative RMPs, with similar expanded uncertainties. As an example, for a-amylase, 4 SP offer their services with MU between 1.6 and 3.3%. In other cases (such as total cholesterol, the U may span over a broader range, i.e. from 0.02 to 3.6%). With regard to the performance evaluation, the approach is often heterogenous, and it is difficult to compare the performance of laboratories running the same RMP for the same measurand if involved in more than one EQAS. The reference measurement services have been created to help laboratory professionals and manufacturers to implement the correct metrological traceability, and the JCTLM database is the only correct way to retrieve all the necessary important information to this end. Copyright © 2018

  4. Environmental radiation control and quality management system in design and operation of sealed radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, A.Z.

    2007-01-01

    New environmental regulations and radiation safety standards are being implemented almost daily to ensure radiation safety, in particular for practices causing exposures to undue radiation doses. A particular emphasis of real challenge for organizations and users of radiation sources has to be for proper radiological safety assessment and is becoming cost effectively to be prepared for auditing. Special concern for the environment is of global . nature, and hence environmental auditing has been and will continue to be an essential practice for improving the environment and for meeting the relevant regulations and standards. In general, most facilities that deal with radioactive sources undertake strict safety measures in terms of personnel radiation protection, handling procedures and security. Hence, those measures should comply with the requirements of the environmental protection standards. Accordingly, a successful quality management system must balance realities of organization and personnel in achieving quality objectives. Organizational principles are found in the technical aspects of' quality management, such as, charting, requirements, measurements, procedures, ... , etc. Human principles are found in the communication side of quality management (e.g. meetings, ,decision making, ,teams, ... , etc). The quality management must understand and balance skills needed to blend them together. Large gamma irradiators present a high potential radiation hazard to the surrounding environment, since the amount of radioactivity is of the order of (P Bq) and a very high dose rates are produced during irradiation. Application of environmental radiation control deemed by regulatory authority and a proper quality management system by the utility would serve public health and safety

  5. Data Bank of Nuclear and Radiological Regulatory Authority, Part 2 . Software Package of Statistical Data of Sealed Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lashin, R.M.A.; Mahmoud, N.S.; Lashin, M.M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Protection of human, property and the environment is the main concern considered as a principal goal to form the Egyptian Nuclear and Radiological Regulatory Authority. That requires a lot of work, efforts, knowledge and aids for right and quick decision making. Internationally, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) developed a protection system for control and accounts the radioactive materials for the safe use and transport. Moreover, the protection system can prevent the theft of these materials or their use in terrorism. Here in, all radioactive sources shall be subjected to instructions, serious regulations and laws. In order to exercise these functions, it is necessary to accurately establish the appropriate information system to the regulatory body. This system must depend on using a modern technology to perform the work in most accurate and fullest manner in a Data Bank [1, 2]. The present work is the second part performed for the data bank, which consists of two parts: first part is concern about the open sources which executed before [3]. Second part is deal with the sealed sources. Describing here consolidated guidance help materials licenses. It also provides reviewers of such requests with the information and materials necessary to determine that the products are acceptable for licensing purposes. It provides the applicants and reviewers with information concerning how to file a request, a listing of the applicable regulations and industry standards, policies affecting evaluation and registration, administrative procedures to be followed, information on how to perform the evaluation and write a registration certificate, and the responsibilities of the registration certificate holder.

  6. General information on licensing process in Bulgaria and disused sealed sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nizamska, M.

    2003-01-01

    The basic legal framework for radiation protection and the safety of radiation sources is given in the report. The authorisation process is described. Actual data for the system of authorisation about SIR during 2002/2003 are given. The planned activities related to RAW management are:commissioning of the complex for treatment, conditioning and storage of RAW in Kozloduy NPP - by the end of 2003; investigation of Gabra site for construction of institutional waste disposal facility - by the end of 2004; implementation of program for reconstruction and modernisation of Novi Han Repository - by the end of 2007; site selection for the national RAW disposal facility - by the end of 2008. The Nuclear Energy Act defines the following future activities: establishment of the State Enterprise 'RAW' in 2004; development of new secondary legislation for safe management of SF and RAW until July 2004; update of the National Strategy for Safe Management of SF and RAW until the end of 2003

  7. Timing reference generators and chopper controllers for neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.; Merl, R.; Rose, C.

    2001-01-01

    Due to AC-power-grid frequency fluctuations, the designers for accelerator-based spallation-neutron facilities have worked to optimize the competing and contrasting demands of accelerator and neutron chopper performance. Powerful new simulation techniques have enabled the modeling of the timing systems that integrate chopper controllers and chopper hardware. For the first time, we are able to quantitatively access the tradeoffs between these two constraints and design or upgrade a facility to optimize total system performance. Thus, at LANSCE, we now operate multiple chopper systems and the accelerator as simple slaves to a single master-timing-reference generator. For the SNS we recommend a similar system that is somewhat less tightly coupled to the power grid. (author)

  8. The Supercontinuum Laser Source Fundamentals with Updated References

    CERN Document Server

    Alfano, Robert R

    2006-01-01

    Photonics and nonlinear optics are important areas of science, engineering and technology. One of the most important ultrafast nonlinear optical processes is the supercontinuum (SC) – the production of intense white light pulses covering: uv, visible, NIR, MIR, and IR. It is produced using ultrashort laser pulses (ps/fs) to produce the ultrabroad band of frequencies. This book covers the fundamental principles and surveys research of current thinkers and experts in the field with updated references of the key breakthroughs over the past decade and a half. The application of SC are time-resolved pump-SC probe absorption and excitation spectroscopy for chemistry, biology and physics fundamental processes; optical coherence tomography; ultrashort pulse generation in femtosecond and attosecond regions; frequency clocks; phase stabilization; optical communication; atmospheric science; lightning control; optical medical imaging; biological cell imaging; and metrology standards.

  9. The US EPA reference dose for methylmercury: sources of uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, D.C.

    2004-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) derived a reference dose for methylmercury in 2001, based on an extensive analysis by the National Research Council (NRC) of the National Academy of Sciences. The NRC performed benchmark dose analysis on a number of endpoints from three longitudinal prospective studies: the Seychelles Islands, the Faroe Islands, and the New Zealand studies. Adverse effects were reported in the latter two studies, but not in the Seychelles study. The NRC also performed an integrative analysis of all three studies. Dose conversion from cord blood or maternal hair mercury concentration was performed by EPA using a one-compartment pharmacokinetic model. A total uncertainty factor of 10 was applied for intrahuman pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic variability. There are numerous decisions made by the NRC/EPA that could greatly affect the value of the reference dose (RfD). Some of these include the choice of a linear model for the relationship between mercury body burden and neuropsychological performance, the choice of values of P 0 and the benchmark response, the use of the 'critical study/critical endpoint' approach in the interpretation of the maternal body burden that corresponds to the RfD, the use of central tendencies in a one-compartment pharmacokinetic model rather than the inclusion of the distributions of variables for the population of reproductive-age women, the assumption of unity for the ratio of fetal cord blood to maternal blood methylmercury concentrations, the choice of a total of 10 as an uncertainty factor, and the lack of dose-response analysis for other health effects such as cardiovascular disease. In addition, it may be argued that derivation of a RfD for methylmercury is inappropriate, given that there does not appear to be a threshold for adverse neuropsychological effects based on available data

  10. Management of Spent Sealed Radioactive Sources in Central and Eastern Europe (Czech Rep., Estonia, Hungary, Poland and Slovenia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angus, M.J.; Moreton, A.D.; Wells, D.A.

    2001-04-01

    This study has been performed to consider the situation relating to the regulation and management of spent sealed radioactive sources (SSRS) in five central and Eastern European (C and EE) countries currently being considered for admission to the EU: the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Poland and Slovenia. The general aim of this study has been to acquire a thorough understanding of the management of SSRS in these five countries, in order to recommend improvements in management schemes and to establish whether the application of common disposal criteria would be advantageous. This report is structured in the following manner; following the Introduction (Section 1), there is description of current and proposed regulatory requirements in the EU, together with a summarised comparison of the regulatory systems in C and EE countries with EU standards in Section 2. Sections 3 to 7 are dedicated to the situation in each of the five countries. Each of these sections is similarly sub-divided to enable country-by-country and topic-by-topic comparison. In each of Sections 3 to 7 there is an overview, description of the sealed source inventory, regulations, current management practices, retrieval of unregistered SSRS, conclusions and a description of possible future technical assistance projects. Section 8 brings together a summary of the situation in each country, with conclusions and both country-specific and generic recommendations. A common concern in the five countries and also in existing EU member states is the problem of accidental inclusion of SSRS in consignments of scrap-metal. The detection of radioactive material at entrances to scrap metal facilities and at national borders has therefore received considerable attention in recent years. Practical issues regarding the detection of SSRS in scrap metal are described in Appendix A. None of the five countries considered in this report have any plans to develop regional disposal facilities and no specific common

  11. Nozzle seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, R.F.

    1977-01-01

    In an illustrative embodiment of the invention, a nuclear reactor pressure vessel, having an internal hoop from which the heated coolant emerges from the reactor core and passes through to the reactor outlet nozzles, is provided with sealing members operatively disposed between the outlet nozzle and the hoop. The sealing members are biased against the pressure vessel and the hoop and are connected by a leak restraining member establishing a leak-proof condition between the inlet and outlet coolants in the region about the outlet nozzle. Furthermore, the flexible responsiveness of the seal assures that the seal will not structurally couple the hoop to the pressure vessel

  12. Nozzle seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walling, G.A.

    1977-01-01

    In an illustrative embodiment of the invention, a nuclear reactor pressure vessel, having an internal hoop from which the heated coolant emerges from the reactor core and passes through to the reactor outlet nozzles, is provided with sealing rings operatively disposed between the outlet nozzles and the hoop. The sealing rings connected by flexible members are biased against the pressure vessel and the hoop, establishing a leak-proof condition between the inlet and outlet coolants in the region about the outlet nozzle. Furthermore, the flexible responsiveness of the seal assures that the seal will not structurally couple the hoop to the pressure vessel. 4 claims, 2 figures

  13. Ceramic Seal.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smartt, Heidi A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Romero, Juan A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Custer, Joyce Olsen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hymel, Ross W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Krementz, Dan [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Gobin, Derek [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Harpring, Larry [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Martinez-Rodriguez, Michael [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Varble, Don [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); DiMaio, Jeff [Tetramer Technologies, Pendleton, SC (United States); Hudson, Stephen [Tetramer Technologies, Pendleton, SC (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Containment/Surveillance (C/S) measures are critical to any verification regime in order to maintain Continuity of Knowledge (CoK). The Ceramic Seal project is research into the next generation technologies to advance C/S, in particular improving security and efficiency. The Ceramic Seal is a small form factor loop seal with improved tamper-indication including a frangible seal body, tamper planes, external coatings, and electronic monitoring of the seal body integrity. It improves efficiency through a self-securing wire and in-situ verification with a handheld reader. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), under sponsorship from the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Research and Development (DNN R&D), have previously designed and have now fabricated and tested Ceramic Seals. Tests have occurred at both SNL and SRNL, with different types of tests occurring at each facility. This interim report will describe the Ceramic Seal prototype, the design and development of a handheld standalone reader and an interface to a data acquisition system, fabrication of the seals, and results of initial testing.

  14. Ceramic Seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smartt, Heidi A.; Romero, Juan A.; Custer, Joyce Olsen; Hymel, Ross W.; Krementz, Dan; Gobin, Derek; Harpring, Larry; Martinez-Rodriguez, Michael; Varble, Don; DiMaio, Jeff; Hudson, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Containment/Surveillance (C/S) measures are critical to any verification regime in order to maintain Continuity of Knowledge (CoK). The Ceramic Seal project is research into the next generation technologies to advance C/S, in particular improving security and efficiency. The Ceramic Seal is a small form factor loop seal with improved tamper-indication including a frangible seal body, tamper planes, external coatings, and electronic monitoring of the seal body integrity. It improves efficiency through a self-securing wire and in-situ verification with a handheld reader. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), under sponsorship from the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Research and Development (DNN R&D), have previously designed and have now fabricated and tested Ceramic Seals. Tests have occurred at both SNL and SRNL, with different types of tests occurring at each facility. This interim report will describe the Ceramic Seal prototype, the design and development of a handheld standalone reader and an interface to a data acquisition system, fabrication of the seals, and results of initial testing.

  15. Electronic seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musyck, E.

    1981-01-01

    An electronic seal is presented for a volume such as container for fissile materials. The seal encloses a lock for barring the space as well as a device for the detection and the recording of the intervention of the lock. (AF)

  16. Ferrules seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J.L.

    1984-07-10

    A device is provided for sealing an inner tube and an outer tube without excessively deforming the tubes. The device includes two ferrules which cooperate to form a vacuum-tight seal between the inner tube and outer tube and having mating surfaces such that overtightening is not possible. 3 figs.

  17. Sealing devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulson, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    A sealing device for minimising the leakage of toxic or radioactive contaminated environments through a biological shield along an opening through which a flexible component moves that penetrates the shield. The sealing device comprises an outer tubular member which extends over a length not less than the maximum longitudinal movement of the component along the opening. An inner sealing block is located intermediate the length of the component by connectors and is positioned in the bore of the outer tubular member to slide in the bore and effect a seal over the entire longitudinal movement of the component. The cross-section of the device may be circular and the block may be of polytetrafluoroethylene or of nylon impregnated with molybdenum or may be metallic. A number of the sealing devices may be combined into an assembly for a plurality of adjacent longitudinally movable components, each adapted to sustain a tensile load, providing the various drives of a master-slave manipulator. (author)

  18. Laser Lights or Dim Bulbs? Evaluating Reference Librarians' Use of Electronic Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Jeanie M.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the evaluation of academic library reference librarians' effectiveness in providing services to patrons using electronic sources based on experiences at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte. Topics include core technical competencies for subject specialists and reference desk service; the Internet; and methods of evaluation.…

  19. Evaluation of the homogeneity of reference flat sources used in calibration of surface contamination monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Junior, I.A.; Xavier, M.; Siqueira, P.T.D.; Potiens, M.P.A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to re-evaluate the uniformity of the wide area reference sources of the Calibration Laboratory of Instruments (LCI-IPEN) used in the calibration of surface contamination monitors, according the recommendations of the ISO 8769 standard and the NRPB. In this work used six wide area reference sources of 150 cm 2 of 241 Am, 14 C, 36 Cl, 137 Cs, 90 Sr+ 90 Y and 99 Tc with reference dates between 1996 and 1997 and three sources of 100 cm 2 of 14 C, 137 Cs and 60 Co were used with reference dates 2007. Measurements were performed with a radiation monitor of the Thermo, model FH40GX with a pancake probe, model FHZ732GM. We also made several models on paper with the objective of define each measurement position and an aluminum plate with a square hole (6.25 cm 2 ) in its center, allowing the passage of the radiation only through the hole. Each wide area reference source was positioned in setup and measurements were performed in order to cover the entire surface of the source. The values of the uniformity obtained partially confirm previous data obtained in another study conducted by LCI-IPEN, showing that some wide area reference sources 150 cm 2 in disagree with ISO 8769. In the former work, just the source of 241 Am (7.3%) was within the range specified by the standard, now have sources of 241 Am (5.7%), 137 Cs (8.8%), 90 Sr+ 9 '0Y (8, 8%) and 99 Tc (9.2%) with values within the specified uniformity. The sources of 14 C (53.3%) and 36 Cl (16.6%) were outside the specified. The wide area reference sources of 100 cm 2 , show disagreement in values of uniformity of the sources 14 C (46.7%) and 60 Co (10.4%). The values of the uniformity of the wide area reference sources show that some fonts can not be used in calibrations, because not in accordance with the value of uniformity specified in ISO 8769:2010, this is a conditions to believe a laboratory according to ISO 17025, show the laboratory performs its services with a high quality. The

  20. 30 CFR 75.337 - Construction and repair of seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sealed areas. (b) Prior to sealing, the mine operator shall— (1) Remove insulated cables, batteries, and other potential electric ignition sources from the area to be sealed when constructing seals, unless it... after April 18, 2008, the seal at the lowest elevation shall have a corrosion-resistant, non-metallic...

  1. Efficient Location of Research Reference Sources in the Field of Dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissinger, Pat; Jay, Danielle

    More than 45 basic dance reference research sources that would be useful to students, scholars, teachers, historians, and therapists are discussed in this bibliographic essay. Aspects of dance covered include choreography, criticism, teaching principles, aesthetic theory, dance therapy, and history. Sources are grouped by type: dictionaries and…

  2. 78 FR 21008 - Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factor, Nonconventional Source Fuel Credit, and Reference...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... products) for calendar year 2012. DATES: The 2012 inflation adjustment factor, nonconventional source fuel... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factor, Nonconventional Source Fuel Credit, and Reference Price for Calendar Year 2012 AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service...

  3. 76 FR 19524 - Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factor, Nonconventional Source Fuel Credit, and Reference...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ... products) for calendar year 2010. DATES: The 2010 inflation adjustment factor, nonconventional source fuel... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factor, Nonconventional Source Fuel Credit, and Reference Price for Calendar Year 2010 AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service...

  4. 77 FR 22067 - Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factor, Nonconventional Source Fuel Credit, and Reference...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... calendar year 2011. DATES: The 2011 inflation adjustment factor and nonconventional source fuel credit... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factor, Nonconventional Source Fuel Credit, and Reference Price for Calendar Year 2011 AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service...

  5. Optical Spectra of Candidate International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) Flat-spectrum Radio Sources. III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titov, O.; Stanford, Laura M. [Geoscience Australia, P.O. Box 378, Canberra, ACT 2601 (Australia); Pursimo, T. [Nordic Optical Telescope, Nordic Optical Telescope Apartado 474E-38700 Santa Cruz de La Palma, Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain); Johnston, Helen M.; Hunstead, Richard W. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Jauncey, David L. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, ATNF and Mount Stromlo Observatory, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Zenere, Katrina A., E-mail: oleg.titov@ga.gov.au [School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2017-04-01

    In extending our spectroscopic program, which targets sources drawn from the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) Catalog, we have obtained spectra for ∼160 compact, flat-spectrum radio sources and determined redshifts for 112 quasars and radio galaxies. A further 14 sources with featureless spectra have been classified as BL Lac objects. Spectra were obtained at three telescopes: the 3.58 m European Southern Observatory New Technology Telescope, and the two 8.2 m Gemini telescopes in Hawaii and Chile. While most of the sources are powerful quasars, a significant fraction of radio galaxies is also included from the list of non-defining ICRF radio sources.

  6. A 6.13MeV gamma reference source, measurement of the emission rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert, Andre; Blondel, Maurice; Morel, Jean; Thomas, Claude.

    1977-08-01

    A 6.13MeV γ reference source has been produced by using 13 C(α, nγ) 16 O reaction occurring in an intimate 13 C and 238 Pu mixture. With two walls made leak proof this standard source is easy handled and convenient to the calibration of detectors. The 6.13MeV gamma ray is emitted without Doeppler effect, is measured with an uncertainty of 6% by three independent methods [fr

  7. Upgrading inflatable door seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykes, T.M.; Metcalfe, R.; Welch, L.A.; Josefowich, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Inflatable door seals are used for airlocks in CANDU stations. They have been a significant source of unreliability and maintenance cost. A program is underway to improve their performance and reliability, backed by environmental qualification testing. Only commercial products and suppliers existed in 1993. For historical reasons, these 'existing products' did not use the most durable material then available. In hindsight, neither had they been adapted nor optimized to combat conditions often experienced in the plants-sagging doors, damaged sealing surfaces, and many thousands of openings and closings per year. Initial attempts to involve the two existing suppliers in efforts to upgrade these seals were unsuccessful. Another suitable supplier had therefore to be found, and a 'new,' COG-owned seal developed; this was completed in 1997. This paper summarizes its testing, along with that of the two existing products. Resistance to aging has been improved significantly. Testing has shown that an accident can be safely withstood after 10 years of service or 40,000 openings-closings, whichever comes first. AECL's Fluid Sealing Technology Unit (FSTU) has invested in the special moulds, test fixtures and other necessary tooling and documentation required to begin commercial manufacture of this new quality product. Accordingly, as with FSTU's other nuclear products such as pump seals, the long-term supply of door seals to CANDU plants is now protected from many external uncertainties-e.g., commercial products being discontinued, materials being changed, companies going out of business. Manufacturing to AECL's detailed specifications is being subcontracted to the new supplier. FSTU is performing the quality surveillance, inspection, testing, and customer service activities concomitant with direct responsibility for supply to the plants. (author)

  8. Design of repository sealing systems - 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellison, R.D.; Shukla, D.K.; Kelsall, P.C.; D'Appolonia Consulting Engineers, Albuquerque, NM)

    1982-01-01

    Isolating nuclear waste in geologic repositories will require the sealing of penetrations such as access shafts and tunnels, disposal rooms, and exploration boreholes. This paper discusses seal designs developed for a repository in bedded salt referenced to the stratigraphy of southeastern New Mexico. Designs are based on a multiple component concept whereby individual components are designed for a specific function and location. For a repository in salt the major function of the seals is to exclude groundwater inflow. Two main types of component are included for this purpose: (1) bulk-heads are dense concrete structures keyed into the walls of the penetration and are intended to reduce flow at the interface between the seal and the salt; (2) backfills are granular materials compacted in place in the penetration. In the repository the major backfill material is crushed salt, which is expected to consolidate and recrystallize as the rooms close in response to salt creep. Densely compacted clays will be used as backfill in the shafts closer to potential sources of water inflow. 22 references, 10 figures, 1 table

  9. Factors affecting quality for beta dose rate measurements using ISO 6980 series I reference sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, R.E. Jr.; O`Brien, J.M. Jr. [Atlan-Tech, Rosewll, GA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Atlan-Tech, Inc. has performed several calibrations of ISO 6980 Series 1 reference beta sources over the past two to three years. There were many problems encountered in attempting to compare the results of these calibrations with those from other laboratories, indicating the need for more standardization in the methodology employed for the measurement of the absorbed dose rate from ISO 6980 Series 1 reference beta sources. This document describes some of the problems encountered in attempting to intercompare results of beta dose-rate measurements. It proposes some solutions in an attempt to open a dialogue among facilities using reference beta standards for the purpose of promoting better measurement quality assurance through data intercomparison.

  10. Factors affecting quality for beta dose rate measurements using ISO 6980 series I reference sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, R.E. Jr.; O'Brien, J.M. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Atlan-Tech, Inc. has performed several calibrations of ISO 6980 Series 1 reference beta sources over the past two to three years. There were many problems encountered in attempting to compare the results of these calibrations with those from other laboratories, indicating the need for more standardization in the methodology employed for the measurement of the absorbed dose rate from ISO 6980 Series 1 reference beta sources. This document describes some of the problems encountered in attempting to intercompare results of beta dose-rate measurements. It proposes some solutions in an attempt to open a dialogue among facilities using reference beta standards for the purpose of promoting better measurement quality assurance through data intercomparison

  11. Influence of the soil sealing on the geoaccumulation index of heavy metals and various pollution factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charzyński, Przemysław; Plak, Andrzej; Hanaka, Agnieszka

    2017-02-01

    Soil sealing belongs to the most destructive and damaging processes to the soil environment. Soil sealing interrupts or greatly restricts the exchange of matter and energy between the biosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere and the soil environment. The aim of this study was to compare the content of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn) of Ekranic Technosols by applying indicators such as geoaccumulation index (I geo ), enrichment factor (EF), and pollution load index (PLI), which allowed to determine quantitatively the impact of the soil sealing degree on the content of heavy metals and to distinguish natural from anthropogenic sources of origin of heavy metals. In general, 42 soils from different parts of the city of Toruń (NW Poland) were sampled and divided into three groups according to the degree of soil sealing: completely sealed with asphalt or concrete (A), semi-permeable (partially sealed with cobblestones and concrete paving slabs (B)), and reference (non-sealed) (C). The results indicate that the artificial sealing in urban areas slightly affects the content of heavy metals in soils. However, based on PLI, I geo , and EF, it was found that the sealing has influence on soil properties and unsealed soil is the most exposed to the accumulation of pollutants.

  12. OPTICAL SPECTRA OF CANDIDATE INTERNATIONAL CELESTIAL REFERENCE FRAME (ICRF) FLAT-SPECTRUM RADIO SOURCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titov, O.; Stanford, Laura M. [Geoscience Australia, P.O. Box 378, Canberra, ACT 2601 (Australia); Johnston, Helen M.; Hunstead, Richard W. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Pursimo, T. [Nordic Optical Telescope, Nordic Optical Telescope Apartado 474E-38700 Santa Cruz de La Palma, Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain); Jauncey, David L. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, ATNF and Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Maslennikov, K. [Central Astronomical Observatory at Pulkovo, Pulkovskoye Shosse, 65/1, 196140, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Boldycheva, A., E-mail: oleg.titov@ga.gov.au [Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, 26 Polytekhnicheskaya, St. Petersburg, 194021 (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    Continuing our program of spectroscopic observations of International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) sources, we present redshifts for 120 quasars and radio galaxies. Data were obtained with five telescopes: the 3.58 m European Southern Observatory New Technology Telescope, the two 8.2 m Gemini telescopes, the 2.5 m Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT), and the 6.0 m Big Azimuthal Telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory in Russia. The targets were selected from the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry candidate International Celestial Reference Catalog which forms part of an observational very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) program to strengthen the celestial reference frame. We obtained spectra of the potential optical counterparts of more than 150 compact flat-spectrum radio sources, and measured redshifts of 120 emission-line objects, together with 19 BL Lac objects. These identifications add significantly to the precise radio-optical frame tie to be undertaken by Gaia, due to be launched in 2013, and to the existing data available for analyzing source proper motions over the celestial sphere. We show that the distribution of redshifts for ICRF sources is consistent with the much larger sample drawn from Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty cm (FIRST) and Sloan Digital Sky Survey, implying that the ultra-compact VLBI sources are not distinguished from the overall radio-loud quasar population. In addition, we obtained NOT spectra for five radio sources from the FIRST and NRAO VLA Sky Survey catalogs, selected on the basis of their red colors, which yielded three quasars with z > 4.

  13. Reference-Frame-Independent and Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution Using One Single Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Zhu, Changhua; Ma, Shuquan; Wei, Kejin; Pei, Changxing

    2018-04-01

    Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) is immune to all detector side-channel attacks. However, practical implementations of MDI-QKD, which require two-photon interferences from separated independent single-photon sources and a nontrivial reference alignment procedure, are still challenging with current technologies. Here, we propose a scheme that significantly reduces the experimental complexity of two-photon interferences and eliminates reference frame alignment by the combination of plug-and-play and reference frame independent MDI-QKD. Simulation results show that the secure communication distance can be up to 219 km in the finite-data case and the scheme has good potential for practical MDI-QKD systems.

  14. Comparison between two methodologies for uniformity correction of extensive reference sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junior, Iremar Alves S.; Siqueira, Paulo de T.D.; Vivolo, Vitor; Potiens, Maria da Penha A.; Nascimento, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the procedures to obtain the uniformity correction factors for extensive reference sources proposed by two different methodologies. The first methodology is presented by the Good Practice Guide of Nº 14 of the NPL, which provides a numerical correction. The second one uses the radiation transport code, MCNP5, to obtain the correction factor. Both methods retrieve very similar corrections factor values, with a maximum deviation of 0.24%. (author)

  15. Modular design of processing and storage facilities for small volumes of low and intermediate level radioactive waste including disused sealed sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-06-15

    A number of IAEA Member States generate relatively small quantities of radioactive waste and/or disused sealed sources in research or in the application of nuclear techniques in medicine and industry. This publication presents a modular approach to the design of waste processing and storage facilities to address the needs of such Member States with a cost effective and flexible solution that allows easy adjustment to changing needs in terms of capacity and variety of waste streams. The key feature of the publication is the provision of practical guidance to enable the users to determine their waste processing and storage requirements, specify those requirements to allow the procurement of the appropriate processing and storage modules and to install and eventually operate those modules.

  16. Comparison of the Equine Reference Sequence with Its Sanger Source Data and New Illumina Reads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovan Rebolledo-Mendez

    Full Text Available The reference assembly for the domestic horse, EquCab2, published in 2009, was built using approximately 30 million Sanger reads from a Thoroughbred mare named Twilight. Contiguity in the assembly was facilitated using nearly 315 thousand BAC end sequences from Twilight's half brother Bravo. Since then, it has served as the foundation for many genome-wide analyses that include not only the modern horse, but ancient horses and other equid species as well. As data mapped to this reference has accumulated, consistent variation between mapped datasets and the reference, in terms of regions with no read coverage, single nucleotide variants, and small insertions/deletions have become apparent. In many cases, it is not clear whether these differences are the result of true sequence variation between the research subjects' and Twilight's genome or due to errors in the reference. EquCab2 is regarded as "The Twilight Assembly." The objective of this study was to identify inconsistencies between the EquCab2 assembly and the source Twilight Sanger data used to build it. To that end, the original Sanger and BAC end reads have been mapped back to this equine reference and assessed with the addition of approximately 40X coverage of new Illumina Paired-End sequence data. The resulting mapped datasets identify those regions with low Sanger read coverage, as well as variation in genomic content that is not consistent with either the original Twilight Sanger data or the new genomic sequence data generated from Twilight on the Illumina platform. As the haploid EquCab2 reference assembly was created using Sanger reads derived largely from a single individual, the vast majority of variation detected in a mapped dataset comprised of those same Sanger reads should be heterozygous. In contrast, homozygous variations would represent either errors in the reference or contributions from Bravo's BAC end sequences. Our analysis identifies 720,843 homozygous discrepancies

  17. POP load and vitamins as potential biomarkers in the Baltic seals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Routti, H.; Nyman, M.; Helle, E. [Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Inst., Helsinki (Finland); Backman, C. [National Veterinary and Food Research Inst. (Finland); Koistinen, J. [Div. of Environmental Health, National Public Health Inst. (Finland)

    2004-09-15

    Exceptionally high levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and 1,1,1.trichloro- 2,2-bis[p-chlorophenyl]ethane (DDT) and its metabolites were reported in the Baltic seals in the late 1960s and early 1970s. PCB levels in ringed seals, in particular, are still high enough to threaten the well being of the animals. The observed difference in contaminant pattern between ringed and grey seals in the Baltic has not been explained, but could be partly due to species-specific food sources. Several pathological and biochemical changes observed in the Baltic seals correlate with the individual POP loads. Of the observed biochemical changes, elevated cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) levels, decreased liver vitamin A stores and increased vitamin E levels in blubber or plasma, have been proposed as possible biomarkers of contaminant load in Baltic seals. However, as the vitamin A and E status of marine mammals also reflects the nutritional vitamin level, the lower vitamin A and elevated vitamin E levels observed in the Baltic seals could be a reflection of the levels of these vitamins in their food sources. The aim of this study was to investigate the contaminant load in the Baltic seals and to evaluate the utility level of potential exposure and effect biomarkers. Seals from less contaminated areas were used as reference material (Svalbard and Sable Island, Canada). In the present study, POP and vitamin levels were also studied in seal prey species in order to study the transfer of these compounds to grey and ringed seals from their main food sources.

