WorldWideScience

Sample records for reference gender-related effects

  1. Effect of enalapril in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats; gender-related difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Zohreh; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi; Eshraghi-Jazi, Fatemeh; Talebi, Ardeshir; Jilanchi, Sima; Navidi, Mitra; Shirdavani, Soheila; Ashrafi, Farzaneh

    2016-01-01

    The function of renin angiotensin system (RAS) is gender-related, and this system affects cisplatin (CP)-induced nephrotoxicity. In this study, we compared the effect of enalapril as an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor on CP-induced nephrotoxicity between male and female rats. Sixty-two adult male and female Wistar rats were divided into eight groups. Both genders received CP (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) and enalapril (30 mg/kg, i.p.) for 7 days in compared with CP alone or enalapril alone or vehicle alone treated groups. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were obtained, and the kidney tissue was investigated for histopathological changes. CP increased the serum levels of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine as well as kidney weight and kidney tissue damage score in both genders (P only enalapril failed to ameliorate the aforementioned parameters in both genders, but also it intensified nephrotoxicity in females (P genders (P gender-dependent RAS response.

  2. Sodium valproate effect on the structure of rat glandule thymus: Gender-related differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valančiūtė, Angelija; Mozuraitė, Raminta; Balnytė, Ingrida; Didžiapetrienė, Janina; Matusevičius, Paulius; Stakišaitis, Donatas

    2015-01-01

    Sodium valproate (VPA) was shown to inhibit cell growth mechanisms such as cell cycle arrest, proliferation suppression, increase of apoptosis. Many aspects of the contribution of the VPA pharmacological mechanisms and their significance in gender-related processes have not been investigated. In our study, we have tested hypothesis that the influence of VPA on thymus weight and structure might be gender-related. The thymus of Wistar rats of both genders aged 8 weeks was investigated in the following groups (n = 6 each): controls, treated with VPA, castrated male and female treated with VPA, and the castrated control of both genders. The thymus weight, structural changes and area of cortical and medullar parts of the gland in slides stained with hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemically were assessed. A comparison of thymus weight of castrated male and of castrated VPA-treated male rats showed a significant thymus weight loss after VPA treatment (0.66 ± 0.04 g vs. 0.43 ± 0.03 g, p 0.05 in females). When castrated male and female rats were treated with VPA, further increase of HC numbers was found. In our study, VPA has inhibited the proliferative capacity of thymocytes by diminishing the thymus weight and inducing a differentiation of thymic medullar epithelial cells into HCs. The diminishing of the gl. thymus weight under the influence of VPA was significant in castrated male rats. The number of HCs increased in animals of both genders under the influence of VPA. Gender differences in HCs development were noted in castrated animals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Inbreeding depression and purging in a haplodiploid: gender-related effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, N S H; Sabelis, M W; Egas, M

    2015-03-01

    Compared with diploid species, haplodiploids suffer less inbreeding depression because male haploidy imposes purifying selection on recessive deleterious alleles. However, alleles of genes only expressed in the diploid females are protected in heterozygous individuals. This leads to the prediction that haplodiploids suffer more from inbreeding effects on life-history traits controlled by genes with female-limited expression. To test this, we used a wild population of the haplodiploid mite Tetranychus urticae. First, negative effects of inbreeding were investigated by comparing maturation rate, juvenile survival, oviposition rate and longevity between lines created by three generations of either outbreeding or mother-son inbreeding. Second, purging through inbreeding was investigated by comparing the intensity of inbreeding depression between outbred families with known inbreeding/outbreeding mating histories. Negative effects of inbreeding and evidence for purging were found for the female trait oviposition rate, but not for juvenile survival and longevity. Both male and female maturation rate were negatively affected by inbreeding, most likely due to maternal effects because inbred offspring of outbred mothers was not affected. These results support the hypothesis that, in haplodiploids inbreeding effects and genetic variation due to deleterious recessive alleles may depend on gender.

  4. Gender-Related Effects of Group Learning on Mathematics Achievement among the Rural Secondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md. Anowar; Tarmizi, Rohani Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Problem Statement: Gender differences in the effects of group learning play a contested role in mathematics education. Several researchers concluded that male students perform better on mathematics than female students. Whilst on the other hand, others reported that female students perform best under the group learning setting whereas the male…

  5. Gender-related effects of contemporary math instruction for low performers on problem solving behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, R.E.; van Lieshout, E.C.D.M.; Verhoeven, L.

    2007-01-01

    Effects of guided (GI) and direct instruction (DI) in solving subtraction problems for mathematically low performers in regular schools were compared. In the GI condition, self-development of solution procedures was encouraged whereas in the DI condition one prescribed strategy was to be used. Forty

  6. Gender-related differences in adolescent hypertension and in target organ effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhász, Mária; Katona, Eva; Settakis, Georgios; Paragh, György; Molnár, Csilla; Fülesdi, Béla; Páll, Dénes

    2010-04-01

    To assess whether a gender difference exists in adolescent hypertension and its target organ damage and to compare potential confounding factors and target organ damage in hypertensive and normotensive adolescent girls. From the Debrecen Hypertension Study, the anthropometric, blood pressure, and laboratory data as well as intima-media thickness (IMT) and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) of 58 hypertensive boys, 56 hypertensive girls, and 30 normotensive girls were analyzed. Both systolic and mean blood pressure values were higher in adolescent hypertensive boys than in girls. This difference was also present when comparing 24-hour average blood pressure values. Plasma concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) and endothelin-1 were not different in the two gender groups. IMT of the carotid arteries were similar in hypertensive boys and girls, but a significantly higher LVMI was detected in boys. A significant difference was detected in anthropometric data (height, weight, and body mass index [BMI]), plasma concentration of NO (lower levels in hypertensives), and IMT in hypertensive and normotensive girls (higher IMT in hypertensive girls). There is a difference between the severity of hypertension between hypertensive adolescent girls and boys. Hypertensive girls differ from normotensive girls not only in blood pressure values but also in risk factors and subclinical target organ effects. Further studies are needed to explain the gender differences in adolescent hypertension. The potential role of sex hormones in hypertensive teenagers also needs to be clarified in future works.

