WorldWideScience

Sample records for reference load unit

  1. Application for position and load reference generation of a simulated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application for position and load reference generation of a simulated ... generation for a motor stand simulating a mechatronic chain, in this case a three degree of ... in position as the robot joint actuators coupled with three controlled in torque, ...

  2. Solving unit commitment and economic load dispatch problems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economic Load Dispatch (ELD) and Unit Commitment (UC) are very important applications to predict the optimized cost of load in a power system. UC determines working states for existing generating units under some operational constraints and then optimizing the operation cost for all running units w.r.t. load demand ...

  3. Effect of reference loads on fracture mechanics analysis of surface cracked pipe based on reference stress method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Do Jun; Son, Beom Goo; Kim, Young Jin; Kim, Yun Jae

    2004-01-01

    To investigate relevance of the definition of the reference stress to estimate J and C * for surface crack problems, this paper compares FE J and C * results for surface cracked pipes with those estimated according to the reference stress approach using various definitions of the reference stress. Pipes with part circumferential inner surface crack and finite internal axial crack are considered, subject to internal pressure and global bending. The crack depth and aspect ratio are systematically varied. The reference stress is defined in four different ways using (I) the local limit load, (II) the global limit load, (III) the global limit load determined from the FE limit analysis, and (IV) the optimised reference load. It is found that the reference stress based on the local limit load gives overall excessively conservative estimates of J and C * . Use of the global limit load clearly reduces the conservatism, compared to that of the local limit load, although it can provide sometimes non-conservative estimates of J and C * . The use of the FE global limit load gives overall non-conservative estimates of J and C * . The reference stress based on the optimised reference load gives overall accurate estimates of J and C * , compared to other definitions of the reference stress. Based on the present finding, general guidance on the choice of the reference stress for surface crack problems is given

  4. Unpacking Referent Units in Fraction Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, Randolph A.; Hawthorne, Casey

    2015-01-01

    Although fraction operations are procedurally straightforward, they are complex, because they require learners to conceptualize different units and view quantities in multiple ways. Prospective secondary school teachers sometimes provide an algebraic explanation for inverting and multiplying when dividing fractions. That authors of this article…

  5. Relevance of plastic limit loads to reference stress approach for surface cracked cylinder problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yun-Jae; Shim, Do-Jun

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the relevance of the definition of the reference stress to estimate J and C* for surface crack problems, this paper compares finite element (FE) J and C* results for surface cracked pipes with those estimated according to the reference stress approach using various definitions of the reference stress. Pipes with part circumferential inner surface cracks and finite internal axial cracks are considered, subject to internal pressure and global bending. The crack depth and aspect ratio are systematically varied. The reference stress is defined in four different ways using (i) a local limit load (ii), a global limit load, (iii) a global limit load determined from the FE limit analysis, and (iv) the optimised reference load. It is found that the reference stress based on a local limit load gives overall excessively conservative estimates of J and C*. Use of a global limit load clearly reduces the conservatism, compared to that of a local limit load, although it can sometimes provide non-conservative estimates of J and C*. The use of the FE global limit load gives overall non-conservative estimates of J and C*. The reference stress based on the optimised reference load gives overall accurate estimates of J and C*, compared to other definitions of the reference stress. Based on the present findings, general guidance on the choice of the reference stress for surface crack problems is given

  6. Load factor trends in light water reactor units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtinen, E.A.

    1990-01-01

    The Technical Research Centre of Finland follows up and analyses nuclear power plant availability performances worldwide. The results of a trend study for the load factors of the LWR units have been updated to the end of 1987. The whole operating history, in the sense of the annual and cumulative load factors achieved by all the Western commercial LWR units until the end of 1987, has been taken into consideration. Some trends in the load factors have been identified by using an exponential regression model developed. The LWR units form quite an inhomogeneous population with respect to their age, technical characteristics, site country as well as cumulative load factors achieved. The cumulative load factors achieved by all the LWR units until the end of 1987 are presented individually in the scattergrams

  7. LOAD ON BURIED PRESSURE CONDUITS WITH REFERENCE TO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    width of conduit or trench; the shearing forces on the plane between the backfill and adjacent earth; for embankment condition, the amounL of relative settlement between the backfill and adjacent earth; the rigidity of the conduit support under embankment loading. Table 3. Selected values of c'' for use in Eq. 8. Sand and.

  8. Design loads, loading combinations and structural acceptance criteria for BWR containments in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, N.W.

    1979-01-01

    The definition of loads, loading combinations, and structural acceptance criteria used for the design and evaluation of BWR containments in the Unites States has become much more comprehensive over the past decade. The Mark I pressure suppression containment vessels were designed for a static design pressure, a design temperature, dead load and static equivalent earthquake. The current Mark III containments are being designed to accommodate many more loads such as safety relief valve discharge loads, and suppression pool hydrodynamic loadings associated with the steam condensation phenomena as well as pressure and temperature transients for a range of pipe break sizes. Consistent with the more comprehensive definition of loads and loading combinations, the ASME Code presently establishes structural acceptance criteria with different margins of safety by the definition of Service Level Assignments A, B, C and D. Acting in a responsible manner, United States utilities are currently evaluating and modifying existing containment vessels to account for the more detailed load definition and structural acceptance criteria. (orig.)

  9. COTRANSA simulation of Chinshan unit one generator load rejection test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, C.H.

    1984-01-01

    A simulation of the plant behavior during a BWR generator load rejection transient using Exxon Nuclear Company's COTRANSA code is presented in this paper. The results are compared to measurements obtained by Taiwan Power Company during a generator load rejection transient, initiated at full power condition, which was one of the Chinshan Unit 1 initial cycle startup tests. Good agreement between the COTRANSA predicted and the measured values, indicates that the COTRANSA code can simulate this transient satisfactorily

  10. Buckling behavior of origami unit cell facets under compressive loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kshad, Mohamed Ali Emhmed; Naguib, Hani E.

    2018-03-01

    Origami structures as cores for sandwich structures are designed to withstand the compressive loads and to dissipate compressive energy. The deformation of the origami panels and the unit cell facets are the primary factors behind the compressive energy dissipation in origami structures. During the loading stage, the origami structures deform through the folding and unfolding process of the unit cell facets, and also through the plastic deformation of the facets. This work presents a numerical study of the buckling behavior of different origami unit cell elements under compressive loading. The studied origami configurations were Miura and Ron-Resch-like origami structures. Finite element package was used to model the origami structures. The study investigated the buckling behavior of the unit cell facets of two types of origami structures Miura origami and Ron-Resch-Like origami structures. The simulation was conducted using ANSYS finite element software, in which the model of the unit cell represented by shell elements, and the eigenvalues buckling solver was used to predict the theoretical buckling of the unit cell elements.

  11. Reconstruction of Orion Engineering Development Unit (EDU) Parachute Inflation Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Eric S.

    2013-01-01

    The process of reconstructing inflation loads of Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) has been updated as the program transitioned to testing Engineering Development Unit (EDU) hardware. The equations used to reduce the test data have been re-derived based on the same physical assumptions made by simulations. Due to instrumentation challenges, individual parachute loads are determined from complementary accelerometer and load cell measurements. Cluster inflations are now simulated by modeling each parachute individually to better represent different inflation times and non-synchronous disreefing. The reconstruction procedure is tailored to either infinite mass or finite mass events based on measurable characteristics from the test data. Inflation parameters are determined from an automated optimization routine to reduce subjectivity. Infinite mass inflation parameters have been re-defined to avoid unrealistic interactions in Monte Carlo simulations. Sample cases demonstrate how best-fit inflation parameters are used to generate simulated drag areas and loads which favorably agree with test data.

  12. Mechanism of remote controlled after-loading radiotherapy unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimoto, Masaki

    1980-01-01

    Employing a small amount of Radium-226 or Cesium-137 source was to be used hitherto for the treatment of carcinoma of the uterine cervix in used After-loading techniques. It involved, however, radiation risk to the staff and patient. The long treatment time are also a pain (strain) on the patient. In recent years, we have developed a remote control after-loading unit, which was named as RALSTRON, which was complete eliminated the disadvantage of conventional radium therapy. This unit also has disadvantage, however, that the design for the remote after-loader for intracavitary applicators present considerable difficulties, because many sources of different active lengths and loading patterns are required. A solution to this problem was carried out by using small point source, placed in Tandem applicator, of high activity and moving them back slowly during the treatment. Recently, this unit was installed many hospitals about 80 units in Japan, and are used. In this paper are given about a mechanism and safety deviced of this unit. (author)

  13. Assessment of the reference stress method for combined tensile bending and thermal loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philipp, A.; Munz, D.

    1984-01-01

    The reference stress method has been investigated for combined tensile, bending and thermal loading by considering a uniformly bent beam subjected to superimposed tensile stress and lateral temperature gradients. The creep deformation of the beam can be calculated numerically applying a Norton-type creep law. It turns out that the ratio of curvature rate to strain at the outer fiber depends on the creep exponent. Therefore, the reference stresses for these two quantities must be expected to be different in general. In most load cases, however, it is possible to determine a reference stress which can be used to describe the complete deformation of the beam. The only exception is the case of high tensile loading if the side exposed to higher tensile stress is cooler. Approximate solutions for the reference stress which rely on elastic and limit analyses, can be used only for estimates because they lead to extremely non-conservative predictions. (author)

  14. Optimal Residential Load Scheduling Under Utility and Rooftop Photovoltaic Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Hafeez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid advancement in technology, electrical energy consumption is increasing rapidly. Especially, in the residential sector, more than 80% of electrical energy is being consumed because of consumer negligence. This brings the challenging task of maintaining the balance between the demand and supply of electric power. In this paper, we focus on the problem of load balancing via load scheduling under utility and rooftop photovoltaic (PV units to reduce electricity cost and peak to average ratio (PAR in demand-side management. For this purpose, we adopted genetic algorithm (GA, binary particle swarm optimization (BPSO, wind-driven optimization (WDO, and our proposed genetic WDO (GWDO algorithm, which is a hybrid of GA and WDO, to schedule the household load. For energy cost estimation, combined real-time pricing (RTP and inclined block rate (IBR were used. The proposed algorithm shifts load from peak consumption hours to off-peak hours based on combined pricing scheme and generation from rooftop PV units. Simulation results validate our proposed GWDO algorithm in terms of electricity cost and PAR reduction while considering all three scenarios which we have considered in this work: (1 load scheduling without renewable energy sources (RESs and energy storage system (ESS, (2 load scheduling with RESs, and (3 load scheduling with RESs and ESS. Furthermore, our proposed scheme reduced electricity cost and PAR by 22.5% and 29.1% in scenario 1, 47.7% and 30% in scenario 2, and 49.2% and 35.4% in scenario 3, respectively, as compared to unscheduled electricity consumption.

  15. Neural Networks in Modelling Maintenance Unit Load Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelko Vojvoda

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a way of applying a neural networkfor describing se1vice station load in a maintenance unit. Dataacquired by measuring the workload of single stations in amaintenance unit were used in the process of training the neuralnetwork in order to create a model of the obse1ved system.The model developed in this way enables us to make more accuratepredictions over critical overload. Modelling was realisedby developing and using m-functions of the Matlab software.

  16. Theoretical Analysis of Moving Reference Planes Associated with Unit Cells of Nonreciprocal Lossy Periodic Transmission-Line Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lamultree

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a theoretical analysis of moving reference planes associated with unit cells of nonreciprocal lossy periodic transmission-line structures (NRLSPTLSs by the equivalent bi-characteristic-impedance transmission line (BCITL model. Applying the BCITL theory, only the equivalent BCITL parameters (characteristic impedances for waves propagating in forward and reverse directions and associated complex propagation constants are of interest. An infinite NRLSPTLS is considered first by shifting a reference position of unit cells along TLs of interest. Then, a semi-infinite terminated NRLSPTLS is investigated in terms of associated load reflection coefficients. It is found that the equivalent BCITL characteristic impedances of the original and shifted unit cells are mathematically related by the bilinear transformation. In addition, the associated load reflection coefficients of both unit cells are mathematically related by the bilinear transformation. However, the equivalent BCITL complex propagation constants remain unchanged. Numerical results are provided to show the validity of the proposed theoretical analysis.

  17. Moving loads on flexible structures presented in the floating frame of reference formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartweg, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.hartweg@web.de; Heckmann, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.heckmann@dlr.de [German Aerospace Center (DLR), Institute of System Dynamics and Control (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    The introduction of moving loads in the Floating Frame of Reference Formulation is presented. We derive the kinematics and governing equations of motion of a general flexible multibody system and their extension to moving loads. The equivalence of convective effects with Coriolis and centripetal forces is shown. These effects are measured numerically and their significance in moving loads traveling at high speed is confirmed. A method is presented to handle discontinuities when moving loads separate from the flexible structure. The method is extended from beam models to general flexible structures obtained by means of the Finite Element Method. An interpolation method for the deformation field of the modal representation of these bodies is introduced.The work is concluded by application of the method to modern mechanical problems in numerical simulations.

  18. The Application of Load-cell Technique in the Study of Armour Unit Responses to Impact Loads

    OpenAIRE

    Burcharth, H. F.; Liu, Zhou

    1994-01-01

    The slender, complex types of armour units, such as Tetrapods and Dolosse arewidely used for rubble mound breakwaters. Many of the recent failures of such structures were caused by unforeseen early breakage of the units, thus revealing an inbalance between the strength (structural integrity) of the units and the hydraulic stability (resistance to displacements) of the armour layers. Breakage is caused by stresses from static, pulsating and impact loads. Impact load generated stresses are diff...

  19. The Application of Load-cell Technique in the Study of Armour Unit Responses to Impact Loads Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Burcharth, H. F.; Liu, Z.

    1995-01-01

    The slender, complex types of armour units, such as Tetrapods and Dolosse arewidely used for rubble mound breakwaters. Many of the recent failures of suchstructures were caused by unforeseen early breakage of the units, thus revealingan in balance between the strength (structural integrity) of the units and thehydraulic stability (resistance to displacements) of the armour layers. Breakageis caused by stresses from static, pulsating and impact loads. Impact load generated stresses are difficu...

  20. Analysis of the Mannshan Unit 2 full load rejection transient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, J.C.; Pei, B.S.; Yu, G.P.; Yuann, R.Y.

    1987-01-01

    Mannshan Unit 2 is a Westinghouse three-loop pressurized water reactor with a rated core power of 2775 MW(thermal) and a rated core flow of 4702 kg/s. Before full power operation, a planned net load rejection was performed during the startup test by opening the main transformer highside breakers. The generator power rapidly reduced to station load. All 16 steam dump valves immediately popped open, and control bank-D rods automatically stepped in as the temperature difference T/sub avg/ - T/sub ref/ reached a programmed 2.8 0 C. Nuclear power decreased smoothly as control rods were inserted into the core. The pressurizer pressure and liquid levels also dropped. Neither safety injection nor reactor trip occurred during this transient. The test was done to verify that the whole system would function properly under a transient to keep the reactor from scramming and that the vessel integrity would also be protected. In this study, which is the preliminary stage of RELAP5/MOD2 transient simulation of the Mannshan PWR plants, system thermal-hydraulic response is tested first and isolated from the neutronic effects. The variation of core power versus time curve was extracted from the power test data to serve as a time varying boundary condition. The comparison of the analytical results of four major parameters (pressurizer pressure, average temperature of the core, steam dump flow rate, and feedwater flow rate) from RELAP5/MOD2 and the power test data is illustrated

  1. Rectal cancer survival in a Brazilian Cancer Reference Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romualdo da Silva Corrêa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malign tumors in men and women all over the world. In spite of prevention advances in the last few years, worldwide incidence remains significant, about one million per year. Objectives: Evaluate rectal cancer survival in patients diagnosed and surgically treated at the Cancer Reference Unit at Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil. Methods: Observational retrospective study composed by 135 patients assisted from 2007 to 2014 at Doctor Luiz Antonio Hospital, Natal, Brazil. Data were collected from the patient records revision and survival rates were calculated and analyzed by non-parametric Kaplan–Meier and Wilcoxon tests, respectively. All patients were submitted to surgical treatment, chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Results: Overall survival was 62% in seven years, while disease-free survival in one, three and five years was 91.7%, 75.5% and 72.1%, respectively. Conclusion: Overall survival and disease-free survival remained enhanced until the end of the study, suggesting that the treatment protocols used in the institution have shown to be effective. Resumo: O câncer colorretal é um dos tumores malignos mais comuns em homens e mulheres em todo o mundo. Apesar das melhorias na prevenção nos últimos anos, a incidência global ainda é expressiva, cerca de um milhão por ano. Objetivos: Avaliar a sobrevida do câncer de reto nos pacientes diagnosticados e tratados cirurgicamente na Unidade de Referência do Câncer no Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil. Métodos: Estudo observacional retrospectivo composto por 135 pacientes, compreendido no período de 2007 a 2014 no Hospital Dr. Luiz Antônio, Natal, Brasil. Os dados foram coletados através da revisão de prontuários e as sobrevidas foram calculadas e comparadas utilizando, respectivamente, os métodos não-paramétricos de Kaplan-Meier e teste de Wilcoxon. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a tratamento cirúrgico, quimioterápico e radioter

  2. Model reference adaptive control of flexible robots in the presence of sudden load changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinvorth, Rodrigo; Kaufman, Howard; Neat, Gregory

    1991-01-01

    Direct command generator tracker based model reference adaptive control (MRAC) algorithms are applied to the dynamics for a flexible-joint arm in the presence of sudden load changes. Because of the need to satisfy a positive real condition, such MRAC procedures are designed so that a feedforward augmented output follows the reference model output, thus, resulting in an ultimately bounded rather than zero output error. Thus, modifications are suggested and tested that: (1) incorporate feedforward into the reference model's output as well as the plant's output, and (2) incorporate a derivative term into only the process feedforward loop. The results of these simulations give a response with zero steady state model following error, and thus encourage further use of MRAC for more complex flexibile robotic systems.

  3. The Application of Load-cell Technique in the Study of Armour Unit Responses to Impact Loads Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Liu, Z.

    1995-01-01

    The slender, complex types of armour units, such as Tetrapods and Dolosse are widely used for rubble mound breakwaters. Many of the recent failures of such structures were caused by unforeseen early breakage of the units, thus revealing an in balance between the strength (structural integrity......) of the units and the hydraulic stability (resistance to displacements) of the armour layers. Breakage is caused by stresses from static, pulsating and impact loads. Impact load generated stresses are difficult to investigate due to non-linear scaling laws. The paper describes a method by which impact loads on....... slender armour units can be studied. by load-cell technique. Moreover, the paper presents DoJos design diagrams for the prediction of both breakage and hydraulic stability...

  4. United States Climate Reference Network (USCRN) Raw Observations from Datalogger

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Datalogger files are raw USCRN data. However, instead of being collected via satellite, the raw data are collected from station dataloggers (also referred to as...

  5. Perspectives on Inclusive Education with Reference to United Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    This essay explores inclusive education and explains the role of United Nations for imparting it to different nations. Undoubtedly, the UN and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) strive for all children to have equitable access to education as a basic human right. The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) combined with the Convention…

  6. Reference-free fatigue crack detection using nonlinear ultrasonic modulation under various temperature and loading conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyung Jin; Sohn, Hoon; DeSimio, Martin P.; Brown, Kevin

    2014-04-01

    This study presents a reference-free fatigue crack detection technique using nonlinear ultrasonic modulation. When low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) inputs generated by two surface-mounted lead zirconate titanate (PZT) transducers are applied to a structure, the presence of a fatigue crack can provide a mechanism for nonlinear ultrasonic modulation and create spectral sidebands around the frequency of the HF signal. The crack-induced spectral sidebands are isolated using a combination of linear response subtraction (LRS), synchronous demodulation (SD) and continuous wavelet transform (CWT) filtering. Then, a sequential outlier analysis is performed on the extracted sidebands to identify the crack presence without referring any baseline data obtained from the intact condition of the structure. Finally, the robustness of the proposed technique is demonstrated using actual test data obtained from simple aluminum plate and complex aircraft fitting-lug specimens under varying temperature and loading variations.

  7. High accuracy attitude reference stabilization and pointing using the Teledyne SDG-5 gyro and the DRIRU II inertial reference unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, K. N.; van Alstine, R. L.

    This paper presents the current performance levels of the SDG-5 gyro, a high performance two-axis dynamically tuned gyro, and the DRIRU II redundant inertial reference unit relating to stabilization and pointing applications. Also presented is a discussion of a product improvement program aimed at further noise reductions to meet the demanding requirements of future space defense applications.

  8. Miscellaneous and Electronic Loads Energy Efficiency Opportunities for Commercial Buildings: A Collaborative Study by the United States and India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghatikar, Girish [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cheung, Iris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lanzisera, Steven [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wardell, Bob [Infosys Technologies Limited; Deshpande, Manoj [Infosys Technologies Limited; Ugarkar, Jayraj [Infosys Technologies Limited

    2013-04-01

    This report documents the technical evaluation of a collaborative research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) project that aims to address energy efficiency of Miscellaneous and Electronic Loads (MELs) (referred to as plug loads interchangeably in this report) using load monitoring and control devices. The goal s of this project are to identify and provide energy efficiency and building technologies to exemplary information technology (IT) office buildings, and to assist in transforming markets via technical assistance and engagement of Indian and U.S. stakeholders. This report describes the results of technology evaluation and United States – India collaboration between the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Infosys Technologies Limited (India), and Smartenit, Inc. (U.S.) to address plug - load efficiency. The conclusions and recommendations focus on the larger benefits of such technologies and their impacts on both U.S. and Indian stakeholders.

  9. Recruitment of single human low-threshold motor units with increasing loads at different muscle lengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, P A; Cresswell, A G

    2004-06-01

    We investigated the recruitment behaviour of low threshold motor units in flexor digitorum superficialis by altering two biomechanical constraints: the load against which the muscle worked and the initial muscle length. The load was increased using isotonic (low load), loaded dynamic (intermediate load) and isometric (high load) contractions in two studies. The initial muscle position reflected resting muscle length in series A, and a longer length with digit III fully extended in series B. Intramuscular EMG was recorded from 48 single motor units in 10 experiments on five healthy subjects, 21 units in series A and 27 in series B, while subjects performed ramp up, hold and ramp down contractions. Increasing the load on the muscle decreased the force, displacement and firing rate of single motor units at recruitment at shorter muscle lengths (Precruitment pattern was observed between loaded dynamic and isotonic contractions, but not between isometric and loaded dynamic contractions. Thus, the recruitment properties of single motor units in human flexor digitorum superficialis are sensitive to changes in both imposed external loads and the initial length of the muscle.

  10. 1-GWh diurnal load-leveling superconducting magnetic energy storage system reference design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassenzahl, W.V.; Rogers, J.D.

    1979-01-01

    A point reference design has been completed for a 1-GWh Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage system. The system is for electric utility dirunal load leveling; however, such a device will function to meet much faster power demands including dynamic stabilization. The study has explored several concepts of design not previously considered in the same detail as treated here. Because the study is for a point design, optimization in all respects is not complete. The study examines aspects of the coil design; superconductor supported off of the dewar shell; the dewar shell, its configuration and stresses; the underground excavation and related construction for holding the superconducting coil and its dewar; the helium refrigeration system; the electrical converter system; the vacuum system; the guard coil; and the costs. The report is a condensation of the more comprehensive study which is in the process of being printed

  11. Performance Evaluation of UPQC under Nonlinear Unbalanced Load Conditions Using Synchronous Reference Frame Based Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kota, Venkata Reddy; Vinnakoti, Sudheer

    2017-12-01

    Today, maintaining Power Quality (PQ) is very important in the growing competent world. With new equipments and devices, new challenges are also being put before power system operators. Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC) is proposed to mitigate many power quality problems and to improve the performance of the power system. In this paper, an UPQC with Fuzzy Logic controller for capacitor voltage balancing is proposed in Synchronous Reference Frame (SRF) based control with Modified Phased Locked Loop (MPLL). The proposed controller with SRF-MPLL based control is tested under non-linear and unbalanced load conditions. The system is developed in Matlab/Simulink and its performance is analyzed under various conditions like non-linear, unbalanced load and polluted supply voltage including voltage sag/swells. Active and reactive power flow in the system, power factor and %THD of voltages and currents before and after compensation are also analyzed in this work. Results prove the applicability of the proposed scheme for power quality improvement. It is observed that the fuzzy controller gives better performance than PI controller with faster capacitor voltage balancing and also improves the dynamic performance of the system.

  12. Load beam unit replaceable inserts for dry coal extrusion pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Timothy; Brady, John D.

    2012-11-13

    A track assembly for a particulate material extrusion pump according to an exemplary aspect of the present disclosure includes a link assembly with a roller bearing. An insert mounted to a load beam located such that the roller bearing contacts the insert.

  13. Contemporary Development of Academic Reference Librarianship in the United States: A 44-Year Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hanrong; Tang, Yingqi; Knight, Carley

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzes job advertisements to identify the contemporary development of academic reference librarianship in the United States. Results show that more job openings, higher educational backgrounds, more duties & responsibilities, and variety of titles were assigned to academic reference librarian positions from 1966 through 2009.…

  14. Increasing the flexibility of base-load generating units in operation on fossil fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girshfel' d, V Ya; Khanaev, V A; Volkova, E D; Gorelov, V A; Gershenkroi, M L

    1979-01-01

    Increasing the flexibility of base-load generating units operating on fossil fuel by modifying them is a necessary measure. The highest economic effect is attained with modification of gas- and oil-fired generating units in the Western United Power Systems of the European part of the SPSS. On the basis of available experience, 150- and 200-MW units can be extensively used to regulate the power in the European part of the SPSS through putting them into reserve for the hours of the load dip at night. The change under favorable conditions of 150- and 200-MW units operating on coal to a district-heating operating mode does not reduce the possibilities for flexible operation of these units because it is possible greatly to unload the turbines while the minimum load level of the pulverized fuel fired boiler is retained through transferring a part of the heat load to the desuperheater. It is necessary to accumulate and analyze experience with operation of generating units (especially of supercritical units) with regular shutdowns and starts of groups of units and to solve the problems of modification of generating units, with differentiation with respect to types of fuel and to the united power supply system.

  15. A Design Method for Impact-Loaded Slender Armour Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.

    It is well known that the bigger a structural member like a beam, the relatively weaker it is. In the end it cannot even support its own weight. The same problem holds for slender armour units such as Dolosse.......It is well known that the bigger a structural member like a beam, the relatively weaker it is. In the end it cannot even support its own weight. The same problem holds for slender armour units such as Dolosse....

  16. 1-GWh diurnal load-leveling Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage system reference design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.D.; Hassenzahl, W.V.; Schermer, R.I.

    1979-09-01

    A point reference design has been completed for a 1-GWh Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage system. The system is for electric utility diurnal load-leveling but can also function to meet much faster power demands including dynamic stabilization. This study explores several concepts of design not previously considered in the same detail as treated here. Because the study is for a point design, optimization in all respects is not complete. This report examines aspects of the coil, the superconductor supported off of the dewar shell, the dewar shell, and its configuration and stresses, the underground excavation and construction for holding the superconducting coil and its dewar, the helium refrigeration system, the electrical converter system, the vacuum system, the guard coil, and the costs. This report is divided into two major portions. The first is a general treatment of the work and the second is seven detailed technical appendices issued as separate reports. The information presented on the aluminum stabilizer for the conductor, on the excavation, and on the converter is based upon industrial studies contracted for this work

  17. Comprehensive trends assessment of nitrogen sources and loads to estuaries of the coterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sources of nitrogen and phosphorus to estuaries and estuarine watersheds of the coterminous United States have been compiled from a variety of publically available data sources (1985 – 2015). Atmospheric loading was obtained from two sources. Modelled and interpolated meas...

  18. Adaptive Voltage Stability Protection Based on Load Identification Using Phasor Measurement Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Leo; Bak, Claus Leth; Chen, Zhe

    2011-01-01

    collapse. In this paper, the online load identification using measurement-based approach based on Phasor Measurement Units (PMU) was proposed to evaluate the proximity to voltage instability in order to prevent voltage collapse. In the scenarios of disturbances, the proximity to voltage collapse...... scheme based on PMUs is promising, as it prevented the voltage collapse and minimized the load shedding area....

  19. Impacts of rising air temperatures on electric transmission ampacity and peak electricity load in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartos, Matthew; Chester, Mikhail; Johnson, Nathan; Gorman, Brandon; Eisenberg, Daniel; Linkov, Igor; Bates, Matthew

    2016-11-01

    Climate change may constrain future electricity supply adequacy by reducing electric transmission capacity and increasing electricity demand. The carrying capacity of electric power cables decreases as ambient air temperatures rise; similarly, during the summer peak period, electricity loads typically increase with hotter air temperatures due to increased air conditioning usage. As atmospheric carbon concentrations increase, higher ambient air temperatures may strain power infrastructure by simultaneously reducing transmission capacity and increasing peak electricity load. We estimate the impacts of rising ambient air temperatures on electric transmission ampacity and peak per-capita electricity load for 121 planning areas in the United States using downscaled global climate model projections. Together, these planning areas account for roughly 80% of current peak summertime load. We estimate climate-attributable capacity reductions to transmission lines by constructing thermal models of representative conductors, then forcing these models with future temperature projections to determine the percent change in rated ampacity. Next, we assess the impact of climate change on electricity load by using historical relationships between ambient temperature and utility-scale summertime peak load to estimate the extent to which climate change will incur additional peak load increases. We find that by mid-century (2040-2060), increases in ambient air temperature may reduce average summertime transmission capacity by 1.9%-5.8% relative to the 1990-2010 reference period. At the same time, peak per-capita summertime loads may rise by 4.2%-15% on average due to increases in ambient air temperature. In the absence of energy efficiency gains, demand-side management programs and transmission infrastructure upgrades, these load increases have the potential to upset current assumptions about future electricity supply adequacy.

  20. Optimization of Boiler Control to Improve the Load-following Capability of Power-plant Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, J. H.; Mølbak, T.; Andersen, Palle

    The capability to perform fast load changes has been an important issue in the power market, and will become increasingly more so due to the incresing commercialisation of the European power market. An optimizing control system for improving the load-following capability of power-plant units has...... tests on a 265 MW coal-fired power-plant unit reveals that the maximum allowable load gradient that can be imposed on the plant, can be increased from 4 MW/min. to 8 MW/min....

  1. Optimization of Boiler Control to Improve the Load-following Capability of Power-plant Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, J. H.; Mølbak, T.; Andersen, Palle

    1998-01-01

    The capability to perform fast load changes has been an important issue in the power market, and will become increasingly more so due to the incresing commercialisation of the European power market. An optimizing control system for improving the load-following capability of power-plant units has...... tests on a 265 MW coal-fired power-plant unit reveals that the maximum allowable load gradient that can be imposed on the plant, can be increased from 4 MW/min. to 8 MW/min....

  2. Evaluation of a TRU fundamental criterion and reference TRU waste units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klett, R.

    1993-01-01

    The comparison of two options for regulating transuranic (TRU) waste disposal is explained in this paper. The two options are (1) fundamental and derived standards developed specifically for the TRU waste and (2) a family of procedures that use a reference to the TRU waste unit with procedures that use a reference to the TRU waste unit with commercial high-level waste (HLW) criteria. Background information pertaining to both options is covered. A section on criteria specifically for TRUE waste suggests a methodology for developing or adapting fundamental and derived criteria that are consistent with all other aspects of the standards. The section on references TRU waste units covers all the parameter variations that have been suggested for this option. The technical bases of each approach is reviewed, implementation is discussed and their relative attributes and deficiencies are evaluated

  3. Four years Re-Use of low burned fuel assemblies from units 1 and 2 in core loadings of units 3 and 4 WWER-440 at Kozloduy NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoyanova, I.; Antov, A.; Spasova, V.

    2006-01-01

    At the end of 2002 units 1 and 2 of Kozloduy NPP were shutdown before their design life time which left a large number of assemblies yet with a significant energy resources. A decision to load these assemblies into the cores of Units 3 and 4 during the next 4 cycles has been taken. In 2003, 43 assemblies from Unit 1 cycle 23 rd and 55 assemblies from Unit 2 cycle 24 th are loaded in the cores of units 3 and 4 respectively. In 2004, new 49 assemblies from Unit 1 cycle 23rd and new 55 assemblies from Unit 2 cycle 24th are loaded in the cores of units 3 and 4 respectively. In 2005, the next new 25 assemblies from Unit 1 cycle 23 rd and 66 assemblies from Unit 2 cycle 24th are loaded in the cores of units 3 and 4 respectively. In 2006, the next new 54 assemblies from Unit 1 cycle 23 rd and 52 assemblies from Unit 2 cycle 24 th + 2 assemblies from Unit 3 cycle 19th are loaded in the cores of Units 3 and 4 respectively. The SPPSHB computer code system is used for development and safety assessment of the fuel loading patterns of Units 3 and 4 at Kozloduy NPP with low burned assemblies from units 1 and 2 (Authors)

  4. Reliability assessment of Indian Point Unit 3 containment structure under combined loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, H.; Shinozuka, M.; Kawakami, J.; Reich, M.

    1984-01-01

    In the current design criteria, the load combinations specified for design of concrete containment structures are in the deterministic format. However, by applying the probability-based reliability analysis method developed by BNL to the concrete containment structures designed according to the criteria, it is possible to evaluate the reliability levels implied in the current design criteria. For this purpose, the reliability analysis is applied to the Indian Point Unit No. 3 containment. The details of the containment structure such as the geometries and the rebar arrangements, etc., are taken from the working drawings and the Final Safety Analysis Report. Three kinds of loads are considered in the reliability analysis. They are, dead load, accidental pressure due to a large LOCA, and earthquake ground acceleration. This paper presents the reliability analysis results of the Indian Point Unit 3 containment subjected to all combinations of loads

  5. Soil Conservation Unit for the Advanced Crop Production and Marketing Course. Student Reference. AGDEX 570.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Bob R.; And Others

    This student reference booklet is designed to accompany lessons outlined in the companion instructor's guide on soil conservation. The soil conservation unit builds on competencies gained in Agricultural Science I and II. Informative material is provided for these eight lessons: benefits of conservation, land utilization, how soils are eroded,…

  6. Optimization of Boiler Control to Improve the Load-following Capability of Power-plant Units

    OpenAIRE

    Mortensen, J. H.; Mølbak, T.; Andersen, Palle; Pedersen, Tom Søndergaard

    1998-01-01

    The capability to perform fast load changes has been an important issue in the power market, and will become increasingly more so due to the incresing commercialisation of the European power market. An optimizing control system for improving the load-following capability of power-plant units has therefore been developed. The system is implemented as a complement, producing control signals to be added to those of the existing boiler control system, a concept which has various practical advanta...

  7. Design of fuel loading for Bohunice V-1 Unit 2 reaktor for fuel cycle No.19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majercik, J.

    1998-01-01

    The report contains description of the design of fuel loading for the fuel cycle No. 19 in the V-1 Bohunice Unit 2 reactor. Input data and computer codes used for the development of the design are shown. The fuel loading is characterized by the assortment of the fuel loaded and by the scheme of re shuffling of assemblies in the core. An evaluation of basic neutronic core parameters as relates to the compliance with safety criteria is a part of the report as well

  8. Psychosocial factors and mental work load: a reality perceived by nurses in intensive care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Ceballos-Vásquez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyse the perception of psychosocial factors and mental workload of nurses who work in intensive care units. It is hypothesised that nurses in these units could perceive psychosocial risks, manifesting in a high mental work load. The psychosocial dimension related to the position's cognitive demands is hypothesised to mostly explain mental work load. METHOD: Quantitative study, with a descriptive, cross-sectional, and comparative design. A total of 91% of the intensive care unit populations of three Chilean hospitals was surveyed, corresponding to 111 nurses. The instruments utilised included (A a biosociodemographic history questionnaire; (b the SUSESO-ISTAS 21 questionnaire; and (c the Mental Work Load Subjective Scale (ESCAM, in Spanish. RESULTS: In total, 64% and 57% of participants perceived high levels of exposure to the psychosocial risks Psychosocial demands and Double shift, respectively. In addition, a medium-high level of overall mental load was observed. Positive and significant correlations between some of the SUSESO-ISTAS 21 and ESCAM dimensions were obtained. Using a regression analysis, it was determined that three dimensions of the psychosocial risk questionnaire helped to explain 38% of the overall mental load. CONCLUSION: Intensive care unit nurses felt that inadequate psychosocial factors and mental work overload existed in several of the tested dimensions.

  9. Investigation on energy storage and quick load change control of subcritical circulating fluidized bed boiler units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Mingming; Hong, Feng; Liu, Jizhen

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The model of energy storage of subcritical CFB boilers is established. • The capacity and increment rate of heat storage are quantified. • A novel load control strategy is proposed to improve the quick load change ability. • An application on the 300 MW CFB unit proves the load change rate to 5–8 MW/min. - Abstract: The energy storage of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers on fuel side cannot be ignored due to the special combustion type different from pulverized coal boilers. The sizable energy storage makes it possible for CFB units to enhance the quick load change ability and to increase the scale of new energy power connected into grid. Through mechanism analysis, the model of energy storage of subcritical CFB boilers has been established for the first time. Then by the project practice, the quantitative analysis is demonstrated for the capacity and control characteristics of energy storage on fuel side and steam water side. Based on the control characteristics and the transformation of the energy storage, a coordinated control system (CCS) control strategy named advanced energy balance (AEB) is designed to shorten the response time through the use of energy storage and to accelerate the load change speed of subcritical CFB units. Finally, a case study on a 300 MW CFB unit proves the feasibility of the proposed control strategy.

  10. Study of automatic boat loading unit and horizontal sintering process of uranium dioxide pellet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Zhongjing; Chen Yu; Yao Dengfeng; Wang Youliang; Shu Binhua; Wu Genjiu

    2014-01-01

    Sintering process is a key process for the manufacture of nuclear fuel UO_2 pellet. In our factory, the continuous high temperature sintering furnace is used for sintering process. During the sintering of green pellets, the furnace, the boat and the accumulation way can influence the quality of the final product. In this text, on the basis of early process research, The automatic loading boat Unit and horizontal sintering process is studied successively. The results show that the physical and chemical properties of the products manufactured by automatic loading boat unit and horizontal sintering process can meet the technique requirements completely, and this system is reliable and continuous. (authors)

  11. Comprehensive Status and Trends of Nitrogen Loads to Estuaries in the Conterminous United States: Pacific Coast Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    We applied regional SPARROW (SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes) models to estimate status and trends of potential nitrogen loads to estuaries of the conterminous United States. The original Regional SPARROW models predict average detrended loads by source ...

  12. Numerical-analytical method of calculating insulated double-glazed units deflection under climatic (internal load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plotnikov Aleksandr Aleksandrovich

    Full Text Available Glass unit consists of glasses hermetically-united together. The cavity of an insulating glass unit contains a fixed volume of air (gas. In the process of production regular air with atmospheric pressure and temperature is sealed inside a glass unit. During operation the atmospheric pressure is constantly changing, but the pressure inside remains constant (at a constant temperature. A change of temperature or of the external air pressure results in a pressure difference and therefore in a load on the glass panes. The action may exceed the usual load considerably. This pressure effects the glasses of the unit, deforms them, lowers the thermotechnical properties of glass units and can lead to their destruction. The action of the inside pressure can be seen all around as convex and concaved glasses, which destroys the architectural look of buildings. It is obvious that it is incorrect to calculate thin glass plates on such a load only by classical methods of strength of materials theory. In this case we need a special calculation method. The effects of a change in temperature, altitude or meteorological pressure are easily covered by the definition of an isochore pressure. This is necessary, to determine the change of pressure due to the temperature induced gas expansion in the cavity of the insulating glass according to the ideal gas law. After the integration of the analytical plate solution and the ideal gas law, the final pressure states can easily be calculated by coupling the change of volume and the change of pressure.

  13. Using Perspective to Resolve Reference: The Impact of Cognitive Load and Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cane, James E.; Ferguson, Heather J.; Apperly, Ian A.

    2017-01-01

    Research has demonstrated a link between perspective taking and working memory. Here we used eye tracking to examine the time course with which working memory load (WML) influences perspective-taking ability in a referential communication task and how motivation to take another's perspective modulates these effects. In Experiment 1, where there…

  14. Total Weight and Axle Loads of Truck Units in the Transport of Timber Depending on the Timber Cargo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Trzciński

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available When transporting timber, the high variability of species, assortments and moisture content of the wood raw material does not allow the weight of the transported timber to be precisely determined. This often contributes to the excessive weight loading of the entire truck unit. The aim of the research is to present the variability of the total weight of truck units with wood cargoes (GVW—gross vehicle weight depending on the weight of the empty unit and the transported timber load, as well as to analyze the changes in GVW, unit loads of wood and load on individual truck unit axles depending on the season. This study analyzes the total weight of truck units for 376 transports of Scots pine timber at different times of the year. The total weight of the truck units depends on the weight of an empty unit and the weight of the load. GVW was determined by using a weighbridge to weigh the vehicles and then the empty unit after unloading. The weight of the load was obtained as the difference between GVW and the tare. It was found that GVW differed significantly depending on the truck unit used, ranging from 43.60–58.80 Mg, often exceeding permissible limits for public roads. The individual axle loads for various truck units were also analyzed. The obtained results indicate that these loads are more equally distributed in the case of five-axle trucks compared to six-axle ones.

  15. [Loading and strength of single- and multi-unit fixed dental prostheses 2. Strength

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baat, C. de; Witter, D.J.; Meijers, C.C.A.J.; Vergoossen, E.L.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    The ultimate strength of a dental prosthesis is defined as the strongest loading force applied to the prosthesis until afracture failure occurs. Important key terms are strength, hardness, toughness and fatigue. Relatively prevalent complications of single- and multi-unit fixed dental prostheses are

  16. [Loading and strength of single- and multi-unit fixed dental prostheses. 1. Retention and resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baat, C. de; Witter, D.J.; Meijers, C.C.A.J.; Vergoossen, E.L.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    The degree to which single- and multi-unit fixed dental prostheses are able to withstand loading forces is dependent, among other things, on the quality of their retention and resistance. The quality of the retention and resistance of the configuration of an abutment tooth prepared for a metal and

  17. Non-ideal assembly of the driving unit affecting shape of load-displacement curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Hu; Zhao, Hongwei

    2015-01-01

    The results of nanoindentation testing strongly rely on load-displacement curves, but an abnormal load-displacement curve with obvious inflection in the unloading portion was commonly observed in previously published papers and the reason is not clear. In this paper, possible reasons involved in a custom-made indentation instrument, such as sensors, control and assembly issues, are analyzed and discussed step by step. Experimental results indicate that non-ideal assembly of the precision driving unit strongly affects the shape of the load-displacement curve and its affecting mechanism is studied by theoretical analysis and finite element simulations. This paper reveals the reason leading to the abnormal load-displacement curve, which is helpful for debugging of indentation instruments and can enhance comparability of indentation results. (paper)

  18. ENTREPRENEURIAL OPPORTUNITIES IN FOOD PROCESSING UNITS (WITH SPECIAL REFERENCES TO BYADGI RED CHILLI COLD STORAGE UNITS IN THE KARNATAKA STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. ISHWARA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available After the green revolution, we are now ushering in the evergreen revolution in the country; food processing is an evergreen activity. It is the key to the agricultural sector. In this paper an attempt has been made to study the workings of food processing units with special references to Red Chilli Cold Storage units in the Byadgi district of Karnataka State. Byadgi has been famous for Red Chilli since the days it’s of antiquity. The vast and extensive market yard in Byadagi taluk is famous as the second largest Red Chilli dealing market in the country. However, the most common and recurring problem faced by the farmer is inability to store enough red chilli from one harvest to another. Red chilli that was locally abundant for only a short period of time had to be stored against times of scarcity. In recent years, due to Oleoresin, demand for Red Chilli has grow from other countries like Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, America, Europe, Nepal, Indonesia, Mexico etc. The study reveals that all the cold storage units of the study area have been using vapour compression refrigeration system or method. All entrepreneurs have satisfied with their turnover and profit and they are in a good economic position. Even though the average turnover and profits are increased, few units have shown negligible amount of decrease in turnover and profit. This is due to the competition from increasing number of cold storages and early established units. The cold storages of the study area have been storing Red chilli, Chilli seeds, Chilli powder, Tamarind, Jeera, Dania, Turmeric, Sunflower, Zinger, Channa, Flower seeds etc,. But the 80 per cent of the each cold storage is filled by the red chilli this is due to the existence of vast and extensivered chilli market yard in the Byadgi. There is no business without problems. In the same way the entrepreneurs who are chosen for the study are facing a few problems in their business like skilled labour, technical and management

  19. Assessment of load of beam-balanced pumping units by electric motor power indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Д. И. Шишлянников

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of experimental studies on the loading of beam-balanced pumping units (BP of sucker rod- pumping equipment (SRPE are presented. It is noted that the key factor that has the most significant effect causing the SRPE failure is the balance of the beam pumping unit, which determines the amount of specific energy consumption for the rise of reservoir fluid and the level of dynamic loads on the machine units. The urgency of using software-recording systems for estimating the loading of units of oil field pumping installations is substantiated. The principle of operation and design of the «AKD-SK» software recording system is described. The prospects of using this method for controlling the performance parameters and evaluating the technical state of the sicker rod-pumping units is proved on the basis of an analysis of the magnitude and nature of the changes in the loads of drive motors determined by the registration of the instantaneous values of the consumed power. The main provisions of the methodology for analyzing the watt-meters of drive motors of the sucker rod-pumping units are outlined. The nature of the manifestation of the main defects of submersible pumps and beam-balanced pumping units is described. The results of pilot-industrial tests of the beam-balanced pumping units equipped with advanced permanent magnet motors and intelligent control stations are presented. It is proved that the use of permanent magnet motors allows to reduce the specific energy consumption for the rise of reservoir fluid, which increases the efficiency of the SRPE.However, the presence of transient processes and generator operating modes of the permanent magnet motors results in the occurrence of significant dynamic loads, which, due to the rigid fixing of the rotor of magnet motor on the reducer shaft, negatively affect the life of the gearbox bearings. It has been shown that the lack of its own bearings in the tested motors causes a high probability

  20. Fuel management for off-load annual refuelling of the D-HHT 600 MW(e) reference core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, U

    1973-03-16

    The reference design for the Dragon-HHT reactor has been optimised for on-load continuous refuelling. The possiblity to operate the reactor on a discontinuous annual reloading schedule might prove of interest and/or necessity. In this paper the influence of an annual 4-batch fuel management scheme on the core physics and fuel cycle economics is investigated. The results of the present investigation give a good indication of the relative merits of the two fuel management schemes. Although a broader parameter survey and a more detailed scrutinising of special cases would be desirable, we feel that the main conclusions are correct and that the principle differences have been elicited.

  1. Comparison of particle swarm optimization and dynamic programming for large scale hydro unit load dispatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Chuntian; Liao Shengli; Tang Zitian; Zhao Mingyan

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic programming (DP) is one of classic and sophisticated optimization methods that have successfully been applied to solve the problem of hydro unit load dispatch (HULD). However, DP will be faced with the curse of dimensionality with the increase of unit number and installed generating capacity of hydropower station. With the appearance of the huge hydropower station similar to the Three George with 26 generators of 700 MW, it is hard to apply the DP to large scale HULD problem. It is crucial to seek for other optimization techniques in order to improve the operation quality and efficiency. Different with the most of literature about power generation scheduling that focused on the comparisons of novel PSO algorithms with other techniques, the paper will pay emphasis on comparison study of PSO with DP based on a case hydropower station. The objective of study is to seek for an effective and feasible method for the large scale of hydropower station of the current and future in China. This paper first compares the performance of PSO and DP using a sample load curve of the Wujiangdu hydropower plant located in the upper stream of the Yangtze River in China and contained five units with the installed capacity of 1250 MW. Next, the effect of different load interval and unit number on the optimal results and efficiency of two methods has also been implemented. The comparison results show that the PSO is feasible for HULD. Furthermore, we simulated the effect of the magnitude of unit number and load capacity on the optimal results and cost time. The simulation comparisons show that PSO has a great advantage over DP in the efficiency and will be one of effective methods for HULD problem of huge hydropower stations.

  2. Comparison of particle swarm optimization and dynamic programming for large scale hydro unit load dispatch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng Chuntian, E-mail: ctcheng@dlut.edu.c [Department of Civil and Hydraulic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, 116024 Dalian (China); Liao Shengli; Tang Zitian [Department of Civil and Hydraulic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, 116024 Dalian (China); Zhao Mingyan [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, 100084 Beijing (China)

    2009-12-15

    Dynamic programming (DP) is one of classic and sophisticated optimization methods that have successfully been applied to solve the problem of hydro unit load dispatch (HULD). However, DP will be faced with the curse of dimensionality with the increase of unit number and installed generating capacity of hydropower station. With the appearance of the huge hydropower station similar to the Three George with 26 generators of 700 MW, it is hard to apply the DP to large scale HULD problem. It is crucial to seek for other optimization techniques in order to improve the operation quality and efficiency. Different with the most of literature about power generation scheduling that focused on the comparisons of novel PSO algorithms with other techniques, the paper will pay emphasis on comparison study of PSO with DP based on a case hydropower station. The objective of study is to seek for an effective and feasible method for the large scale of hydropower station of the current and future in China. This paper first compares the performance of PSO and DP using a sample load curve of the Wujiangdu hydropower plant located in the upper stream of the Yangtze River in China and contained five units with the installed capacity of 1250 MW. Next, the effect of different load interval and unit number on the optimal results and efficiency of two methods has also been implemented. The comparison results show that the PSO is feasible for HULD. Furthermore, we simulated the effect of the magnitude of unit number and load capacity on the optimal results and cost time. The simulation comparisons show that PSO has a great advantage over DP in the efficiency and will be one of effective methods for HULD problem of huge hydropower stations.