  18. Characterization of a sealed Americium-Beryllium (AmBe) source by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommers, J.; Jimenez, M.; Adamic, M.; Giglio, J.; Carney, K.

    2009-01-01

    Two Americium-Beryllium neutron sources were dismantled, sampled (sub-sampled) and analyzed via inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Characteristics such as 'age' since purification, actinide content, trace metal content and inter and intra source composition were determined. The 'age' since purification of the two sources was determined to be 25.0 and 25.4 years, respectively. The systematic uncertainties in the 'age' determination were ±4% 2σ. The amount and isotopic composition of U and Pu varied substantially between the sub-samples of Source 2 (n = 8). This may be due to the physical means of sub-sampling or the way the source was manufactured. Source 1 was much more consistent in terms of content and isotopic composition (n = 3 sub-samples). The Be-Am ratio varied greatly between the two sources. Source 1 had an Am-Be ratio of 6.3 ± 52% (1σ). Source 2 had an Am-Be ratio of 9.81 ± 3.5% (1σ). In addition, the trace element content between the samples varied greatly. Significant differences were determined between Sources 1 and 2 for Sc, Sr, Y, Zr, Mo, Ba and W. (author)

  19. Reliability in maintenance and design of elastomer sealed closures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lake, W.H.

    1978-01-01

    The methods of reliability are considered for maintenance and design of elastomer sealed containment closures. Component reliability is used to establish a replacement schedule for system maintenance. Reliability data on elastomer seals is used to evaluate the common practice of annual replacement, and to calculate component reliability values for several typical shipment time periods. System reliability methods are used to examine the relative merits of typical closure designs. These include single component and redundant seal closure, with and without closure verification testing. The paper presents a general method of quantifying the merits of closure designs through the use of reliability analysis, which is a probabilistic technique. The reference list offers a general source of information in the field of reliability, and should offer the opportunity to extend the procedures discussed in this paper to other design safety applications

  20. Mechanical seals qualification procedure of the main pumps of nuclear power plants in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchdahl, D.; Martin, R.; Girault, J.M.

    1992-12-01

    Many important pumps in the nuclear power plants are equipped with mechanical seals. The good behaviour and reliability of mechanical seals depend specially on the quality and the stability of an interface of several microns. Peripheral speed reaches 50 m/s and pressure 5 MPa, shaft diameter may be 200 mm. Any failure of the mechanical seals may stop the production of electricity or may compromise nuclear safety. As far back as 1970, EDF has conducted qualification actions for the most important mechanical seals in terms of availability and safety. A qualification of mechanical seals needs three steps: - constructor test (tuning) at normal conditions, -qualification test on test rig at EDF/DER (semi-industrial) at normal, exceptional and incidental conditions lasting about 1500 h, - industrial qualification test in nuclear power station over one year. Several supplying sources are absolutely necessary. Any pump may receive mechanical seals from at least two different suppliers. A compromise had to be found to restrict the suppliers' number down to three. This choice concerned three high technology suppliers. A consistent modification procedure had been developed (references file procedure). For each power plant series, about ten types of mechanical seals are concerned. The selection criteria are the higher loads factors P, Vg or the safety related importance. This expensive approach is useful for EDF, many functional failures have been detected before the serial mechanical seals installation in the power plants. (authors). 1 annexe

  1. Evaluation of Skin Surface as an Alternative Source of Reference DNA Samples: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albujja, Mohammed H; Bin Dukhyil, Abdul Aziz; Chaudhary, Abdul Rauf; Kassab, Ahmed Ch; Refaat, Ahmed M; Babu, Saranya Ramesh; Okla, Mohammad K; Kumar, Sachil

    2018-01-01

    An acceptable area for collecting DNA reference sample is a part of the forensic DNA analysis development. The aim of this study was to evaluate skin surface cells (SSC) as an alternate source of reference DNA sample. From each volunteer (n = 10), six samples from skin surface areas (forearm and fingertips) and two traditional samples (blood and buccal cells) were collected. Genomic DNA was extracted and quantified then genotyped using standard techniques. The highest DNA concentration of SSC samples was collected using the tape/forearm method of collection (2.1 ng/μL). Cotton swabs moistened with ethanol yielded higher quantities of DNA than swabs moistened with salicylic acid, and it gave the highest percentage of full STR profiles (97%). This study supports the use of SSC as a noninvasive sampling technique and as a extremely useful source of DNA reference samples among certain cultures where the use of buccal swabs can be considered socially unacceptable. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. Production techniques and quality control of sealed radioactive sources of palladium-103, iodine-125, iridium-192 and ytterbium-169. Final report of a coordinated research project 2001-2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    Radioisotopes have been used extensively for many years for several medical and industrial applications either in the form of an open source or encapsulated in an appropriate metallic container (sealed source). The design and technology for the preparation of radioactive sealed sources is an area of continuous development to satisfy an ever increasing demand for a larger variety of shapes, sizes, type of radioisotope and levels of radioactivity required for newer and specialized applications. In medicine, sealed sources using the radioisotopes of 125 I, 192 Ir and 103 Pd are commonly used for brachytherapy for the treatment of malignant diseases, and for bone density measurements. In industry, they are widely used for non-destructive testing (NDT), radiation processing, 'on-line' process control systems and on-line elemental analysis of mineral resources. Some well-known examples of such sources are 60 Co for industrial nucleonic gauges, 192 Ir sources for industrial radiography, 241 Am sources for smoke detectors and chemical analysers and, more recently, 169 Yb for NDT measurements of thin metallic tubes and plates. The current challenges in development include the production of miniature size sources with a high level of activity, a high degree of uniformity in the distribution of the radioactivity and the highest degree of safety, requiring stringent quality control methods. The IAEA has been promoting and supporting activities designed to increase the utilization of radiation and radioisotopes in several areas. In particular, in view of the proven benefits of, and an increasing demand for radioactive sealed sources for medical and industrial applications, upon the recommendation of several experts, a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Development of Radioactive Sources for Emerging Therapeutic and Industrial Applications was begun in 2002. The aim of the CRP was the optimization and testing of procedures and methods for the fabrication and quality control

  3. Globally sourced mineral commodities used in U.S. Navy SEAL gear—An illustration of U.S. net import reliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, Jamie; Nassar, Nedal T.; Gambogi, Joseph; Baker, Michael S.; Jarvis, Michael T.

    2018-01-25

    A U.S. Navy SEAL (an acronym for sea, air, land) carries gear containing at least 23 nonfuel mineral commodities for which the United States is greater than 50 percent net import reliant. The graphics display the leading world producers of selected nonfuel mineral commodities used to manufacture U.S. Navy SEAL gear. SEALs are members of the U.S. Navy's special operations forces.

  4. Fourier transform holography with extended references using a coherent ultra-broadband light source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenner, Vasco T; Eikema, Kjeld S E; Witte, Stefan

    2014-10-20

    We demonstrate a technique that enables lensless holographic imaging with extended reference structures, using ultra-broadband radiation sources for illumination. We show that this 'two-pulse imaging' approach works with one- and two-dimensional HERALDO reference structures, and demonstrate that the obtained spectrally resolved data can be used to improve the signal-to-noise ratio in the final image. Intensity stitching of multiple exposures is applied to increase the detected dynamic range, leading to an improved image reconstruction. Furthermore, we show that a combination of holography and iterative phase retrieval can be used to obtain high-quality images quickly and reliably, by using the HERALDO reconstruction as the initial support constraint in the iterative phase retrieval algorithm. A signal-to-noise improvement of two orders of magnitude is achieved compared to the basic HERALDO result.

  5. UY 102 standard use of sealed sources in radiation source implants: approve for the Industry Energy and Mining Ministry 28/6/2002 Resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Establish minimal requires for radiological safety applied to use of the solid radio actives sources with therapeutic purposes in application radiation source implants in surface area and intra cavities

  6. U Y 105 standard use of non sealed radioactive sources in nuclear medicine: approve for Industry energy and Mining Ministry 28/6/2002 Resolution; Norma UY 105 uso de fuentes radiactivas no selladas en Medicina Nuclear: Aprobada por Resolucion del Ministro de Industria Energia y Mineria de 28/6/2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-06-28

    Establish minimal requirements radiological safety for use non sealed radioactive sources in nuclear medicine.The present standard is used in operation or nuclear medicine practices using non sealed radioactive sources with diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in vivo and in vitro.

  7. 10 CFR 171.16 - Annual fees: Materials licensees, holders of certificates of compliance, holders of sealed source...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... 4 Another license includes licenses for extraction of metals, heavy metals, and rare earths. 5 There..., in-situ recovery, heap-leaching, ore buying stations, ion exchange facilities and in-processing of ores containing source material for extraction of metals other than uranium or thorium, including...

  8. Improved circumferential shaft seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, L. P.; Strom, T. N.

    1974-01-01

    Comparative tests of modified and unmodified carbon ring seals showed that addition of helical grooves to conventional segmented carbon ring seals reduced leakage significantly. Modified seal was insensitive to shaft runout and to flooding by lubricant.

  9. Sealed operation of a rf driven ion source for a compact neutron generator to be used for associated particle imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y; Hurley, J P; Ji, Q; Kwan, J W; Leung, K N

    2010-02-01

    We present the recent development of a prototype compact neutron generator to be used in conjunction with the method of associated particle imaging for the purpose of active neutron interrogation. In this paper, the performance and device specifications of these compact generators that employ rf driven ion sources will be discussed. Initial measurements of the generator performance include a beam spot size of 1 mm in diameter and a neutron yield of 2x10(5) n/s with air cooling.

  10. Dura Seal recommendations for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Reactor systems (BWR, PWR and Candu) are briefly reviewed with reference to the pumping services encountered in each system, to indicate the conditions imposed on mechanical seals for nuclear power plant liquid handling equipment. A description of the Dura Seals used in each service is included. (U.K.)

  11. Proposed approach to derivation of acceptance criteria for disposal of disused sealed sources mixed with other accepted wastes in near-surface repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salzer, P.; Stefula, V.; Homola, J.

    2003-01-01

    The Mochovce repository is described in the report. It is vault type near surface repository with 80 concrete vaults (2x2x20), 90 FRC containers (3.1 m 3 ) in one vault (3x10x3), compacted clay bath-tub around double row. 300 years of institutional control are envisioned.The following scenarios are examined: Normal evolution scenario; Alternative evolution scenarios (perforated clay barrier; well in close proximity); Intruder scenarios (construction of simple dwelling; construction of multi-storey building; construction of road; residence scenario). It is being proposed that the DSSs are disposed of in the containers together with normal operational waste. Long-lived alpha emitters - excluded a priori (e.g. 226 Ra); Short-lived (T 1/2 = 10 2 days) radionuclides - interim stored until decayed down to clearance level 60 Co - no activity limit, with due consideration of operational safety. The DSSs disposal issue is thus reduced to the disposal of 137 Cs. No limit has been imposed on total activity. Existing limits for operational waste: 3.13.10 13 Bq / container in the upper layer; 3.41.10 13 Bq / container in the bottom or intermediate layer. The acceptance criteria are assessed according to the risk. Two are models set up in MicroShield ver. 5.0. Homogenous source of 137 Cs in cubic concrete container and point source (hot spot) of the same activity. The result is - dose from the point source is 16.6 times higher than the one from the cube. As a result the following new restrictions arise for disposal of the 137 Cs spent industrial sources: disposal of DSSs is forbidden in the upper layer of the containers; maximum activity of the 137 Cs disused industrial source emplaced into the FRC container is 3.41x10 13 / 16.6 = 2.05x10 12 Bq in case of FRC filling by non-radioactive cement mortar; if the cemented radioactive waste is to be used for filling of FRC, decrease of the limit for the disused sealed source is equivalent to the radioactivity of the cement mixture

  12. Thermal neutron imaging with rare-earth-ion-doped LiCaAlF{sub 6} scintillators and a sealed {sup 252}Cf source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaguchi, Noriaki, E-mail: famicom@mail.tagen.tohoku.ac.jp [Tokuyama Corporation, Shibuya 3-chome, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150-8383 (Japan); IMRAM, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan); Yanagida, Takayuki; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Yokota, Yuui; Kamada, Kei [IMRAM, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan); Fukuda, Kentaro; Suyama, Toshihisa [Tokuyama Corporation, Shibuya 3-chome, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150-8383 (Japan); Watanabe, Kenichi; Yamazaki, Atsushi [Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Chani, Valery [IMRAM, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan); Yoshikawa, Akira [IMRAM, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan); New Industry Creation Hatchery Center, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2011-10-01

    Thermal neutron imaging with Ce-doped LiCaAlF{sub 6} crystals has been performed. The prototype of the neutron imager using a Ce-doped LiCaAlF{sub 6} scintillating crystal and a position sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT) which had 64 multi-channel anode was developed. The Ce-doped LiCaAlF{sub 6} single crystal was grown by the Czochralski method. A plate with dimensions of a diameter of 50x2 mm{sup 2} was cut from the grown crystal, polished, and optically coupled to PSPMT by silicone grease. The {sup 252}Cf source (<1 MBq) was sealed with 43 mm of polyethylene for neutron thermalization. Alphabet-shaped Cd pieces with a thickness of 2 mm were used as a mask for the thermal neutrons. After corrections for the pedestals and gain of each pixel, we successfully obtained two-dimensional neutron images using Ce-doped LiCaAlF{sub 6}.

  13. Cannibalism in Latin-Greek sources: its references in mythology and ancient philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo F. Sanz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article tries to analyze and comment on the greater amount of references regarding the phenomenon of cannibalism that there exists in Greek and Latin literary tradition. After reviewing many of the sources, it is possible to distinguish the different ways in which this tradition approached such phenomenon and to discover a common intention: starting from the mythology or the Homeric epic, going through the different philosophical trends and schools of thought, we will begin to realize and conclude that in many occasions there is a use of the concept of cannibalism to negatively define «the other», the outcast or foreigner, opening thus a topic that still survives nowadays.

  14. Rotary plug seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Koji; Abiko, Yoshihiro.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To enable fuel exchange even upon failure of regular seals and also to enable safety seal exchange by the detection of the reduction in the contact pressure of a rotary plug seal. Constitution: If one of a pair of regular tube seals for the rotary plug is failed during ordinary operation of a FBR type reactor, the reduction in the contact pressure of the seal to the plug gibbousness is detected by a pressure gauge and a solenoid valve is thereby closed. Thus, a back-up-tube seal provided above or below the tube seal is press-contacted by way of argon gas to the gibbousness to enter into operation state and lubricants are supplied from an oil tank. In such a structure, the back-up-tube seal is operated before the failure of the tube seal to enable to continue the fuel exchange work, as well as safety exchange for the tube seal. (Moriyama, K.)

  15. Seal design alternatives study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Sambeek, L.L.; Luo, D.D.; Lin, M.S.; Ostrowski, W.; Oyenuga, D.

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results from a study of various sealing alternatives for the WIPP sealing system. Overall, the sealing system has the purpose of reducing to the extent possible the potential for fluids (either gas or liquid) from entering or leaving the repository. The sealing system is divided into three subsystems: drift and panel seals within the repository horizon, shaft seals in each of the four shafts, and borehole seals. Alternatives to the baseline configuration for the WIPP seal system design included evaluating different geometries and schedules for seal component installations and the use of different materials for seal components. Order-of-magnitude costs for the various alternatives were prepared as part of the study. Firm recommendations are not presented, but the advantages and disadvantages of the alternatives are discussed. Technical information deficiencies are identified and studies are outlined which can provide required information

  16. Mechanical seal assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotlyar, Oleg M.

    2001-01-01

    An improved mechanical seal assembly is provided for sealing rotating shafts with respect to their shaft housings, wherein the rotating shafts are subject to substantial axial vibrations. The mechanical seal assembly generally includes a rotating sealing ring fixed to the shaft, a non-rotating sealing ring adjacent to and in close contact with the rotating sealing ring for forming an annular seal about the shaft, and a mechanical diode element that applies a biasing force to the non-rotating sealing ring by means of hemispherical joint. The alignment of the mechanical diode with respect to the sealing rings is maintained by a series of linear bearings positioned axially along a desired length of the mechanical diode. Alternative embodiments include mechanical or hydraulic amplification components for amplifying axial displacement of the non-rotating sealing ring and transferring it to the mechanical diode.

  17. Mechanical Seal Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotlyar, Oleg M.

    1999-06-18

    An improved mechanical seal assembly is provided for sealing rotating shafts with respect to their shaft housings, wherein the rotating shafts are subject to substantial axial vibrations. The mechanical seal assembly generally includes a rotating sealing ring fixed to the shaft, a non-rotating sealing ring adjacent to and in close contact with the rotating sealing ring for forming an annular seal about the shaft, and a mechanical diode element that applies a biasing force to the non-rotating sealing ring by means of hemispherical joint. The alignment of the mechanical diode with respect to the sealing rings is maintained by a series of linear bearings positioned axially along a desired length of the mechanical diode. Alternative embodiments include mechanical or hydraulic amplification components for amplifying axial displacement of the non-rotating sealing ring and transferring it to the mechanical diode.

  18. Mechanical seal program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowery, G.B.

    1983-01-01

    The experimental plans and timing for completion of the mechanical seal program for both the slurry and transfer pumps are given. The slurry pump seal program will be completed by April 1984 with turnover of two seals in pumps to SRP Tank 15H. Transfer pump seal design will be released for plant use by May 1984. Also included are various other pump and seal related tests

  19. Application Research of Horn Array Multi-Beam Antenna in Reference Source System for Satellite Interference Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ping; Lin, Hui; Zhang, Qi

    2018-01-01

    The reference source system is a key factor to ensure the successful location of the satellite interference source. Currently, the traditional system used a mechanical rotating antenna which leaded to the disadvantages of slow rotation and high failure-rate, which seriously restricted the system’s positioning-timeliness and became its obvious weaknesses. In this paper, a multi-beam antenna scheme based on the horn array was proposed as a reference source for the satellite interference location, which was used as an alternative to the traditional reference source antenna. The new scheme has designed a small circularly polarized horn antenna as an element and proposed a multi-beamforming algorithm based on planar array. Moreover, the simulation analysis of horn antenna pattern, multi-beam forming algorithm and simulated satellite link cross-ambiguity calculation have been carried out respectively. Finally, cross-ambiguity calculation of the traditional reference source system has also been tested. The comparison between the results of computer simulation and the actual test results shows that the scheme is scientific and feasible, obviously superior to the traditional reference source system.

  20. Development of sealed radioactive sources immobilized in epoxy resin for verification of detectors used in nuclear medicine; Desenvolvimento de fontes radioativas seladas imobilizadas em resina epoxi para verificacao de detectores utilizados em medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiezzi, Rodrigo

    2016-07-01

    The radioactive sealed sources are used in verification ionization chamber detectors, which measure the activity of radioisotopes used in several areas, such as in nuclear medicine. The measurement of the activity of radioisotopes must be made with accuracy, because it is administered to a patient. To ensure the proper functioning of the ionization chamber detectors, standardized tests are set by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the National Nuclear Energy Commission using sealed radioactive sources of Barium-133, Cesium-137 and Cobalt-57. The tests assess the accuracy, precision, reproducibility and linearity of response of the equipment. The focus of this work was the study and the development of these radioactive sources with standard Barium-133 and Cesium-137,using a polymer, in case commercial epoxy resin of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) and a curing agent based on modified polyamine diethylenetriamine (DETA), to immobilize the radioactive material. The polymeric matrix has the main function of fix and immobilize the radioactive contents not allowing them to leak within the technical limits required by the standards of radiological protection in the category of characteristics of a sealed source and additionally have the ability to retain the emanation of any gases that may be formed during the manufacture process and the useful life of this artifact. The manufacturing process of a sealed source standard consists of the potting ,into bottle standardized geometry, in fixed volume of a quantity of a polymeric matrix within which is added and dispersed homogeneously to need and exact amount in activity of the radioactive materials standards. Accordingly, a study was conducted for the choice of epoxy resin, analyzing its characteristics and properties. Studies and tests were performed, examining the maximum miscibility of the resin with the water (acidic solution, simulating the conditions of radioactive solution), loss of mechanical and

  1. Nuclear reactor sealing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEdwards, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    A liquid metal-cooled nuclear reactor sealing system is disclosed. The nuclear reactor includes a vessel sealed at its upper end by a closure head. The closure head comprises at least two components, one of which is rotatable; and the two components define an annulus therebetween. The sealing system includes at least a first and second inflatable seal disposed in series in an upper portion of the annulus. The system further includes a dip seal extending into a body of insulation located adjacent a bottom portion of the closure head. The dip seal comprises a trough formed by a lower portion of one of the components, and a seal blade pendently supported from the other component and extending downwardly into the trough. A body of liquid metal is contained in the trough which submerges a portion of the seal blade. The seal blade is provided with at least one aperture located above the body of liquid metal for providing fluid communication between the annulus intermediate the dip seal and the inflatable seals, and a body of cover gas located inside the vessel. There also is provided means for introducing a purge gas into the annulus intermediate the inflatable seals and the seal blade. The purge gas is introduced in an amount sufficient to substantially reduce diffusion of radioactive cover gas or sodium vapor up to the inflatable seals. The purge gas mixes with the cover gas in the reactor vessel where it can be withdrawn from the vessel for treatment and recycle to the vessel

  2. A global multicenter study on reference values: 2. Exploration of sources of variation across the countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihara, Kiyoshi; Ozarda, Yesim; Barth, Julian H; Klee, George; Shimizu, Yoshihisa; Xia, Liangyu; Hoffmann, Mariza; Shah, Swarup; Matsha, Tandi; Wassung, Janette; Smit, Francois; Ruzhanskaya, Anna; Straseski, Joely; Bustos, Daniel N; Kimura, Shogo; Takahashi, Aki

    2017-04-01

    The intent of this study, based on a global multicenter study of reference values (RVs) for serum analytes was to explore biological sources of variation (SVs) of the RVs among 12 countries around the world. As described in the first part of this paper, RVs of 50 major serum analytes from 13,396 healthy individuals living in 12 countries were obtained. Analyzed in this study were 23 clinical chemistry analytes and 8 analytes measured by immunoturbidimetry. Multiple regression analysis was performed for each gender, country by country, analyte by analyte, by setting four major SVs (age, BMI, and levels of drinking and smoking) as a fixed set of explanatory variables. For analytes with skewed distributions, log-transformation was applied. The association of each source of variation with RVs was expressed as the partial correlation coefficient (r p ). Obvious gender and age-related changes in the RVs were observed in many analytes, almost consistently between countries. Compilation of age-related variations of RVs after adjusting for between-country differences revealed peculiar patterns specific to each analyte. Judged fromthe r p , BMI related changes were observed for many nutritional and inflammatory markers in almost all countries. However, the slope of linear regression of BMI vs. RV differed greatly among countries for some analytes. Alcohol and smoking-related changes were observed less conspicuously in a limited number of analytes. The features of sex, age, alcohol, and smoking-related changes in RVs of the analytes were largely comparable worldwide. The finding of differences in BMI-related changes among countries in some analytes is quite relevant to understanding ethnic differences in susceptibility to nutritionally related diseases. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Spray sealing: A breakthrough in integral fuel tank sealing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Martin D.; Zadarnowski, J. H.

    1989-11-01

    In a continuing effort to increase readiness, a new approach to sealing integral fuel tanks is being developed. The technique seals potential leak sources by spraying elastomeric materials inside the tank cavity. Laboratory evaluations project an increase in aircraft supportability and reliability, an improved maintainability, decreasing acquisition and life cycle costs. Increased usable fuel volume and lower weight than conventional bladders improve performance. Concept feasibility was demonstrated on sub-scale aircraft fuel tanks. Materials were selected by testing sprayable elastomers in a fuel tank environment. Chemical stability, mechanical properties, and dynamic durability of the elastomer are being evaluated at the laboratory level and in sub-scale and full scale aircraft component fatigue tests. The self sealing capability of sprayable materials is also under development. Ballistic tests show an improved aircraft survivability, due in part to the elastomer's mechanical properties and its ability to damp vibrations. New application equipment, system removal, and repair methods are being investigated.

  4. A radio/optical reference frame. 5: Additional source positions in the mid-latitude southern hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, J. L.; Reynolds, J. E.; Jauncey, D. L.; de Vegt, C.; Zacharias, N.; Ma, C.; Fey, A. L.; Johnston, K. J.; Hindsley, R.; Hughes, J. A.; Malin, D. F.; White, G. L.; Kawaguchi, N.; Takahashi, Y.

    1994-01-01

    We report new accurate radio position measurements for 30 sources, preliminary positions for two sources, improved radio postions for nine additional sources which had limited previous observations, and optical positions and optical-radio differences for six of the radio sources. The Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations are part of the continuing effort to establish a global radio reference frame of about 400 compact, flat spectrum sources, which are evenly distributed across the sky. The observations were made using Mark III data format in four separate sessions in 1988-89 with radio telescopes at Tidbinbilla, Australia, Kauai, USA, and Kashima, Japan. We observed a total of 54 sources, including ten calibrators and three which were undetected. The 32 new source positions bring the total number in the radio reference frame catalog to 319 (172 northern and 147 southern) and fill in the zone -25 deg greater than delta greater than -45 deg which, prior to this list, had the lowest source density. The VLBI positions have an average formal precision of less than 1 mas, although unknown radio structure effects of about 1-2 mas may be present. The six new optical postion measurements are part of the program to obtain positions of the optical counterparts of the radio reference frame source and to map accurately the optical on to the radio reference frames. The optical measurements were obtained from United States Naval Observatory (USNO) Black Birch astrograph plates and source plates from the AAT, and Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) 4 m, and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) Schmidt. The optical positions have an average precision of 0.07 sec, mostly due to the zero point error when adjusted to the FK5 optical frame using the IRS catalog. To date we have measured optical positions for 46 sources.

  5. The moon as a radiometric reference source for on-orbit sensor stability calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, T.C.

    2009-01-01

    The wealth of data generated by the world's Earth-observing satellites, now spanning decades, allows the construction of long-term climate records. A key consideration for detecting climate trends is precise quantification of temporal changes in sensor calibration on-orbit. For radiometer instruments in the solar reflectance wavelength range (near-UV to shortwave-IR), the Moon can be viewed as a solar diffuser with exceptional stability properties. A model for the lunar spectral irradiance that predicts the geometric variations in the Moon's brightness with ???1% precision has been developed at the U.S. Geological Survey in Flagstaff, AZ. Lunar model results corresponding to a series of Moon observations taken by an instrument can be used to stabilize sensor calibration with sub-percent per year precision, as demonstrated by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS). The inherent stability of the Moon and the operational model to utilize the lunar irradiance quantity provide the Moon as a reference source for monitoring radiometric calibration in orbit. This represents an important capability for detecting terrestrial climate change from space-based radiometric measurements.

  6. Inboard seal mounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, John R. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A regenerator assembly for a gas turbine engine has a hot side seal assembly formed in part by a cast metal engine block having a seal recess formed therein that is configured to supportingly receive ceramic support blocks including an inboard face thereon having a regenerator seal face bonded thereto. A pressurized leaf seal is interposed between the ceramic support block and the cast metal engine block to bias the seal wear face into sealing engagement with a hot side surface of a rotary regenerator matrix.