  7. Gender-related effects of vision impairment characteristics on depression in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye Won; Lee, Wanhyung; Yoon, Jin-Ha

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the gender-specific associations between perceived vision impairment and symptoms of depression. We used the data from the 2012 Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging database of 7448 individuals aged 45 years and older. Questionnaires assessing depression symptoms and perceived visual impairment at near, distance, and in general were administered. Logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate if visual impairment could lead to depression, adjusting for the potential confounders of age, socioeconomic status (household income, education level, marital status, and employment status), and health behaviors (alcohol consumption, smoking, and physical activity level) after gender stratification. Perceived general and near vision impairment were significantly associated with symptoms of depression in males (odds ratio [OR] = 2.78 and 2.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.91-4.04 and 1.78-3.63). Perceived general and distance vision impairment were significantly associated with symptoms of depression in females (OR = 2.16 and 2.08; 95% CI, 1.67-2.79 and 1.61-2.69). General sight with near vision impairment in males and general sight with distance vision impairment in females could be stronger predictors of depression than other vision impairment combinations (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUROC], 0.6461; p = 0.0425 in males; AUROC, 0.6270; p = 0.0318 in females). Conclusion Gender differences were found in the characteristics of visual impairment on symptoms of depression. Ophthalmologists should be aware that near vision impairment in males and distance vision impairment in females have an adjunctive effect that might contribute to symptoms of depression.

  8. [Gender relations in the nursing workplace].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ling-Fang

    2011-12-01

    This article is framed on the model of gender relations analysis suggested by sociologist Raewyn Connell, which considers the four gendered dimensions of power relations, division of labor, emotional relations, and symbolism, culture and discourse. Using personal observations and literature references, I discuss gender relations in the nursing workplace. I hope this article will be a useful tool for nurses to analyze gender issues encountered and develop strategies to improve the gender equity in the workplace.

  9. Persistence of Gender Related-Effects on Visuo-Spatial and Verbal Working Memory in Right Brain-Damaged Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccardi, Laura; Matano, Alessandro; D'Antuono, Giovanni; Marin, Dario; Ciurli, Paola; Incoccia, Chiara; Verde, Paola; Guariglia, Paola

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to verify if gender differences in verbal and visuo-spatial working memory would persist following right cerebral lesions. To pursue our aim we investigated a large sample (n. 346) of right brain-damaged patients and healthy participants (n. 272) for the presence of gender effects in performing Corsi and Digit Test. We also assessed a subgroup of patients (n. 109) for the nature (active vs. passive) of working memory tasks. We tested working memory (WM) administering the Corsi Test (CBT) and the Digit Span (DS) using two different versions: forward (fCBT and fDS), subjects were required to repeat stimuli in the same order that they were presented; and backward (bCBT and bDS), subjects were required to repeat stimuli in the opposite order of presentation. In this way, passive storage and active processing of working memory were assessed. Our results showed the persistence of gender-related effects in spite of the presence of right brain lesions. We found that men outperformed women both in CBT and DS, regardless of active and passive processing of verbal and visuo-spatial stimuli. The presence of visuo-spatial disorders (i.e., hemineglect) can affect the performance on Corsi Test. In our sample, men and women were equally affected by hemineglect, therefore it did not mask the gender effect. Generally speaking, the persistence of the men's superiority in visuo-spatial tasks may be interpreted as a protective factor, at least for men, within other life factors such as level of education or kind of profession before retirement.

  10. Gender-related differences in the multi-pathway effect of social determinants on quality of life in older age-the COURAGE in Europe project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Galas, Aleksander; Zawisza, Katarzyna; Chatterji, Somnath; Haro, Josep Maria; Ayuso-Mateos, José Luis; Koskinen, Seppo; Leonardi, Matilde

    2017-07-01

    Gender-related differences in life expectancy, prevalence of chronic conditions and level of disability in the process of ageing have been broadly described. Less is known about social determinants, which may have different impacts on quality of life in men and women. The investigation aims to reveal gender-related differences in social determinants on quality of life assessed by a multi-pathway model including health, social, demographic and living place characteristics. The study group consisted of 5099 participants aged 50+ representing general populations of three different European regions (Finland, Poland, Spain) who participated in COURAGE in EUROPE Project. Standardized tools were used to measure quality of life (WHOQOL-AGE) and social determinants (COURAGE Social Network Index, OSLO-3 Social Support Scale, UCLA Loneliness Scale, participation scale and trust). A multipath model considering exogenous predictors (demographic, economic), mediators (social) and endogenous outcome (QOL) was created to reveal the role of determinants. Gender-related differences were investigated across three age categories: 50-64; 65-79 and 80+. The model (RMSEA = 0.058; CFI = 0.939) showed the effects of all of the investigated determinants. Gender-related differences in the association between social constructs and QOL were observed for social networks in the group of 80+, for social support in the group of 50-64 and 65-79 years, and for social participation in the group of 65-79 years. Males benefited more (in QOL) from social networks and social support, and women from social participation. The research provides valuable knowledge about the role of social determinants in QOL considering complex relations between different social constructs. Additionally, the results showed gender-related differences in the associations between social networks, social support, social participation and QOL, suggesting that men might benefit more from the interventions in the first two

  11. Gender-related beliefs of Turkish female science teachers and their effect on interactions with female and male students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Sibel

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between Turkish female science teachers' gender-related beliefs and those teachers' corresponding interaction with their male and female students. The data was collected from five different sources: Surveys, interviews, observations, chi square data from the observation phase, and interviews with selected teachers. The data was analyzed using the Ericson interpretive method of socio-cultural theories which provided a framework for understanding the development of teacher beliefs and their interactions with their students. In this study, the survey revealed three types of teachers ranging from traditional, moderate to modern. Moderate teachers exhibited characteristics that were on a continuum between the traditional and modern teachers. Traditional teachers believed that males and females should have certain defined roles. Females should be responsible for taking care of the needs of their children and their husbands. By comparison, modern teachers did not assign specific roles to either males or females. With regard to the role of women in science, traditional teachers believed that female scientists could not be as successful as male scientists. By comparison, modern teachers believed that female scientists could be as successful as male scientists. Modern teachers did indicate that they thought females needed to work harder than males to prove themselves. When it came to the teachers' views and beliefs regarding their female and male students' success in their science classrooms, traditional teachers believed that their male students were brighter than their female students. They also believed that female students excelled only because they worked harder. Modern teachers believed that success is dependent on each student's background and his or her interest in science. Classroom observation indicated that traditional and modern teachers interacted differently with their male and female students

  12. Effect of Gender on Students' Emotion with Gender-Related Public Self-Consciousness as a Moderator in Mixed-Gender Physical Education Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Minkwon; Jeon, Hyunsoo; Kwon, Sungho

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates whether gender-related public self-consciousness moderates the relationship between students' gender and emotions in mixed-gender physical education classes. The Positive and Negative Affect Scales and the Gender-related Public Self-Consciousness Scale were administered to 380 middle-school students in South Korea.…

  13. Can markets alter gender relations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, N

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines how and to what extent gender relations can become more favorable to women of countries undergoing economic development with a globalized perspective. The study also briefly reviews past debates on the interactions between market forces and women's subordination and links them with the current dynamics as revealed by a comparative analysis of the country studies. This paper has three parts: 1) revisits the earlier theoretical discussions in order to contextualize the questions that are raised; 2) highlights some features of women's experiences of economic development in these countries; and 3) is a quantitative measure of the present position of gender relations in each of these countries against the background of their experience of economic development. To assume that women are the most flexible section of the labor force also shows a lack of understanding of the various forces that affect gender countries. In Asian countries, capital has seldom challenged the existing patriarchal traditions, instead it has harnessed them to its own benefit. However, gender relations have changed to an extent in the households, through state intervention and through women's own changing perceptions. Finally, the author has constructed an index of patriarchy which shows that while development does improve women's gender position, it is neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition for that.