  3. Comparison of particle swarm optimization and dynamic programming for large scale hydro unit load dispatch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun-tian Cheng; Sheng-li Liao; Zi-Tian Tang [Dept. of Civil and Hydraulic Engineering, Dalian Univ. of Technology, 116024 Dalian (China); Ming-yan Zhao [Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua Univ., 100084 Beijing (China)

    2009-12-15

    Dynamic programming (DP) is one of classic and sophisticated optimization methods that have successfully been applied to solve the problem of hydro unit load dispatch (HULD). However, DP will be faced with the curse of dimensionality with the increase of unit number and installed generating capacity of hydropower station. With the appearance of the huge hydropower station similar to the Three George with 26 generators of 700 MW, it is hard to apply the DP to large scale HULD problem. It is crucial to seek for other optimization techniques in order to improve the operation quality and efficiency. Different with the most of literature about power generation scheduling that focused on the comparisons of novel PSO algorithms with other techniques, the paper will pay emphasis on comparison study of PSO with DP based on a case hydropower station. The objective of study is to seek for an effective and feasible method for the large scale of hydropower station of the current and future in China. This paper first compares the performance of PSO and DP using a sample load curve of the Wujiangdu hydropower plant located in the upper stream of the Yangtze River in China and contained five units with the installed capacity of 1250 MW. Next, the effect of different load interval and unit number on the optimal results and efficiency of two methods has also been implemented. The comparison results show that the PSO is feasible for HULD. Furthermore, we simulated the effect of the magnitude of unit number and load capacity on the optimal results and cost time. The simulation comparisons show that PSO has a great advantage over DP in the efficiency and will be one of effective methods for HULD problem of huge hydropower stations. (author)

  4. Demographic and clinical characteristics of patients referred to psychiatric unit in a tertiary care hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousafzai, A.W.; Kazim, M.; Jehangiri, A.U.R.

    2015-01-01

    Very few studies from Pakistan have examined the profile of patients seen by psychiatrists in general hospital. The aim of this research is to describe the clinical and demographic characteristics of patients referred to the psychiatric unit of a general hospital over a one year period. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad, from January 1st to December 31st 2012. All patients being referred to psychiatry were included in the study over one year period. The information was recorded on a structured questionnaire and analysed the data using SPSS-19.0. Results: Out of the 105 patients referred to the psychiatric unit, 74 (72.3%) were females. A total of 69 (68.5%) patients were married. More than half were uneducated and only number 4 (3%) patients had university qualification. Housewives made up 64.4% of the patient population followed by students (11%). Majority 55 (53%) had less than Rs. 5000/ monthly income. About 30% patients were shifted to psychiatry ward while, nearly one tenth were discharged. In 35% cases the psychiatrist was asked to help in the management, while in 50% cases only opinion was sought. Aggressive and threatening behaviour was source of concern in majority of patients for the primary team while 34% exhibited suicidal behaviour. Depression was most frequent diagnosis in 45 43% patients, followed by conversion disorder 19 (17%) and delirium 16 (14%). Conclusion: The rate of psychiatric referrals is dismal with only one third of the patients being transferred to the psychiatric ward. The major psychiatric diagnosis was depression. Patients with aggressive and threatening behaviour were more frequently referred. (author)

  5. Dissolved-solids sources, loads, yields, and concentrations in streams of the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anning, David W.; Flynn, Marilyn E.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that excessive dissolved-solids concentrations in water can have adverse effects on the environment and on agricultural, domestic, municipal, and industrial water users. Such effects motivated the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water Quality Assessment Program to develop a SPAtially-Referenced Regression on Watershed Attributes (SPARROW) model that has improved the understanding of sources, loads, yields, and concentrations of dissolved solids in streams of the conterminous United States.

  6. Three years re-use of low burned fuel assemblies from units 1 and 2 in core loading of units 3 and 4 WWER-440 at Kozloduy NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoyanova, I.; Antov, A.; Spasova, V.

    2006-01-01

    At the end of 2002 Units 1 and 2 of Kozloduy NPP were shutdown before the end of their designed lifetime. This left a large number of assemblies yet with a significant energy resource. In 2003, 43 assemblies from Unit 1 and 55 assemblies from Unit 2 are loaded in the cores of Units 3 and 4 respectively. In 2004, new 49 assemblies from Unit 1 and new 55 assemblies from Unit 2 are loaded in the cores of Units 3 and 4 respectively. In 2005, the next new 25 assemblies from Unit 1 and 66 assemblies from Unit 2 are loaded in the cores of Units 3 and 4 respectively. The realized core loadings of Units 3 and 4 are illustrated. The large number of low burned assemblies after the shut down of Units 1 and 2 and their utilization during 4 consecutive cycles in the cores of Units 3 and 4 both do not permit to obtain in the last 3 cycles the typical mean burn up 35-36 MWd/kg U of 3.6% discharged assemblies

  7. Chronology and References of Volcanic Eruptions and Selected Unrest in the United States, 1980-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefenbach, Angela K.; Guffanti, Marianne; Ewert, John W.

    2009-01-01

    The United States ranks as one of the top countries in the world in the number of young, active volcanoes within its borders. The United States, including the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, is home to approximately 170 geologically active (age activity, unrest, that do not culminate in eruptions. Monitoring volcanic activity in the United States is the responsibility of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Volcano Hazards Program (VHP) and is accomplished with academic, Federal, and State partners. The VHP supports five Volcano Observatories - the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO), Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (YVO), Long Valley Observatory (LVO), and Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO). With the exception of HVO, which was established in 1912, the U.S. Volcano Observatories have been established in the past 27 years in response to specific volcanic eruptions or sustained levels of unrest. As understanding of volcanic activity and hazards has grown over the years, so have the extent and types of monitoring networks and techniques available to detect early signs of anomalous volcanic behavior. This increased capability is providing us with a more accurate gauge of volcanic activity in the United States. The purpose of this report is to (1) document the range of volcanic activity that U.S. Volcano Observatories have dealt with, beginning with the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, (2) describe some overall characteristics of the activity, and (3) serve as a quick reference to pertinent published literature on the eruptions and unrest documented in this report.

  8. Effects of nitrogen deposition and empirical nitrogen critical loads for ecoregions of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, L.H.; Fenn, M.E.; Goodale, C.L.; Geiser, L.H.; Driscoll, C.T.; Allen, E.B.; Baron, Jill S.; Bobbink, R.; Bowman, W.D.; Clark, C.M.; Emmett, B.; Gilliam, F.S.; Greaver, T.L.; Hall, S.J.; Lilleskov, E.A.; Liu, L.; Lynch, J.A.; Nadelhoffer, K.J.; Perakis, S.S.; Robin-Abbott, M. J.; Stoddard, J.L.; Weathers, K.C.; Dennis, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    Human activity in the last century has led to a significant increase in nitrogen (N) emissions and atmospheric deposition. This N deposition has reached a level that has caused or is likely to cause alterations to the structure and function of many ecosystems across the United States. One approach for quantifying the deposition of pollution that would be harmful to ecosystems is the determination of critical loads. A critical load is defined as the input of a pollutant below which no detrimental ecological effects occur over the long-term according to present knowledge. The objectives of this project were to synthesize current research relating atmospheric N deposition to effects on terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems in the United States, and to estimate associated empirical N critical loads. The receptors considered included freshwater diatoms, mycorrhizal fungi, lichens, bryophytes, herbaceous plants, shrubs, and trees. Ecosystem impacts included: (1) biogeochemical responses and (2) individual species, population, and community responses. Biogeochemical responses included increased N mineralization and nitrification (and N availability for plant and microbial uptake), increased gaseous N losses (ammonia volatilization, nitric and nitrous oxide from nitrification and denitrification), and increased N leaching. Individual species, population, and community responses included increased tissue N, physiological and nutrient imbalances, increased growth, altered root : shoot ratios, increased susceptibility to secondary stresses, altered fire regime, shifts in competitive interactions and community composition, changes in species richness and other measures of biodiversity, and increases in invasive species. The range of critical loads for nutrient N reported for U.S. ecoregions, inland surface waters, and freshwater wetlands is 1-39 kg N.ha -1.yr -1, spanning the range of N deposition observed over most of the country. The empirical critical loads for N tend to

  9. Speed of the bacterial flagellar motor near zero load depends on the number of stator units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, Ashley L; Sowa, Yoshiyuki; Steel, Bradley C; Lo, Chien-Jung; Berry, Richard M

    2017-10-31

    The bacterial flagellar motor (BFM) rotates hundreds of times per second to propel bacteria driven by an electrochemical ion gradient. The motor consists of a rotor 50 nm in diameter surrounded by up to 11 ion-conducting stator units, which exchange between motors and a membrane-bound pool. Measurements of the torque-speed relationship guide the development of models of the motor mechanism. In contrast to previous reports that speed near zero torque is independent of the number of stator units, we observe multiple speeds that we attribute to different numbers of units near zero torque in both Na + - and H + -driven motors. We measure the full torque-speed relationship of one and two H + units in Escherichia coli by selecting the number of H + units and controlling the number of Na + units in hybrid motors. These experiments confirm that speed near zero torque in H + -driven motors increases with the stator number. We also measured 75 torque-speed curves for Na + -driven chimeric motors at different ion-motive force and stator number. Torque and speed were proportional to ion-motive force and number of stator units at all loads, allowing all 77 measured torque-speed curves to be collapsed onto a single curve by simple rescaling. Published under the PNAS license.

  10. Maximal loads acting on legs of powered roof support unit in longwalls with bumping hazards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    StanislawSzweda

    2001-01-01

    In the article the results of measurements of the resultant force in the legs of a powered roof support unit, caused by a dynamic interaction bf the rock mass, are discussed. The measurements have been taken in the Iongwalls mined with a roof fall, characterized by the highest degree of bumping hazard. It has been stated that the maximal force in the legs Fro, recorded during a dynamic interaction of the rock mass, is proportional to the initial static force in the legs Fst.p Therefore a need for a careful selection of the initial load of the powered roof support, according to the local mining and geological conditions, results from such a statement. Setting the legs with the supporting load exceeding the indispensable value for keeping the direct roof solids in balance, deteriorating the operational parameters of a Iongwall system also has a disadvantageous influence on the value of the force in the legs and the rate of its increase, caused by a dynamic interaction of the rock mass. A correct selection of the initial load causes a decrease in the intensity of a dynamic interaction of the rock mass on powered roof supports, which also has an advanta igeous influence on their life, Simultaneously with the measurements of the resultant force in the legs, the vertical acceleration of the canopy was also recorded. It has enabled to prove that the external dynamic forces may act on the unit both from the roof as well as from the floor. The changes of the force in the legs caused by dynamic phenomena intrinsically created in the roof and changes of the force in the legs caused by blasting explosives in the roof of the working, have been analyzed separately. It has been stated that an increase in the loads of legs, caused by intrinsic phenomena is significantly higher than a force increase in the legs caused by blasting. It means that powered roof supports, to be operated in the workings, where the bumping hazard occurs, will also transmit the loads acting on a unit

  11. Pathway to 2022: The Ongoing Modernization of the United States National Spatial Reference System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, W. A.; Caccamise, D.

    2017-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Geodetic Survey (NGS) mission is "to define, maintain and provide access to the National Spatial Reference System (NSRS) to meet our nation's economic, social, and environmental needs." The NSRS is an assemblage of geophysical and geodetic models, tools, and data, with the most-visible components being the North American Datum of 1983 (NAD83) and the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD88), which together provide a consistent spatial reference framework for myriad geospatial applications and positioning requirements throughout the United States. The NGS is engaged in an ongoing and comprehensive multi-year project of modernizing the NSRS, a makeover necessitated by technological developments and user accuracy requirements, all with a goal of providing a modern, accurate, accessible, and globally aligned national positioning framework exploiting the substantial power and utility of the Global Navigation Satellite System - of both today and tomorrow. The modernized NSRS will include four new-generation geometric terrestrial reference frames (replacing NAD83) and a technically unprecedented geopotential datum (replacing NAVD88), all to be released in 2022 (anticipated). This poster/presentation will describe the justification for this modernization effort and will update the status and planned evolution of the NSRS as 2022 draws ever closer. Also discussed will be recent developments, including the publication of "blueprint" documents addressing technical details of various facets of the modernized NSRS and a continued series of public Geospatial Summits. Supporting/ancillary projects such as Gravity for the Redefinition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D), which will result in the generation of a highly accurate gravimetric geoid - or definitional reference surface (zero elevation) - for the future geopotential datum, and Geoid Slope Validation Surveys (GSVS), which are exploring the achievable

  12. Quad Cities Unit 2 Main Steam Line Acoustic Source Identification and Load Reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeBoo, Guy; Ramsden, Kevin; Gesior, Roman

    2006-01-01

    The Quad Cities Units 1 and 2 have a history of steam line vibration issues. The implementation of an Extended Power Up-rate resulted in significant increases in steam line vibration as well as acoustic loading of the steam dryers, which led to equipment failures and fatigue cracking of the dryers. This paper discusses the results of extensive data collection on the Quad Cities Unit 2 replacement dryer and the Main Steam Lines. This data was taken with the intent of identifying acoustic sources in the steam system. Review of the data confirmed that vortex shedding coupled column resonance in the relief and safety valve stub pipes were the principal sources of large magnitude acoustic loads in the main steam system. Modifications were developed in sub-scale testing to alter the acoustic properties of the valve standpipes and add acoustic damping to the system. The modifications developed and installed consisted of acoustic side branches that were attached to the Electromatic Relief Valve (ERV) and Main Steam Safety Valve (MSSV) attachment pipes. Subsequent post-modification testing was performed in plant to confirm the effectiveness of the modifications. The modifications have been demonstrated to reduce vibration loads at full Extended Power Up-rate (EPU) conditions to levels below those at Original Licensed Thermal Power (OLTP). (authors)

  13. Effects and empirical critical loads of Nitrogen for ecoregions of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Linda H.; Robin-Abbott, Molly J.; Fenn, Mark E.; Goodale, Christine L.; Geiser, Linda H.; Driscoll, Charles T.; Allen, Edith B.; Baron, Jill S.; Bobbink, Roland; Bowman, William D.; Clark, C M; Emmett, B.; Gilliam, Frank S; Greaver, Tara L.; Hall, Sharon J; Lilleskov, Erik A.; Liu, Lingli; Lynch, Jason A.; Nadelhoffer, Knute J; Perakis, Steven; Stoddard, John L; Weathers, Kathleen C.; Dennis, Robin L.

    2015-01-01

    Human activity in the last century has increased nitrogen (N) deposition to a level that has caused or is likely to cause alterations to the structure and function of many ecosystems across the United States. We synthesized current research relating atmospheric N deposition to effects on terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems in the United States, and estimated associated empirical critical loads of N for several receptors: freshwater diatoms, mycorrhizal fungi, lichens, bryophytes, herbaceous plants, shrubs, and trees. Biogeochemical responses included increased N mineralization and nitrification, increased gaseous N losses, and increased N leaching. Individual species, population, and community responses included increased tissue N, physiological and nutrient imbalances, increased growth, altered root-shoot ratios, increased susceptibility to secondary stresses, altered fire regime, shifts in competitive interactions and community composition, changes in species richness and other measures of biodiversity, and increases in invasive species. The range of critical loads of nutrient N reported for U.S. ecoregions, inland surface waters, and freshwater wetlands is 1–39 kg N ha−1 yr−1, spanning the range of N deposition observed over most of the country. The empirical critical loads of N tend to increase in the following sequence: diatoms, lichens and bryophytes, mycorrhizal fungi, herbaceous plants and shrubs, trees.

  14. 40 CFR 60.1320 - How do I monitor the load of my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... municipal waste combustion unit? 60.1320 Section 60.1320 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... of Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is Commenced After... Monitoring Requirements § 60.1320 How do I monitor the load of my municipal waste combustion unit? (a) If...

  15. Load type influences motor unit recruitment in biceps brachii during a sustained contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudry, Stéphane; Rudroff, Thorsten; Pierpoint, Lauren A; Enoka, Roger M

    2009-09-01

    Twenty subjects participated in four experiments designed to compare time to task failure and motor-unit recruitment threshold during contractions sustained at 15% of maximum as the elbow flexor muscles either supported an inertial load (position task) or exerted an equivalent constant torque against a rigid restraint (force task). Subcutaneous branched bipolar electrodes were used to record single motor unit activity from the biceps brachii muscle during ramp contractions performed before and at 50 and 90% of the time to failure for the position task during both fatiguing contractions. The time to task failure was briefer for the position task than for the force task (P=0.0002). Thirty and 29 motor units were isolated during the force and position tasks, respectively. The recruitment threshold declined by 48 and 30% (P=0.0001) during the position task for motor units with an initial recruitment threshold below and above the target force, respectively, whereas no significant change in recruitment threshold was observed during the force task. Changes in recruitment threshold were associated with a decrease in the mean discharge rate (-16%), an increase in discharge rate variability (+40%), and a prolongation of the first two interspike intervals (+29 and +13%). These data indicate that there were faster changes in motor unit recruitment and rate coding during the position task than the force task despite a similar net muscle torque during both tasks. Moreover, the results suggest that the differential synaptic input observed during the position task influences most of the motor unit pool.

  16. Maximal loads acting on legs of powered roof support unit in longwalls with bumping hazards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stanislaw Szweda

    2001-01-01

    In the article the results of measurements of the resultant force in th e legs of a powered roof support unit, caused by a dynamic interaction of the ro ck mass, are discussed. The measurements have been taken in the longwalls mined with a roof fall, characterized by the highest degree of bumping hazard. It has been stated that the maximal force in the legs Fm, recorded during a dynam ic interaction of the rock mass, is proportional to the initial static force in the legs Fst,p. Th erefore a need for a careful selection of the initial load of the powered roof s upport, according to the local mining and geological conditions, results from su ch a statement. Setting the legs with the supporting load exceeding the indispen sable value for keeping the direct roof solids in balance, deteriorating the ope rational parameters of a longwall system also has a disadvantageous influence on the value of the force in the legs and the rate of its increase, caused by a dy namic interaction of the rock mass. A correct selection of the initial load caus es a decrease in the intensity of a dynamic interaction of the rock mass on powe red roof supports, which also has an advantageous influence on their life.   Simultaneously with the measurements of the resultant force in the legs, the vertical acceleration of the canopy was also recorded. It has enabled to prove that the exte rnal dynamic forces may act on the unit both from the roof as well as from the f loor. The changes of the force in the legs caused by dynamic phenomena intrinsic ally created in the roof and changes of the force in the legs caused by blasting explosives in the roof of the working, have been analyzed separately. It has been stated that an increase in the loads of legs, caused by intrinsi c phenomena is significantly higher than a force increase in the legs caused by blasting. It means that powered roof supports, to be operated in the workings, w here the bumping hazard occurs, will also transmit the loads

  17. Motor unit activity when young and old adults perform steady contractions while supporting an inertial load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Jeffrey R.; Enoka, Roger M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the discharge characteristics of biceps brachii motor units of young and old adults when they performed steady, submaximal contractions while the arm supported different inertial loads. Young (28 ± 4 yr; n = 16) and old (75 ± 4 yr; n = 14) adults performed steady contractions with the elbow flexors at target forces set at either small (11.7 ± 4.4% maximum) or large (17.8 ± 6.5% maximum) differences below the recruitment threshold force of the motor unit (n = 40). The task was to maintain an elbow angle at 1.57 rad until the motor unit was recruited and discharged action potentials for ∼120 s. Time to recruitment was longer for the larger target force difference (187 ± 227 s vs. 23 ± 46 s, P recruited, motor units discharged action potentials either repetitively or intermittently, with a greater proportion of motor units exhibiting the repetitive pattern for old adults. Discharge rate at recruitment and during the steady contraction was similar for the two target force differences for old adults but was greater for the small target force difference for young adults. Discharge variability was similar at recruitment for the two age groups but less for the old adults during the steady contraction. The greatest difference between the present results and those reported previously when the arm pulled against a rigid restraint was that old adults modulated discharge rate less than young adults across the two contraction intensities for both load types. PMID:23221403

  18. Comparison between dynamic programming and genetic algorithm for hydro unit economic load dispatch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Xu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The hydro unit economic load dispatch (ELD is of great importance in energy conservation and emission reduction. Dynamic programming (DP and genetic algorithm (GA are two representative algorithms for solving ELD problems. The goal of this study was to examine the performance of DP and GA while they were applied to ELD. We established numerical experiments to conduct performance comparisons between DP and GA with two given schemes. The schemes included comparing the CPU time of the algorithms when they had the same solution quality, and comparing the solution quality when they had the same CPU time. The numerical experiments were applied to the Three Gorges Reservoir in China, which is equipped with 26 hydro generation units. We found the relation between the performance of algorithms and the number of units through experiments. Results show that GA is adept at searching for optimal solutions in low-dimensional cases. In some cases, such as with a number of units of less than 10, GA's performance is superior to that of a coarse-grid DP. However, GA loses its superiority in high-dimensional cases. DP is powerful in obtaining stable and high-quality solutions. Its performance can be maintained even while searching over a large solution space. Nevertheless, due to its exhaustive enumerating nature, it costs excess time in low-dimensional cases.

  19. Data to support statistical modeling of instream nutrient load based on watershed attributes, southeastern United States, 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoos, Anne B.; Terziotti, Silvia; McMahon, Gerard; Savvas, Katerina; Tighe, Kirsten C.; Alkons-Wolinsky, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    This report presents and describes the digital datasets that characterize nutrient source inputs, environmental characteristics, and instream nutrient loads for the purpose of calibrating and applying a nutrient water-quality model for the southeastern United States for 2002. The model area includes all of the river basins draining to the south Atlantic and the eastern Gulf of Mexico, as well as the Tennessee River basin (referred to collectively as the SAGT area). The water-quality model SPARROW (SPAtially-Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes), developed by the U.S. Geological Survey, uses a regression equation to describe the relation between watershed attributes (predictors) and measured instream loads (response). Watershed attributes that are considered to describe nutrient input conditions and are tested in the SPARROW model for the SAGT area as source variables include atmospheric deposition, fertilizer application to farmland, manure from livestock production, permitted wastewater discharge, and land cover. Watershed and channel attributes that are considered to affect rates of nutrient transport from land to water and are tested in the SAGT SPARROW model as nutrient-transport variables include characteristics of soil, landform, climate, reach time of travel, and reservoir hydraulic loading. Datasets with estimates of each of these attributes for each individual reach or catchment in the reach-catchment network are presented in this report, along with descriptions of methods used to produce them. Measurements of nutrient water quality at stream monitoring sites from a combination of monitoring programs were used to develop observations of the response variable - mean annual nitrogen or phosphorus load - in the SPARROW regression equation. Instream load of nitrogen and phosphorus was estimated using bias-corrected log-linear regression models using the program Fluxmaster, which provides temporally detrended estimates of long-term mean load well

  20. Profile of patients with uveitis referred to a multidisciplinary unit in northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanlo, P; Heras, H; Pérez, D; Tiberio, G; Espinosa, G; Adan, A

    2017-05-01

    To describe the main characteristics of a cohort of patients with uveitis referred to a multidisciplinary unit in northern Spain. Retrospective analysis of clinical records of patients evaluated in the Multidisciplinary Unit of the Navarra Hospital Complex from the period January 2010 until March 2015. An analysis was performed on the demographic characteristics, origin, types of uveitis, laterality, and aetiology. The present series was also compared with 2 previous series from Castilla y León and Barcelona. A total of 500 patients were identified, with a mean age of 47.9±16.4 years, with 50% women. The most frequent type of uveitis was anterior uveitis (65.4%), followed by posterior uveitis (17.6%), panuveitis (15.2%), and intermediate uveitis (1.8%). The origin was unclassifiable in 31.2%, followed by non-infectious systemic disease in 29.2%. Ankylosing spondylitis was the most frequent cause in 10.8% of patients, followed by herpes infection in 9.2%, and toxoplasmosis in 7.8%, respectively. Compared with the 2other cohorts, the present cohort showed a higher proportion of unilateral anterior uveitis. Furthermore, the patients from the Navarra series had a higher prevalence of unilateral and idiopathic uveitis compared to the series from Barcelona. The main characteristics of the present cohort of patients with uveitis are similar to those of patients from other regions of our country. Unilateral anterior uveitis and idiopathic uveitis were the most frequent in our series. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. 40 CFR 62.15265 - How do I monitor the load of my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... continuously estimate load level (for example, the feed rate of municipal solid waste or refuse-derived fuel... municipal waste combustion unit? 62.15265 Section 62.15265 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units...

  2. Study of regeneration system of 300 MW power unit based on nondeaerating heat balance diagram at reduced load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esin, S. B.; Trifonov, N. N.; Sukhorukov, Yu. G.; Yurchenko, A. Yu.; Grigor'eva, E. B.; Snegin, I. P.; Zhivykh, D. A.; Medvedkin, A. V.; Ryabich, V. A.

    2015-09-01

    More than 30 power units of thermal power stations, based on the nondeaerating heat balance diagram, successfully operate in the former Soviet Union. Most of them are power units with a power of 300 MW, equipped with HTGZ and LMZ turbines. They operate according to a variable electric load curve characterized by deep reductions when undergoing night minimums. Additional extension of the range of power unit adjustment makes it possible to maintain the dispatch load curve and obtain profit for the electric power plant. The objective of this research is to carry out estimated and experimental processing of the operating regimes of the regeneration system of steam-turbine plants within the extended adjustment range and under the conditions when the constraints on the regeneration system and its equipment are removed. Constraints concerning the heat balance diagram that reduce the power unit efficiency when extending the adjustment range have been considered. Test results are presented for the nondeaerating heat balance diagram with the HTGZ turbine. Turbine pump and feed electric pump operation was studied at a power unit load of 120-300 MW. The reliability of feed pump operation is confirmed by a stable vibratory condition and the absence of cavitation noise and vibration at a frequency that characterizes the cavitation condition, as well as by oil temperature maintenance after bearings within normal limits. Cavitation performance of pumps in the studied range of their operation has been determined. Technical solutions are proposed on providing a profitable and stable operation of regeneration systems when extending the range of adjustment of power unit load. A nondeaerating diagram of high-pressure preheater (HPP) condensate discharge to the mixer. A regeneration system has been developed and studied on the operating power unit fitted with a deaeratorless thermal circuit of the system for removing the high-pressure preheater heating steam condensate to the mixer

  3. Decentralized Voltage Control Coordination of On-Load Tap Changer Transformers, Distributed Generation Units and Flexible Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romani Dalmau, Aina; Martinez Perez, David; Diaz de Cerio Mendaza, Iker

    2015-01-01

    The increase of distributed generation is expected to generate instabilities, such as power imbalances or voltage deviations in the power system. At the distribution level, maintaining the bus voltages within the stipulated limits is one of the major challenges for the distribution system operator....... Under low penetration levels, several voltage regulation elements have been efficiently employed up to now. However, under large distributed generation levels, the traditional techniques have to be coordinated with new upcoming solutions, such us demand response. In this paper a simple and decentralized...... of the on-load tap changer and the reactive power from dispersed generation while maximizing the capacity usage of the Power-to-Gas load....

  4. An electrical load measurements dataset of United Kingdom households from a two-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, David; Stankovic, Lina; Stankovic, Vladimir

    2017-01-05

    Smart meter roll-outs provide easy access to granular meter measurements, enabling advanced energy services, ranging from demand response measures, tailored energy feedback and smart home/building automation. To design such services, train and validate models, access to data that resembles what is expected of smart meters, collected in a real-world setting, is necessary. The REFIT electrical load measurements dataset described in this paper includes whole house aggregate loads and nine individual appliance measurements at 8-second intervals per house, collected continuously over a period of two years from 20 houses. During monitoring, the occupants were conducting their usual routines. At the time of publishing, the dataset has the largest number of houses monitored in the United Kingdom at less than 1-minute intervals over a period greater than one year. The dataset comprises 1,194,958,790 readings, that represent over 250,000 monitored appliance uses. The data is accessible in an easy-to-use comma-separated format, is time-stamped and cleaned to remove invalid measurements, correctly label appliance data and fill in small gaps of missing data.

  5. An electrical load measurements dataset of United Kingdom households from a two-year longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, David; Stankovic, Lina; Stankovic, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Smart meter roll-outs provide easy access to granular meter measurements, enabling advanced energy services, ranging from demand response measures, tailored energy feedback and smart home/building automation. To design such services, train and validate models, access to data that resembles what is expected of smart meters, collected in a real-world setting, is necessary. The REFIT electrical load measurements dataset described in this paper includes whole house aggregate loads and nine individual appliance measurements at 8-second intervals per house, collected continuously over a period of two years from 20 houses. During monitoring, the occupants were conducting their usual routines. At the time of publishing, the dataset has the largest number of houses monitored in the United Kingdom at less than 1-minute intervals over a period greater than one year. The dataset comprises 1,194,958,790 readings, that represent over 250,000 monitored appliance uses. The data is accessible in an easy-to-use comma-separated format, is time-stamped and cleaned to remove invalid measurements, correctly label appliance data and fill in small gaps of missing data.

  6. The Application of Load-cell Technique in the Study of Armour Unit Responses to Impact Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Liu, Zhou

    1994-01-01

    The slender, complex types of armour units, such as Tetrapods and Dolosse are widely used for rubble mound breakwaters. Many of the recent failures of such structures were caused by unforeseen early breakage of the units, thus revealing an inbalance between the strength (structural integrity) of ...

  7. Proposing an Empirically Justified Reference Threshold for Blood Culture Sampling Rates in Intensive Care Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell, Stefanie; Schwab, Frank; Geffers, Christine; Bongartz, Hannah; Brunkhorst, Frank M.; Gastmeier, Petra; Mikolajczyk, Rafael T.

    2014-01-01

    Early and appropriate blood culture sampling is recommended as a standard of care for patients with suspected bloodstream infections (BSI) but is rarely taken into account when quality indicators for BSI are evaluated. To date, sampling of about 100 to 200 blood culture sets per 1,000 patient-days is recommended as the target range for blood culture rates. However, the empirical basis of this recommendation is not clear. The aim of the current study was to analyze the association between blood culture rates and observed BSI rates and to derive a reference threshold for blood culture rates in intensive care units (ICUs). This study is based on data from 223 ICUs taking part in the German hospital infection surveillance system. We applied locally weighted regression and segmented Poisson regression to assess the association between blood culture rates and BSI rates. Below 80 to 90 blood culture sets per 1,000 patient-days, observed BSI rates increased with increasing blood culture rates, while there was no further increase above this threshold. Segmented Poisson regression located the threshold at 87 (95% confidence interval, 54 to 120) blood culture sets per 1,000 patient-days. Only one-third of the investigated ICUs displayed blood culture rates above this threshold. We provided empirical justification for a blood culture target threshold in ICUs. In the majority of the studied ICUs, blood culture sampling rates were below this threshold. This suggests that a substantial fraction of BSI cases might remain undetected; reporting observed BSI rates as a quality indicator without sufficiently high blood culture rates might be misleading. PMID:25520442

  8. [Demographic features and difficulties in rehabilitation in patients referred to hand rehabilitation unit for phalangeal fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Füsun; Yücel, Serap Dalgiç; Yilmaz, Figen; Ergöz, Ernur; Kuran, Banu

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated demographic and occupational features of patients with phalangeal fractures of the hand, etiologies and types of injuries, and the results of rehabilitation. The study included 91 fingers of 62 patients (54 males, 8 females; mean age 28+/-13 years; range 4 to 59 years) who were referred to our hand rehabilitation unit for phalangeal fractures. Demographic features, the cause and localization of injury, the type of surgery, time from surgery to rehabilitation, and the follow-up period were determined. At the end of rehabilitation, range of motion (ROM) of the phalangeal joint and total ROM of the injured fingers were assessed using the Strickland-Glogovac rating system. A great majority of injuries were caused by work accidents, followed by sport injuries and falls occurring in students. Sixty patients (96.8%) were right-handed. The fractures occurred in the dominant hand in 29 patients (46.8%). The majority of patients (n=45) were primary school graduates. The most common mechanism of injury was accidents related to heavy work machinery (n=18). The most commonly injured finger and the phalanx were the third finger (n=25, 27.5%) and the proximal phalanx (n=59, 56.7%), respectively. Only 27 patients (43.6%) had a sufficient follow-up with a mean of 79.7+/-46.6 days (range 30 to 254 days). Following rehabilitation, the mean ROM and the total ROM were 45.0+/-22.9 degrees and 63.3+/-16.1 degrees for the injured joint and the thumb, and 31.3+/-22.5 degrees and 122+/-60.3 degrees for the injured joint and the other fingers, respectively. Our data provide important insight into appropriate treatment and rehabilitation of phalangeal fractures, in particular, shortcomings in the treatment and follow-up.

  9. Diagnostic reference levels for X-ray investigations in pain management units in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtherte, S.; Le Polain de Waroux, B.

    2008-01-01

    X-rays are commonly used in pain treatment centres where infiltrative techniques are performed. Although X-rays are useful in increasing the precision of infiltrative techniques, their use puts patients and staff at risk of radiation exposure. As a result, medical staff now have to obtain a certificate of training on the use of X-rays before being allowed to use X-rays in practice. This analysis was based on 373 detailed registrations of procedure-related parameters in the six centres that participated in this study between January 2009 and July 2009. Examinations chosen for inclusion in this study were the most commonly performed fluoroscopic imaging-guided procedures in a pain management unit: epidural (cervical/lumbar), facet joint nerve blocks (cervical/lumbar) and trans-foraminal (cervical/lumbar). The sample size, the dose-area product (DAP) range for whole population, the mean and the third quartile DAP corrected for patient size (DAP corr ), the screening time range, the mean and the third quartile screening time are presented. The proposed DRLs for epidural, facet joint nerve blocks and trans-foraminal are 0.5, 2.5 and 3 Gy cm 2 for DAP values and 12, 60 and 50 s for screening times, respectively. In the absence of national diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for pain management fluoroscopic procedures, these DAP and screening time values provide a possible way of establishing provisional DRLs for local use. The values for each examination type could be used as a baseline against which to monitor the effectiveness of dose reduction strategies as part of the optimisation process that is the goal of any quality control and patient dose monitoring system. (authors)

  10. Shortening start-up and an extension of the power unit load range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taler Jan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A power plant with additional water pressure tanks was proposed. The maximum rise in the block electric power resulting from the shut-off of low-pressure regenerative heaters was determined. At that time, the boiler is fed with hot water from water pressure tanks acting as heat accumulators. Accumulation of hot water in water tanks is also proposed in the periods of the power unit small load. In order to lower the plant electric power in the off-peak night hours, water heated to the nominal temperature in low-pressure regenerative heaters is directed from the feed water tank to pressure tanks. The water accumulated during the night is used to feed the boiler during the period of peak demand for electricity. Pressure accumulators are proposed to be used for the rapid start-up of the boiler from a cold state. The evaporator of the boiler is filled at the beginning of start-up with hot water from the accumulators. Drops in the power block electric power were determined for different capacities of the tanks and periods when they are charged. The tanks may also be used to ensure a sudden increase in the electric power of the unit that is operating in the automatic system of frequency and power control (in Polish: ARCM.

  11. Evaluation of the reference unit method for herbaceous biomass estimation in native grasslands of southwestern South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric D. Boyda

    2013-01-01

    The high costs associated with physically harvesting plant biomass may prevent sufficient data collection, which is necessary to account for the natural variability of vegetation at a landscape scale. A biomass estimation technique was previously developed using representative samples or "reference units", which eliminated the need to harvest biomass from all...

  12. Current Practices of Measuring and Reference Range Reporting of Free and Total Testosterone in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Margaret; Flores, David; May, Danica; Gourley, Eric; Nangia, Ajay K

    2016-05-01

    The evaluation and management of male hypogonadism should be based on symptoms and on serum testosterone levels. Diagnostically this relies on accurate testing and reference values. Our objective was to define the distribution of reference values and assays for free and total testosterone by clinical laboratories in the United States. Upper and lower reference values, assay methodology and source of published reference ranges were obtained from laboratories across the country. A standardized survey was reviewed with laboratory staff via telephone. Descriptive statistics were used to tabulate results. We surveyed a total of 120 laboratories in 47 states. Total testosterone was measured in house at 73% of laboratories. At the remaining laboratories studies were sent to larger centralized reference facilities. The mean ± SD lower reference value of total testosterone was 231 ± 46 ng/dl (range 160 to 300) and the mean upper limit was 850 ± 141 ng/dl (range 726 to 1,130). Only 9% of laboratories where in-house total testosterone testing was performed created a reference range unique to their region. Others validated the instrument recommended reference values in a small number of internal test samples. For free testosterone 82% of laboratories sent testing to larger centralized reference laboratories where equilibrium dialysis and/or liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry was done. The remaining laboratories used published algorithms to calculate serum free testosterone. Reference ranges for testosterone assays vary significantly among laboratories. The ranges are predominantly defined by limited population studies of men with unknown medical and reproductive histories. These poorly defined and variable reference values, especially the lower limit, affect how clinicians determine treatment. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterisation of the IAEA-152 milk powder reference material for radioactivity with assigned values traceable to the SI units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altzitzoglou, T.; Bohnstedt, A.

    2008-01-01

    The Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) participated in a research project initiated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to upgrade some of its existing reference materials (RMs). The aim of the project is to improve the RM metrological status by establishing traceability of their assigned values to SI units. The purpose of the work described in this article was to establish traceability to the International System of Units (SI) of the activity concentrations of the radionuclides 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 40 K, and 90 Sr in the IAEA-152 milk powder RM. The choice of the particular RM was based on the concern about radioactivity levels in foodstuff. The sample preparation and the assaying of the activity concentrations in the milk powder, the methods used to achieve instrument calibrations and measurements traceable to the SI units, the data reduction and analysis, and finally, the results obtained are presented

  14. Decentralized Method for Load Sharing and Power Management in a Hybrid Single/Three-Phase-Islanded Microgrid Consisting of Hybrid Source PV/Battery Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karimi, Yaser; Oraee, Hashem; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a new decentralized power management and load sharing method for a photovoltaic based, hybrid single/three-phase islanded microgrid consisting of various PV units, battery units and hybrid PV/battery units. The proposed method is not limited to the systems with separate PV...... in different load, PV generation and battery conditions is validated experimentally in a microgrid lab prototype consisted of one three-phase unit and two single-phase units....

  15. Light weight radioisotope heater unit (LWRHU): a technical description of the reference design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tate, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    The Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit (LWRHU), a new radioisotope heater unit for use in space missions, is a 238 PuO 2 -fueled unit designed to provide a thermal watt in dispersed locations on a spacecraft. The LWRHU is required to maintain the temperature of a component at a level where the component will function reliably in space. Two major constraints are placed on the unit's design; it must be as light as possible and must provide enough protection to immobilize the plutonium fuel to the maximum extent in all phases of the unit's lifetime. The four components are pelletized fuel, platinum-alloy encapsulation, pyrolytic graphite thermal insulation, and high-technology graphite ablation shell. The LWRHU is a cylinder 32 mm (1.26 in.) high and 26 mm (1.02 in.) in diameter. It weighs slightly less than 40 g

  16. The operating performance tests of power unit A1 in HPP 'Zvornik' in load-frequency control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojčić Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The turbine-governing system characteristics derived from testing hydropower unit A1 in HPP 'Zvornik' are presented. These tests give insights into the setup state and parameters of the governing system, as well as the qualitative analysis of load-frequency control response of the case study power unit within the power system of Serbia. Verification of relevant turbine-governing parameters was performed by direct application of appropriate standards and policies. The presented results can be used as a basis for the derivation of a turbine governor mathematical model and for a complete mathematical model of a hydropower unit as an element embedded in the power system.

  17. Short-term bulk energy storage system scheduling for load leveling in unit commitment: modeling, optimization, and sensitivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, Reza; Saboori, Hedayat

    2016-05-01

    Energy storage systems (ESSs) have experienced a very rapid growth in recent years and are expected to be a promising tool in order to improving power system reliability and being economically efficient. The ESSs possess many potential benefits in various areas in the electric power systems. One of the main benefits of an ESS, especially a bulk unit, relies on smoothing the load pattern by decreasing on-peak and increasing off-peak loads, known as load leveling. These devices require new methods and tools in order to model and optimize their effects in the power system studies. In this respect, this paper will model bulk ESSs based on the several technical characteristics, introduce the proposed model in the thermal unit commitment (UC) problem, and analyze it with respect to the various sensitive parameters. The technical limitations of the thermal units and transmission network constraints are also considered in the model. The proposed model is a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) which can be easily solved by strong commercial solvers (for instance CPLEX) and it is appropriate to be used in the practical large scale networks. The results of implementing the proposed model on a test system reveal that proper load leveling through optimum storage scheduling leads to considerable operation cost reduction with respect to the storage system characteristics.

  18. Short-term bulk energy storage system scheduling for load leveling in unit commitment: modeling, optimization, and sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, Reza; Saboori, Hedayat

    2016-01-01

    Energy storage systems (ESSs) have experienced a very rapid growth in recent years and are expected to be a promising tool in order to improving power system reliability and being economically efficient. The ESSs possess many potential benefits in various areas in the electric power systems. One of the main benefits of an ESS, especially a bulk unit, relies on smoothing the load pattern by decreasing on-peak and increasing off-peak loads, known as load leveling. These devices require new methods and tools in order to model and optimize their effects in the power system studies. In this respect, this paper will model bulk ESSs based on the several technical characteristics, introduce the proposed model in the thermal unit commitment (UC) problem, and analyze it with respect to the various sensitive parameters. The technical limitations of the thermal units and transmission network constraints are also considered in the model. The proposed model is a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) which can be easily solved by strong commercial solvers (for instance CPLEX) and it is appropriate to be used in the practical large scale networks. The results of implementing the proposed model on a test system reveal that proper load leveling through optimum storage scheduling leads to considerable operation cost reduction with respect to the storage system characteristics. PMID:27222741

  19. Factors Controlling Nitrogen Loadings in Major River Basins Across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, E. W.; Alexander, R. B.; Galloway, J. N.; Golden, H. E.; Moore, R. B.; Schwarz, G. E.; Harvey, J. W.; Gomez-Velez, J. D.; Scott, D.; Clune, J.

    2017-12-01

    Inputs of reactive nitrogen (all N species except for N2) have been increasing worldwide, largely due to human activities associated with food production and energy consumption via the combustion of fossil fuels and biofuels. Despite the obvious essential benefits of a plentiful supply of food and energy, the adverse consequences associated with the accumulation of N in the environment are large. Most of the N created by human activities is released to the environment, often with unintended negative consequences. The greater the inputs of N to the landscape, the greater the potential for negative effects - caused by greenhouse gas production, ground level ozone, acid deposition, and N overload; which in turn can contribute to climate change, degradation of soils and vegetation, acidification of surface waters, coastal eutrophication, hypoxia, habitat loss, and loss of stratospheric ozone. Here we present a contemporary inventory of reactive N inputs to major water regions in the United States, and discuss accounting methods for quantifying N sources and transport. Furthermore, we quantify loadings of N from terrestrial headwaters downstream to coastal estuaries and embayments. N delivery to downstream waters is influenced by nutrient sources as well as coupled hydrological and biogeochemical processes occurring along the river corridor (e.g., travel time distributions, denitrification, and storage) that scale with stream size and are affected by impoundments such as lakes and reservoirs. This underscores the need to account for the nonlinear interactions of aquatic transport processes with watershed nutrient sources, as well as cumulative effects, in developing efficient nutrient reduction strategies. Our work is useful as a benchmark of the current N situation against which future progress can be assessed in varying water regions of the country; amidst changing N inputs, policies, and management strategies. Our results stem from the EPA Integrated Nitrogen

  20. 1-GWh diurnal load-leveling superconducting magnetic energy storage system reference design. Appendix A: energy storage coil and superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schermer, R.I.

    1979-09-01

    The technical aspects of a 1-GWh Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) coil for use as a diurnal load-leveling device in an electric utility system are presented. The superconductor for the coil is analyzed, and costs for the entire coil are developed

  1. Analysis of chiller units capacity for different heat loads considering variation of ambient air and cooling water temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coman, Aurelia Camelia; Tenescu, Mircea

    2010-01-01

    The paper purpose is to analyze the chiller units capacity to determine whether they can cope with high air and cooling water temperatures during summer time to remove heat loads imposed from Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) units in a CANDU 6 Nuclear Power Plant. The starting point is calculation of the overall heat transfer coefficient at the evaporator and condenser. They are used in heat balance equations of heat exchangers. A mathematical model was developed that simulates the refrigeration cycle to assess the response of chilled water system and its performance at different heat loads. In this analysis there were calculated values for inlet/outlet chilled water temperature and the refrigerant cycle thermodynamic parameters (condenser and evaporator pressure/temperature, refrigerant mass flowrate, refrigerant quality at the evaporator, refrigerant vapour superheated temperature at the compressor outlet, refrigerant subcooled temperature at the condenser outlet). To find the adequate functioning parameters of the installation, the MathCAD 13 software was used in all cases analyzed. The behaviour of the chiller units was investigated by examining the variation of three basic parameters, namely: - cooling water (river water) temperature; - air temperature; - heat load. The simultaneous variation of these three independent parameters allows to identify the actual chillers unit operating point (including chiller trip). (authors)

  2. Ambiguity in Units and the Referents: Two Cases in Rational Number Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathouz, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    I explore the impact of ambiguous referral to the unit on understanding of decimal and fraction operations during episodes in two different mathematics courses for pre-service teachers (PSTs). In one classroom, the instructor introduces a rectangular area diagram to help the PSTs visualize decimal multiplication. A transcript from this classroom…

  3. Aspects of medical migration with particular reference to the United Kingdom and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herfs, Paulus

    2014-01-01

    Background In most countries of the European Economic Area (EEA), there is no large-scale migration of medical graduates with diplomas obtained outside the EEA, which are international medical graduates (IMGs). In the United Kingdom however, health care is in part dependent on the influx of IMGs. In

  4. Microprocessor control unit of thyristor regulator of microhydroelectric power station ballast load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomokonova, Yu; Bogdanov, E

    2014-01-01

    The operational principle of microhydroelectric power station ballast load is presented. The comparative overview of the mathematical modeling methods is performed. The ranges of thyristors optimal work are shown as a result of the regulator regimes analysis. Shows the necessity of regulation the ballast load in microhydroelectric power station with help of developed algorithm of the program for microprocessor control

  5. Estimates of critical acid loads and exceedances for forest soils across the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven G. McNulty; Erika C. Cohen; Jennifer A. Moore Myers; Timothy J. Sullivan; Harbin Li

    2007-01-01

    Concern regarding the impacts of continued nitrogen and sulfur deposition on ecosystem health has prompted the development of critical acid load assessments for forest soils. A critical acid load is a quantitative estimate of exposure to one or more pollutants at or above which harmful acidification-related effects on sensitive elements of the environment occur. A...

  6. Development status of the experimental and numerical load analysis of package units CASTOR registered under drop test conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelzer, Walter; Schaefer, Marc; Rumanus, Erkan; Liedtke, Ralph; Brehmer, Frank

    2012-01-01

    The mechanical integrity of package units CASTOR registered for a 9-m drop test under accident conditions has to be demonstrated according the requirements of IAEA among others. For reduction of the loads the containers have to be equipped with shock absorbers on the bottom and top sides. The determination of loads under drop test conditions can be performed with experimental or numerical methods. Due to the complexity of the load state and the verification of results both methods are usually used for integrity demonstration. The numerical codes have to model the short-term dynamic behavior of the whole container for different drop orientations and temperatures, local stress states have to be quantifiable for assessment. One of the problems is the modeling of the material behavior of wood that is used in the shock absorbers. The so far used energetic calculation approach will be replaced by a dynamic approach, the numerical models will have to be verified by experimental drop tests.

  7. BI-RADS categorisation of 2708 consecutive nonpalpable breast lesions in patients referred to a dedicated breast care unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamy, A.S.; Giacchetti, S.; Cuvier, C.; Perret, F.; Bonfils, S.; Charveriat, P.; Hocini, H.; Espie, M.; Albiter, M.; Bazelaire, C. de; Roquancourt, A. de

    2012-01-01

    To determine the malignancy rate of nonpalpable breast lesions, categorised according to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) classification in the setting of a Breast Care Unit. All nonpalpable breast lesions from consecutive patients referred to a dedicated Breast Care Unit were prospectively reviewed and classified into 5 BI-RADS assessment categories (0, 2, 3, 4, and 5). A total of 2708 lesions were diagnosed by mammography (71.6%), ultrasound (8.7%), mammography and ultrasound (19.5%), or MRI (0.2%). The distribution of the lesions by BI-RADS category was: 152 in category 0 (5.6%), 56 in category 2 (2.1%), 742 in category 3 (27.4%), 1523 in category 4 (56.2%) and 235 in category 5 (8.7%). Histology revealed 570 malignant lesions (32.9%), 152 high-risk lesions (8.8%), and 1010 benign lesions (58.3%). Malignancy was detected in 17 (2.3%) category 3 lesions, 364 (23.9%) category 4 lesions and 185 (78.7%) category 5 lesions. Median follow-up was 36.9 months. This pragmatic study reflects the assessment and management of breast impalpable abnormalities referred for care to a specialized Breast Unit. Multidisciplinary evaluation with BI-RADS classification accurately predicts malignancy, and reflects the quality of management. This assessment should be encouraged in community practice appraisal. (orig.)

  8. Reference-based digital concept to restore partially edentulous patients following an immediate loading protocol: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tahmaseb, A.; de Clerck, R.; Eckert, S.; Wismeijer, D.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe the use of a computer-aided three-dimensional planning protocol in combination with previously placed reference elements and computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacture (CAD/CAM) technology to restore the partially edentulous patient. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mini-implants

  9. A 10-day vacancy period after cleaning and disinfection has no effect on the bacterial load in pig nursery units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyckx, K; Millet, S; Van Weyenberg, S; Herman, L; Heyndrickx, M; Dewulf, J; De Reu, K

    2016-10-19

    Biosecurity measures such as cleaning, disinfection and a vacancy period between production cycles on pig farms are essential to prevent disease outbreaks. No studies have tested the effect of a longer vacancy period on bacterial load in nursery units. The present study evaluated the effect of a 10-day vacancy period in pig nursery units on total aerobic flora, Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli, faecal coliforms and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Three vacancy periods of 10 days were monitored, each time applied in 3 units. The microbiological load was measured before disinfection and at 1, 4, 7 and 10 days after disinfection. No significant decrease or increase in E. coli, faecal coliforms, MRSA and Enterococcus spp. was noticed. Total aerobic flora counts were the lowest on day 4 after disinfection (i.e. 4.07 log CFU/625 cm 2 ) (P disinfection, drinking nipples were still mostly contaminated with total aerobic flora (i.e. 5.32 log CFU/625 cm 2 ) and Enterococcus spp. (i.e. 95 % of the samples were positive) (P disinfection with no extra biosecurity measures has no impact on the environmental load of total aerobic flora, E. coli, faecal coliforms, MRSA and Enterococcus spp..

  10. Decentralized method for load sharing and power management in a hybrid single/three-phase islanded microgrid consisting of hybrid source PV/battery units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karimi, Yaser; Guerrero, Josep M.; Oraee, Hashem

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a new decentralized power management and load sharing method for a photovoltaic based, hybrid single/three-phase islanded microgrid consisting of various PV units, battery units and hybrid PV/battery units. The proposed method takes into account the available PV power...... and battery conditions of the units to share the load among them and power flow among different phases is performed automatically through three-phase units. Modified active power-frequency droop functions are used according to operating states of each unit and the frequency level is used as trigger...... for switching between the states. Efficacy of the proposed method in different load, PV generation and battery conditions is validated experimentally in a microgrid lab prototype consisted of one three-phase unit and two single-phase units....