  7. SU-E-T-284: Revisiting Reference Dosimetry for the Model S700 Axxent 50 KVp Electronic Brachytherapy Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiatt, JR; Rivard, MJ

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The model S700 Axxent electronic brachytherapy source by Xoft was characterized in 2006 by Rivard et al. The source design was modified in 2006 to include a plastic centering insert at the source tip to more accurately position the anode. The objectives of the current study were to establish an accurate Monte Carlo source model for simulation purposes, to dosimetrically characterize the new source and obtain its TG-43 brachytherapy dosimetry parameters, and to determine dose differences between the source with and without the centering insert. Methods: Design information from dissected sources and vendor-supplied CAD drawings were used to devise the source model for radiation transport simulations of dose distributions in a water phantom. Collision kerma was estimated as a function of radial distance, r, and polar angle, θ, for determination of reference TG-43 dosimetry parameters. Simulations were run for 10 10 histories, resulting in statistical uncertainties on the transverse plane of 0.03% at r=1 cm and 0.08% at r=10 cm. Results: The dose rate distribution the transverse plane did not change beyond 2% between the 2006 model and the current study. While differences exceeding 15% were observed near the source distal tip, these diminished to within 2% for r>1.5 cm. Differences exceeding a factor of two were observed near θ=150° and in contact with the source, but diminished to within 20% at r=10 cm. Conclusions: Changes in source design influenced the overall dose rate and distribution by more than 2% over a third of the available solid angle external from the source. For clinical applications using balloons or applicators with tissue located within 5 cm from the source, dose differences exceeding 2% were observed only for θ>110°. This study carefully examined the current source geometry and presents a modern reference TG-43 dosimetry dataset for the model S700 source

  8. Nuclear waste vault sealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyenge, M.

    1980-01-01

    A nuclear waste vault must be designed and built to ensure adequate isolation of the nuclear wastes from human contact. Consequently, after a vault has been fully loaded, it must be adequately sealed off to prevent radionuclide migration which may be provided by circulating groundwater. Vault sealing entails four major aspects, i.e.: (a) vault grouting; (b) borehole sealing; (c) buffer packing; and (d) backfilling. Of particular concern in vault sealing are the physical and chemical properties of the sealing material, its long-term durability and stability, and the techniques used for its emplacement. Present sealing technology and sealing materials are reviewed in terms of the particular needs of vault sealing. Areas requiring research and development are indicated

  9. Reactor vessel sealing plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dooley, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    This invention relates to an apparatus and method for sealing the cold leg nozzles of a nuclear reactor pressure vessel from a remote location during maintenance and inspection of associated steam generators and pumps while the pressure vessel and refueling canal are filled with water. The apparatus includes a sealing plug for mechanically sealing the cold leg nozzle from the inside of a reactor pressure vessel. The sealing plugs include a primary and a secondary O-ring. An installation tool is suspended within the reactor vessel and carries the sealing plug. The tool telescopes to insert the sealing plug within the cold leg nozzle, and to subsequently remove the plug. Hydraulic means are used to activate the sealing plug, and support means serve to suspend the installation tool within the reactor vessel during installation and removal of the sealing plug

  10. Fog seal guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-10-01

    Fog seals are a method of adding asphalt to an existing pavement surface to improve sealing or waterproofing, prevent further stone loss by holding aggregate in place, or simply improve the surface appearance. However, inappropriate use can result in...

  11. Determination of the reference air kerma rate for 192Ir brachytherapy sources and the related uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijk, Eduard van; Kolkman-Deurloo, Inger-Karine K.; Damen, Patricia M. G.

    2004-01-01

    Different methods exist to determine the air kerma calibration factor of an ionization chamber for the spectrum of a 192 Ir high-dose-rate (HDR) or pulsed-dose-rate (PDR) source. An analysis of two methods to obtain such a calibration factor was performed: (i) the method recommended by [Goetsch et al., Med. Phys. 18, 462-467 (1991)] and (ii) the method employed by the Dutch national standards institute NMi [Petersen et al., Report S-EI-94.01 (NMi, Delft, The Netherlands, 1994)]. This analysis showed a systematic difference on the order of 1% in the determination of the strength of 192 Ir HDR and PDR sources depending on the method used for determining the air kerma calibration factor. The definitive significance of the difference between these methods can only be addressed after performing an accurate analysis of the associated uncertainties. For an NE 2561 (or equivalent) ionization chamber and an in-air jig, a typical uncertainty budget of 0.94% was found with the NMi method. The largest contribution in the type-B uncertainty is the uncertainty in the air kerma calibration factor for isotope i, N k i , as determined by the primary or secondary standards laboratories. This uncertainty is dominated by the uncertainties in the physical constants for the average mass-energy absorption coefficient ratio and the stopping power ratios. This means that it is not foreseeable that the standards laboratories can decrease the uncertainty in the air kerma calibration factors for ionization chambers in the short term. When the results of the determination of the 192 Ir reference air kerma rates in, e.g., different institutes are compared, the uncertainties in the physical constants are the same. To compare the applied techniques, the ratio of the results can be judged by leaving out the uncertainties due to these physical constants. In that case an uncertainty budget of 0.40% (coverage factor=2) should be taken into account. Due to the differences in approach between the

  12. Bentonite as a waste isolation pilot plant shaft sealing material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daemen, J.; Ran, Chongwei

    1996-12-01

    Current designs of the shaft sealing system for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) propose using bentonite as a primary sealing component. The shaft sealing designs anticipate that compacted bentonite sealing components can perform through the 10,000-year regulatory period and beyond. To evaluate the acceptability of bentonite as a sealing material for the WIPP, this report identifies references that deal with the properties and characteristics of bentonite that may affect its behavior in the WIPP environment. This report reviews published studies that discuss using bentonite as sealing material for nuclear waste disposal, environmental restoration, toxic and chemical waste disposal, landfill liners, and applications in the petroleum industry. This report identifies the physical and chemical properties, stability and seal construction technologies of bentonite seals in shafts, especially in a saline brine environment. This report focuses on permeability, swelling pressure, strength, stiffness, longevity, and densification properties of bentonites

  13. Bentonite as a waste isolation pilot plant shaft sealing material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daemen, J.; Ran, Chongwei [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Current designs of the shaft sealing system for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) propose using bentonite as a primary sealing component. The shaft sealing designs anticipate that compacted bentonite sealing components can perform through the 10,000-year regulatory period and beyond. To evaluate the acceptability of bentonite as a sealing material for the WIPP, this report identifies references that deal with the properties and characteristics of bentonite that may affect its behavior in the WIPP environment. This report reviews published studies that discuss using bentonite as sealing material for nuclear waste disposal, environmental restoration, toxic and chemical waste disposal, landfill liners, and applications in the petroleum industry. This report identifies the physical and chemical properties, stability and seal construction technologies of bentonite seals in shafts, especially in a saline brine environment. This report focuses on permeability, swelling pressure, strength, stiffness, longevity, and densification properties of bentonites.

  14. Shaft seal assembly for high speed and high pressure applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadt, W. F.; Ludwig, L. P. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A seal assembly is provided for reducing the escape of fluids from between a housing and a shaft rotably mounted in the housing. The seal assembly comprises a pair of seal rings resiliently connected to each other and disposed in side-by-side relationship. In each seal ring, both the internal bore surface and the radial face which faces away from the other seal ring are provided with a plurality of equi-spaced recesses. The seal faces referred to are located adjacent a seating surface of the housing. Under normal operating conditions, the seal assembly is stationary with respect to the housing, and the recesses generate life, keep the assembly spaced from the rotating shaft and allow slip therebetween. The seal assembly can seize on the shaft, and slip will then occur between the radial faces and the housing.

  15. Hermetically Sealed Compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzapple, Mark T.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed hermetically sealed pump compresses fluid to pressure up to 4,000 atm (400 MPa). Pump employs linear electric motor instead of rotary motor to avoid need for leakage-prone rotary seals. In addition, linear-motor-powered pump would not require packings to seal its piston. Concept thus eliminates major cause of friction and wear. Pump is double-ended diaphragm-type compressor. All moving parts sealed within compressor housing.

  16. Investigation of positive shaft seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfouts, J. O.

    1970-01-01

    Welded metal bellows secondary seals prevent secondary seal leakage with a minimum number of potential leak paths. High performance seal is obtained by controlling the potentially unstable seal-face movements induced by mechanical vibrations and fluid pressure pulsations.

  17. Circumferential shaft seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, L. P. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A circumferential shaft seal comprising two sealing rings held to a rotating shaft by means of a surrounding elastomeric band is disclosed. The rings are segmented and are of a rigid sealing material such as carbon or a polyimide and graphite fiber composite.

  18. Seals in motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brasseur, Sophie Marie Jacqueline Michelle

    2017-01-01

    The harbour seal Phoca vitulina and the grey seal Halichoerus grypus have been inhabitants of the Wadden Sea since millennia. Prehistoric findings indicate the presence of both species around 5000 BC. This changed dramatically in the mid Middle-Ages as around 1500 AC, the grey seal disappeared from

  19. Radioactive source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drabkina, L.E.; Mazurek, V.; Myascedov, D.N.; Prokhorov, P.; Kachalov, V.A.; Ziv, D.M.

    1976-01-01

    A radioactive layer in a radioactive source is sealed by the application of a sealing layer on the radioactive layer. The sealing layer can consist of a film of oxide of titanium, tin, zirconium, aluminum, or chromium. Preferably, the sealing layer is pure titanium dioxide. The radioactive layer is embedded in a finish enamel which, in turn, is on a priming enamel which surrounds a substrate

  20. Electronic self-monitoring seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    The Electronic Self-Monitoring Seal is a new type of security seal which allows continuous verification of the seal's identity and status. The identity information is a function of the individual seal, time, and seal integrity. A description of this seal and its characteristics are presented. Also described are the use cycle for the seal and the support equipment for programming and verifying the seal

  1. Time-Dependent Selection of an Optimal Set of Sources to Define a Stable Celestial Reference Frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bail, Karine; Gordon, David

    2010-01-01

    Temporal statistical position stability is required for VLBI sources to define a stable Celestial Reference Frame (CRF) and has been studied in many recent papers. This study analyzes the sources from the latest realization of the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF2) with the Allan variance, in addition to taking into account the apparent linear motions of the sources. Focusing on the 295 defining sources shows how they are a good compromise of different criteria, such as statistical stability and sky distribution, as well as having a sufficient number of sources, despite the fact that the most stable sources of the entire ICRF2 are mostly in the Northern Hemisphere. Nevertheless, the selection of a stable set is not unique: studying different solutions (GSF005a and AUG24 from GSFC and OPA from the Paris Observatory) over different time periods (1989.5 to 2009.5 and 1999.5 to 2009.5) leads to selections that can differ in up to 20% of the sources. Observing, recording, and network improvement are some of the causes, showing better stability for the CRF over the last decade than the last twenty years. But this may also be explained by the assumption of stationarity that is not necessarily right for some sources.

  2. ASTUS system for verifying the transport seal TITUS 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barillaux; Monteil, D.; Destain, G.D.

    1991-01-01

    ASTUS, a system for acquisition and processing ultrasonic signatures of TITUS 1 seals has been developed. TITUS seals are used to verify the integrity of the fissile material's container sealing after transport. An autonomous portable reading case permit to take seals signatures at the starting point and to transmit these reference signatures to a central safeguards computer by phonic modem. Then, at the terminal point with a similar reading case, an authority takes again the signature of seals and immediately transmit these signatures to the central safeguards computer. The central computer processes the data in real time by autocorrelation and return its verdict to the terminal point

  3. Investigation of brush seals for application in steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorn, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Brush seals have high potential for efficiency increase compared to conventional labyrinth seals in steam turbines. Due to less experience in operation today there is a lot of scepticism with customers of steam turbine manufacturers. Therefore this thesis is investigating characteristics of this type of seal. Experiments and numerical models will be presented, which lead to better knowledge about leakages and influence of flow through seal onto dynamics of rotor in comparison to labyrinth seals. This thesis is increasing area of experience and one more positive reference.

  4. VAK III. Seals and sealing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    d'Agraives, B.C.; Dal Cero, G.; Debeir, R.; Mascetti, E.; Toornvliet, J.; Volcan, A.

    1986-01-01

    This report presents the VAK III seals and sealing system, which have been used over a period of two years at the Kahl nuclear facility (Federal Republic of Germany), where field tests and feasibility studies were conducted in order to offer a possible solution for the sealing of LWR fuel assemblies. It has been prepared with the aim of an assessment study to be done at the IAEA. It gives all characteristics and technical descriptions for: the sealing principle, the seal construction, the operating tools, the data processing, the drawings, the publications related to that seal. The main points of progress are: the Strong Random Internal Defects (STRID) incorporated in the seals, allowing the obtention of a good signature stability; the Integrity Check on the Seal Status (broken or not) obtained through a decisive mechanical improvement: the Double Breakage Integrity Check (DOBRIC) and with a better ultrasonic evidence of that status; the provision of new function tools, allowing the performance of Identity Measurements in dry conditions (which means also at the manufacturer plant) or in deeper water (wet storage); the study and development of a new JRC VAK 45 Compact Instrument Box, in which all the measuring functions can be grouped and incorporating an autonomous Minicomputer offering to the Inspection the possibility of performing, on the spot, Correlation and Decision processes. The general benefit of such a feasibility study should be to convince the potential users that such a Safeguards Sealing System can be studied for slightly - or largely - different other applications, provided that the Basic and Operating Functions required to the system be clearly defined, possibly after a common agreement would be stated

  5. Reinforced seal component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeanson, G.M.; Odent, R.P.

    1980-01-01

    The invention concerns a seal component of the kind comprising a soft sheath and a flexible reinforcement housed throughout the entire length of the sheath. The invention enables O ring seals to be made capable of providing a radial seal, that is to say between two sides or flat collars of two cylindrical mechanical parts, or an axial seal, that is to say between two co-axial axisymmetrical areas. The seal so ensured is relative, but it remains adequately sufficient for many uses, for instance, to ensure the separation of two successive fixed blading compartments of axial compressors used in gas diffusion isotope concentration facilities [fr

  6. The IRES electronic seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autrusson, B.; Brochard, D.; Moreau, J.F.; Martin, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    In the framework of the French Support Program for the IAEA Safeguards, the 'Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire' (IPSN), developed an electronic seal called Integrated and Reusable Electronic Seal (IRES) that enables independent verification by different inspectorates (IAEA, Euratom, and National Inspectorate). The seal can be remotely interrogated by radio frequency and integrated to other Containment/surveillance systems by serial line RS 485. Data are authenticated and the IRESMAG software manages in the seal reader all functionalities of the seal and records inspection data compatible with the IAEA's Seal Database. To perform this development, IPSN relies on industrial partners: SAPHYMO for the general architecture of the seal and the electronics, THALES for the authentication of data and the security of transmission. The main features of the IRES seal are the following: Interrogation by different inspectorate, allowing independent conclusions; Recording of events, including tampering, in a non-volatile memory; Authentication of data and enhanced security of the communication between the seal and the seal reader; Remote interrogation by an inspector or/and automatic for unattended systems or remote monitoring; Reusable after erasing the seal memory and replacement of the batteries

  7. Severe service sealing solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalfe, R.; Wensel, R.

    1994-09-01

    Successful sealing usually requires much more than initial leak-tightness. Friction and wear must also be acceptable, requiring a good understanding of tribology at the sealing interface. This paper describes various sealing solutions for severe service conditions. The CAN2A and CAN8 rotary face seals use tungsten carbide against carbon-graphite to achieve low leakage and long lifetime in nuclear main coolant pumps. The smaller CAN6 seal successfully uses tungsten carbide against silicon carbide in reactor water cleanup pump service. Where friction in CANDU fuelling machine rams must be essentially zero, a hydrostatic seal using two silicon carbide faces is the solution. In the NRU reactor moderator pumps, where pressure is much lower, eccentric seals that prevent boiling at the seal faces are giving excellent service. All these rotary face seals rely on supplementary elastomer seals between their parts. An integrated engineering approach to high performance sealing with O-rings is described. This is epitomized in critical Space Shuttle applications, but is increasingly being applied in CANDU plants. It includes gland design, selection and qualification of material, quality assurance, detection of defects and the effects of lubrication, surface finish, squeeze, stretch and volume constraints. In conclusion, for the severe service applications described, customized solutions have more than paid for themselves by higher reliability, lower maintenance requirements and reduced outage time. (author)

  8. The IRES electronic seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourlez, P.; Funk, P.; Brochard, D.; Moreau, J.F.; Martin, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    In the framework of the French Support Program for the IAEA Safeguards, the 'Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire' (IPSN), developed an electronic seal called Integrated and Reusable Electronic Seal (IRES) that enables independent verification by different inspectorates (IAEA, Euratom, and National Inspectorate) Furthermore, a bilateral co-ordination between Euratom and French domestic safeguards takes place in some French facilities regarding a common approach concerning the seals especially in case of crisis situation. The seal can be remotely interrogated by radio frequency and integrated to other Containment/surveillance systems by serial line RS 485. Data are authenticated and the IRESMAG software manages in the seal reader all functionalities of the seal and records inspection data compatible with the IAEA's Seal Database

  9. High pressure shaft seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinson, A.R.; Rogers, V.D.

    1980-01-01

    In relation to reactor primary coolant pumps, mechanical seal assembly for a pump shaft is disclosed which features a rotating seal ring mounting system which utilizes a rigid support ring loaded through narrow annular projections in combination with centering non-sealing O-rings which effectively isolate the rotating seal ring from temperature and pressure transients while securely positioning the ring to adjacent parts. A stationary seal ring mounting configuration allows the stationary seal ring freedom of motion to follow shaft axial movement up to 3/4 of an inch and shaft tilt about the pump axis without any change in the hydraulic or pressure loading on the stationary seal ring or its carrier. (author)

  10. Acoustic resonance spectroscopy intrinsic seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olinger, C.T.; Burr, T.; Vnuk, D.R.

    1994-01-01

    We have begun to quantify the ability of acoustic resonance spectroscopy (ARS) to detect the removal and replacement of the lid of a simulated special nuclear materials drum. Conceptually, the acoustic spectrum of a container establishcs a baseline fingerprint, which we refer to as an intrinsic seal, for the container. Simply removing and replacing the lid changes some of the resonant frequencies because it is impossible to exactly duplicate all of the stress patterns between the lid and container. Preliminary qualitative results suggested that the ARS intrinsic seal could discriminate between cases where a lid has or has not been removed. The present work is directed at quantifying the utility of the ARS intrinsic seal technique, including the technique's sensitivity to ''nuisance'' effects, such as temperature swings, movement of the container, and placement of the transducers. These early quantitative tests support the potential of the ARS intrinsic seal application, but also reveal a possible sensitivity to nuisance effects that could limit environments or conditions under which the technique is effective

  11. Sensitivity Analysis on LOCCW of Westinghouse typed Reactors Considering WOG2000 RCP Seal Leakage Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Jang-Hwan; Jeon, Ho-Jun; Hwang, Seok-Won

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on risk insights of Westinghouse typed reactors. We identified that Reactor Coolant Pump (RCP) seal integrity is the most important contributor to Core Damage Frequency (CDF). As we reflected the latest technical report; WCAP-15603(Rev. 1-A), 'WOG2000 RCP Seal Leakage Model for Westinghouse PWRs' instead of the old version, RCP seal integrity became more important to Westinghouse typed reactors. After Fukushima accidents, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power (KHNP) decided to develop Low Power and Shutdown (LPSD) Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) models and upgrade full power PSA models of all operating Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). As for upgrading full power PSA models, we have tried to standardize the methodology of CCF (Common Cause Failure) and HRA (Human Reliability Analysis), which are the most influential factors to risk measures of NPPs. Also, we have reviewed and reflected the latest operating experiences, reliability data sources and technical methods to improve the quality of PSA models. KHNP has operating various types of reactors; Optimized Pressurized Reactor (OPR) 1000, CANDU, Framatome and Westinghouse. So, one of the most challengeable missions is to keep the balance of risk contributors of all types of reactors. This paper presents the method of new RCP seal leakage model and the sensitivity analysis results from applying the detailed method to PSA models of Westinghouse typed reference reactors. To perform the sensitivity analysis on LOCCW of the reference Westinghouse typed reactors, we reviewed WOG2000 RCP seal leakage model and developed the detailed event tree of LOCCW considering all scenarios of RCP seal failures. Also, we performed HRA based on the T/H analysis by using the leakage rates for each scenario. We could recognize that HRA was the sensitive contributor to CDF, and the RCP seal failure scenario of 182gpm leakage rate was estimated as the most important scenario

  12. Sensitivity Analysis on LOCCW of Westinghouse typed Reactors Considering WOG2000 RCP Seal Leakage Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Jang-Hwan; Jeon, Ho-Jun; Hwang, Seok-Won [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, we focus on risk insights of Westinghouse typed reactors. We identified that Reactor Coolant Pump (RCP) seal integrity is the most important contributor to Core Damage Frequency (CDF). As we reflected the latest technical report; WCAP-15603(Rev. 1-A), 'WOG2000 RCP Seal Leakage Model for Westinghouse PWRs' instead of the old version, RCP seal integrity became more important to Westinghouse typed reactors. After Fukushima accidents, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power (KHNP) decided to develop Low Power and Shutdown (LPSD) Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) models and upgrade full power PSA models of all operating Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). As for upgrading full power PSA models, we have tried to standardize the methodology of CCF (Common Cause Failure) and HRA (Human Reliability Analysis), which are the most influential factors to risk measures of NPPs. Also, we have reviewed and reflected the latest operating experiences, reliability data sources and technical methods to improve the quality of PSA models. KHNP has operating various types of reactors; Optimized Pressurized Reactor (OPR) 1000, CANDU, Framatome and Westinghouse. So, one of the most challengeable missions is to keep the balance of risk contributors of all types of reactors. This paper presents the method of new RCP seal leakage model and the sensitivity analysis results from applying the detailed method to PSA models of Westinghouse typed reference reactors. To perform the sensitivity analysis on LOCCW of the reference Westinghouse typed reactors, we reviewed WOG2000 RCP seal leakage model and developed the detailed event tree of LOCCW considering all scenarios of RCP seal failures. Also, we performed HRA based on the T/H analysis by using the leakage rates for each scenario. We could recognize that HRA was the sensitive contributor to CDF, and the RCP seal failure scenario of 182gpm leakage rate was estimated as the most important scenario.

  13. Flexible ring seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbes, Claude; Gournier, Andre; Rouaud, Christian; Villepoix, Raymond de.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns a flexible metal ring seal, able to ensure a perfect seal between two bearings due to the crushing and elastic deformation properties akin to similar properties in elastomers. Various designs of seal of this kind are already known, particularly a seal made of a core formed by a helical wire spring with close-wound turns and with high axial compression ratio, closed on itself and having the shape of an annulus. This wire ring is surrounded by at least one envelope having at rest the shape of a toroidal surface of which the generating circle does not close on itself. In a particular design mode, the seal in question can include, around the internal spring, two envelopes of which one in contact with the spring is composed of a low ductility elastic metal, such as mild steel or stainless steel and the other is, on the contrary, made of a malleable metal, such as copper or nickel. The first envelope evenly distributes the partial crushing of the spring, when the seal is tightened, on the second envelope which closely fits the two surfaces between which the seal operates. The stress-crushing curve characteristic of the seal comprises two separate parts, the first with a relatively sharp slope corresponds to the start of the seal compression phase, enabling at least some of these curves to reach the requisite seal threshold very quickly, then, beyond this, a second part, practically flat, where the stress is appreciably constant for a wide operating bracket [fr

  14. Systematical and statistical errors in using reference light sources to calibrate TLD readers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgkhardt, B.; Piesch, E.

    1981-01-01

    Three light sources, namely an NaI(Tl) scintillator + Ra, an NaI(Tl) scintillator + 14 C and a plastic scintillator + 14 C, were used during a period of 24 months for a daily check of two TLD readers: the Harshaw 2000 A + B and the Toledo 651. On the basis of light source measurements long-term changes and day-to-day fluctuations of the reader response were investigated. Systematical changes of the Toledo reader response of up to 6% during a working week are explained by nitrogen effects in the plastic scintillator light source. It was found that the temperature coefficient of the light source intensity was -0.05%/ 0 C for the plastic scintillator and -0.3%/ 0 C for the NaI(Tl) scintillator. The 210 Pb content in the Ra activated NaI(Tl) scintillator caused a time-dependent decrease in light source intensity of 3%/yr for the light source in the Harshaw reader. The internal light sources revealed a relative standard deviation of 0.5% for the Toledo reader and the Harshaw reader after respective reading times of 0.45 and 100 sec. (author)

  15. The Role of Virtual Reference in Library Web Site Design: A Qualitative Source for Usage Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Amanda Clay; Shedd, Julie; Hill, Clay

    2011-01-01

    Gathering qualitative information about usage behavior of library Web sites is a time-consuming process requiring the active participation of patron communities. Libraries that collect virtual reference transcripts, however, hold valuable data regarding how the library Web site is used that could benefit Web designers. An analysis of virtual…

  16. Motion Pictures: An Update Survey of Reference Sources, 1982-1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Eleanor S.

    1989-01-01

    Surveys motion picture reference materials published since 1982. Materials are presented in the following categories: encyclopedic works about films, filmmakers and the industry; film criticism; people on the screen and behind it; horror, science fiction and Westerns; literature on film; catalogs and filmographies; and special collections. (70…

  17. Seals in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The seals described are for use in a nuclear reactor where there are fuel assemblies in a vessel, an inlet and an outlet for circulating a coolant in heat transfer relationship with the fuel assemblies and a closure head on the vessel in a tight fluid relationship. The closure head comprises rotatable plugs which have mechanical seals disposed in the annulus around each plug while allowing free rotation of the plug when the seal is not actuated. The seal is usually an elastomer or copper. A means of actuating the seal is attached for drawing it vertically into the annulus for sealing. When the reactor coolant is liquid sodium, contact with oxygen must be avoided and argon cover gas fills the space between the bottom of the closure head and the coolant liquid level and the annuli in the closure head. (U.K.)

  18. Seals in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The aim of this invention is the provision of improved seals for reactor vessels in which fuel assemblies are located together with inlets and outlets for the circulation of a coolant. The object is to provide a seal arrangement for the rotatable plugs of nuclear reactor closure heads which has good sealing capacities over a wide gap during operation of the reactor but which also permits uninhibited rotation of the plugs for maintenance. (U.K.)

  19. Compliant seal development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Robert C.

    1993-10-01

    The compliant metallic seal combines the noncontact feature of the labyrinth seal, the low leakage of a mechanical seal, and the compliant nature of the brush seal. It consists of several thin metallic elements or leaves mounted within a ring which is press fit into the housing, and in form, sort of resembles a lip seal sections wiping the shaft. A second set of overlapping cover leaves are placed on top of the shaft riding leaves which reduces leakage and provides stiffness. The leaves can be straight or angle cut. The shaft riding fingers are designed with mismatched curvature to provide lift off similar to the Rayleigh lift pads in mechanical seals with leading edge clearances nearly twice those of the trailing edge as as shown by Fleming to be optimal for gas flows in convergent seal passages. Leading edge clearances range from 300 to 500 microinches. Balance pockets beneath the leaves provide fluid film feed to the 'Rayleigh lift' surface and the proper balance ratio (mechanical seal) when combined with the static pressure and film pressure. The leaves flex in the radial direction and accommodate thermomechanical behavior as well as axial motion and angular misalignment. In the static mode, there is a net closing force on the leaves. The seals were tested to 70 psi at speeds to 16,000 rpm or surface speeds to 330 fps and temperatures from ambient to 440 F. A slow cycle through the rig critical at 10,000 rpm induced a radial vibration response of 0.004 to 0.005 inch were accommodated by the seal. Preliminary performance data are encouraging demonstrating hydrodynamic liftoff and noncontacting operation at pressure and speeds typical of gas turbine engines. The leakage performance data are significantly better than commercial labyrinth and brush seals which should be expected as this design incorporates the features of the low leakage face or mechanical seal along with the flexibility of the brush configuration.

  20. Seal containment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugler, R.W.; Gerkey, K.S.; Kasner, W.H.

    1978-01-01

    An automated system for transporting nuclear fuel elements between fuel element assembly stations without contaminating the area outside the sealed assembly stations is described. The system comprises a plurality of assembly stations connected together by an elongated horizontal sealing mechanism and an automatic transport mechanism for transporting a nuclear fuel element in a horizontal attitude between the assembly stations while the open end of the fuel element extends through the sealing mechanism into the assembly station enclosure. The sealing mechanism allows the fuel element to be advanced by the transport mechanism while limiting the escape of radioactive particles from within the assembly station enclosure. 4 claims, 6 figures

  1. Automated Image Acquisition System for the Verification of Copper-Brass Seal Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stringa, E.; Bergonzi, C.; Littmann, F.; ); Marszalek, Y.; Tempesta, S.; )

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a system for the verification of copper-brass seals realized by JRC according to DG ENER requirements. DG ENER processes about 20,000 metal seals per year. The verification of metal seals consists in visually checking the identity of a removed seal. The identity of a copper-brass seal is defined by a random stain pattern realized by the seal producer together with random scratches engraved when the seals are initialized ('seal production'). In order to verify that the seal returned from the field is the expected one its pattern is compared with an image taken during seal production. Formerly, seal initialization and verification were very heavy tasks as seal pictures were acquired with a camera one by one both in the initialization and verification stages. During the initialization the Nuclear Safeguards technicians had to place one by one new seals under a camera and acquire the related reference images. During the verification, the technician had to take used seals and place them one by one under a camera to take new pictures. The new images were presented to the technicians without any preprocessing and the technicians had to recognize the seal. The new station described in this paper has an automated image acquisition system allowing to easily process seals in batches of 100 seals. To simplify the verification, a software automatically centres and rotates the newly acquired seal image in order to perfectly overlap with the reference image acquired during the production phase. The new system significantly speeds up seal production and helps particularly with the demanding task of seal verification. As a large part of the seals is dealt with by a joint Euratom-IAEA team, the IAEA directly profits from this development. The new tool has been in routine use since mid 2013. (author)

  2. Reactor coolant pump seal leakage monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, D.M.; Spencer, J.W.; Morris, D.J.; James, W.; Shugars, H.G.