  14. Gender-related effects of 17-{beta}-estradiol and B-hexachlorocyclohexane on liver tumor formation in medaka (Oryzias latipes)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, J.B.; Hinton, D.E. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    When medaka were acutely exposed to diethylnitrosamine (DEN), greater incidence of hepatocarcinoma was seen in female versus male fish. This is possibly related to elevated female endogenous estrogens, which increase liver weight and production of vitellogenin. To examine roles of estrogens in tumor modulation, 21-day old medaka were exposed to DEN (200 ppm for 24 hr.), then fed purified diets containing the estrogenic compound {beta}-hexachlorocyclohexane ({beta}-HCH) or 17-{beta}estradiol (E2) for 6 months. Incidences of basophilic preneoplastic foci of cellular alteration in females receiving DEN and 0.01, 0.1, or 1.0 ppm E2 were three times the incidences in similarly-treated males. Also, incidences of basophilic foci in DEN + 0.1 ppm E2 males were significantly increased over DEN-only males and were equal to incidences in DEN-only females. Liver weights and hepatosomatic indices of males given 0.1 ppm E2 were not significantly different than females fed control diet. Females fed 0.01-10.0 ppm {beta}-HCH after DEN had 4--5 times greater incidences of basophilic foci as males. Gender-related effects on kinetics of growth rates and volumes of foci are being examined.

  15. Gender relations in utilization and conservation of the Kilombero ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender relations refer to the gender dimensions of the social relations structuring the lives of individual men and women, such as the gender division of labour and gender division of access to and control over resources. This leads to the differentiation of roles that a different gender has to play in the society. The present ...

  16. Tabulations of Responses from the 2002 Status of the Armed Forces Survey- Workplace and Gender Relations: Volume 2, Gender Related Experiences in the Military and Gender Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greenlees, James

    2003-01-01

    The 2002 Status of the Armed Forces Survey - Workplace and Gender Relations gathered information on demographics, workplace information, mentoring, readiness, and health and well-being, gender related...

  17. 2008 Service Academy Gender Relations Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    gender- related behaviors are less severe than unwanted sexual contact, although they are still potentially psychologically damaging. In this...Waldo, C.R. (1999). Measuring sexual harassment in the military: The Sexual Experiences Questionnaire (SEQ-DoD). Military Psychology , 11, 243...Fitzgerald, L. F. (2002). Toward standardized measurement of sexual harassment: Shortening the SEQ-DoD using item response theory. Military Psychology

  18. Gender-Related Differential Effects of Obesity on Health-Related Quality of Life via Obesity-Related Comorbidities: A Mediation Analysis of a French Nationwide Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audureau, Etienne; Pouchot, Jacques; Coste, Joël

    2016-05-01

    Negative effects of obesity on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) have been reported, especially in women, but the relative contribution of cardiometabolic and other obesity-related comorbidities to such effects remains unclear. Our objective was to model the association by sex between body mass index and HRQoL and to precisely quantify the indirect effects mediated by obesity-related comorbidities. Data were drawn from the latest French Decennial Health Survey, a nationwide cross-sectional study conducted in 2003 (21 239 adults aged 25-64 years analyzed). HRQoL was measured by the 36-item short-form health survey questionnaire. A mediation analysis based on the counterfactual framework was performed to quantify the proportion of obesity effects on HRQoL mediated by related comorbidities, including cardiometabolic risk factors (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia) and diseases (ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular, and peripheral vascular disease), musculoskeletal disorders, and asthma. After multiple linear regression, inverse associations were found between increasing body mass index category and physically oriented and most mentally oriented 36-item short-form health survey dimensions, with evidence of greater effects in women. Mediation analysis revealed that obesity effects were significantly mediated by several comorbidities, more apparently in men (eg, proportion of obesity class II total effect mediated via cardiometabolic factors: general health 27.0% [men] versus 13.6% [women]; proportion of obesity class II total effect mediated via total count of comorbidities: physical functioning 17.8% [men] versus 7.7% [women] and general health 37.1% [men] versus 20.3% [women]). Women have a greater overall impact of obesity on HRQoL, but with proportionally lower effects mediated by cardiometabolic and other obesity-related conditions, suggesting the possible role of other specific psychosocial processes. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Gender-related Differences in Food Craving and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallam, Jessica; Boswell, Rebecca G; DeVito, Elise E; Kober, Hedy

    2016-06-01

    Food craving is often defined as a strong desire to eat. Much work has shown that it consistently and prospectively predicts eating and weight-related outcomes, contributing to the growing obesity epidemic. Although there are clear gender differences in the prevalence and health consequences of obesity, relatively little recent work has investigated gender differences in craving, or any sex-hormone-based differences as they relate to phases of the menstrual cycle. Here, we propose that gender-related differences in food craving contribute to gender-related differences in obesity. Drawing on findings in the addiction literature, we highlight ways to incorporate gender-based differences in food craving into treatment approaches, potentially improving the efficacy of obesity and weight loss treatment. Overall, this review aims to emphasize the importance of investigating gender differences in food craving, with a view towards informing the development of more effective treatments for obesity and weight loss.