  11. Catheter-related infections in a northwestern São Paulo reference unit for burned patients care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Penido Campos Júnior

    Full Text Available Despite improvements in care and rehabilitation of burned patients, infections still remain the main complication and death cause. Catheter-related infections are among the four most common infections and are associated with skin damage and insertion site colonization. There are few studies evaluating this kind of infection worldwide in this special group of patients. Padre Albino Hospital Burn Care Unit (PAHBCU is the only reference center in the Northwestern São Paulo for treatment of burned patients. This paper presents the results of a retrospective study aiming at describing the epidemiological and clinical features of catheter-related infections at PAHBCU.

  12. Electrical engineering unit for the reactive power control of the load bus at the voltage instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotenev, A. V.; Kotenev, V. I.; Kochetkov, V. V.; Elkin, D. A.

    2018-01-01

    For the purpose of reactive power control error reduction and decrease of the voltage sags in the electric power system caused by the asynchronous motors started the mathematical model of the load bus was developed. The model was built up of the sub-models of the following elements: a transformer, a transmission line, a synchronous and an asynchronous loads and a capacitor bank load, and represents the automatic reactive power control system taking into account electromagnetic processes of the asynchronous motors started and reactive power changing of the electric power system elements caused by the voltage fluctuation. The active power/time and reactive power/time characteristics based on the recommended procedure of the equivalent electric circuit parameters calculation were obtained. The derived automatic reactive power control system was shown to eliminate the voltage sags in the electric power system caused by the asynchronous motors started.

  13. HMSIW-based switchable units using super compact loaded shunt stubs and its applications on SIW/HMSIW switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haidong; Che, Wenquan; Zhang, Tianyu; Cao, Yue; Feng, Wenjie

    2018-06-01

    Half-mode substrate integrated waveguide (HMSIW) switchable unit, built by HMSIW section with loaded single or multi-microstrip shunt stub(s), was proposed in this work. Both shorted and opened stubs were studied, investigated and compared, bandwidth enhancement method for proposed switchable units was proposed and demonstrated. Based on these switchable units, narrowband and broadband HMSIW single-pole-single-through (SPST) switches, SIW SPST switch and SIW/HMSIW-based single-pole-double-through (SPDT) switch were designed, fabricated and measured. Good performances were observed experimentally for these proposed circuits, showing the advantages of proposed concept and an excellent candidate for switchable or reconfigurable SIW/HMSIW circuits or systems.

  14. Factors affecting stream nutrient loads: A synthesis of regional SPARROW model results for the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Stephen D.; Alexander, Richard B.; Schwarz, Gregory E.; Crawford, Charles G.

    2011-01-01

    We compared the results of 12 recently calibrated regional SPARROW (SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes) models covering most of the continental United States to evaluate the consistency and regional differences in factors affecting stream nutrient loads. The models - 6 for total nitrogen and 6 for total phosphorus - all provide similar levels of prediction accuracy, but those for major river basins in the eastern half of the country were somewhat more accurate. The models simulate long-term mean annual stream nutrient loads as a function of a wide range of known sources and climatic (precipitation, temperature), landscape (e.g., soils, geology), and aquatic factors affecting nutrient fate and transport. The results confirm the dominant effects of urban and agricultural sources on stream nutrient loads nationally and regionally, but reveal considerable spatial variability in the specific types of sources that control water quality. These include regional differences in the relative importance of different types of urban (municipal and industrial point vs. diffuse urban runoff) and agriculture (crop cultivation vs. animal waste) sources, as well as the effects of atmospheric deposition, mining, and background (e.g., soil phosphorus) sources on stream nutrients. Overall, we found that the SPARROW model results provide a consistent set of information for identifying the major sources and environmental factors affecting nutrient fate and transport in United States watersheds at regional and subregional scales. ?? 2011 American Water Resources Association. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  15. Field measurement of the piping system vibration of Ko-Ri unit 4 during the load-following operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Tae-Young; Hong, Sung-Yull; Kim, Bum-Nyun.

    1989-01-01

    During the load-following operation of nuclear power plants, flow rate, temperature, and pressure in the piping system can be varied by changing the electric power output level, and these variations can cause different vibration phenomena in the piping system. The piping system vibration is important because it is directly related to the dynamic stress of the piping system and can affect the life of the piping system through structural fatigue. An assessment of vibration levels for the classes II and III piping systems of the Ko-Ri Unit 4950-MW nuclear power plant was performed according to the given pattern of the load-following operation to study its feasibility from the viewpoint of piping system vibration. The classes II and III piping system vibration of the Ko-Ri Unit 4 may not cause any potential problem under the given pattern of the load-following operation; however, it is recommended that long-term operation in the 85 to 95% power range be avoided as much as possible

  16. Effect of SMES unit in load following contract in a restructured power ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    In order to achieve interconnected operation of a power system, an electric energy system must be maintained at a desired operating level characterized by nominal frequency, voltage ... path to exchange contract data as well as measurements to do load following in real-time. .... through its power conversion system (PCS).

  17. Aspects of medical migration with particular reference to the United Kingdom and the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herfs, Paul G P

    2014-10-14

    In most countries of the European Economic Area (EEA), there is no large-scale migration of medical graduates with diplomas obtained outside the EEA, which are international medical graduates (IMGs). In the United Kingdom however, health care is in part dependent on the influx of IMGs. In 2005, of all the doctors practising in the UK, 31% were educated outside the country. In most EEA-countries, health care is not dependent on the influx of IMGs.The aim of this study is to present data relating to the changes in IMG migration in the UK since the extension of the European Union in May 2004. In addition, data are presented on IMG migration in the Netherlands. These migration flows show that migration patterns differ strongly within these two EU-countries. This study makes use of registration data on migrating doctors from the General Medical Council (GMC) in the UK and from the Dutch Department of Health. Moreover, data on the ratio of medical doctors in relation to a country's population were extracted from the World Health Organization (WHO). The influx of IMGs in the UK has changed in recent years due to the extension of the European Union in 2004, the expansion of UK medical schools and changes in the policy towards non-EEA doctors.The influx of IMGs in the Netherlands is described in detail. In the Netherlands, many IMGs come from Afghanistan, Iraq and Surinam. There are clear differences between IMG immigration in the UK and in the Netherlands. In the UK, the National Health Service continues to be very reliant on immigration to fill shortage posts, whereas the number of immigrant doctors working in the Netherlands is much smaller. Both the UK and the Netherlands' regulatory bodies have shared great concerns about the linguistic and communication skills of both EEA and non-EEA doctors seeking to work in these countries. IMG migration is a global and intricate problem. The source countries, not only those where English is the first or second language, experience

  18. 1-GWh diurnal load-leveling superconducting magnetic energy storage system reference design. Appendix D: superconductive magnetic energy storage cavern construction methods and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-09-01

    The excavation and preparation of an underground cavern to contain a 1-GWh diurnal load-leveling Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) unit is examined. The cavern's principal function is to provide a rock structure for supporting the magnetic forces from the charged storage coil. Certain economic considerations indicate the refrigerator cold box for the helium system should also be underground. The study includes such a provision and considers, among other things, rock bolting, water seepage, concrete lining of the walls, steel bearing pads, a system to prevent freezing of the walls, a mining schedule, and costs

  19. An improved synchronous reference frame current control strategy for a photovoltaic grid-connected inverter under unbalanced and nonlinear load conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderipour, Amirreza; Asuhaimi Mohd Zin, Abdullah; Bin Habibuddin, Mohd Hafiz; Miveh, Mohammad Reza; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, renewable energy sources have been considered the most encouraging resources for grid and off-grid power generation. This paper presents an improved current control strategy for a three-phase photovoltaic grid-connected inverter (GCI) under unbalanced and nonlinear load conditions. It is challenging to suppress the harmonic content in the output current below a pre-set value in the GCI. It is also difficult to compensate for unbalanced loads even when the grid is under disruption due to total harmonic distortion (THD) and unbalanced loads. The primary advantage and objective of this method is to effectively compensate for the harmonic current content of the grid current and microgrid without the use of any compensation devices, such as active and passive filters. This method leads to a very low THD in both the GCI currents and the current exchanged with the grid. The control approach is designed to control the active and reactive power and harmonic current compensation, and it also corrects the system unbalance. The proposed control method features the synchronous reference frame (SRF) method. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effective performance of the proposed method. PMID:28192436

  20. An improved synchronous reference frame current control strategy for a photovoltaic grid-connected inverter under unbalanced and nonlinear load conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderipour, Amirreza; Asuhaimi Mohd Zin, Abdullah; Bin Habibuddin, Mohd Hafiz; Miveh, Mohammad Reza; Guerrero, Josep M

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, renewable energy sources have been considered the most encouraging resources for grid and off-grid power generation. This paper presents an improved current control strategy for a three-phase photovoltaic grid-connected inverter (GCI) under unbalanced and nonlinear load conditions. It is challenging to suppress the harmonic content in the output current below a pre-set value in the GCI. It is also difficult to compensate for unbalanced loads even when the grid is under disruption due to total harmonic distortion (THD) and unbalanced loads. The primary advantage and objective of this method is to effectively compensate for the harmonic current content of the grid current and microgrid without the use of any compensation devices, such as active and passive filters. This method leads to a very low THD in both the GCI currents and the current exchanged with the grid. The control approach is designed to control the active and reactive power and harmonic current compensation, and it also corrects the system unbalance. The proposed control method features the synchronous reference frame (SRF) method. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effective performance of the proposed method.

  1. Optimal fuzzy logic-based PID controller for load-frequency control including superconducting magnetic energy storage units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pothiya, Saravuth; Ngamroo, Issarachai

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a new optimal fuzzy logic-based-proportional-integral-derivative (FLPID) controller for load frequency control (LFC) including superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) units. Conventionally, the membership functions and control rules of fuzzy logic control are obtained by trial and error method or experiences of designers. To overcome this problem, the multiple tabu search (MTS) algorithm is applied to simultaneously tune PID gains, membership functions and control rules of FLPID controller to minimize frequency deviations of the system against load disturbances. The MTS algorithm introduces additional techniques for improvement of search process such as initialization, adaptive search, multiple searches, crossover and restarting process. Simulation results explicitly show that the performance of the optimum FLPID controller is superior to the conventional PID controller and the non-optimum FLPID controller in terms of the overshoot, settling time and robustness against variations of system parameters

  2. Quantitative estimation of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. 4. Toxoids as international reference materials defining Lf-units for diphtheria and tetanus toxoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyng, J

    1990-01-01

    The Lf-unit, which is used in the control of diphtheria and tetanus toxoid production and in some countries also to follow immunization of horses for production of antitoxins, has hitherto been defined by means of antitoxin preparations. A diphtheria toxoid and a tetanus toxoid preparation, both freeze-dried, were examined in an international collaborative study for their suitability to serve as reference reagents in the flocculation tests and for defining the Lf-units. It was shown that flocculation tests using the reference toxoids are very reproducible and reliable and the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization established: the toxoid called DIFT as the International Reference Reagent of Diphtheria Toxoid for Flocculation Test with a defined content of 900 Lf-units of diphtheria toxoid per ampoule; and the toxoid called TEFT as the International Reference Reagent of Tetanus Toxoid for Flocculation Test with a defined content of 1000 Lf-units of diphtheria toxoid per ampoule.

  3. Performance of HESCO Bastion Units Under Combined Normal and Cyclic Lateral Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    4 vii Figures and Tables Figures Figure 1. HESCO bastion welded wire mesh (WWM) panels. .................................................. 3...in the testing program. The Commander of ERDC was COL Bryan S. Green and the Director was Dr. Jeffery P. Holland. ERDC/CERL TR-17-4 x Unit... welded wire mesh that is used with a geotextile liner. HESCO units are set up onsite and filled with soil or sand, as available at the construction

  4. Consuming America : A Data-Driven Analysis of the United States as a Reference Culture in Dutch Public Discourse on Consumer Goods, 1890-1990

    OpenAIRE

    Wevers, M.J.H.F.

    2017-01-01

    Consuming America offers a data-driven, longitudinal analysis of the historical dynamics that have underpinned a long-term, layered cultural-historical process: the emergence of the United States as a dominant reference culture in Dutch public discourse on consumer goods between 1890 and 1990. The ideas, values, and practices associated with the United States in public discourse remained relatively steady over time, which might explain the country’s longevity as a reference culture and its po...

  5. Performance of Loaded Thermal Storage Unit with a Commercial Phase Change Materials based on Energy and Exergy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Nasrallh Olimat

    2017-11-01

    Article History: Received July 6th 2017; Received in revised form September 15th 2017; Accepted 25th Sept 2017; Available online How to Cite This Article: Olimat, A.N., Awad, A.S., Al-Gathain, F.M., and Shaban, N.A.. (2017 Performance of Loaded Thermal Storage Unit With A Commercial Phase Change Materials Based on Energy and Exergy Analysis. International Journal of Renewable Energy Develeopment, 6(3,283-290. https://doi.org/10.14710/ijred.6.3.283-290

  6. DRIRU I/SKIRU - The application of the DTG to spacecraft attitude control. [Dynamically-Tuned Gyro for Inertial Reference Unit systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, C. O.

    1982-01-01

    The dynamically tuned gyro (DTG) was developed to replace the floated, rate integrating gyro used for space attitude control, as the DTG fulfills cost, performance, and reliability requirements not satisfied by its predecessor. The use of this gyro in the Dry Gyro Inertial Reference Unit I (DRIRU I) marked the first application of a DTG in a spacecraft attitude reference unit. Design and performance characteristics of DTG application in the Singer-Kearfott Inertial Reference Unit (SKIRU) are outlined, for example its minimal weight (7 lb), and operational reliability. The DTG has accomplished 156,000 failure-free hours, and a chart, logging test performance, indicates that this and other requirements were more than sufficiently satisfied. The unit has an unparalleled life span, with several units still operating after 70,000 to 130,000 hours, and a random drift which always remains under 0.0005 deg/h. Potential for improvements, such as drift performance, are considered.

  7. Medium-range reference evapotranspiration forecasts for the contiguous United States based on multi-model numerical weather predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Hanoi; Tian, Di; Srivastava, Puneet; Pelosi, Anna; Chirico, Giovanni B.

    2018-07-01

    Reference evapotranspiration (ET0) plays a fundamental role in agronomic, forestry, and water resources management. Estimating and forecasting ET0 have long been recognized as a major challenge for researchers and practitioners in these communities. This work explored the potential of multiple leading numerical weather predictions (NWPs) for estimating and forecasting summer ET0 at 101 U.S. Regional Climate Reference Network stations over nine climate regions across the contiguous United States (CONUS). Three leading global NWP model forecasts from THORPEX Interactive Grand Global Ensemble (TIGGE) dataset were used in this study, including the single model ensemble forecasts from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (EC), the National Centers for Environmental Prediction Global Forecast System (NCEP), and the United Kingdom Meteorological Office forecasts (MO), as well as multi-model ensemble forecasts from the combinations of these NWP models. A regression calibration was employed to bias correct the ET0 forecasts. Impact of individual forecast variables on ET0 forecasts were also evaluated. The results showed that the EC forecasts provided the least error and highest skill and reliability, followed by the MO and NCEP forecasts. The multi-model ensembles constructed from the combination of EC and MO forecasts provided slightly better performance than the single model EC forecasts. The regression process greatly improved ET0 forecast performances, particularly for the regions involving stations near the coast, or with a complex orography. The performance of EC forecasts was only slightly influenced by the size of the ensemble members, particularly at short lead times. Even with less ensemble members, EC still performed better than the other two NWPs. Errors in the radiation forecasts, followed by those in the wind, had the most detrimental effects on the ET0 forecast performances.

  8. Comparison of competitive exclusion with classical cleaning and disinfection on bacterial load in pig nursery units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyckx, K; Millet, S; Van Weyenberg, S; Herman, L; Heyndrickx, M; Dewulf, J; De Reu, K

    2016-09-06

    Colonisation of the environment of nursery units by pathogenic micro-organisms is an important factor in the persistence and spread of endemic diseases in pigs and zoonotic pathogens. These pathogens are generally controlled by the use of antibiotics and disinfectants. Since an increasing resistance against these measures has been reported in recent years, methods such as competitive exclusion (CE) are promoted as promising alternatives. This study showed that the infection pressure in CE units after microbial cleaning was not reduced to the same degree as in control units. Despite sufficient administration of probiotic-type spores, the analysed bacteria did not decrease in number after 3 production rounds in CE units, indicating no competitive exclusion. In addition, no differences in feed conversion were found between piglets raised in CE and control units in our study. Also, no differences in faecal consistency (indicator for enteric diseases) was noticed. These results indicate that the CE protocol is not a valuable alternative for classical C&D.

  9. History of Nutrition: The Long Road Leading to the Dietary Reference Intakes for the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Suzanne P; Yates, Allison A; Atkinson, Stephanie A; Barr, Susan I; Dwyer, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are reference values to guide the planning and assessing of nutrient intakes in the United States and Canada. The DRI framework was conceptualized in 1994, and the first reports were issued from 1997–2004, based on work by expert panels and subcommittees under the guidance of the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine. Numerous conventions, challenges, and controversies were encountered during the process of defining and setting the DRIs, including the definition of the framework, the use of chronic disease endpoints, lack of data on requirements for children and youth, and methods for addressing nonessential bioactive substances with potential health benefits. DRIs may be used to plan and assess the nutrient intakes of both individuals and population groups, but the new paradigm particularly improved methods used for groups. It is now possible to estimate both the prevalence of inadequate intake and the prevalence of potentially excessive intake within a group. The DRIs have served as a potent influence on national nutrition policies, including those related to dietary guidance, food labeling, nutrition monitoring, food assistance programs, and military nutrition standards. Because of this important impact on nutrition policy, the DRIs must be based on the best possible and most up-to-date science. Unfortunately, no updates to specific DRIs are currently planned. Despite the long and challenging road that led to the current DRIs, it must not finish in a dead end. Monetary resources and political will are crucial to maintaining and continuously updating the DRIs.

  10. Validated measurements of microbial loads on environmental surfaces in intensive care units before and after disinfecting cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frickmann, H; Bachert, S; Warnke, P; Podbielski, A

    2018-03-01

    Preanalytic aspects can make results of hygiene studies difficult to compare. Efficacy of surface disinfection was assessed with an evaluated swabbing procedure. A validated microbial screening of surfaces was performed in the patients' environment and from hands of healthcare workers on two intensive care units (ICUs) prior to and after a standardized disinfection procedure. From a pure culture, the recovery rate of the swabs for Staphylococcus aureus was 35%-64% and dropped to 0%-22% from a mixed culture with 10-times more Staphylococcus epidermidis than S. aureus. Microbial surface loads 30 min before and after the cleaning procedures were indistinguishable. The quality-ensured screening procedure proved that adequate hygiene procedures are associated with a low overall colonization of surfaces and skin of healthcare workers. Unchanged microbial loads before and after surface disinfection demonstrated the low additional impact of this procedure in the endemic situation when the pathogen load prior to surface disinfection is already low. Based on a validated screening system ensuring the interpretability and reliability of the results, the study confirms the efficiency of combined hand and surface hygiene procedures to guarantee low rates of bacterial colonization. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. A Wireless Swing Angle Measurement Scheme Using Attitude Heading Reference System Sensing Units Based on Microelectromechanical Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingtuan Gao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Feasible real-time swing angle measurement is significant to improve the efficiency and safety of industrial crane systems. This paper presents a wireless microelectromechanical system (MEMS-based swing angle measurement system. The system consists of two attitude heading reference system (AHRS sensing units with a wireless communication function, which are mounted on the hook (or payload and the jib (or base of the crane, respectively. With a combination of a three-axis accelerometer, a three-axis gyroscope and a three-axis magnetometer, the standard extended Kalman filter (EKF is used to estimate the desired orientation of the payload and the base. Wireless ZigBee communication is employed to transmit the orientation of the payload to the sensing unit mounted on the base, which measures the orientation of the base. Because several physical parameters from the payload to the base can be acquired from the original crane control system, the swing angles of the payload can be calculated based on the two measured orientation parameters together with the known physical parameters. Experiments were performed to show the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed swing angle measurement system.

  12. METAALICUS : mercury experiment to assess atmospheric loading in Canada and the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, J.W.M.; Kelly, C.A. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Freshwater Inst.; Branfireun, B. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Geography; Gilmour, C.; Heyes, A. [Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Harris, R. [Tetra Tech Inc., Pasadena, CA (United States); Hintelmann, H. [Trent Univ., Peterborough, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry; Hurley, J.P. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Water Resources Inst.; Krabenhoft, D.P. [U.S. Geological Survey (United States); Lindberg, S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States); St Louis, V.L. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Scott, K.J. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Dept. of Microbiology

    2000-07-01

    Mercury emitted from coal-fired utilities is one of the major sources of anthropogenic mercury in the environment. Recently proposed control strategies for these emissions are expected to cost several billion dollars per year for North America alone. The major objective in controlling mercury emissions is to decrease levels of mercury in fish consumed by humans. However, since the actual relationship between atmospheric mercury deposition and fish mercury is still unknown, a unique whole-ecosystem study was conducted to address this issue. During the course of this study at the experimental Lakes Area in northwestern Ontario, the load of mercury in a small lake was increased by a factor of four to simulate the atmospheric loadings to lakes in northeastern North America. The mercury was added as three different stable isotopes to determine the most important sources of mercury to fish. The isotopes also made it possible to compare the availability of newly deposited mercury with old mercury stored in lake sediments and soils by analyzing mercury isotope patterns in biota. The response time in a catchment area to an increase in the rate of atmospheric deposition of mercury was calculated to determine if newly deposited mercury behaves in the same way as mercury that has accumulated in upland soils over many years.

  13. Live-load performance evaluation of historic covered timber bridges in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junwon Seo; Travis K. Hosteng; Brent M. Phares; James P. Wacker

    2015-01-01

    The National Historic Covered Bridge Preservation Program (NHCBP), sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), was established to preserve the covered timber bridge structures that were constructed in the early 1800s. Today, many of the approximately 880 covered timber bridges still in existence in the United States are closed to vehicular traffic;...

  14. [Manual handling of loads in the hotel trade: the experience of the ASL (Local Health Unit) Milan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontani, S; Mercuri, Irene; Salicco, R; Veratti, Silvia; Sorrentino, L

    2010-01-01

    There are over 400 hotels in Milan with a guest capacity of about 62,000 and employing more than 10,000 workers. In 2008/09 the Occupational Health and Safety Service of A.S.L. Milano (Local Health Unit) carried out research into the hotel trade to ascertain the development of this commercial sector, also in view of EXPO 2015. The aim of the project was to improve hygiene and safety conditions and carry out preventive measures. A specific purpose was to study manual handling of loads and repetitive movements risk. The study covered 30 hotels and 7 temporary staff cooperatives. We acquired the Risk Evaluation Document, the Health Surveillance Programme and Registers of Labour Accidents to analyze manual handling of loads and repetitive movements. In the investigations and assessments on hotels we used currently available scientific tools--NIOSH Lifting Index, Push and Pulling Analysis, OC.R.A. Check-List--to study risks related to handling loads and upper limb mechanical overload, which revealed a specific occupational risk that requires a fresh approach to prevention and safety in the entire sector. Chambermaid: LI (Range): 0.57-2.75; Push and Pulling Actions: Fi 0.66-Fm 1.5 and Fi 0.76-Fm 1.33 respectively; OC.R.A. Check-List: 21. Porter: LI (Range): 0.77-3.75. Maintenance staff LI (Range): 0.57-2.75. The study highlighted the presence of risk due to manual handling of loads and repetitive movements in porters, maintenance personnel and particularly in chambermaids that up to now have been poorly assessed by safety experts. Analysis of the information contained in the registers of labour accidents suggests that a significant number of accidents can be related to muscular-skeletal disorders that affect especially cleaning, portering and kitchen staff

  15. Economic Load Dispatch Unit Pembangkit Termal Mempertimbangkan Penambahan Pembangkit Tenaga Angin Dengan Menggunakan Firefly Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridho Syahrial Ibrahim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Maraknya isu global warming serta keterbatasan sumber daya alam membuat mulai banyaknya dibangun pembangkit-pembangkit listrik dengan renewable energy, salah satunya adalah pembangkit tenaga angin. Pada jurnal ini, firefly algorithm diterapkan untuk mengoptimasi total biaya pembangkitan 2 buah sistem uji, tanpa dan dengan mempertimbangkan penambahan tenaga angin. Hasil simulasi menunjukkan bahwa dengan penambahan pembangkit tenaga angin ke dalam sistem tenaga listrik, total biaya pembangkitan tidak selalu lebih murah. Selain itu, hasil simulasi juga menunjukkan bahwa firefly algorithm sebagai metode optimasi dapat menyelesaikan permasalahan economic load dispatch (ELD lebih baik dibandingkan metode lain yang sudah dilakukan, yaitu particle swarm optimization (PSO, bat algorithm (BA, biogeography-based optimization (BBO dan plant growth simulation algorithm (PGSA dengan persentase selisih nilai penghematan total biaya berkisar antara 0.32% ($50 hingga 9.27% ($11884.

  16. Coordination Between Wind Power, Hydro Storage Facility and Conventional Generating Units According to the Annual Growth Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrokh Shojaeean

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Considering the growing trend of the consumption of the electric power and the global tendency to substitute new renewable sources of energy, this paper proposes a Monte Carlo based method to determine an optimal level of this change. Considering the limitation of the wind farms in continuous supply of electric power, hydrostatic power storage facilities are used beside wind farms so that the electric power could be stored and fed in a continuous flow into power systems. Due to the gradual exclusion of conventional generators and 5 percent annual load increments, LOLE index was used in order to calculate the amount of the wind power and the capacity of the necessary power storage facility. To this end, LOLE index was calculated for the first year as the reference index for the estimation of the amount of wind power and the capacity of the storage facility in consequent years. For the upcoming years, calculations have been made to account for the gradual exclusion of conventional generators in proportion to load increments. The proposed method has been implemented and simulated on IEEE-RTS test system.

  17. A novel method of calibrating a MEMS inertial reference unit on a turntable under limited working conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiazhen; Liang, Shufang; Yang, Yanqiang

    2017-10-01

    Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) inertial measurement devices tend to be widely used in inertial navigation systems and have quickly emerged on the market due to their characteristics of low cost, high reliability and small size. Calibration is the most effective way to remove the deterministic error of an inertial reference unit (IRU), which in this paper consists of three orthogonally mounted MEMS gyros. However, common testing methods in the lab cannot predict the corresponding errors precisely when the turntable’s working condition is restricted. In this paper, the turntable can only provide a relatively small rotation angle. Moreover, the errors must be compensated exactly because of the great effect caused by the high angular velocity of the craft. To deal with this question, a new method is proposed to evaluate the MEMS IRU’s performance. In the calibration procedure, a one-axis table that can rotate a limited angle in the form of a sine function is utilized to provide the MEMS IRU’s angular velocity. A new algorithm based on Fourier series is designed to calculate the misalignment and scale factor errors. The proposed method is tested in a set of experiments, and the calibration results are compared to a traditional calibration method performed under normal working conditions to verify their correctness. In addition, a verification test in the given rotation speed is implemented for further demonstration.

  18. EVALUASI PEMANFAATAN JURNAL DALAM DATABASE "EBSCO BIOMEDICAL REFERENCE COLLECTION" DI UNIT PERPUSTAKAAN DAN INFORMATIKA KEDOKTERAN (UPIK FAKULTAS KEDOKTERAN UGM YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Wardhani S.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Evaluasi terhadap pemanfaatan koleksi sangat diperlukan untuk mengetahui seberapa besar koleksi tersebut diakses dan dimanfaatkan oleh pengguna. Ebsco Biomedical Reference Collection (Ebsco BRC merupakan salah satu database jurnal yang berparadigma akses. Evaluasi pemanfaatan jurnal dalam database Ebsco BRC merupakan penelitian tentang pemanfaatan koleksi perpustakaan yang dilakukan di UPIK (Unit Perpustakaan dan Informatika Kedokteran Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Gadjah Mada Yogyakarta. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui tingkat keterpakaian dan pemanfaatan jumal oleh sivitas akademika di FK UGM. Evaluasi dilakukan dengan metode deskriptif dengan pendekatan data kuantitatif dan kualitatif. . Instrumen yang digunakan dalam evaluasi adalah kuesioner dan usage statistics report. Hasil Penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa tingkat keterpakaian jurnal berdasarkan judul yang ada tinggi (97,96%, akan tetapi tingkat pengaksesannya belum dilakukan secara maksimal. Rata-rata pengaksesan jurnal setiap harinya 25%. Dari data usage statistics report dapat diketahui sebanyak 12 judul jumal yang diakses lebih dari 1000 kali yang dinyatakan sebagai jumal yang paling sering diakses oleh pengguna. Saran peneliti berdasarkan hasil penelitian yang diperoleh adalah bahwa kegiatan melanggan koleksi database Ebsco dapat terus dilakukan , akan tetapi UPIK harus berusaha meningkatkan sosialisasi koleksi, aksesibilitas, fasilitas, dan bimbingan bagi pengguna dalam melakukan penelusuran dalam database tersebut agar dapat dimanfaatkan secara maksimal. Kata Kunci: Evaluasi Koleksi, Ebsco

  19. Impact of flow induced vibration acoustic loads on the design of the Laguna Verde Unit 2 steam dryer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsyth, D. R.; Wellstein, L. F.; Theuret, R. C.; Han, Y.; Rajakumar, C.; Amador C, C.; Sosa F, W.

    2015-09-01

    Industry experience with Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) has shown that increasing the steam flow through the main steam lines (MSLs) to implement an extended power up rate (EPU) may lead to amplified acoustic loads on the steam dryer, which may negatively affect the structural integrity of the component. The source of these acoustic loads has been found to be acoustic resonance of the side branches on the MSLs, specifically, coupling of the vortex shedding frequency and natural acoustic frequency of safety relief valves (SRVs). The resonance that results from this coupling can contribute significant acoustic energy into the MSL system, which may propagate upstream into the reactor pressure vessel steam dome and drive structural vibration of steam dryer components. This can lead to high-cycle fatigue issues. Lock-in between the vortex shedding frequency and SRV natural frequency, as well as the ability for acoustic energy to propagate into the MSL system, are a function of many things, including the plant operating conditions, geometry of the MSL/SRV junction, and placement of SRVs with respect to each other on the MSLs. Comision Federal de Electricidad and Westinghouse designed, fabricated, and installed acoustic side branches (ASBs) on the MSLs which effectively act in the system as an energy absorber, where the acoustic standing wave generated in the side-branch is absorbed and dissipated inside the ASB. These ASBs have been very successful in reducing the amount of acoustic energy which propagates into the steam dome. In addition, modifications to the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant Unit 2 steam dryer have been completed to reduce the stress levels in critical locations in the dryer. The objective of this paper is to describe the acoustic side branch concept and the design iterative processes that were undertaken at Laguna Verde Unit 2 to achieve a steam dryer design that meets the guidelines of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Boiler and Pressure

  20. Impact of flow induced vibration acoustic loads on the design of the Laguna Verde Unit 2 steam dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, D. R.; Wellstein, L. F.; Theuret, R. C.; Han, Y.; Rajakumar, C. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA 16066 (United States); Amador C, C.; Sosa F, W., E-mail: forsytdr@westinghouse.com [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde, Km 42.5 Carretera Cardel-Nautla, 91680 Alto Lucero, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    Industry experience with Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) has shown that increasing the steam flow through the main steam lines (MSLs) to implement an extended power up rate (EPU) may lead to amplified acoustic loads on the steam dryer, which may negatively affect the structural integrity of the component. The source of these acoustic loads has been found to be acoustic resonance of the side branches on the MSLs, specifically, coupling of the vortex shedding frequency and natural acoustic frequency of safety relief valves (SRVs). The resonance that results from this coupling can contribute significant acoustic energy into the MSL system, which may propagate upstream into the reactor pressure vessel steam dome and drive structural vibration of steam dryer components. This can lead to high-cycle fatigue issues. Lock-in between the vortex shedding frequency and SRV natural frequency, as well as the ability for acoustic energy to propagate into the MSL system, are a function of many things, including the plant operating conditions, geometry of the MSL/SRV junction, and placement of SRVs with respect to each other on the MSLs. Comision Federal de Electricidad and Westinghouse designed, fabricated, and installed acoustic side branches (ASBs) on the MSLs which effectively act in the system as an energy absorber, where the acoustic standing wave generated in the side-branch is absorbed and dissipated inside the ASB. These ASBs have been very successful in reducing the amount of acoustic energy which propagates into the steam dome. In addition, modifications to the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant Unit 2 steam dryer have been completed to reduce the stress levels in critical locations in the dryer. The objective of this paper is to describe the acoustic side branch concept and the design iterative processes that were undertaken at Laguna Verde Unit 2 to achieve a steam dryer design that meets the guidelines of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Boiler and Pressure

  1. A Comparative Reference Study for the Validation of HLA-Matching Algorithms in the Search for Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Donors and Cord Blood Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-15

    donors and cord blood units W. Bochtler1, L. Gragert2, Z. I. Patel3, J. Robinson3,4, D. Steiner5, J. A. Hofmann6, J. Pingel6, A. Baouz7, A. Melis8, J...cord blood units for individual patients is of primary importance. This challenging search process is routinely performed in a donor registry or cord...term ‘ donor ’ to refer to donors of HSCs from bone marrow or peripheral blood and cord blood units and the term ‘ donor registry’ shall include cord blood

  2. Consuming America : A Data-Driven Analysis of the United States as a Reference Culture in Dutch Public Discourse on Consumer Goods, 1890-1990

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wevers, M.J.H.F.

    2017-01-01

    Consuming America offers a data-driven, longitudinal analysis of the historical dynamics that have underpinned a long-term, layered cultural-historical process: the emergence of the United States as a dominant reference culture in Dutch public discourse on consumer goods between 1890 and 1990. The

  3. Influence of bearing pre-load coefficient on shaft vibration and pad temperature in a hydroturbine generator unit. A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Fuzhou; Chu Fulei; Guo Dan; Lu Wenxiu [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, BJ (China). Dept. of Precision Instruments

    2001-07-01

    From data collected by an online condition monitoring and fault diagnosis system, a higher pad temperature at the upper guide bearing in a pumped storage power generator unit installed in Guangdong province(GPSPS), China, was found. And also a relatively intensive shaft vibration occurred at the lower guide bearing. By calculating the Reynolds equation and viscosity-temperature equation of the lubricant, a curve between the pre-load coefficient and the increment of pad temperature is obtained, which shows that the larger, the pre-load coefficient, the bigger, the increment of pad temperature. For a practical unit in GPSPS, by employing Transfer matrix method and Wilson-{theta} method to analyze shaft vibration at different pre-load coefficients of the whole bearing or ''pad pair'' bearings, the results show that the larger the pre-load coefficient is, the smaller the vibration amplitude is, the shorter the time for vibration to become steady is. And an uneven pre-load coefficient of the ''pad pair'' bearings will cause shaft orbit from a circle to an ellipse whose long axes is at the direction of the ''pad pair'' with the lowest pre-load coefficient. Finally, reasons of higher pad temperature of the upper guide bearing and larger shaft vibration at the lower guide bearing are due to the inconsistent relation of bearing assembling clearance or pre-load coefficient of the upper and lower guide bearing, and also due to the too small, uneven pre-load coefficient of ''pad pair'' bearings. After a scheme for adjusting the bearing clearance is given, data measured show that the analysis and simulation methods are correct and the adjustment scheme to the assembling clearance of the upper and lower guide bearings is feasible and can be used to guide the field maintenance conveniently. (orig.)

  4. Regulation of unbalanced electromagnetic moment in mutual loading systems of electric machines of traction rolling stock and multiple unit of mainline and industrial transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Afanasov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The research data are aimed to identify the regulatory principles of unbalanced electromagnetic moment of mutually loaded electric machines of traction rolling stock and multiple unit of main and industrial transport. The purpose of this study is energy efficiency increase of the testing of traction electric machines of direct and pulse current using the improvement methods of their mutual loading, including the principles of automatic regulation of mutual loading system. Methodology. The general theoretical provisions and principles of system approach to the theoretical electric engineering, the theory of electric machines and theoretical mechanics are the methodological basis of this research. The known methods of analysis of electromagnetic and electromechanical processes in electrical machines of direct and pulse current are used in the study. Methods analysis of loading modes regulation of traction electric machines was conducted using the generalized scheme of mutual loading. It is universal for all known methods to cover the losses of idling using the electric power. Findings. The general management principles of mutual loading modes of the traction electric machines of direct and pulse current by regulating their unbalanced electric magnetic moment were developed. Regulatory options of unbalanced electromagnetic moment are examined by changing the difference of the magnetic fluxes of mutually loaded electric machines, the current difference of electric machines anchors, the difference of the angular velocities of electric machines shafts. Originality. It was obtained the scientific basis development to improve the energy efficiency test methods of traction electric machines of direct and pulse current. The management principles of mutual loading modes of traction electric machines were formulated. For the first time it is introduced the concept and developed the principles of regulation of unbalanced electromagnetic moment in

  5. Development of a reference Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU for the monitoring and control of grid stability and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndilimabaka Hervé

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the details of the development of a Phasor Measurement Unit regarding the requirements of the IEEE C37.118-2005 synchrophasor standard relative to steady-state conditions on grid monitoring and control. This phasor measurement unit is intended to be used for field tests sooner.

  6. Development of a reference Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) for the monitoring and control of grid stability and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndilimabaka, Hervé; Blanc, Isabelle

    2014-08-01

    This paper discusses the details of the development of a Phasor Measurement Unit regarding the requirements of the IEEE C37.118-2005 synchrophasor standard relative to steady-state conditions on grid monitoring and control. This phasor measurement unit is intended to be used for field tests sooner.

  7. MCNP calculation of the critical H_3BO_3 concentrations for the first fuel loading into the reactor core of NPP MO-3-4 units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrban, B.; Lueley, J.; Farkas, G.; Hascik, J.; Hinca, R.; Petriska, M.; Slugen, V.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the analysis was the determination of critical H_3BO_3 concentrations for the first fuel loading into the reactor core of MO34 units using 2"n"d generation fuel during the first start-up of new unit using calculation code MCNP 1.60. H_3BO_3 concentrations were computed for the given temperature of the primary circuit and position of the 6"t"h safety control rod group. Because of the very first start-up of these units, detailed analyses of active-core parameters are required by National Regulatory Authority and needed for safe operation of nuclear facility. (authors)

  8. Metal Top Adapter ACV0000807, Manufactured by Delfasco, Inc. for Alliant Techsystems, Inc., for PA116 Containers on a 44" x 40" Wood Pallet, First Article Tests (FATs) IAW MIL-STD-1660, "Design Criteria for Ammunition Unit Loads"

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dugan, Jeffery L

    2008-01-01

    ...) test units were tested with a load of 2,495 lbs each. The tests accomplished on the test units were the Stacking, Repetitive Shock, Drop, Incline-Impact, Sling Compatibility, Forklifting, and Disassembly Tests...

  9. Report of the consultants' meeting on traceability of IAEA-AQCS reference materials to SI-units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the meeting was to discuss the present Agency's Analytical Quality Control Services (AQCS) procedure for the characterization of reference materials and to identify necessary improvements or changes needed to fulfill the requirements on traceability and uncertainty related to the property value of IAEA reference materials. This publication contains a summary of the discussions held at the meeting as well as specific recommendations made by the consultants. It also contains draft reports of two previous meetings and individual papers presented by the consultants at the meeting. These reports and papers have been provided with abstracts and indexed separately

  10. What is driving rates of social policy preliminary references to the CJEU? Evidence from the United Kingdom and France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigafoos, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Preliminary references to the Court of Justice for the European Union are unevenly distributed across the EU, creating differing access to justice for European citizens. This study presents case studies of the UK and France, exploring factors affecting rates of social policy preliminary references from 1996–2009. The UK had a rate twice that of France. What accounts for this difference? Analysis of documentary evidence and 25 expert interviews help to explain the differing rates. Themes were related to policy, structural factors and the agency of actors. In the UK, policy themes are the free movement of persons and the ‘Right to Reside’ test. Legal aid and legal NGOs help individuals access the Court and drive test case strategies. In France, a high degree of dualisation in the welfare state creates an insider/outsider dynamic. Coupled with the resistance of courts and a lack of comparable actors to drive preliminary references, this contributes to a lower rate of references. PMID:23565042

  11. Statistical analysis of the vibration loading of the reactor internals and fuel assemblies of reactor units type WWER-440 from deferent projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovcharov, O.; Pavelko, V.; Usanov, A.; Arkadov, G.; Dolgov, A.; Molchanov, V.; Anikeev, J.; Pljush, A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the following items have been presented: 1) Vibration noise instrument channels; 2) Vibration loading characteristics of control assemblies, internals and design peculiarities of internals of WWER-440 deferent projects; 3) Coolant flow rate through the reactor, reactor core, fuel assemblies and control assemblies for different projects WWER-440 and 4) Noise measurements of coolant speed per channel. The change of auto power spectrum density of absolute displacement detector signal for the last 12 years of SUS monitoring of the Kola NPP unit 2; the coherence functions groups between two SPND of the same level for the Kola NPP unit 1; the measured coolant flow rate at Paks NPP and the auto power spectrum density group of SPND signals from 11 neutron measuring channels of the Kola NPP unit 1 are given. The main factors of vibration loading of internals and fuel assemblies for Kola NPP units 1-4, Bohunice NPP units 1 and 2 and Novovoronezh NPP units 3 and 4 are also discussed

  12. Electronic load as part of the test complex of the power processing unit of electric and plasma propulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Chubov, S. V.; Soldatov, Aleksey Ivanovich

    2017-01-01

    This article provides the advantages and technical solutions for the use of electronic loads as part of a testing complex of power and management systems of electric and plasma propulsion of three types. The paper shows the parameters that were applied to select the electronic loads and describes their functionality.

  13. 40 CFR 60.1810 - How do I monitor the load of my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... municipal waste combustion unit? 60.1810 Section 60.1810 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Guidelines and Compliance Times for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30... combustion unit? (a) If your municipal waste combustion unit generates steam, you must install, calibrate...

  14. The economic costs and benefits of potassium iodide prophylaxis for a reference LWR facility in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behling, U.H.; Behling, K.

    1995-01-01

    Policy decisions relating to radiation protection are commonly based on an evaluation in which the benefits of exposure reduction are compared to the economic costs of the protective measure. A generic difficulty countered in cost-benefit analyses, however, is the quantification of major elements that define the costs and the benefits in commensurate units. In this study, the costs of making KI (potassium iodine) available for public use and the avoidance of thyroidal health effects (i.e., the benefit) in the event of nuclear emergency are defined in the commensurate units of dollars. (Authors). 11 refs., 15 tabs

  15. The effects of loading on the preload and dimensions of the abutment screw for a 3-unit cantilever-fixed prosthesis design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Gaurav; Yousef, Hoda; Ehrenberg, David; Luke, Allyn; Weiner, Saul

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to use an in vitro model system to compare the effects on the screw torque and screw dimensions within 2 commercially available implant systems from occlusal loading on a cantilevered-fixed partial denture. Cantilevered implant-supported 3-unit prostheses with 2 premolar abutments and 1 premolar pontic (7.3 mm in length) were made on resin casts containing 2 implant analogs for 2 implant systems: BioLok Silhouette Tapered Implant System (Birmingham, AL) and Zimmer Tapered Screw-Vent Implant System (Carlsbad, CA) with 10 samples in each group. Each sample was loaded with either of 2 protocols: (1) a load of 50 N on the cantilevered pontic unit and (2) a loading of 150 N on all 3 units. The outcome measures were (1) changes in residual torque of the abutment screws and (2) changes in screw dimension. The BioLok Silhouette Tapered Implant group demonstrated slight but statistically significant torque loss 18.8% to 28.5% in both abutment screws for both protocols, P ≤ 0.05, without any changes in screw dimension. In the Zimmer Tapered Screw-Vent Implant group, there was a significant elongation of the abutment screws and a markedly significant 44.4%, (P ≤ 0.01) loss in torque in the mesial screw and a 28.5%, (P ≤ 0.05) loss in torque in the distal screw when the cantilever alone was loaded. Differences in screw design influence the maintenance of preload and distortion of the shank. The influence of the interface design, namely an internal hex of 1 mm versus an external hex did not influence the preload. Cantilevered prostheses can cause loss of torque and dimensional changes in abutment screws.

  16. Failure study of helium-cooled tungsten divertor plasma-facing units tested at DEMO relevant steady-state heat loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritz, G; Pintsuk, G; Linke, J; Hirai, T; Norajitra, P; Reiser, J; Giniyatulin, R; Makhankov, A; Mazul, I

    2009-01-01

    Tungsten was selected as armor material for the helium-cooled divertor in future DEMO-type fusion reactors and fusion power plants. After realizing the design and testing of them under cyclic thermal loads of up to ∼14 MW m -2 , the tungsten divertor plasma-facing units were examined by metallography; they revealed failures such as cracks at the thermal loaded and as-machined surfaces, as well as degradation of the brazing layers. Furthermore, in order to optimize the machining processes, the quality of tungsten surfaces prepared by turning, milling and using a diamond cutting wheel were examined. This paper presents a metallographic examination of the tungsten plasma-facing units as well as technical studies and the characterization on machining of tungsten and alternative brazing joints.

  17. Failure study of helium-cooled tungsten divertor plasma-facing units tested at DEMO relevant steady-state heat loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, G.; Hirai, T.; Norajitra, P.; Reiser, J.; Giniyatulin, R.; Makhankov, A.; Mazul, I.; Pintsuk, G.; Linke, J.

    2009-12-01

    Tungsten was selected as armor material for the helium-cooled divertor in future DEMO-type fusion reactors and fusion power plants. After realizing the design and testing of them under cyclic thermal loads of up to ~14 MW m-2, the tungsten divertor plasma-facing units were examined by metallography; they revealed failures such as cracks at the thermal loaded and as-machined surfaces, as well as degradation of the brazing layers. Furthermore, in order to optimize the machining processes, the quality of tungsten surfaces prepared by turning, milling and using a diamond cutting wheel were examined. This paper presents a metallographic examination of the tungsten plasma-facing units as well as technical studies and the characterization on machining of tungsten and alternative brazing joints.

  18. The Masticatory Contractile Load Induced Expression and Activation of Akt1/PKBα in Muscle Fibers at the Myotendinous Junction within Muscle-Tendon-Bone Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yüksel Korkmaz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The cell specific detection of enzyme activation in response to the physiological contractile load within muscle-tendon-bone unit is essential for understanding of the mechanical forces transmission from muscle cells via tendon to the bone. The hypothesis that the physiological mechanical loading regulates activation of Akt1/PKBα at Thr308 and at Ser473 in muscle fibers within muscle-tendon-bone unit was tested using quantitative immunohistochemistry, confocal double fluorescence analysis, and immunoblot analysis. In comparison to the staining intensities in peripheral regions of the muscle fibers, Akt1/PKBα was detected with a higher staining intensity in muscle fibers at the myotendinous junction (MTJ areas. In muscle fibers at the MTJ areas, Akt1/PKBα is dually phosphorylated at Thr308 and Ser473. The immunohistochemical results were confirmed by immunoblot analysis. We conclude that contractile load generated by masticatory muscles induces local domain-dependent expression of Akt1/PKBα as well as activation by dually phosphorylation at Thr308 and Ser473 in muscle fibers at the MTJ areas within muscle-tendon-bone unit.

  19. Suggestions toward some discourse-analytic approaches to text difficulty: with special reference to ‘T-unit configuration’ in the textual unfolding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem Lotfipour-Saedi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents some suggestions towards discourse-analytic approaches for ESL/EFL education, with the focus on identifying the textual forms which can contribute to the textual difficulty. Textual difficulty / comprehensibility, rather than being purely text-based or reader-dependent, is certainly a matter of interaction between text and reader. The paper will look at some of the textual factors which can be argued to make a text more or less readable for the same reader. The main focus here will be on academic texts. The high cognitive load and low readability of the expository texts in various academic disciplines will be argued to belong to certain textual strategies as well as variations in the configurations of the T-units as the prime scaffolding for the textualization process. Different categories of these variations to be discussed here will be exemplified from a few academic and expository registers. More extensive textual analyses will, of course, be necessary in order to be able to make evidential suggestions for possible correlations between certain types and clusters of T-unit configurations on the one hand, and cognitive load and readability indices on the other, across various academic registers, genres and disciplines.

  20. The Effects of Viral Load Burden on Pregnancy Loss among HIV-Infected Women in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan E. Cates

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To evaluate the effects of HIV viral load, measured cross-sectionally and cumulatively, on the risk of miscarriage or stillbirth (pregnancy loss among HIV-infected women enrolled in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study between 1994 and 2013. Methods. We assessed three exposures: most recent viral load measure before the pregnancy ended, log10 copy-years viremia from initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART to conception, and log10 copy-years viremia in the two years before conception. Results. The risk of pregnancy loss for those with log10 viral load >4.00 before pregnancy ended was 1.59 (95% confidence interval (CI: 0.99, 2.56 times as high as the risk for women whose log10 viral load was ≤1.60. There was not a meaningful impact of log10 copy-years viremia since ART or log10 copy-years viremia in the two years before conception on pregnancy loss (adjusted risk ratios (aRRs: 0.80 (95% CI: 0.69, 0.92 and 1.00 (95% CI: 0.90, 1.11, resp.. Conclusions. Cumulative viral load burden does not appear to be an informative measure for pregnancy loss risk, but the extent of HIV replication during pregnancy, as represented by plasma HIV RNA viral load, predicted loss versus live birth in this ethnically diverse cohort of HIV-infected US women.