    1986-01-01

    Problems with reactor coolant pump seals have historically accounted for a large percentage of unscheduled outages. Studies performed for the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) have shown that the replacement of coolant pump seals has been one of the leading causes of nuclear plant unavailability over the last ten years. Failures of coolant pump seals can lead to primary coolant leakage rates of 200-500 gallons per minute into the reactor building. Airborne activity and high surface contamination levels following these failures require a major cleanup effort and increases the time and personnel exposure required to refurbish the pump seals. One of the problems in assessing seal integrity is the inability to accurately measure seal leakage. Because seal leakage flow is normally very small, it cannot be sensed directly with normal flow instrumentation, but must be inferred from several other temperature and flow measurements. In operating plants the leakage rate has been quantified with a tipping-bucket gauge, a device which indicates when one quart of water has been accumulated. The tipping-bucket gauge has been used for most rainfall-intensity monitoring. The need for a more accurate and less expensive gauge has been addressed. They have developed a drop-counter precipitation sensor has been developed and optimized. The applicability of the drop-counter device to the problem of measuring seal leakage is being investigated. If a review of system specification and known drop-counter performance indicates that this method is feasible for measuring seal leak rates, a drop-counter gauge will be fabricated and tested in the laboratory. If laboratory tests are successful the gauge will be demonstrated in a pump test loop at Ontario Hydro and evaluated under simulated plant conditions. 3 references, 2 figures

  3. On the source material of magmas - with special reference to Nd isotopic ratios of igneous rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuto, Kenji

    1980-01-01

    In 1973, the Sm-Nd method was first used for the measurement of the absolute age of igneous rocks and meteorites. Subsequently in the following years, the research works by means of the Nd isotopic ratio in igneous rocks have been made strenuously in order to reveal the chemistry of the source materials of magma giving rise to the igneous rocks and further the evolution process of mantle and earth's crust. The fundamental items for the Sm-Nd method are explained. Then, the research results more important in the above connection are given. Finally, the ideas by the author concerning the source materials of magma are presented from the data available on the Nd isotopes in meteorites and igneous rocks. The following matters are described: the fundamentals of Sm-Nd method, the Nd content in seawater, the negative correlation between Nd and Sr isotopic ratios in igneous rocks, magma source materials and Nd isotopes, and considerations on magma source materials. (J.P.N.)

  4. Improved cryogenic shaft seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillon, W. A., Jr.; Tellier, G. F.

    1976-01-01

    Seals are designed for use with liquid propellant ball valves at temperatures ranging from -400 F to 130 F and 8,000 psig. Seals are capable of sustaining 90 degree rotation, with substantial amount of lateral and axial play, caused by large pressure loads and differential thermal contraction.

  5. Hydrate studies of northern Cascadia margin off Vancouver Island : a reference source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyndman, R. [Natural Resources Canada, Sidney, BC (Canada). Geological Survey of Canada, Pacific Geoscience Centre]|[Victoria Univ., BC (Canada). School of Earth and Ocean Sciences; Riedel, M. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences; Spence, G.D. [Victoria Univ., BC (Canada). School of Earth and Ocean Sciences

    2008-07-01

    Extensive geophysical studies have been conducted to determine the occurrence, distribution, and concentration of gas hydrate in the Cascadia subduction zone off western Canada. In this paper, the authors compiled a comprehensive reference list of studies involving marine natural gas hydrate surveys and studies on the northern Cascadia margin. The reference categories included general reviews; regional tectonic framework for northern Cascadia hydrate; prism sediment thickening, fluid expulsion and hydrate formation; and, seismic surveys. This paper first addressed the local tectonics and the sedimentary accretionary prism in which the hydrate forms, followed by a description of the geophysical and geological surveys that have been conducted. The surveys included a wide range of seismic surveys such as multichannel, ocean-bottom, high-resolution single channel and very high resolution deep towed surveys. Heat flow, electrical sounding, seafloor compliance, sediment coring, and mapping gas plumes from the seafloor were among the other geophysical studies listed in this paper. The conclusions that have resulted from this work in terms of distribution, concentrations and amounts of hydrate were presented along with a discussion on the process of hydrate formation and dissociation. 96 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Rotary shaft seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langebrake, C.O.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is a novel rotary shaft seal assembly which provides positive-contact sealing when the shaft is not rotated and which operates with its sealing surfaces separated by a film of compressed ambient gas whose width is independent of the speed of shaft rotation. In a preferred embodiment, the assembly includes a disc affixed to the shaft for rotation therewith. Axially movable, non-rotatable plates respectively supported by sealing bellows are positioned on either side of the disc to be in sealing engagement therewith. Each plate carries piezoelectric transducer elements which are electrically energized at startup to produce films of compressed ambient gas between the confronting surfaces of the plates and the disc. Following shutdown of the shaft, the transducer elements are de-energized. A control circuit responds to incipient rubbing between the plate and either disc by altering the electrical input to the transducer elements to eliminate rubbing

  7. Sealing a conduit end

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mentz, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    An apparatus for sealing or blocking conduits, such as the primary nozzles of a nuclear steam generator is described. It includes an annular bracket sealingly attached to the open end of the nozzle, the bracket having a plurality of threaded holes therein. Mounted atop the bracket is a generally circular nozzle dam for covering the opening. Interposed between the nozzle dam and the bracket is an extrusion-resistant seal member having a plurality of apertures therethrough for receiving each bolt. The seal member is configured to resist extrusion by having laminated layers of differing hardnesses, so that the seal member will not laterally extrude away from each bolt in a manner that enlarges the aperture surrounding each bolt as the nozzle dam is bolted to the bracket. (author)

  8. Reactor vessel sealing plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dooley, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    An apparatus is described for sealing a cold leg nozzle of a nuclear reactor pressure vessel from a remote location comprising: at least one sealing plug for mechanically sealing the nozzle from the inside of the reactor pressure vessel. The sealing plug includes a plate and a cone assembly having an end part receptive in the nozzle, the plate being axially moveable relative to the cone assembly. The plate and cone assembly have confronting bevelled edges defining an opening therebetween. A primary O-ring is disposed about the opening and is supported on the bevelled edges, the plate being guidably mounted to the cone assembly for movement toward the cone assembly to radially expand the primary O-ring into sealing engagement with the nozzle. A means is included for providing relative movement between the outer plate and the cone assembly

  9. Brush seal performance measurement system

    OpenAIRE

    Aksoy, Serdar; Akşit, Mahmut Faruk; Aksit, Mahmut Faruk; Duran, Ertuğrul Tolga; Duran, Ertugrul Tolga

    2009-01-01

    Brush seals are rapidly replacing conventional labyrinth seals in turbomachinery applications. Upon pressure application, seal stiffness increases drastically due to frictional bristle interlocking. Operating stiffness is critical to determine seal wear life. Typically, seal stiffness is measured by pressing a curved shoe to brush bore. The static-unpressurized measurement is extrapolated to pressurized and high speed operating conditions. This work presents a seal stiffness measurement syste...

  10. Variability of extragalactic sources: its contribution to the link between ICRF and the future Gaia Celestial Reference Frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taris, F.; Damljanovic, G.; Andrei, A.; Souchay, J.; Klotz, A.; Vachier, F.

    2018-03-01

    Context. The first release of the Gaia catalog is available since 14 September 2016. It is a first step in the realization of the future Gaia reference frame. This reference frame will be materialized by the optical positions of the sources and will be compared with and linked to the International Celestial Reference Frame, materialized by the radio position of extragalactic sources. Aim. As in the radio domain, it can be reasonably postulated that quasar optical flux variations can alert us to potential changes in the source structure. These changes could have important implications for the position of the target photocenters (together with the evolution in time of these centers) and in parallel have consequences for the link of the reference systems. Methods: A set of nine optical telescopes was used to monitor the magnitude variations, often at the same time as Gaia, thanks to the Gaia Observation Forecast Tool. The Allan variances, which are statistical tools widely used in the atomic time and frequency community, are introduced. Results: This work describes the magnitude variations of 47 targets that are suitable for the link between reference systems. We also report on some implications for the Gaia catalog. For 95% of the observed targets, new information about their variability is reported. In the case of some targets that are well observed by the TAROT telescopes, the Allan time variance shows that the longest averaging period of the magnitudes is in the range 20-70 d. The observation period by Gaia for a single target largely exceeds these values, which might be a problem when the magnitude variations exhibit flicker or random walk noises. Preliminary computations show that if the coordinates of the targets studied in this paper were affected by a white-phase noise with a formal uncertainty of about 1 mas (due to astrophysical processes that are put in evidence by the magnitude variations of the sources), it would affect the precision of the link at the

  11. LED deep UV source for charge management of gravitational reference sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Kexun; Allard, Brett; Buchman, Saps; Williams, Scott; Byer, Robert L

    2006-01-01

    Proof mass electrical charge management is an important functionality for the ST-7-LTP technology demonstration flight and for LISA. Photoemission for charge control is accomplished by using deep ultraviolet (UV) light to excite photoelectron emission from an Au alloy. The conventional UV source is a mercury vapour lamp. We propose and demonstrate charge management using a deep UV light emitting diode (LED) source. We have acquired selected AlGaN UV LEDs, characterized their performance and successfully used them to realize charge management. The UV LEDs emit at a 257 nm central wavelength with a bandwidth of ∼12 nm. The UV power for a free-space LED is ∼120 μW, and after fibre coupling is ∼16 μW, more than sufficient for LISA applications. We have directly observed the LED UV light-induced photocurrent response from an Au photocathode and an Au-coated GRS/ST-7 proof mass. We demonstrated fast switching of UV LEDs and associated fast changes in photocurrent. This allows modulation and continuous discharge to meet stringent LISA disturbance reduction requirements. We propose and demonstrate AC charge management outside the gravitational wave signal band. Further, the megahertz bandwidth for UV LED switching allows for up to six orders of magnitude dynamic power range and a number of novel modes of operations. The UV LED based charge management system offers the advantages of small-size, lightweight, fibre-coupled operation with very low power consumption

  12. Design and validation of an open-source library of dynamic reference frames for research and education in optical tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alisa; Uneri, Ali; Silva, Tharindu De; Manbachi, Amir; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H

    2018-04-01

    Dynamic reference frames (DRFs) are a common component of modern surgical tracking systems; however, the limited number of commercially available DRFs poses a constraint in developing systems, especially for research and education. This work presents the design and validation of a large, open-source library of DRFs compatible with passive, single-face tracking systems, such as Polaris stereoscopic infrared trackers (NDI, Waterloo, Ontario). An algorithm was developed to create new DRF designs consistent with intra- and intertool design constraints and convert to computer-aided design (CAD) files suitable for three-dimensional printing. A library of 10 such groups, each with 6 to 10 DRFs, was produced and tracking performance was validated in comparison to a standard commercially available reference, including pivot calibration, fiducial registration error (FRE), and target registration error (TRE). Pivot tests showed calibration error [Formula: see text], indistinguishable from the reference. FRE was [Formula: see text], and TRE in a CT head phantom was [Formula: see text], both equivalent to the reference. The library of DRFs offers a useful resource for surgical navigation research and could be extended to other tracking systems and alternative design constraints.

  13. An image-based skeletal dosimetry model for the ICRP reference newborn-internal electron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pafundi, Deanna; Lee, Choonsik; Bolch, Wesley; Rajon, Didier; Jokisch, Derek

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a comprehensive electron dosimetry model of newborn skeletal tissues is presented. The model is constructed using the University of Florida newborn hybrid phantom of Lee et al (2007 Phys. Med. Biol. 52 3309-33), the newborn skeletal tissue model of Pafundi et al (2009 Phys. Med. Biol. 54 4497-531) and the EGSnrc-based Paired Image Radiation Transport code of Shah et al (2005 J. Nucl. Med. 46 344-53). Target tissues include the active bone marrow (surrogate tissue for hematopoietic stem cells), shallow marrow (surrogate tissue for osteoprogenitor cells) and unossified cartilage (surrogate tissue for chondrocytes). Monoenergetic electron emissions are considered over the energy range 1 keV to 10 MeV for the following source tissues: active marrow, trabecular bone (surfaces and volumes), cortical bone (surfaces and volumes) and cartilage. Transport results are reported as specific absorbed fractions according to the MIRD schema and are given as skeletal-averaged values in the paper with bone-specific values reported in both tabular and graphic format as electronic annexes (supplementary data). The method utilized in this work uniquely includes (1) explicit accounting for the finite size and shape of newborn ossification centers (spongiosa regions), (2) explicit accounting for active and shallow marrow dose from electron emissions in cortical bone as well as sites of unossified cartilage, (3) proper accounting of the distribution of trabecular and cortical volumes and surfaces in the newborn skeleton when considering mineral bone sources and (4) explicit consideration of the marrow cellularity changes for active marrow self-irradiation as applicable to radionuclide therapy of diseased marrow in the newborn child.

  14. An image-based skeletal dosimetry model for the ICRP reference newborn-internal electron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pafundi, Deanna; Lee, Choonsik; Bolch, Wesley [Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Rajon, Didier [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Jokisch, Derek [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Francis Marion University, Florence, SC (United States)], E-mail: wbolch@ufl.edu

    2010-04-07

    In this study, a comprehensive electron dosimetry model of newborn skeletal tissues is presented. The model is constructed using the University of Florida newborn hybrid phantom of Lee et al (2007 Phys. Med. Biol. 52 3309-33), the newborn skeletal tissue model of Pafundi et al (2009 Phys. Med. Biol. 54 4497-531) and the EGSnrc-based Paired Image Radiation Transport code of Shah et al (2005 J. Nucl. Med. 46 344-53). Target tissues include the active bone marrow (surrogate tissue for hematopoietic stem cells), shallow marrow (surrogate tissue for osteoprogenitor cells) and unossified cartilage (surrogate tissue for chondrocytes). Monoenergetic electron emissions are considered over the energy range 1 keV to 10 MeV for the following source tissues: active marrow, trabecular bone (surfaces and volumes), cortical bone (surfaces and volumes) and cartilage. Transport results are reported as specific absorbed fractions according to the MIRD schema and are given as skeletal-averaged values in the paper with bone-specific values reported in both tabular and graphic format as electronic annexes (supplementary data). The method utilized in this work uniquely includes (1) explicit accounting for the finite size and shape of newborn ossification centers (spongiosa regions), (2) explicit accounting for active and shallow marrow dose from electron emissions in cortical bone as well as sites of unossified cartilage, (3) proper accounting of the distribution of trabecular and cortical volumes and surfaces in the newborn skeleton when considering mineral bone sources and (4) explicit consideration of the marrow cellularity changes for active marrow self-irradiation as applicable to radionuclide therapy of diseased marrow in the newborn child.

  15. Reactor cavity seal ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hankinson, M.F.

    1986-01-01

    A hydrostatic seal is described for sealing an annular gap between two flat substantially horizontal coplanar surfaces comprising, in combination: a generally flat annular plate of a width sufficient to span a gap between two surfaces: compressible annular sealing means disposed on the bottom surface of the flat annular plate for sealingly engaging the two flat surfaces in response to a downward force exerted on the plate; and fastening means, distributed along the center line of the plate, for releasably fastening the plate in a position to span the gap to be sealed and exert a downward force on the plate, each fastening means including a pair of elongated members of a size to fit into the gap to be sealed, means for mounting the members on the bottom surface of the plate so that at least a portion of each member is radially moveable in a direction toward a respective one of the vertical side surfaces defining the gap to be sealed to engage same and so that the plate is moveable relative to the members in a downward direction in response to hydrostatic pressure applied to the upper surface of the plate when the members are engaging the vertical side surfaces of an annular gap, and an actuating means, mounted on the plate for movement therewith in response to hydrostatic pressure, for radially moving the members, the actuating means extending through a bore in the plate to the upper surface of the plate

  16. SEALING SIMULATED LEAKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael A. Romano

    2004-09-01

    This report details the testing equipment, procedures and results performed under Task 7.2 Sealing Simulated Leaks. In terms of our ability to seal leaks identified in the technical topical report, Analysis of Current Field Data, we were 100% successful. In regards to maintaining seal integrity after pigging operations we achieved varying degrees of success. Internal Corrosion defects proved to be the most resistant to the effects of pigging while External Corrosion proved to be the least resistant. Overall, with limitations, pressure activated sealant technology would be a viable option under the right circumstances.

  17. Experimental research on specific activity of 24Na using Chinese reference man phantom irradiated by 252Cf neutrons source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuexing; Yang Yifang; Lu Yongjie; Zhang Jianguo; Xing Hongchuan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the specific activity of '2 4 Na per unit neutron fluence, A B/Φ ,in blood produced for Chinese reference man irradiated by 252 Cf neutron source,and to analyze the effects of scattering neutrons from ground,wall,and ceiling in irradiation site on it.Methods: A 252 Cf neutron source of 3×10 8 n/s and the anthropomorphic phantom were used for experiments. The phantom was made from 4 mm thick of outer covering by perspex and the liquid tissue-equivalent substitute in it. The data of phantom dimensions fit into Chinese reference man.The weight ratios of H, N, O and C in substitute equal from source to long axis of phantom were 1.1, 2.1, 3.1 and 4.1 m, respectively. Both the neutron source and the position of xiphisternum of the phantom were 1.6 m above the floor. Results: The average specific activity of 24 Na per unit neutron fluence was related to the irradiation-distances, d, and its maximum value, A B/ΦM , deduced by experimental data was about 1.85×10 -7 Bq·cm 2 ·g -1 . Conclusions: The A B/ΦM corresponds to that of phantom irradiated by plane-parallel beams, and the value is about more 3% than that by BOMAB phantom reported in literature. It has shown that floor-(wall-)scattered neutrons in irradiation site have significant contribution to the specific activity of 24 Na, but they contributed relatively little to the induced neutron doses. Consequently,using the specific activity of 24 Na for assessing accidental neutron doses received by an individual, the contribution of scattered neutrons in accident site will lead dose to be overestimated, and need to be correct. (authors)

  18. SSME Seal Test Program: Test results for sawtooth pattern damper seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, D. W.

    1986-01-01

    Direct and transverse force coefficients for 11, sawtooth-pattern, and damper-seal configurations were examined. The designation damper seal uses a deliberately roughened stator and smooth rotor to increase the net damping force developed by a seal. The designation sawtooth-pattern refers to a stator roughness pattern. The sawtooth pattern yields axial grooves in the stator which are interrupted by spacer elements which act as flow constrictions or dams. All seals use the same smooth rotor and have the same, constant, minimum clearance. The stators examined the consequences of changes in the following design parameters: (1) axial-groove depth; (2) number of teeth: (3) number of sawtooth sections; (4) number of spacer elements; (5) dam width; (6) axially aligned sawtooth sections versus axially-staggered sawtooth sections; and (7) groove geometry. It is found that none of the sawtooth-pattern seal performs as well as the best round-hole-pattern seal. Maximum damping configurations for the sawtooth and round-hole-pattern stators have comparable stiffness performance. Several of the sawtooth pattern stators outperformed the best round-hole pattern seal.

  19. Cover-gas seals: 11-LMFBR seal-test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, O.P. III; Horton, P.H.

    1977-01-01

    The objective of the Cover Gas Seal Material Development Program is to perform the engineering development required to provide reliable seals for LMFBR application. Specific objectives are to verify the performance of commercial solid cross-section and inflatable seals under reactor environments including radiation, to develop advanced materials and configurations capable of achieving significant improvement in radioactive gas containment and seal temperature capabilities, and to optimize seal geometry for maximum reliability and minimal gas permeation

  20. Rotatable seal assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garibaldi, J.L.; Logan, C.M.

    1982-01-01

    An assembly is provided for rotatably supporting a rotor on a stator so that vacuum chambers in the rotor and stator remain in communication while the chambers are sealed from ambient air, which enables the use of a ball bearing or the like to support most of the weight of the rotor. The apparatus includes a seal device mounted on the rotor to rotate therewith, but shiftable in position on the rotor while being sealed to the rotor as by an oring. The seal device has a flat face that is biased towards a flat face on the stator, and pressurized air is pumped between the faces to prevent contact between them while spacing them a small distance apart to avoid the inflow of large amounts of air between the faces and into the vacuum chambers

  1. A simplified approach to estimating reference source terms for LWR designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-12-01

    systems. The publication of this IAEA technical document represents the conclusion of a task, initiated in 1996, devoted to the estimation of the radioactive source term in nuclear reactors. It focuses mainly on light water reactors (LWRs)

  2. Development of the neutron reference calibration field using a {sup 252}Cf standard source surrounded with PMMA moderators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, T.; Kanai, K.; Tsujimura, N. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    The authors developed the neutron reference calibration fields using a {sup 252} Cf standard source surrounded with PMMA moderators at the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development (JNC), Tokai Works. The moderators are co-axial, hollow cylinders made of lead-contained PMMA with a thickness of 13.5, 35.0, 59.5 and 77.0mm, and the {sup 252} Cf source is guided to the geometric center of moderators by the pneumatic system. These fields can provide the moderated neutron spectra very similar to those encountered around the globe-boxes of the fabrication process of MOX (PuO{sub 2}-UO{sub 2} mixed oxide) fuel. The neutron energy spectrum at the reference calibration point was evaluated from the calculations by MCNP4B and the measurements by the INS-type Bonner multi-sphere spectrometer and the hydrogen-filled proportional counters. The calculated neutron spectra were in good agreements with the measured ones. These fields were characterized in terms of the neutron fluence rate, spectral composition and ambient dose equivalent rate, and have served for the response-characterization of various neutron survey instruments.

  3. Development of the neutron reference calibration field using a 252Cf standard source surrounded with PMMA moderators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, T.; Kanai, K.; Tsujimura, N.

    2002-01-01

    The authors developed the neutron reference calibration fields using a 252 Cf standard source surrounded with PMMA moderators at the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development (JNC), Tokai Works. The moderators are co-axial, hollow cylinders made of lead-contained PMMA with a thickness of 13.5, 35.0, 59.5 and 77.0mm, and the 252 Cf source is guided to the geometric center of moderators by the pneumatic system. These fields can provide the moderated neutron spectra very similar to those encountered around the globe-boxes of the fabrication process of MOX (PuO 2 -UO 2 mixed oxide) fuel. The neutron energy spectrum at the reference calibration point was evaluated from the calculations by MCNP4B and the measurements by the INS-type Bonner multi-sphere spectrometer and the hydrogen-filled proportional counters. The calculated neutron spectra were in good agreements with the measured ones. These fields were characterized in terms of the neutron fluence rate, spectral composition and ambient dose equivalent rate, and have served for the response-characterization of various neutron survey instruments

  4. Core disruptive accident margin seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golden, M.P.

    1979-01-01

    An apparatus for sealing the annulus defined within a substantially cylindrical rotatable riser assembly and plug combination of a nuclear reactor closure head is described. The apparatus comprises an inflatable sealing mechanism disposed in one portion of the riser assembly near the annulus such that upon inflation the sealing mechanism is radially actuated against the other portion of the riser assembly thereby sealing the annulus. The apparatus further comprises a connecting mechanism which places one end of the sealing mechanism in fluid communication with the reactor cover gas so that overpressurization of the reactor cover gas will increase the radial actuation of the sealing mechanism thus enhancing sealing of the annulus

  5. Self-acting shaft seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, L. P.

    1978-01-01

    Self-acting seals are described in detail. The mathematical models for obtaining a seal force balance and the equilibrium operating film thickness are outlined. Particular attention is given to primary ring response (seal vibration) to rotating seat face runout. This response analysis reveals three different vibration models with secondary seal friction being an important parameter. Leakage flow inlet pressure drop and affects of axisymmetric sealing face deformations are discussed. Experimental data on self-acting face seals operating under simulated gas turbine conditions are given. Also a spiral groove seal design operated to 244 m/sec (800 ft/sec) is described.

  6. Sealing arrangement for radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, I.L.S.; Sievwright, R.W.T.; Elliott, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    A sealing arrangement for hermetically sealing two mating surfaces comprises two seals arranged to lie between the surfaces. Each seal provides hermetic sealing over a respective different temperature range and lie serially along the surfaces between the regions to be isolated. A main seal integrity test arrangement is provided in the form of a port and passage. This allows for the introduction of a fluid into or the evacuation of a region between the two seals to detect a leak. The port is also provided with at least two test port seals which seal with a plug. The plug is also provided with a test port to allow the integrity of the test port seal to be tested. (UK)

  7. An open source, 3D printed preclinical MRI phantom for repeated measures of contrast agents and reference standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, B L; Ludwig, K D; Adamson, E B; Eliceiri, K W; Fain, S B

    2018-03-01

    In medical imaging, clinicians, researchers and technicians have begun to use 3D printing to create specialized phantoms to replace commercial ones due to their customizable and iterative nature. Presented here is the design of a 3D printed open source, reusable magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) phantom, capable of flood-filling, with removable samples for measurements of contrast agent solutions and reference standards, and for use in evaluating acquisition techniques and image reconstruction performance. The phantom was designed using SolidWorks, a computer-aided design software package. The phantom consists of custom and off-the-shelf parts and incorporates an air hole and Luer Lock system to aid in flood filling, a marker for orientation of samples in the filled mode and bolt and tube holes for assembly. The cost of construction for all materials is under $90. All design files are open-source and available for download. To demonstrate utility, B 0 field mapping was performed using a series of gadolinium concentrations in both the unfilled and flood-filled mode. An excellent linear agreement (R 2 >0.998) was observed between measured relaxation rates (R 1 /R 2 ) and gadolinium concentration. The phantom provides a reliable setup to test data acquisition and reconstruction methods and verify physical alignment in alternative nuclei MRI techniques (e.g. carbon-13 and fluorine-19 MRI). A cost-effective, open-source MRI phantom design for repeated quantitative measurement of contrast agents and reference standards in preclinical research is presented. Specifically, the work is an example of how the emerging technology of 3D printing improves flexibility and access for custom phantom design.

  8. Nuclear instrumentation cable end seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, C.P.; Brown, D.P.

    1979-01-01

    An improved coaxial end seal for hermetically sealed nuclear instrumentation cable exhibiting an improved breakdown pulse noise characteristic under high voltage, high temperature conditions is described. A tubular insulator body has metallized interior and exterior surface portions which are braze sealed to a center conductor and an outer conductive sheath. The end surface of the insulator body which is directed toward the coaxial cable to which it is sealed has a recessed surface portion within which the braze seal material terminates

  9. Pressure Actuated Leaf Seals for Improved Turbine Shaft Sealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grondahl, Clayton

    2006-01-01

    This presentation introduces a shaft seal in which leaf seal elements are constructed from slotted shim material formed and layered into a frusto-conical assembly. Limited elastic deflection of seal leaves with increasing system pressure close large startup clearance to a small, non-contacting, steady state running clearance. At shutdown seal elements resiliently retract as differential seal pressure diminishes. Large seal clearance during startup and shutdown provides a mechanism for rub avoidance. Minimum operating clearance improves performance and non-contacting operation promises long seal life. Design features of this seal, sample calculations at differential pressures up to 2400 psid and benefit comparison with brush and labyrinth seals is documented in paper, AIAA 2005 3985, presented at the Advanced Seal Technology session of the Joint Propulsion Conference in Tucson this past July. In this presentation use of bimetallic leaf material will be discussed. Frictional heating of bimetallic leaf seals during a seal rub can relieve the rub condition to some extent with a change in seal shape. Improved leaf seal rub tolerance is expected with bimetallic material.

  10. Comparison of correlation algorithms for identifying ultrasonic seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, C.L.; McKenzie, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    Ultrasonic seals are used on reactor fuel assemblies for international safeguards applications. The seals are read by a Seal Pattern Reader to obtain a discrete digital signature that is unique to each seal. The signature is used to determine the identity and integrity of the seals such that accountability and integrity of the nuclear fuel assemblies can be addressed. A correlation coefficient is calculated between the signature obtained at the time of inspection and a stored reference signature, yielding a number between negative one and one. Numbers close to one indicate a high probability that the two signatures represent the same seal. Data from two seals were studied, the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited Random Coil (ARC) seal and the JRC-Ispra VAK-III seal. Currently, correlation coefficients are obtained using data in the time or spatial domain, respectively. An approach is proposed in which the correlation coefficients are obtained from the Fourier transforms of the data. This paper reports that the objective of the study was to perform independent experiments on available ARC and VAK-III data to determine the advantages, if any, of transforming the data to the frequency spectrum prior to performing the correlation calculation. The results indicate definite advantages can be obtained

  11. Modeling the rubbing contact in honeycomb seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Tim; Welzenbach, Sarah; Meier, Felix; Werner, Ewald; kyzy, Sonun Ulan; Munz, Oliver

    2018-03-01

    Metallic honeycomb labyrinth seals are commonly used as sealing systems in gas turbine engines. Because of their capability to withstand high thermo-mechanical loads and oxidation, polycrystalline nickel-based superalloys, such as Hastelloy X and Haynes 214, are used as sealing material. In addition, these materials must exhibit a tolerance against rubbing between the rotating part and the stationary seal component. The tolerance of the sealing material against rubbing preserves the integrity of the rotating part. In this article, the rubbing behavior at the rotor-stator interface is considered numerically. A simulation model is incorporated into the commercial finite element code ABAQUS/explicit and is utilized to simulate a simplified rubbing process. A user-defined interaction routine between the contact surfaces accounts for the thermal and mechanical interfacial behavior. Furthermore, an elasto-plastic constitutive material law captures the extreme temperature conditions and the damage behavior of the alloys. To validate the model, representative quantities of the rubbing process are determined and compared with experimental data from the literature. The simulation results correctly reproduce the observations made on a test rig with a reference stainless steel material (AISI 304). A parametric study using the nickel-based superalloys reveals a clear dependency of the rubbing behavior on the sliding and incursion velocity. Compared to each other, the two superalloys studied exhibit a different rubbing behavior.

  12. Shaft seal assembly and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keba, John E. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A pressure-actuated shaft seal assembly and associated method for controlling the flow of fluid adjacent a rotatable shaft are provided. The seal assembly includes one or more seal members that can be adjusted between open and closed positions, for example, according to the rotational speed of the shaft. For example, the seal member can be configured to be adjusted according to a radial pressure differential in a fluid that varies with the rotational speed of the shaft. In addition, in the closed position, each seal member can contact a rotatable member connected to the shaft to form a seal with the rotatable member and prevent fluid from flowing through the assembly. Thus, the seal can be closed at low speeds of operation and opened at high speeds of operation, thereby reducing the heat and wear in the seal assembly while maintaining a sufficient seal during all speeds of operation.