  20. Gender-related different effects of a combined therapy of Exenatide and Metformin on overweight or obesity patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Huibiao; Zhang, Huachuan; Wei, Weiping; Fang, Tuanyu

    2016-01-01

    Although men and women have similar diabetes prevalence, the same medicine will cause different therapeutic results in different genders. To understand the molecular mechanism, we explored the effects of a combined therapy of Exenatide and Metformin on obesity and overweight female and male patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). One hundred and five overweight and obesity patients with newly diagnosed T2DM (n=54 female in a female group and n=51 males in a male group) received the therapy: 5 μg Exenatide+0.5 g MET twice daily for 4 weeks, then 10 μg Exenatide+0.5 g MET twice daily for 24 weeks. There was an average of 8.2 ± 2.4 kg and 4.6 ± 2.3 kg weight loss in female and male patients, respectively. The combined therapy showed better effects on female than male patients for improving insulin sensitivity and serum lipid profile, reducing insulin resistance, increasing adiponectin levels, and decreasing the levels of HbA1c, BMI, resistin, TNF-alpha and C-reactive protein (P2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Features of gender relations in powerlifting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordienko Y.V

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The features of gender relations are considered in sport from position of leading specialists on powerlifting. Trainers on powerlifting (men - 71 %, women - 29 %, which work with women and took part in research. It is exposed that modern specialists do not own sufficient knowledge from the theory of gender. It is indicated that trainers do not take into account the gender signs of floor. Also trainers do not apply gender approaches for the harmonic forming of personality of sportswoman, creation of adequate psychological atmosphere on training and during competitions.

  2. Gender relations and health research: a review of current practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bottorff Joan L

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The importance of gender in understanding health practices and illness experiences is increasingly recognized, and key to this work is a better understanding of the application of gender relations. The influence of masculinities and femininities, and the interplay within and between them manifests within relations and interactions among couples, family members and peers to influence health behaviours and outcomes. Methods To explore how conceptualizations of gender relations have been integrated in health research a scoping review of the existing literature was conducted. The key terms gender relations, gender interactions, relations gender, partner communication, femininities and masculinities were used to search online databases. Results Through analysis of this literature we identified two main ways gender relations were integrated in health research: a as emergent findings; and b as a basis for research design. In the latter, gender relations are included in conceptual frameworks, guide data collection and are used to direct data analysis. Conclusions Current uses of gender relations are typically positioned within intimate heterosexual couples whereby single narratives (i.e., either men or women are used to explore the influence and/or impact of intimate partner gender relations on health and illness issues. Recommendations for advancing gender relations and health research are discussed. This research has the potential to reduce gender inequities in health.

  3. Reading Gender Relations and Sexuality: Preteens Speak Out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffatt, Lyndsay; Norton, Bonny

    2008-01-01

    Recent research has documented the persistence of unequal gender relations and homophobia in young people's lives. Feminist post-structural theories of gender and socio-cultural theories of learning suggest educators need to understand students' constructions of gender relations, masculine/feminine desires, and sexuality if they hope to challenge…

  4. 2010 Service Academy Gender Relations Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    79Refers to student programs for assisting in training and response to sexual assault: Personal Ethics and Education Representative (PEER), Sexual...34No " for each item. No Yes a. I thought it was not important enough to report b. I did not know how to report c. I ( elt uncomfortable making

  5. Effectiveness of Reference Services in Providing Students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    information centre to the community of users. But many have failed to serve this purpose after spending lots of money due to some reason and the other. This survey study is aimed at assessing Effectiveness of Reference Services in Providing Students' Information Needs in. Some Selected Tertiary Institutions in Borno State ...

  6. Gender related issues in thrombosis and hemostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvas, Anne-Mette; Favaloro, Emmanuel J

    2017-01-01

    and hemostasis is increasing. However, more evidence is needed to further clarify different risk factors and treatment effect in men and women, both as regards to cardiovascular disease and venous thromboembolism. This should facilitate improved gender guided risk stratification, and prevention and treatment...

  7. Learning to Price with Reference Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Kazerouni, Abbas; Van Roy, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    As a firm varies the price of a product, consumers exhibit reference effects, making purchase decisions based not only on the prevailing price but also the product's price history. We consider the problem of learning such behavioral patterns as a monopolist releases, markets, and prices products. This context calls for pricing decisions that intelligently trade off between maximizing revenue generated by a current product and probing to gain information for future benefit. Due to dependence o...

  8. Gender related issues in thrombosis and hemostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvas, Anne-Mette; Favaloro, Emmanuel J

    2017-11-01

    Many aspects of hemostasis, both primary and secondary, as well as fibrinolysis display sex differences. From a clinical viewpoint, certain differential phenotypic presentations clearly arise within various disorders of thrombosis and hemostasis. Areas covered: The present mini-review summarizes selected clinical entities where sex differences are reflected in both frequency and clinical presentation of hemostasis disorders. Sex differences are discussed within the settings of cardiovascular disease, including coronary artery disease and ischemic stroke, venous thromboembolism and inherited bleeding disorders. Moreover, pregnancy and labor present particular challenges in terms of increased thromboembolic and bleeding risk, and this is also summarized. Expert commentary: Available knowledge on sex differences in risk factors and clinical presentation of disorders within thrombosis and hemostasis is increasing. However, more evidence is needed to further clarify different risk factors and treatment effect in men and women, both as regards to cardiovascular disease and venous thromboembolism. This should facilitate improved gender guided risk stratification, and prevention and treatment of these diseases. Finally, risk assessment during pregnancy remains a challenge; this applies both to thromboembolic risk assessment during normal pregnancy and special care of women with inherited bleeding disorders during labor.

  9. Gender relations and applied research on aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calasanti, Toni

    2010-12-01

    As a concept in gerontology, gender appears as lists of traits learned through socialization when theorized at all. I argue for a framework that theorizes the intersections of relations of gender inequality with those of age. This framework holds that men and women gain resources and bear responsibilities, in relation to one another, by virtue of mundane categorization into naturalized stratified groups. Current research shows that this approach allows explanation of gender differences, which appear in many reports but which usually go untheorized, as responses to social inequality. I illustrate applications to research and practice in relation to three areas of old age experiences: financial security, spousal care work, and health. Throughout, I discuss implications of focusing on inequality to enhance our abilities to engage in effective research, practice, and policy for older people, women and men alike. For instance, an understanding of the gender division of labor and workplace discrimination makes clear that financial status in later life cannot be reduced to individual choices concerning paid labor or retirement planning. And understanding that people orient their behaviors to gender ideals allows us to see that men and women perform spousal care in similar and different ways that require varied responses from practitioners; it also reveals contexts in which men engage in positive health behaviors. Finally, I argue that gerontologists interested in facilitating favorable outcomes for old people should consider research and practice that would disrupt, not reinforce, the bases of gender inequalities in later life.

  10. 2002 Status of the Armed Forces Survey- Workplace and Gender Relations: Administration, Datasets, and Codebook

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Willis, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    The 2002 Status of the Armed Forces Survey - Workplace and Gender Relations gathered information on demographics, workplace information, mentoring, readiness, and health and well-being, gender related...