  1. The Effects of Viral Load Burden on Pregnancy Loss among HIV-Infected Women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Jordan E; Westreich, Daniel; Edmonds, Andrew; Wright, Rodney L; Minkoff, Howard; Colie, Christine; Greenblatt, Ruth M; Cejtin, Helen E; Karim, Roksana; Haddad, Lisa B; Kempf, Mirjam-Colette; Golub, Elizabeth T; Adimora, Adaora A

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of HIV viral load, measured cross-sectionally and cumulatively, on the risk of miscarriage or stillbirth (pregnancy loss) among HIV-infected women enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study between 1994 and 2013. We assessed three exposures: most recent viral load measure before the pregnancy ended, log10 copy-years viremia from initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) to conception, and log10 copy-years viremia in the two years before conception. The risk of pregnancy loss for those with log10 viral load >4.00 before pregnancy ended was 1.59 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99, 2.56) times as high as the risk for women whose log10 viral load was ≤1.60. There was not a meaningful impact of log10 copy-years viremia since ART or log10 copy-years viremia in the two years before conception on pregnancy loss (adjusted risk ratios (aRRs): 0.80 (95% CI: 0.69, 0.92) and 1.00 (95% CI: 0.90, 1.11), resp.). Cumulative viral load burden does not appear to be an informative measure for pregnancy loss risk, but the extent of HIV replication during pregnancy, as represented by plasma HIV RNA viral load, predicted loss versus live birth in this ethnically diverse cohort of HIV-infected US women.

  2. An improved synchronous reference frame current control strategy for a photovoltaic grid-connected inverter under unbalanced and nonlinear load conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naderipour, Amirreza; Asuhaimi Mohd Zin, Abdullah; Bin Habibuddin, Mohd Hafiz

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, renewable energy sources have been considered the most encouraging resources for grid and off-grid power generation. This paper presents an improved current control strategy for a three-phase photovoltaic grid-connected inverter (GCI) under unbalanced and nonlinear load conditions....... It is challenging to suppress the harmonic content in the output current below a pre-set value in the GCI. It is also difficult to compensate for unbalanced loads even when the grid is under disruption due to total harmonic distortion (THD) and unbalanced loads. The primary advantage and objective of this method...... is to effectively compensate for the harmonic current content of the grid current and microgrid without the use of any compensation devices, such as active and passive filters. This method leads to a very low THD in both the GCI currents and the current exchanged with the grid. The control approach is designed...

  3. Use of a United States-based laboratory as a hematopathology reference center for a developing country: logistics and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deetz, C O; Scott, M G; Ladenson, J H; Seyoum, M; Hassan, A; Kreisel, F H; Nguyen, T T; Frater, J L

    2013-02-01

    With proper logistical support and sponsorship, a laboratory in an industrialized nation might be able to act as a reference laboratory for clinicians based in a developing country. We built on previous experience in the clinical laboratory to see whether a specialized histopathology service (hematopathology) could be provided to a developing country without the expertise or experience to do it in country. Over an 13-year period, 582 cases from 579 individuals were analyzed. Principal pathologic findings included acute leukemia in 84 cases (14%), dyspoiesis in one or more of the hematopoietic lineages in 65 cases (11%, including three cases with high-grade myelodysplasia), 23 cases (4%) with findings suspicious for a chronic myeloproliferative disorder, 35 cases (6%) with findings suspicious for a lymphoproliferative disorder, and infectious organisms (presumably Leishmania in most instances) in 9 (1%) of cases. Specimens from 45 cases (8%) were unsatisfactory owing to extreme hemodilution and/or specimen degeneration. With proper support, a medical laboratory in an industrialized nation may serve as a reference facility for a developing nation. The use of existing infrastructure may be remarkably effective to achieve optimal turnaround time. Although the lack of ancillary studies and follow-up biopsies limit the ability to achieve a definitive diagnosis in many cases, this must be viewed in the context of the limited ability to diagnose or manage hematopoietic neoplasia in developing nations. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. De novo clustering methods outperform reference-based methods for assigning 16S rRNA gene sequences to operational taxonomic units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L. Westcott

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. 16S rRNA gene sequences are routinely assigned to operational taxonomic units (OTUs that are then used to analyze complex microbial communities. A number of methods have been employed to carry out the assignment of 16S rRNA gene sequences to OTUs leading to confusion over which method is optimal. A recent study suggested that a clustering method should be selected based on its ability to generate stable OTU assignments that do not change as additional sequences are added to the dataset. In contrast, we contend that the quality of the OTU assignments, the ability of the method to properly represent the distances between the sequences, is more important.Methods. Our analysis implemented six de novo clustering algorithms including the single linkage, complete linkage, average linkage, abundance-based greedy clustering, distance-based greedy clustering, and Swarm and the open and closed-reference methods. Using two previously published datasets we used the Matthew’s Correlation Coefficient (MCC to assess the stability and quality of OTU assignments.Results. The stability of OTU assignments did not reflect the quality of the assignments. Depending on the dataset being analyzed, the average linkage and the distance and abundance-based greedy clustering methods generated OTUs that were more likely to represent the actual distances between sequences than the open and closed-reference methods. We also demonstrated that for the greedy algorithms VSEARCH produced assignments that were comparable to those produced by USEARCH making VSEARCH a viable free and open source alternative to USEARCH. Further interrogation of the reference-based methods indicated that when USEARCH or VSEARCH were used to identify the closest reference, the OTU assignments were sensitive to the order of the reference sequences because the reference sequences can be identical over the region being considered. More troubling was the observation that while both USEARCH and

  5. Estimation of Hydrodynamic Impact Loads and Pressure Distributions on Bodies Approximating Elliptical Cylinders with Special Reference to Water Landings of Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzer, Emanuel; Hathaway, Melvin E

    1953-01-01

    An approximate method for computing water loads and pressure distributions on lightly loaded elliptical cylinders during oblique water impacts is presented. The method is of special interest for the case of emergency water landings of helicopters. This method makes use of theory developed and checked for landing impacts of seaplanes having bottom cross sections of V and scalloped contours. An illustrative example is given to show typical results obtained from the use of the proposed method of computation. The accuracy of the approximate method was evaluated through comparison with limited experimental data for two-dimensional drops of a rigid circular cylinder at a trim of 0 degrees and a flight -path angle of 90 degrees. The applicability of the proposed formulas to the design of rigid hulls is indicated by the rough agreement obtained between the computed and experimental results. A detailed computational procedure is included as an appendix.

  6. Intermodal Storage and Transport Frame (ISTF) MIL-STD-1660 Design Criteria for Ammunition Unit Loads Tests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barickman, Philip

    2004-01-01

    .... The ISTF was evaluated by the testing procedures set forth in MIL-STD-1660. Stacking, vibration, edgewise rotational drop, incline impact, sling compatibility, forklifting, and disassembly testing were conducted on the ISTF units...

  7. Prediction of equibiaxial loading stress in collagen-based extracellular matrix using a three-dimensional unit cell model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilo, Monica E; Bell, Brett J; Roeder, Blayne A; Voytik-Harbin, Sherry L; Kokini, Klod; Nauman, Eric A

    2013-03-01

    Mechanical signals are important factors in determining cell fate. Therefore, insights as to how mechanical signals are transferred between the cell and its surrounding three-dimensional collagen fibril network will provide a basis for designing the optimum extracellular matrix (ECM) microenvironment for tissue regeneration. Previously we described a cellular solid model to predict fibril microstructure-mechanical relationships of reconstituted collagen matrices due to unidirectional loads (Acta Biomater 2010;6:1471-86). The model consisted of representative volume elements made up of an interconnected network of flexible struts. The present study extends this work by adapting the model to account for microstructural anisotropy of the collagen fibrils and a biaxial loading environment. The model was calibrated based on uniaxial tensile data and used to predict the equibiaxial tensile stress-stretch relationship. Modifications to the model significantly improved its predictive capacity for equibiaxial loading data. With a comparable fibril length (model 5.9-8μm, measured 7.5μm) and appropriate fibril anisotropy the anisotropic model provides a better representation of the collagen fibril microstructure. Such models are important tools for tissue engineering because they facilitate prediction of microstructure-mechanical relationships for collagen matrices over a wide range of microstructures and provide a framework for predicting cell-ECM interactions. Copyright © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Method for controlling a nuclear fueled electric power generating unit and interfacing the same with a load dispatching system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, N.P.; Meyer, C.E.

    1984-01-01

    A pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear fueled, electric power generating unit is controlled through the use of on-line calculations of the rapid, step and ramp, power change capabilities of the unit made from measured values of power level, axial offset, coolant temperature and rod position taking into account operator generated, safety and control, and balance of plant limits. The power change capabilities so generated may be fed to an automatic dispatch system which provides closed loop control of a power grid system. (author)

  9. Survey of doses and frequency of X-ray examinations on children at the intensive care unit of a large reference pediatric hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrosa de Azevedo, Ana Cecilia; Osibote, Adelaja Otolorin; Bastos Boechat, Marcia Cristina

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This work aims to evaluate the entrance surface dose (ESD), the body organ dose (BOD) and the effective dose (E) resulting from pediatric radiological procedures with the use of portable X-ray equipments. Materials and methods: The software DoseCal was used to evaluate the doses imparted to patients. The children were classified according to their weight and age groups, and the study included three sectors of the intensive care unit of a large reference pediatric hospital in Rio de Janeiro. Results: A total of 518 radiographs have been performed (424 for chest and 94 for abdomen). The statistical data were compared with previously published results. The BOD is presented for the most exposed organs. Conclusion: The mean value of ESD and E varied widely among neonates. The highest number of radiographs per infant peaked 33 for chest examination in the age group 0-1 year

  10. [Efficacy of agreements within the Enchede Stroke Service to refer patients with a stroke from the stroke unit in the hospital to a nursing home for short-term rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijmeijer, N.M.; Stegge, B.M. aan de; Zuidema, S.U.; Sips, H.J.W.; Brouwers, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of agreements within the Enschede Stroke Service to refer patients with a stroke from the stroke unit in the hospital to a nursing home for short-term rehabilitation. DESIGN: Prospective, partly retrospective. METHOD: All patients who were referred from the stroke

  11. Multiscale Framework for Assessing Critical Loads of Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition for Aquatic Ecosystems in Wilderness Areas of the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanus, Leora; Clow, David; Saros, Jasmine; McMurray, Jill; Blett, Tamara; Sickman, James

    2017-04-01

    High-elevation aquatic ecosystems in Wilderness areas of the western United States are impacted by current and historic atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition associated with local and regional air pollution. Documented effects include elevated surface water nitrate concentrations, increased algal productivity, and changes in diatom species assemblages. A predictive framework was developed for sensitive high-elevation basins across the western United States at multiple spatial scales including the Rocky Mountain Region (Rockies), the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA), and Yosemite (YOSE) and Sequoia & Kings Canyon (SEKI) National Parks. Spatial trends in critical loads of N deposition for nutrient enrichment of aquatic ecosystems were quantified and mapped using a geostatistical approach, with modeled N deposition, topography, vegetation, geology, and climate as potential explanatory variables. Multiple predictive models were created using various combinations of explanatory variables; this approach allowed for better quantification of uncertainty and identification of areas most sensitive to high atmospheric N deposition (> 3 kg N ha-1 yr-1). For multiple spatial scales, the lowest critical loads estimates (1.5 + 1 kg N ha-1 yr-1) correspond with areas of high N deposition and vary spatially ranging from less than 20% to over 40% of the study area for the Rockies, GYA, YOSE, and SEKI. These predictive models and maps identify sensitive aquatic ecosystems that may be impacted by excess atmospheric N deposition and can be used to help protect against future anthropogenic disturbance. The approach presented here may be transferable to other remote and protected high-elevation ecosystems at multiple spatial scales that are sensitive to adverse effects of pollutant loading in the US and around the world.

  12. Molecular Identification of Unusual Pathogenic Yeast Isolates by Large Ribosomal Subunit Gene Sequencing: 2 Years of Experience at the United Kingdom Mycology Reference Laboratory▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, Christopher J.; Borman, Andrew M.; Cheung, Grace; Holmes, Ann D.; Szekely, Adrien; Palmer, Michael D.; Bridge, Paul D.; Campbell, Colin K.; Johnson, Elizabeth M.

    2007-01-01

    Rapid identification of yeast isolates from clinical samples is particularly important given their innately variable antifungal susceptibility profiles. We present here an analysis of the utility of PCR amplification and sequence analysis of the hypervariable D1/D2 region of the 26S rRNA gene for the identification of yeast species submitted to the United Kingdom Mycology Reference Laboratory over a 2-year period. A total of 3,033 clinical isolates were received from 2004 to 2006 encompassing 50 different yeast species. While more than 90% of the isolates, corresponding to the most common Candida species, could be identified by using the AUXACOLOR2 yeast identification kit, 153 isolates (5%), comprised of 47 species, could not be identified by using this system and were subjected to molecular identification via 26S rRNA gene sequencing. These isolates included some common species that exhibited atypical biochemical and phenotypic profiles and also many rarer yeast species that are infrequently encountered in the clinical setting. All 47 species requiring molecular identification were unambiguously identified on the basis of D1/D2 sequences, and the molecular identities correlated well with the observed biochemical profiles of the various organisms. Together, our data underscore the utility of molecular techniques as a reference adjunct to conventional methods of yeast identification. Further, we show that PCR amplification and sequencing of the D1/D2 region reliably identifies more than 45 species of clinically significant yeasts and can also potentially identify new pathogenic yeast species. PMID:17251397

  13. Enteric parasites in HIV-1/AIDS-infected patients from a Northwestern São Paulo reference unit in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Ventura Cardoso

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: We describe the epidemiology of intestinal parasites in patients from an AIDS reference service in Northeastern São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Retrospective evaluation was done for all HIV-1/AIDS-positive patients whose Hospital de Base/São José do Rio Preto laboratorial analysis was positive for enteroparasites after diagnosis of HIV-1 infection, from January 1998 to December 2008. Statistical analysis was performed using the R statistical software version 2.4.1. The level of significance adopted was 5%. RESULTS: The most frequent protozoan was Isospora belli (4.2%, followed by Giardia lamblia (3.5%, Entamoeba coli (2.8%, and Cryptosporidium parvum (0.3%. Ancylostoma duodenale (1.4% was the most frequently detected helminth, while Taenia saginata and Strongiloides stercoralis were found in 0.7% of the samples. The results showed that diarrhea was significantly associated with giardiasis and isosporiasis. However, no association was observed between CD4+ cell counts, viral load, and the characteristics of any particular parasite. CONCLUSIONS: Our data may be useful for further comparisons with other Brazilian regions and other developing countries. The data may also provide important clues toward improving the understanding, prevention, and control of enteric parasites around the world.

  14. 1-GWh diurnal load-leveling Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage System reference design. Appendix G. Design study. Thyristor converter stations for use with superconducting magnetic energy storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindh, C.B.; Pohl, R.V.; Trojan, H.T.

    1979-09-01

    The cost for the power conversion equipment for four different SMES systems were developed. These were 1- and 5-GWh units for 4- and 8-h charge periods. Only constant power operation of the converter was considered with 10% of the maximum energy remaining in the magnet at the end of the discharge cycle. The cost increases almost linearly with the maximum coil current between 30 kA and 150 kA, and the cost for a 4-h charge system is about 20% lower than for an 8-h charge system. The converter terminal cost is estimated to be $40/kW of installed power for a 1-GWh 4-h charge system at 30 kA maximum current and $60/kW of installed power for a 5-GWh 4-h charge system at 50 kA maximum current

  15. Structural review of the Palisades Nuclear Power Plant Unit 1 containment structure under combined loads for the Systematic Evaluation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liaw, C.Y.; Debeling, A.; Tsai, N.C.

    1981-12-01

    A structural reassessment of the containment structure of the Palisades Nuclear Power Plant Unit 1 was performed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission as part of the Systematic Evaluation Program. Conclusions about the ability of the containment structure to withstand the Abnormal/Extreme Environment are presented. The reassessment focused mainly on the overall structural integrity of the containment building for the Abnormal/Extreme Environment. In this case, the Abnormal Environmental condition is caused by the worst case of either a Loss-of-Coolant Accident or a main steam line break. The Extreme Environmental condition is the Safe Shutdown Earthquake

  16. Sharing the load: parents and carers talk to consumer consultants at a child and youth mental health inpatient unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraghty, Kerry; McCann, Karen; King, Robert; Eichmann, Kathryn

    2011-08-01

    Caring for a child or adolescent affected by mental illness has been identified as imposing stresses and burdens in excess of those usually associated with child rearing. Peer support has been identified as one means by which these stresses and burdens can be reduced. This study investigated the work of a peer support service provided by Mater Child and Youth Mental Health Service in Brisbane, Australia. The study took the form of a content analysis of records of consultations between consumer consultants and 50 families/carers of children admitted into the acute inpatient unit during the period May 2006-April 2008. The content analysis identified four key themes or domains: experience of service provision, emotions and feelings associated with the admission, need for information, and coping with challenges. The findings from the study affirm the role of consumer consultants in child and adolescent inpatient services. Some families value a peer perspective and the opportunity to seek advice and information around a wide variety of topics from people not directly involved in the treatment of their child. © 2011 Mater Health Services. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2011 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  17. Certified Reference Material for Use in 1H, 31P, and 19F Quantitative NMR, Ensuring Traceability to the International System of Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigger, Romana; Rück, Alexander; Hellriegel, Christine; Sauermoser, Robert; Morf, Fabienne; Breitruck, KathrinBreitruck; Obkircher, Markus

    2017-09-01

    In recent years, quantitative NMR (qNMR) spectroscopy has become one of the most important tools for content determination of organic substances and quantitative evaluation of impurities. Using Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) as internal or external standards, the extensively used qNMR method can be applied for purity determination, including unbroken traceability to the International System of Units (SI). The implementation of qNMR toward new application fields, e.g., metabolomics, environmental analysis, and physiological pathway studies, brings along more complex molecules and systems, thus making use of 1H qNMR challenging. A smart workaround is possible by the use of other NMR active nuclei, namely 31P and 19F. This article presents the development of three classes of qNMR CRMs based on different NMR active nuclei (1H, 31P, and 19F), and the corresponding approaches to establish traceability to the SI through primary CRMs from the National Institute of Standards and Technology and the National Metrology Institute of Japan. These TraceCERT® qNMR CRMs are produced under ISO/IEC 17025 and ISO Guide 34 using high-performance qNMR.

  18. Data Used in Analyses of Trends, and Nutrient and Suspended-Sediment Loads for Streams in the Southeastern United States, 1973-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staub, Erik L.; Peak, Kelly L.; Tighe, Kirsten C.; Sadorf, Eric M.; Harned, Douglas A.

    2010-01-01

    Water-quality data from selected surface-water monitoring sites in the Southeastern United States were assessed for trends in concentrations of nutrients, suspended sediment, and major constituents and for in-stream nutrient and suspended-sediment loads for the period 1973-2005. The area of interest includes river basins draining into the southern Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Tennessee River-drainage basins in Hydrologic Regions 03 (South Atlantic - Gulf) and 06 (Tennessee). This data assessment is related to studies of several major river basins as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program, which was designed to assess national water-quality trends during a common time period (1993-2004). Included in this report are data on which trend tests could be performed from 44 U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System (NWIS) sampling sites. The constituents examined include major ions, nutrients, and suspended sediment; the physical properties examined include pH, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, and streamflow. Also included are data that were tested for trends from an additional 290 sites from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Storage and Retrieval (STORET) database. The trend analyses of the STORET data were limited to total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations. Data from 48 U.S. Geological Survey NWIS sampling sites with sufficient water-quality and continuous streamflow data for estimating nutrient and sediment loads are included. The methods of data compilation and modification used prior to performing trend tests and load estimation are described. Results of the seasonal Kendall trend test and the Tobit trend test are given for the 334 monitoring sites, and in-stream load estimates are given for the 48 monitoring sites. Basin characteristics are provided, including regional landscape variables and agricultural nutrient sources (annual variations in cropping and fertilizer use

  19. Cognitive load theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirschner, Paul A.; Kirschner, Femke; Paas, Fred

    2010-01-01

    Kirschner, P. A., Kirschner, F. C., & Paas, F. (2009). Cognitive load theory. In E. M. Anderman & L. H. Anderman (Eds.). Psychology of classroom learning: An encyclopedia, Volume 1, a-j (pp. 205-209). Detroit, MI: Macmillan Reference.

  20. Lean techniques to improve the flow of critically ill patients in a health region with its epicenter in the intensive care unit of a reference hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirvent, J M; Gil, M; Alvarez, T; Martin, S; Vila, N; Colomer, M; March, E; Loma-Osorio, P; Metje, T

    2016-01-01

    To analyze whether the application of Lean techniques to improve the flow of critically ill patients in a health region with its epicenter in the intensive care unit (ICU) of a reference hospital. Observational study with pre and post intervention analysis. ICU of a reference hospital. We design projects and a value stream map of flow and compared pre and post intervention. We recorded demographic data, patient transfers by EMS for lack of beds and delay times in the discharge from ICU to ward. Multidisciplinary meetings and perform daily visual panel, with high priority ICU discharge. We promote temporary relocation of critically ill patients in other special areas of the hospital. We performed a professional satisfaction questionnaire with pre and post implementation of process. We make a statistical analysis of pre and post-intervention comparisons. We planned for 2013 and progressively implemented in 2014. Analysis of patients entering the critical process flow 1) evaluate patients who must transfer for lack of beds, focusing on a diagnosis: pre 10/22 vs. 3/21 post (P=.045); 2) analysis of time delay in the discharge from the ICU to ward: 360.8±163.9minutes in the first period vs. 276.7±149.5 in the second (P=.036); and 3) personal professional satisfaction questionnaire, with 6.6±1.5 points pre vs. 7.5±1.1 in post (P=.001). Analysis of indicators such as the ICU acquired infections, length of ICU stay, the rate of re-admissions and mortality, with no significant differences between the two periods. The application of Lean techniques in the critically ill process had a positive impact on improving patient flow within the health region, noting a decrease of transfers outside the region due to lack of beds, reduced delayed discharge from ICU to conventional ward and increased satisfaction of ICU professionals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  1. A comparative study of behavioral and psychological signs and symptoms of dementia in patients with dementia referred to psychogeriatric services in Korea and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ajit; Ellanchenny, Nalini; Suh, Guk-Hee

    2004-06-01

    There is a paucity of cross-cultural studies of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). BPSD were examined in a consecutive series of referrals to a psychogeriatric service in the United Kingdom (U.K.) and in Korea, using the BEHAVE-AD, the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia and the Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE). The U.K. service served a well-defined geographical catchment area with a multidisciplinary team and emphasis on home assessments. The Korean service was a nationwide service with limited community resources. The correlates of individual BPSD in each country and the differences between the two countries were examined. Koreans were younger, were more likely to be married, less likely to be single, had a greater number of people in their household and were more likely to live in their own homes than the U.K. sample. Koreans were more likely to be referred by general psychiatrists or family members, and the U.K. sample was more likely to be referred by general practitioners. Koreans were more likely to have Alzheimer's disease and the U.K. sample to have vascular dementia. The Korean sample had a lower MMSE score than the U.K. sample. In both countries, the total BEHAVE-AD score and most subscale scores were negatively correlated with the MMSE score. The total BEHAVE-AD score and all subscale scores were higher in the Korean sample than in the U.K. sample. The prevalence of all BPSD measured with the BEHAVE-AD were higher in the Korean sample (except aggressivity). These differences may be explained by differing interpretation and administration of the measurement instruments, models of service delivery, availability of primary and secondary care services, health seeking behavior of patients and families, cultural influences, and knowledge, expectations and recognition of BPSD by professionals in primary and secondary care. However, despite this, there was possible evidence of genuine differences worthy of further cross

  2. Motor Unit Number Estimate and Isometric Hand Grip Strength in Military Veterans with or Without Muscular Complaints: Reference Values for Longitudinal Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mian; Yao, Wenguo; Sundahl, Cynthia

    2018-03-26

    It remains unclear if Gulf War (GW) veterans have a higher risk of developing motor neuron disorder. We intended to establish baseline neurophysiological values, including thenar motor unit number estimate (MUNE) and isometric hand grip (IHG) strength, to compare future follow-ups of deployed GW veterans with or without muscular complaints. We evaluated 19 GW veterans with self-reported weakness, cramps, or excessive muscle fatigue (Ill-19) and compared them with 18 controls without such muscular complaints (C-18). We performed MUNE on hand thenar muscles using adapted multipoint stimulation method for Ill-19 and 15 controls (C-15). We measured IHG strength (maximum force, endurance, and fatigue level) on Ill-19 and C-18 with a hand dynamometer. We performed nerve conduction studies on all study participants to determine which subjects had mild carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). We compared the MUNE and IHG strength measures between Ill group and controls and between those with CTS and those without CTS. We obtained thenar MUNE of Ill-19 (95% CI of mean: 143-215; mean age: 46 yr) and compared it with that of C-15 (95% CI of mean: 161-230; mean age: 45 yr), and 95% of CI of mean among IHG strength variables (maximum force: 324-381 Newton; endurance: 32-42 s; fatigue level: 24%-33%) compared with C-18 (maximum force: 349-408 Newton; endurance: 35-46 s; fatigue level: 21%-27%). There was no significant difference in either MUNE or IHG strength between Ill-19 group and controls. The MUNE and IHG maximum forces were significantly lower in those with CTS compared with those without CTS. As a surrogate of mild CTS, the median versus ulnar distal sensory latency on nerve conduction study was only weakly associated with MUNE, maximum force, and fatigue level, respectively. To our knowledge, no published study on MUNE reference values of military veteran population has been available. The quantifiable values of both thenar MUNE and IHG strength of military veterans serve as

  3. Ultrasonic Nondestructive Evaluation of Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) During Large-Scale Load Testing and Rod Push-Out Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Patrick H.; Juarez, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    The Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) is a structural concept developed by the Boeing Company to address the complex structural design aspects associated with a pressurized hybrid wing body (HWB) aircraft configuration. The HWB has long been a focus of NASA's environmentally responsible aviation (ERA) project, following a building block approach to structures development, culminating with the testing of a nearly full-scale multi-bay box (MBB), representing a segment of the pressurized, non-circular fuselage portion of the HWB. PRSEUS is an integral structural concept wherein skins, frames, stringers and tear straps made of variable number of layers of dry warp-knit carbon-fiber stacks are stitched together, then resin-infused and cured in an out-of-autoclave process. The PRSEUS concept has the potential for reducing the weight and cost and increasing the structural efficiency of transport aircraft structures. A key feature of PRSEUS is the damage-arresting nature of the stitches, which enables the use of fail-safe design principles. During the load testing of the MBB, ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) was used to monitor several sites of intentional barely-visible impact damage (BVID) as well as to survey the areas surrounding the failure cracks after final loading to catastrophic failure. The damage-arresting ability of PRSEUS was confirmed by the results of NDE. In parallel with the large-scale structural testing of the MBB, mechanical tests were conducted of the PRSEUS rod-to-overwrap bonds, as measured by pushing the rod axially from a short length of stringer.

  4. Pd-Pt loaded graphene aerogel on nickel foam composite as binder-free anode for a direct glucose fuel cell unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Chi Him A.; Leung, D. Y. C.

    2017-09-01

    Fabrication of electrocatalyst for direct glucose fuel cell (DGFC) operation involves destructive preparation methods with the use of stabilizer like binder, which may cause activity depreciation. Binder-free electrocatalytic electrode becomes a possible solution to the above problem. Binder-free bimetallic Pd-Pt loaded graphene aerogel on nickel foam plates with different Pd/Pt ratios (1:2.32, 1:1.62, and 1:0.98) are successfully fabricated through a green one-step mild reduction process producing a Pd-Pt/GO/nickel form plate (NFP) composite. Anode with the binder-free electrocatalysts exhibit a strong activity in a batch type DGFC unit under room temperature. The effects of glucose and KOH concentrations, and the Pd/Pt ratios of the electrocatalyst on the DGFC performance are also studied. Maximum power density output of 1.25 mW cm-2 is recorded with 0.5 M glucose/3 M KOH as the anodic fuel, and Pd1Pt0.98/GA/NFP as catalyst, which is the highest obtained so far among other types of electrocatalyst.

  5. Estimates of long-term mean-annual nutrient loads considered for use in SPARROW models of the Midcontinental region of Canada and the United States, 2002 base year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, David A.; Benoy, Glenn A.; Robertson, Dale M.

    2018-05-11

    Streamflow and nutrient concentration data needed to compute nitrogen and phosphorus loads were compiled from Federal, State, Provincial, and local agency databases and also from selected university databases. The nitrogen and phosphorus loads are necessary inputs to Spatially Referenced Regressions on Watershed Attributes (SPARROW) models. SPARROW models are a way to estimate the distribution, sources, and transport of nutrients in streams throughout the Midcontinental region of Canada and the United States. After screening the data, approximately 1,500 sites sampled by 34 agencies were identified as having suitable data for calculating the long-term mean-annual nutrient loads required for SPARROW model calibration. These final sites represent a wide range in watershed sizes, types of nutrient sources, and land-use and watershed characteristics in the Midcontinental region of Canada and the United States.

  6. Growth references

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, S. van

    2007-01-01

    A growth reference describes the variation of an anthropometric measurement within a group of individuals. A reference is a tool for grouping and analyzing data and provides a common basis for comparing populations.1 A well known type of reference is the age-conditional growth diagram. The

  7. Qualification Testing for Clipless Seal Used on 3/4 Banding, 40 in. x 48 in. Wood Pallet With .50 Caliber Ammunition in M2 Metal Boxes in Wire Bound Boxes IAW MIL-STD-1660, "Design Criteria for Ammunition Unit Loads"

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2006-01-01

    ...), from Independence, Missouri. Two test units were tested with a load of 4,200 lbs. each. The tests accomplished on the test units were the stacking, vibration, drop, incline impact, forklift handling, and disassembly tests...

  8. [Reference citation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brkić, Silvija

    2013-01-01

    Scientific and professional papers represent the information basis for scientific research and professional work. References important for the paper should be cited within the text, and listed at the end of the paper. This paper deals with different styles of reference citation. Special emphasis was placed on the Vancouver Style for reference citation in biomedical journals established by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. It includes original samples for citing various types of articles, both printed and electronic, as well as recommendations related to reference citation in accordance with the methodology and ethics of scientific research and guidelines for preparing manuscripts for publication.

  9. Side loading filter apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, K.E.

    1981-01-01

    A side loading filter chamber for use with radioactive gases is described. The equipment incorporates an inexpensive, manually operated, mechanism for aligning filter units with a number of laterally spaced wall openings and for removing the units from the chamber. (U.K.)

  10. Reference Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bivens-Tatum, Wayne

    2006-01-01

    This article presents interesting articles that explore several different areas of reference assessment, including practical case studies and theoretical articles that address a range of issues such as librarian behavior, patron satisfaction, virtual reference, or evaluation design. They include: (1) "Evaluating the Quality of a Chat Service"…

  11. Quality of claims, references and the presentation of risk results in medical journal advertising: a comparative study in Australia, Malaysia and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Noordin; Vitry, Agnes I; Roughead, Elizabeth E

    2010-05-29

    Journal advertising is used by pharmaceutical companies to disseminate medicine information to doctors. The quality of claims, references and the presentation of risk results in Australia and the US has been questioned in several studies. No recent evidence is available on the quality of claims, references and the presentation of risk results in journal advertising in Australia and the US and no Malaysian data have been published. The aim of this study was to compare the quality of claims, references and the presentation of risk results in journal advertising in these three countries. A consecutive sample of 85 unique advertisements from each country was selected from journal advertising published between January 2004 to December 2006. Claims, references and the presentation of risk results in medical journal advertising were compared between the three countries. Less than one-third of the claims were unambiguous claims (Australia, 30%, Malaysia 17%, US, 23%). In Malaysia significantly less unambiguous claims were provided than in Australia and the US (P review or meta-analysis (Australia, 84%, Malaysia, 81%, US, 76%) with journal articles being the most commonly cited references in all countries. Data on file were significantly more likely to be cited in the US (17%) than in Australia (2%) and Malaysia (4%) (P countries. Evidence from a randomized controlled trial, systematic review or meta- analysis was commonly cited to support claims. However, the more frequent use of data that have not been published and independently reviewed in the US compared to Australia and Malaysia raises questions on the quality of references in the US. The use of relative rather than absolute benefits may overemphasize the benefit of medicines which may leave doctors susceptible to misinterpreting information.

  12. Development status of the experimental and numerical load analysis of package units CASTOR {sup registered} under drop test conditions; Entwicklungsstand in der experimentellen und numerischen Beanspruchungsanalyse von Versandstuecken der Bauart CASTOR {sup registered} unter Fallpruefbedingungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voelzer, Walter; Schaefer, Marc; Rumanus, Erkan; Liedtke, Ralph [Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH (Germany); Brehmer, Frank [ITB GmbH (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    The mechanical integrity of package units CASTOR {sup registered} for a 9-m drop test under accident conditions has to be demonstrated according the requirements of IAEA among others. For reduction of the loads the containers have to be equipped with shock absorbers on the bottom and top sides. The determination of loads under drop test conditions can be performed with experimental or numerical methods. Due to the complexity of the load state and the verification of results both methods are usually used for integrity demonstration. The numerical codes have to model the short-term dynamic behavior of the whole container for different drop orientations and temperatures, local stress states have to be quantifiable for assessment. One of the problems is the modeling of the material behavior of wood that is used in the shock absorbers. The so far used energetic calculation approach will be replaced by a dynamic approach, the numerical models will have to be verified by experimental drop tests.

  13. Recent references

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramavataram, S.

    1991-01-01

    In support of a continuing program of systematic evaluation of nuclear structure data, the National Nuclear Data Center maintains a complete computer file of references to the nuclear physics literature. Each reference is tagged by a keyword string, which indicates the kinds of data contained in the article. This master file of Nuclear Structure References (NSR) contains complete keyword indexes to literature published since 1969, with partial indexing of older references. Any reader who finds errors in the keyword descriptions is urged to report them to the National Nuclear Data Center so that the master NSR file can be corrected. In 1966, the first collection of Recent References was published as a separate issue of Nuclear Data Sheets. Every four months since 1970, a similar indexed bibliography to new nuclear experiments has been prepared from additions to the NSR file and published. Beginning in 1978, Recent References was cumulated annually, with the third issue completely superseding the two issues previously published during a given year. Due to publication policy changes, cumulation of Recent Reference was discontinued in 1986. The volume and issue number of all the cumulative issues published to date are given. NNDC will continue to respond to individual requests for special bibliographies on nuclear physics topics, in addition to those easily obtained from Recent References. If the required information is available from the keyword string, a reference list can be prepared automatically from the computer files. This service can be provided on request, in exchange for the timely communication of new nuclear physics results (e.g., preprints). A current copy of the NSR file may also be obtained in a standard format on magnetic tape from NNDC. Requests for special searches of the NSR file may also be directed to the National Nuclear Data Center

  14. Quality of claims, references and the presentation of risk results in medical journal advertising: a comparative study in Australia, Malaysia and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitry Agnes I

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Journal advertising is used by pharmaceutical companies to disseminate medicine information to doctors. The quality of claims, references and the presentation of risk results in Australia and the US has been questioned in several studies. No recent evidence is available on the quality of claims, references and the presentation of risk results in journal advertising in Australia and the US and no Malaysian data have been published. The aim of this study was to compare the quality of claims, references and the presentation of risk results in journal advertising in these three countries. Methods A consecutive sample of 85 unique advertisements from each country was selected from journal advertising published between January 2004 to December 2006. Claims, references and the presentation of risk results in medical journal advertising were compared between the three countries. Results Less than one-third of the claims were unambiguous claims (Australia, 30%, Malaysia 17%, US, 23%. In Malaysia significantly less unambiguous claims were provided than in Australia and the US (P Conclusions The majority of claims were vague suggesting poor quality of claims in journal advertising in these three countries. Evidence from a randomized controlled trial, systematic review or meta- analysis was commonly cited to support claims. However, the more frequent use of data that have not been published and independently reviewed in the US compared to Australia and Malaysia raises questions on the quality of references in the US. The use of relative rather than absolute benefits may overemphasize the benefit of medicines which may leave doctors susceptible to misinterpreting information.

  15. Electrical engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Laughton, M A

    1985-01-01

    Electrical Engineer's Reference Book, Fourteenth Edition focuses on electrical engineering. The book first discusses units, mathematics, and physical quantities, including the international unit system, physical properties, and electricity. The text also looks at network and control systems analysis. The book examines materials used in electrical engineering. Topics include conducting materials, superconductors, silicon, insulating materials, electrical steels, and soft irons and relay steels. The text underscores electrical metrology and instrumentation, steam-generating plants, turbines

  16. Technical and economic feasibility for the application of micronized coal as a replacement for No. 2 oil for start-up and low-load operation at Illinois Power Havana No. 6 Cycling Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberger, F.; Guilfoyle, C.J.; Parker, W.O. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Uncertainty regarding oil availability and long-term price stability make it difficult for a utility to predict annual ignition costs for a cycling unit. Illinois Power Company, Sargent and Lundy Engineering and Micro-fuel Corporation have produced a detailed feasibility study on the application of micronized coal as a replacement fuel for start-up and low-load operation for Havana No. 6. This unit is a B and W opposed-fired boiler which is rated at 410 MWe (summer net). This paper presents technical and economic analysis, including the uncertainties of the application of this technology

  17. Influence of geometrical parameters on the determination of the reference dose in Cobaltotherapy : case of the ALCYON II unit of the CHUA - HJRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RASOLONJATOVO, A.H.D.

    1998-01-01

    In application of the in force regulations in Madagascar, every practice inducing ionising radiation exposure must be conformed with the international basic safety standards. Particularly, practices in radiation therapy require high doses of radiation to be delivered with increased accuracy. It has been shown for the cobalt unit ALCYON II that a better accuracy than 5% needed is verified. This requires periodical quality controls, good calibration and high precision in handling of instruments. [fr

  18. Sociodemographic profile and psychiatric diagnosis of patients referred to consultation-liaison psychiatric services of general hospital psychiatric unit at a Tertiary Care Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shri Gopal Goyal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Previous studies have reported high psychiatric comorbidity with physical illness. However, referral rate to consultation-liaison (C-L psychiatry from other departments is very low. There is a paucity of literature from India in this subspecialty of psychiatry. Aims: This study was conducted to assess the sociodemographic profile and psychiatric diagnosis of patients referred to C-L psychiatric services at a tertiary care center. Settings and Design: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in a tertiary care multispecialty teaching institution. Patients and Methods: The study population comprised all the patients who were referred for psychiatric consultation from other departments to C-L services of psychiatry department for 2 months. Information was collected using semi-structured pro forma, and diagnosis was made based on the International Classification of Diseases-10 criteria. Results: A total of 160 patients were referred for C-L psychiatric services. Majority of the patients were in the age group of 31–45 years, married, educated matriculation or beyond, belonged to Hindu religion, nuclear family, and residing in urban area. The maximum referrals were from internal medicine department (17.5 followed by nephrology (15.0% and neurology (10.6%. The most common psychiatric diagnosis was depression (12% followed by delirium (8%. The most common reason for seeking psychiatric consultation was psychiatric clearance of prospective kidney donor and bone marrow transplant/stem cell transplant recipient. Conclusions: Psychiatric comorbidity may present with chronic physical illness. The C-L psychiatry would play a major role in the management of psychiatric comorbidity.

  19. An Epidemiological Study on the Incidence of Accidents Among under 5 Years of Age Referred to Emergency Hospital Units in Hamadan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Khazaei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives : Accidents and injuries are the leading causes of avoidable illness and death in most of the countries in the world. For health policymakers, it is essential to have knowledge about the occurrence of accidents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of accidents in children under 5 years of age referring to emergency departments in Hamadan province. Material and Methods: This is a retrospective study that all under 5 years of age patients referred to hospitals in Hamadan province were enrolled in the study during 2009 to 2014. Data were extracted from injury register software and by using descriptive and analytic statistics, data were analyzed with STATA software version 12 at the level of error less        than 5%. Results: A total of 7409 under 5 years of age patients were registered during this period. 70.4% were male and 38.97% of them were under 1 year old. Home accidents included 45.07% of the accidents. Car accidents (27.89%, hit (22.16% and fall (16.79% were the most occurred accidents in both sexes. Conclusion: Due to the high incidence of accidents at home and roads, necessary precautions should be taken in this regard

  20. Present status of reactor physics in the United States and Japan-III. 1. Recent Activities of Loading Pattern Optimization Research in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Akio

    2001-01-01

    Because of recent enhancements of optimization algorithms and great improvements in computer hardware, loading pattern (LP) optimization methods are being used as practical design tools both in the pressurized water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) industries. LP optimization methods are mainly used for the following in-core fuel management activities in Japan: 1. minimization of fuel cycle costs; 2. evaluation of various in-core fuel management scenarios; 3. estimation of the number of feed assemblies needed during several successive cycles for fuel ordering; 4. evaluation of fuel bids. Although engineers can perform these analyses, the major motivations to utilize LP optimization methods are the reduction of manpower and the establishment of engineer-independent LP quality. These are important in today's in-core fuel management tasks. In the following sections, activities related to LP optimization research in Japan are briefly described. The major activity of PWR LP optimization research in Japan is development of the INSIGHT system. The INSIGHT system is an integrated scoping analysis tool for PWRs developed by Nuclear Fuel Industries (NFI). The INSIGHT system is a graphical user interface (GUI)-based interactive design tool that includes LP optimization, automated multicycle analysis, an interactive LP design, core follow, an integrated database, and some auxiliary functions. The INSIGHT system was mainly written in the C++ language and consists of ∼400 000 lines of source code. The GALLOP code is the LP optimization module of the INSIGHT system. An automated multicycle analysis is performed by the MCA code in INSIGHT. The MCA code performs a fuel and burnable poison (BP) inventory search by automatically invoking the GALLOP code, which makes LPs. The MCA code can deal with various constraints that have appeared in practical in-core fuel management, e.g., limitations of fuel/BP stock, forced fuel loading/discharge, limitations of core safety

  1. Selected data for low-temperature (less than 90{sup 0}C) geothermal systems in the United States: reference data for US Geological Survey Circular 892

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, M.J.; Mariner, R.H.; Brook, C.A.; Sorey, M.L.

    1983-12-15

    Supporting data are presented for the 1982 low-temperature geothermal resource assessment of the United States. Data are presented for 2072 geothermal sites which are representative of 1168 low-temperature geothermal systems identified in 26 States. The low-temperature geothermal systems consist of 978 isolated hydrothermal-convection systems, 148 delineated-area hydrothermal-convection systems, and 42 delineated-area conduction-dominated systems. The basic data and estimates of reservoir conditions are presented for each geothermal system, and energy estimates are given for the accessible resource base, resource, and beneficial heat for each isolated system.

  2. The regulatory approach to the assessment of containment structures in the United Kingdom, with reference to the proposed Sizewell 'B' project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, I.W.

    1988-01-01

    The regulation of nuclear installations in the United Kingdom is carried out by means of a licensing system which is administered on behalf of the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) by HM Nuclear Installations Inspectorate. A major part of this process lies in the assessment of an installation's designs and safety case, which must be submitted to the Inspectorate before a licence may be granted. This paper describes the work carried out in assessing the design proposed for the containment structure of the United Kingdom's first PWR, Sizewell 'B'. The roles of the Inspectorate's Safety Assessment Principles, and the engineering judgement of the individual assessor, are discussed. The reasons behind the Inspectorate's decision to commission independent design studies of the structure are explained, and the results of these studies are presented in outline. Views are also expressed upon the validation of analytical results, quality assurance, and further work planned by the Inspectorate in this field. The paper concludes that it is the flexibility and discretion allowed by the above approach which represents the principal strength of the UK's system of regulatory assessment. (author)

  3. Demographic determinants of survival of people living with HIV attending an outpatient reference unit in the city of Três Lagoas, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, in the period 1984-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angelina da Silva Zuque

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: While the incidence of HIV infection and AIDS is increasing in small Brazilian cities, epidemiological studies are often conducted in large urban centers. METHODS: Our group conducted a retrospective analysis of survival determinants among 358 patients who attended a reference unit in a small city. RESULTS: Death risk was lower among men that had sex with men, patients with an HIV-seropositive partner, and those admitted after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART was available. CONCLUSIONS: The study documents the striking beneficial effect of HAART. The finding of other groups with improved survival may aid in the development of programmatic strategies.

  4. Responses of stream nitrate and DOC loadings to hydrological forcing and climate change in an upland forest of the northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen D. Sebestyen; Elizabeth W. Boyer; James B. Shanley

    2009-01-01

    In coming decades, higher annual temperatures, increased growing season length, and increased dormant season precipitation are expected across the northeastern United States in response to anthropogenic forcing of global climate. We synthesized long-term stream hydrochemical data from the Sleepers River Research Watershed in Vermont, United States, to explore the...

  5. Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit Safety Analysis Report (LWRHU-SAR). Volume I. A. Introduction and executive summary. B. Reference Design Document (RDD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.W.

    1985-10-01

    The orbiter and probe portions of the NASA Galileo spacecraft contain components which require auxiliary heat during the mission. To meet these needs, the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Special Nuclear Projects (OSNP) has sponsored the design, fabrication, and testing of a one-watt encapsulated plutonium dioxide-fueled thermal heater named the Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit (LWRHU). This report addresses the radiological risks which might be encountered by people both at the launch area and worldwide should postulate mission failures or malfunctions occur, which would result in the release of the LWRHUs to the environment. Included are data from the design, mission descriptions, postulated accidents with their consequences, test data, and the derived source terms and personnel exposures for the various events

  6. Reference stratigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landon, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    This data package contains information on interpretations of rock stratigraphic units in the upper Grande Ronde, Wanapum and Saddle Mountains Basalts in the Cold Creek syncline. This data package contains correlations for Boreholes DC-2, -3, -4, -8, -12, RRL-2, -6, -14

  7. Load Balancing in Hypergraphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgosha, Payam; Anantharam, Venkat

    2018-03-01

    Consider a simple locally finite hypergraph on a countable vertex set, where each edge represents one unit of load which should be distributed among the vertices defining the edge. An allocation of load is called balanced if load cannot be moved from a vertex to another that is carrying less load. We analyze the properties of balanced allocations of load. We extend the concept of balancedness from finite hypergraphs to their local weak limits in the sense of Benjamini and Schramm (Electron J Probab 6(23):13, 2001) and Aldous and Steele (in: Probability on discrete structures. Springer, Berlin, pp 1-72, 2004). To do this, we define a notion of unimodularity for hypergraphs which could be considered an extension of unimodularity in graphs. We give a variational formula for the balanced load distribution and, in particular, we characterize it in the special case of unimodular hypergraph Galton-Watson processes. Moreover, we prove the convergence of the maximum load under some conditions. Our work is an extension to hypergraphs of Anantharam and Salez (Ann Appl Probab 26(1):305-327, 2016), which considered load balancing in graphs, and is aimed at more comprehensively resolving conjectures of Hajek (IEEE Trans Inf Theory 36(6):1398-1414, 1990).

  8. Demand Response Load Following of Source and Load Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Jianqiang; Cao, Jinde; Yong, Taiyou

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a demand response load following strategy for an interconnected source and load system, in which we utilize traditional units and population of cooling thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) to follow the mismatched power caused by the load activities and the renewable power...... injection in real time. In the demand side of power systems, these TCLs are often affiliated to a bus load agent and can be aggregated to multiple TCL aggregators. Firstly, aggregate evaluation of the TCL aggregator is carried out based on a bilinear aggregate model so as to derive the available regulation...

  9. The effects of load drop, uniform load and concentrated loads on waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marusich, R.M. Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-01-01

    This document provides the supporting calculations performed by others specifically for the TWRS FSAR and more detailed summaries of the important references issued in the past regarding the effects of various loads

  10. Load forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mak, H.

    1995-01-01

    Slides used in a presentation at The Power of Change Conference in Vancouver, BC in April 1995 about the changing needs for load forecasting were presented. Technological innovations and population increase were said to be the prime driving forces behind the changing needs in load forecasting. Structural changes, market place changes, electricity supply planning changes, and changes in planning objectives were other factors discussed. It was concluded that load forecasting was a form of information gathering, that provided important market intelligence

  11. Correlation of virus load in plasma and lymph node tissue in human immunodeficiency virus infection. INCAS Study Group. Italy, Netherlands, Canada, Australia, and (United) States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, M; Patenaude, P; Cooperberg, P; Filipenko, D; Thorne, A; Raboud, J; Rae, S; Dailey, P; Chernoff, D; Todd, J; Conway, B; Montaner, J S

    1997-11-01

    The impact of long-term changes in plasma viremia, produced by effective combination antiretroviral therapy, on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) burden within tissue reservoirs is unknown. Fifteen patients who had received at least 1 year of therapy with two or three drug combinations of zidovudine, didanosine, and nevirapine had suitable samples of lymph node tissue obtained by ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy. HIV RNA was extracted from homogenized tissue samples and quantitated using a modified branched DNA assay. Results were correlated with antiretroviral treatment effect on the basis of plasma virus load measurements over the preceding 12-18 months. A statistically significant negative correlation was observed between magnitude of treatment effect on plasma viremia and lymph node virus load. These data suggest that combinations of antiretroviral drugs that produce sustained suppression of plasma HIV RNA may also be able to reduce the virus burden in lymphoid tissues.

  12. Xcode 5 developer reference

    CERN Document Server

    Wentk, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Design, code, and build amazing apps with Xcode 5 Thanks to Apple's awesome Xcode development environment, you can create the next big app for Macs, iPhones, iPads, or iPod touches. Xcode 5 contains gigabytes of great stuff to help you develop for both OS X and iOS devices - things like sample code, utilities, companion applications, documentation, and more. And with Xcode 5 Developer Reference, you now have the ultimate step-by-step guide to it all. Immerse yourself in the heady and lucrative world of Apple app development, see how to tame the latest features and functions, and find loads of

  13. Long-Term Retrospective Clinical and Radiographic Follow-up of 205 Brånemark System Mk III TiUnite Implants Submitted to Either Immediate or Delayed Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imburgia, Mario; Del Fabbro, Massimo

    2015-10-01

    Studies are needed to evaluate long-term performance of immediately loaded implants with moderately rough surface. This retrospective study evaluated long-term survival and periimplant soft and hard tissue conditions in patients treated with TiUnite implants. Forty-one consecutive patients (mean age, 52.6 years) received 205 Brånemark System Mk III TiUnite implants (145 maxillary, 60 mandibular). The indication was single tooth (n = 7 implants), partial (n = 94), or full arches (n = 104). One hundred thirteen implants were immediately loaded. Cumulative survival rate (CSR) of implants was assessed. Long-term marginal bone remodeling, probing pocket depth (PPD), and periimplant mucosa conditions were assessed. Follow-up averaged 8.8 years (range, 6.6-10.6 years). Eight implants in 5 patients failed. CSR was 96.1% (implant basis) and 87.8% (patient basis) up to 10 years. At the longest follow-up, bone loss averaged 0.43 ± 1.15 mm (n = 173), PPD averaged 3.64 ± 0.74 mm, and periimplant mucosa was healthy in 74.6% of cases. Furthermore, 50.3% and 35.5% of implants scored negative for plaque and bleeding, respectively. No significant difference in CSR and hard and soft tissue conditions was found in the long term between immediately and delayed loaded implants. Implants with TiUnite surface demonstrated excellent long-term survival, marginal bone response, and soft tissue conditions, despite a nonoptimal level of oral hygiene.