  13. Reference masses for precision mass spectrometry design and implementation of a Pierce geometry to the cluster Ion source at ISOLTRAP

    CERN Document Server

    Lommen, Jonathan

    At the mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP carbon clusters ($^{12}$Cn, 1$\\leqslant$n$\\leqslant$25) are provided as reference masses, which are of particular importance in higher mass ranges (m $\\geqslant$ 200u). In this mass range the measurlment uncertainty is increasingly dominated by the difference of the reference mass and the mass of the ion of interest. Using carbon clusters instead of the common $^{133}$Cs ions, this difference decreases. The carbon clusters are produced in a laser ion source which has been improved in the frame of this thesis. The fluctuations of the count rate have been investigated as a function of the laser energy. Furthermore, the energy density at the target has been increased by implementation of a telescope into the laser beam line, which leads to a more narrow energy distribution of the ions. Through the exact adjustment of timing and length of a pulsed cavity an energy range with constant count rate could be selected. In order to provide ideal starting conditions during and after the ...

  14. Trace element analysis in the serum and hair of Antarctic leopard seal, Hydrurga leptonyx, and Weddell seal, Leptonychotes weddellii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Rachael [Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 Australia (Australia); Australian Marine Mammal Research Centre PO Box 20 Mosman, NSW 2088 (Australia)], E-mail: rgray@vetsci.usyd.edu.au; Canfield, Paul [Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Rogers, Tracey [Australian Marine Mammal Research Centre PO Box 20 Mosman, NSW 2088 (Australia); Evolution and Ecology Research Centre and School of Biological Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2008-07-25

    Leopard seal, Hydrurga leptonyx, and Weddell seal, Leptonychotes weddellii, occupy an upper trophic level within the Antarctic ecosystem and are useful indicator species in the Southern Ocean of trace element concentrations. Reference values for the concentration of 19 trace elements were determined in the serum and hair of leopard and Weddell seals sampled in Eastern Antarctica. These reference values can be used as 'baseline' levels for monitoring trace element concentrations in these species. Greater trace element concentrations were determined in hair compared to serum, indicating different time scales of trace element accumulation in these samples. For the majority of trace elements, except for Se in the leopard seal samples and Cr in the Weddell seal samples, significant regression relationships for trace element concentrations in hair and serum were not elucidated. Significant differences were determined in the concentrations of seven out of 15 elements with hair type, moult and new, in the leopard seal; concentrations in moult hair were determined to be greater than in new hair for all elements except Zn. Hair analysis was determined to be useful for monitoring exposure to trace elements and when collected off the ice from moulting seals, hair can be employed as a non-invasive sample for trace element analysis in leopard and Weddell seals.

  15. Pool gateway seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starr, J.A.; Steinert, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    A device for sealing a gateway between interconnectable pools in a nuclear facility comprising a frame supporting a liquid impermeable sheet positioned in a u-shaped gateway between the pools. An inflatable tube carried in a channel in the periphery of the frame and adjoining the gateway provides a seal therebetween when inflated. A restraining arrangement on the bottom edge of the frame is releasably engagable with an adjacent portion of the gateway to restrict the movement of the frame in the u-shaped gateway upon inflation of the tube, thereby enhancing the seal. The impermeable sheet is formed of an elastomer and thus is conformable to a liquid permeable supportive wall upon application of liquid pressure to the side of the sheet opposite the wall

  16. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Master Identification Records (seal)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains records of all individually identified Hawaiian monk seals since 1981. These seals were identified by PSD personnel and cooperating scientists...

  17. Dye filled security seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    A security seal for providing an indication of unauthorized access to a sealed object includes an elongate member to be entwined in the object such that access is denied unless the member is removed. The elongate member has a hollow, pressurizable chamber extending throughout its length that is filled with a permanent dye under greater than atmospheric pressure. Attempts to cut the member and weld it together are revealed when dye flows through a rupture in the chamber wall and stains the outside surface of the member

  18. Sealed ion accelerator tubes (survey)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voitsik, L.R.

    1985-01-01

    The first publications on developing commercial models of small-scale sealed accelerator tubes in which neutrons are generated appeared in the foreign press in 1954 to 1957; they were very brief and were advertising-oriented. The tubes were designed for neutron logging of oil wells instead of ampule neutron sources (Po + Be, Ra + Be). Later, instruments of this type began to be called neutron tubes from the resulting neutron radiation that they gave off. In Soviet Union a neutron tube was developed in 1958 in connection with the development of the pulsed neutron-neutron method of studying the geological profile of oil wells. At that time the tube developed was intended, in the view of its inventors, to replace standard isotope sources with constant neutron yield. A fairly detailed survey of neutron tubes was made in the studies. 8 refs., 8 figs

  19. Cost saving synergistic shaft seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, L. P.; Strom, T. N.

    1976-01-01

    Segmented carbon rings, used to replace elastomeric seal lip, provide resistance to high temperatures generated in lubricating film. Machining and close manufacturing tolerances of conventional segmented seal are avoided by mounting segmented rings in elastomeric flex section.

  20. Magnetically Actuated Seal, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — FTT proposes development of a magnetically actuated dynamic seal. Dynamic seals are used throughout the turbopump in high-performance, pump-fed, liquid rocket...

  1. Magnetically Actuated Seal, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — FTT proposes development of a magnetically actuated dynamic seal. Dynamic seals are used throughout the turbopump in high-performance, pump-fed, liquid rocket...

  2. Continuous improvement of pump seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, W.; Eyvindson, A.; Rhodes, D.B.

    2003-01-01

    Pump seal reliability continues to be an area needing improvement and ongoing vigilance. Methods have been developed for identifying and assessing factors relating to seal performance, selecting the most relevant ones for a specific station, and then focusing on the most significant aspects and how to improve. Discussion invariably addresses maintenance practices, seal design, monitoring capabilities, operating conditions, transients, and pump and motor design. Success in reliability improvement requires ongoing dialogue among the station operators, pump manufacturers and seal designers. AECL CAN-seals lead the nuclear industry in reliability and seal life. They effectively save operators millions of dollars in outage time and person-rem. This paper describes some of the significant developments in AECL's ongoing program in seal R and D, as well as recent new installations following the most demanding seal qualification programs to date. (author)

  3. Production of sealed sup 6 sup 0 Co and sup 1 sup 9 sup 2 Ir sources of high specific activity in the nuclear reactor RA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrijevic, R.; Vucina, J.

    1998-01-01

    Given is a review on the development of the production of 60 Co and 192 Ir performed in the Vinca Institute in the nuclear reactor RA. The experience gained showed that this reactor was suitable for obtaining of these and some other radionuclides. One possibility of its re-start is that the performances of the reactor remain the same (power 6.5 MW, max.neutron flux up to 6x10 13 n.cm -2 s -1 ). By applying new techniques of target preparation, 60 Co for sterilization units of specific activity 1.11 TBq/g could be produced. Maximal activity of sup 1 sup 9 sup 2 Ir would be about 1.48 TBq what is satisfactory for the sources for gamma radiography. The increase of the flux to 10 14 n.cm -2 s -1 would enable the production of 60 Co of specific activities about 3.335 TBq/g. This is satisfactory for the sources for the radiation therapy of activities up to 111 TBq and for gamma radiography of activities about 0.37 TBq. In the case of 192 Ir the sources for the radiation therapy of activities about 0.37 TBq could be obtained. Maximal achievable activities of 192 Ir would be about 3.7 TBq. (author)

  4. Intratracheal Seal Disc

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Karen J; Moeslund, Niels; Lauridsen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    . The device consisted of an intratracheal silicone seal disc fixated by a cord through the stoma to an external part. At day 14, computed tomography (CT) was performed before the device was extracted. With the pulling of a cord, the disc unraveled into a thin thread and was extracted through the stoma. At day...

  5. GOLD PRESSURE VESSEL SEAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A.E.

    1963-11-26

    An improved seal between the piston and die member of a piston-cylinder type pressure vessel is presented. A layer of gold, of sufficient thickness to provide an interference fit between the piston and die member, is plated on the contacting surface of at least one of the members. (AEC)

  6. Shaft Seal Compensates for Cold Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, W. N.; Hein, L. A.

    1985-01-01

    Seal components easy to install. Ring seal for rotating or reciprocating shafts spring-loaded to compensate for slow yielding (cold flow) of sealing material. New seal relatively easy to install because components preassembled, then installed in one piece.

  7. Fiber Optic Safeguards Sealing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    8217 or trade names does not constitute an official indorsement or approval of the use thereof. Destroy this report when it is no longer needed. Do not...an intergrity check of a seal than to photograph the seal’s fingerprints and to match positive/negative overlays. The seal identification time and

  8. Ultrasonic dip seal maintenance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poindexter, A.M.; Ricks, H.E.

    1978-01-01

    Disclosed is a system for removing impurities from the surfaces of liquid dip seals and for wetting the metal surfaces of liquid dip seals in nuclear components. The system comprises an ultrasonic transducer that transmits ultrasonic vibrations along an ultrasonic probe to the metal and liquid surfaces of the dip seal thereby loosening and removing those impurities

  9. Radial lip seals, thermal aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stakenborg, M.J.L.; van Ostaijen, R.A.J.; Dowson, D.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper the influence of temperature on tne seal-snarc contact is studied, using coupled temperature-stress FEH analysis. A thermal network model is used to calculate the seal-shaft contact temperature for steady-state and transient conditions. Contact temperatures were measured under the seal

  10. Cover gas seals: FFTF-LMFBR seal test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurzeka, W.; Oliva, R.; Welch, T.S.; Shimazaki, T.

    1974-01-01

    The objectives of this program are to: (1) conduct static and dynamic tests to demonstrate or determine the mechanical performance of full-size (cross section) FFTF fuel transfer machine and reactor vessel head seals intended for use in a sodium vapor-inert gas environment, (2) demonstrate that these FFTF seals or new seal configurations provide acceptable fission product and cover gas retention capabilities at Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) operating environmental conditions other than radiation, and (3) develop improved seals and seal technology for the CRBRP to support the national objective to reduce all atmospheric contaminations to low levels

  11. Thermal neutron imaging with rare-earth-ion-doped LiCaAlF6 scintillators and a sealed 252Cf source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, Noriaki; Yanagida, Takayuki; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Yokota, Yuui; Kamada, Kei; Fukuda, Kentaro; Suyama, Toshihisa; Watanabe, Kenichi; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Chani, Valery; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2011-01-01

    Thermal neutron imaging with Ce-doped LiCaAlF 6 crystals has been performed. The prototype of the neutron imager using a Ce-doped LiCaAlF 6 scintillating crystal and a position sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT) which had 64 multi-channel anode was developed. The Ce-doped LiCaAlF 6 single crystal was grown by the Czochralski method. A plate with dimensions of a diameter of 50x2 mm 2 was cut from the grown crystal, polished, and optically coupled to PSPMT by silicone grease. The 252 Cf source ( 6 .

  12. Failure analysis and seal life prediction for contacting mechanical seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, J. J.; He, X. Y.; Wei, L.; Feng, X.

    2008-11-01

    Fault tree analysis method was applied to quantitatively investigate the causes of the leakage failure of mechanical seals. It is pointed out that the change of the surface topography is the main reasons causing the leakage of mechanical seals under the condition of constant preloads. Based on the fractal geometry theory, the relationship between the surface topography and working time were investigated by experiments, and the effects of unit load acting on seal face on leakage path in a mechanical seal were analyzed. The model of predicting seal life of mechanical seals was established on the basis of the relationship between the surface topography and working time and allowable leakage. The seal life of 108 mechanical seal operating at the system of diesel fuel storage and transportation was predicted and the problem of the condition monitoring for the long-period operation of mechanical seal was discussed by this method. The research results indicate that the method of predicting seal life of mechanical seals is feasible, and also is foundation to make scheduled maintenance time and to achieve safe-reliability and low-cost operation for industrial devices.

  13. Refrigeration system with clearance seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, N. J.

    1985-01-01

    In a refrigeration system such as a split Stirling system, fluid seals associated with the reciprocating displacer are virtually dragless clearance seals. Movement of the displacer relative to the pressure variations in the working volume of gas is retarded by a discrete braking element. Because it is not necessary that the brake providing any sealing action, the brake can be designed for greater durability and less dependence on ambient and operating temperatures. Similarly, the clearance seal can be formed of elements having low thermal expansion such that the seal is not temperature dependent. In the primary embodiments the braking element is a split friction brake

  14. Evaluation of the uniformity of wide circular reference source and application of correction factors; Avaliação da uniformidade de fonte extensa de referência circular e aplicação de fatores de correção

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Junior, I.A.; Xavier, M.; Siqueira, P.T.D.; Sordi, G.A.A.; Potiens, M.P.A., E-mail: iremarjr@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    In this work the uniformity of wide circular reference sources is evaluated. This kind of reference source is still widely used in Brazil. In previous works wide rectangular reference sources were analyzed and it was shown the importance of the application of correction factors in calibration procedures of radiation monitors. Now a transposition of the methods used formerly is performed, evaluating the uniformities of circular reference sources and calculating the associated correction factors. (author)

  15. Hermetic Seal Leak Detection Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention is a hermetic seal leak detection apparatus, which can be used to test for hermetic seal leaks in instruments and containers. A vacuum tight chamber is created around the unit being tested to minimize gas space outside of the hermetic seal. A vacuum inducing device is then used to increase the gas chamber volume inside the device, so that a slight vacuum is pulled on the unit being tested. The pressure in the unit being tested will stabilize. If the stabilized pressure reads close to a known good seal calibration, there is not a leak in the seal. If the stabilized pressure reads closer to a known bad seal calibration value, there is a leak in the seal. The speed of the plunger can be varied and by evaluating the resulting pressure change rates and final values, the leak rate/size can be accurately calculated.

  16. Regenerator cross arm seal assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Anthony V.

    1988-01-01

    A seal assembly for disposition between a cross arm on a gas turbine engine block and a regenerator disc, the seal assembly including a platform coextensive with the cross arm, a seal and wear layer sealingly and slidingly engaging the regenerator disc, a porous and compliant support layer between the platform and the seal and wear layer porous enough to permit flow of cooling air therethrough and compliant to accommodate relative thermal growth and distortion, a dike between the seal and wear layer and the platform for preventing cross flow through the support layer between engine exhaust and pressurized air passages, and air diversion passages for directing unregenerated pressurized air through the support layer to cool the seal and wear layer and then back into the flow of regenerated pressurized air.

  17. SU-E-T-284: Revisiting Reference Dosimetry for the Model S700 Axxent 50 KV{sub p} Electronic Brachytherapy Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiatt, JR [Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, RI (United States); Rivard, MJ [Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The model S700 Axxent electronic brachytherapy source by Xoft was characterized in 2006 by Rivard et al. The source design was modified in 2006 to include a plastic centering insert at the source tip to more accurately position the anode. The objectives of the current study were to establish an accurate Monte Carlo source model for simulation purposes, to dosimetrically characterize the new source and obtain its TG-43 brachytherapy dosimetry parameters, and to determine dose differences between the source with and without the centering insert. Methods: Design information from dissected sources and vendor-supplied CAD drawings were used to devise the source model for radiation transport simulations of dose distributions in a water phantom. Collision kerma was estimated as a function of radial distance, r, and polar angle, θ, for determination of reference TG-43 dosimetry parameters. Simulations were run for 10{sup 10} histories, resulting in statistical uncertainties on the transverse plane of 0.03% at r=1 cm and 0.08% at r=10 cm. Results: The dose rate distribution the transverse plane did not change beyond 2% between the 2006 model and the current study. While differences exceeding 15% were observed near the source distal tip, these diminished to within 2% for r>1.5 cm. Differences exceeding a factor of two were observed near θ=150° and in contact with the source, but diminished to within 20% at r=10 cm. Conclusions: Changes in source design influenced the overall dose rate and distribution by more than 2% over a third of the available solid angle external from the source. For clinical applications using balloons or applicators with tissue located within 5 cm from the source, dose differences exceeding 2% were observed only for θ>110°. This study carefully examined the current source geometry and presents a modern reference TG-43 dosimetry dataset for the model S700 source.

  18. Sealed source and device design safety testing. Technical report on the findings of task 4. Investigation of a failed brachtherapy needle applicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukezich, S.J.

    1997-05-01

    As a result of an incident in which a radioactive brachytherapy treatment source was temporarily unable to be retracted, an analysis was performed on the needle applicator used during the treatment. In this report, the results of laboratory evaluations of the physical, mechanical, and metallurgical condition of the subject applicator and two additional applicators are presented. A kink formed in the subject applicator during the incident. The laboratory investigation focused on identifying characteristics which would increase the susceptibility of an applicator to form a kink when subjected to bending loads. The results obtained during this investigation could not conclusively identify the cause of the kink. The subject applicator exhibited no unique features which would have made it particularly susceptible to forming a kink. The three applicators examined represent two methods of manufacturing. A number of characteristics inherent to the method used to manufacture the subject applicator which could lead to an increased susceptibility to the formation of a kink were observed. The use of an insertion device, such as the biopsy needle used during this incident, could also dramatically increase the likelihood of the formation of a kink if the applicator is subjected to bending loads. 33 figs., 4 tabs

  19. Sealing wells with gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, E C

    1967-10-01

    A new system is being used in Mexico to temporarily plug producing wells. The temporary seal is a gel with a catalyst. The use of this temporary plug allows gas-lift wells to be taken off production in order to carry out emergency repairs. The gel solidifies by the action of the catalyst to a high temperature (70 - 150/sup 0/C). By locating the bottom of the tubing at the top of the production interval, the gel material will go into the permeable formation, and immediately set. When the gel has solidified, it seals off the horizon that must not be stimulated, and leaves the others exposed to the acid action. When the treatment is finished, the gel, by action of the catalyst, is liquefied and removed from the formation, being produced with the oil.

  20. Radioactive waste sealing container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tozawa, S.; Kitamura, T.; Sugimoto, S.

    1984-01-01

    A low- to medium-level radioactive waste sealing container is constructed by depositing a foundation coating consisting essentially of zinc, cadmium or a zinc-aluminum alloy over a steel base, then coating an organic synthetic resin paint containing a metal phosphate over the foundation coating, and thereafter coating an acryl resin, epoxy resin, and/or polyurethane paint. The sealing container can consist of a main container body, a lid placed over the main body, and fixing members for clamping and fixing the lid to the main body. Each fixing member may consist of a material obtained by depositing a coating consisting essentially of cadmium or a zinc-aluminum alloy over a steel base

  1. Electromagnetic shaft seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Kenji.

    1994-01-01

    As an electromagnetic shaft seal, there are disposed outwarding electromagnetic induction devices having generating power directing to an electroconductive fluid as an object of sealing, and inwarding electromagnetic induction device added coaxially. There are disposed elongate rectangular looped first coils having a predetermined inner diameter, second coils having the same shape and shifted by a predetermined pitch relative to the first coil and third coil having the same shape and shifted by a predetermined pitch relative to the second coil respectively each at a predetermined inner diameter of clearance to the outwarding electromagnetic induction devices and the inwarding electromagnetic induction device. If the inwarding electromagnetic induction device and the outwarding electromagnetic induction device are operated, they are stopped at a point that the generating power of the former is equal with the sum of the generating power of the latter and a differential pressure. When three-phase AC is charged to the first coil, the second coil and the third coil successively, a force is generated in the advancing direction of the magnetic field in the electroconductive fluid by the similar effect to that of a linear motor, and the seal is maintained at high reliability. Moreover, the limit for the rotational angle of the shaft is not caused. (N.H.)

  2. Methylobacterium genome sequences: a reference blueprint to investigate microbial metabolism of C1 compounds from natural and industrial sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuilleumier, Stéphane; Chistoserdova, Ludmila; Lee, Ming-Chun; Bringel, Françoise; Lajus, Aurélie; Zhou, Yang; Gourion, Benjamin; Barbe, Valérie; Chang, Jean; Cruveiller, Stéphane; Dossat, Carole; Gillett, Will; Gruffaz, Christelle; Haugen, Eric; Hourcade, Edith; Levy, Ruth; Mangenot, Sophie; Muller, Emilie; Nadalig, Thierry; Pagni, Marco; Penny, Christian; Peyraud, Rémi; Robinson, David G; Roche, David; Rouy, Zoé; Saenampechek, Channakhone; Salvignol, Grégory; Vallenet, David; Wu, Zaining; Marx, Christopher J; Vorholt, Julia A; Olson, Maynard V; Kaul, Rajinder; Weissenbach, Jean; Médigue, Claudine; Lidstrom, Mary E

    2009-01-01

    Methylotrophy describes the ability of organisms to grow on reduced organic compounds without carbon-carbon bonds. The genomes of two pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophic bacteria of the Alpha-proteobacterial genus Methylobacterium, the reference species Methylobacterium extorquens strain AM1 and the dichloromethane-degrading strain DM4, were compared. The 6.88 Mb genome of strain AM1 comprises a 5.51 Mb chromosome, a 1.26 Mb megaplasmid and three plasmids, while the 6.12 Mb genome of strain DM4 features a 5.94 Mb chromosome and two plasmids. The chromosomes are highly syntenic and share a large majority of genes, while plasmids are mostly strain-specific, with the exception of a 130 kb region of the strain AM1 megaplasmid which is syntenic to a chromosomal region of strain DM4. Both genomes contain large sets of insertion elements, many of them strain-specific, suggesting an important potential for genomic plasticity. Most of the genomic determinants associated with methylotrophy are nearly identical, with two exceptions that illustrate the metabolic and genomic versatility of Methylobacterium. A 126 kb dichloromethane utilization (dcm) gene cluster is essential for the ability of strain DM4 to use DCM as the sole carbon and energy source for growth and is unique to strain DM4. The methylamine utilization (mau) gene cluster is only found in strain AM1, indicating that strain DM4 employs an alternative system for growth with methylamine. The dcm and mau clusters represent two of the chromosomal genomic islands (AM1: 28; DM4: 17) that were defined. The mau cluster is flanked by mobile elements, but the dcm cluster disrupts a gene annotated as chelatase and for which we propose the name "island integration determinant" (iid). These two genome sequences provide a platform for intra- and interspecies genomic comparisons in the genus Methylobacterium, and for investigations of the adaptive mechanisms which allow bacterial lineages to acquire methylotrophic

  3. Sealing of investigation boreholes, Phase 4 - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusch, Roland [Drawrite AB, Luleaa Technical University, Luleaa (Sweden); Ramqvist, Gunnar [El-Tekno AB, Figeholm (Sweden); Bockgaard, Niclas [Golder Associates, Goeteborg (Sweden); Ekman, Lennart [LE Geokonsult AB, Baelinge (Sweden)

    2011-09-15

    The report describes the outcome of Phase 4 of the project 'Sealing of investigation boreholes', which deals with 1) characterization and planning of borehole sealing, 2) performance and quality assessment, 3) sealing of large diameter holes, and 4) interaction of clay and concrete plugs. A specific goal was to find ways to characterize, plan and seal of boreholes so that their impact on the overall hydraulic performance of the repository rock can predicted and controlled. The work comprised selection of representative 'reference holes' at the Laxemar and Forsmark sites for development of a general programme for planning and simulating implementation of borehole plugging campaigns, considering also cost issues. A second aim was to define and quantify the role of seals in the reference holes for finding out how important sealing really is. A third was to test a practical way to seal large diameter boreholes and a fourth to find out how concrete matures and performs in contact with smectite clay. The study demonstrated, in conclusion, the need for developing techniques for preparing deep boreholes before lasting seals are installed in them, since poor sealing can short-circuit hydraulically important fracture zones intersected by the holes. The practically oriented sealing activities showed that the technique developed for tight sealing of large-diameter boreholes is practical and feasible. The issue of chemical stability was investigated by testing the performance and constitution of a plug consisting of CBI concrete in contact with smectite-rich seals for almost three years. This study showed that none of them underwent substantial degradation in this period of time, but chemical reactions and thereby generated changes in physical behaviour of the plug components had taken place, particularly in the clay. The rate of degradation is, however, not yet known. It was concluded from this study that it is suitable to carry out a corresponding

  4. Sealing of investigation boreholes, Phase 4 - Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, Roland; Ramqvist, Gunnar; Bockgaard, Niclas; Ekman, Lennart

    2011-09-01

    The report describes the outcome of Phase 4 of the project 'Sealing of investigation boreholes', which deals with 1) characterization and planning of borehole sealing, 2) performance and quality assessment, 3) sealing of large diameter holes, and 4) interaction of clay and concrete plugs. A specific goal was to find ways to characterize, plan and seal of boreholes so that their impact on the overall hydraulic performance of the repository rock can predicted and controlled. The work comprised selection of representative 'reference holes' at the Laxemar and Forsmark sites for development of a general programme for planning and simulating implementation of borehole plugging campaigns, considering also cost issues. A second aim was to define and quantify the role of seals in the reference holes for finding out how important sealing really is. A third was to test a practical way to seal large diameter boreholes and a fourth to find out how concrete matures and performs in contact with smectite clay. The study demonstrated, in conclusion, the need for developing techniques for preparing deep boreholes before lasting seals are installed in them, since poor sealing can short-circuit hydraulically important fracture zones intersected by the holes. The practically oriented sealing activities showed that the technique developed for tight sealing of large-diameter boreholes is practical and feasible. The issue of chemical stability was investigated by testing the performance and constitution of a plug consisting of CBI concrete in contact with smectite-rich seals for almost three years. This study showed that none of them underwent substantial degradation in this period of time, but chemical reactions and thereby generated changes in physical behaviour of the plug components had taken place, particularly in the clay. The rate of degradation is, however, not yet known. It was concluded from this study that it is suitable to carry out a corresponding investigation of the plugs

  5. Closure and Sealing Design Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T. Lahnalampi; J. Case

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the ''Closure and Sealing Design Calculation'' is to illustrate closure and sealing methods for sealing shafts, ramps, and identify boreholes that require sealing in order to limit the potential of water infiltration. In addition, this calculation will provide a description of the magma that can reduce the consequences of an igneous event intersecting the repository. This calculation will also include a listing of the project requirements related to closure and sealing. The scope of this calculation is to: summarize applicable project requirements and codes relating to backfilling nonemplacement openings, removal of uncommitted materials from the subsurface, installation of drip shields, and erecting monuments; compile an inventory of boreholes that are found in the area of the subsurface repository; describe the magma bulkhead feature and location; and include figures for the proposed shaft and ramp seals. The objective of this calculation is to: categorize the boreholes for sealing by depth and proximity to the subsurface repository; develop drawing figures which show the location and geometry for the magma bulkhead; include the shaft seal figures and a proposed construction sequence; and include the ramp seal figure and a proposed construction sequence. The intent of this closure and sealing calculation is to support the License Application by providing a description of the closure and sealing methods for the Safety Analysis Report. The closure and sealing calculation will also provide input for Post Closure Activities by describing the location of the magma bulkhead. This calculation is limited to describing the final configuration of the sealing and backfill systems for the underground area. The methods and procedures used to place the backfill and remove uncommitted materials (such as concrete) from the repository and detailed design of the magma bulkhead will be the subject of separate analyses or calculations. Post-closure monitoring will not

  6. TECHNOLOGY ROADMAPPING FOR IAEA SEALS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOFFHEINS,B.; ANNESE,C.; GOODMAN,M.; OCONNOR,W.; GUSHUE,S.; PEPPER,S.

    2003-07-13

    In the fall of 2002, the U.S. Support Program (USSP) initiated an effort to define a strategy or ''roadmap'' for future seals technologies and to develop a generalized process for planning safeguards equipment development, which includes seals and other safeguards equipment. The underlying objectives of the USSP include becoming more proactive than reactive in addressing safeguards equipment needs, helping the IAEA to maintain an inventory of cost-effective, reliable, and effective safeguards equipment, establishing a long-term planning horizon, and securing IAEA ownership in the process of effective requirements definition and timely transitioning of new or improved systems for IAEA use. At an initial workshop, seals, their functions, performance issues, and future embodiments were discussed in the following order: adhesive seals, metal seals, passive and active loop seals, ultrasonic seals, tamper indicating enclosures (including sample containers, equipment enclosures, and conduits). Suggested improvements to these technologies focused largely on a few themes: (1) The seals must be applied quickly, easily, and correctly; (2) Seals and their associated equipment should not unduly add bulk or weight to the inspectors load; (3) Rapid, in-situ verifiability of seals is desirable; and (4) Seal systems for high risk or high value applications should have two-way, remote communications. Based upon these observations and other insights, the participants constructed a skeletal approach for seals technology planning. The process begins with a top-level review of the fundamental safeguards requirements and extraction of required system features, which is followed by analysis of suitable technologies and identification of technology gaps, and finally by development of a planning schedule for system improvements and new technology integration. Development of a comprehensive procedure will require the partnership and participation of the IAEA. The

  7. Remote Monitoring of Instrumentation in Sealed Compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landron, Clinton; Moser, John C.