  11. 2017 Service Academy Gender Relations Focus Groups: Overview Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Harassment and Gender Discrimination Policies ...................4 Program Oversight...oversees equal opportunity policies. ODMEO monitors the prevention of and response to sexual harassment and gender discrimination . The overall goal...2017 Service Academy Gender Relations Focus Groups Overview Report Additional copies of this report may be obtained from: Defense Technical

  12. Book Review: "Changing Gender Relations in Southern Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changing Gender Relations in Southern Africa: Issues of Urban Life edited by Anita Larsson, Matšeliso Mapetla and Ann Schlyter. Lesotho: Institute of Southern African Studies, Roma, National University of Lesotho, 1998 (distributed by African Books Collective, 27 Park End Street, Oxford OX1 1HU). Pp. 336. ISBN 99911 ...

  13. Management of Gender Relations and Response To Change at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this article is to reflect about initiatives towards addressing gender relations at the University of Dar es Salaam (UDSM), Tanzania, pondering whether those initiatives evolved from within or were imposed on the institution by wider national and international processes. The establishment of the UDSM ...

  14. The Gender-Related Role of Teaching Profession in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uygun, Selcuk

    2014-01-01

    Teaching is a professional job that requires expertise. The characteristics of the professionals can affect the quality of the profession. One of these characteristics is gender. In this study, the gender-related role of teaching profession in Turkey is examined. The analysis in a historical perspective of gender distributions of students who have…

  15. Gender-related dissociations of categorical fluency in normal subjects and in subjects with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Camillo; Ferraccioli, Monica; Gainotti, Guido

    2007-03-01

    Semantic fluency tasks, with the categories of birds and furniture as stimuli, were administered to normal subjects and patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Normal subjects showed a gender-related double dissociation consistent with the literature data because men were more fluent with the birds category and women with the furniture category. Also, patients with AD showed a Gender x Category interaction, but the double dissociation between birds and furniture was not present because of a prevalent impairment of the living category birds that was irrespective of gender. This pattern of impairment in patients with AD was independent from the disease stage. The authors conclude that (a) gender-related categorical effects cannot be considered as inborn, sex-related cognitive differences but as familiarity effects and (b) both lesion-related and familiarity-related factors must be taken into account to explain category-specific effects of patients with brain damage and patients with AD.

  16. Do Sex Differences Define Gender-Related Individual Differences within the Sexes? Evidence from Three Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippa, Richard

    1995-01-01

    Studied three different criteria of within-sex, gender-related individual differences taken from three studies. Data showed that items displaying large sex differences tended also to correlate most strongly with independent gender-related criteria within the sexes. Discusses assessment implications for gender-related and other group-related…

  17. Barriers to Effective and Efficient Reference and Information ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper Emmanuel Baro defines reference and information services in the light of modern developments. He also describes the scope of the subject. Some of the most important factors that make for effective and efficient reference and information services are equally highlighted. The factors were used to measure the ...

  18. Food shortages and gender relations in Ikafe settlement, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, L

    1998-03-01

    In 1996, an 18-month-old settlement created for 55,000 Sudanese refugees in northern Uganda came under attack by Ugandan rebels. By March 1997, the entire population of the settlement had migrated in search of safety. Because the refugees lost their livelihoods and cultivated fields, they had to adopt short-term coping strategies to acquire food. Two Oxfam researchers gathering information during this period for use in program planning and monitoring found that coping strategies included 1) hazarding dangerous journeys (women risked rape or abduction; men risked beating, looting, killing, or abduction) to harvest crops; 2) seeking piece-work employment; 3) exchanging sex for food; and 4) depleting assets. The crisis was particularly severe for single people (especially those with children). In families where the women but not the men could find employment, some men took on household responsibilities. As malnutrition increased, health declined. Observed changes to household gender relations included new sexual divisions of labor, assumption by females of decision-making power, increased domestic quarreling, and marital break-down (especially in cases where women had been raped). On the community level, women assumed more responsibility as men withdrew socially or left the settlement. These findings point to the importance of providing refugees with seeds, with small loans to stimulate business, and with the means to rebuild their sense of community.

  19. Women's employment and changing gender relations in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Alice Colón

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses Helen Safa's analyses of the impact of development strategies and social policies on gender relations and women headed families in the Caribbean and Puerto Rico. The discussion focuses on findings of a research project regarding patterns of women's employment, autonomy, marital relations, family headship and poverty in Puerto Rico in the decade beginning in the year 2000, using excerpts from interviews conducted with women workers displaced from a clothing and a tuna factory between 2001 and 2002 (Colón et al. 2008), as well as data from the Public Use Sample (PUMS) of the U.S. Census Puerto Rico Community Survey 2005-2007. It is argued that women's employment has resulted in advances in women's autonomy, gender equity, and renegotiations of the provider role, but, intensified by men's unstable earnings, it has also led to the increase of female family headship even among married women. Women's education and employment have been an important means of reducing family poverty both among dual earner families and female heads. Yet, the continuing joblessness in the Island places even higher educated sectors on the verge of economic precariousness.

  20. Visual Target Localization, the Effect of Allocentric Audiovisual Reference Frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hartnagel

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Visual allocentric references frames (contextual cues affect visual space perception (Diedrichsen et al., 2004; Walter et al., 2006. On the other hand, experiments have shown a change of visual perception induced by binaural stimuli (Chandler, 1961; Carlile et al., 2001. In the present study we investigate the effect of visual and audiovisual allocentred reference frame on visual localization and straight ahead pointing. Participant faced a black part-spherical screen (92cm radius. The head was maintained aligned with the body. Participant wore headphone and a glove with motion capture markers. A red laser point was displayed straight ahead as fixation point. The visual target was a 100ms green laser point. After a short delay, the green laser reappeared and participant had to localize target with a trackball. Straight ahead blind pointing was required before and after series of 48 trials. Visual part of the bimodal allocentred reference frame was provided by a vertical red laser line (15° left or 15° right, auditory part was provided by 3D sound. Five conditions were tested, no-reference, visual reference (left/right, audiovisual reference (left/right. Results show that the significant effect of bimodal audiovisual reference is not different from the visual reference one.