  14. Evaluation of load flow and grid expansion in a unit-commitment and expansion optimization model SciGRID International Conference on Power Grid Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senkpiel, Charlotte; Biener, Wolfgang; Shammugam, Shivenes; Längle, Sven

    2018-02-01

    Energy system models serve as a basis for long term system planning. Joint optimization of electricity generating technologies, storage systems and the electricity grid leads to lower total system cost compared to an approach in which the grid expansion follows a given technology portfolio and their distribution. Modelers often face the problem of finding a good tradeoff between computational time and the level of detail that can be modeled. This paper analyses the differences between a transport model and a DC load flow model to evaluate the validity of using a simple but faster transport model within the system optimization model in terms of system reliability. The main findings in this paper are that a higher regional resolution of a system leads to better results compared to an approach in which regions are clustered as more overloads can be detected. An aggregation of lines between two model regions compared to a line sharp representation has little influence on grid expansion within a system optimizer. In a DC load flow model overloads can be detected in a line sharp case, which is therefore preferred. Overall the regions that need to reinforce the grid are identified within the system optimizer. Finally the paper recommends the usage of a load-flow model to test the validity of the model results.

  15. [A study of epilepsy according to the age at onset and monitored for 3 years in a regional reference paediatric neurology unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Gómez, Laura; López-Pisón, Javier; Lapresta Moros, Carlos; Fuertes Rodrigo, Cristina; Fernando Martínez, Ruth; Samper-Villagrasa, Pilar; Monge-Galindo, Lorena; Peña-Segura, José Luis; García-Jiménez, María Concepción

    2017-01-01

    A study of epilepsy, according to the age at onset of the crisis and its causes, monitored by a Paediatric Neurology Unit over a period of three years. Historical cohorts study was conducted by reviewing the Paediatric Neurology medical records data base of epileptic children followed-up from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2010. A total of 4,595 children were attended during the study period. The diagnosis of epilepsy was established in 605 (13.17%): 277 (45.79%) symptomatic, 156 (25.79%) idiopathic, and 172 (28.43%) with cryptogenic epilepsy. Absence epilepsy and benign childhood epilepsy with centro-temporal spikes are the idiopathic epileptic syndromes most prevalent, and the most prevalent symptomatic epilepsies are prenatal encephalopathies. More than one-quarter (26.12%) of epilepsies began in the first year of life, and 67.72% were symptomatic. Refractory epilepsy was observed in 25.29%, 42.46% with cognitive impairment, 26.45% with motor involvement, and 9.92% with an autism spectrum disorder, being more frequent at an earlier age of onset. The absence of a universally accepted classification of epileptic syndromes makes tasks like this difficult, starting with the terminology. A useful classification would be aetiological, with two groups: a large group with established aetiology, or very likely genetic syndromes, and another with no established cause. The age of onset of epilepsy in each aetiological group helps in the prognosis, which is worsened by refractoriness and associated neurodevelopmental disorders, and are generally worse at an earlier onset and in certain aetiologies. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Load proportional safety brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciola, M. J.

    1979-01-01

    This brake is a self-energizing mechanical friction brake and is intended for use in a rotary drive system. It incorporates a torque sensor which cuts power to the power unit on any overload condition. The brake is capable of driving against an opposing load or driving, paying-out, an aiding load in either direction of rotation. The brake also acts as a no-back device when torque is applied to the output shaft. The advantages of using this type of device are: (1) low frictional drag when driving; (2) smooth paying-out of an aiding load with no runaway danger; (3) energy absorption proportional to load; (4) no-back activates within a few degrees of output shaft rotation and resets automatically; and (5) built-in overload protection.

  17. Nuclear fuel rod loading apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, H.B.

    1981-01-01

    A nuclear fuel loading apparatus, incorporating a microprocessor control unit, is described which automatically loads nuclear fuel pellets into dual fuel rods with a minimum of manual involvement and in a manner and sequence to ensure quality control and accuracy. (U.K.)

  18. Sensitivity of annual and seasonal reference crop ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    scheduling and water resources management. Ref- ... time, and refers to evapotranspiration rate from a reference ... variable per unit increase in independent variable. Sensitivity ...... Pereira L S 2007 Relating water productivity and crop.

  19. Number of colony forming units in urine at 35–37 weeks’ gestation as predictor of the vaginal load of Group B Streptococci at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalil, Mohammad; Bak Thorsen, Poul; Møller, Jens Kjølseth

    2018-01-01

    prophylaxis; NPV, Negative predictive value; PCR, Polymerase chain reaction; PPV, Positive predictive value Keywords Group B Streptococcus bacteriuria; Colony count; Vaginal colonization; Risk factor; Intrapartum colonization; Early-onset neonatal infection; Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis...... at 35-37 weeks’ gestation. Outcome was vaginal GBS colonization at birth as assessed by a semi-quantitative culture of a vaginal swab sample (negative, +1, +2, +3). Results Bacteriuria with GBS at 35-37 weeks’ gestation performed with a sensitivity of 30% concerning any degree of vaginal GBS...... colonization at birth (31 of 104 cases); 19% for light (+1), 17% for medium (+2), and 52% for high load (+3) vaginal GBS colonization. The colony count in case of GBS bacteriuria at 35-37 weeks’ gestation performed with positive predictive values of 35% for 104 CFU...

  20. Beam loading

    OpenAIRE

    Boussard, Daniel

    1987-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the radio-frequency generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, radio-frequency feedback and feedforward are described. Examples of digital radio-frequency phase and amplitude control for the special case of superco...

  1. Single-source dual-energy CT angiography with reduced iodine load in patients referred for aortoiliofemoral evaluation before transcatheter aortic valve implantation: impact on image quality and radiation dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubourg, Benjamin; Caudron, Jerome; Lefebvre, Valentin; Dacher, Jean-Nicolas [Rouen University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Rouen (France); UFR Medecine Pharmacie, INSERM U1096, Rouen (France); Lestrat, Jean-Pierre [Rouen University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Rouen (France); Bubenheim, Michael [Rouen University Hospital, Department of Biostatistics, Rouen (France); Godin, Matthieu; Tron, Christophe [Rouen University Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Rouen (France); Eltchaninoff, Helene; Bauer, Fabrice [Rouen University Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Rouen (France); UFR Medecine Pharmacie, INSERM U1096, Rouen (France)

    2014-11-15

    To compare image quality and radiation dose of pre-transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) aortoiliofemoral CT angiography (AICTA) provided by standard vs. dual-energy mode with reduced iodine load protocols. One hundred and sixty-one patients underwent a two-step CTA protocol before TAVI including cardiac CTA with injection of 65 mL of iodinated contrast agent (ICA), immediately followed by AICTA. From this second acquisition, the following three different patient groups were identified: Group 1: 52 patients with standard AICTA (60 mL ICA, 100 kVp, mA automodulation); Group 2: 48 patients with dual-energy AICTA with 50 % iodine load reduction (30 mL ICA, fast kVp switching, 600 mA); Group 3: 61 patients with an identical protocol to Group 2, but exposed to 375 mA. The qualitative/subjective image quality (13-point score) and quantitative/objective image quality (contrast attenuation and image noise) were evaluated. The radiation dose was recorded. There was no significant difference in non-diagnostic images between the three protocols. Contrast attenuation, signal-to-noise ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio were significantly higher, whereas noise was significantly lower in the standard protocol (all P < 0.05). The radiation dose was lower in the dual-energy protocol at 375 mA (P < 0.05). Dual-energy AICTA before TAVI results in a reduction of iodine load while maintaining sufficient diagnostic information despite increased noise. (orig.)

  2. Unit Reference Sheet (URS) Cost Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    LAUNCHER MONORAIL GUIDED MISSILE: W/E (NIKE-HERCULES) L45740 LAUNCHER TUBULAR GUIDED MISSILE: (TOW) L45757 LAUNCHER ZERO LENGTH GUIDED MISSILE: (IMP-HAWK...L76762 LOADER TRANSPORTER GUIDED MISSILE: W/E (HAWK) M57503 MOBILE TARGET TRACKING SYSTEM: USED TO SUPPORT MQM 34 ( FIRE BEE) M57549 MOBILITY KIT GUIDED...HIGH RATE THREE BARREL W/E J96479 GUN AUTOMATIC 20 MILLIMETER: GAS OPERATED MANUAL OR ELECT FIRED J96481 GUN AUTOMATIC 20 MILLIMETER: ELECTRIC J96694 GUN

  3. The thermal-mechanical behavior of fuel pins during power's maneuvering regime at stationary core loading on 2nd unit of KHNPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ieremenko, M.; Ovdiyenko, Y.; Khalimonchuk, V.

    2007-01-01

    Results of thermal-mechanical behaviour of fuel pins during daily power's maneuvering regime that were proposed for second unit of Khmelnitsky NPP are presented. Calculations were performed for campaign's moments 100 and 160 fpd and for different type of regulation. Additionally calculations were performed for campaign 7. It is the design variant of the campaign and reactor core contains the high burnt fuel. Calculations of macro-core parameters (Kq, Kv) was performed by spatial computer code DYN3D. Calculations of micro-core parameters (fuel pin power) was performed by computer code DERAB. Calculations of thermal-mechanical behaviour of fuel pins was performed by computer code TRANSURANUS (Authors)

  4. Environmental Assessment for DOE permission for off-loading activities to support the movement of Millstone Unit 2 steam generator sub-assemblies across the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), for the proposed granting of DOE permission of offloading activities to support the movement Millstone Unit 2 steam generator sub-assemblies (SGSAs) across the Savannah River Site (SRS). Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, an environmental impact statement is not required, and the Department is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact. On the basis of the floodplain/wetlands assessment in the EA, DOE has determined that there is no practicable alternative to the proposed activities and that the proposed action has been designed to minimize potential harm to or within the floodplain of the SRS boat ramp. No wetlands on SRS would be affected by the proposed action

  5. The influence of typical ways of operating and air-handling unit on the sensory pollution load from used bag filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mysen, M.; Clausen, Geo; Bekö, Gabriel

    2003-01-01

    An experiment was performed to determine whether the sensory pollution emitted from a bag filter that had been used for 3 months in a suburban area in Denmark was influenced by different ways of operating the air-handling unit (AHU). Samples of the used filter were pre-conditioned to simulate thr...... the airflow outside working hours would significantly increase the sensory pollution emitted by a used bag filter immediately after the AHU is turned on, in comparison with continuous airflow through the AHU (P...... operating conditions: 1) switched off overnight; 2) airflow reduced to 10% overnight; and 3) continuous 100% operation. Outside air passed through the samples and the acceptability of the air after the filter was assessed by a panel of subjects. The results indicate that turning off the AHU or reducing...

  6. Beam loading

    CERN Document Server

    Gamp, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the radio-frequency generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, radio-frequency feedback and feedforward are described. Examples of digital radio-frequency phase and amplitude control for the special case of superconducting cavities are also given. Finally, a dedicated phase loop for damping synchrotron oscillations is discussed.

  7. Beam loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamp, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the radio-frequency generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, radio-frequency feedback and feedforward are described. Examples of digital radio-frequency phase and amplitude control for the special case of superconducting cavities are also given. Finally, a dedicated phase loop for damping synchrotron oscillations is discussed. (author)

  8. Mechanical engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Parrish, A

    1973-01-01

    Mechanical Engineer's Reference Book: 11th Edition presents a comprehensive examination of the use of Systéme International d' Unités (SI) metrication. It discusses the effectiveness of such a system when used in the field of engineering. It addresses the basic concepts involved in thermodynamics and heat transfer. Some of the topics covered in the book are the metallurgy of iron and steel; screw threads and fasteners; hole basis and shaft basis fits; an introduction to geometrical tolerancing; mechanical working of steel; high strength alloy steels; advantages of making components as castings

  9. Coal Data: A reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of Coal Data: A Reference is to provide basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the United States. The report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ''Coal Terminology and Related Information'' provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces new terms. Topics covered are US coal deposits, resources and reserves, mining, production, employment and productivity, health and safety, preparation, transportation, supply and stocks, use, coal, the environment, and more. (VC)

  10. Load sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Ende, D.; Almeida, P.M.R.; Dingemans, T.J.; Van der Zwaag, S.

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a load sensor comprising a polymer matrix and a piezo-ceramic material such as PZT, em not bedded in the polymer matrix, which together form a compos not ite, wherein the polymer matrix is a liquid crystalline resin, and wherein the piezo-ceramic material is a PZT powder

  11. Carbohydrate Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csernus, Marilyn

    Carbohydrate loading is a frequently used technique to improve performance by altering an athlete's diet. The objective is to increase glycogen stored in muscles for use in prolonged strenuous exercise. For two to three days, the athlete consumes a diet that is low in carbohydrates and high in fat and protein while continuing to exercise and…

  12. The demographic, clinical and forensic profile of offenders diagnosed with epilepsy referred to the Free State Psychiatric Complex Observation Unit in terms of section 77 and/or 78 of the Criminal Procedure Act 51 of 1977

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P J Marais

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Limited information regarding the relation between psychopathology associated with epilepsy, crime and the legal aspects thereof is available in South Africa. Objectives: The demographic, clinical and forensic profile of alleged offenders diagnosed with epilepsy and referred to the Free State Psychiatric Complex (FSPC Observation Unit from 2001 to 2006, was investigated. Design A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted. Results: Of the 69 alleged offenders, aged 17–79 years (median 30 years, 94.2% were male, 81.2% Black, 72.5% single, and 69.9% unemployed. The median qualification was grade six. Offences were violent in nature and committed against a person in 75% of cases. A direct link between epilepsy and the alleged offences occurred in 7% of cases. Generalised epilepsy (34.8% and interictal psychosis (20.3% were the most commonly diagnosed conditions. Twenty-nine (42% alleged offenders lacked criminal responsibility and were not fit to stand trial. Most observati (79.2% diagnosed with generalised epilepsy were criminally liable and fit to stand trial. The highest rate of criminal incapacity was found among observati with interictal psychoses (85.7% and comorbid mental retardation (90%. Almost 60% of referred cases were declared as state patients by the court. Conclusion: In only 16% of cases, observati were found unaccountable because of epilepsy (automatisms or postictal confusional states. Our findings confirmed an increased prevalence of violent behaviour during seizure-free periods. This contributes to evidence that factors associated with epilepsy, rather than the epilepsy itself, play an important role in the possible increased risk of violent behaviour in people with epilepsy.

  13. Contamination profiles, mass loadings, and sewage epidemiology of neuropsychiatric and illicit drugs in wastewater and river waters from a community in the Midwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skees, Allie J; Foppe, Katelyn S; Loganathan, Bommanna; Subedi, Bikram

    2018-08-01

    In this study, residues of the neuropsychiatric and illicit drugs including stimulants, opioids, hallucinogens, antischizophrenics, sedatives, and antidepressants were determined in influent and effluent samples from a small wastewater treatment plant, a receiving creek, and river waters in the Four Rivers region of the Midwestern United States. Nineteen neuropsychiatric drugs, eight illicit drugs, and three metabolites of illicit drugs were detected and quantitated in the water samples using HPLC-MS/MS. Residual concentrations of the drugs varied from below the detection limit to sub-μg/L levels. The source of residual cocaine and benzoylecgonine in wastewater is primarily from human consumption of cocaine rather than direct disposal. Wastewater based epidemiology is utilized to estimate the community usage of drugs based on the concentration of drug residues in wastewater, wastewater inflow, and the population served by the centralized wastewater treatment plant. The per-capita consumption rate of methamphetamine (1740 mg/d/1000 people) and amphetamine (970 mg/d/1000 people) found in this study were the highest reported per-capita consumption rates in the USA. Antidepressant venlafaxine found to have the highest environmental emission from the WWTP (333 ± 160 mg/d/1000 people) followed by citalopram (132 ± 60.2 mg/d/1000 people), methamphetamine (111 ± 43.6 mg/d/1000 people), and hydrocodone (108 ± 90.1 mg/d/1000 people). Bee Creek, an immediate receiving water body, is found to be a source of several neuropsychiatric and illicit drugs including methamphetamine, methadone, alprazolam, oxazepam, temazepam, carbamazepine, venlafaxine, citalopram, sertraline, oxycodone, and hydrocodone (p < 0.036) in the Clarks River. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A systematic hub loads model of a horizontal wind turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazacoks, Romans; Jamieson, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The wind turbine industry has focused offshore on increasing the capacity of a single unit through up-scaling their machines. There is however a lack of systematic studies on how loads vary due to properties of a wind turbine and scaling of wind turbines. The purpose of this paper is to study how applied blade modifications, with similarities such as mass, stiffness and dimensions, influence blade root moments and lifetime damage equivalent loads (DELs) of the rotor blades. In order to produce fatigue load blade root moment trends based on the applied modifications. It was found that a linear trend of lifetime DELs based on the applied modifications of blades, which have effect on the natural frequency of blade of the original or reference model. As the control system was tuned for the specific frequency of the reference model. The linear trend of lifetime DELs was generated as long as the natural frequency of the reference model was preserved. For larger modifications of the wind turbine the controller would need retuning

  15. Umbilical Cable Recovery Load Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Shu-wang; JIA Zhao-lin; FENG Xiao-wei; LI Shi-tao

    2013-01-01

    Umbilical cable is a kind of integrated subsea cable widely used in the exploration and exploitation of oil and gas field.The severe ocean environment makes great challenges to umbilical maintenance and repair work.Damaged umbilical is usually recovered for the regular operation of the offshore production system.Analysis on cables in essence is a two-point boundary problem.The tension load at the mudline must be known first,and then the recovery load and recovery angle on the vessel can be solved by use of catenary equation.The recovery analysis also involves umbilicalsoil interaction and becomes more complicated.Calculation methods for recovery load of the exposed and buried umbilical are established and the relationship between the position of touch down point and the recovery load as well as the recovery angle and recovery load are analyzed.The analysis results provide a theoretical reference for offshore on-deck operation.

  16. Public involvement in the siting of contentious facilities; Lessons from the radioactive waste repository siting programmes in Canada and the United States, with special reference to the Swedish repository siting process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, P.J.

    1997-08-01

    This report describes the conclusion of a two-part programme, begun in 1994 with the overall aim of assisting in the development of an acceptable public participation strategy for use in Sweden for the siting of contentious facilities, with particular reference to the ongoing siting programme for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. The first part of the work programme, a global review of siting practice, was reported as SSI Rapport 94-15, in November 1994. This recommended further detailed studies of at least two individual programmes, which have now been carried out in Canada and the United States, and are reported on here. They involved face to face meetings with many of the main stake holders in the two programmes and enabled valuable insight to be gained into the potential problems associated with increased public participation, as well as identifying good practice where it exists. The lessons learned have then been applied to the evolving repository siting process in Sweden. 35 refs

  17. Public involvement in the siting of contentious facilities; Lessons from the radioactive waste repository siting programmes in Canada and the United States, with special reference to the Swedish repository siting process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, P J [Geosciences for Development and the Environment (United Kingdom)

    1997-08-01

    This report describes the conclusion of a two-part programme, begun in 1994 with the overall aim of assisting in the development of an acceptable public participation strategy for use in Sweden for the siting of contentious facilities, with particular reference to the ongoing siting programme for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. The first part of the work programme, a global review of siting practice, was reported as SSI Rapport 94-15, in November 1994. This recommended further detailed studies of at least two individual programmes, which have now been carried out in Canada and the United States, and are reported on here. They involved face to face meetings with many of the main stake holders in the two programmes and enabled valuable insight to be gained into the potential problems associated with increased public participation, as well as identifying good practice where it exists. The lessons learned have then been applied to the evolving repository siting process in Sweden. 35 refs.

  18. Load sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Van den Ende, D.; Almeida, P.M.R.; Dingemans, T.J.; Van der Zwaag, S.

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a load sensor comprising a polymer matrix and a piezo-ceramic material such as PZT, em not bedded in the polymer matrix, which together form a compos not ite, wherein the polymer matrix is a liquid crystalline resin, and wherein the piezo-ceramic material is a PZT powder forming 30-60% by volume of the composite, and wherein the PZT powder forms 40-50% by volume of the composite.

  19. Spatial analysis of instream nitrogen loads and factors controlling nitrogen delivery to streams in the southeastern United States using spatially referenced regression on watershed attributes (SPARROW) and regional classification frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoos, Anne B.; McMahon, Gerard

    2009-01-01

    Understanding how nitrogen transport across the landscape varies with landscape characteristics is important for developing sound nitrogen management policies. We used a spatially referenced regression analysis (SPARROW) to examine landscape characteristics influencing delivery of nitrogen from sources in a watershed to stream channels. Modelled landscape delivery ratio varies widely (by a factor of 4) among watersheds in the southeastern United States—higher in the western part (Tennessee, Alabama, and Mississippi) than in the eastern part, and the average value for the region is lower compared to other parts of the nation. When we model landscape delivery ratio as a continuous function of local-scale landscape characteristics, we estimate a spatial pattern that varies as a function of soil and climate characteristics but exhibits spatial structure in residuals (observed load minus predicted load). The spatial pattern of modelled landscape delivery ratio and the spatial pattern of residuals coincide spatially with Level III ecoregions and also with hydrologic landscape regions. Subsequent incorporation into the model of these frameworks as regional scale variables improves estimation of landscape delivery ratio, evidenced by reduced spatial bias in residuals, and suggests that cross-scale processes affect nitrogen attenuation on the landscape. The model-fitted coefficient values are logically consistent with the hypothesis that broad-scale classifications of hydrologic response help to explain differential rates of nitrogen attenuation, controlling for local-scale landscape characteristics. Negative model coefficients for hydrologic landscape regions where the primary flow path is shallow ground water suggest that a lower fraction of nitrogen mass will be delivered to streams; this relation is reversed for regions where the primary flow path is overland flow.

  20. Enteric parasites in HIV-1/AIDS-infected patients from a Northwestern São Paulo reference unit in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era Enteroparasitas em pacientes infectados pelo HIV-1/AIDS em uma unidade de referência do noroeste paulista na era da terapia antirretroviral de alto impacto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Ventura Cardoso

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: We describe the epidemiology of intestinal parasites in patients from an AIDS reference service in Northeastern São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Retrospective evaluation was done for all HIV-1/AIDS-positive patients whose Hospital de Base/São José do Rio Preto laboratorial analysis was positive for enteroparasites after diagnosis of HIV-1 infection, from January 1998 to December 2008. Statistical analysis was performed using the R statistical software version 2.4.1. The level of significance adopted was 5%. RESULTS: The most frequent protozoan was Isospora belli (4.2%, followed by Giardia lamblia (3.5%, Entamoeba coli (2.8%, and Cryptosporidium parvum (0.3%. Ancylostoma duodenale (1.4% was the most frequently detected helminth, while Taenia saginata and Strongiloides stercoralis were found in 0.7% of the samples. The results showed that diarrhea was significantly associated with giardiasis and isosporiasis. However, no association was observed between CD4+ cell counts, viral load, and the characteristics of any particular parasite. CONCLUSIONS: Our data may be useful for further comparisons with other Brazilian regions and other developing countries. The data may also provide important clues toward improving the understanding, prevention, and control of enteric parasites around the world.INTRODUÇÃO: Descrevemos a epidemiologia de enteroparasitoses em pacientes de um serviço de referência de AIDS, no noroeste paulista, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Durante o período de janeiro de 1998 a dezembro de 2008, foi realizado este estudo retrospectivo por meio da análise dos prontuários dos pacientes diagnosticados com HIV-1/AIDS atendidos no Ambulatório de Doenças Infecto-Parasitárias do Hospital de Base, São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo. As análises estatísticas foram realizadas usando a versão 2.4.1 do software estatístico R. O nível de significância adotado foi de 5%. RESULTADOS: O protozoário mais frequente foi o Isospora belli

  1. Spreading the load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, Greg

    1999-01-01

    This article examines the management of power demand by the regional electricity companies in the United Kingdom so that consumers use most power at times when the pool price is at its lowest. The use of teleswitching for load management, the control of the heating of large residential buildings, the power demand of supermarkets with 24hr opening, financial incentives, and the forecasting of demand are discussed. Details are given of the work of the operational forecasting team, and the matching of demand with generators availability by the scheduling team of the National Grid. (UK)

  2. Interaction between daily load demand curve and management of hydro-thermal generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granelli, G.; Montagna, M.; Pasini, G.; Innorta, M.; Marannino, P.

    1993-01-01

    The influence that the behaviour of the daily load demand curve has on the management of a hydro-thermal generation system is considered. The aim of this paper is to show the improvements that can be achieved by suitable load management techniques capable of flattening the load demand curve. The analysis is carried out by using a hydro-thermal scheduling program and a thermal unit dynamic dispatch procedure. The possibility of properly re-committing the available thermal units is also taken into account. The economical and technical convenience of shutting down less economical thermal units operating near the lower generations limits is verified. Finally, some considerations are made about the possible use of the thermal generation incremental costs as a tool for planning the end users' kWh prices, even in the short term. The results refer to a system with characteristics similar to those of the Italian one. In determining the daily load demand curves, the characteristics of load demand in Italy as well as in other European countries are taken into account

  3. Uranium tailings reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.W.; Steger, H.F.; Bowman, W.S.

    1984-01-01

    Samples of uranium tailings from Bancroft and Elliot Lake, Ontario, and from Beaverlodge and Rabbit Lake, Saskatchewan, have been prepared as compositional reference materials at the request of the National Uranium Tailings Research Program. The four samples, UTS-1 to UTS-4, were ground to minus 104 μm, each mixed in one lot and bottled in 200-g units for UTS-1 to UTS-3 and in 100-g units for UTS-4. The materials were tested for homogeneity with respect to uranium by neutron activation analysis and to iron by an acid-decomposition atomic absorption procedure. In a free choice analytical program, 18 laboratories contributed results for one or more of total iron, titanium, aluminum, calcium, barium, uranium, thorium, total sulphur, and sulphate for all four samples, and for nickel and arsenic in UTS-4 only. Based on a statistical analysis of the data, recommended values were assigned to all elements/constituents, except for sulphate in UTS-3 and nickel in UTS-4. The radioactivity of thorium-230, radium-226, lead-210, and polonium-210 in UTS-1 to UTS-4 and of thorium-232, radium-228, and thorium-228 in UTS-1 and UTS-2 was determined in a radioanalytical program composed of eight laboratories. Recommended values for the radioactivities and associated parameters were calculated by a statistical treatment of the results

  4. The Atlas load protection switch

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, H A; Dorr, G; Martínez, M; Gribble, R F; Nielsen, K E; Pierce, D; Parsons, W M

    1999-01-01

    Atlas is a high-energy pulsed-power facility under development to study materials properties and hydrodynamics experiments under extreme conditions. Atlas will implode heavy liner loads (m~45 gm) with a peak current of 27-32 MA delivered in 4 mu s, and is energized by 96, 240 kV Marx generators storing a total of 23 MJ. A key design requirement for Atlas is obtaining useful data for 95601130f all loads installed on the machine. Materials response calculations show current from a prefire can damage the load requiring expensive and time consuming replacement. Therefore, we have incorporated a set of fast-acting mechanical switches in the Atlas design to reduce the probability of a prefire damaging the load. These switches, referred to as the load protection switches, short the load through a very low inductance path during system charge. Once the capacitors have reached full charge, the switches open on a time scale short compared to the bank charge time, allowing current to flow to the load when the trigger pu...

  5. Load testing circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    A load testing circuit a circuit tests the load impedance of a load connected to an amplifier. The load impedance includes a first terminal and a second terminal, the load testing circuit comprising a signal generator providing a test signal of a defined bandwidth to the first terminal of the load...

  6. Automatic demand response referred to electricity spot price. Demo description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grande, Ove S.; Livik, Klaus; Hals, Arne

    2006-05-01

    This report presents background, technical solution and results from a test project (Demo I) developed in the DRR Norway) project. Software and technology from two different vendors, APAS and Powel ASA, are used to demonstrate a scheme for Automatic Demand Response (ADR) referred to spot price level and a system for documentation of demand response and cost savings. Periods with shortage of energy supply and hardly any investments in new production capacity have turned focus towards the need for increased price elasticity on the demand side in the Nordic power market. The new technology for Automatic Meter Reading (AMR) and Remote Load Control (RLC) provides an opportunity to improve the direct market participation from the demand side by introducing automatic schemes that reduce the need for customer attention to hourly market prices. The low prioritized appliances, and not the total load, are in this report defined as the Demand Response Objects, based on the assumption that there is a limit for what the customers are willing to pay for different uses of electricity. Only disconnection of residential water heaters is included in the demo, due to practical limitations. The test was performed for a group of single family houses over a period of 2 months. All the houses were equipped with a radio controlled 'Ebox' unit attached to the water heater socket. The settlement and invoicing were based on hourly metered values (kWh/h), which means that the customer benefit is equivalent to the accumulated changes in the electricity cost per hour. The actual load reduction is documented by comparison between the real meter values for the period and a reference curve. The curves show significant response to the activated control in the morning hours. In the afternoon it is more difficult to register the response, probably due to 'disturbing' activities like cooking etc. Demo I shows that load reduction referred to spot price level can be done in a smooth way. The experiences

  7. Standard Reference Tables -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Standard Reference Tables (SRT) provide consistent reference data for the various applications that support Flight Standards Service (AFS) business processes and...

  8. The value of colonoscopy to assess rectal bleeding in patients referred from Primary Care Units Utilidad de la colonoscopia en pacientes derivados desde Atención Primaria por rectorragia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sánchez

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: rectal bleeding is very common in the general population. It is produced mainly because of benign disease originating in the anus and the rectum. Our aim was to evaluate the need for colonoscopy in patients presenting with rectal bleeding. Patients and methods: patients referred from Primary Care Units and complaining of rectal bleeding were included prospectively in a three-month study. All patients underwent a careful medical history along with physical examination, laboratory tests, and colonoscopy. Results: 126 patients with a mean age of 49.2 years (range: 19-80 were studied. Rectal digital examination was abnormal in 75 cases (59.5%. Severe disease was encountered in 22 patients (neoplasm, angiodysplasia, and inflammatory bowel disease; 10 patients had polyps, 6 had colorectal cancer, and 6 had inflammatory bowel disease. Out of 63 patients younger than 50 years, 5 had severe disease, all of them in the form of inflammatory bowel disease. Conclusions: a neoplasm of the rectum and colon in patients younger than 50 years is a rare event. A colonoscopy must be performed in this group of patients to rule out inflammatory bowel disease.Objetivos: la rectorragia es frecuente en la población general. En la mayoría de las ocasiones está producida por patología anorrectal benigna. Nuestro objetivo era determinar la necesidad de realizar pruebas endoscópicas en pacientes con rectorragia. Pacientes y métodos: se incluyeron de forma prospectiva durante tres meses todos los pacientes que eran derivados desde la Atención Primaria por rectorragia. En todos los pacientes se realizó historia clínica y exploración física que incluía tacto rectal, analítica básica y una colonoscopia. Resultados: se incluyeron 126 pacientes con una edad media de 49,2 años (19-80. El tacto rectal fue anormal en 75 (59,5%. En 22 pacientes se encontró patología severa o positiva (lesiones neoplásicas, angiodisplasias y enfermedad inflamatoria

  9. An instrumented implant for vertebral body replacement that measures loads in the anterior spinal column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlmann, Antonius; Gabel, Udo; Graichen, Friedmar; Bender, Alwina; Bergmann, Georg

    2007-06-01

    Realistic loads on a spinal implant are required among others for optimization of implant design and preclinical testing. In addition, such data may help to choose the optimal physiotherapy program for patients with such an implant and to evaluate the efficacy of aids like braces or crutches. Presently, no implant is available that can measure loads in the anterior spinal column during activities of daily life. Therefore, an implant instrumented for in vivo load measurement was developed for vertebral body replacement. The aim of this paper is to describe in detail a telemeterized implant that measures forces and moments acting on it. Six load sensors, a nine-channel telemetry unit and a coil for inductive power supply of the electronic circuits were integrated into a modified vertebral body replacement (Synex). The instrumented part of the implant is hermetically sealed. Patients are videotaped during measurements, and implant loads are displayed on and off line. The average accuracy of load measurement is better than 2% for force and 5% for moment components with reference to the maximum value of 3000 N and 20 Nm, respectively. The measuring implant described here will provide additional information on spinal loads.

  10. Meso-Scale Finite Element Analysis of Mechanical Behavior of 3D Braided Composites Subjected to Biaxial Tension Loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Curiel-Sosa, Jose L.; Bui, Tinh Quoc

    2018-04-01

    In many engineering applications, 3D braided composites are designed for primary loading-bearing structures, and they are frequently subjected to multi-axial loading conditions during service. In this paper, a unit-cell based finite element model is developed for assessment of mechanical behavior of 3D braided composites under different biaxial tension loadings. To predict the damage initiation and evolution of braiding yarns and matrix in the unit-cell, we thus propose an anisotropic damage model based on Murakami damage theory in conjunction with Hashin failure criteria and maximum stress criteria. To attain exact stress ratio, force loading mode of periodic boundary conditions which never been attempted before is first executed to the unit-cell model to apply the biaxial tension loadings. The biaxial mechanical behaviors, such as the stress distribution, tensile modulus and tensile strength are analyzed and discussed. The damage development of 3D braided composites under typical biaxial tension loadings is simulated and the damage mechanisms are revealed in the simulation process. The present study generally provides a new reference to the meso-scale finite element analysis (FEA) of multi-axial mechanical behavior of other textile composites.

  11. Loads and loads and loads: The influence of prospective load, retrospective load, and ongoing task load in prospective memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beat eMeier

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In prospective memory tasks different kinds of load can occur. Adding a prospective memory task can impose a load on ongoing task performance. Adding ongoing task load can affect prospective memory performance. The existence of multiple target events increases prospective load and adding complexity to the to-be-remembered action increases retrospective load. In two experiments, we systematically examined the effects of these different types of load on prospective memory performance. Results showed an effect of prospective load on costs in the ongoing task for categorical targets (Experiment 2, but not for specific targets (Experiment 1. Retrospective load and ongoing task load both affected remembering the retrospective component of the prospective memory task. We suggest that prospective load can enhance costs in the ongoing task due to additional monitoring requirements. Retrospective load and ongoing task load seem to impact the division of resources between the ongoing task and retrieval of the retrospective component, which may affect disengagement from the ongoing task. In general, the results demonstrate that the different types of load affect prospective memory differentially.

  12. Power conversion unit for the South African direct cycle HTGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebenberg, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    The system parameters chosen to optimise the thermal efficiency of the Eskom PBMR whilst maintaining component simplicity is discussed. Power Conversion Unit components, which are now at a preliminary design stage comprise a precooler, two turbo units consisting of a turbine driven compressor, recuperator and a power turbine, driving an alternator. Design aspects of every component is mentioned and the inventory method of poorer control is explained with reference to start-up and and shut-down events, the system an effective load following device, down to 4% of full power. Application of the same design principles for HTGRs smaller than 25 MWe is discussed. (author)

  13. Energy policy: selected references. [Booklet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenwrick-Piercy, E [comp.

    1980-01-01

    This bibliography is based on material held in the UK Department of Energy Library. Energy-related documents published between 1973 and 1980 are emphasized in the 260 references listed. The bibliography is organized under the major headings of United Kingdom, Irish Republic, World, Western Europe, Eastern Europe, North America, South America, Asia, Australia, New Zealand, Africa, and Middle East. For continuing information on energy policy, 5 useful periodicals are listed.

  14. Considerations for reference pump curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockton, N.B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines problems associated with inservice testing (IST) of pumps to assess their hydraulic performance using reference pump curves to establish acceptance criteria. Safety-related pumps at nuclear power plants are tested under the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (the Code), Section 11. The Code requires testing pumps at specific reference points of differential pressure or flow rate that can be readily duplicated during subsequent tests. There are many cases where test conditions cannot be duplicated. For some pumps, such as service water or component cooling pumps, the flow rate at any time depends on plant conditions and the arrangement of multiple independent and constantly changing loads. System conditions cannot be controlled to duplicate a specific reference value. In these cases, utilities frequently request to use pump curves for comparison of test data for acceptance. There is no prescribed method for developing a pump reference curve. The methods vary and may yield substantially different results. Some results are conservative when compared to the Code requirements; some are not. The errors associated with different curve testing techniques should be understood and controlled within reasonable bounds. Manufacturer's pump curves, in general, are not sufficiently accurate to use as reference pump curves for IST. Testing using reference curves generated with polynomial least squares fits over limited ranges of pump operation, cubic spline interpolation, or cubic spline least squares fits can provide a measure of pump hydraulic performance that is at least as accurate as the Code required method. Regardless of the test method, error can be reduced by using more accurate instruments, by correcting for systematic errors, by increasing the number of data points, and by taking repetitive measurements at each data point

  15. Optimal load scheduling in commercial and residential microgrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganji Tanha, Mohammad Mahdi

    Residential and commercial electricity customers use more than two third of the total energy consumed in the United States, representing a significant resource of demand response. Price-based demand response, which is in response to changes in electricity prices, represents the adjustments in load through optimal load scheduling (OLS). In this study, an efficient model for OLS is developed for residential and commercial microgrids which include aggregated loads in single-units and communal loads. Single unit loads which include fixed, adjustable and shiftable loads are controllable by the unit occupants. Communal loads which include pool pumps, elevators and central heating/cooling systems are shared among the units. In order to optimally schedule residential and commercial loads, a community-based optimal load scheduling (CBOLS) is proposed in this thesis. The CBOLS schedule considers hourly market prices, occupants' comfort level, and microgrid operation constraints. The CBOLS' objective in residential and commercial microgrids is the constrained minimization of the total cost of supplying the aggregator load, defined as the microgrid load minus the microgrid generation. This problem is represented by a large-scale mixed-integer optimization for supplying single-unit and communal loads. The Lagrangian relaxation methodology is used to relax the linking communal load constraint and decompose the independent single-unit functions into subproblems which can be solved in parallel. The optimal solution is acceptable if the aggregator load limit and the duality gap are within the bounds. If any of the proposed criteria is not satisfied, the Lagrangian multiplier will be updated and a new optimal load schedule will be regenerated until both constraints are satisfied. The proposed method is applied to several case studies and the results are presented for the Galvin Center load on the 16th floor of the IIT Tower in Chicago.

  16. 2002 reference document; Document de reference 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This 2002 reference document of the group Areva, provides information on the society. Organized in seven chapters, it presents the persons responsible for the reference document and for auditing the financial statements, information pertaining to the transaction, general information on the company and share capital, information on company operation, changes and future prospects, assets, financial position, financial performance, information on company management and executive board and supervisory board, recent developments and future prospects. (A.L.B.)

  17. Peak load demand forecasting using two-level discrete wavelet decomposition and neural network algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnoon, Pituk; Chalermyanont, Kusumal; Limsakul, Chusak

    2010-02-01

    This paper proposed the discrete transform and neural network algorithms to obtain the monthly peak load demand in mid term load forecasting. The mother wavelet daubechies2 (db2) is employed to decomposed, high pass filter and low pass filter signals from the original signal before using feed forward back propagation neural network to determine the forecasting results. The historical data records in 1997-2007 of Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT) is used as reference. In this study, historical information of peak load demand(MW), mean temperature(Tmean), consumer price index (CPI), and industrial index (economic:IDI) are used as feature inputs of the network. The experimental results show that the Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) is approximately 4.32%. This forecasting results can be used for fuel planning and unit commitment of the power system in the future.

  18. 15 CFR 2008.1 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false References. 2008.1 Section 2008.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12065; OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE...

  19. Distribution load estimation (DLE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaelae, A; Lehtonen, M [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    The load research has produced customer class load models to convert the customers` annual energy consumption to hourly load values. The reliability of load models applied from a nation-wide sample is limited in any specific network because many local circumstances are different from utility to utility and time to time. Therefore there is a need to find improvements to the load models or, in general, improvements to the load estimates. In Distribution Load Estimation (DLE) the measurements from the network are utilized to improve the customer class load models. The results of DLE will be new load models that better correspond to the loading of the distribution network but are still close to the original load models obtained by load research. The principal data flow of DLE is presented

  20. Load factors to end March 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howles, L.

    1989-01-01

    Load factors for nuclear reactors of 150MWe gross and above for the 12 month period up to the end of March 1989, and over their lifetimes, are tabulated. Units which have been in operation for more than one year as of end March 1989 are ranked in order of annual load factor; cumulative load factors are also shown, measured from first synchronization to the grid not from start of commercial operation. New reactors which had operated for less than 12 months as of end of March 1989 are listed separately. With the exception of the four Paks units in Hungary, Comecon reactors are excluded due to lack of data. (author)

  1. VBE reference framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afsarmanesh, H.; Camarinha-Matos, L.M.; Ermilova, E.; Camarinha-Matos, L.M.; Afsarmanesh, H.; Ollus, M.

    2008-01-01

    Defining a comprehensive and generic "reference framework" for Virtual organizations Breeding Environments (VBEs), addressing all their features and characteristics, is challenging. While the definition and modeling of VBEs has become more formalized during the last five years, "reference models"

  2. CMS Statistics Reference Booklet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The annual CMS Statistics reference booklet provides a quick reference for summary information about health expenditures and the Medicare and Medicaid health...

  3. Changing quantum reference frames

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, Matthew C.; Girelli, Florian; Bartlett, Stephen D.

    2013-01-01

    We consider the process of changing reference frames in the case where the reference frames are quantum systems. We find that, as part of this process, decoherence is necessarily induced on any quantum system described relative to these frames. We explore this process with examples involving reference frames for phase and orientation. Quantifying the effect of changing quantum reference frames serves as a first step in developing a relativity principle for theories in which all objects includ...

  4. Distribution load estimation - DLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaelae, A. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The load research project has produced statistical information in the form of load models to convert the figures of annual energy consumption to hourly load values. The reliability of load models is limited to a certain network because many local circumstances are different from utility to utility and time to time. Therefore there is a need to make improvements in the load models. Distribution load estimation (DLE) is the method developed here to improve load estimates from the load models. The method is also quite cheap to apply as it utilises information that is already available in SCADA systems

  5. Distribution load estimation - DLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaelae, A [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The load research project has produced statistical information in the form of load models to convert the figures of annual energy consumption to hourly load values. The reliability of load models is limited to a certain network because many local circumstances are different from utility to utility and time to time. Therefore there is a need to make improvements in the load models. Distribution load estimation (DLE) is the method developed here to improve load estimates from the load models. The method is also quite cheap to apply as it utilises information that is already available in SCADA systems

  6. Final Project Report Load Modeling Transmission Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesieutre, Bernard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bravo, Richard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yinger, Robert [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chassin, Dave [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Huang, Henry [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Ning [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hiskens, Ian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Venkataramanan, Giri [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-03-31

    The research presented in this report primarily focuses on improving power system load models to better represent their impact on system behavior. The previous standard load model fails to capture the delayed voltage recovery events that are observed in the Southwest and elsewhere. These events are attributed to stalled air conditioner units after a fault. To gain a better understanding of their role in these events and to guide modeling efforts, typical air conditioner units were testing in laboratories. Using data obtained from these extensive tests, new load models were developed to match air conditioner behavior. An air conditioner model is incorporated in the new WECC composite load model. These models are used in dynamic studies of the West and can impact power transfer limits for California. Unit-level and systemlevel solutions are proposed as potential solutions to the delayed voltage recovery problem.

  7. Composite Monopack for 120mm Mortar, With Plastic Pallet Adapters on a 42" x 53" Wooden Pallet, MIL-STD-1660 Tests, "Design Criteria for Ammunition Unit Loads", and Extreme Temperature Tests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dugan, Jeffery L

    2005-01-01

    .... The test units were tested in accordance with the procedures set forth in MIL-STD-1660. Stacking, repetitive shock, edgewise-rotational drop, incline-impact, forklifting, and disassembly testing were conducted on the test units...

  8. Probabilistic model of bridge vehicle loads in port area based on in-situ load testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ming; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Jianren; Wang, Rei; Yan, Yanhong

    2017-11-01

    Vehicle load is an important factor affecting the safety and usability of bridges. An statistical analysis is carried out in this paper to investigate the vehicle load data of Tianjin Haibin highway in Tianjin port of China, which are collected by the Weigh-in- Motion (WIM) system. Following this, the effect of the vehicle load on test bridge is calculated, and then compared with the calculation result according to HL-93(AASHTO LRFD). Results show that the overall vehicle load follows a distribution with a weighted sum of four normal distributions. The maximum vehicle load during the design reference period follows a type I extremum distribution. The vehicle load effect also follows a weighted sum of four normal distributions, and the standard value of the vehicle load is recommended as 1.8 times that of the calculated value according to HL-93.

  9. IAEA biological reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parr, R.M.; Schelenz, R.; Ballestra, S.

    1988-01-01

    The Analytical Quality Control Services programme of the IAEA encompasses a wide variety of intercomparisons and reference materials. This paper reviews only those aspects of the subject having to do with biological reference materials. The 1988 programme foresees 13 new intercomparison exercises, one for major, minor and trace elements, five for radionuclides, and seven for stable isotopes. Twenty-two natural matrix biological reference materials are available: twelve for major, minor and trace elements, six for radionuclides, and four for chlorinated hydrocarbons. Seven new intercomparisons and reference materials are in preparation or under active consideration. Guidelines on the correct use of reference materials are being prepared for publication in 1989 in consultation with other major international producers and users of biological reference materials. The IAEA database on available reference materials is being updated and expanded in scope, and a new publication is planned for 1989. (orig.)

  10. Shot loading platform analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, B.F.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides the wind/seismic analysis and evaluation for the shot loading platform. Hand calculations were used for the analysis. AISC and UBC load factors were used in this evaluation. The results show that the actual loads are under the allowable loads and all requirements are met

  11. Control technique for enhancing the stable operation of distributed generation units within a microgrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrasa, Majid; Pouresmaeil, Edris; Mehrjerdi, Hasan; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard; Catalão, João P.S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A control technique for enhancing the stable operation of distributed generation units is proposed. • Passivity-based control technique is considered to analyze the dynamic and steady-state behaviors. • The compensation of instantaneous variations in the reference current components is considered. • Simulation results confirm the performance of the control scheme within the microgrid. - Abstract: This paper describes a control technique for enhancing the stable operation of distributed generation (DG) units based on renewable energy sources, during islanding and grid-connected modes. The Passivity-based control technique is considered to analyze the dynamic and steady-state behaviors of DG units during integration and power sharing with loads and/or power grid, which is an appropriate tool to analyze and define a stable operating condition for DG units in microgrid technology. The compensation of instantaneous variations in the reference current components of DG units in ac-side, and dc-link voltage variations in dc-side of interfaced converters, are considered properly in the control loop of DG units, which is the main contribution and novelty of this control technique over other control strategies. By using the proposed control technique, DG units can provide the continuous injection of active power from DG sources to the local loads and/or utility grid. Moreover, by setting appropriate reference current components in the control loop of DG units, reactive power and harmonic current components of loads can be supplied during the islanding and grid-connected modes with a fast dynamic response. Simulation results confirm the performance of the control scheme within the microgrid during dynamic and steady-state operating conditions

  12. Development of beta reference radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Zhaoyong; Cai Shanyu; Li Yanbo; Yin Wei; Feng Jiamin; Sun Yuhua; Li Yongqiang

    1997-09-01

    A system of beta reference radiation has been developed, that is composed of 740 MBq 147 Pm beta source, 74 MBq and 740 MBq 90 Sr + 90 Y β sources, compensation filters, a source handling tool, a source jig, spacing bars, a shutter, a control unit and a beta dose meter calibration stand. For 740 MBq 147 Pm and 74 MBq 90 Sr + 90 Y beta reference radiations with compensation filters and 740 MBq 90 Sr + 90 Y beta reference radiation without compensation filter, at 20 cm, 30 cm and 30 cm distance separately; the residual energy of maximum is 0.14 MeV, 1.98 MeV and 2.18 MeV separately; the absorbed dose to tissue D (0.07) is 1.547 mGy/h (1996-05-20), 5.037 mGy/h (1996-05-10) and 93.57 mGy/h (1996-05-15) separately; the total uncertainty is 3.0%, 1.7% and 1.7% separately. For the first and the second beta reference radiation, the dose rate variability in the area of 18 cm diameter in the plane perpendicular to the beta-ray beam axis is within +-6% and +-3% separately. (3 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.)

  13. Friction and anchorage loading revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dholakia, Kartik D

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary concepts of sliding mechanics explain that friction is inevitable. To overcome this frictional resistance, excess force is required to retract the tooth along the archwire (ie, individual retraction of canines, en masse retraction of anterior teeth), in addition to the amount of force required for tooth movement. The anterior tooth retraction force, in addition to excess force (to overcome friction), produces reciprocal protraction force on molars, thereby leading to increased anchorage loading. However, this traditional concept was challenged in recent literature, which was based on the finite element model, but did not bear correlation to the clinical scenario. This article will reinforce the fact that clinically, friction increases anchorage loading in all three planes of space, considering the fact that tooth movement is a quasistatic process rather than a purely continuous or static one, and that conventional ways of determining the effects of static or dynamic friction on anchorage load cannot be applied to clinical situations (which consist of anatomical resistance units and a complex muscular force system). The article does not aim to quantify friction and its effect on the amount of anchorage load. Rather, a new perspective regarding the role of various additional factors (which is not explained by contemporary concept) that may influence friction and anchorage loading is provided..

  14. Indoor air: Reference bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D.; Staves, D.; McDonald, S.

    1989-07-01

    The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency initially established the indoor air Reference Bibliography in 1987 as an appendix to the Indoor Air Quality Implementation Plan. The document was submitted to Congress as required under Title IV--Radon Gas and Indoor Air Quality Research of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. The Reference Bibliography is an extensive bibliography of reference materials on indoor air pollution. The Bibliography contains over 4500 citations and continues to increase as new articles appear

  15. Android quick APIs reference

    CERN Document Server

    Cinar, Onur

    2015-01-01

    The Android Quick APIs Reference is a condensed code and APIs reference for the new Google Android 5.0 SDK. It presents the essential Android APIs in a well-organized format that can be used as a handy reference. You won't find any technical jargon, bloated samples, drawn out history lessons, or witty stories in this book. What you will find is a software development kit and APIs reference that is concise, to the point and highly accessible. The book is packed with useful information and is a must-have for any mobile or Android app developer or programmer. In the Android Quick APIs Refe

  16. Inducer Hydrodynamic Load Measurement Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelley, Stephen E.; Zoladz, Thomas F.