    1999-01-01

    The Instrumentation and Telemetry Departments at Sandia National Laboratories have been exploring the instrumentation of sealed canisters where the flight application will not tolerate either the presence of a chemical power source or penetration by power supply wires. This paper will describe the application of a low power micro-controller based instrumentation system that uses magnetic coupling for both power and data to support a flight application

  8. Order of the 13. of October 2009 approving the decision no 2009-DC-0150 of the Nuclear Safety Authority on the 16. of July 2009 defining the technical criteria on which relies the prolongation of the use duration of sealed radioactive sources awarded according to the R. 1333-52 article of the Public Health Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This legal publication defines the technical framework for the prolongation of the use of sealed radioactive sources beyond the ten-year period which had been initially defined. It defines the sources which are concerned, those which are not, or need a specific request. It defines the required controls and verifications, the usage conditions for species used in different systems present in electronuclear reactors. It describes the content and the associated administrative procedure of a prolongation request, as well as the consequences of a loss of integrity of a source

  9. Shaft and tunnel sealing considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelsall, P.C.; Shukla, D.K.

    1980-01-01

    Much of the emphasis of previous repository sealing research has been placed on plugging small diameter boreholes. It is increasingly evident that equal emphasis should now be given to shafts and tunnels which constitute more significant pathways between a repository and the biosphere. The paper discusses differences in requirements for sealing shafts and tunnels as compared with boreholes and the implications for seal design. Consideration is given to a design approach for shaft and tunnel seals based on a multiple component design concept, taking into account the requirements for retrievability of the waste. A work plan is developed for the future studies required to advance shaft and tunnel sealing technology to a level comparable with the existing technology for borehole sealing

  10. Methylobacterium genome sequences: a reference blueprint to investigate microbial metabolism of C1 compounds from natural and industrial sources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Vuilleumier

    Full Text Available Methylotrophy describes the ability of organisms to grow on reduced organic compounds without carbon-carbon bonds. The genomes of two pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophic bacteria of the Alpha-proteobacterial genus Methylobacterium, the reference species Methylobacterium extorquens strain AM1 and the dichloromethane-degrading strain DM4, were compared.The 6.88 Mb genome of strain AM1 comprises a 5.51 Mb chromosome, a 1.26 Mb megaplasmid and three plasmids, while the 6.12 Mb genome of strain DM4 features a 5.94 Mb chromosome and two plasmids. The chromosomes are highly syntenic and share a large majority of genes, while plasmids are mostly strain-specific, with the exception of a 130 kb region of the strain AM1 megaplasmid which is syntenic to a chromosomal region of strain DM4. Both genomes contain large sets of insertion elements, many of them strain-specific, suggesting an important potential for genomic plasticity. Most of the genomic determinants associated with methylotrophy are nearly identical, with two exceptions that illustrate the metabolic and genomic versatility of Methylobacterium. A 126 kb dichloromethane utilization (dcm gene cluster is essential for the ability of strain DM4 to use DCM as the sole carbon and energy source for growth and is unique to strain DM4. The methylamine utilization (mau gene cluster is only found in strain AM1, indicating that strain DM4 employs an alternative system for growth with methylamine. The dcm and mau clusters represent two of the chromosomal genomic islands (AM1: 28; DM4: 17 that were defined. The mau cluster is flanked by mobile elements, but the dcm cluster disrupts a gene annotated as chelatase and for which we propose the name "island integration determinant" (iid.These two genome sequences provide a platform for intra- and interspecies genomic comparisons in the genus Methylobacterium, and for investigations of the adaptive mechanisms which allow bacterial lineages to acquire

  11. Sealing of rock fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.; Erlstroem, M.; Boergesson, L.

    1985-12-01

    The major water-bearing fractures in granite usually from fairly regular sets but the extension and degree of connectivity is varying. This means that only a few fractures that are interconnected with the deposition holes and larger water-bearing structures in a HLW repository are expected and if they can be identified and cut off through sealing it would be possible to improve the isolation of waste packages very effectively. Nature's own fracture sealing mechanisms may be simulated and a survey of the involved processes actually suggests a number of possible filling methods and substances. Most of them require high temperature and pressure and correspondingly sophisticated techniques, but some are of potential interest for immediate application with rather moderate effort. Such a technique is to fill the fractures with clayey substances which stay flexible and low-permeable provided that they remain physically and chemically intact. It is demonstrated in the report that effective grouting requires a very low viscosity and shear strength of the substance and this can be achieved by mechanical agitation as demonstrated in this report. Thus, by superimposing static pressure and shear waves induced by percussion hammering at a suitable frequency, clays and fine-grained silts as well as cement can be driven into fractures with an average aperture as small as 0.1 mm. Experiments were made in the laboratory using concrete and steel plates, and a field pilot test was also conducted under realistic conditions on site in Stripa. They all demonstrated the practicality of the 'dynamic injection technique' and that the fluid condition of the grouts yielded complete filling of the injected space to a considerable distance from the injection point. The field test indicated a good sealing ability as well as a surprisingly high resistance to erosion and piping. (author)

  12. Low-Torque Seal Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattime, Scott B.; Borowski, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The EcoTurn Class K production prototypes have passed all AAR qualification tests and received conditional approval. The accelerated life test on the second set of seals is in progress. Due to the performance of the first set, no problems are expected.The seal has demonstrated superior performance over the HDL seal in the test lab with virtually zero torque and excellent contamination exclusion and grease retention.

  13. SEAL FOR HIGH SPEED CENTRIFUGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarstrom, C.W.

    1957-12-17

    A seal is described for a high speed centrifuge wherein the centrifugal force of rotation acts on the gasket to form a tight seal. The cylindrical rotating bowl of the centrifuge contains a closure member resting on a shoulder in the bowl wall having a lower surface containing bands of gasket material, parallel and adjacent to the cylinder wall. As the centrifuge speed increases, centrifugal force acts on the bands of gasket material forcing them in to a sealing contact against the cylinder wall. This arrangememt forms a simple and effective seal for high speed centrifuges, replacing more costly methods such as welding a closure in place.

  14. Advanced High Temperature Structural Seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newquist, Charles W.; Verzemnieks, Juris; Keller, Peter C.; Rorabaugh, Michael; Shorey, Mark

    2002-10-01

    This program addresses the development of high temperature structural seals for control surfaces for a new generation of small reusable launch vehicles. Successful development will contribute significantly to the mission goal of reducing launch cost for small, 200 to 300 pound payloads. Development of high temperature seals is mission enabling. For instance, ineffective control surface seals can result in high temperature (3100 F) flows in the elevon area exceeding structural material limits. Longer sealing life will allow use for many missions before replacement, contributing to the reduction of hardware, operation and launch costs.

  15. Borehole sealing method and apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, J.N.; Jansen, G. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for sealing boreholes in the earth. The borehole is blocked at the sealing level, and a sealing apparatus capable of melting rock and earth is positioned in the borehole just above seal level. The apparatus is heated to rock-melting temperature and powdered rock or other sealing material is transported down the borehole to the apparatus where it is melted, pooling on the mechanical block and allowed to cool and solidify, sealing the hole. Any length of the borehole can be sealed by slowly raising the apparatus in the borehole while continuously supplying powdered rock to the apparatus to be melted and added to the top of the column of molten and cooling rock, forming a continuous borehole seal. The sealing apparatus consists of a heater capable of melting rock, including means for supplying power to the heater, means for transporting powdered rock down the borehole to the heater, means for cooling the apparatus and means for positioning the apparatus in the borehole. 5 claims, 1 figure

  16. Is popular radio a source of exposure to alcohol references in mid to later life? A content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haighton, C; Halligan, J; Scott, S

    2017-04-20

    There is concern around alcohol consumption in mid to later life yet little understanding about what influences this behaviour. No previous research has explored the extent to which adults in mid to later life may be exposed to alcohol references in the media. This project aimed to determine the frequency of alcohol references on radio stations with a high proportion of listeners in mid to later life. Content analysis of alcohol references on four popular UK music-based radio stations with a high proportion of listeners aged 55-64 years over three time points. Alcohol references occur frequently, but vary by time of year and type of radio station. When alcohol is mentioned its consumption is portrayed as the norm, without negative consequences. On three commercial stations, the majority of mentions came from advertising, whereas on BBC Radio 2 nearly all references were talk-based. All adverts for direct promotion of alcohol were by supermarkets. Alcohol was frequently associated with celebrations, socializing or something to consume for its own sake. Adults in the age group 55-64 may be exposed to references to alcohol that could serve to reinforce norms of consumption of alcohol and promote purchases of cheap alcohol. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  17. Joint seal in tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colquhoun, J.; White, G.V.

    1981-01-01

    A seal for a joint or gap between edges of adjacent wall sections (e.g. of concrete) of a liquid-containing vessel, such as a nuclear reactor cooling pond, comprises a sheet metal strip having longitudinally-extending edge parts, secured to the respective vessel-section edges, and a central part which is longitudinally corrugated to provide sufficient flexibility to accommodate slight relative movements between the vessel-section edges (e.g. due to thermal expansions). The edges of the sheet metal of the strip are turned in so that the edge parts of the strip are formed as generally U-section channels. These accommodate longitudinally extending securing bars which are bolted to the vessel wall sections by bolts which pass through the bars, through the free-edged wall of the channel section and through a longitudinally extending resilient seal pad compressed between that wall of the channel section and the vessel wall section to which it is secured. The other wall of the channel section (integral with the corrugated central part of the strip) has access windows through which the bolts are inserted and tightened, the windows being then closed off in liquid-tight manner by welding closure caps over them. (author)

  18. To implement REX today: why? How? References for an event-related return on experience as a source of learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bringaud, Violaine; Fayolle, Patrice; Madec, Veronique; Gauthereau, Vincent; Raud, Geraldine; Hernandez, Guillaume; Vautier, Jean-Francois; Le Roy, Guilhem; Maffre, Jean-Francois; Pichancourt, Isabelle; Rousseau, Jean-Marie

    2014-01-01

    The REX (Return on Experience) is an arrangement which is supposed to allow lessons to be learned from dysfunctions occurring during activities in nuclear installations. This report, written by a work group, proposes a synthesis of some references regarding REX arrangements, and aims at deepening the discussion and at the evolution of these arrangements. It presents the different components of a REX arrangement, and outlines its operational objectives: to understand, to share and to act. It highlights the conditions for an efficient REX arrangement: definition of an event, analysis methods, analysis abilities, management approaches, corrective actions, and so on. It indicates how to use this document and some useful references

  19. Repository Closure and Sealing Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A.T. Watkins

    2000-01-01

    The scope of this analysis will be to develop the conceptual design of the closure seals and their locations in the Subsurface Facilities. The design will be based on the recently established program requirements for transitioning to the Site Recommendation (SR) design as outlined by ''Approach to Implementing the Site Recommendation Baseline'' (Stroupe 2000) and the ''Monitored Geologic Repository Project Description Document'' (CRWMS M andO 1999b). The objective of this analysis will be to assist in providing a description for the Subsurface Facilities System Description Document, Section 2 and finally to document any conclusions reached in order to contribute and provide support to the SR. This analysis is at a conceptual level and is considered adequate to support the SR design. The final closure barriers and seals for the ventilation shafts, and the north and south ramps will require these openings to be permanently sealed to limit excessive air and water inflows and prevent human intrusion. The major tasks identified with closure in this analysis are: (1) Developing the overall subsurface seal layout and identifying design and operational interfaces for the Subsurface Facilities. (2) Summarizing the general site conditions and general rock characteristic with respect to seal location and describing the seal selected. (3) Identify seal construction materials, methodology of construction and strategic locations including design of the seal and plugs. (4) Discussing methods to prevent human intrusion

  20. Face-Sealing Butterfly Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tervo, John N.

    1992-01-01

    Valve plate made to translate as well as rotate. Valve opened and closed by turning shaft and lever. Interactions among lever, spring, valve plate, and face seal cause plate to undergo combination of translation and rotation so valve plate clears seal during parts of opening and closing motions.

  1. Seals, Concrete Anchors, and Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-01

    caulking compounds, nonhardening extruded tapes, nonhardening mastics, strippable spray coatings, pressure sensitive tapes, gaskets, adhesives, fabrics...films, etc. Although all of these materials may provide a seal, care must be taken when selecting a sealing material as to its chemical and...gaskets have performed satisfactorily. Another factor to be considered in the selection of gasketing material is its compatibility with both the

  2. Research on seal control systems for international nuclear safeguard and the vulnerability assessment on the seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hongjian; Liu Tianshu; Cao Fangfang; Xu Chunyan

    2014-01-01

    Safeguard seals, also called Tamper-indicating devices (TIDs), are widely used to detect tampering or unauthorized entry in the international safeguard and security systems, Seal control systems consist of seal implementing plan, seal development and the vulnerability assessment on tbe seals, effective implementing procedures and methods of the seals. The vulnerability assessment contents of safeguard seals, thermo-shrinked film seals being as an example, and seals control systems in the implementation program are researched. The seal control systems discuss task assignment, seals management flow and seals program data flow to promote applying effectively seals. The vulnerability assessment program of seals studies assurance level to some different tampering techniques and measures. The researches must promote utilizing seals effectively for nuclear security, non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, radioactive waste management, and the nuclear material accounting and control. (authors)

  3. Airfoil seal system for gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    None, None

    2013-06-25

    A turbine airfoil seal system of a turbine engine having a seal base with a plurality of seal strips extending therefrom for sealing gaps between rotational airfoils and adjacent stationary components. The seal strips may overlap each other and may be generally aligned with each other. The seal strips may flex during operation to further reduce the gap between the rotational airfoils and adjacent stationary components.

  4. Tamper tape seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, B.W.; Undem, H.A.

    1994-07-01

    Tamper tapes are appealing for many applications due to their ease of use and relative robustness. Applications include seals for temporary area denial, protection of sensitive equipment, chain-of-custody audit trails, and inventory control practices. A next generation of adhesive tamper tapes is being developed that combines the best features of commercially available devices with additional state-of-the-art features in tamper indication, tamper-resistance, and counterfeit-resistance. The additional features are based on U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) research and development (R ampersand D) activities that were originally associated with preparations for the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START). New features include rapid-set, chemical-cure adhesive systems that allow user-friendly application and layered levels of counterfeit-resistance based on unique open-quotes fingerprintclose quotes characteristics that can be accessed as desired

  5. High pressure mechanical seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babel, Henry W. (Inventor); Anderson, Raymond H. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A relatively impervious mechanical seal is formed between the outer surface of a tube and the inside surface of a mechanical fitting of a high pressure fluid or hydraulic system by applying a very thin soft metal layer onto the outer surface of the hard metal tube and/or inner surface of the hard metal fitting. The thickness of such thin metal layer is independent of the size of the tube and/or fittings. Many metals and alloys of those metals exhibit the requisite softness, including silver, gold, tin, platinum, indium, rhodium and cadmium. Suitably, the coating is about 0.0025 millimeters (0.10 mils) in thickness. After compression, the tube and fitting combination exhibits very low leak rates on the order or 10.sup.-8 cubic centimeters per second or less as measured using the Helium leak test.

  6. Labyrinth Seal Flutter Analysis and Test Validation in Support of Robust Rocket Engine Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Aini, Yehia; Park, John; Frady, Greg; Nesman, Tom

    2010-01-01

    High energy-density turbomachines, like the SSME turbopumps, utilize labyrinth seals, also referred to as knife-edge seals, to control leakage flow. The pressure drop for such seals is order of magnitude higher than comparable jet engine seals. This is aggravated by the requirement of tight clearances resulting in possible unfavorable fluid-structure interaction of the seal system (seal flutter). To demonstrate these characteristics, a benchmark case of a High Pressure Oxygen Turbopump (HPOTP) outlet Labyrinth seal was studied in detail. First, an analytical assessment of the seal stability was conducted using a Pratt & Whitney legacy seal flutter code. Sensitivity parameters including pressure drop, rotor-to-stator running clearances and cavity volumes were examined and modeling strategies established. Second, a concurrent experimental investigation was undertaken to validate the stability of the seal at the equivalent operating conditions of the pump. Actual pump hardware was used to construct the test rig, also referred to as the (Flutter Rig). The flutter rig did not include rotational effects or temperature. However, the use of Hydrogen gas at high inlet pressure provided good representation of the critical parameters affecting flutter especially the speed of sound. The flutter code predictions showed consistent trends in good agreement with the experimental data. The rig test program produced a stability threshold empirical parameter that separated operation with and without flutter. This empirical parameter was used to establish the seal build clearances to avoid flutter while providing the required cooling flow metering. The calibrated flutter code along with the empirical flutter parameter was used to redesign the baseline seal resulting in a flutter-free robust configuration. Provisions for incorporation of mechanical damping devices were introduced in the redesigned seal to ensure added robustness

  7. Turbine and Structural Seals Team Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Seals Team Facilities conceive, develop, and test advanced turbine seal concepts to increase efficiency and durability of turbine engines. Current projects include...

  8. 32 CFR 507.2 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... QUALITY CONTROL PROGRAM Introduction § 507.2 References. Related publications are listed in paragraphs (a..., Tabards and Automobile Plates. (f) AFR 900-3, Department of the Air Force Seal, Organizational Emblems...

  9. Window Spacers and Edge Seals in Insulating Glass Units: A State-of-the-Art Review and Future Perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SINTEF Building and Infrastructure; Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU); Bergh, Sofie Van Den; Hart, Robert; Jelle, Bjrn Petter; Gustavsen, Arild

    2013-01-31

    Insulating glass (IG) units typically consist of multiple glass panes that are sealed and held together structurally along their perimeters. This report describes a study of edge seals in IG units. First, we summarize the components, requirements, and desired properties of edge construction in IG units, based on a survey of the available literature. Second, we review commercially available window edge seals and describe their properties, to provide an easily accessible reference for research and commercial purposes. Finally, based on the literature survey and review of current commercial edge seal systems, we identify research opportunities for future edge seal improvements and solutions.

  10. Leak detection of KNI seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranyai, G.; Peter, A.; Windberg, P.

    1990-03-01

    In Unit 3 and 4 of the Paks Nuclear Power Plant, Hungary, KNI type seals are used as lead-throughs with conical nickel sealing rings. Their failure can be critical for the operation of the reactor. An Acoustical Leak Detection System (ALDS) was constructed and tested for the operational testing of the seals. Some individual papers are presented in this collection on the calibration and testing of the ALDS intended to be placed on the top of the reactor vessels. The papers include simulation measurements of Unit 3 of NPP, laboratory experiments, evaluation of measurements, and further development needs with the ALDS. (R.P.) 50 figs.; 19 tabs

  11. Silicone foam for penetration seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, Yoshikazu

    1986-01-01

    In nuclear power plants or general buildings, it is very important to form a fire-resistant seal around cables, cable trays and conduits passing through a wall or a floor. Rockwool, asbestos, glasswool and flame-retarded urethane foam have so far been used for these purposes. However, they were not satisfactory in sealing property, workability and safety. The silicone foam newly developed, ''TOSSEAL'' 300, has cleared these defects. It has now come to be used for fire resistant seal in nuclear power plants. (author)

  12. Stress Mapping in Glass-to-Metal Seals using Indentation Crack Lengths.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strong, Kevin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Buchheit, Thomas E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Diebold, Thomas Wayne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Newton, Clay S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bencoe, Denise N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stavig, Mark E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jamison, Ryan Dale [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Predicting the residual stress which develops during fabrication of a glass-to-metal compression seal requires material models that can accurately predict the effects of processing on the sealing glass. Validation of the predictions requires measurements on representative test geometries to accurately capture the interaction between the seal materials during a processing cycle required to form the seal, which consists of a temperature excursion through the glass transition temperature of the sealing glass. To this end, a concentric seal test geometry, referred to as a short cylinder seal, consisting of a stainless steel shell enveloping a commercial sealing glass disk has been designed, fabricated, and characterized as a model validation test geometry. To obtain data to test/validate finite element (FE) stress model predictions of this geometry, spatially-resolved residual stress was calculated from the measured lengths of the cracks emanating from radially positioned Vickers indents in the glass disk portion of the seal. The indentation crack length method is described, and the spatially-resolved residual stress determined experimentally are compared to FE stress predictions made using a nonlinear viscoelastic material model adapted to inorganic sealing glasses and an updated rate dependent material model for 304L stainless steel. The measurement method is a first to achieve a degree of success for measuring spatially resolved residual stress in a glass-bearing geometry and a favorable comparison between measurements and simulation was observed.

  13. Stress Mapping in Glass-to-Metal Seals using Indentation Crack Lengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchheit, Thomas E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Component & Systems Analysis; Strong, Kevin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Material Mechanics and Tribology; Newton, Clay S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Material Mechanics and Tribology; Diebold, Thomas Wayne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Material Mechanics and Tribology; Bencoe, Denise N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Electronic, Optical and Nano; Stavig, Mark E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Organic Materials Science; Jamison, Ryan Dale [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Transportation System Analysis

    2017-08-01

    Predicting the residual stress which develops during fabrication of a glass-to-metal compression seal requires material models that can accurately predict the effects of processing on the sealing glass. Validation of the predictions requires measurements on representative test geometries to accurately capture the interaction between the seal materials during a processing cycle required to form the seal, which consists of a temperature excursion through the glass transition temperature of the sealing glass. To this end, a concentric seal test geometry, referred to as a short cylinder seal, consisting of a stainless steel shell enveloping a commercial sealing glass disk has been designed, fabricated, and characterized as a model validation test geometry. To obtain data to test/validate finite element (FE) stress model predictions of this geometry, spatially-resolved residual stress was calculated from the measured lengths of the cracks emanating from radially positioned Vickers indents in the glass disk portion of the seal. The indentation crack length method is described, and the spatially-resolved residual stress determined experimentally are compared to FE stress predictions made using a nonlinear viscoelastic material model adapted to inorganic sealing glasses and an updated rate dependent material model for 304L stainless steel. The measurement method is a first to achieve a degree of success for measuring spatially resolved residual stress in a glass-bearing geometry and a favorable comparison between measurements and simulation was observed.

  14. Handling of radioactive sources in Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benitez, Manuel

    2000-01-01

    This document describes the following aspects: sealed and unsealed radioactive sources, radiation detectors, personnel and area monitoring, surface pollution, radioactive wastes control and radioactive sources transferring. (The author)

  15. Development of an externally controllable sealed isotope generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Toru; Aoki, Katsumi; Yamashita, Ryosuke; Hori, Kensuke; Kato, Taiga; Saito, Misaki; Niisawa, Kazuhiro; Nagatsu, Kotaro; Nozaki, Tadashi

    2018-03-01

    An externally controllable sealed isotope generator has been proposed for radiation education activities. Column ( 68 Ge- 68 Ga and 137 Cs- 137m Ba) and solvent extraction ( 68 Ge- 68 Ga)-based isotope generators were applied as radioactive sources. These generators showed high milking efficiencies and low breakthrough after repeated uses, and are expected to promote the use of isotope generators without radioactive contamination or the emission of radioactive waste. This isotope generator provides a new concept for sealed radioisotope sources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Modeling, analysis, and design of stationary reference frame droop controlled parallel three-phase voltage source inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasquez, Juan Carlos; Guerrero, Josep M.; Savaghebi, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Power electronics based MicroGrids consist of a number of voltage source inverters (VSIs) operating in parallel. In this paper, the modeling, control design, and stability analysis of parallel connected three-phase VSIs are derived. The proposed voltage and current inner control loops and the mat......Power electronics based MicroGrids consist of a number of voltage source inverters (VSIs) operating in parallel. In this paper, the modeling, control design, and stability analysis of parallel connected three-phase VSIs are derived. The proposed voltage and current inner control loops...... control restores the frequency and amplitude deviations produced by the primary control. Also, a synchronization algorithm is presented in order to connect the MicroGrid to the grid. Experimental results are provided to validate the performance and robustness of the parallel VSI system control...

  17. The position of the individual gods and goddesses in various types of sources - with special reference to the female divinities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Else Mundal

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available In the written sources the gods are arranged in a patriarchal family structure with Odin on the top. If we try to rank the gods in order of precedence on the basis of the number of instances in the toponymic material, Odin would be found a good way down the list. Generally, we should expect gods connected with the cult of fertility and the agricultural society to be overrepresented in the toponymic material in comparison with a god of war. If we consider our literary sources and ask which of the goddesses' names are most frequently used as basic words in kenningar for women, we see that many of the more "unknown" goddesses are very well represented in this material. In the toponymic material, it was the leading goddess who was considered to be the leading god's wife, but not necessarily. Both Frigg and Freyja belong to the type of fertility goddess.

  18. Moderator design studies for a new neutron reference source based on the D–T fusion reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozhayev, Andrey V.; Piper, Roman K.; Rathbone, Bruce A.; McDonald, Joseph C.

    2016-01-01

    The radioactive isotope Californium-252 ( 252 Cf) is relied upon internationally as a neutron calibration source for ionizing radiation dosimetry because of its high specific activity. The source may be placed within a heavy-water (D 2 O) moderating sphere to produce a softened spectrum representative of neutron fields common to commercial nuclear power plant environments, among others. Due to termination of the U.S. Department of Energy loan/lease program in 2012, the expense of obtaining 252 Cf sources has undergone a significant increase, rendering high output sources largely unattainable. On the other hand, the use of neutron generators in research and industry applications has increased dramatically in recent years. Neutron generators based on deuteriumtritium (D–T) fusion reaction provide high neutron fluence rates and, therefore, could possibly be used as a replacement for 252 Cf. To be viable, the 14 MeV D–T output spectrum must be significantly moderated to approximate common workplace environments. This paper presents the results of an effort to select appropriate moderating materials and design a configuration to reshape the primary neutron field toward a spectrum approaching that from a nuclear power plant workplace. A series of Monte-Carlo (MCNP) simulations of single layer high- and low-Z materials are used to identify initial candidate moderators. Candidates are refined through a similar series of simulations involving combinations of 2–5 different materials. The simulated energy distribution using these candidate moderators are rated in comparison to a target spectrum. Other properties, such as fluence preservation and/or enhancement, prompt gamma production and other characteristics are also considered. - Highlights: • D–T generator neutron calibration field replacement for D 2 O-moderated 252 Cf. • Determination of representative nuclear power plant workplace neutron spectrum. • Simulations to assess moderating materials to soften 14

  19. Seal coat binder performance specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Need to improve seal coat binder specs: replace empirical tests (penetration, ductility) with : performance-related tests applicable to both : unmodified and modified binders; consider temperatures that cover entire in service : range that are tied t...

  20. Alaska Harbor Seal Glacial Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Floating glacial ice serves as a haul-out substrate for a significant number (10-15%) of Alaskan harbor seals, and thus surveying tidewater glacial fjords is an...

  1. Coupled processes in repository sealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case, J.B.; Kelsall, P.C.

    1985-01-01

    The significance of coupled processes in repository sealing is evaluated. In most repository designs, shaft seals will be located in areas of relatively low temperature perturbation, in which case the coupling of temperature with stress and permeability may be less significant than the coupling between stress and permeability that occurs during excavation. Constitutive relationships between stress and permeability are reviewed for crystalline rock and rocksalt. These provide a basis for predicting the development of disturbed zones near excavations. Field case histories of the degree of disturbance are presented for two contrasting rock types - Stripa granite and Southeastern New Mexico rocksalt. The results of field investigations in both rock types confirm that hydraulic conductivity or permeability is stress dependent, and that shaft seal performance may be related to the degree that stresses are perturbed and restored near the seal

  2. Northern Fur Seal Food Habits

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains food habits samples, usually scats, collected opportunistically on northern fur seal rookeries and haulouts in Alaska from 1987 to present....

  3. Technological progress in sealed lead/acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, J.; Nakashima, H.; Kasai, Y.

    A brief review is given of the history of the research and development of sealed lead/acid batteries during the 30 years since, in 1959, the Yuasa Battery Co. introduced a small-sized sealed battery as the power supply for portable television sets. In 1965, Yuasa began the full-scale mass production and sale of a small-sized sealed lead/acid battery under the NOYPER brand. In 1970, the use of a PbCa alloy grid was adopted, and there followed the successful development of a sealed battery with an oxygen-recombination facility. In 1976, Yuasa more or less established the basic technology for the valve-regulated sealed lead/acid battery — the NP battery — which is now the type in general use. Throughout the 1980s, Yuasa, has continued development in order to expand the sphere of application for the production technology of valve-regulated batteries for motorcycles, as well as for stationary duties with large capacities of 100 to 3000 A h. Recently, in order to improve the reliability and boost the output of sealed lead/acid batteries for employment in UPS power sources, Yuasa has been working intently on the design of a valve-regulated lead/acid battery with outstanding characteristics for high-rate discharge and resistance to high temperatures.

  4. Catch history of ringed seals (Phoca hispida in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall R Reeves

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The ringed seal (Phoca hispida has always been a staple in the diet and household economy of Inuit in Canada. The present paper was prepared at the request of the NAMMCO Scientific Committee to support their assessment of ringed seal stocks in the North Atlantic Basin and adjacent arctic and subarctic waters. Specifically, our objective was to evaluate recent and current levels of use of ringed seals by Canadian Inuit. Annual removals probably were highest (possibly greater than 100,000 in the 1960s and 1970s, a period when sealskin prices were particularly strong. Catches declined substantially in the 1980s following a collapse in sealskin prices, presumably related to the European trade ban on skins from newborn harp and hooded seals (Phoca groenlandica and Cystophora cristata, respectively. Recent catch levels throughout Canada (1980s and early 1990s are believed to be in the order of 50,000 to 65,000 ringed seals, with a total average annual kill (including hunting loss in the high tens of thousands. No reliable system is in place to monitor catches of ringed seals, so any estimate must be derived from a heterogeneous array of sources.

  5. Design considerations for mechanical face seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, L. P.; Greiner, H. F.

    1980-01-01

    Two companion reports deal with design considerations for improving performance of mechanical face seals, one of family of devices used in general area of fluid sealing of rotating shafts. One report deals with basic seal configuration and other with lubrication of seal.

  6. Seals Research at AlliedSignal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, M. Rifat

    1996-01-01

    A consortium has been formed to address seal problems in the Aerospace sector of Allied Signal, Inc. The consortium is represented by makers of Propulsion Engines, Auxiliary Power Units, Gas Turbine Starters, etc. The goal is to improve Face Seal reliability, since Face Seals have become reliability drivers in many of our product lines. Several research programs are being implemented simultaneously this year. They include: Face Seal Modeling and Analysis Methodology; Oil Cooling of Seals; Seal Tracking Dynamics; Coking Formation & Prevention; and Seal Reliability Methods.