  1. An online paradigm for exploring the self-reference effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah V Bentley

    Full Text Available People reliably encode information more effectively when it is related in some way to the self-a phenomenon known as the self-reference effect. This effect has been recognized in psychological research for almost 40 years, and its scope as a tool for investigating the self-concept is still expanding. The self-reference effect has been used within a broad range of psychological research, from cultural to neuroscientific, cognitive to clinical. Traditionally, the self-reference effect has been investigated in a laboratory context, which limits its applicability in non-laboratory samples. This paper introduces an online version of the self-referential encoding paradigm that yields reliable effects in an easy-to-administer procedure. Across four studies (total N = 658, this new online tool reliably replicated the traditional self-reference effect: in all studies self-referentially encoded words were recalled significantly more than semantically encoded words (d = 0.63. Moreover, the effect sizes obtained with this online tool are similar to those obtained in laboratory samples, and are robust to experimental variations in encoding time (Studies 1 and 2 and recall procedure (Studies 3 and 4, and persist independent of primacy and recency effects (all studies.

  2. An online paradigm for exploring the self-reference effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Sarah V; Greenaway, Katharine H; Haslam, S Alexander

    2017-01-01

    People reliably encode information more effectively when it is related in some way to the self-a phenomenon known as the self-reference effect. This effect has been recognized in psychological research for almost 40 years, and its scope as a tool for investigating the self-concept is still expanding. The self-reference effect has been used within a broad range of psychological research, from cultural to neuroscientific, cognitive to clinical. Traditionally, the self-reference effect has been investigated in a laboratory context, which limits its applicability in non-laboratory samples. This paper introduces an online version of the self-referential encoding paradigm that yields reliable effects in an easy-to-administer procedure. Across four studies (total N = 658), this new online tool reliably replicated the traditional self-reference effect: in all studies self-referentially encoded words were recalled significantly more than semantically encoded words (d = 0.63). Moreover, the effect sizes obtained with this online tool are similar to those obtained in laboratory samples, and are robust to experimental variations in encoding time (Studies 1 and 2) and recall procedure (Studies 3 and 4), and persist independent of primacy and recency effects (all studies).

  3. The Self-Reference Effect on Memory in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Sheila J.; Brebner, Joanne L.; Quinn, Francis; Turk, David J.

    2014-01-01

    The self-reference effect in memory is the advantage for information encoded about self, relative to other people. The early development of this effect was explored here using a concrete encoding paradigm. Trials comprised presentation of a self- or other-image paired with a concrete object. In Study 1, 4- to 6-year-old children (N = 53) were…

  4. Altruistic people show no self-reference effect in memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Takashi; Tokunaga, Satoko; Takamura, Masahiro; Nashiwa, Hitomi; Hayashi, Shunsuke; Miyatani, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    The self-reference effect (SRE), by which encoding of information is done in a self-referential manner (e.g., "Does the word describe you?"), enhances subsequent memory performance. It is thought to reflect that self-reference is a highly practiced task in everyday life. Accordingly, it is expected that the types of tasks that produce memory enhancement vary according to individual differences of past experiences. On the basis of neuroimaging studies, we hypothesized that social desirability reference ("Is this word socially desirable?") produces memory enhancement as with SRE in people who have chosen altruistic behavior frequently. Participants processed trait adjectives in relation to themselves, social desirability, and meaning. Then they performed a free recall task. The self-report altruism scale was used to assess the frequency of past altruistic behavior. Consistent with our prediction, the social desirability reference yielded the best retention in the high-altruism group. SRE was observed only in the low-altruism group.

  5. Gender Relations and Economic Development: Hypotheses about the Reversal of Fortune in EurAsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Pleijt, A.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/375805621; van Zanden, J.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/071115374; Carmichael, S.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/35751405X

    2016-01-01

    This paper develops an interrelated set of hypotheses about the links between gender relations, family systems and economic development in EurAsia. Firstly, we briefly discuss a number of ideas from the recent literature about the links between gender relations and economic development. Secondly, we

  6. Töre (Custurmary Law) in the Changing Gender Relation in Central Asia during Pre-Islamic Times

    OpenAIRE

    Nilgün Dalkesen

    2008-01-01

    Before entering under the influence of the Islamic culture and civilization, Turkish and Mongolian societies were administered according to customary law (Töre and yasa). Later, customary law, in front of Islamic law (sharia), preserved its validity and functions at administrative level and among the folk people. These societies both kept their inhereted laws and continued to make new laws when they needed. Throughout history, different social, political factors which effect gender relations....

  7. Effectiveness of reference services in providing students' information ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main purpose of establishing library in any academic environment is to serve as the information centre to the community of users. But many have failed to serve this purpose after spending lots of money due to some reason and the other. This survey study is aimed at assessing Effectiveness of Reference Services in ...

  8. Gender-related pathways for behavior problems in the offspring of alcoholic fathers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furtado E.F.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to examine gender differences in the influence of paternal alcoholism on children's social-emotional development and to determine whether paternal alcoholism is associated with a greater number of externalizing symptoms in the male offspring. From the Mannheim Study of Risk Children, an ongoing longitudinal study of a high-risk population, the developmental data of 219 children [193 (95 boys and 98 girls of non-alcoholic fathers, non-COAs, and 26 (14 boys, 12 girls of alcoholic fathers, COAs] were analyzed from birth to the age of 11 years. Paternal alcoholism was defined according to the ICD-10 categories of alcohol dependence and harmful use. Socio-demographic data, cognitive development, number and severity of behavior problems, and gender-related differences in the rates of externalizing and internalizing symptoms were assessed using standardized instruments (IQ tests, Child Behavior Checklist questionnaire and diagnostic interviews. The general linear model analysis revealed a significant overall effect of paternal alcoholism on the number of child psychiatric problems (F = 21.872, d.f. = 1.217, P < 0.001. Beginning at age 2, significantly higher numbers of externalizing symptoms were observed among COAs. In female COAs, a pattern similar to that of the male COAs emerged, with the predominance of delinquent and aggressive behavior. Unlike male COAs, females showed an increase of internalizing symptoms up to age 11 years. Of these, somatic complaints revealed the strongest discriminating effect in 11-year-old females. Children of alcoholic fathers are at high risk for psychopathology. Gender-related differences seem to exist and may contribute to different phenotypes during development from early childhood to adolescence.