    2002-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has demonstrated two measurement devices for sensing and resolving the hydrodynamic loads on fluid machinery. The first - a derivative of the six component wind tunnel balance - senses the forces and moments on the rotating device through a weakened shaft section instrumented with a series of strain gauges. This "rotating balance" was designed to directly measure the steady and unsteady hydrodynamic loads on an inducer, thereby defining both the amplitude and frequency content associated with operating in various cavitation modes. The second device - a high frequency response pressure transducer surface mounted on a rotating component - was merely an extension of existing technology for application in water. MSFC has recently completed experimental evaluations of both the rotating balance and surface-mount transducers in a water test loop. The measurement bandwidth of the rotating balance was severely limited by the relative flexibility of the device itself, resulting in an unexpectedly low structural bending mode and invalidating the higher frequency response data. Despite these limitations, measurements confirmed that the integrated loads on the four-bladed inducer respond to both cavitation intensity and cavitation phenomena. Likewise, the surface-mount pressure transducers were subjected to a range of temperatures and flow conditions in a non-rotating environment to record bias shifts and transfer functions between the transducers and a reference device. The pressure transducer static performance was within manufacturer's specifications and dynamic response accurately followed that of the reference.

  17. [Reference values for cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose in a population of Hispanic children from 6 to 11 y, in the northern border of Mexico and the United States of America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas Berumen, Ever; Gómez Miranda, Luis Mario; Torres Balcázar, Elías; Padilla Alvarado, Victor Hugo; Renteria, Ivan

    2014-10-31

    Overweight and obesity in children in the Mexico-USA border have evolved differently to the rest of their respective countries. New reference values of cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose are required to treatment. To determine the reference values of cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose in Hispanic children between 6 and 11 years in the Mexico-USA border. A prospective, cross-sectional, descriptive and observational study. A population of Hispanic children between 6 and 11 years of both boys and girls, belonging to three public institutions in the cities of Ensenada and Chihuahua, randomly selected, were studied. The study variables were the levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and glucose (G). From 300 subjects studied just 54 children completed the study. Higher average values of TC (168.7 ± 27.2 mg / dl), TG (80.6 ± 48.4 mg / dl) and G (88.3 ± 8.9 mg / dl) were observed. An additional behavior was founded, never reported previously to the limit of the knowledge of the authors; glucose levels of the children studied decreased with increased of cholesterol and triglycerides. To discard a random relationship between the variables, the Pearson correlation coefficient was determined between waist circumference and BMI, verifying an inverse association with G and direct with the TG. The reference values for Hispanic children between 6 and 11 years living on the northern border of Mexico-USA differ with respect to the national average values of the countries studied. Further studies are needed in larger populations to confirm the trend ob served in glucose levels of normal children, overweight and obese. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  18. Compressive Load Resistance Characteristics of Rice Grain

    OpenAIRE

    Sumpun Chaitep; Chaiy R. Metha Pathawee; Pipatpong Watanawanyoo

    2008-01-01

    Investigation was made to observe the compressive load property of rice gain both rough rice and brown grain. Six rice varieties (indica and japonica) were examined with the moisture content at 10-12%. A compressive load with reference to a principal axis normal to the thickness of the grain were conducted at selected inclined angles of 0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60° and 70°. The result showed the compressive load resistance of rice grain based on its characteristic of yield s...

  19. Loads and loads and loads: the influence of prospective load, retrospective load, and ongoing task load in prospective memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Beat; Zimmermann, Thomas D.

    2015-01-01

    In prospective memory tasks different kinds of load can occur. Adding a prospective memory task can impose a load on ongoing task performance. Adding ongoing task load (OTL) can affect prospective memory performance. The existence of multiple target events increases prospective load (PL) and adding complexity to the to-be-remembered action increases retrospective load (RL). In two experiments, we systematically examined the effects of these different types of load on prospective memory performance. Results showed an effect of PL on costs in the ongoing task for categorical targets (Experiment 2), but not for specific targets (Experiment 1). RL and OTL both affected remembering the retrospective component of the prospective memory task. We suggest that PL can enhance costs in the ongoing task due to additional monitoring requirements. RL and OTL seem to impact the division of resources between the ongoing task and retrieval of the retrospective component, which may affect disengagement from the ongoing task. In general, the results demonstrate that the different types of load affect prospective memory differentially. PMID:26082709

  20. Loads and loads and loads: the influence of prospective load, retrospective load, and ongoing task load in prospective memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Beat; Zimmermann, Thomas D

    2015-01-01

    In prospective memory tasks different kinds of load can occur. Adding a prospective memory task can impose a load on ongoing task performance. Adding ongoing task load (OTL) can affect prospective memory performance. The existence of multiple target events increases prospective load (PL) and adding complexity to the to-be-remembered action increases retrospective load (RL). In two experiments, we systematically examined the effects of these different types of load on prospective memory performance. Results showed an effect of PL on costs in the ongoing task for categorical targets (Experiment 2), but not for specific targets (Experiment 1). RL and OTL both affected remembering the retrospective component of the prospective memory task. We suggest that PL can enhance costs in the ongoing task due to additional monitoring requirements. RL and OTL seem to impact the division of resources between the ongoing task and retrieval of the retrospective component, which may affect disengagement from the ongoing task. In general, the results demonstrate that the different types of load affect prospective memory differentially.

  1. Marketing Reference Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, O. Gene

    1995-01-01

    Relates the marketing concept to library reference services. Highlights include a review of the literature and an overview of marketing, including research, the marketing mix, strategic plan, marketing plan, and marketing audit. Marketing principles are applied to reference services through the marketing mix elements of product, price, place, and…

  2. Reference class forecasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    optimisme og misinformation. RCF bygger på teorier, som vandt Daniel Kahneman Nobelprisen i økonomi i 2002. RCF estimerer budgettet for et givet projekt på grundlag af de faktiske udfald for budgetterne i en reference-klasse af projekter. RCF udføres i tre trin: 1. Identifikation af en relevant reference...

  3. S. 210: This Act may be referred to as the Comprehensive Uranium Act of 1991, introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, January 15, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This bill would establish the United States Enrichment Corporation to operate the Federal uranium enrichment program on a profitable and efficient basis in order to maximize the long term economic value to the US, provide assistance to the domestic uranium industry, and provide a Federal contribution for the reclamation of mill tailings generated pursuant to Federal defense contracts at active uranium and thorium processing sites. The bill describes congressional findings; definitions, establishment of corporation, and purposes; corporate offices; powers and duties of the corporation; organization, finance, and management; licensing, taxation, and miscellaneous provisions; decontamination and decommissioning; and uranium security and tailing reclamation

  4. Research on Power System Scheduling Improving Wind Power Accommodation Considering Thermal Energy Storage and Flexible Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Chenlu; Cui, Xue; Wang, Heng; Zhou, Bin; Liu, Yang

    2018-01-01

    In the case of rapid development of wind power and heavy wind curtailment, the study of wind power accommodation of combined heat and power system has become the focus of attention. A two-stage scheduling model contains of wind power, thermal energy storage, CHP unit and flexible load were constructed. This model with the objective function of minimizing wind curtailment and the operation cost of units while taking into account of the total coal consumption of units, constraint of thermal energy storage and electricity-heat characteristic of CHP. This paper uses MICA to solve the problem of too many constraints and make the solution more feasible. A numerical example showed that the two stage decision scheduling model can consume more wind power, and it could provide a reference for combined heat and power system short-term operation

  5. Phosphorous loads evaluation from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezzanotte, V.

    1996-01-01

    With reference to the well known difficulty of quantifying non point phosphorous loads, as well as to their growing relative importance where point source leads decrease, a literature review has been carried out concerning soil export coefficients. On such basis, the values which seem to be the most appropriate for Italy have been estimated for different land use categories. The main mechanisms determining non point phosphorous load generation and the factors affecting their importance are also described. In the end, criteria for estimating the importance of non point sources in a basin are suggested to be used for deciding whether a traditional, parametric assessment (inevitably involving a certain error) can be acceptable or experimental measures are needed

  6. Uranium reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donivan, S.; Chessmore, R.

    1987-07-01

    The Technical Measurements Center has prepared uranium mill tailings reference materials for use by remedial action contractors and cognizant federal and state agencies. Four materials were prepared with varying concentrations of radionuclides, using three tailings materials and a river-bottom soil diluent. All materials were ground, dried, and blended thoroughly to ensure homogeneity. The analyses on which the recommended values for nuclides in the reference materials are based were performed, using independent methods, by the UNC Geotech (UNC) Chemistry Laboratory, Grand Junction, Colorado, and by C.W. Sill (Sill), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho. Several statistical tests were performed on the analytical data to characterize the reference materials. Results of these tests reveal that the four reference materials are homogeneous and that no large systematic bias exists between the analytical methods used by Sill and those used by TMC. The average values for radionuclides of the two data sets, representing an unbiased estimate, were used as the recommended values for concentrations of nuclides in the reference materials. The recommended concentrations of radionuclides in the four reference materials are provided. Use of these reference materials will aid in providing uniform standardization among measurements made by remedial action contractors. 11 refs., 9 tabs

  7. STL pocket reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lischner, Ray

    2003-01-01

    The STL Pocket Reference describes the functions, classes, and templates in that part of the C++ standard library often referred to as the Standard Template Library (STL). The STL encompasses containers, iterators, algorithms, and function objects, which collectively represent one of the most important and widely used subsets of standard library functionality. The C++ standard library, even the subset known as the STL, is vast. It's next to impossible to work with the STL without some sort of reference at your side to remind you of template parameters, function invocations, return types--ind

  8. Handbook of reference electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Inzelt, György; Scholz, Fritz

    2013-01-01

    Reference Electrodes are a crucial part of any electrochemical system, yet an up-to-date and comprehensive handbook is long overdue. Here, an experienced team of electrochemists provides an in-depth source of information and data for the proper choice and construction of reference electrodes. This includes all kinds of applications such as aqueous and non-aqueous solutions, ionic liquids, glass melts, solid electrolyte systems, and membrane electrodes. Advanced technologies such as miniaturized, conducting-polymer-based, screen-printed or disposable reference electrodes are also covered. Essen

  9. Regular Expression Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Stubblebine, Tony

    2007-01-01

    This handy little book offers programmers a complete overview of the syntax and semantics of regular expressions that are at the heart of every text-processing application. Ideal as a quick reference, Regular Expression Pocket Reference covers the regular expression APIs for Perl 5.8, Ruby (including some upcoming 1.9 features), Java, PHP, .NET and C#, Python, vi, JavaScript, and the PCRE regular expression libraries. This concise and easy-to-use reference puts a very powerful tool for manipulating text and data right at your fingertips. Composed of a mixture of symbols and text, regular exp

  10. Neptunium: a bibliographic reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosley, R.E.

    1979-06-01

    A comprehensive bibliograhy of the literature on the element neptunium published prior to January 1976 is presented. A short abstract is given for each listed reference, with a few exceptions. The references are divided into sections categorized as General, Man-Made Sources (Reactors), Man-Made Sources (Fuel Reprocessing), Chemistry (Solubility), Chemistry (Compounds), Chemistry (Isotopes), Analyses (Instrumental), Analyses (Chemical), Chemical (Animal), Biological (Effects), Biological (Animal-Metabolism-Retention), Biological (Air Movement), Biological (Human Inhalation), Measurement, and Dosimetry. The bibliography contains author and keyword indexes and was compiled to serve as a quick reference source for neptunium-related work. 184 citations

  11. CSS Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Eric

    2011-01-01

    When you're working with CSS and need a quick answer, CSS Pocket Reference delivers. This handy, concise book provides all of the essential information you need to implement CSS on the fly. Ideal for intermediate to advanced web designers and developers, the 4th edition is revised and updated for CSS3, the latest version of the Cascading Style Sheet specification. Along with a complete alphabetical reference to CSS3 selectors and properties, you'll also find a short introduction to the key concepts of CSS. Based on Cascading Style Sheets: The Definitive Guide, this reference is an easy-to-us

  12. Biomedical Engineering Desk Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Ratner, Buddy D; Schoen, Frederick J; Lemons, Jack E; Dyro, Joseph; Martinsen, Orjan G; Kyle, Richard; Preim, Bernhard; Bartz, Dirk; Grimnes, Sverre; Vallero, Daniel; Semmlow, John; Murray, W Bosseau; Perez, Reinaldo; Bankman, Isaac; Dunn, Stanley; Ikada, Yoshito; Moghe, Prabhas V; Constantinides, Alkis

    2009-01-01

    A one-stop Desk Reference, for Biomedical Engineers involved in the ever expanding and very fast moving area; this is a book that will not gather dust on the shelf. It brings together the essential professional reference content from leading international contributors in the biomedical engineering field. Material covers a broad range of topics including: Biomechanics and Biomaterials; Tissue Engineering; and Biosignal Processing* A hard-working desk reference providing all the essential material needed by biomedical and clinical engineers on a day-to-day basis * Fundamentals, key techniques,

  13. LINQ Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Albahari, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Ready to take advantage of LINQ with C# 3.0? This guide has the detail you need to grasp Microsoft's new querying technology, and concise explanations to help you learn it quickly. And once you begin to apply LINQ, the book serves as an on-the-job reference when you need immediate reminders. All the examples in the LINQ Pocket Reference are preloaded into LINQPad, the highly praised utility that lets you work with LINQ interactively. Created by the authors and free to download, LINQPad will not only help you learn LINQ, it will have you thinking in LINQ. This reference explains: LINQ's ke

  14. R quick syntax reference

    CERN Document Server

    Tollefson, Margot

    2014-01-01

    The R Quick Syntax Reference is a handy reference book detailing the intricacies of the R language. Not only is R a free, open-source tool, R is powerful, flexible, and has state of the art statistical techniques available. With the many details which must be correct when using any language, however, the R Quick Syntax Reference makes using R easier.Starting with the basic structure of R, the book takes you on a journey through the terminology used in R and the syntax required to make R work. You will find looking up the correct form for an expression quick and easy. With a copy of the R Quick

  15. Wind Loads on Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrbye, Claes; Hansen, Svend Ole

    Wind loads have to be taken into account when designing civil engineering structures. The wind load on structures can be systematised by means of the wind load chain: wind climate (global), terrain (wind at low height), aerodynamic response (wind load to pressure), mechanical response (wind...... pressure to structural response) and design criteria. Starting with an introduction of the wind load chain, the book moves on to meteorological considerations, atmospheric boundary layer, static wind load, dynamic wind load and scaling laws used in wind-tunnel tests. The dynamic wind load covers vibrations...... induced by wind turbulence, vortex shedding, flutter and galloping. The book gives a comprehensive treatment of wind effects on structures and it will be useful for consulting engineers designing wind-sensitive structures. It will also be valuable for students of civil engineering as textbook...

  16. Carbohydrate-Loading Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Grape juice (12 ounces) 55 225 Lunch Milk, chocolate, reduced fat (12 ounces) 45 285 4 slices ... usual during carbohydrate loading to get the same benefits as a man does. Despite carbohydrate loading, you ...

  17. Autonomous Propellant Loading Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AES Autonomous Propellant Loading (APL) project consists of three activities. The first is to develop software that will automatically control loading of...

  18. Fuel pellet loading apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus is described for loading a predetermined amount of nuclear fuel pellets into nuclear fuel elements and particularly for the automatic loading of fuel pellets from within a sealed compartment. (author)

  19. Operation and control of a hybrid microgrid containing unbalanced and nonlinear loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahnia, Farhad; Majumder, Ritwik; Ghosh, Arindam; Ledwich, Gerard; Zare, Firuz [School of Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, 2 George Street, Brisbane, Queensland 4001 (Australia)

    2010-08-15

    This paper shows how the power quality can be improved in a microgrid that is supplying a nonlinear and unbalanced load. The microgrid contains a hybrid combination of inertial and converter interfaced distributed generation units where a decentralized power sharing algorithm is used to control its power management. One of the distributed generators in the microgrid is used as a power quality compensator for the unbalanced and harmonic load. The current reference generation for power quality improvement takes into account the active and reactive power to be supplied by the micro-source which is connected to the compensator. Depending on the power requirement of the nonlinear load, the proposed control scheme can change modes of operation without any external communication interfaces. The compensator can operate in two modes depending on the entire power demand of the unbalanced nonlinear load. The proposed control scheme can even compensate system unbalance caused by the single-phase micro-sources and load changes. The efficacy of the proposed power quality improvement control and method in such a microgrid is validated through extensive simulation studies using PSCAD/EMTDC software with detailed dynamic models of the micro-sources and power electronic converters. (author)

  20. A design of cascade control system and adaptive load compensator for battery/ultracapacitor hybrid energy storage-based direct current microgrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavković, Danijel; Lobrović, Mihael; Hrgetić, Mario; Komljenović, Ante

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Battery/ultracapacitor storage is considered for a direct-current microgrid. • Microgrid voltage cascade control system with load compensator is designed. • Current references are allocated so that ultracapacitor takes on transient loads. • Adaptive Kalman filter-based estimator is used for indirect load compensation. • Control strategy has been verified on a downscaled hardware-in-the-loop setup. - Abstract: A control system design based on an actively-controlled battery/ultracapacitor hybrid energy storage system suitable for direct current microgrid energy management purposes is presented in this paper. The proposed cascade control system arrangement is based on the superimposed proportional–integral voltage controller designed according to Damping Optimum criterion and a zero-pole canceling feed-forward load compensator aimed at voltage excursion suppression under variable load conditions. The superimposed controller commands the inner battery and ultracapacitor current control loops through a dynamic current reference distribution scheme, wherein the ultracapacitor takes on the highly-dynamic (transient) current demands, and the battery covers for steady-state loads. In order to avoid deep discharges of the ultracapacitor module, it is equipped with an auxiliary state-of-charge controller. Finally, for those applications where load is not measured, an adaptive Kalman filter-based load compensator is proposed and tested. The presented control strategy has been implemented on the low-cost industrial controller unit, and its effectiveness has been verified by means of simulations and experiments for the cases of abrupt load changes and quasi-stochastic load profiles using a downscaled battery/ultracapacitor hardware-in-the-loop experimental setup.

  1. Limit loads in nozzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zouain, N.

    1983-01-01

    The static method for the evaluation of the limit loads of a perfectly elasto-plastic structure is presented. Using the static theorem of Limit Analysis and the Finite Element Method, a lower bound for the colapso load can be obtained through a linear programming problem. This formulation if then applied to symmetrically loaded shells of revolution and some numerical results of limit loads in nozzles are also presented. (Author) [pt

  2. Scheduling of radio-controlled heating load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, B.; McCartney, A.I.; McCann, B.M.

    1998-01-01

    An economic loading program has been adapted to enable it to obtain an optimum heat-load profile to meet the forecast heat requirement. The heat load is represented by a 'generator' whose load is constrained to be negative. The incremental cost of this unit is a heat energy price. This is adjusted to obtain a heat profile containing the requisite energy. The profile is then used by a dynamic programming algorithm to derive a commitment pattern for each block. A case study is presented which shows that the procedure can minimise heat energy cost. It is also shown that use of the proposed method results in less generator load cycling. This reduced regulation duty should improve reliability. (author)

  3. SEDRIO/INCORE, an automatic optimal loading pattern search system for PWR NPP reload core using an expert system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xian Chunyu; Zhang Zongyao

    2003-01-01

    The expert knowledge library for Daya Bay and Qinshan phase II NPP has been established based on expert knowledge, and the reload core loading pattern heuristic search is performed. The in-core fuel management code system INCORE that has been used in engineering design is employed for neutron calculation, and loading pattern is evaluated by using of cycle length and core radial power peaking factor. The developed system SEDRIO/INCORE has been applied in cycle 4 for unit 2 of Daya Bay NPP and cycle 4 for Phase II in Qinshan NPP. The application demonstrated that the loading patterns obtained by SEDRIO/INCORE system are much better than reference ones from the view of the radial power peak and the cycle length

  4. Optimal primitive reference frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, David

    2011-01-01

    We consider the smallest possible directional reference frames allowed and determine the best one can ever do in preserving quantum information in various scenarios. We find that for the preservation of a single spin state, two orthogonal spins are optimal primitive reference frames; and in a product state, they do approximately 22% as well as an infinite-sized classical frame. By adding a small amount of entanglement to the reference frame, this can be raised to 2(2/3) 5 =26%. Under the different criterion of entanglement preservation, a very similar optimal reference frame is found; however, this time it is for spins aligned at an optimal angle of 87 deg. In this case 24% of the negativity is preserved. The classical limit is considered numerically, and indicates under the criterion of entanglement preservation, that 90 deg. is selected out nonmonotonically, with a peak optimal angle of 96.5 deg. for L=3 spins.

  5. Reference Climatological Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Reference Climatological Stations (RCS) network represents the first effort by NOAA to create and maintain a nationwide network of stations located only in areas...

  6. Toxicity Reference Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxicity Reference Database (ToxRefDB) contains approximately 30 years and $2 billion worth of animal studies. ToxRefDB allows scientists and the interested...

  7. Python essential reference

    CERN Document Server

    Beazley, David M

    2009-01-01

    Python Essential Reference is the definitive reference guide to the Python programming language — the one authoritative handbook that reliably untangles and explains both the core Python language and the most essential parts of the Python library. Designed for the professional programmer, the book is concise, to the point, and highly accessible. It also includes detailed information on the Python library and many advanced subjects that is not available in either the official Python documentation or any other single reference source. Thoroughly updated to reflect the significant new programming language features and library modules that have been introduced in Python 2.6 and Python 3, the fourth edition of Python Essential Reference is the definitive guide for programmers who need to modernize existing Python code or who are planning an eventual migration to Python 3. Programmers starting a new Python project will find detailed coverage of contemporary Python programming idioms.

  8. Collaborative networks: Reference modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camarinha-Matos, L.M.; Afsarmanesh, H.

    2008-01-01

    Collaborative Networks: Reference Modeling works to establish a theoretical foundation for Collaborative Networks. Particular emphasis is put on modeling multiple facets of collaborative networks and establishing a comprehensive modeling framework that captures and structures diverse perspectives of

  9. Ozone Standard Reference Photometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Standard Reference Photometer (SRP) Program began in the early 1980s as collaboration between NIST and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to design,...

  10. Enterprise Reference Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickham, Grandin; Saile, Lynn; Havelka, Jacque; Fitts, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Johnson Space Center (JSC) offers two extensive libraries that contain journals, research literature and electronic resources. Searching capabilities are available to those individuals residing onsite or through a librarian s search. Many individuals have rich collections of references, but no mechanisms to share reference libraries across researchers, projects, or directorates exist. Likewise, information regarding which references are provided to which individuals is not available, resulting in duplicate requests, redundant labor costs and associated copying fees. In addition, this tends to limit collaboration between colleagues and promotes the establishment of individual, unshared silos of information The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) team has utilized a centralized reference management tool during the development, test, and operational phases of this project. The Enterprise Reference Library project expands the capabilities developed for IMM to address the above issues and enhance collaboration across JSC. Method: After significant market analysis for a multi-user reference management tool, no available commercial tool was found to meet this need, so a software program was built around a commercial tool, Reference Manager 12 by The Thomson Corporation. A use case approach guided the requirements development phase. The premise of the design is that individuals use their own reference management software and export to SharePoint when their library is incorporated into the Enterprise Reference Library. This results in a searchable user-specific library application. An accompanying share folder will warehouse the electronic full-text articles, which allows the global user community to access full -text articles. Discussion: An enterprise reference library solution can provide a multidisciplinary collection of full text articles. This approach improves efficiency in obtaining and storing reference material while greatly reducing labor, purchasing and

  11. Comparability of reference values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossbach, M.; Stoeppler, M.

    1993-01-01

    Harmonization of certified values in Reference Materials (RMs) can be carried out by applying nuclear analytical techniques to RMs of various matrix types and concentration levels. Although RMs generally should not be used as primary standards the cross evaluation of concentrations in RMs leads to better compatibility of reference values and thus to a greater agreement between analytical results from different laboratories using these RMs for instrument calibration and quality assurance. (orig.)

  12. Electronics engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, L W

    1976-01-01

    Electronics Engineer's Reference Book, 4th Edition is a reference book for electronic engineers that reviews the knowledge and techniques in electronics engineering and covers topics ranging from basics to materials and components, devices, circuits, measurements, and applications. This edition is comprised of 27 chapters; the first of which presents general information on electronics engineering, including terminology, mathematical equations, mathematical signs and symbols, and Greek alphabet and symbols. Attention then turns to the history of electronics; electromagnetic and nuclear radiatio

  13. 2002 reference document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This 2002 reference document of the group Areva, provides information on the society. Organized in seven chapters, it presents the persons responsible for the reference document and for auditing the financial statements, information pertaining to the transaction, general information on the company and share capital, information on company operation, changes and future prospects, assets, financial position, financial performance, information on company management and executive board and supervisory board, recent developments and future prospects. (A.L.B.)

  14. Fuzzy approach for short term load forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenthur Pandian, S.; Duraiswamy, K.; Kanagaraj, N. [Electrical and Electronics Engg., K.S. Rangasamy College of Technology, Tiruchengode 637209, Tamil Nadu (India); Christober Asir Rajan, C. [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Pondicherry Engineering College, Pondicherry (India)

    2006-04-15

    The main objective of short term load forecasting (STLF) is to provide load predictions for generation scheduling, economic load dispatch and security assessment at any time. The STLF is needed to supply necessary information for the system management of day-to-day operations and unit commitment. In this paper, the 'time' and 'temperature' of the day are taken as inputs for the fuzzy logic controller and the 'forecasted load' is the output. The input variable 'time' has been divided into eight triangular membership functions. The membership functions are Mid Night, Dawn, Morning, Fore Noon, After Noon, Evening, Dusk and Night. Another input variable 'temperature' has been divided into four triangular membership functions. They are Below Normal, Normal, Above Normal and High. The 'forecasted load' as output has been divided into eight triangular membership functions. They are Very Low, Low, Sub Normal, Moderate Normal, Normal, Above Normal, High and Very High. Case studies have been carried out for the Neyveli Thermal Power Station Unit-II (NTPS-II) in India. The fuzzy forecasted load values are compared with the conventional forecasted values. The forecasted load closely matches the actual one within +/-3%. (author)

  15. Final report on COOMET.AUV.A-S1: Technical report on supplementary comparison 'Comparison of national standards of the sound pressure unit in air through calibration of working reference microphones'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozdeeva, Valentina; Chalyy, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    The supplementary comparison COOMET.AUV.A-S1 for secondary calibration methods using WS1 and WS2 measurement microphones was carried out from 2009 to 2010. The results were submitted to and approved by CCAUV in April 2014. Four National Metrology Institutes took part in this comparison and are as follows: BelGIM (Belarus), VNIIFTRI (Russia), SMU (Slovakia) and DP NDI 'Sistema' (Ukraine). Three of the above NMIs (VNIIFTRI, SMU and DP NDI 'Sistema') had earlier participated in COOMET key comparisons and one NMI (VNIIFTRI) had also participated in CCAUV key comparisons. The Comparison Reference Values were calculated as the weighted mean values from results obtained by three institutes. The comparison results show agreement for all participants in the frequency range from 20 Hz to 12.5 kHz for WS1 microphones, and in the frequency range from 20 Hz to 16 kHz for WS2 microphones. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCAUV, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  16. Spatial electric load forecasting

    CERN Document Server

    Willis, H Lee

    2002-01-01

    Spatial Electric Load Forecasting Consumer Demand for Power and ReliabilityCoincidence and Load BehaviorLoad Curve and End-Use ModelingWeather and Electric LoadWeather Design Criteria and Forecast NormalizationSpatial Load Growth BehaviorSpatial Forecast Accuracy and Error MeasuresTrending MethodsSimulation Method: Basic ConceptsA Detailed Look at the Simulation MethodBasics of Computerized SimulationAnalytical Building Blocks for Spatial SimulationAdvanced Elements of Computerized SimulationHybrid Trending-Simulation MethodsAdvanced

  17. Cognitive Load and Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, Felix Sebastian; Piovesan, Marco; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2017-01-01

    We study the effect of intuitive and reflective processes on cooperation using cognitive load. Compared with time constraint, which has been used in the previous literature, cognitive load is a more direct way to block reflective processes, and thus a more suitable way to study the link between...... intuition and cooperation. Using a repeated public goods game, we study the effect of different levels of cognitive load on contributions. We show that a higher cognitive load increases the initial level of cooperation. In particular, subjects are significantly less likely to fully free ride under high...... cognitive load....

  18. The Factors that Affect Indian Migrants' Decision to Stay in or Counter Migrate from the United States: A Study with Special Reference to the Role of Tourism Related Imagery as a Determinant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu P. GEORGE

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In the light of the changing socio-economic realities of the presenttimes, this paper explores the complex dynamics underlying Indian immigrants' decision to continue to stay in the United States or to counter migrate back to India. In a reversal of fortunes, the specific set of conditions that once triggered a massive inflow of economic migrants from India to the US has been causing a counter migration to India. Based on a review of literature and an exploratory study involving focus groups the paper identifiessome of the major migration / counter migration related factors. Then, employing a survey, the relative importance of each of these factors is gauged for individuals associated with different professions. In addition, the study explores as a special case the role of tourism related images about the US being held by immigrants as determinants of their migration related decisions. Tourism images held by the migrants and the tourism opportunities provided by the US act more as hygiene factors than as motivators. In course of theexploration, a number of hypotheses are emerged that are of interest to future researchers. The study has got significant implications for migration / counter migration policy makers, industry practitioners, and the migrants themselves.

  19. Effect of density and weight of load on the energy cost of carrying loads by donkeys and ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, R A; Dijkman, J T; Krecek, R C; Wright, P

    1998-02-01

    Two experiments were designed to compare the energy used in carrying loads by donkeys and ponies. In the first experiment 3 donkeys and 3 ponies were compared on treadmills in the UK. Density of load (lead shot or straw) had no significant effect on the energy cost of carrying loads; however, the energy cost of carrying a load decreased significantly (p < 0.001) as the weight of the load increased (in donkeys 6.44, 4.35 and 3.03 J/kg load/m, in ponies 5.82, 3.75 and 3.68 J/kg load/m, for loads of 13, 20 and 27 kg/100 kg liveweight (M) respectively). Differences between species were not significant. In the second experiment energy expenditures were determined in 3 donkeys carrying loads equivalent to 40 kg/100 kg M over gently undulating gravel tracks in Tunisia. Energy costs of carrying the load were 2.34 (SE 0.07) J/kg load/m. The results of both experiments showed that provided the load is balanced, density does not significantly affect the energy cost of carrying; however, as the load increased then the unit energy cost of carrying it decreased. This suggest that it is more efficient in terms of energy used to carry loads equivalent to 27 to 40 kg/100 kg M than it is to carry lighter loads to less than 20 kg/100 kg M.

  20. Economic load dispatch of wind-solar-thermal system using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economic load dispatch (ELD) problem is an essential optimization problem ..... The data for radiation and average ambient temperature is adopted as per (Solar Radiation Hand Book, et al.,2008) ..... Reference temperature for cell efficiency.

  1. Reference Japanese man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Giichiro

    1985-01-01

    To make real and accurate dose assessment method so far, it is necessitated to provide ''Reference Japanese Man'' based on anotomical, physiological and biochemical data of Japanese people instead of the Reference Man presented in ICRP Publications 23 and 30. This review describes present status of researched for the purpose of establishing of Reference Japanese Man. The Reference Japanese Man is defined as a male or female adult who lives in Japan with a Japanese life-style and food custom. His stature and body weight, and the other data was decided as mean values of male or female people of Japan. As for food custom, Japanese people take significantly smaller amount of meat and milk products than Western people, while larger intake amount of cereals and marine products such as fish or seaweeds. Weight of organs is a principal factor for internal dose assessment and mean values for living Japanese adult has been investigated and the value employable for dose assessment for organs and tissues are shown. To employ these values of Reference Japanese Man, it should be taken into account of age. Metabolic parameters should also be considered. Iodine metabolism in Japanese is quite different from that of Western people. The above-mentioned data are now tentatively employing in modification of table of MIRD method and others. (Takagi, S.)

  2. An Efficient Approach of Load Shifting by Using SCADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Sohail

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of electric power has increased significantly in the past few years, and its demand is still increasing every day. In this regard, its proper distribution is a significant challenge. This paper includes a method not only to improve the existing power distribution by using SCADA but also to reduce the human errors from the system by making the system automated. As a prototype for this paper, a geographical area was divided in to three regions named as A-Islamabad, B-Rawalpindi and C-Attock. These three regions were used as the Remote Terminal Units RTU’s and were further divided into four sectors based on different types of consumers. One main control unit was set to handle the whole power system which was referred to as the MTU (master terminal unit. MTU was designed in such a way that not only it was capable to show RTU’s readings on Graphical user interface-GUI but also to control them. By establishing such a design, distribution of electric power based on priority was achieved among these regions and thus the load requirements were managed by means of priorities among them. The entire load management task was supervised by an individual who was authorized to control the MTU’s GUI. SCADA system enabled the MTU to regulate the electric power in regions and their sectors. All the RTU’s were connected with the MTU by means of a wireless network based on an Internet Service Provider (ISP. If the system works accordingly, the MTU would be able to access the RTU’s from any part of the world. SCADA provides a platform to manage the overall system with the minimal manpower; hence, the human errors were reduced.

  3. Residential Load Manageability Factor Analyses by Load Sensitivity Affected by Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Eskandari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Load side management is the basic and significant principle to keeping the balance between generation side and consumption side of electrical power energy. Load side management on typical medium voltage feeder is the power energy consumption control of connected loads with variation of essential parameters that loads do reaction to their variation. Knowing amount of load's reaction to each parameters variation in typical medium voltage feeder during the day, leads to gain Load Manageability Factor (LMF for that specific feeder that helps power utilities to manage their connected loads. Calculating this LMF needs to find out each types of load with unique inherent features behavior to each parameters variation. This paper results and future work results will help us to catch mentioned LMF. In this paper analysis of residential load behavior due to temperature variation with training artificial neural network will be done. Load behavior due to other essential parameters variations like energy pricing variation, major event happening, and power utility announcing to the customers, and etc will study in future works. Collecting all related works results in a unit mathematical equation or an artificial neural network will gain LMF.

  4. Genetics Home Reference: cholangiocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... year in the United States. This type of cancer occurs much more frequently in Southeast Asian countries such as Thailand, where it is related to infection with a parasite that is common there. For unknown reasons, cholangiocarcinoma ...

  5. Decision unit program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madjar, N.; Pastor, C.; Chambon, B.; Drain, D.; Giorni, A.; Dauchy, A.

    1981-01-01

    A decision unit has been built to simplify the electronic logic set-up in multi-detectors experiments. This unit, designed with fast memories used as decision making tables, replaces conventional logic modules. Nine inputs are provided for receiving the fast detector signals (charged particles, gammas, neutrons, ...). Fifteen independent outputs allow the identification of the choosen events among the 2 9 possible events. A CAMAC interface between the unit and the computer, or a manual control auxiliary module, is used to load, in the memory, the pattern of the choosen events [fr

  6. Reference costs of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terraz, N.

    1997-01-01

    The calculation of electric power production reference costs is used in France, even in the present case of over-capacity, for comparing the relative interest of the various means of power generation (nuclear plants, coal plants, hydroelectricity, gas combined cycles, etc.) and as an aid for future investment decisions. Reference costs show a sharp decrease between 1993 and 1997 due to advancements in nuclear plant operating ability and fossil fuel price decrease. Actuarial rates, plant service life, fuel costs and exchange rates are important parameters. The various costs from the research stage to the waste processing stages are discussed and the reference costs of the various power generation systems are presented and compared together with their competitiveness; the future of wind energy and cogeneration and the prospective of the renewal of nuclear plants at the 2010 horizon are also addressed

  7. Setting reference targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruland, R.E.

    1997-04-01

    Reference Targets are used to represent virtual quantities like the magnetic axis of a magnet or the definition of a coordinate system. To explain the function of reference targets in the sequence of the alignment process, this paper will first briefly discuss the geometry of the trajectory design space and of the surveying space, then continue with an overview of a typical alignment process. This is followed by a discussion on magnet fiducialization. While the magnetic measurement methods to determine the magnetic centerline are only listed (they will be discussed in detail in a subsequent talk), emphasis is given to the optical/mechanical methods and to the task of transferring the centerline position to reference targets

  8. Optimisation of load control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koponen, P.

    1998-01-01

    Electricity cannot be stored in large quantities. That is why the electricity supply and consumption are always almost equal in large power supply systems. If this balance were disturbed beyond stability, the system or a part of it would collapse until a new stable equilibrium is reached. The balance between supply and consumption is mainly maintained by controlling the power production, but also the electricity consumption or, in other words, the load is controlled. Controlling the load of the power supply system is important, if easily controllable power production capacity is limited. Temporary shortage of capacity causes high peaks in the energy price in the electricity market. Load control either reduces the electricity consumption during peak consumption and peak price or moves electricity consumption to some other time. The project Optimisation of Load Control is a part of the EDISON research program for distribution automation. The following areas were studied: Optimization of space heating and ventilation, when electricity price is time variable, load control model in power purchase optimization, optimization of direct load control sequences, interaction between load control optimization and power purchase optimization, literature on load control, optimization methods and field tests and response models of direct load control and the effects of the electricity market deregulation on load control. An overview of the main results is given in this chapter

  9. Optimisation of load control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, P [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    Electricity cannot be stored in large quantities. That is why the electricity supply and consumption are always almost equal in large power supply systems. If this balance were disturbed beyond stability, the system or a part of it would collapse until a new stable equilibrium is reached. The balance between supply and consumption is mainly maintained by controlling the power production, but also the electricity consumption or, in other words, the load is controlled. Controlling the load of the power supply system is important, if easily controllable power production capacity is limited. Temporary shortage of capacity causes high peaks in the energy price in the electricity market. Load control either reduces the electricity consumption during peak consumption and peak price or moves electricity consumption to some other time. The project Optimisation of Load Control is a part of the EDISON research program for distribution automation. The following areas were studied: Optimization of space heating and ventilation, when electricity price is time variable, load control model in power purchase optimization, optimization of direct load control sequences, interaction between load control optimization and power purchase optimization, literature on load control, optimization methods and field tests and response models of direct load control and the effects of the electricity market deregulation on load control. An overview of the main results is given in this chapter

  10. Electrical engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, G R

    2013-01-01

    A long established reference book: radical revision for the fifteenth edition includes complete rearrangement to take in chapters on new topics and regroup the subjects covered for easy access to information.The Electrical Engineer's Reference Book, first published in 1945, maintains its original aims: to reflect the state of the art in electrical science and technology and cater for the needs of practising engineers. Most chapters have been revised and many augmented so as to deal properly with both fundamental developments and new technology and applications that have come to the fore since

  11. Python pocket reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lutz, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This is the book to reach for when you're coding on the fly and need an answer now. It's an easy-to-use reference to the core language, with descriptions of commonly used modules and toolkits, and a guide to recent changes, new features, and upgraded built-ins -- all updated to cover Python 3.X as well as version 2.6. You'll also quickly find exactly what you need with the handy index. Written by Mark Lutz -- widely recognized as the world's leading Python trainer -- Python Pocket Reference, Fourth Edition, is the perfect companion to O'Reilly's classic Python tutorials, also written by Mark

  12. The Reference Return Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Jeppe; Faber Frandsen, Tove

    2008-01-01

    The paper introduces a new journal impact measure called The Reference Return Ratio (3R). Unlike the traditional Journal Impact Factor (JIF), which is based on calculations of publications and citations, the new measure is based on calculations of bibliographic investments (references) and returns...... (citations). A comparative study of the two measures shows a strong relationship between the 3R and the JIF. Yet, the 3R appears to correct for citation habits, citation dynamics, and composition of document types - problems that typically are raised against the JIF. In addition, contrary to traditional...

  13. Perl Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Vromans, Johan

    2011-01-01

    If you have a Perl programming question, you'll find the answer quickly in this handy, easy-to-use quick reference. The Perl Pocket Reference condenses and organizes stacks of documentation down to the most essential facts, so you can find what you need in a heartbeat. Updated for Perl 5.14, the 5th edition provides a summary of Perl syntax rules and a complete list of operators, built-in functions, and other features. It's the perfect companion to O'Reilly's authoritative and in-depth Perl programming books, including Learning Perl, Programming Perl, and the Perl Cookbook..

  14. HTML & XHTML Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Robbins, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    After years of using spacer GIFs, layers of nested tables, and other improvised solutions for building your web sites, getting used to the more stringent standards-compliant design can be intimidating. HTML and XHTML Pocket Reference is the perfect little book when you need answers immediately. Jennifer Niederst-Robbins, author Web Design in a Nutshell, has revised and updated the fourth edition of this pocket guide by taking the top 20% of vital reference information from her Nutshell book, augmenting it judiciously, cross-referencing everything, and organizing it according to the most com

  15. CSS Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Eric A

    2007-01-01

    They say that good things come in small packages, and it's certainly true for this edition of CSS Pocket Reference. Completely revised and updated to reflect the latest Cascading Style Sheet specifications in CSS 2.1, this indispensable little book covers the most essential information that web designers and developers need to implement CSS effectively across all browsers. Inside, you'll find: A short introduction to the key concepts of CSS A complete alphabetical reference to all CSS 2.1 selectors and properties A chart displaying detailed information about CSS support for every style ele

  16. JDBC Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Bales, Donald

    2003-01-01

    JDBC--the Java Database Connectivity specification--is a complex set of application programming interfaces (APIs) that developers need to understand if they want their Java applications to work with databases. JDBC is so complex that even the most experienced developers need to refresh their memories from time to time on specific methods and details. But, practically speaking, who wants to stop and thumb through a weighty tutorial volume each time a question arises? The answer is the JDBC Pocket Reference, a data-packed quick reference that is both a time-saver and a lifesaver. The JDBC P

  17. Reference values for electrooculography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrientos Castanno, Alberto; Herrera Mora, Maritza; Garcia Baez, Obel

    2012-01-01

    Obtain electrooculographic reference values based on the patterns set by the Standardization Committee of the International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision (ISCEV). the lowest amplitude values of the potential ranged between 388 and 882 μv in the dark phase. The light peak was obtained between 9 and 10 minutes, and during this phase the potential reached an amplitude ranging between 808 and 1 963 μv. This amplitude variability may be related to the fact that the test was conducted without pupillary mydriasis. The reference value obtained for Arden index was 1,55 to 2,87

  18. NASCAP programmer's reference manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, M. J.; Stannard, P. R.; Katz, I.

    1993-05-01

    The NASA Charging Analyzer Program (NASCAP) is a computer program designed to model the electrostatic charging of complicated three-dimensional objects, both in a test tank and at geosynchronous altitudes. This document is a programmer's reference manual and user's guide. It is designed as a reference to experienced users of the code, as well as an introduction to its use for beginners. All of the many capabilities of NASCAP are covered in detail, together with examples of their use. These include the definition of objects, plasma environments, potential calculations, particle emission and detection simulations, and charging analysis.

  19. Artificial Neural Networks for SCADA Data based Load Reconstruction (poster)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofemann, C.; Van Bussel, G.J.W.; Veldkamp, H.

    2011-01-01

    If at least one reference wind turbine is available, which provides sufficient information about the wind turbine loads, the loads acting on the neighbouring wind turbines can be predicted via an artificial neural network (ANN). This research explores the possibilities to apply such a network not

  20. Book Catalogs; Selected References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, Wesley T.

    The 116 citations on book catalogs are divided into the following two main sections: (1) Selected References, in alphabetic sequence by personal or institutional author and (2) Anonymous Entries, in alphabetic sequence by title. One hundred and seven of the citations cover the years 1960 through March 1969. There are five scattered citations in…

  1. ROOT Reference Documentation

    CERN Document Server

    Fuakye, Eric Gyabeng

    2017-01-01

    A ROOT Reference Documentation has been implemented to generate all the lists of libraries needed for each ROOT class. Doxygen has no option to generate or add the lists of libraries for each ROOT class. Therefore shell scripting and a basic C++ program was employed to import the lists of libraries needed by each ROOT class.

  2. Hospitality Services Reference Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This reference book provides information needed by employees in hospitality services occupations. It includes 29 chapters that cover the following topics: the hospitality services industry; professional ethics; organization and management structures; safety practices and emergency procedures; technology; property maintenance and repair; purchasing…

  3. Quantum frames of reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufherr, T.

    1981-01-01

    The idea that only relative variables have physical meaning came to be known as Mach's principle. Carrying over this idea to quantum theory, has led to the consideration of finite mass, macroscopic reference frames, relative to which all physical quantities are measured. During the process of measurement, a finite mass observer receives a kickback, and this reaction of the measuring device is not negligible in quantum theory because of the quantization of the action. Hence, the observer himself has to be included in the system that is being considered. Using this as the starting point, a number of thought experiments involving finite mass observers is discussed which have quantum uncertainties in their time or in their position. These thought experiments serve to elucidate in a qualitative way some of the difficulties involved, as well as pointing out a direction to take in seeking solutions to them. When the discussion is extended to include more than one observer, the question of the covariance of the theory immediately arises. Because none of the frames of reference should be preferred, the theory should be covariant. This demand expresses an equivalence principle which here is extended to include reference frames which are in quantum uncertainties relative to each other. Formulating the problem in terms of canonical variables, the ensueing free Hamiltonian contains vector and scalar potentials which represent the kick that the reference frame receives during measurement. These are essentially gravitational type potentials, resulting, as it were, from the extension of the equivalence principle into the quantum domain

  4. Pollen reference collection digitization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ercan, F.E.Z.; Donders, T.H.; Bijl, P.K.; Wagner, F.

    2016-01-01

    The extensive Utrecht University pollen reference collection holds thousands of pollen samples of many species and genera from all over the world and has been a basis for the widely-used North West European Pollen Flora. These samples are fixed on glass slides for microscopy use, but the aging

  5. Virtual Reference Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Sally

    2003-01-01

    As the need to access information increases, school librarians must create virtual libraries. Linked to reliable reference resources, the virtual library extends the physical collection and library hours and lets students learn to use Web-based resources in a protected learning environment. The growing number of virtual schools increases the need…

  6. Reference-Dependent Sympathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Deborah A.

    2010-01-01

    Natural disasters and other traumatic events often draw a greater charitable response than do ongoing misfortunes, even those that may cause even more widespread misery, such as famine or malaria. Why is the response disproportionate to need? The notion of reference dependence critical to Prospect Theory (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979) maintains that…

  7. Genetics Home Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Page Search Home Health Conditions Genes Chromosomes & mtDNA Resources Help Me Understand Genetics Share: Email Facebook Twitter Genetics Home Reference provides consumer-friendly information about the effects of genetic variation on human health. Health Conditions More than 1,200 health ...

  8. Python library reference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. van Rossum (Guido)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractPython is an extensible, interpreted, object-oriented programming language. It supports a wide range of applications, from simple text processing scripts to interactive WWW browsers. While the Python Reference Manual describes the exact syntax and semantics of the language, it does not

  9. Extreme load alleviation using industrial implementation of active trailing edge flaps in a full design load basis

    OpenAIRE

    Barlas, Athanasios; Pettas, Vasilis; Gertz, Drew Patrick; Aagaard Madsen , Helge

    2016-01-01

    The application of active trailing edge flaps in an industrial oriented implementation is evaluated in terms of capability of alleviating design extreme loads. A flap system with basic control functionality is implemented and tested in a realistic full Design Load Basis (DLB) for the DTU 10MW Reference Wind Turbine (RWT) model and for an upscaled rotor version in DTU's aeroelastic code HAWC2. The flap system implementation shows considerable potential in reducing extreme loads in components o...

  10. Concentrated loads on concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Karen Grøndahl; Nielsen, Mogens Peter

    1997-01-01

    This report deals with concentrated loads on concrete.A new upper bound solution in the axisymmetrical case of a point load in the center of the end face of a cylinder is developed.Based on previous work dealing with failure mechanisms and upper bound solutions, new approximate formulas are devel......This report deals with concentrated loads on concrete.A new upper bound solution in the axisymmetrical case of a point load in the center of the end face of a cylinder is developed.Based on previous work dealing with failure mechanisms and upper bound solutions, new approximate formulas...

  11. Critical Axial Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walt Wells

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Our objective in this paper is to solve a second order differential equation for a long, simply supported column member subjected to a lateral axial load using Heun's numerical method. We will use the solution to find the critical load at which the column member will fail due to buckling. We will calculate this load using Euler's derived analytical approach for an exact solution, as well as Euler's Numerical Method. We will then compare the three calculated values to see how much they deviate from one another. During the critical load calculation, it will be necessary to calculate the moment of inertia for the column member.

  12. Load regulating expansion fixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, L.M.; Strum, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils is disclosed. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located there between. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components. 1 fig

  13. Laterally loaded masonry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun Gottfredsen, F.

    In this thesis results from experiments on mortar joints and masonry as well as methods of calculation of strength and deformation of laterally loaded masonry are presented. The strength and deformation capacity of mortar joints have been determined from experiments involving a constant compressive...... stress and increasing shear. The results show a transition to pure friction as the cohesion is gradually destroyed. An interface model of a mortar joint that can take into account this aspect has been developed. Laterally loaded masonry panels have also been tested and it is found to be characteristic...... that laterally loaded masonry exhibits a non-linear load-displacement behaviour with some ductility....

  14. Electrical load modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valgas, Helio Moreira; Pinto, Roberto del Giudice R.; Franca, Carlos [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Lambert-Torres, Germano; Silva, Alexandre P. Alves da; Pires, Robson Celso; Costa, Junior, Roberto Affonso [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    Accurate dynamic load models allow more precise calculations of power system controls and stability limits, which are critical mainly in the operation planning of power systems. This paper describes the development of a computer program (software) for static and dynamic load model studies using the measurement approach for the CEMIG system. Two dynamic load model structures are developed and tested. A procedure for applying a set of measured data from an on-line transient recording system to develop load models is described. (author) 6 refs., 17 figs.

  15. Impact of Investments in Generating Units and Transmission and Distribution Power Grids by 2025 on Voltage Stability and Branches Load in ENERGA SA Operational Territory – Main Findings of Research Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Falkowski

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article summarizes a research project which was conducted in order to ensure what will be the influence of future investments and changes in the Polish Power System on the stability and functionality of the ENERGA SA distribution grid system. Development of the ENERGA SA distribution grid system was also included. Only stable states were tested for various cases of system load and generation in power plants (the Nuclear Power Plant in Żarnowiec was taken into account and also in wind farms. The system was also tested in N-1 and N-2 states. The result of this study is an overall evaluation of the ENERGA SA distribution grid condition, as well as the identification of potential weak points inside this structure.