  7. Sealing Failure Analysis on V-Shaped Sealing Rings of an Inserted Sealing Tool Used for Multistage Fracturing Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Hu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The inserted sealing tool is a critical downhole implement that is used to balance the downhole pressure in multistage fracturing operations and prevent fracturing fluid from overflow and/or backward flow. The sealing ring of an inserted sealing tool plays an important role in downhole sealing since a sealing failure would ail the fracturing operation. In order to improve the sealing performance and reduce the potential fracturing failures, this research aims to investigate the influence of V-shaped sealing ring geometries on sealing performance. Constitutive experiments of rubber materials were carried out and the parameters of the constitutive relationship of rubber materials were obtained. A two-dimensional axisymmetric model considering the sealing ring has been established and influences are investigated with considerations of various system parameters and operating conditions. It is found that the stresses concentrated at the shoulder and inner vertex of the sealing ring have direct impact on the damage of the sealing rings under operational conditions. Moreover, the sealing interference, among several other factors, greatly affects the life of the sealing ring. A new design of the sealing ring is suggested with optimized geometric parameters. Its geometric parameters are the edge height of 5 mm, the vertex angle of 90°–100°, and the interference of 0.1 mm, which show a better performance and prolonged operation life of the sealing ring.

  8. Sealed can of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yasuyuki.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To provide a seal plug cover with a gripping portion fitted to a canning machine and a gripping portion fitted to a gripper of the same configuration as a fuel body for handling the fuel body so as to facilitate the handling work. Structure: A sealed can comprises a vessel and a seal plug cover, said cover being substantially in the form of a bottomed cylinder, which is slipped on the vessel and air-tightly secured by a fastening bolt between it and a flange. The spent fuel body is received into the vessel together with coolant during the step of canning operation. Said seal plug cover has two gripping portions, one for opening and closing the plug cover of the canning machine as an exclusive use member, the other being in the form of a hook-shaped peripheral groove, whereby the gripping portions may be effectively used using the same gripper when the spent fuel body is transported while being received in the sealed can or when the fuel body is removed from the sealed can. (Kawakami, Y.)

  9. Reusable, tamper-indicating seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    A reusable, tamper-indicating seal is comprised of a drum confined within a fixed body and rotatable in one direction therewithin, the top of the drum constituting a tray carrying a large number of small balls of several different colors. The fixed body contains parallel holes for looping a seal wire therethrough. The base of the drums carries cams adapted to coact with cam followers to lock the wire within the seal at one angular position of the drum. A channel in the fixed body, visible from outside the seal, adjacent the tray constitutes a segregated location for a small plurality of the colored balls. A spring in the tray forces colored balls into the segregated location at one angular position of the drum, further rotation securing the balls in position and the wires in the seal. A wedge-shaped plough removes the balls from the segregated location, at a different angular position of the drum, the wire being unlocked at the same postion. A new pattern of colored balls will appear in the segregated location when the seal is relocked

  10. Modeling, analysis, and design of stationary reference frame droop controlled parallel three-phase voltage source inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasquez, Juan Carlos; Guerrero, Josep M.; Savaghebi, Mehdi

    2011-01-01

    and discussed. Experimental results are provided to validate the performance and robustness of the VSIs functionality during Islanded and grid-connected operations, allowing a seamless transition between these modes through control hierarchies by regulating frequency and voltage, main-grid interactivity......Power electronics based microgrids consist of a number of voltage source inverters (VSIs) operating in parallel. In this paper, the modeling, control design, and stability analysis of three-phase VSIs are derived. The proposed voltage and current inner control loops and the mathematical models...

  11. Hydrodynamic perception in true seals (Phocidae) and eared seals (Otariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanke, Wolf; Wieskotten, Sven; Marshall, Christopher; Dehnhardt, Guido

    2013-06-01

    Pinnipeds, that is true seals (Phocidae), eared seals (Otariidae), and walruses (Odobenidae), possess highly developed vibrissal systems for mechanoreception. They can use their vibrissae to detect and discriminate objects by direct touch. At least in Phocidae and Otariidae, the vibrissae can also be used to detect and analyse water movements. Here, we review what is known about this ability, known as hydrodynamic perception, in pinnipeds. Hydrodynamic perception in pinnipeds developed convergently to the hydrodynamic perception with the lateral line system in fish and the sensory hairs in crustaceans. So far two species of pinnipeds, the harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) representing the Phocidae and the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) representing the Otariidae, have been studied for their ability to detect local water movements (dipole stimuli) and to follow hydrodynamic trails, that is the water movements left behind by objects that have passed by at an earlier point in time. Both species are highly sensitive to dipole stimuli and can follow hydrodynamic trails accurately. In the individuals tested, California sea lions were clearly more sensitive to dipole stimuli than harbour seals, and harbour seals showed a superior trail following ability as compared to California sea lions. Harbour seals have also been shown to derive additional information from hydrodynamic trails, such as motion direction, size and shape of the object that caused the trail (California sea lions have not yet been tested). The peculiar undulated shape of the harbour seals' vibrissae appears to play a crucial role in trail following, as it suppresses self-generated noise while the animal is swimming.

  12. Reliability of published data on radionuclide half lives - relevance to the use of reference sources for checking instrument performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldock, P.M.

    1999-01-01

    Long-lived calibrated radioisotopes are frequently used for checking of instrumentation used in the measurement of radiation; examples include: radioisotope assay meters, radiation monitors and sample counting equipment. In 1986 we purchased a radioisotope calibrator (Capintec CRC120) which was supplied with a number of long-lived check sources by the manufacturer, one of which was barium-133. The source came with its own calibration certificate and a quoted half life of 10.74 years ± 0.05 years, traceable to the National Bureau of Standards in the USA, and is consistent with data published by the National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory in 1985 (Tuli 1985). However, we noted at the time that this is significantly different to the value of 7.2 years quoted in the Radiochemical Manual (Wilson 1966) published by the Radiochemical Centre, Amersham (now Nycomed-Amersham), and more recently we have noted that it is significantly different to the value of 10.53 years currently quoted on various Internet sites including the University of Sheffield Chemistry Department (Winter 1999). Further investigation showed similar or worse variations of published half lives with time for several radioisotopes. Letter-to-the-editor

  13. Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, L.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the sources of radiation in the narrow perspective of radioactivity and the even narrow perspective of those sources that concern environmental management and restoration activities at DOE facilities, as well as a few related sources. Sources of irritation, Sources of inflammatory jingoism, and Sources of information. First, the sources of irritation fall into three categories: No reliable scientific ombudsman to speak without bias and prejudice for the public good, Technical jargon with unclear definitions exists within the radioactive nomenclature, and Scientific community keeps a low-profile with regard to public information. The next area of personal concern are the sources of inflammation. This include such things as: Plutonium being described as the most dangerous substance known to man, The amount of plutonium required to make a bomb, Talk of transuranic waste containing plutonium and its health affects, TMI-2 and Chernobyl being described as Siamese twins, Inadequate information on low-level disposal sites and current regulatory requirements under 10 CFR 61, Enhanced engineered waste disposal not being presented to the public accurately. Numerous sources of disinformation regarding low level radiation high-level radiation, Elusive nature of the scientific community, The Federal and State Health Agencies resources to address comparative risk, and Regulatory agencies speaking out without the support of the scientific community

  14. STUDY ON THERMAL DEFORMATIONS OF THE PRIMARY SEALING OF FRONT SEALING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela ISTRATE

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The thermal phenomena appear at the level of the film within the primary sealing interstitium. An important temperature gradient is performed in the stator and in the rotor, which produces thermoelastic deformations. These deformations are of the order of film width and affect essentially the interstitium geometry. According to the temperature increase direction the repartition in the friction ring is different. The farthest areas from the temperature drops or the nearest to the heat sources will have he highest temperature. These dilate more that the rest of the areas and modify the interstitium form. From the calculation relations it comes out that deformations depend also on certain operating conditions, which can be modified through time (pressure, temperature, the sealing efficiency being thus different in time.

  15. Seal Related Development Activities at EG/G

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Harold F.

    1991-01-01

    Seal related development activities including modeling, analysis, and performance testing are described for several current seal related projects. Among the current seal related projects are the following: high pressure gas sealing systems for turbomachinery; brush seals for gas path sealing in gas turbines; and tribological material evaluation for wear surfaces in sealing systems.

  16. Calibration of the TVO spent BWR reference fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarvainen, M.; Baecklin, A.; Haakanson, A.

    1992-02-01

    In 1989 the Support Programmes of Finland (FSP) and Sweden (SSP) initiated a joint task to cross calibrate the burnup of the IAEA spent BWR reference fuel assembly at the TVO AFR storage facility (TVO KPA-STORE) in Finland. The reference assembly, kept separately under the IAEA seal, is used for verification measurements of spent fuel by GBUV method (SG-NDA-38). The cross calibration was performed by establishing a calibration curve, 244 Cm neutron rate versus burnup, using passive neutron assay (PNA) measurements. The declared burnup of the reference assembly was compared with the burnup value deduced from the calibration curve. A calibration line was also established by using the GBUV method with the aid of high resolution gamma ray spectrometry (HRGS). Normalization between the two different facilities was performed using sealed neutron and gamma calibration sources. The results of the passive neutron assay show consistency, better than 1 %, between the declared mean burnup of the reference assembly and the burnup deduced from the calibration curve. The corresponding consistency is within +-2 % for the HRGS measurements

  17. Radioactive material package seal tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, M.M.; Humphreys, D.L.; Edwards, K.R.

    1990-01-01

    General design or test performance requirements for radioactive materials (RAM) packages are specified in Title 10 of the US Code of Federal Regulations Part 71 (US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 1983). The requirements for Type B packages provide a broad range of environments under which the system must contain the RAM without posing a threat to health or property. Seals that provide the containment system interface between the packaging body and the closure must function in both high- and low-temperature environments under dynamic and static conditions. A seal technology program, jointly funded by the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) and the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), was initiated at Sandia National Laboratories. Experiments were performed in this program to characterize the behavior of several static seal materials at low temperatures. Helium leak tests on face seals were used to compare the materials. Materials tested include butyl, neoprene, ethylene propylene, fluorosilicone, silicone, Eypel, Kalrez, Teflon, fluorocarbon, and Teflon/silicone composites. Because most elastomer O-ring applications are for hydraulic systems, manufacturer low-temperature ratings are based on methods that simulate this use. The seal materials tested in this program with a fixture similar to a RAM cask closure, with the exception of silicone S613-60, are not leak tight (1.0 x 10 -7 std cm 3 /s) at manufacturer low-temperature ratings. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  18. The IPEM code of practice for determination of the reference air kerma rate for HDR 192Ir brachytherapy sources based on the NPL air kerma standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bidmead, A M; Sander, T; Nutbrown, R F; Locks, S M; Lee, C D; Aird, E G A; Flynn, A

    2010-01-01

    This paper contains the recommendations of the high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy working party of the UK Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM). The recommendations consist of a Code of Practice (COP) for the UK for measuring the reference air kerma rate (RAKR) of HDR 192 Ir brachytherapy sources. In 2004, the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) commissioned a primary standard for the realization of RAKR of HDR 192 Ir brachytherapy sources. This has meant that it is now possible to calibrate ionization chambers directly traceable to an air kerma standard using an 192 Ir source (Sander and Nutbrown 2006 NPL Report DQL-RD 004 (Teddington: NPL) http://publications.npl.co.uk). In order to use the source specification in terms of either RAKR, .K R (ICRU 1985 ICRU Report No 38 (Washington, DC: ICRU); ICRU 1997 ICRU Report No 58 (Bethesda, MD: ICRU)), or air kerma strength, S K (Nath et al 1995 Med. Phys. 22 209-34), it has been necessary to develop algorithms that can calculate the dose at any point around brachytherapy sources within the patient tissues. The AAPM TG-43 protocol (Nath et al 1995 Med. Phys. 22 209-34) and the 2004 update TG-43U1 (Rivard et al 2004 Med. Phys. 31 633-74) have been developed more fully than any other protocol and are widely used in commercial treatment planning systems. Since the TG-43 formalism uses the quantity air kerma strength, whereas this COP uses RAKR, a unit conversion from RAKR to air kerma strength was included in the appendix to this COP. It is recommended that the measured RAKR determined with a calibrated well chamber traceable to the NPL 192 Ir primary standard is used in the treatment planning system. The measurement uncertainty in the source calibration based on the system described in this COP has been reduced considerably compared to other methods based on interpolation techniques.

  19. Both the Antarctic fur seal Arctocephalus gazella and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    cause the pupping season continues into the second week of January (Kerley 1983b). On the open vegetated areas behind landing beaches, all fur seals were counted and classified. Pup numbers were derived from three sources: first, an estimate of the degree of polygyny. (2.4 pups per adult male) calculated for a Marion.

  20. Environmental Assessment Radioactive Source Recovery Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    In a response to potential risks to public health and safety, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is evaluating the recovery of sealed neutron sources under the Radioactive Source Recovery Program (RSRP). This proposed program would enhance the DOE's and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) joint capabilities in the safe management of commercially held radioactive source materials. Currently there are no federal or commercial options for the recovery, storage, or disposal of sealed neutron sources. This Environmental Assessment (EA) analyzes the potential environmental impacts that would be expected to occur if the DOE were to implement a program for the receipt and recovery at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, New Mexico, of unwanted and excess plutonium-beryllium ( 238 Pu-Be) and americium-beryllium ( 241 Am-Be) sealed neutron sources. About 1 kg (2.2 lb) plutonium and 3 kg (6.6 lb) americium would be recovered over a 15-year project. Personnel at LANL would receive neutron sources from companies, universities, source brokers, and government agencies across the country. These neutron sources would be temporarily stored in floor holes at the CMR Hot Cell Facility. Recovery reduces the neutron emissions from the source material and refers to a process by which: (1) the stainless steel cladding is removed from the neutron source material, (2) the mixture of the radioactive material (Pu-238 or Am-241) and beryllium that constitutes the neutron source material is chemically separated (recovered), and (3) the recovered Pu-238 or Am-241 is converted to an oxide form ( 238 PuO 2 or 241 AmO 2 ). The proposed action would include placing the 238 PuO 2 or 241 AmO 2 in interim storage in a special nuclear material vault at the LANL Plutonium Facility

  1. An image-based skeletal dosimetry model for the ICRP reference adult male-internal electron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hough, Matthew; Johnson, Perry; Bolch, Wesley; Rajon, Didier; Jokisch, Derek; Lee, Choonsik

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a comprehensive electron dosimetry model of the adult male skeletal tissues is presented. The model is constructed using the University of Florida adult male hybrid phantom of Lee et al (2010 Phys. Med. Biol. 55 339-63) and the EGSnrc-based Paired Image Radiation Transport code of Shah et al (2005 J. Nucl. Med. 46 344-53). Target tissues include the active bone marrow, associated with radiogenic leukemia, and total shallow marrow, associated with radiogenic bone cancer. Monoenergetic electron emissions are considered over the energy range 1 keV to 10 MeV for the following sources: bone marrow (active and inactive), trabecular bone (surfaces and volumes), and cortical bone (surfaces and volumes). Specific absorbed fractions are computed according to the MIRD schema, and are given as skeletal-averaged values in the paper with site-specific values reported in both tabular and graphical format in an electronic annex available from http://stacks.iop.org/0031-9155/56/2309/mmedia. The distribution of cortical bone and spongiosa at the macroscopic dimensions of the phantom, as well as the distribution of trabecular bone and marrow tissues at the microscopic dimensions of the phantom, is imposed through detailed analyses of whole-body ex vivo CT images (1 mm resolution) and spongiosa-specific ex vivo microCT images (30 μm resolution), respectively, taken from a 40 year male cadaver. The method utilized in this work includes: (1) explicit accounting for changes in marrow self-dose with variations in marrow cellularity, (2) explicit accounting for electron escape from spongiosa, (3) explicit consideration of spongiosa cross-fire from cortical bone, and (4) explicit consideration of the ICRP's change in the surrogate tissue region defining the location of the osteoprogenitor cells (from a 10 μm endosteal layer covering the trabecular and cortical surfaces to a 50 μm shallow marrow layer covering trabecular and medullary cavity surfaces). Skeletal

  2. An image-based skeletal dosimetry model for the ICRP reference adult male-internal electron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hough, Matthew; Johnson, Perry; Bolch, Wesley [Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Rajon, Didier [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Jokisch, Derek [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Francis Marion University, Florence, SC (United States); Lee, Choonsik, E-mail: wbolch@ufl.edu [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2011-04-21

    In this study, a comprehensive electron dosimetry model of the adult male skeletal tissues is presented. The model is constructed using the University of Florida adult male hybrid phantom of Lee et al (2010 Phys. Med. Biol. 55 339-63) and the EGSnrc-based Paired Image Radiation Transport code of Shah et al (2005 J. Nucl. Med. 46 344-53). Target tissues include the active bone marrow, associated with radiogenic leukemia, and total shallow marrow, associated with radiogenic bone cancer. Monoenergetic electron emissions are considered over the energy range 1 keV to 10 MeV for the following sources: bone marrow (active and inactive), trabecular bone (surfaces and volumes), and cortical bone (surfaces and volumes). Specific absorbed fractions are computed according to the MIRD schema, and are given as skeletal-averaged values in the paper with site-specific values reported in both tabular and graphical format in an electronic annex available from http://stacks.iop.org/0031-9155/56/2309/mmedia. The distribution of cortical bone and spongiosa at the macroscopic dimensions of the phantom, as well as the distribution of trabecular bone and marrow tissues at the microscopic dimensions of the phantom, is imposed through detailed analyses of whole-body ex vivo CT images (1 mm resolution) and spongiosa-specific ex vivo microCT images (30 {mu}m resolution), respectively, taken from a 40 year male cadaver. The method utilized in this work includes: (1) explicit accounting for changes in marrow self-dose with variations in marrow cellularity, (2) explicit accounting for electron escape from spongiosa, (3) explicit consideration of spongiosa cross-fire from cortical bone, and (4) explicit consideration of the ICRP's change in the surrogate tissue region defining the location of the osteoprogenitor cells (from a 10 {mu}m endosteal layer covering the trabecular and cortical surfaces to a 50 {mu}m shallow marrow layer covering trabecular and medullary cavity surfaces). Skeletal

  3. Mechanical seal with textured sidewall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khonsari, Michael M.; Xiao, Nian

    2017-02-14

    The present invention discloses a mating ring, a primary ring, and associated mechanical seal having superior heat transfer and wear characteristics. According to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention, one or more dimples are formed onto the cylindrical outer surface of a mating ring sidewall and/or a primary ring sidewall. A stationary mating ring for a mechanical seal assembly is disclosed. Such a mating ring comprises an annular body having a central axis and a sealing face, wherein a plurality of dimples are formed into the outer circumferential surface of the annular body such that the exposed circumferential surface area of the annular body is increased. The texture added to the sidewall of the mating ring yields superior heat transfer and wear characteristics.

  4. Turbine interstage seal with self-balancing capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Jacob A; Jones, Russell B; Sexton, Thomas D

    2017-09-26

    An interstage seal for a turbine of a gas turbine engine, the interstage seal having a seal carrier with an axial extending seal tooth movable with a stator of the engine, and a rotor with a seal surface that forms the interstage seal with the seal tooth, where a magnetic force produced by two magnets and a gas force produced by a gas pressure acting on the seal carrier forms a balancing force to maintain a close clearance of the seal without the seal tooth contacting the rotor seal surfaces during engine operation. In other embodiments, two pairs of magnets produce first and second magnetic forces that balance the seal in the engine.

  5. EBR-II rotating plug seal maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, K.J.

    1986-01-01

    The EBR-II rotating plug seals require frequent cleaning and maintenance to keep the plugs from sticking during fuel handling. Time consuming cleaning on the cover gas and air sides of the dip ring seal is required to remove oxidation and sodium reaction products that accumulate and stop plug rotation. Despite severely limited access, effective seal cleaning techniques have removed 11 800 lb (5 352 kg) of deposits from the seals since 1964. Temperature control modifications and repairs have also required major maintenance work. Suggested seal design recommendations could significantly reduce maintenance on future similar seals

  6. Self-acting and hydrodynamic shaft seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, L. P.

    1973-01-01

    Self-acting and hydrodynamic seals are described. The analytical procedures are outlined for obtaining a seal force balance and the operating film thickness. Particular attention is given to primary ring response (seal vibration) to rotating seat face runout. This response analysis revealed three different vibration modes. Proposed applications of self-acting seals in gas turbine engines and in rocket vehicle turbopumps are described. Also experimental data on self-acting face seals operating under simulated gas turbine conditions are given; these data show the feasibility of operating the seal at conditions of 345 newtons per square centimeter (500 psi) and 152 meters per second (500 ft/sec) sliding speed.

  7. sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yin Chiang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the simplified models of the ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode multiplexer network with Bernoulli random traffic sources. Based on the model, the performance measures are analyzed by the different output service schemes.

  8. Secondary seal effects in hydrostatic non-contact seals for reactor coolant pump shaft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, T.; Koga, T.; Tanoue, H.; Hirabayashi, H.

    1987-01-01

    The paper presents a seal flow analysis in a hydrostatic non-contact seal for a PWR coolant pump shaft. A description is given of the non-contact seal for the reactor coolant pump. Results are presented for a distortion analysis of the seal ring, along with the seal flow characteristics and the contact pressure profiles of the secondary seals. The results of the work confirm previously reported findings that the seal ring distortion is sensitive to the o-ring location (which was placed between the ceramic seal face and the seal ring retainer). The paper concludes that the seal flow characteristics and the tracking performance depend upon the dynamic properties of the secondary seal. (U.K.)

  9. Risk Analyses of Charging Pump Control Improvements for Alternative RCP Seal Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun-Chan [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. Ltd. Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    There are two events that significantly affect the plant risk during a TLOCCW event. One is an event in which the seal assembly of a reactor coolant pump (RCP) fails due to heating stress from the loss of cooling water; the other is an event in which the operators fail to conduct alternative cooling for the RCP seal during the accident. KHNP reviewed the replacement of the RCP seal with a qualified shutdown seal in order to remove the risk due to RCP seal failure during a TLOCCW. As an optional measure, a design improvement in the alternative cooling method for the RCP seal is being considered. This analysis presents the alternative RCP seal cooling improvement and its safety effect. K2 is a nuclear power plant with a Westinghouse design, and it has a relatively high CDF during TLOCCW events because it has a different CCW system design and difficulty in preparing alternative cooling water sources. This analysis confirmed that an operator action providing cold water to the RWST as RCP seal injection water during a TLOCCW event is very important in K2. The control circuit improvement plan for the auxiliary charging pump was established in order to reduce the failure probability of this operator action. This analysis modeled the improvement as a fault tree and evaluated the resulting CDF change. The consequence demonstrated that the RCP seal injection failure probability was reduced by 89%, and the CDF decreased by 28%.

  10. A sealed turbo-alternator using any working-fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chollet, Maurice.

    1973-01-01

    The invention relates to a sealed turbo-alternator operating with a working fluid other than water. The turbo-alternator and the feed and lubricating pumps thereof are housed in a sealed casing. The latter constitutes, with the heat pump and the heat sink, a sealed enclosure containing the working and lubricating fluid. The alternator, which comprises neither collector nor brushes, is dipped in the working fluid vapor. Electric energy leaves the sealed enclosure through insulating sealed passager. In view of the absence of leakage it is possible to select (e.g. among freons) a working fluid well suited to the temperature differential between the heat source and the heat sink, and, accordingly to use temperature drops which could be too small in the case of steam. The various applications are as follows: recovery of calories at the exhaust of diesels and of gas turbines or in the cooling water of diesels; equipment of isotopic generators; recovery of calories from factory waste thrown into rivers (anti-pollution effect in view of the lowering of water temperature); non-polluting engine for special electrical vehicles [fr

  11. Testing of neutron-irradiated ceramic-to-metal seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.D.; Clinard, F.W. Jr.; Lopez, M.R.; Martinez, H.; Romero, T.J.; Cook, J.H.; Barr, H.N.; Hittman, F.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on ceramic-to-metal seals prepared by sputtering a titanium metallizing layer onto ceramic disks and then brazing to metal tubes. The ceramics used were alumina, MACOR, spinel, AlON, and a mixture of Al 2 O 3 and Si 3 N 4 . Except for the MACOR, which was brazed to a titanium tube, the ceramics were brazed to niobium tubes. The seals were leak tested and then sent to Los Alamos National Laboratory, where they were irradiated using the spallation neutron source at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility. Following irradiation for ∼ 90 days to a fluence of 2.8 x 10 23 n/m 2 , the samples were moved to hot cells and again leak tested. Only the MACOR samples showed any measurable leaks. One set of samples was then pressurized to 6.9 MPa (1000 psi) and subsequently leak tested. No leaks were found. Bursting the seals required hydrostatic pressures of at least 34 MPa (5000 psi). The high seal strength and few leaks indicate that ceramic-to-metal seals can resist radiation-induced degradation

  12. Repository sealing concepts for the Nevada nuclear waste storage Investigations Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.A.; Freshley, M.D.

    1984-08-01

    This report describes concepts for sealing a nuclear waste repository in an unsaturated tuff environment. The repository site under consideration is Yucca Mountain, which is on and adjacent to the Nevada Test Site. The hydrogeology of Yucca Mountain, preliminary repository concepts, functional requirements and performance criteria for sealing, federal and state regulations, and hydrological calculations are considered in developing the sealing concepts. Water flow through the unsaturated zone is expected to be small and generally vertically downward with some potential to occur through discrete fault and fracture zones. These assumptions are used in developing sealing concepts for shafts, ramps, and boreholes. Sealing of discrete, water-producing faults and fracture zones encountered in horizontal emplacement holes and in access and emplacement drifts is also described. 49 references, 21 figures, 6 tables

  13. Aerial Survey Counts of Harbor Seals in Lake Iliamna, Alaska, 1984-2013 (NODC Accession 0123188)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset provides counts of harbor seals from aerial surveys over Lake Iliamna, Alaska, USA. The data have been collated from three previously published sources...

  14. A Dataset of Aerial Survey Counts of Harbor Seals in Iliamna Lake, Alaska: 1984-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset provides counts of harbor seals from aerial surveys over Iliamna Lake, Alaska, USA. The data have been collated from three previously published sources...

  15. Knife-edge seal for vacuum bagging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauschl, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Cam actuated clamps pinch bagging material between long knife edge (mounted to clamps) and high temperature rubber cushion bonded to baseplate. No adhesive, tape, or sealing groove is needed to seal edge of bagging sheet against base plate.

  16. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Crittercam video

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project investigates foraging behavior of Hawaiian monk seals by conducting telemetry studies. During these studies, live seals are instrumented with dive...

  17. Film riding seals for rotary machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidkar, Rahul Anil; Sarawate, Neelesh Nandkumar; Wolfe, Christopher Edward; Ruggiero, Eric John; Raj Mohan, Vivek Raja

    2017-03-07

    A seal assembly for a rotary machine is provided. The seal assembly includes multiple sealing device segments disposed circumferentially intermediate to a stationary housing and a rotor. Each of the segments includes a shoe plate with a forward-shoe section and an aft-shoe section having one or more labyrinth teeth therebetween facing the rotor. The sealing device includes a stator interface element having a groove or slot for allowing disposal of a spline seal for preventing segment leakages. The sealing device segment also includes multiple bellow springs or flexures connected to the shoe plate and to the stator interface element. Further, the sealing device segments include a secondary seal integrated with the stator interface element at one end and positioned about the multiple bellow springs or flexures and the shoe plate at the other end.

  18. Legacy HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Ultrasound Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ultrasound images for measuring the condition of juvenile seals at Laysan Island during 2009-2010, collected when seals were handled as part of the De-Worming Project

  19. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Telemetry Tag Deployments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project investigates foraging behavior of Hawaiian monk seals by conducting telemetry studies. During these studies, live seals are instrumented with dive...

  20. Legacy HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seals Observers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set documents observers that have collected monk seal data as part of the ongoing monk seal population assessment efforts by PSD personnel and cooperating...

  1. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Handling Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains records for all handling and measurement of Hawaiian monk seals since 1981. Live seals are handled and measured during a variety of events...

  2. Recent advances in magnetic liquid sealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raj, K.; Stahl, P.; Bottenberg, W.; True, D.; Martis, G.; Zook, C.

    1979-01-01

    In this paper recent work in design and testing of two special magnetic liquid seals extending the state-of-the-art of ferrofluidic sealing is discussed. These custom seals are a moving belt edge seal and an exclusion seal. The first seal provides a hermetic barrier to solid particulates expected to be present in enclosed nuclear environments. The second seal is used on a magnetic disk drive spindle and reduces the particulate contaminants in the memory disk pack area by up to three orders of magnitude. In addition, bearing life in the spindle is found to be doubled due to reduction of operating temperature. The fundamentals of magnetic fluid sealing are presented in terms of magnetic circuit design and physical properties of ferrofluids

  3. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Argos Location Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project investigates foraging behavior of Hawaiian monk seals by conducting telemetry studies. During these studies, live seals are instrumented with satellite...

  4. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Entanglement data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data set contains records of all entanglements of Hawaiian monk seals in marine debris. The data set comprises records of seals entangled by derelict fishing...

  5. Seal Apparatus and Methods to Manufacture Thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, James A. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    In some implementations, apparatus and methods are provided through which a dynamic cryogenic seal is manufactured. In some implementations, the seal includes a retainer and a spring-seal assembly, the assembly being comprised of a main spring housing and fluorine-containing polymer seals. In some implementations, either a radial seal, or an axial (or "piston seal") is provided. In some implementations, methods of manufacturing the dynamic cryogenic seal are also provided. In some implementations, the methods include assembling the components while either heated or cooled, taking advantage of thermal expansion and contraction, such that there is a strong interference fit between the components at room temperature. In some implementations, this process ensures that the weaker fluorine-containing polymer seal is forced to expand and contract with the stronger retainer and spring and is under constant preload. In some implementations, the fluorine-containing polymer is therefore fluidized and retained, and can not lift off.