  9. Effect of newly proposed CK reference limits on neuromuscular diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardin, Rachel A; Zarrin, Amy R; Horowitz, Gary L; Tarulli, Andrew W

    2009-04-01

    The objective was to determine the effect of a proposed increase in the upper reference limits of serum creatine kinase (CK) on neuromuscular disease diagnosis. This was a retrospective study of 94 Caucasian subjects (49 women and 45 men) in whom a neuromuscular physician ordered a CK as part of their evaluation. The patients were divided into two groups: those with diagnoses that either should or could elevate serum CK, and those with diagnoses that should not elevate serum CK. Sensitivities and specificities of the manufacturer's and the newly proposed upper reference limits were determined. For women, raising the upper reference limit of CK from 140 IU/L to 201 IU/L reduced the sensitivity of the test from 50% to 29%, while increasing the specificity from 67% to 80%. For men, raising the upper reference limit of CK from 174 IU/L to 322 IU/L reduced the sensitivity from 80% to 60%, while increasing the specificity from 63% to 80%. The newly proposed upper reference limits resulted in a false-negative CK of clinical significance in 7 of 94 subjects. Increasing the upper reference limit for CK reduced the sensitivity and increased the specificity of serum CK for neuromuscular disease diagnosis. Such a change will reduce unnecessary referrals and invasive diagnostic testing in patients with asymptomatic CK elevations. The clinical impact of the loss in sensitivity is small. If these new upper reference limits are adopted, neuromuscular physicians should be aware that a normal CK level does not exclude a diagnosis of myopathy.

  10. Sex and gender-related differences in alcohol use and its consequences: Contemporary knowledge and future research considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erol, Almila; Karpyak, Victor M

    2015-11-01

    To review the contemporary evidence reflecting male/female differences in alcohol use and its consequences along with the biological (sex-related) and psycho-socio-cultural (gender-related) factors associated with those differences. MEDLINE, PubMed, Web of Science, SCOPUS, PsycINFO, and CINAHL databases were searched for relevant publications, which were subsequently screened for the presence/absence of pre-specified criteria for high quality evidence. Compared to men, more women are lifetime abstainers, drink less, and are less likely to engage in problem drinking, develop alcohol-related disorders or alcohol withdrawal symptoms. However, women drinking excessively develop more medical problems. Biological (sex-related) factors, including differences in alcohol pharmacokinetics as well as its effect on brain function and the levels of sex hormones may contribute to some of those differences. In addition, differences in alcohol effects on behavior may also be driven by psycho-socio-cultural (gender-related) factors. This is evident by variation in the magnitude of differences in alcohol use between countries, decreasing difference in the rates of alcohol consumption in recent generations and other findings. Evidence indicates that both sex and gender-related factors are interacting with alcohol use in complex manner, which differentially impacts the risk for development of the behavioral or medical problems and alcohol use disorders in men and women. Discovery of the mechanisms underlying biological (sex-related) as well as psycho-socio-cultural (gender-related) differences in alcohol use and related disorders is needed for development of personalized recommendations for prevention and treatment of alcohol use disorders and related problems in men and women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of reference stations on continuous GPS (CGPS) time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sella, G. F.; Malservisi, R.; Wdowinski, S.; Dixon, T.; Lafemina, P.

    2004-12-01

    Time series of CGPS sites in the ITRF2000 reference frame show a significant "bump" in late 2002. The time series suggest that the position of the GPS monument has moved significantly compared to the expected steady velocity prediction. Although the change has only a slight effect on computed velocities for long time series, it may introduce a significant bias in the computed velocity for shorter time series and in time series only using data collected during episodic GPS campaigns. The "bump" is easily recognized in North American sites but can also be observed in sites around the world, indicating a global effect. It is also present in time series produced by different analysis groups with different software packages (GIPSY-OASIS, GAMIT). We propose that the bump is related to "misbehavior" of one or more references sites used to transform raw GPS positions into ITRF2000. The "bump" appears to coincide with discontinuity in the operation of some reference stations. We also find that daily positions estimates are particularly sensitive to the behavior of some reference stations.

  12. Cross-cultural semantic equivalence of some gender-related words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Lazović

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores similarities and differences between two cultures, English and Serbian, in terms of connotative equivalence of some gender-related words. In both languages there exist myriad pairs of words that historically differentiated male and female gender only, but which, over time, have unexplainably gained different connotations. Usually the semantic change can be seen in words describing women; words which once used to be neutral or positive have acquired negative and/or sexual connotations. The well-known example of bachelor and spinster (neženja and usedelica in Serbian is just one among many. Based on the male/female pairs of words analysed in these two languages, the paper examines the following: (1 whether it is possible that in both cultures such words (unintentionally carry the same derogatory and pejorative meanings, (2 whether semantic derogation equally applies to male and female words, and (3 whether and how often the connotation changes to negative when words refer to women. Finally, it addresses the issue of potential semantic derogation when using different job titles for men and women in both languages.

  13. 2002 Status of the Armed Forces Survey - Workplace and Gender Relations: Report on Scales and Measures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ormerod, Alayne

    2003-01-01

    ...: Workplace and Gender Relations Survey (2002 WGR). This report describes advances from previous surveys and presents results on scale development as obtained from 19,960 respondents to this survey...

  14. 2004 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey of Reserve Component Members: Tabulations of Responses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2005-01-01

    The 2004 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey of Reserve Component Members was designed to both estimate the level of sexual harassment and provide information on a variety of consequences of sexual harassment...

  15. 2012 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey of Reserve Component Members. Tabulation of Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-08

    followed by tabulation pages showing composite measure results. Where applicable, Cronbach �s coefficient alpha , a measure of scale reliability, is...supervisor. The overall Cronbach’s coefficient alpha = 0.96 (males = 0.96 and females = 0.96). 2012 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey of... alpha = 0.93 (males = 0.93 and females = 0.94). 2012 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey of Reserve Component Members DMDC 125 40. Continued

  16. Asymmetries in gender-related familiarity with different semantic categories. Data from normal adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainotti, Guido; Spinelli, Pietro; Scaricamazza, Eugenia; Marra, Camillo

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms subsuming the brain organization of categories and the corresponding gender related asymmetries are controversial. Some authors believe that the brain organization of categories is innate, whereas other authors maintain that it is shaped by experience. According to these interpretations, gender-related asymmetries should respectively be inborn or result from the influence of social roles. In a previous study, assessing the familiarity of young students with different 'biological' and 'artefact' categories, we had observed no gender-related difference on any of these categories. Since these data could be due to the fact that our students belonged to a generation in which the traditional social roles have almost completely disappeared, we predicted that gender-related asymmetries should be found in older men and women. The familiarity of young and elderly men and women with various semantic categories was, therefore, studied presenting in the verbal and pictorial modality different kinds of living and artefact categories. Results confirmed the hypothesis, because elderly women showed a greater familiarity for flowers and elderly men for animals. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis assuming that gender-related asymmetries for different semantic categories is due to the influence of gender-related social roles.