  16. Coordinated control of distributed energy resources to support load frequency control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravikumar Pandi, V.; Al-Hinai, A.; Feliachi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We aims to maintain feeder power flow by the coordination of DER units. • The error in feeder flow with respect to scheduled value is used by the controller. • The particle swarm optimization is employed to minimize the error in feeder flow. • Implemented on a transmission system along with 37 bus distribution feeder. • The results of proposed feeder control is analyzed with no feeder control scheme. - Abstract: The control of generating resources to follow the unscheduled load changes is considered to be an essential process in the power system in order to maintain the frequency of power supply. This load frequency control (LFC) problem has been given more importance in the recent smart grid environment because of the impact from high penetration of distributed energy resources (DER) installed at the distribution level. The renewable sources are highly intermittent in nature, so it is required to coordinate and control the DER units to maintain the feeder power flow at substation bus bar which is seen by transmission system operator during the LFC process. This paper aims to identify the impact of distributed generation and its control method to reduce the deviation of feeder power flow from the scheduled value in real time operation. The error in feeder power flow with respect to scheduled value is utilized by the PI controller to estimate the change in power reference of all DER units. The power output of DER units are maintained to reference values by the individual PI controllers. The particle swarm optimization algorithm is employed to minimize the error in feeder power flow by optimally tuning the gain values of all PI controllers. The proposed method is examined on a small transmission system along with the feeder of IEEE 37 bus distribution system with balanced loading condition. The complete system along with DER units is implemented in the MATLAB based stability package named Power Analysis Toolbox (PAT) for performing time domain

  17. ``Frames of Reference'' revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyn-Ross, Alistair; Ivey, Donald G.

    1992-12-01

    The PSSC teaching film, ``Frames of Reference,'' was made in 1960, and was one of the first audio-visual attempts at showing how your physical ``point of view,'' or frame of reference, necessarily alters both your perceptions and your observations of motion. The gentle humor and original demonstrations made a lasting impact on many audiences, and with its recent re-release as part of the AAPT Cinema Classics videodisc it is timely that we should review both the message and the methods of the film. An annotated script and photographs from the film are presented, followed by extension material on rotating frames which teachers may find appropriate for use in their classrooms: constructions, demonstrations, an example, and theory.

  18. Program reference schedule baseline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-07-01

    This Program Reference Schedule Baseline (PRSB) provides the baseline Program-level milestones and associated schedules for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. It integrates all Program-level schedule-related activities. This schedule baseline will be used by the Director, Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), and his staff to monitor compliance with Program objectives. Chapter 1 includes brief discussions concerning the relationship of the PRSB to the Program Reference Cost Baseline (PRCB), the Mission Plan, the Project Decision Schedule, the Total System Life Cycle Cost report, the Program Management Information System report, the Program Milestone Review, annual budget preparation, and system element plans. Chapter 2 includes the identification of all Level 0, or Program-level, milestones, while Chapter 3 presents and discusses the critical path schedules that correspond to those Level 0 milestones

  19. OSH technical reference manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    In an evaluation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Occupational Safety and Health programs for government-owned contractor-operated (GOCO) activities, the Department of Labor`s Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) recommended a technical information exchange program. The intent was to share written safety and health programs, plans, training manuals, and materials within the entire DOE community. The OSH Technical Reference (OTR) helps support the secretary`s response to the OSHA finding by providing a one-stop resource and referral for technical information that relates to safe operations and practice. It also serves as a technical information exchange tool to reference DOE-wide materials pertinent to specific safety topics and, with some modification, as a training aid. The OTR bridges the gap between general safety documents and very specific requirements documents. It is tailored to the DOE community and incorporates DOE field experience.

  20. Reference Sources in Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Sthapit, Dilip Man

    1995-01-01

    Information plays an important role in the development of every field. Therefore a brief knowledge regarding information sources is necessary to function in any field. There are many information sources about scientific and technical subjects. In this context there are many reference sources in Chemistry too. Chemistry is one important part of the science which deals with the study of the composition of substances and the chemical changes that they undergo. The purpose of this report is...

  1. Radioactive certified reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Kazuo

    2010-01-01

    Outline of radioactive certified reference materials (CRM) for the analysis of nuclear materials and radioactive nuclides were described. The nuclear fuel CRMs are supplied by the three institutes: NBL in the US, CETAMA in France and IRMM in Belgium. For the RI CRMs, the Japan Radioisotope Association is engaged in activities concerning supply. The natural-matrix CRMs for the analysis of trace levels of radio-nuclides are prepared and supplied by NIST in the US and the IAEA. (author)

  2. Reference Japanese man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, G.-I.; Kawamura, H.; Nakahara, Y.

    1979-01-01

    The weight of organs from autopsy cases of normal Japanese adults, children, and infants is presented for the purpose of approaching a Reference Japanese Man. The skeletal content and the daily intake of alkaline earth elements are given. A lower rate of transfer (K 2 ) to the thyroid gland of ingested radioiodine, as well as a remarkably shorter biological half-life than the data adopted by ICRP, is also proved as a result of this study. (author)

  3. Hazardous chemicals desk reference

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lewis, Richard J., Sr

    2008-01-01

    ... of the entries have been revised for t h s edition. Most of the new entries were selected because they are on the EPA TSCA Inventory. These are reported to be used in commerce in the United States. Emphasis was placed on adding and updating physical properties and updating all DOT Classifications. The information was extracted from Dangerous Propedes Of...

  4. Reference handbook: Level detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this handbook is to provide Rocky Flats personnel with the information necessary to understand level measurement and detection. Upon completion of this handbook you should be able to do the following: List three reasons for measuring level. Describe the basic operating principles of the sight glass. Demonstrate proper techniques for reading a sight glass. Describe the basic operating principles of a float level detector. Describe the basic operating principles of a bubbler level indicating system. Explain the differences between a wet and dry reference leg indicating system, and describe how each functions. This handbook is designed for use by experienced Rocky Flats operators to reinforce and improve their current knowledge level, and by entry-level operators to ensure that they possess a minimum level of fundamental knowledge. Level Detectors is applicable to many job classifications and can be used as a reference for classroom work or for self-study. Although this reference handbook is by no means all-encompassing, you will gain enough information about this subject area to assist you in contributing to the safe operation of Rocky Flats Plant

  5. Electroacoustical reference data

    CERN Document Server

    Eargle, John M

    2002-01-01

    The need for a general collection of electroacoustical reference and design data in graphical form has been felt by acousticians and engineers for some time. This type of data can otherwise only be found in a collection of handbooks. Therefore, it is the author's intention that this book serve as a single source for many electroacoustical reference and system design requirements. In form, the volume closely resembles Frank Massa's Acoustic Design Charts, a handy book dating from 1942 that has long been out of print. The basic format of Massa's book has been followed here: For each entry, graphical data are presented on the right page, while text, examples, and refer­ ences appear on the left page. In this manner, the user can solve a given problem without thumbing from one page to the next. All graphs and charts have been scaled for ease in data entry and reading. The book is divided into the following sections: A. General Acoustical Relationships. This section covers the behavior of sound transmis­ sion in...

  6. Structural load combinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, H.; Reich, M.; Ellingwood, B.; Shinozuka, M.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents the latest results of the program entitled, ''Probability Based Load Combinations For Design of Category I Structures''. In FY 85, a probability-based reliability analysis method has been developed to evaluate safety of shear wall structures. The shear walls are analyzed using stick models with beam elements and may be subjected to dead load, live load and in-plane eqrthquake. Both shear and flexure limit states are defined analytically. The limit state probabilities can be evaluated on the basis of these limit states. Utilizing the reliability analysis method mentioned above, load combinations for the design of shear wall structures have been established. The proposed design criteria are in the load and resistance factor design (LRFD) format. In this study, the resistance factors for shear and flexure and load factors for dead and live loads are preassigned, while the load factor for SSE is determined for a specified target limit state probability of 1.0 x 10 -6 or 1.0 x 10 -5 during a lifetime of 40 years. 23 refs., 9 tabs

  7. Load Induced Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, James S. P.; Lavie, Nilli

    2008-01-01

    Although the perceptual load theory of attention has stimulated a great deal of research, evidence for the role of perceptual load in determining perception has typically relied on indirect measures that infer perception from distractor effects on reaction times or neural activity (see N. Lavie, 2005, for a review). Here we varied the level of…

  8. Structural load combinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, H.; Reich, M.; Ellingwood, B.; Shinozuka, M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents the latest results of the program entitled, ''Probability Based Load Combinations For Design of Category I Structures''. In FY 85, a probability-based reliability analysis method has been developed to evaluate safety of shear wall structures. The shear walls are analyzed using stick models with beam elements and may be subjected to dead load, live load and in-plane earthquake. Both shear and flexure limit states are defined analytically. The limit state probabilities can be evaluated on the basis of these limit states. Utilizing the reliability analysis method mentioned above, load combinations for the design of shear wall structures have been established. The proposed design criteria are in the load and resistance factor design (LRFD) format. In this study, the resistance factors for shear and flexure and load factors for dead and live loads are preassigned, while the load factor for SSE is determined for a specified target limit state probability of 1.0 x 10 -6 or 1.0 x 10 -5 during a lifetime of 40 years

  9. Load event: Aircraft crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsch, H.

    1985-01-01

    The bibliography includes 48 quotations, up to the year 1983, on the following issues: Experiments and computational methods. Design load for the dimensioning of reinforced concrete buildings and components with respect to the dynamic load in the event of an aircraft crash. (orig./HP) [de

  10. Energy efficiency indicators for high electric-load buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aebischer, Bernard; Balmer, Markus A.; Kinney, Satkartar; Le Strat, Pascale; Shibata, Yoshiaki; Varone, Frederic

    2003-06-01

    Energy per unit of floor area is not an adequate indicator for energy efficiency in high electric-load buildings. For two activities, restaurants and computer centres, alternative indicators for energy efficiency are discussed.

  11. Materials properties, loads, and stress analysis, Spartan REM: Appendix A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, D. S.; West, E. J.

    1984-01-01

    The mechanical properties, load tests, and stress analysis of the Spartan Release Engagement Mechanism (REM) is presented. The fracture properties of the components of the unit are also discussed. Detailed engineering drawings are included.

  12. Accurate determination of brain metabolite concentrations using ERETIC as external reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoelch, Niklaus; Hock, Andreas; Heinzer-Schweizer, Susanne; Avdievitch, Nikolai; Henning, Anke

    2017-08-01

    Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) can provide in vivo metabolite concentrations in standard concentration units if a reliable reference signal is available. For 1 H MRS in the human brain, typically the signal from the tissue water is used as the (internal) reference signal. However, a concentration determination based on the tissue water signal most often requires a reliable estimate of the water concentration present in the investigated tissue. Especially in clinically interesting cases, this estimation might be difficult. To avoid assumptions about the water in the investigated tissue, the Electric REference To access In vivo Concentrations (ERETIC) method has been proposed. In this approach, the metabolite signal is compared with a reference signal acquired in a phantom and potential coil-loading differences are corrected using a synthetic reference signal. The aim of this study, conducted with a transceiver quadrature head coil, was to increase the accuracy of the ERETIC method by correcting the influence of spatial B 1 inhomogeneities and to simplify the quantification with ERETIC by incorporating an automatic phase correction for the ERETIC signal. Transmit field ( B1+) differences are minimized with a volume-selective power optimization, whereas reception sensitivity changes are corrected using contrast-minimized images of the brain and by adapting the voxel location in the phantom measurement closely to the position measured in vivo. By applying the proposed B 1 correction scheme, the mean metabolite concentrations determined with ERETIC in 21 healthy subjects at three different positions agree with concentrations derived with the tissue water signal as reference. In addition, brain water concentrations determined with ERETIC were in agreement with estimations derived using tissue segmentation and literature values for relative water densities. Based on the results, the ERETIC method presented here is a valid tool to derive in vivo metabolite

  13. Loading method of core constituting elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Shigeo

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a remote-controlled replacing method for core constituting elements in a liquid-metal cooling fast breeder, wherein particularly, the core constituting elements are prevented from being loaded on the core position other than as designated. Constitution: The method comprises a first step which determines a position of a suitable neutron shielding body in order to measure a reference level of complete insertion of the core constituting elements, a second step which inserts a gripper for a fuel exchanger, a third step which decides stroke dimensions of the complete insertion, and a fourth step which discriminates the core constituting elements to begin handling of fuel rods. The method further comprises a fifth step which determines a loading position of fuel rod, and a sixth step which inserts and loads fuel rods into the core. The method still further comprises a seventh step which compares and judges the dimension of loading stroke and the dimension of complete inserting stroke so that when coincided, loading is completed, and when not coincided, loading is not completed and then the cycle of the fourth step is repeated. (Kawakami, Y.)

  14. Instrumentation reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Boyes, Walt

    2002-01-01

    Instrumentation is not a clearly defined subject, having a 'fuzzy' boundary with a number of other disciplines. Often categorized as either 'techniques' or 'applications' this book addresses the various applications that may be needed with reference to the practical techniques that are available for the instrumentation or measurement of a specific physical quantity or quality. This makes it of direct interest to anyone working in the process, control and instrumentation fields where these measurements are essential.* Comprehensive and authoritative collection of technical information* Writte

  15. XSLT 10 Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lenz, Evan

    2008-01-01

    XSLT is an essential tool for converting XML into other kinds of documents: HTML, PDF file, and many others. It's a critical technology for XML-based platforms such as Microsoft .NET, Sun Microsystems' Sun One, as well as for most web browsers and authoring tools. As useful as XSLT is, however, most people have a difficult time getting used to its peculiar characteristics. The ability to use advanced techniques depends on a clear and exact understanding of how XSLT templates work and interact. The XSLT 1.0 Pocket Reference from O'Reilly wants to make sure you achieve that level of understan

  16. Electronics engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Mazda, F F

    1989-01-01

    Electronics Engineer's Reference Book, Sixth Edition is a five-part book that begins with a synopsis of mathematical and electrical techniques used in the analysis of electronic systems. Part II covers physical phenomena, such as electricity, light, and radiation, often met with in electronic systems. Part III contains chapters on basic electronic components and materials, the building blocks of any electronic design. Part IV highlights electronic circuit design and instrumentation. The last part shows the application areas of electronics such as radar and computers.

  17. International Geomagnetic Reference Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finlay, Chris; Maus, S.; Beggan, C. D.

    2010-01-01

    The eleventh generation of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) was adopted in December 2009 by the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy Working Group V‐MOD. It updates the previous IGRF generation with a definitive main field model for epoch 2005.0, a main field...... model for epoch 2010.0, and a linear predictive secular variation model for 2010.0–2015.0. In this note the equations defining the IGRF model are provided along with the spherical harmonic coefficients for the eleventh generation. Maps of the magnetic declination, inclination and total intensity...

  18. VBScript pocket reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lomax, Paul; Petrusha, Ron

    2008-01-01

    Microsoft's Visual Basic Scripting Edition (VBScript), a subset of Visual Basic for Applications, is a powerful language for Internet application development, where it can serve as a scripting language for server-side, client-side, and system scripting. Whether you're developing code for Active Server Pages, client-side scripts for Internet Explorer, code for Outlook forms, or scripts for Windows Script Host, VBScript Pocket Reference will be your constant companion. Don't let the pocket-friendly format fool you. Based on the bestsellingVBScript in a Nutshell, this small book details every V

  19. NUnit Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Hamilton, Bill

    2009-01-01

    The open source NUnit framework is an excellent way to test .NET code as it is written, saving hundreds of QA hours and headaches. Unfortunately, some of those hours saved can be wasted trying to master this popular but under-documented framework. Proof that good things come in small packages, the NUnit Pocket Reference is everything you need to get NUnit up and working for you. It's the only book you'll need on this popular and practical new open source framework.

  20. Load Balancing Scientific Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, Olga Tkachyshyn [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The largest supercomputers have millions of independent processors, and concurrency levels are rapidly increasing. For ideal efficiency, developers of the simulations that run on these machines must ensure that computational work is evenly balanced among processors. Assigning work evenly is challenging because many large modern parallel codes simulate behavior of physical systems that evolve over time, and their workloads change over time. Furthermore, the cost of imbalanced load increases with scale because most large-scale scientific simulations today use a Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) parallel programming model, and an increasing number of processors will wait for the slowest one at the synchronization points. To address load imbalance, many large-scale parallel applications use dynamic load balance algorithms to redistribute work evenly. The research objective of this dissertation is to develop methods to decide when and how to load balance the application, and to balance it effectively and affordably. We measure and evaluate the computational load of the application, and develop strategies to decide when and how to correct the imbalance. Depending on the simulation, a fast, local load balance algorithm may be suitable, or a more sophisticated and expensive algorithm may be required. We developed a model for comparison of load balance algorithms for a specific state of the simulation that enables the selection of a balancing algorithm that will minimize overall runtime.

  1. Status of load management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juchymenko, A

    1983-08-01

    A summary is presented of the status of load management, defined as any activity by an electric utility to affect the size and characteristics of its load. Load management is currently viewed by electric utilities as an important tool for marketing electricity in a competitive fuel situation. A major aim of the National Energy Program is to reduce Canada's dependence on oil by 1990 to 10% of the energy used by all markets. As a result, electricity may play a greater role in the supply of primary energy. Research in load management has been directed mostly towards the residential market, especially direct control of domestic hot water heaters and air conditioners. Studies conducted in Canada and the U.S. to determine user's receptiveness to direct control of loads and thermal energy storage systems indicate that these load management techniques are in most cases not acceptable to customers, who prefer voluntary reduction in demand. The potential exists in the industrial market to use load management to assist in electrifying many of the fossil fuel-fired processes at competitive energy prices. Some of the more important applications include an industrial heat pump to heat liquids to 120{degree}C, induction heating for melting and heat treating of metals, and mechanical vapor recompression equipment to produce proces steam. 21 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Improved control system power unit for large parachutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, J. A.; Grubbs, T. M.

    1968-01-01

    Improved control system power unit drives the control surfaces of very large controllable parachutes. The design features subassemblies for determining control surface position and cable loading, and protection of the load sensor against the possibility of damage during manipulation.

  3. Combined operation of AC and DC distribution system with distributed generation units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noroozian, R.; Abedi, M.; Gharehpetian, G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a DC distribution system which has been supplied by external AC systems as well as local DG units in order to demonstrate an overall solution to power quality issue. In this paper, the proposed operation method is demonstrated by simulation of power transfer between external AC systems, DG units, AC and DC loads. The power flow control in DC distribution system has been achieved by network converters and DG converters. Also, the mathematical model of the network, DG and load converters are obtained by using the average technique, which allows converter systems accurately simulated and control strategies for this converters is achieved. A suitable control strategy for network converters has been proposed that involves DC voltage droop regulator and novel instantaneous power regulation scheme. Also, a novel control technique has been proposed for DG converters. In this paper, a novel control system based on stationary and synchronously rotating reference frame has been proposed for load converters for supplying AC loads connected to the DC bus by balanced voltages. The several case studies have been studied based on proposed methods. The simulation results show that DC distribution systems including DG units can improve the power quality at the point of common coupling (PCC) in the power distribution system or industrial power system. (authors)

  4. Roaming Reference: Reinvigorating Reference through Point of Need Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kealin M. McCabe

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Roaming reference service was pursued as a way to address declining reference statistics. The service was staffed by librarians armed with iPads over a period of six months during the 2010-2011 academic year. Transactional statistics were collected in relation to query type (Research, Facilitative or Technology, location and approach (librarian to patron, patron to librarian or via chat widget. Overall, roaming reference resulted in an additional 228 reference questions, 67% (n=153 of which were research related. Two iterations of the service were implemented, roaming reference as a standalone service (Fall 2010 and roaming reference integrated with traditional reference desk duties (Winter 2011. The results demonstrate that although the Weller Library’s reference transactions are declining annually, they are not disappearing. For a roaming reference service to succeed, it must be a standalone service provided in addition to traditional reference services. The integration of the two reference models (roaming reference and reference desk resulted in a 56% decline in the total number of roaming reference questions from the previous term. The simple act of roaming has the potential to reinvigorate reference services as a whole, forcing librarians outside their comfort zones, allowing them to reach patrons at their point of need.

  5. United States Climate Reference Network (USCRN) Quality Controlled Datasets

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — USCRN Products are available on public FTP and derived from the USCRN processed data. Available parameters include averages and calculated values for precipitation,...

  6. United States Climate Reference Network (USCRN) Processed Data (Version Superseded)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Please note, this dataset has been superseded by a newer version (see below). Users should not use this version except in rare cases (e.g., when reproducing previous...

  7. United States Climate Reference Network (USCRN) Raw Experimental Datasets

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Experimental USCRN data consists of data from four separate locations. Two of these stations--Johnstown, PA and Sterling, VA--were used to establish USCRN data...

  8. A Stellar Reference Unit Design Study for SIRTF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Liebe, Carl Christian

    1996-01-01

    performance levels for SIRTF are based on actual, real sky, test data taken at the JPL Table Mountain Observatory and at the University of Hawaii, Mauna Kea Observatories in conjunction with JPL. This performance is projected to have a staring mode NEA of only 0.037 arcseconds (both BOL and EOL......) and a precision of 0.502 (BOL) and 0.504 arcseconds (EOL), all RMS. These remarkable results are achieved at low cost with a head mass of less than 2.5 kg and a power dissipation of only 400 mW. The low power and mass, together with an operating temperature of about -40 C greatly ease the difficult problems...

  9. AREVA - 2013 Reference document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This Reference Document contains information on the AREVA group's objectives, prospects and development strategies, as well as estimates of the markets, market shares and competitive position of the AREVA group. Content: 1 - Person responsible for the Reference Document; 2 - Statutory auditors; 3 - Selected financial information; 4 - Description of major risks confronting the company; 5 - Information about the issuer; 6 - Business overview; 7 - Organizational structure; 8 - Property, plant and equipment; 9 - Situation and activities of the company and its subsidiaries; 10 - Capital resources; 11 - Research and development programs, patents and licenses; 12 - Trend information; 13 - Profit forecasts or estimates; 14 - Management and supervisory bodies; 15 - Compensation and benefits; 16 - Functioning of the management and supervisory bodies; 17 - Human resources information; 18 - Principal shareholders; 19 - Transactions with related parties; 20 - Financial information concerning assets, financial positions and financial performance; 21 - Additional information; 22 - Major contracts; 23 - Third party information, statements by experts and declarations of interest; 24 - Documents on display; 25 - Information on holdings; Appendix 1: report of the supervisory board chairman on the preparation and organization of the board's activities and internal control procedures; Appendix 2: statutory auditors' reports; Appendix 3: environmental report; Appendix 4: non-financial reporting methodology and independent third-party report on social, environmental and societal data; Appendix 5: ordinary and extraordinary general shareholders' meeting; Appendix 6: values charter; Appendix 7: table of concordance of the management report; glossaries

  10. Balinese Frame of Reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Aryawibawa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Balinese Frame of Reference. Wassmann and Dasen (1998 did a study on the acquisition of Balinese frames of reference. They pointed out that, in addition to the dominant use of absolute system, the use of relative system was also observed. This article aims at verifying Wassmann and Dasen’ study. Employing monolingual Balinese speakers and using linguistic and non-linguistic tasks, Aryawibawa (2010, 2012, 2015 showed that Balinese subjects used an absolute system dominantly in responding the two tasks, e.g. The man is north/south/east/west of the car. Unlike Wassmann and Dasen’s results, no relative system was used by the subjects in solving the tasks. Instead of the relative system, an intrinsic system was also observed in this study, even though it was unfrequent. The article concludes that the absolute system was dominantly employed by Balinese speakers in describing spatial relations in Balinese. The use of the system seems to affect their cognitive functions.

  11. Antares Reference Telescope System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanathan, V.K.; Kaprelian, E.; Swann, T.; Parker, J.; Wolfe, P.; Woodfin, G.; Knight, D.

    1983-01-01

    Antares is a 24-beam, 40-TW carbon-dioxide laser-fusion system currently nearing completion at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The 24 beams will be focused onto a tiny target (typically 300 to 1000 μm in diameter) located approximately at the center of a 7.3-m-diameter by 9.3-m-long vacuum (10 - 6 torr) chamber. The design goal is to position the targets to within 10 μm of a selected nominal position, which may be anywhere within a fixed spherical region 1 cm in diameter. The Antares Reference Telescope System is intended to help achieve this goal for alignment and viewing of the various targets used in the laser system. The Antares Reference Telescope System consists of two similar electro-optical systems positioned in a near orthogonal manner in the target chamber area of the laser. Each of these consists of four subsystems: (1) a fixed 9X optical imaging subsystem which produces an image of the target at the vidicon; (2) a reticle projection subsystem which superimposes an image of the reticle pattern at the vidicon; (3) an adjustable front-lighting subsystem which illuminates the target; and (4) an adjustable back-lighting subsystem which also can be used to illuminate the target. The various optical, mechanical, and vidicon design considerations and trade-offs are discussed. The final system chosen (which is being built) and its current status are described in detail

  12. Adjustable electronic load-alarm relay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, C.H.; Sitton, R.S.

    1976-01-01

    An improved electronic alarm relay for monitoring the current drawn by an ac motor or other electrical load is described. The circuit is designed to measure the load with high accuracy and to have excellent alarm repeatability. Chattering and arcing of the relay contacts are minimal. The operator can adjust the set point easily and can re-set both the high and the low alarm points by means of one simple adjustment. The relay includes means for generating a signal voltage proportional to the motor current. In a preferred form of the invention a first operational amplifier is provided to generate a first constant reference voltage which is higher than a preselected value of the signal voltage. A second operational amplifier is provided to generate a second constant reference voltage which is lower than the aforementioned preselected value of the signal voltage. A circuit comprising a first resistor serially connected to a second resistor is connected across the outputs of the first and second amplifiers, and the junction of the two resistors is connected to the inverting terminal of the second amplifier. Means are provided to compare the aforementioned signal voltage with both the first and second reference voltages and to actuate an alarm if the signal voltage is higher than the first reference voltage or lower than the second reference voltage

  13. Critical loads - assessment of uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkman, A.

    1998-10-01

    The effects of data uncertainty in applications of the critical loads concept were investigated on different spatial resolutions in Sweden and northern Czech Republic. Critical loads of acidity (CL) were calculated for Sweden using the biogeochemical model PROFILE. Three methods with different structural complexity were used to estimate the adverse effects of S0{sub 2} concentrations in northern Czech Republic. Data uncertainties in the calculated critical loads/levels and exceedances (EX) were assessed using Monte Carlo simulations. Uncertainties within cumulative distribution functions (CDF) were aggregated by accounting for the overlap between site specific confidence intervals. Aggregation of data uncertainties within CDFs resulted in lower CL and higher EX best estimates in comparison with percentiles represented by individual sites. Data uncertainties were consequently found to advocate larger deposition reductions to achieve non-exceedance based on low critical loads estimates on 150 x 150 km resolution. Input data were found to impair the level of differentiation between geographical units at all investigated resolutions. Aggregation of data uncertainty within CDFs involved more constrained confidence intervals for a given percentile. Differentiation as well as identification of grid cells on 150 x 150 km resolution subjected to EX was generally improved. Calculation of the probability of EX was shown to preserve the possibility to differentiate between geographical units. Re-aggregation of the 95%-ile EX on 50 x 50 km resolution generally increased the confidence interval for each percentile. Significant relationships were found between forest decline and the three methods addressing risks induced by S0{sub 2} concentrations. Modifying S0{sub 2} concentrations by accounting for the length of the vegetation period was found to constitute the most useful trade-off between structural complexity, data availability and effects of data uncertainty. Data

  14. Sensor employing internal reference electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention concerns a novel internal reference electrode as well as a novel sensing electrode for an improved internal reference oxygen sensor and the sensor employing same.......The present invention concerns a novel internal reference electrode as well as a novel sensing electrode for an improved internal reference oxygen sensor and the sensor employing same....

  15. Endogenizing Prospect Theory's Reference Point

    OpenAIRE

    Ulrich Schmidt; Horst Zank

    2010-01-01

    In previous models of (cumulative) prospect theory reference-dependence of preferences is imposed beforehand and the location of the reference point is exogenously determined. This note provides a foundation of prospect theory, where reference-dependence is derived from preference conditions and a unique reference point arises endogenously.

  16. Pollution loads from stormwater overflows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonomo, L.

    1991-01-01

    The knowledge of the volume of combined effluents outflowing from overflows is not enough to allow a direct evaluation of polluting loads discharged into final receptors; the hypothesis of complete mixing between sewage and stormwater flow, fed in at a pollutant concentration level equal to zero, hasn't proved to be successful. The amount of the outflowing loads largely depends on the contamination of the stormwater runoff before inflow into the drainage system and on sedimentation and resuspension phenomena. This paper reports the main aspects connected with wet and dry atmospheric deposition of pollutants and with paved surface wash-out phenomena. The origin of pollutants flush, due to the resuspension and mass transport of polluting substances stored up in the sewer during draughts, is also described. Attention is drawn to the importance of the behaviour of the different pollutants with respect to the sedimentation phenomena. Reference is made to evaluations conducted on a drainage system for the recovery of a small pre-alpine lake

  17. APS high heat load monochromator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.K.; Mills, D.

    1993-02-01

    This document contains the design specifications of the APS high heat load (HHL) monochromator and associated accessories as of February 1993. It should be noted that work is continuing on many parts of the monochromator including the mechanical design, crystal cooling designs, etc. Where appropriate, we have tried to add supporting documentation, references to published papers, and calculations from which we based our decisions. The underlying philosophy behind performance specifications of this monochromator was to fabricate a device that would be useful to as many APS users as possible, that is, the design should be as generic as possible. In other words, we believe that this design will be capable of operating on both bending magnet and ID beamlines (with the appropriate changes to the cooling and crystals) with both flat and inclined crystal geometries and with a variety of coolants. It was strongly felt that this monochromator should have good energy scanning capabilities over the classical energy range of about 4 to 20 keywith Si (111) crystals. For this reason, a design incorporating one rotation stage to drive both the first and second crystals was considered most promising. Separate rotary stages for the first and second crystals can sometimes provide more flexibility in their capacities to carry heavy loads (for heavily cooled first crystals or sagittal benders of second crystals), but their tuning capabilities were considered inferior to the single axis approach

  18. Load-following operation of PWR plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Jong Hwa; Oh, Soo Yul; Koo, Yang Hyun; Lee, Jae Han [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-12-01

    The load-following operation of nuclear power plants will become inevitable due to the increased nuclear share in the total electricity generation. As a groundwork for the load-following capability of the Korean next generation PWRs, the state-of-the-art has been reviewed. The core control principles and methods are the main subject in this review as well as the impact of load-following operations on the fuel performance and on the mechanical integrity of components. To begin with, it was described what the load-following operation is and in what view point the technology should be reviewed. Afterwards the load-following method, performance and problems in domestic 900 MWe class PWRs were discussed, and domestic R and D works were summarized. Foreign technologies were also reviewed. They include Mode G and Mode X of Foratom, D and L bank method of KWU, the method using PSCEA of ABB-CE, and MSHIM of Westinghouse. The load-following related special features of Foratom`s N4 plant, KWU`s plants, ABB-CE`s Systems 80+, and Westinghouse`s AP600 were described in each technology review. The review concluded that the capability of N4 plant with Mode X is the best and the methods in System, 80+ and AP600 would require verifications for the continued and usual load-following operation. It was recommended that the load-following operation experiences in domestic PWRs under operation be required to settle down the capability for the future. In addition, a more enhanced technology is required for the Korean next generation PWR regardless what the reference plant concept is. 30 figs., 19 tabs., 75 refs. (Author).

  19. Lumbriculus variegatus loading study

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Results from sediment bioaccumulation tests with Lumbriculus variegatus with evaluating the effects of organism loading density. This dataset is associated with the...

  20. LOADING SIMULATION PROGRAM C

    Science.gov (United States)

    LSPC is the Loading Simulation Program in C++, a watershed modeling system that includes streamlined Hydrologic Simulation Program Fortran (HSPF) algorithms for simulating hydrology, sediment, and general water quality

  1. LOADING SIMULATION PROGRAM C

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — LSPC is the Loading Simulation Program in C++, a watershed modeling system that includes streamlined Hydrologic Simulation Program Fortran (HSPF) algorithms for...

  2. Static Loads Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides the capability to perform large-scale structural loads testing on spacecraft and other structures. Results from these tests can be used to verify...

  3. Plug Load Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We provide MATLAB binary files (.mat) and comma separated values files of data collected from a pilot study of a plug load management system that allows for the...

  4. 12 CFR 404.3 - Public reference facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public reference facilities. 404.3 Section 404.3 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES INFORMATION DISCLOSURE Procedures for Disclosure of Records Under the Freedom of Information Act. § 404.3 Public reference facilities. Ex-Im Bank...

  5. Reference Materials in LIS Instruction: A Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabina, Debbie

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a Delphi study conducted over a two-month period in 2011. The purpose of the study was to identify reference sources that should be covered in basic reference courses taught in LIS programs in the United States. The Delphi method was selected for its appropriateness in soliciting expert opinions and assessing the…

  6. AREVA 2009 reference document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This Reference Document contains information on the AREVA group's objectives, prospects and development strategies. It contains information on the markets, market shares and competitive position of the AREVA group. This information provides an adequate picture of the size of these markets and of the AREVA group's competitive position. Content: 1 - Person responsible for the Reference Document and Attestation by the person responsible for the Reference Document; 2 - Statutory and Deputy Auditors; 3 - Selected financial information; 4 - Risks: Risk management and coverage, Legal risk, Industrial and environmental risk, Operating risk, Risk related to major projects, Liquidity and market risk, Other risk; 5 - Information about the issuer: History and development, Investments; 6 - Business overview: Markets for nuclear power and renewable energies, AREVA customers and suppliers, Overview and strategy of the group, Business divisions, Discontinued operations: AREVA Transmission and Distribution; 7 - Organizational structure; 8 - Property, plant and equipment: Principal sites of the AREVA group, Environmental issues that may affect the issuer's; 9 - Analysis of and comments on the group's financial position and performance: Overview, Financial position, Cash flow, Statement of financial position, Events subsequent to year-end closing for 2009; 10 - Capital Resources; 11 - Research and development programs, patents and licenses; 12 -trend information: Current situation, Financial objectives; 13 - Profit forecasts or estimates; 14 - Administrative, management and supervisory bodies and senior management; 15 - Compensation and benefits; 16 - Functioning of corporate bodies; 17 - Employees; 18 - Principal shareholders; 19 - Transactions with related parties: French state, CEA, EDF group; 20 - Financial information concerning assets, financial positions and financial performance; 21 - Additional information: Share capital, Certificate of incorporation and by-laws; 22 - Major

  7. Traceable calibration of photovoltaic reference cells using natural sunlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müllejans, H.; Zaaiman, W.; Pavanello, D.; Dunlop, E. D.

    2018-02-01

    At the European Solar Test Installation (ESTI) photovoltaic (PV) reference cells are calibrated traceably to SI units via the World Radiometric Reference (WRR) using natural sunlight. The Direct Sunlight Method (DSM) is described in detail and the latest measurement results and an updated uncertainty budget are reported. These PV reference cells then provide a practical means for measuring the irradiance of natural or simulated sunlight during the calibration of other PV devices.

  8. Smart load cells : an industrial application

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, J. G.; Couto, Carlos; Correia, J. H.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a data acquisition solution using a RISC type microcontroller with a very few components around, taking advantage of the ratiometric functioning of the load cells. The need of thermally stable circuits is minimized through the use of the same amplification chain for both signal and reference. The amplification and filtering are done trough switched-capacitor techniques controlled by the microcontroller. This option allows the choice of the proper scal...

  9. Areva - 2016 Reference document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Areva supplies high added-value products and services to support the operation of the global nuclear fleet. The company is present throughout the entire nuclear cycle, from uranium mining to used fuel recycling, including nuclear reactor design and operating services. Areva is recognized by utilities around the world for its expertise, its skills in cutting-edge technologies and its dedication to the highest level of safety. Areva's 36,000 employees are helping build tomorrow's energy model: supplying ever safer, cleaner and more economical energy to the greatest number of people. This Reference Document contains information on Areva's objectives, prospects and development strategies. It contains estimates of the markets, market shares and competitive position of Areva

  10. A reference tristimulus colorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppeldauer, George P.

    2002-06-01

    A reference tristimulus colorimeter has been developed at NIST with a transmission-type silicon trap detector (1) and four temperature-controlled filter packages to realize the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) x(λ), y(λ) and z(λ) color matching functions (2). Instead of lamp standards, high accuracy detector standards are used for the colorimeter calibration. A detector-based calibration procedure is being suggested for tristimulus colorimeters wehre the absolute spectral responsivity of the tristimulus channels is determined. Then, color (spectral) correct and peak (amplitude) normalization are applied to minimize uncertainties caused by the imperfect realizations of the CIE functions. As a result of the corrections, the chromaticity coordinates of stable light sources with different spectral power distributions can be measured with uncertainties less than 0.0005 (k=1).

  11. Tank characterization reference guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Lorenzo, D.S.; DiCenso, A.T.; Hiller, D.B.; Johnson, K.W.; Rutherford, J.H.; Smith, D.J.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-09-01

    Characterization of the Hanford Site high-level waste storage tanks supports safety issue resolution; operations and maintenance requirements; and retrieval, pretreatment, vitrification, and disposal technology development. Technical, historical, and programmatic information about the waste tanks is often scattered among many sources, if it is documented at all. This Tank Characterization Reference Guide, therefore, serves as a common location for much of the generic tank information that is otherwise contained in many documents. The report is intended to be an introduction to the issues and history surrounding the generation, storage, and management of the liquid process wastes, and a presentation of the sampling, analysis, and modeling activities that support the current waste characterization. This report should provide a basis upon which those unfamiliar with the Hanford Site tank farms can start their research

  12. Cognitive Load Theory: An Empirical Study of Anxiety and Task Performance in Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I-Jung; Chang, Chi-Cheng

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: This study explores the relationship among three variables--cognitive load, foreign language anxiety, and task performance. Cognitive load refers to the load imposed on working memory while performing a particular task. The authors hypothesized that anxiety consumes the resources of working memory, leaving less capacity for cognitive…

  13. Areva, reference document 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This reference document contains information on the AREVA group's objectives, prospects and development strategies, particularly in Chapters 4 and 7. It contains information on the markets, market shares and competitive position of the AREVA group. Content: - 1 Person responsible for the reference document and persons responsible for auditing the financial statements; - 2 Information pertaining to the transaction (Not applicable); - 3 General information on the company and its share capital: Information on AREVA, on share capital and voting rights, Investment certificate trading, Dividends, Organization chart of AREVA group companies, Equity interests, Shareholders' agreements; - 4 Information on company operations, new developments and future prospects: Overview and strategy of the AREVA group, The Nuclear Power and Transmission and Distribution markets, The energy businesses of the AREVA group, Front End division, Reactors and Services division, Back End division, Transmission and Distribution division, Major contracts, The principal sites of the AREVA group, AREVA's customers and suppliers, Sustainable Development and Continuous Improvement, Capital spending programs, Research and development programs, intellectual property and trademarks, Risk and insurance; - 5 Assets - Financial position - Financial performance: Analysis of and comments on the group's financial position and performance, 2006 Human Resources Report, Environmental Report, Consolidated financial statements, Notes to the consolidated financial statements, AREVA SA financial statements, Notes to the corporate financial statements; 6 - Corporate Governance: Composition and functioning of corporate bodies, Executive compensation, Profit-sharing plans, AREVA Values Charter, Annual Combined General Meeting of Shareholders of May 3, 2007; 7 - Recent developments and future prospects: Events subsequent to year-end closing for 2006, Outlook; 8 - Glossary; 9 - Table of concordance

  14. Areva reference document 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This reference document contains information on the AREVA group's objectives, prospects and development strategies, particularly in Chapters 4 and 7. It contains also information on the markets, market shares and competitive position of the AREVA group. Content: 1 - Person responsible for the reference document and persons responsible for auditing the financial statements; 2 - Information pertaining to the transaction (not applicable); 3 - General information on the company and its share capital: Information on Areva, Information on share capital and voting rights, Investment certificate trading, Dividends, Organization chart of AREVA group companies, Equity interests, Shareholders' agreements; 4 - Information on company operations, new developments and future prospects: Overview and strategy of the AREVA group, The Nuclear Power and Transmission and Distribution markets, The energy businesses of the AREVA group, Front End division, Reactors and Services division, Back End division, Transmission and Distribution division, Major contracts 140 Principal sites of the AREVA group, AREVA's customers and suppliers, Sustainable Development and Continuous Improvement, Capital spending programs, Research and Development programs, Intellectual Property and Trademarks, Risk and insurance; 5 - Assets financial position financial performance: Analysis of and comments on the group's financial position and performance, Human Resources report, Environmental report, Consolidated financial statements 2007, Notes to the consolidated financial statements, Annual financial statements 2007, Notes to the corporate financial statements; 6 - Corporate governance: Composition and functioning of corporate bodies, Executive compensation, Profit-sharing plans, AREVA Values Charter, Annual Ordinary General Meeting of Shareholders of April 17, 2008; 7 - Recent developments and future prospects: Events subsequent to year-end closing for 2007, Outlook; Glossary; table of concordance

  15. Load power device, system and method of load control and management employing load identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Luebke, Charles John; Schoepf, Thomas J.

    2018-01-09

    A load power device includes a power input, at least one power output for at least one load, a plurality of sensors structured to sense voltage and current at the at least one power output, and a processor. The processor provides: (a) load identification based upon the sensed voltage and current, and (b) load control and management based upon the load identification.

  16. Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heffner, Grayson; Goldman, Charles; Kintner-Meyer, Michael

    2007-05-01

    In this study, we examine the arrangements for and experiences of end-use loads providing ancillary services (AS) in five electricity markets: Australia, the United Kingdom (UK), the Nordic market, and the ERCOT and PJM markets in the United States. Our objective in undertaking this review of international experience was to identify specific approaches or market designs that have enabled customer loads to effectively deliver various ancillary services (AS) products. We hope that this report will contribute to the ongoing discussion in the U.S. and elsewhere regarding what institutional and technical developments are needed to ensure that customer loads can meaningfully participate in all wholesale electricity markets.

  17. LOW-POWER AC LOADS AND ELECTRICAL POWER QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EPURE S.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with experimental study and numerical simulation of single phase AC low power loads: artificial light sources, personal computers, refrigeration units, air conditioning units and TV receivers. These loads are in such large numbers that represents the main source of disturbances (harmonic current, reactive power and unbalanced three-phase network. The obtained simulation models, verified by comparison with experimental results may be used in larger simulation models for testing and sizing the optimum parameters of active power filters. Models can also be used to study the interactions between grid elements and various loads or situations.

  18. EDF group - Reference Document 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The EDF Group is a leading player in the European energy industry, active in all areas of the electricity value chain, from generation to trading and network management. The leader in the French electricity market, the Group also has solid positions in the United Kingdom, Germany and Italy, with a portfolio of 38.5 million European customers and a generation fleet which is unique in the world. It intends to play a major role in the global revival of nuclear and is increasingly active in the gas chain. The Group has a sound business model, evenly balanced between regulated and deregulated activities. Given its R and D capability, its track record and expertise in nuclear, fossil-fired and hydro generation and in renewable energies, together with its energy eco-efficiency offers, EDF is well placed to deliver competitive solutions to reconcile sustainable economic growth and climate preservation. This document is EDF Group's Reference Document and Annual Financial Report for the year 2007. It contains information about Group profile, governance, business, investments, property, plant and equipment, management, financial position, human resources, shareholders, etc. The document includes the 2008 half-year financial report and consolidated financial statements, and the report drafted by the Statutory Auditors

  19. Interface unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyson, D.V.; Freudenthal, A.; De Hoogh, M.P.A.; Dekoven, E.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The invention relates to an interface unit comprising at least a display unit for communication with a user, which is designed for being coupled with a control unit for at least one or more parameters in a living or working environment, such as the temperature setting in a house, which control unit

  20. Estimates of diagnostic reference levels for common radiographic x-ray examinations in some sudanese hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awad, Ezdehar Mohammed Satti.

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study were to estimate patient dose in some common diagnostic x-ray examinations in Sudan with the aim to propose national diagnostic reference levels (DRLs). Radiation doses were estimated for the patients in 23 public hospitals in different town in Sudan (Wad-Madani, Kasala, Atbara Al obaid, Al nhod, Khartoum). Entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) was estimated in a three steps protocol: First, x-ray unit output Y (d) was measured at a distance at a distance (d) for different peak tube voltages and tube loading (mAs). Next, incident air kerma (k) was calculated from Y (d) using inverse square law combined with patient exposure factors. ESAK was calculated from k using backscatter factor, B. Mean ESAK values were comparable to those reported in other countries and are below reference dose levels. The estimated mean ESAK values were: 0.4, 1.9, 1.8, 3.2, 2.4, 3.5, and 8.4 mGy for chests . The estimated mean ESAK values were 0.4, 1.9, 1.8, 3.2, 2.4, 3,5, and 8.4 mGy for chest PA, Skull AP/PA, Skull LAT, Abdomen Pelvis AP, Lumber Spine AP and Lumber Spine LAT examination respectively. The results are used for dose optimization and to propose national diagnostic reference levels. (Author)

  1. Transient analysis of house load operation for LNPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Junying; Zheng Bin

    2000-01-01

    The author analysis the transient of house load operation for Ling'ao Nuclear Power Plant by using the methods of dynamic simulation and closed loops of primary and secondary system. The transient of house load operation from 100% FP is the most severe that can occur on the unit in normal operation because it causes immediately shedding of 95% of turbine load and requires the unit to operate steadily at reduced power. The results show that the transient can be successful both at beginning of core life and manual house load operation. However, more attentions must be paid to automatic house load operation caused by grid fault at toward end of core life because the success of the transient could be threatened by the actuation of the protection of high flux and high flux rate

  2. AREVA - 2012 Reference document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-03-01

    After a presentation of the person responsible for this Reference Document, of statutory auditors, and of a summary of financial information, this report address the different risk factors: risk management and coverage, legal risk, industrial and environmental risk, operational risk, risk related to major projects, liquidity and market risk, and other risks (related to political and economic conditions, to Group's structure, and to human resources). The next parts propose information about the issuer, a business overview (markets for nuclear power and renewable energies, customers and suppliers, group's strategy, operations), a brief presentation of the organizational structure, a presentation of properties, plants and equipment (principal sites, environmental issues which may affect these items), analysis and comments on the group's financial position and performance, a presentation of capital resources, a presentation of research and development activities (programs, patents and licenses), a brief description of financial objectives and profit forecasts or estimates, a presentation of administration, management and supervision bodies, a description of the operation of corporate bodies, an overview of personnel, of principal shareholders, and of transactions with related parties, a more detailed presentation of financial information concerning assets, financial positions and financial performance. Addition information regarding share capital is given, as well as an indication of major contracts, third party information, available documents, and information on holdings

  3. Reference thorium fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driggers, F.E.

    1978-08-01

    In the reference fuel cycle for the TFCT program, fissile U will be denatured by mixing with 238 U; the plants will be located in secure areas, with Pu being recycled within these secure areas; Th will be recycled with recovered U and Pu; the head end will handle a variety of core and blanket fuel assembly designs for LWRs and HWRs; the fuel may be a homogeneous mixture either of U and Th oxide pellets or sol-gel microspheres; the cladding will be Zircaloy; and MgO may be added to the fuel to improve Th dissolution. Th is being considered as the fertile component of fuel in order to increase proliferation resistance. Spent U recovered from Th-based fuels must be re-enriched before recycle to prevent very rapid buildup of 238 U. Stainless steel will be considered as a backup to Zircaloy cladding in case Zr is incompatible with commercial aqueous dissolution. Storage of recovered irradiated Th will be considered as a backup to its use in the recycle of recovered Pu and U. Estimates are made of the time for introducing the Th fuel cycle into the LWR power industry. Since U fuel exposures in LWRs are likely to increase from 30,000 to 50,000 MWD/MT, the Th reprocessing plant should also be designed for Th fuel with 50,000 MWD/MT exposure

  4. Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cree, Johnathan V.; Dansu, A.; Fuhr, P.; Lanzisera, Steven M.; McIntyre, T.; Muehleisen, Ralph T.; Starke, M.; Banerjee, Pranab; Kuruganti, T.; Castello, C.

    2013-04-01

    The Buildings Technologies Office (BTO), within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), is initiating a new program in Sensor and Controls. The vision of this program is: • Buildings operating automatically and continuously at peak energy efficiency over their lifetimes and interoperating effectively with the electric power grid. • Buildings that are self-configuring, self-commissioning, self-learning, self-diagnosing, self-healing, and self-transacting to enable continuous peak performance. • Lower overall building operating costs and higher asset valuation. The overarching goal is to capture 30% energy savings by enhanced management of energy consuming assets and systems through development of cost-effective sensors and controls. One step in achieving this vision is the publication of this Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide. The purpose of the guide is to inform building owners and operators of the current status, capabilities, and limitations of sensor technologies. It is hoped that this guide will aid in the design and procurement process and result in successful implementation of building sensor and control systems. DOE will also use this guide to identify research priorities, develop future specifications for potential market adoption, and provide market clarity through unbiased information

  5. Free Material Design with Multiple Load Cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pauli; Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2012-01-01

    Multiple load cases and the consideration of strength is a reality that most structural designs are exposed to. Improved possibility to produce specific materials, say by fiber lay-up, put focus on research on free material optimization. A formulation for such design problems together with a prac......Multiple load cases and the consideration of strength is a reality that most structural designs are exposed to. Improved possibility to produce specific materials, say by fiber lay-up, put focus on research on free material optimization. A formulation for such design problems together...... with a practical recursive design procedure is presented and illustrated with examples. The presented finite element analysis involve many elements as well as many load cases. Separating the local amount of material from a description with unit trace for the local anisotropy, gives the free materials formulation...... a more physical interpretation of the material constraint....

  6. Replacement divider plate performance under LOCA loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huynk, H.M.; MClellan, G.H.; Schneider, W.G.