  6. Pre-sealing risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensminger, D.A.; Hough, M.E.; Oston, S.G.

    1980-01-01

    This report describes studies of accidents involving high-level radioactive waste before sealing the waste into a repository. The report summarizes work done in this area during Fiscal Year 1978 and supplements previous work. Models of accident probability, severity, and consequences are refined and extended

  7. Investigation of the present management status of calibration source based on the law concerning prevention of radiation hazards due to radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Yasuyuki; Igarashi, Hiroshi; Hirano, Kunihiro; Kawaharada, Yasuhiro; Igarashi, Hitoshi; Murase, Ken-ya; Mochizuki, Teruhito

    2007-01-01

    An amendment concerning the enforcement of the law on the prevention of radiation hazards due to radioisotopes, etc., and the medical service law enforcement regulations were promulgated on June 1, 2005. This amendment concerned international basic safety standards and the sealing of radiation sources. Sealed radiation sources ≤3.7 MBq, which had been excluded from regulation, were newly included as an object of regulation. Investigation of the single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system instituted in hospitals indicated that almost all institutions adhere to the new amendment, and the calibration source, the checking source, etc., corresponding to this amendment were maintained appropriately. Any institutions planning to return sealed radioisotopes should refer to this report. (author)

  8. Dampers for Stationary Labyrinth Seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Aini, Yehia; Mitchell, William; Roberts, Lawrence; Montgomery, Stuart; Davis, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Vibration dampers have been invented that are incorporated as components within the stationary labyrinth seal assembly. These dampers are intended to supplement other vibration-suppressing features of labyrinth seals in order to reduce the incidence of high-cycle-fatigue failures, which have been known to occur in the severe vibratory environments of jet engines and turbopumps in which labyrinth seals are typically used. A vibration damper of this type includes several leaf springs and/or a number of metallic particles (shot) all held in an annular seal cavity by a retaining ring. The leaf springs are made of a spring steel alloy chosen, in conjunction with design parameters, to maintain sufficient preload to ensure effectiveness of damping at desired operating temperatures. The cavity is vented via a small radial gap between the retaining ring and seal housing. The damping mechanism is complex. In the case of leaf springs, the mechanism is mainly friction in the slippage between the seal housing and individual dampers. In the case of a damper that contains shot, the damping mechanism includes contributions from friction between individual particles, friction between particles and cavity walls, and dissipation of kinetic energy of impact. The basic concept of particle/shot vibration dampers has been published previously; what is new here is the use of such dampers to suppress traveling-wave vibrations in labyrinth seals. Damping effectiveness depends on many parameters, including, but not limited to, coefficient of friction, mode shape, and frequency and amplitude of vibrational modes. In tests, preloads of the order of 6 to 15 lb (2.72 to 6.8 kilograms) per spring damper were demonstrated to provide adequate damping levels. Effectiveness of shot damping of vibrations having amplitudes from 20 to 200 times normal terrestrial gravitational acceleration (196 to 1,960 meters per square second) and frequencies up to 12 kHz was demonstrated for shot sizes from 0.032 to

  9. Reactor coolant pump seals: improving their performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pothier, N.E.; Metcalfe, R.

    1986-06-01

    Large CANDU plants are benefitting from transient-resistant four-year reliable reactor coolant pump seal lifetimes, a direct result of AECL's 20-year comprehensive seal improvement program involving R and D staff, manufacturers, and plant designers and operators. An overview of this program is presented, which covers seal modification design, testing, post-service examination, specialized maintenance and quality control. The relevancy of this technology to Light Water Reactor Coolant Pump Seals is also discussed

  10. Development of simplified rotating plug seal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueta, M.; Ichimiya, M.; Kanaoka, T.; Sekiya, H.; Ueda, S.; Ishibashi, S.

    1991-01-01

    We studied a compact and simplified rotating plug seal structure and conducted experiments for key elements of the concept such us the mechanical seal structure and sodium deposit prevention system. Good characteristics were confirmed for the mechanical seal structure, which utilizes an elastomer seal and thin lathe bearing. Applicability of the density barrier concept was also confirmed as the sodium deposit prevention system. This concept can be applied to actual plants. (author)

  11. CBM sealing system and its relationship with CBM enrichment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonglin Ouyang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is of great significance to study the controlling effect of sealing systems on CBM enrichment in coalbed methane (CBM exploration and development. In this paper, the relationships between CBM enrichment and geological elements were analyzed. The geological elements include sealing layers (e.g. regional cap rock, regional floor, and immediate roof and floor, later structural adjustment and strata production status. It is shown that CBM tends to enrich in the areas where regional mudstone cap rocks and floors are distributed stably, structures are uplifted and inversed slightly after the hydrocarbon accumulation period and the strata is gentle in a balanced state. Then, the concept of sealing system was put forward based on the worldwide CBM exploration and development practices over the years. A sealing system refers to a geological unit composed of a lateral stable zone and cap rock which prevents gas from migrating upward and downward. In a sealing system, CBM can get enriched and coal-measure gas can also be accumulated. Finally, three gas reservoir types (i.e., sandwich-type CBM reservoir, associated CBM-sandstone gas reservoir and coal-derived sandstone gas reservoir were identified based on the configuration relationships between elements of the CBM (or coal-measure gas sealing system. It is recommended to change the exploration ideas from simple CBM exploration to 3D CBM and coal-measure gas exploration. In addition, an evaluation index system of CBM (or coal-measure gas geological selection was established. It is pointed out that good application effects may be realized if the stereoscopic CBM and coal-measure gas exploration is applied in the Junggar Basin and the eastern margin of the Ordos Basin.

  12. Reducing the risk from radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKenzie, C.

    2006-01-01

    Each year the IAEA receives reports of serious injuries or deaths due to misuse or accidents involving sealed radioactive sources. Sealed radioactive sources are used widely in medicine, industry, and agriculture - by doctors to treat cancer, by radiographers to check welds in pipelines, or by specialists to irradiate food to prevent it from spoiling, for example. If these sources are lost or improperly discarded, a serious accident may result. In addition, the security of sealed sources has become a growing concern, particularly the potential that such a source could be used as a radioactive dispersal device or 'dirty bomb'. Preventing the loss or theft of sealed radioactive sources reduces both the risk of accidents and the risk that such sources could become an instrument of misuse. In most countries, radioactive materials and activities that produce radiation are regulated. Those working with sealed radioactive sources are required not just to have proper credentials, but also the needed training and support to deal with unexpected circumstances that may arise when a source is used. Despite these measures, accidents involving sealed sources continue to be reported to the IAEA. Among its many activities to improve the safety and security of sealed sources, the IAEA has been investigating the root causes of major accidents since the 1980s and publishing the findings so that others can learn from them. This information needs to be in the hands of those whose actions and decisions can reduce accidents by preventing a lost source from making it's way into scrap metal. The IAEA has also developed an international catalogue of sealed radioactive sources, and provides assistance to countries to safely contain sources no longer in use. To raise awareness, a Sealed Radioactive Sources Toolkit was issued that focuses on the long-term issues in safely and securely managing radioactive sealed sources. The target audiences are government agencies, radioactive sealed source

  13. Miniature radioactive light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caffarella, T.E.; Radda, G.J.; Dooley, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    A miniature radioactive light source for illuminating digital watches is described consisting of a glass tube with improved laser sealing and strength containing tritium gas and a transducer responsive to the gas. (U.K.)

  14. Piston rod seal for a Stirling engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Wilbur

    1984-01-01

    In a piston rod seal for a Stirling engine, a hydrostatic bearing and differential pressure regulating valve are utilized to provide for a low pressure differential across a rubbing seal between the hydrogen and oil so as to reduce wear on the seal.

  15. 19 CFR 113.25 - Seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... signatures of principal and surety, if individuals, and the corporate seal shall be affixed close to the... law of the state in which executed. However, when the charter or governing statute of a corporation requires its acts to be evidenced by its corporate seal, such seal is required. ...

  16. Ergonomics and safety of manual bag sealing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, M.D. de; Bosch, T.; Eikhout, S.M.; Vink, P.

    2005-01-01

    A variety of seals is used to close bags. Each seal has advantages and disadvantages. For shop assistants sealing bags could be a repetitive physically demanding action. Opening and closing the bags again can cause some discomfort or annoyance for consumers. Besides, it is an activity which can

  17. Improved sealing for in-core systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunford, S.

    1989-01-01

    The in-core instrumentation sealing nozzles designed by Framatome have three mechanical seals in series instead of the one traditional seal, and are pressurized by simply tightening up the nozzle covers. They have been installed from the start on all Framatome PWRs, as well as having been backfitted on Belgium and Yugoslavian units and chosen for the Chinese Qinshan plant. (author)

  18. Comparative study on two different seal surface structure for reactor pressure vessel sealing behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jun; Xiong Guangming; Deng Xiaoyun

    2014-01-01

    The seal surface structure is very important to reactor pressure vessel (RPV) sealing behavior. In this paper, two 3-D RPV sealing analysis finite models have been established with different seal surface structures, in order to study the influence of two structures. The separation of RPV upper and lower flanges, bolt loads and etc. are obtained, which are used to evaluate the sealing behavior of the RPV. Meanwhile, the comparative analysis of safety margin of two seal surface structural had been done, which provides the theoretical basis for RPV seal structure design optimization. (authors)

  19. Sealing performance of a magnetic fluid seal for rotary blood pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitamura, Yoshinori; Takahashi, Sayaka; Kano, Kentaro; Okamoto, Eiji; Murabayashi, Shun; Nishimura, Ikuya; Higuchi, Taka-Aki

    2009-09-01

    A magnetic fluid (MF) for a rotary blood pump seal enables mechanical contact-free rotation of the shaft and, hence, has excellent durability. The performance of a MF seal, however, has been reported to decrease in liquids. We have developed a MF seal that has a "shield" mechanism and a new MF with a higher magnetization of 47.9 kA/m. The sealing performance of the MF seal installed in a rotary blood pump was studied. Under the condition of continuous flow, the MF seal remained in perfect condition against a pressure of 298 mm Hg (pump flow rate: 3.96 L/min). The seal was also perfect against a pressure of 170 mm Hg in a continuous flow of 3.9 L/min for 275 days. We have developed a MF seal that works in liquid against clinically used pressures. The MF seal is promising as a shaft seal for rotary blood pumps.

  20. Conceptual design of shaft seals for a nuclear waste disposal vault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The concept of a disposal vault in the Canadian Shield for the effective isolation of nuclear fuel wastes is being assessed as part of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. The vault would be accessed from the surface by a number of shafts, which would likely penetrate the vault environment and intersect significant rock fractures and thereby form preferential pathways for the migration of radionuclides from the disposal area to the biosphere. Golder Associates were retained to conduct a conceptual design study of sealing and backfilling the shafts. The first volume of this report reviews current shaft sinking and lining technologies, and recommends the preferred construction methods for the shafts. Factors that could affect the design of a shaft seal system are reviewed, and a conceptual shaft seal is proposed. The second volume addresses the performance assessment of a shaft seal system. While there are no specific performance criteria against which to compare the anticipated containment characteristics of the shaft seal system proposed, the methodology developed for the performance assessment of the reference design should enable the design to be modified to meet performance criteria as they are developed. The report estimates that it will cost $133.7 million in 1986 Canadian dollars to seal three reference shafts, including $18 million for labour and equipment, $103.4 million for backfill and sealing materials, $9.5 million for project indirect costs, and $2.8 million project management. (author). 53 refs., 36 tabs., 43 figs

  1. Conceptual design of shaft seals for a nuclear waste disposal vault

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-04-01

    The concept of a disposal vault in the Canadian Shield for the effective isolation of nuclear fuel wastes is being assessed as part of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. The vault would be accessed from the surface by a number of shafts, which would likely penetrate the vault environment and intersect significant rock fractures and thereby form preferential pathways for the migration of radionuclides from the disposal area to the biosphere. Golder Associates were retained to conduct a conceptual design study of sealing and backfilling the shafts. The first volume of this report reviews current shaft sinking and lining technologies, and recommends the preferred construction methods for the shafts. Factors that could affect the design of a shaft seal system are reviewed, and a conceptual shaft seal is proposed. The second volume addresses the performance assessment of a shaft seal system. While there are no specific performance criteria against which to compare the anticipated containment characteristics of the shaft seal system proposed, the methodology developed for the performance assessment of the reference design should enable the design to be modified to meet performance criteria as they are developed. The report estimates that it will cost $133.7 million in 1986 Canadian dollars to seal three reference shafts, including $18 million for labour and equipment, $103.4 million for backfill and sealing materials, $9.5 million for project indirect costs, and $2.8 million project management. (author). 53 refs., 36 tabs., 43 figs.

  2. Best Reference Practices are Not Observed in Telephone Ready Reference Services. A review of: Agosto, Denise A. and Holly Anderton. “Whatever Happened to ‘Always Cite the Source?’” Reference & User Services Quarterly 47.1 (2007: 44-54.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie McKenna

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To study source citing practice in telephone reference service in large public libraries in the United States and Canada. Design – Field simulation (unobtrusive testing.Setting – Large public libraries in the United States and Canada.Subjects – Telephone reference staff of the 25 largest public libraries in the United States and Canada.Methods – The 2005 World Book Almanac was used to select the 25 largest (in terms of population served public libraries in Canada and the United States. Each system’s Web site was checked to locate the telephone number for reference service. For some systems it was necessary to call the general telephone number for the main library or the first branch listed on the Web site. Five ready reference test questions were developed from a list of questions that students in a graduate library and information science course had previously asked of public library telephone reference services. The selected questions in the order that they were asked were: 1. Can you tell me when Valentine’s Day is?2. Who is the current governor/premier (of the state/province where the library is located?3. What is the population of Montana?4. In which state is the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC located?5. What is the French word for “chiropractor”?The authors called each of the 25 libraries during five consecutive weeks at different times of the business day. Each week, one question was asked; once an answer was received, no clarification was requested and the call was ended. The study reports the results of 125 reference transactions. For this study, the following definitions were used to assess complete citation for each type of information resource:• For a Web site – the complete URL (title and sponsor of the site not required.• For a digital database – the database title and the title and year of the specific item (author, publisher, page number not required.• For a print resource – the title

  3. Status of borehole plugging and shaft sealing for geologic isolation of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Activities in programs devoted to disposal of radioactive waste in deep geologic formations are reported. Research on borehole plugging and shaft sealing is emphasized. Past and current activities related to penetration sealing were assessed through an exhaustive literature review and contacts with industrial, governmental, and research organizations. Cited references are included along with a bibliography assembled for this study. Evaluation of literature reviewed and presentation of information obtained from personal contacts are summarized. Technical considerations for penetration sealing as related to nuclear waste isolation, but which may differ from conventional technology, are presented and research needs are identified

  4. Procedure to carry out leakage test in beta radiation sealed sources emitters of {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y; Procedimiento para realizar prueba de fuga en fuentes selladas de radiacion beta emisoras de {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez R, J. T., E-mail: trinidad.alvarez@inin.gob.m [ININ, Departamento de Metrologia de Radiaciones Ionizantes, Laboratorio Secundario de Calibracion Dosimetrica, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2010-09-15

    In the alpha-beta room of the Secondary Laboratory of Dosimetric Calibration of the Metrology Department of Ionizing Radiations ophthalmic applicators are calibrated in absorbed dose terms in water D{sub w}; these applicators, basically are emitter sealed sources of pure beta radiation of {sup 90}Sr / {sup 90}Y. Concretely, the laboratory quality system indicates to use the established procedure for the calibration of these sources, which establishes the requirement of to carry out a leakage test, before to calibrate the source. However, in the Laboratory leakage test certificates sent by specialized companies in radiological protection services have been received, in which are used gamma spectrometry equipment s for beta radiation leakage tests, since it is not reliable to detect pure beta radiation with a scintillating detector with NaI crystal, (because it could detect the braking radiation produced in the detector). Therefore the Laboratory has had to verify the results of the tests with a correct technique, with the purpose of determining the presence of sources with their altered integrity and radioactive material leakage. The objective of this work is to describe a technique for beta activity measurement - of the standard ISO 7503, part 1 (1988) - and its application with a detector Gm plane (type pankage) in the realization of leakage tests in emitter sources of pure beta radiation, inside the mark of quality assurance indicated by the report ICRU 76. (Author)

  5. Turbine Seal Research at NASA GRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Margaret P.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Delgado, Irebert R.; Hendricks, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    Low-leakage, long-life turbomachinery seals are important to both Space and Aeronautics Missions. (1) Increased payload capability (2) Decreased specific fuel consumption and emissions (3) Decreased direct operating costs. NASA GRC has a history of significant accomplishments and collaboration with industry and academia in seals research. NASA's unique, state-of-the-art High Temperature, High Speed Turbine Seal Test Facility is an asset to the U.S. Engine / Seal Community. Current focus is on developing experimentally validated compliant, non-contacting, high temperature seal designs, analysis, and design methodologies to enable commercialization.

  6. Planar ultra thin glass seals with optical fiber interface for monitoring tamper attacks on security eminent components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, M.; Flachenecker, G.; Schade, W.; Gorecki, C.; Thoma, A.; Rathje, R.

    2017-11-01

    Optical seals consisting of waveguide Bragg grating sensor structures in ultra thin glass transparencies have been developed to cover security relevant objects for detection of unauthorized access. For generation of optical signature in the seals, femtosecond laser pulses were used. The optical seals were connected with an optical fiber to enable external read out of the seal. Different attack scenarios for getting undetected access to the object, covered by the seal, were proven and evaluated. The results presented here, verify a very high level of security. An unauthorized detaching and subsequent replacement by original or copy of the seals for tampering would be accompanied with a very high technological effort, posing a substantial barrier towards an attacker. Additionally, environmental influences like temperature effects have a strong but reproducible influence on signature, which in context of a temperature reference database increases the level of security significantly.

  7. Factors influencing the design and assessment of elastomer seals for nuclear fuel transport flasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chivers, T.C.; George, A.F.

    1983-01-01

    A method of designing elastomeric seals to survive speculated accident conditions has been discussed. A satisfactory outcome requires considerable information on different aspects of elastomeric performance. In certain areas where the detailed mechanistic understanding is being developed, the design procedure involves pessimistic bounding techniques in conjunction with specific experimentation. The methods advocated permit a satisfactory seal design to be evolved and assessed for performance. 3 references, 5 figures

  8. Shifting baselines and the extinction of the Caribbean monk seal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baisre, Julio A

    2013-10-01

    The recent extinction of the Caribbean monk seal Monachus tropicalis has been considered an example of a human-caused extinction in the marine environment, and this species was considered a driver of the changes that have occurred in the structure of Caribbean coral reef ecosystems since colonial times. I searched archaeological records, historical data, and geographic names (used as a proxy of the presence of seals) and evaluated the use and quality of these data to conclude that since prehistoric times the Caribbean monk seal was always rare and vulnerable to human predation. This finding supports the hypothesis that in AD 1500, the Caribbean monk seal persisted as a small fragmented population in which individuals were confined to small keys, banks, or isolated islands in the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea. This hypothesis is contrary to the assumption that the species was widespread and abundant historically. The theory that the main driver of monk seal extinction was harvesting for its oil for use in the sugar cane industry of Jamaica during the 18th century is based primarily on anecdotal information and is overemphasized in the literature. An analysis of reported human encounters with this species indicates monk seal harvest was an occasional activity, rather than an ongoing enterprise. Nevertheless, given the rarity of this species and its restricted distribution, even small levels of hunting or specimen collecting must have contributed to its extinction, which was confirmed in the mid-20th century. Some sources had been overlooked or only partially reviewed, others misinterpreted, and a considerable amount of anecdotal information had been uncritically used. Critical examination of archaeological and historical records is required to infer accurate estimations of the historical abundance of a species. In reconstructing the past to address the shifting baseline syndrome, it is important to avoid selecting evidence to confirm modern prejudices. © 2013

  9. Double angle seal forming lubricant film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, William D.

    1984-01-01

    A lubricated piston rod seal which inhibits gas leaking from a high pressure chamber on one side of the seal to a low pressure chamber on the other side of the seal. A liquid is supplied to the surface of the piston rod on the low pressure side of the seal. This liquid acts as lubricant for the seal and provides cooling for the rod. The seal, which can be a plastic, elastomer or other material with low elastic modulus, is designed to positively pump lubricant through the piston rod/seal interface in both directions when the piston rod is reciprocating. The capacity of the seal to pump lubricant from the low pressure side to the high pressure side is less than its capacity to pump lubricant from the high pressure side to the low pressure side which ensures that there is zero net flow of lubricant to the high pressure side of the seal. The film of lubricant between the seal and the rod minimizes any sliding contact and prevents the leakage of gas. Under static conditions gas leakage is prevented by direct contact between the seal and the rod.

  10. Air riding seal with purge cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Thomas D; Mills, Jacob A

    2017-08-15

    An air riding seal for a turbine in a gas turbine engine, where an annular piston is axial moveable within an annular piston chamber formed in a stator of the turbine and forms a seal with a surface on the rotor using pressurized air that forms a cushion in a pocket of the annular piston. A purge cavity is formed on the annular piston and is connected to a purge hole that extends through the annular piston to a lower pressure region around the annular piston or through the rotor to an opposite side. The annular piston is sealed also with inner and outer seals that can be a labyrinth seal to form an additional seal than the cushion of air in the pocket to prevent the face of the air riding seal from overheating.

  11. Insecurity of imperfect quantum bit seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chau, H.F.

    2006-01-01

    Quantum bit seal is a way to encode a classical bit quantum mechanically so that everyone can obtain non-zero information on the value of the bit. Moreover, such an attempt should have a high chance of being detected by an authorized verifier. Surely, a reader looks for a way to get the maximum amount of information on the sealed bit and at the same time to minimize her chance of being caught. And a verifier picks a sealing scheme that maximizes his chance of detecting any measurement of the sealed bit. Here, I report a strategy that passes all measurement detection procedures at least half of the time for all quantum bit sealing schemes. This strategy also minimizes a reader's chance of being caught under a certain scheme. In this way, I extend the result of Bechmann-Pasquinucci et al. by proving that quantum seal is insecure in the case of imperfect sealed bit recovery

  12. Development of the seal for nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Feng; Lu Zhao; Zhao Yonggang; Zhang Qixin; Xiao Xuefu

    2000-01-01

    Two kinds of double cap metallic seal and an adhesive seal are developed for the purpose of the accounting for and control of nuclear material. Two kinds of double cap metallic seal are made of stainless steel and copper, respectively and the self-locked technique is used. The number and the random pattern are carved out side and in side of a cap, respectively, for the seal. The random pattern carved inside of a cap for seal is taken a picture using numeral camera and memorized in computer. Special software is developed for verification of the random pattern memorized in computer. The adhesive seal is made of special adhesive paper for purpose of security, and a special pattern guarded against falsification is printed on seal paper using ultraviolet fluorescent light technique

  13. Controlling fugitive emissions from mechanical seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, W.V.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that enactment of the 1990 Federal Clean Air Amendments will sharply focus efforts in the process industries to reduce fugitive emissions. Moreover, state and local governments may be imposing stricter laws and regulations which will affect allowable fugitive emissions from U.S. refineries and process plants. Plants outside the U.S. have similar concerns. Clearly, mechanical seals for process pumps represent an enormous population and is one category of equipment destined for careful evaluation as a means to control fugitive emissions. Fugitive are unintentional emissions from valves, pumps, flanges, compressors, etc., as opposed to point-source emissions from stacks, vents and flares. Fugitive emissions do not occur as a part of normal plant operations, but result from the effects of: Malfunctions, Age, Lack of proper maintenance, Operator error, Improper equipment specification, Use of inferior technology, and externally caused damage

  14. Core disruptive accident margin seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garin, J.; Belsick, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    Disclosed is an apparatus for sealing the annulus defined between a substantially cylindrical rotatable first riser assembly and plug combination disposed in a substantially cylindrical second riser assembly and plug combination of a nuclear reactor system. The apparatus comprises a flexible member disposed between the first and second riser components and attached to a metal member which is attached to an actuating mechanism. When the actuating mechanism is not actuated, the flexible member does not contact the riser components thus allowing the free rotation of the riser components. When desired, the actuating mechanism causes the flexible member to contact the first and second riser components in a manner to block the annulus defined between the riser components, thereby sealing the annulus between the riser components

  15. Transport of multiassembly sealed canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, R.D.; Lehnert, R.A.; Rosa, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    A significant portion of the commercial spent nuclear fuel in dry storage in the US will be stored in multiassembly sealed canisters before the DOE begins accepting fuel from utilities in 1998. This paper reports that it is desirable from economic and ALARA perspectives to transfer these canisters directly from the plant to the MRS. To this end, it is necessary that the multiassembly sealed canisters, which have been licensed for storage under 10CFR72, be qualified for shipment within a suitable shipping cask under the rules of 10CFR71. Preliminary work performed to date indicates that it is feasible to license a current canister design for transportation, and work is proceeding on obtaining NRC approval

  16. Sources management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansoux, H.; Gourmelon; Scanff, P.; Fournet, F.; Murith, Ch.; Saint-Paul, N.; Colson, P.; Jouve, A.; Feron, F.; Haranger, D.; Mathieu, P.; Paycha, F.; Israel, S.; Auboiroux, B.; Chartier, P.

    2005-01-01

    Organized by the section of technical protection of the French society of radiation protection ( S.F.R.P.), these two days had for objective to review the evolution of the rule relative to the sources of ionising radiations 'sealed and unsealed radioactive sources, electric generators'. They addressed all the actors concerned by the implementation of the new regulatory system in the different sectors of activities ( research, medicine and industry): Authorities, manufacturers, and suppliers of sources, holders and users, bodies involved in the approval of sources, carriers. (N.C.)

  17. Hermetically sealed superconducting magnet motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVault, Robert C.; McConnell, Benjamin W.; Phillips, Benjamin A.

    1996-01-01

    A hermetically sealed superconducting magnet motor includes a rotor separated from a stator by either a radial gap, an axial gap, or a combined axial and radial gap. Dual conically shaped stators are used in one embodiment to levitate a disc-shaped rotor made of superconducting material within a conduit for moving cryogenic fluid. As the rotor is caused to rotate when the field stator is energized, the fluid is pumped through the conduit.

  18. An Automatic Assembling System for Sealing Rings Based on Machine Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyu Gao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to grab and place the sealing rings of battery lid quickly and accurately, an automatic assembling system for sealing rings based on machine vision is developed in this paper. The whole system is composed of the light sources, cameras, industrial control units, and a 4-degree-of-freedom industrial robot. Specifically, the sealing rings are recognized and located automatically with the machine vision module. Then industrial robot is controlled for grabbing the sealing rings dynamically under the joint work of multiple control units and visual feedback. Furthermore, the coordinates of the fast-moving battery lid are tracked by the machine vision module. Finally the sealing rings are placed on the sealing ports of battery lid accurately and automatically. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed system can grab the sealing rings and place them on the sealing port of the fast-moving battery lid successfully. More importantly, the proposed system can improve the efficiency of the battery production line obviously.

  19. Seals for sealing a pressure vessel such as a nuclear reactor vessel or the like

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruns, H.J.; Huelsermann, K.H.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of seals for sealing a pressure vessel such as a nuclear reactor vessel, steam boiler vessel, or any other vessel which is desirably sealed against pressure of the type including a housing and a housing closure that present opposed vertical sealing surfaces which define the sides of a channel. The seals of the present invention comprise at least one sealing member disposed in the channel, having at least one stop face, a base portion and two shank portions extending from the base portion to form a groove-like recess. The shank portions are provided with sealing surfaces arranged to mate with the opposed vertical pressure vessel sealing surfaces. A shank-spreading wedge element also disposed in the channel has at least one stop face and is engaged in the groove-like recess with the sealing member and wedge element stop face adjacent to each other

  20. Steam Turbine Flow Path Seals (a Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuimin, V. M.

    2018-03-01

    Various types of shroud, diaphragm, and end seals preventing idle leak of working steam are installed in the flow paths of steam turbine cylinders for improving their efficiency. Widely known labyrinth seals are most extensively used in the Russian turbine construction industry. The category of labyrinth seals also includes seals with honeycomb inserts. The developers of seals with honeycomb inserts state that the use of such seals makes it possible to achieve certain gain due to smaller leaks of working fluid and more reliable operation of the system under the conditions in which the rotor rotating parts may rub against the stator elements. However, a positive effect can only be achieved if the optimal design parameters of the honeycomb structure are fulfilled with due regard to the specific features of its manufacturing technology and provided that this structure is applied in a goal-seeking manner in the seals of steam and gas turbines and compressors without degrading their vibration stability. Calculated and preliminary assessments made by experts testify that the replacement of conventional labyrinth seals by seals with honeycomb inserts alone, due to which the radial gaps in the shroud seal can be decreased from 1.5 to 0.5 mm, allows the turbine cylinder efficiency to be increased at the initial stage by approximately 1% with the corresponding gain in the turbine set power output. The use of rectangular-cellular seals may result, according to estimates made by their developers, in a further improvement of turbine efficiency by 0.5-1.0%. The labor input required to fabricate such seals is six to eight times smaller than that to fabricate labyrinth seals with honeycomb inserts. Recent years have seen the turbine construction companies of the United States and Germany advertising the use of abradable (sealing) coatings (borrowed from the gas turbine construction technology) in the turbine designs instead of labyrinth seals. The most efficient performance of