    1997-01-01

    A primary divider plate in a nuclear steam generator is required to perform its partitioning function with a minimum of cross leakage, without degradation in operating performance and without loss of structural integrity resulting from normal and accident loading. The design of the replacement divider plate for normal operating conditions is discussed in some detail in reference 1 and 2. This paper describes the structural response of the replacement divider plate to the severe loading resulting from a burst primary pipe. The loads for which the divider plate structural performance must be evaluated are mild to severe differential pressure transients resulting from several postulated sizes and types of pipe break scenarios. In the unlikely event of a severe Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) the divider plate or parts thereof must not exit the steam generator nor completely block the outlet nozzle. For the milder LOCA loads, the integrity of the divider plate and seat bars must be maintained. Analysis for the milder LOCA loads was carried out employing a conservative approach which ignores the actual interaction between the structure and the primary fluid. For these load cases it was shown that the divider plate does not become disengaged from the seat bars. For the more severe pipe breaks, the thermal-hydraulic analysis was coupled iteratively with the structural analysis, thereby taking into account divider plate deformation, in order to obtain a better prediction of the behaviour of the divider plate. In this manner substantial reduction in divider plate response to the more severe LOCA loading was achieved. It has been shown that, for the case of a postulated large LOCA (100% reactor inlet header), the disengagement of the divider plate from the seat bars resulted in an opening smaller than 1% of the divider plate area. (author)

  7. ENRAF gauge reference level calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, J.H., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-06

    This document describes the method for calculating reference levels for Enraf Series 854 Level Detectors as installed in the tank farms. The reference level calculation for each installed level gauge is contained herein.

  8. Global Reference Tables Services Architecture

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This database stores the reference and transactional data used to provide a data-driven service access method to certain Global Reference Table (GRT) service tables.

  9. Genetics Home Reference: PURA syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... TJ, Vreeburg M, Rouhl RPW, Stevens SJC, Stegmann APA, Schieving J, Pfundt R, van Dijk K, Smeets ... article on PubMed Central More from Genetics Home Reference Bulletins Genetics Home Reference Celebrates Its 15th Anniversary ...

  10. Areva - 2014 Reference document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Areva supplies high added-value products and services to support the operation of the global nuclear fleet. The company is present throughout the entire nuclear cycle, from uranium mining to used fuel recycling, including nuclear reactor design and operating services. Areva is recognized by utilities around the world for its expertise, its skills in cutting-edge technologies and its dedication to the highest level of safety. Areva's 44,000 employees are helping build tomorrow's energy model: supplying ever safer, cleaner and more economical energy to the greatest number of people. This Reference Document contains information on Areva's objectives, prospects and development strategies. It contains estimates of the markets, market shares and competitive position of Areva. Contents: 1 - Person responsible; 2 - Statutory auditors; 3 - Selected financial information; 4 - Risk factors; 5 - Information about the issuer; 6 - Business overview; 7 - Organizational structure; 8 - Property, plant and equipment; 9 - Analysis of and comments on the group's financial position and performance; 10 - Capital resources; 11 - Research and development programs, patents and licenses; 12 - Trend information; 13 - Profit forecasts; 14 - Administrative, management and supervisory bodies and senior management; 15 - Compensation and benefits; 16 - Functioning of administrative, management and supervisory bodies and senior management; 17 - Employees; 18 - Principal shareholders; 19 - Transactions with related parties; 20 - Financial information concerning assets, financial positions and financial performance; 21 - Additional information; 22 - Major contracts; 23 - Third party information, statements by experts and declarations of interest; 24 - Documents on display; 25 - information on holdings; appendix: Report of the Chairman of the Board of Directors on governance, internal control procedures and risk management, Statutory Auditors' report, Corporate social

  11. Application of 80-kVp scan and raw data-based iterative reconstruction for reduced iodine load abdominal-pelvic CT in patients at risk of contrast-induced nephropathy referred for oncological assessment: effects on radiation dose, image quality and renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, Yasunori; Tanoue, Shota; Tsuji, Akinori; Urata, Joji; Furusawa, Mitsuhiro; Oda, Seitaro; Nakaura, Takeshi; Utsunomiya, Daisuke; Yoshida, Eri; Yoshida, Morikatsu; Kidoh, Masafumi; Tateishi, Machiko; Yamashita, Yasuyuki

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate the image quality, radiation dose, and renal safety of contrast medium (CM)-reduced abdominal-pelvic CT combining 80-kVp and sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE) in patients with renal dysfunction for oncological assessment. We included 45 patients with renal dysfunction (estimated glomerular filtration rate  60 ml per lmin per 1.73 m 2 ) who underwent standard oncological abdominal-pelvic CT (600 mgI kg -1 , 120-kVp, filtered-back projection) were included as controls. CT attenuation, image noise, and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were compared. Two observers performed subjective image analysis on a 4-point scale. Size-specific dose estimate and renal function 1-3 months after CT were measured. The size-specific dose estimate and iodine load of 80-kVp protocol were 32 and 41%,, respectively, lower than of 120-kVp protocol (p 0.05). No significant kidney injury associated with CM administration was observed. 80-kVp abdominal-pelvic CT with SAFIRE yields diagnostic image quality in oncology patients with renal dysfunction under substantially reduced iodine and radiation dose without renal safety concerns. Advances in knowledge: Using 80-kVp and SAFIRE allows for 40% iodine load and 32% radiation dose reduction for abdominal-pelvic CT without compromising image quality and renal function in oncology patients at risk of contrast-induced nephropathy.

  12. Kerlinger's Criterial Referents Theory Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Itai; Birenbaum, Menucha

    1980-01-01

    Kerlinger's criterial referents theory of attitudes was tested cross-culturally by administering an education attitude referents summated-rating scale to 713 individuals in Israel. The response pattern to criterial and noncriterial referents was examined. Results indicated empirical cross-cultural validity of theory, but questioned measuring…

  13. Fundamentals of Managing Reference Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Carol A.

    2012-01-01

    Whether a library's reference collection is large or small, it needs constant attention. Singer's book offers information and insight on best practices for reference collection management, no matter the size, and shows why managing without a plan is a recipe for clutter and confusion. In this very practical guide, reference librarians will learn:…

  14. Knowledge Management and Reference Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Smiti

    2004-01-01

    Many corporations are embracing knowledge management (KM) to capture the intellectual capital of their employees. This article focuses on KM applications for reference work in libraries. It defines key concepts of KM, establishes a need for KM for reference services, and reviews various KM initiatives for reference services.

  15. Ocean Tide Loading Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Duncan Carr

    2005-01-01

    September 15,2003 through May 15,2005 This grant funds the maintenance, updating, and distribution of programs for computing ocean tide loading, to enable the corrections for such loading to be more widely applied in space- geodetic and gravity measurements. These programs, developed under funding from the CDP and DOSE programs, incorporate the most recent global tidal models developed from Topex/Poscidon data, and also local tide models for regions around North America; the design of the algorithm and software makes it straightforward to combine local and global models.

  16. DYNAMIC LOAD DAMPER MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loktev Aleksey Alekseevich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors present their findings associated with their modeling of a dynamic load damper. According to the authors, the damper is to be installed onto a structure or its element that may be exposed to impact, vibration or any other dynamic loading. The damper is composed of paralleled or consecutively connected viscous and elastic elements. The authors study the influence of viscosity and elasticity parameters of the damper produced onto the regular displacement of points of the structure to be protected and onto the regular acceleration transmitted immediately from the damper to the elements positioned below it.

  17. Deflections and Strains in Cracked Shafts due to Rotating Loads: A Numerical and Experimental Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bachschmid

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the deflections of a circular cross-section beam presenting a transverse crack of different depths, due to different loads (bending, torsion, shear, and axial loads, are analyzed with the aid of a rather refined 3-D model, which takes into account the nonlinear contact forces in the cracked area. The bending and shear loads are applied in several different angular positions, in order to simulate a rotating load on a fixed beam, or, by changing the reference system, a fixed load on a rotating beam. Torsion and axial loads are instead fixed with respect to the beam.

  18. Deflections and Strains in Cracked Shafts Due to Rotating Loads: A Numerical and Experimental Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolò Bachschmid

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the deflections of a circular cross-section beam presenting a transverse crack of varying depths caused by various loads (bending, torsion, shear, and axial loads are analyzed with the aid of a rather refined three-dimensional model that takes into account the nonlinear contact forces in the cracked area. The bending and shear loads are applied in several different angular positions in order to simulate a rotating load on a fixed beam or, by changing the reference system, a fixed load on a rotating beam. Torsion and axial loads are fixed with respect to the beam.

  19. Lateral loadings on snubber assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raphael, L.S.

    1981-01-01

    This paper examines the installation of snubber assemblies in power plants with respect to transverse or lateral loads as well as axial loads. Evaluation of the effects of low level, lateral loads was performed by analytical means. At higher loadings, the snubber assembly could no longer be treated as a column; therefore, the effects of lateral loadings was determined by test. The test consisted of applying both lateral and axial loads simultaneously. Results of both the analysis and the test showed that the application of lateral loads had a considerable effect on the snubber assemblies

  20. Fine scale vegetation classification and fuel load mapping for prescribed burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew D. Bailey; Robert Mickler

    2007-01-01

    Fire managers in the Coastal Plain of the Southeastern United States use prescribed burning as a tool to reduce fuel loads in a variety of vegetation types, many of which have elevated fuel loads due to a history of fire suppression. While standardized fuel models are useful in prescribed burn planning, those models do not quantify site-specific fuel loads that reflect...

  1. Low-Load Space Conditioning Needs Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puttagunta, Srikanth [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2015-05-01

    With limited low-load options in the HVAC market, many new-construction housing units are being fitted with oversized equipment - thus facing penalties in system efficiency, comfort, and cost. To bridge the gap between currently available HVAC equipment and the rising demand for low-load HVAC equipment in the marketplace, HVAC equipment manufacturers need to be fully aware of multifamily buildings and single-family homes market needs. Over the past decade, Steven Winter Associates, Inc. (SWA) has provided certification and consulting services on hundreds of housing projects and has accrued a large pool of data. CARB compiled and analyzed these data to see what the thermal load ranges are in various multifamily apartments and attached single-family home types (duplex and townhouse). In total, design loads from 941 dwellings from SWA's recent multifamily and attached single-family work across the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic were analyzed. Information on the dwelling characteristics, design loads, and the specifications of installed mechanical equipment were analyzed to determine any trends that exist within the dataset.

  2. Loading pattern optimization with maximum utilization of discharging fuel employing adaptively constrained discontinuous penalty function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, T. K.; Joo, H. G.; Kim, C. H.

    2010-01-01

    In order to find the most economical loading pattern (LP) considering multi-cycle fuel loading, multi-objective fuel LP optimization problems are examined by employing an adaptively constrained discontinuous penalty function (ACDPF) method. This is an improved method to simplify the complicated acceptance logic of the original DPF method in that the stochastic effects caused by the different random number sequence can be reduced. The effectiveness of the multi-objective simulated annealing (SA) algorithm employing ACDPF is examined for the reload core LP of Cycle 4 of Yonggwang Nuclear Unit 4. Several optimization runs are performed with different numbers of objectives consisting of cycle length and average burnup of fuels to be discharged or reloaded. The candidate LPs obtained from the multi-objective optimization runs turn out to be better than the reference LP in the aspects of cycle length and utilization of given fuels. It is note that the proposed ACDPF based MOSA algorithm can be a practical method to obtain an economical LP considering multi-cycle fuel loading. (authors)

  3. Fuel Load (FL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan C. Lutes; Robert E. Keane

    2006-01-01

    The Fuel Load method (FL) is used to sample dead and down woody debris, determine depth of the duff/ litter profile, estimate the proportion of litter in the profile, and estimate total vegetative cover and dead vegetative cover. Down woody debris (DWD) is sampled using the planar intercept technique based on the methodology developed by Brown (1974). Pieces of dead...

  4. HIV Viral Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PF4 Antibody Hepatitis A Testing Hepatitis B Testing Hepatitis C Testing HER2/neu Herpes Testing High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Testing, Genotypic HIV Viral Load HLA Testing HLA- ...

  5. Loading device for incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hempelmann, W.

    1983-01-01

    An incinerator for radioactive waste is described. Heat radiation from the incinerator into the loading device is reduced by the design of the slider with a ceramic plate and the conical widening of the pot, and also by fixing a metal plate between the pot and the floor. (PW) [de

  6. EQUATING FACULTY LOADS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OOSTING, KENNETH W.

    AT ALPENA COMMUNITY COLLEGE, A NORMAL TEACHING LOAD FOR ANY FACULTY MEMBER IS 14-16 SEMESTER HOURS, WITH 75-125 STUDENTS AND 2-3 PREPARATIONS. VARIATIONS FROM THE SCHEDULE ARE IN ACCORDANCE WITH SPECIFIC FORMULAS RELATING TO TOTAL MEMBERS OF STUDENTS, NUMBERS OF PREPARATIONS, ASSIGNMENT TO ENGLISH COMPOSITION CLASSES, NEW COURSES, AND CLASSES…

  7. Probabilistic Load Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Peiyuan; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of the probabilistic load flow (PLF) techniques. Applications of the PLF techniques in different areas of power system steady-state analysis are also discussed. The purpose of the review is to identify different available PLF techniques and their corresponding...

  8. Duration of load revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmeyer, Preben; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2007-01-01

    A duration of load study representing 13 years of testing was recently terminated. Preliminary results have been published over the years. This paper represents the final account of the study, which was focused on the influ-ence of moisture content on time to failure for structural timber subject...

  9. Robust surgery loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hans, Elias W.; Wullink, Gerhard; van Houdenhoven, Mark; Kazemier, Geert

    2008-01-01

    We consider the robust surgery loading problem for a hospital’s operating theatre department, which concerns assigning surgeries and sufficient planned slack to operating room days. The objective is to maximize capacity utilization and minimize the risk of overtime, and thus cancelled patients. This

  10. Temoporfin-loaded liposomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuntsche, Judith; Freisleben, Ines; Steiniger, Frank

    2010-01-01

    . In contrast, if phospholipids with longer fatty acid chains (distearoylphosphatidylcholine/-glycerol) were used, phase transitions were well above body temperature even at high drug load. Size and thermal behavior were not distinctly influenced by the addition of pegylated lipids but cryo-electron microscopic...

  11. EDF group - Reference Document 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The EDF Group is an integrated energy supplier operating in a wide range of electricity-related businesses: generation, transmission, distribution, sale and trading of energy. It is the main operator in the French electricity market and holds strong positions in the other three principal European markets (Germany, the United Kingdom, Italy) making it one of the leading electricity groups in Europe, and a recognized actor in the gas market. With an installed capacity of 123.7 GW in Europe (128.2 GW worldwide) it holds, among the major European energy specialists, the largest production fleet and the one emitting the least CO 2 , owing to the share of nuclear technology and hydropower in its generation mix. The EDF group supplies electricity, gas and associated services to more than 37.8 million customers throughout the world and in Europe (more than 28 million of whom are in France). The EDF Group has built a business model balanced between France and the international markets, and between deregulated and regulated operations. In 2006, the Group recorded consolidated sales of euros 58,932 million, net income (Group share) of euros 5,605 million, and it achieved earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization of euros 13,930 million. From July 1, 2007, the EDF group will carry out its trading activities in a European energy market fully open to competition. This document is EDF Group's Reference Document for the year 2006. It contains information about: the Group activities, risk factors, Business overview, Organizational structure, Property, plants and equipment, Operating and financial review, Capital resources and cash flows, Research and Development, Patents and Licenses, Trend information, Financial forecasts or estimates, Administrative, management and supervisory bodies and senior management, Remuneration and benefits, Board practices, Employees/Human resources, Major shareholders, Related party transactions, Financial information

  12. Distribution load forecast with interactive correction of horizon loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glamochanin, V.; Andonov, D.; Gagovski, I.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the interactive distribution load forecast application that performs the distribution load forecast with interactive correction of horizon loads. It consists of two major parts implemented in Fortran and Visual Basic. The Fortran part is used for the forecasts computations. It consists of two methods: Load Transfer Coupling Curve Fitting (LTCCF) and load Forecast Using Curve Shape Clustering (FUCSC). LTCCF is used to 'correct' the contaminated data because of load transfer among neighboring distribution areas. FUCSC uses curve shape clustering to forecast the distribution loads of small areas. The forecast for each small area is achieved by using the shape of corresponding cluster curve. The comparison of forecasted loads of the area with historical data will be used as a tool for the correction of the estimated horizon load. The Visual Basic part is used to provide flexible interactive user-friendly environment. (author). 5 refs., 3 figs

  13. Load research manual. Volume 1. Load research procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandenburg, L.; Clarkson, G.; Grund, Jr., C.; Leo, J.; Asbury, J.; Brandon-Brown, F.; Derderian, H.; Mueller, R.; Swaroop, R.

    1980-11-01

    This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. In Volumes 1 and 2, procedures are suggested for determining data requirements for load research, establishing the size and customer composition of a load survey sample, selecting and using equipment to record customer electricity usage, processing data tapes from the recording equipment, and analyzing the data. Statistical techniques used in customer sampling are discussed in detail. The costs of load research also are estimated, and ongoing load research programs at three utilities are described. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms.

  14. Comparison of loads for wind turbine down-regulation strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jiangsheng; Ma, Kuichao; N. Soltani, Mohsen

    2017-01-01

    For wind farm active power setpoint tracking, both farm level and turbine level down regulation strategies should to be optimized. Several down regulation strategies are chosen to analyse the wind turbine load performance according to different wind speed and power reference. In this paper we...... suggest appropriate down regulation strategy to control wind turbine for active power reference tracking. we compare four different control strategies, namely Const-Ω, Const-λ, Max-Ω and Min-Ct and discuss the loads on main components and downwind speed by presenting analysis of several wind scenarios...

  15. Laguna Verde annulus pressurization loads evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda, M. A.; Cruz, M. A.; Cardenas, J. B.; Vargas, A.; Cruz, H. J.; Mercado, J. J.

    2010-10-01

    Annulus pressurization, jet impingement, pipe whip restraint and jet thrust are phenomena related to postulated pipe ruptures. A postulated pipe rupture at the weld between recirculation, or feedwater piping and a reactor nozzle safe end, will lead to a high flow rate of flashing water/steam mixture into the annulus between the reactor pressure vessel and the biological shield wall. The total effect of the vessel and pipe inventory blowdown from the break being postulated must be accounted for in the evaluation. A recirculation line break will give rise to an angular dependent short term pressure differential around the vessel, followed by a longer term pressure buildup in the annulus. A recirculation line postulated rupture may not produce worst case conditions and reference to time intervals for only the recirculation break should be treated superficially. A postulated rupture of the feedwater piping may produce the extreme case for determining: 1) the shield wall and reactor vessel to pedestal interactions, 2) loading on the reactor vessel internals, or 3) responses for the balance of piping attached to the vessel. Recently it was identified a potential issue regarding the criteria used to determine which cases were evaluated for Annulus Pressurization (A P) loads for new loads plants. The original A P loads methodology in the late 1970 and early 1980 years separated the mass/energy release calculation from the structural response calculation based on the implicit assumption that the maximum overall mass/energy release will result in maximizing the structural response and corresponding stresses on the reactor pressure vessel, internals, and containment structures. This process did not consider the dynamic response in the primary and secondary safety related structures, components and equipment. Consequently, the A P loads used as input for design adequacy evaluations of Nuclear Steam Supply System safety related components for new loads plants might have

  16. Load alleviation of wind turbines by yaw misalignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Knud Abildgaard; Hansen, Morten Hartvig

    2014-01-01

    Vertical wind shear is one of the dominating causes of load variations on the blades of a horizontal axis wind turbine. To alleviate the varying loads, wind turbine control systems have been augmented with sensors and actuators for individual pitch control. However, the loads caused by a vertical...... wind shear can also be affected through yaw misalignment. Recent studies of yaw control have been focused on improving the yaw alignment to increase the power capture at below rated wind speeds. In this study, the potential of alleviating blade load variations induced by the wind shear through yaw...... misalignment is assessed. The study is performed through simulations of a reference turbine. The study shows that optimal yaw misalignment angles for minimizing the blade load variations can be identified for both deterministic and turbulent inflows. It is shown that the optimal yaw misalignment angles can...

  17. Load theory behind the wheel; perceptual and cognitive load effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Gillian; Greene, Ciara M

    2017-09-01

    Perceptual Load Theory has been proposed as a resolution to the longstanding early versus late selection debate in cognitive psychology. There is much evidence in support of Load Theory but very few applied studies, despite the potential for the model to shed light on everyday attention and distraction. Using a driving simulator, the effect of perceptual and cognitive load on drivers' visual search was assessed. The findings were largely in line with Load Theory, with reduced distractor processing under high perceptual load, but increased distractor processing under high cognitive load. The effect of load on driving behaviour was also analysed, with significant differences in driving behaviour under perceptual and cognitive load. In addition, the effect of perceptual load on drivers' levels of awareness was investigated. High perceptual load significantly increased inattentional blindness and deafness, for stimuli that were both relevant and irrelevant to driving. High perceptual load also increased RTs to hazards. The current study helps to advance Load Theory by illustrating its usefulness outside of traditional paradigms. There are also applied implications for driver safety and roadway design, as the current study suggests that perceptual and cognitive load are important factors in driver attention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Load handling gripper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holloway, C.

    1982-01-01

    An apparatus for releasably engaging and moving workpieces comprises pivotable gripper jaws with a spring-loaded plunger to maintain the jaws in a closed condition. The plunger is slidable in a bore in a housing and the end of the plunger remote from the jaws cooperates with a blind end of the bore to provide a gas cushion. A rod in conjunction with a backplate (not shown) are provided to cause the jaws to open and release a workpiece on axial movement of the housing in a first direction through a predetermined distance and releasable locking means maintain the jaws in an open condition. On axial movement of the housing in the reverse direction the locking means are released to allow the spring-loaded plunger to return to a position to close to jaws. (author)

  19. Heavy-Load Lifting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloomquist, Kira; Oturai, Peter; Steele, Megan L

    2018-01-01

    of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal....... repetition maximum (RM), two sets of 15-20 repetitions) and heavy-load (85-90% 1RM, three sets of 5-8 repetition) upper-extremity resistance exercise separated by a one-week wash-out period. Swelling was determined by bioimpedance spectroscopy and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, with breast cancer......-related lymphedema symptoms (heaviness, swelling, pain, tightness) reported using a numeric rating scale (0-10). Order of low- versus heavy-load was randomized. All outcomes were assessed pre-, immediately post-, and 24- and 72-hours post-exercise. Generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate changes over...

  20. User Preferences in Reference Services: Virtual Reference and Academic Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Joel; Cummings, Lara; Frederiksen, Linda

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the use of chat in an academic library's user population and where virtual reference services might fit within the spectrum of public services offered by academic libraries. Using questionnaires, this research demonstrates that many within the academic community are open to the idea of chat-based reference or using chat for…

  1. Photovoltaic power converter system with a controller configured to actively compensate load harmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rooij, Michael Andrew; Steigerwald, Robert Louis; Delgado, Eladio Clemente

    2008-12-16

    Photovoltaic power converter system including a controller configured to reduce load harmonics is provided. The system comprises a photovoltaic array and an inverter electrically coupled to the array to generate an output current for energizing a load connected to the inverter and to a mains grid supply voltage. The system further comprises a controller including a first circuit coupled to receive a load current to measure a harmonic current in the load current. The controller includes a second circuit to generate a fundamental reference drawn by the load. The controller further includes a third circuit for combining the measured harmonic current and the fundamental reference to generate a command output signal for generating the output current for energizing the load connected to the inverter. The photovoltaic system may be configured to compensate harmonic currents that may be drawn by the load.

  2. Java for dummies quick reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, Doug

    2012-01-01

    A reference that answers your questions as you move through your coding The demand for Android programming and web apps continues to grow at an unprecedented pace and Java is the preferred language for both. Java For Dummies Quick Reference keeps you moving through your coding while you solve a problem, look up a command or syntax, or search for a programming tip. Whether you're a Java newbie or a seasoned user, this fast reference offers you quick access to solutions without requiring that you wade through pages of tutorial material. Leverages the true reference format that is organized with

  3. Fuel element loading system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arya, S.P; s.

    1978-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element loading system is described which conveys a plurality of fuel rods to longitudinal passages in fuel elements. Conveyor means successively position the fuel rods above the longitudinal passages in axial alignment therewith and adapter means guide the fuel rods from the conveyor means into the longitudinal passages. The fuel elements are vibrated to cause the fuel rods to fall into the longitudinal passages through the adapter means

  4. TFTR generator load assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heck, F.M.

    1975-10-01

    Typical experimental load demands on the TFTR generators are illustrated based on the electrical characteristics of the field coils, the coil leads, the main bus work, the various auxiliary bus work, the rectifiers, and transformers. The generator MW capacities are shown to be adequate for the proposed experimental operations with allowances made for variations in the final designs. The generator MVA capacities are shown to be adequate provided portions of the TF and EF rectifiers are freewheeled at selected times

  5. Load leveling of the Tohoku Electric Power Co. Development of ice storage cold-water manufacturing unit/solid organic waste treatment equipment using midnight power for cold district; Tohoku Denryoku no fuka heijunka. Kori chikunetsu reisui seizo unit no kaihatsu, shin`ya denryoku riyo kanreichi muke kokei yuki haikibutsu shori sochi no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    An ice storage cold-water manufacturing unit that can manufacture cold water at a stable temperature near 0degC by using midnight power and a solid organic waste treatment facility were developed. The high-speed melting of ice is required to stabilize the cold-water temperature. Therefore, experimental investigation was performed. A piece of flake-shaped ice whose surface area and storage quality are balanced was used. A system that melts ice using the melting tank installed outside an icebox, and a high-speed melting system of ice based on the mixing unit installed in a melting tank were also used together. In the validation test of a prototype for smaller food factories, the following was confirmed. Manufacturing of cold water at about 1degC, amount of cooled water, stability of output water temperature for a change in water temperature, and good storage of ice in an icebox. In the prototype developed for a solid organic waste treatment facility, satisfactory performance was confirmed for following. Temperature in a fermenter when wastes were put, moisture content in a fermenter, pH value, net loss when the refuse of fish is put, and saving of an electricity rate. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Load responsive hydrodynamic bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsi, Manmohan S.; Somogyi, Dezso; Dietle, Lannie L.

    2002-01-01

    A load responsive hydrodynamic bearing is provided in the form of a thrust bearing or journal bearing for supporting, guiding and lubricating a relatively rotatable member to minimize wear thereof responsive to relative rotation under severe load. In the space between spaced relatively rotatable members and in the presence of a liquid or grease lubricant, one or more continuous ring shaped integral generally circular bearing bodies each define at least one dynamic surface and a plurality of support regions. Each of the support regions defines a static surface which is oriented in generally opposed relation with the dynamic surface for contact with one of the relatively rotatable members. A plurality of flexing regions are defined by the generally circular body of the bearing and are integral with and located between adjacent support regions. Each of the flexing regions has a first beam-like element being connected by an integral flexible hinge with one of the support regions and a second beam-like element having an integral flexible hinge connection with an adjacent support region. A least one local weakening geometry of the flexing region is located intermediate the first and second beam-like elements. In response to application of load from one of the relatively rotatable elements to the bearing, the beam-like elements and the local weakening geometry become flexed, causing the dynamic surface to deform and establish a hydrodynamic geometry for wedging lubricant into the dynamic interface.

  7. Design of Dolos Armour Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Liu, Zhou

    1993-01-01

    The slender, complex types of armour units, such as Tetrapods and Dolosse are widely used. Many of the recent failures are such rubble mound breakwaters revealed that there is an imbalance between strength (structural integrity) of the units and the hydraulic stability (resistance to displacements......) of the armour layers. The paper deals only with dolos armour and presents the first design diagrammes and formulae where stresses from static, quasistatic and impact loads are implemented as well as the hydraulic stability. The dolos is treated as a multi shape unit where the thickness can be adjusted...

  8. Solving unit commitment and economic load dispatch problems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2 Department of Electrical Power and Machines, Faculty of engineering, Ain shams ... intricate basic leadership process and it is hard to build up any thorough ... These pre-committed schedules are optimized by BAT algorithm thus .... and the current best location (solution) is x0 which is situated in the wake of looking at.

  9. Conditional load and store in a shared memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumrich, Matthias A; Ohmacht, Martin

    2015-02-03

    A method, system and computer program product for implementing load-reserve and store-conditional instructions in a multi-processor computing system. The computing system includes a multitude of processor units and a shared memory cache, and each of the processor units has access to the memory cache. In one embodiment, the method comprises providing the memory cache with a series of reservation registers, and storing in these registers addresses reserved in the memory cache for the processor units as a result of issuing load-reserve requests. In this embodiment, when one of the processor units makes a request to store data in the memory cache using a store-conditional request, the reservation registers are checked to determine if an address in the memory cache is reserved for that processor unit. If an address in the memory cache is reserved for that processor, the data are stored at this address.

  10. An Optimization Framework for Load and Power Distribution in Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soleimanzadeh, Maryam; Wisniewski, Rafal; Kanev, Stoyan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop a controller for wind farms to optimize the load and power distribution. In this regard, the farm controller calculates the power reference signals for individual wind turbine controllers such that the sum of the power references tracks the power demanded...... by a system operator. Moreover, the reference signals are determined to reduce the load acting on wind turbines at low frequencies. Therefore, a trade-off is made for load and power control, which is formulated as an optimization problem. Afterwards, the optimization problem for the wind farm modeled...

  11. Plastic limit loads for cylindrical shell intersections under combined loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skopinsky, V.N.; Berkov, N.A.; Vogov, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    In this research, applied methods of nonlinear analysis and results of determining the plastic limit loads for shell intersection configurations under combined internal pressure, in-plane moment and out-plane moment loadings are presented. The numerical analysis of shell intersections is performed using the finite element method, geometrically nonlinear shell theory in quadratic approximation and plasticity theory. For determining the load parameter of proportional combined loading, the developed maximum criterion of rate of change of relative plastic work is employed. The graphical results for model of cylindrical shell intersection under different two-parameter combined loadings (as generalized plastic limit load curves) and three-parameter combined loading (as generalized plastic limit load surface) are presented on the assumption that the internal pressure, in-plane moment and out-plane moment loads were applied in a proportional manner. - Highlights: • This paper presents nonlinear two-dimensional FE analysis for shell intersections. • Determining the plastic limit loads under combined loading is considered. • Developed maximum criterion of rate of change of relative plastic work is employed. • Plastic deformation mechanism in shell intersections is discussed. • Results for generalized plastic limit load curves of branch intersection are presented

  12. Unit area control in California forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    William E. Hallin

    1951-01-01

    There is a definite distinction between the basic concept of unit area control and the specific techniques or treatments used for specific units. Unit area control as a term was first used in connection with a cutting trial in the sugar pine-fir type; consequently, many foresters think the term refers merely to the technique used in sugar pine management, This is not...

  13. Generating Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Generating Units are any combination of physically connected generators, reactors, boilers, combustion turbines, and other prime movers operated together to produce...

  14. Dental responsibility loadings and the relative value of dental services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teusner, D N; Ju, X; Brennan, D S

    2017-09-01

    To estimate responsibility loadings for a comprehensive list of dental services, providing a standardized unit of clinical work effort. Dentists (n = 2500) randomly sampled from the Australian Dental Association membership (2011) were randomly assigned to one of 25 panels. Panels were surveyed by questionnaires eliciting responsibility loadings for eight common dental services (core items) and approximately 12 other items unique to that questionnaire. In total, loadings were elicited for 299 items listed in the Australian Dental Schedule 9th Edition. Data were weighted to reflect the age and sex distribution of the workforce. To assess reliability, regression models assessed differences in core item loadings by panel assignment. Estimated loadings were described by reporting the median and mean. Response rate was 37%. Panel composition did not vary by practitioner characteristics. Core item loadings did not vary by panel assignment. Oral surgery and endodontic service areas had the highest proportion (91%) of services with median loadings ≥1.5, followed by prosthodontics (78%), periodontics (76%), orthodontics (63%), restorative (62%) and diagnostic services (31%). Preventive services had median loadings ≤1.25. Dental responsibility loadings estimated by this study can be applied in the development of relative value scales. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.

  15. Moving Reference to the Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlamery, Susan; Coffman, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Explores the possibility of using Web contact center software to offer reference assistance to remote users. Discusses a project by the Metropolitan Cooperative Library System/Santiago Library System consortium to test contact center software and to develop a virtual reference network. (Author/LRW)

  16. Reference vectors in economic choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teycir Abdelghani GOUCHA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the introduction of notion of reference vector paves the way for a combination of classical and social approaches in the framework of referential preferences given by matrix groups. It is shown that individual demand issue from rational decision does not depend on that reference.

  17. "In Your Face" Reference Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipow, Anne Grodzins

    1999-01-01

    Discusses changes in library reference service that have occurred with growing Internet use. Topics include the human factor that is still needed; the nature of reference questions; the goal of user self-sufficiency; the invisible nature of much of librarians' work; and providing real-time, interactive point-of-need service to remote users. (LRW)

  18. Technostress and the Reference Librarian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupersmith, John

    1992-01-01

    Defines "technostress" as the stress experienced by reference librarians who must constantly deal with the demands of new information technology and the changes they produce in the work place. Discussion includes suggested ways in which both organizations and individuals can work to reduce stress. (27 references) (LAE)

  19. Reference Services: A Handmaid's Tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Clare

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of problems in library reference services focuses on the influence of gender roles. A historical overview of gender roles in the development of American librarianship is presented that highlights stereotyped views of and attitudes toward women, which the author suggests still have influences on librarianship today. (17 references) (LRW)

  20. Nutrient and Coliform Loading (NCL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a database of available fecal coliform bacteria, fecal streptococci bacteria, and nutrient loading data. Loading for contaminants other than fecal coliform...

  1. EDF group - Reference Document 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The EDF group is an integrated energy company with a presence in a wide range of electricity-related businesses: generation, transmission, distribution, supply and energy trading. It is France's leading electricity operator and has a strong position in the three other main European markets (Germany, the United Kingdom and Italy), making it one of Europe's leading electrical players as well as a recognized player in the gas industry. With worldwide installed power capacity totaling 136.3 GW as of December 31, 2009 (134.0 GW in Europe) and global energy generation of 618.5 TWh, it has the largest generating capacity of all the major European energy corporations with the lowest level of CO 2 emissions due to the significant proportion of nuclear and hydroelectric power in its generation mix. The EDF group supplies gas, electricity, and associated services to more than 37.9 million customer accounts worldwide (including approximately 27.7 million in France). The EDF group's businesses reflect its adoption of a model aimed at finding the best balance between French and international activities, competitive and regulated operations and based on an upstream-downstream integration. In 2009, the Group's consolidated revenues were euros 66.3 billion, the net income (Group share) was euros 3.9 billion, and earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortization was euros 17.5 billion. This document is EDF Group's Reference Document and Annual Financial Report for the year 2009. It contains information about: the Group activities, risk factors, Business, Organizational structure, Property plant and equipment, Operating and financial review, Capital resources and cash flows, Research and Development, Patents and Licenses, Information on trends, Financial outlook, Administrative, management, and supervisory bodies and senior management, Compensation and benefits, Functioning of the administration and management bodies, Employees/Human resources

  2. Reference costs for power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-12-01

    The first part of the 2003 study of reference costs for power generation has been completed. It was carried out by the General Directorate for Energy and Raw Materials (DGEMP) of the French Ministry of the Economy, Finance and Industry, with the collaboration of power-plant operators, construction firms and many other experts. A Review Committee of experts including economists (Forecasting Department, French Planning Office), qualified public figures, representatives of power-plant construction firms and operators, and non-governmental organization (NGO) experts, was consulted in the final phase. The study examines the costs of power generated by different methods (i.e. nuclear and fossil-fuel [gas-, coal-, and oil-fired] power plants) in the context of an industrial operation beginning in the year 2015. - The second part of the study relating to decentralized production methods (wind, photovoltaic, combined heat and power) is still in progress and will be presented at the beginning of next year. - 1. Study approach: The study is undertaken mainly from an investor's perspective and uses an 8% discount rate to evaluate the expenses and receipts from different years. In addition, the investment costs are considered explicitly in terms of interest during construction. - 2. Plant operating on a full-time basis (year-round): The following graph illustrates the main conclusions of the study for an effective operating period of 8000 hours. It can be seen that nuclear is more competitive than the other production methods for a year-round operation with an 8% discount rate applied to expenses. This competitiveness is even better if the costs related to greenhouse-gas (CO 2 ) emission are taken into account in estimating the MWh cost price. Integrating the costs resulting from CO 2 emissions by non-nuclear fuels (gas, coal), which will be compulsory as of 2004 with the transposition of European directives, increases the total cost per MWh of these power generation methods

  3. Cognitive Load and Strategic Sophistication

    OpenAIRE

    Allred, Sarah; Duffy, Sean; Smith, John

    2013-01-01

    We study the relationship between the cognitive load manipulation and strategic sophistication. The cognitive load manipulation is designed to reduce the subject's cognitive resources that are available for deliberation on a choice. In our experiment, subjects are placed under a large cognitive load (given a difficult number to remember) or a low cognitive load (given a number which is not difficult to remember). Subsequently, the subjects play a one-shot game then they are asked to recall...

  4. Predicting the Response of Electricity Load to Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Patrick [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Colman, Jesse [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kalendra, Eric [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-07-28

    Our purpose is to develop a methodology to quantify the impact of climate change on electric loads in the United States. We perform simple linear regression, assisted by geospatial smoothing, on paired temperature and load time-series to estimate the heating- and coolinginduced sensitivity to temperature across 300 transmission zones and 16 seasonal and diurnal time periods. The estimated load sensitivities can be coupled with climate scenarios to quantify the potential impact of climate change on load, with a primary application being long-term electricity scenarios. The method allows regional and seasonal differences in climate and load response to be reflected in the electricity scenarios. While the immediate product of this analysis was designed to mesh with the spatial and temporal resolution of a specific electricity model to enable climate change scenarios and analysis with that model, we also propose that the process could be applied for other models and purposes.

  5. Research of Impact Load in Large Electrohydraulic Load Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongguang Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The stronger impact load will appear in the initial phase when the large electric cylinder is tested in the hardware-in-loop simulation. In this paper, the mathematical model is built based on AMESim, and then the reason of the impact load is investigated through analyzing the changing tendency of parameters in the simulation results. The inhibition methods of impact load are presented according to the structural invariability principle and applied to the actual system. The final experimental result indicates that the impact load is inhibited, which provides a good experimental condition for the electric cylinder and promotes the study of large load simulator.

  6. Low-Load Space Conditioning Needs Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puttagunta, Srikanth [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2015-05-19

    Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment must be right-sized to ensure energy performance and comfort. With limited low-load options in the HVAC market, many new-construction housing units are being fitted with oversized equipment that creates system efficiency, comfort, and cost penalties. To bridge the gap between currently available HVAC equipment that is oversized or inefficient and the rising demand for low-load HVAC equipment in the marketplace, HVAC equipment manufacturers need to be fully aware of the needs of the multifamily building and attached single-family (duplex and townhouse) home market. Over the past decade, Steven Winter Associates, Inc. (SWA) has provided certification and consulting services for hundreds of housing projects and has accrued a large pool of data that describe multifamily and attached single-family home characteristics. The U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America research team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) compiled and analyzed these data to outline the characteristics of low-load dwellings such as the heating and cooling design loads.

  7. Criticality reference benchmark calculations for burnup credit using spent fuel isotopics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, S.M.

    1991-04-01

    To date, criticality analyses performed in support of the certification of spent fuel casks in the United States do not take credit for the reactivity reduction that results from burnup. By taking credit for the fuel burnup, commonly referred to as ''burnup credit,'' the fuel loading capacity of these casks can be increased. One of the difficulties in implementing burnup credit in criticality analyses is that there have been no critical experiments performed with spent fuel which can be used for computer code validation. In lieu of that, a reference problem set of fresh fuel critical experiments which model various conditions typical of light water reactor (LWR) transportation and storage casks has been identified and used in the validation of SCALE-4. This report documents the use of this same problem set to perform spent fuel criticality benchmark calculations by replacing the actual fresh fuel isotopics from the experiments with six different sets of calculated spent fuel isotopics. The SCALE-4 modules SAS2H and CSAS4 were used to perform the analyses. These calculations do not model actual critical experiments. The calculated k-effectives are not supposed to equal unity and will vary depending on the initial enrichment and burnup of the calculated spent fuel isotopics. 12 refs., 11 tabs

  8. Load Estimation from Modal Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aenlle, Manuel López; Brincker, Rune; Fernández, Pelayo Fernández

    2007-01-01

    In Natural Input Modal Analysis the modal parameters are estimated just from the responses while the loading is not recorded. However, engineers are sometimes interested in knowing some features of the loading acting on a structure. In this paper, a procedure to determine the loading from a FRF m...

  9. Short-term load forecasting of power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaobin

    2017-05-01

    In order to ensure the scientific nature of optimization about power system, it is necessary to improve the load forecasting accuracy. Power system load forecasting is based on accurate statistical data and survey data, starting from the history and current situation of electricity consumption, with a scientific method to predict the future development trend of power load and change the law of science. Short-term load forecasting is the basis of power system operation and analysis, which is of great significance to unit combination, economic dispatch and safety check. Therefore, the load forecasting of the power system is explained in detail in this paper. First, we use the data from 2012 to 2014 to establish the partial least squares model to regression analysis the relationship between daily maximum load, daily minimum load, daily average load and each meteorological factor, and select the highest peak by observing the regression coefficient histogram Day maximum temperature, daily minimum temperature and daily average temperature as the meteorological factors to improve the accuracy of load forecasting indicators. Secondly, in the case of uncertain climate impact, we use the time series model to predict the load data for 2015, respectively, the 2009-2014 load data were sorted out, through the previous six years of the data to forecast the data for this time in 2015. The criterion for the accuracy of the prediction is the average of the standard deviations for the prediction results and average load for the previous six years. Finally, considering the climate effect, we use the BP neural network model to predict the data in 2015, and optimize the forecast results on the basis of the time series model.

  10. Reference Model 2: "Rev 0" Rotor Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barone, Matthew F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Berg, Jonathan Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Griffith, Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2011-12-01

    The preliminary design for a three-bladed cross-flow rotor for a reference marine hydrokinetic turbine is presented. A rotor performance design code is described, along with modifications to the code to allow prediction of blade support strut drag as well as interference between two counter-rotating rotors. The rotor is designed to operate in a reference site corresponding to a riverine environment. Basic rotor performance and rigid-body loads calculations are performed to size the rotor elements and select the operating speed range. The preliminary design is verified with a simple finite element model that provides estimates of bending stresses during operation. A concept for joining the blades and support struts is developed and analyzed with a separate finite element analysis. Rotor mass, production costs, and annual energy capture are estimated in order to allow calculations of system cost-of-energy. Evaluation Only. Created with Aspose.Pdf.Kit. Copyright 2002-2011 Aspose Pty Ltd Evaluation Only. Created with Aspose.Pdf.Kit. Copyright 2002-2011 Aspose Pty Ltd

  11. Light Rotor: The 10-MW reference wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Christian; Bitsche, Robert; Yde, Anders

    2012-01-01

    design show a rather well performing wind turbine both in terms of power and loads, but in the further work towards the final design the challenges in the control needs to be solved and the balance between power performance and loads and between structural performance and mass will be investigated......This paper describes the design of a rotor and a wind turbine for an artificial 10-MW wind turbine carried out in the Light Rotor project. The turbine called the Light Rotor 10-MW Reference Wind Turbine (LR10-MW RWT), is designed with existing methods and techniques and serves as a reference...... like the determination of the specific power and upscaling of the turbine. The design of Iteration #2 of the LR10-MW RWT is carried out in a sequence between aerodynamic rotor design, structural design and aero-servo-elastic design. Each of these topics is described. The results from the Iteration #2...

  12. High loading uranium plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiencek, T.C.; Domagala, R.F.; Thresh, H.R.

    1990-01-01

    Two embodiments of a high uranium fuel plate are disclosed which contain a meat comprising structured uranium compound confined between a pari of diffusion bonded ductile metal cladding plates uniformly covering the meat, the meat hiving a uniform high fuel loading comprising a content of uranium compound greater than about 45 Vol. % at a porosity not greater than about 10 Vol. %. In a first embodiment, the meat is a plurality of parallel wires of uranium compound. In a second embodiment, the meat is a dispersion compact containing uranium compound. The fuel plates are fabricated by a hot isostatic pressing process

  13. Android Fully Loaded

    CERN Document Server

    Huddleston, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Fully loaded with the latest tricks and tips on your new Android! Android smartphones are so hot, they're soaring past iPhones on the sales charts. And the second edition of this muscular little book is equally impressive--it's packed with tips and tricks for getting the very most out of your latest-generation Android device. Start Facebooking and tweeting with your Android mobile, scan barcodes to get pricing and product reviews, download your favorite TV shows--the book is positively bursting with practical and fun how-tos. Topics run the gamut from using speech recognition, location-based m

  14. Spatial electric load forecasting

    CERN Document Server

    Willis, H Lee

    2002-01-01

    Containing 12 new chapters, this second edition contains offers increased-coverage of weather correction and normalization of forecasts, anticipation of redevelopment, determining the validity of announced developments, and minimizing risk from over- or under-planning. It provides specific examples and detailed explanations of key points to consider for both standard and unusual utility forecasting situations, information on new algorithms and concepts in forecasting, a review of forecasting pitfalls and mistakes, case studies depicting challenging forecast environments, and load models illustrating various types of demand.

  15. A fuzzy inference model for short-term load forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamlook, Rustum; Badran, Omar; Abdulhadi, Emad

    2009-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the short-term load forecasting (STLF) in power system operations. It provides load prediction for generation scheduling and unit commitment decisions, and therefore precise load forecasting plays an important role in reducing the generation cost and the spinning reserve capacity. Short-term electricity demand forecasting (i.e., the prediction of hourly loads (demand)) is one of the most important tools by which an electric utility/company plans, dispatches the loading of generating units in order to meet system demand. The accuracy of the dispatching system, which is derived from the accuracy of the forecasting algorithm used, will determine the economics of the operation of the power system. The inaccuracy or large error in the forecast simply means that load matching is not optimized and consequently the generation and transmission systems are not being operated in an efficient manner. In the present study, a proposed methodology has been introduced to decrease the forecasted error and the processing time by using fuzzy logic controller on an hourly base. Therefore, it predicts the effect of different conditional parameters (i.e., weather, time, historical data, and random disturbances) on load forecasting in terms of fuzzy sets during the generation process. These parameters are chosen with respect to their priority and importance. The forecasted values obtained by fuzzy method were compared with the conventionally forecasted ones. The results showed that the STLF of the fuzzy implementation have more accuracy and better outcomes

  16. Long-term monitoring FBG-based cable load sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhichun; Zhou, Zhi; Wang, Chuan; Ou, Jinping

    2006-03-01

    Stay cables are the main load-bearing components of stayed-cable bridges. The cables stress status is an important factor to the stayed-cable bridge structure safety evaluation. So it's very important not only to the bridge construction, but also to the long-term safety evaluation for the bridge structure in-service. The accurate measurement for cable load depends on an effective sensor, especially to meet the long time durability and measurement demand. FBG, for its great advantage of corrosion resistance, absolute measurement, high accuracy, electro-magnetic resistance, quasi-distribution sensing, absolute measurement and so on, is the most promising sensor, which can cater for the cable force monitoring. In this paper, a load sensor has been developed, which is made up of a bushing elastic supporting body, 4 FBGs uniformly-spaced attached outside of the bushing supporting body, and a temperature compensation FBG for other four FBGs, moreover a cover for protection of FBGs. Firstly, the sensor measuring principle is analyzed, and relationship equation of FBG wavelength shifts and extrinsic load has also been gotten. And then the sensor calibration experiments of a steel cable stretching test with the FBG load sensor and a reference electric pressure sensor is finished, and the results shows excellent linearity of extrinsic load and FBG wavelength shifts, and good repeatability, which indicates that such kind of FBG-based load sensor is suitable for load measurement, especially for long-term, real time monitoring of stay-cables.

  17. Generating units performances: power system requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fourment, C; Girard, N; Lefebvre, H

    1994-08-01

    The part of generating units within the power system is more than providing power and energy. Their performance are not only measured by their energy efficiency and availability. Namely, there is a strong interaction between the generating units and the power system. The units are essential components of the system: for a given load profile the frequency variation follows directly from the behaviour of the units and their ability to adapt their power output. In the same way, the voltage at the units terminals are the key points to which the voltage profile at each node of the network is linked through the active and especially the reactive power flows. Therefore, the customer will experience the frequency and voltage variations induced by the units behaviour. Moreover, in case of adverse conditions, if the units do not operate as well as expected or trip, a portion of the system, may be the whole system, may collapse. The limitation of the performance of a unit has two kinds of consequences. Firstly, it may result in an increased amount of not supplied energy or loss of load probability: for example if the primary reserve is not sufficient, a generator tripping may lead to an abnormal frequency deviation, and load may have to be shed to restore the balance. Secondly, the limitation of a unit performance results in an economic over-cost for the system: for instance, if not enough `cheap` units are able to load-following, other units with higher operating costs have to be started up. We would like to stress the interest for the operators and design teams of the units on the one hand, and the operators and design teams of the system on the other hand, of dialog and information exchange, in operation but also at the conception stage, in order to find a satisfactory compromise between the system requirements and the consequences for the generating units. (authors). 11 refs., 4 figs.

  18. References

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    Achinstein, P. 1983. The Nature of Explanation (Oxford: Oxford University Press). Adler, J.E. 1997. ‘Lying, Deceiving, or Falsely Implicating’, The Journal of Philosophy, 94: 435–52. Adler, J.E. 2002. Belief’s Own Ethics (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press). Alicke, M.D., J. Buckingham, E. Zell, & T. Davis. 2008. ‘Culpable Control and Counterfactual Reasoning in the Psychology of Blame’, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34: 1371–78, http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/014616720832159...

  19. References

    OpenAIRE

    2018-01-01

    Aldridge, H., Kenway, P. and Born, T. (2015), ‘What Happened to Poverty Under the Coalition’. New Policy Institute. Armour, R. (2014) ‘Charity Shops Buck Trend’, http://thirdforcenews.org.uk,24 March 2014. Beatty, C. and Fothergill, S. (2016), The Uneven Impact of Welfare Reform. The Financial Losses to Places and People, Centre for Regional and Social Economic Research and Sheffield Hallam University, https://www4.shu.ac.uk/research/cresr/sites/shu.ac.uk/files/welfare-reform-2016_1.pdf Belfi...

  20. References

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Appiah, Kwame Anthony (2005) The Ethics of Identity, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ. ______ (2006). Cosmopolitanism: Ethics in a World of Strangers, Norton, New York. Clarke, Charles (2006) ‛Global Citizens and Quality International Education: Enlarging the Role of the Commonwealth’. Speech delivered to the Royal Commonwealth Society, 15 November, 2006, London. Estlund, Cynthia (2003) Working Together: How Workplace Bonds Strengthen a Diverse Democracy, Oxford University Press, New...