  17. 2016 Service Academy Gender Relations Survey: Overview Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    alcohol involvement; bystander intervention; effects on academic and personal life caused by the unwanted situation; whether behaviors were reported...all the DoD Academies. These areas include student perceptions of effective training on these issues, bystander intervention against unwanted sexual...assault and sexual harassment; and the availability and effectiveness of sexual assault and sexual harassment training. In March and April 2016, an OPA

  18. [Health and gender relations: a reflection on the challenges for the implementation of public policies for health care for indigenous women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Luciane Ouriques

    2013-04-01

    This article presents some contrasts that exist between the discourses of public policies concerning women's health care, especially with respect to indigenous women, and the ethnological discourse which emphasizes the specificity of gender relations within indigenous societies. We worked on the assumption that the development of these public policies as well as the organization of health care services offered, which in fact are necessary, have a transforming effect on prevailing gender relations within Amerindian Societies. On the one hand, gender relations between indigenous people are associated with the domains of kinship and corporeality. On the other hand, the process of creating public policies, by means of biomedical intervention and the medicalization of the female body, constitutes a powerful tool for body modeling and the construction of subjectivities contributing to making women worthy of citizenship. The female gender is under discussion and its content is being negotiated.

  19. Gender-related asymmetric brain vasomotor response to color stimulation: a functional transcranial Doppler spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njemanze, Philip C

    2010-11-30

    The present study was designed to examine the effects of color stimulation on cerebral blood mean flow velocity (MFV) in men and women. The study included 16 (8 men and 8 women) right-handed healthy subjects. The MFV was recorded simultaneously in both right and left middle cerebral arteries in Dark and white Light conditions, and during color (Blue, Yellow and Red) stimulations, and was analyzed using functional transcranial Doppler spectroscopy (fTCDS) technique. Color processing occurred within cortico-subcortical circuits. In men, wavelength-differencing of Yellow/Blue pairs occurred within the right hemisphere by processes of cortical long-term depression (CLTD) and subcortical long-term potentiation (SLTP). Conversely, in women, frequency-differencing of Blue/Yellow pairs occurred within the left hemisphere by processes of cortical long-term potentiation (CLTP) and subcortical long-term depression (SLTD). In both genders, there was luminance effect in the left hemisphere, while in men it was along an axis opposite (orthogonal) to that of chromatic effect, in women, it was parallel. Gender-related differences in color processing demonstrated a right hemisphere cognitive style for wavelength-differencing in men, and a left hemisphere cognitive style for frequency-differencing in women. There are potential applications of fTCDS technique, for stroke rehabilitation and monitoring of drug effects.

  20. Gender-related differences in functional connectivity in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonheim, M.M.; Hulst, H.E.; Landi, D.; Ciccarelli, O.; Roosendaal, S.D.; Sanz-Arigita, E.J.; Vrenken, H.; Polman, C.H.; Stam, C.J.; Barkhof, F.; Geurts, J.J.G.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Gender effects are strong in multiple sclerosis (MS), with male patients showing a worse clinical outcome than female patients. Functional reorganization of neural activity may contribute to limit disability, and possible gender differences in this process may have important clinical

  1. Hormonal and gender-related immune changes in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airas, L

    2015-01-01

    Similarly to many other autoimmune diseases, multiple sclerosis (MS) is more common among women than men, and its incidence among women is rising. There are also qualitative differences in the disease course between men and women, with male patients experiencing increased disease progression, brain atrophy, and cognitive impairment. During pregnancy, women with MS typically have a greatly reduced relapse rate, whereas very soon after the delivery, the disease activity returns, often even at a higher level than seen in the prepregnancy year. The reasons for the increased postpartum activity are not entirely clear, but factors such as the abrupt decrease in estrogen levels immediately after the delivery and the loss of the immunosuppressive state of pregnancy are likely of importance. There is compelling evidence that estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone control MS pathology by influencing immune responses and by contributing to repair mechanisms in the nervous system. Hormones may thus offer important insights into MS disease prevention and treatment. In this review, the possible reasons for the sex bias in autoimmune diseases will be discussed. The pregnancy-related alterations in MS, including the effect of pregnancy on disease activity, long-term disability accumulation, and prevalence will be reviewed, as well as the hormonal and immunological mechanisms potentially underlying these changes. Finally, the present thinking on the effect of hormones on the changing incidence of MS will be elucidated. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Empathy, Guilt Proneness, and Gender: Relative Contributions to Prosocial Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torstveit, Linda; Sütterlin, Stefan; Lugo, Ricardo Gregorio

    2016-05-01

    Guilt is a moral emotion that is often looked upon as a negative trait. However, studies show that some individuals are more predisposed to think, feel and act in a more ethical manner because of a lower threshold to experience guilt. Some theories of helping behaviour emphasize the evolutionary mechanisms, while other theories stress the importance of social variables. This study investigated whether guilt proneness as a dispositional trait can be associated with prosocial behaviour. Five hundred sixty-nine participants reported in an online survey their own levels of guilt proneness, frequency of prosocial behaviour, and related cognitions such as empathy. This study is among the first to demonstrate how guilt proneness combined with empathy can explain additional variance in prosocial behaviour. The findings also indicate gender differences in the precursors of prosocial behaviour, suggesting women are more influenced by the effects of guilt proneness on prosocial behaviour than men.

  3. Empathy, Guilt Proneness, and Gender: Relative Contributions to Prosocial Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Torstveit

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Guilt is a moral emotion that is often looked upon as a negative trait. However, studies show that some individuals are more predisposed to think, feel and act in a more ethical manner because of a lower threshold to experience guilt. Some theories of helping behaviour emphasize the evolutionary mechanisms, while other theories stress the importance of social variables. This study investigated whether guilt proneness as a dispositional trait can be associated with prosocial behaviour. Five hundred sixty-nine participants reported in an online survey their own levels of guilt proneness, frequency of prosocial behaviour, and related cognitions such as empathy. This study is among the first to demonstrate how guilt proneness combined with empathy can explain additional variance in prosocial behaviour. The findings also indicate gender differences in the precursors of prosocial behaviour, suggesting women are more influenced by the effects of guilt proneness on prosocial behaviour than men.

  4. Changing gender relations in Thailand: a historical and cultural analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantiwiramanond, D

    1997-01-01

    In response to the stereotyping of Thai women in the media as either modern businesswomen or victims of male oppression, this article studies the changing gender roles and status of women in Thailand to identify the various roles played by Thai women and the ways these roles are linked to key cultural, economic, and political mechanisms in Thai society. After an introduction, the first section of the paper analyzes pre-modern Thai history from the mid-13th century with a look at the traditional social, political, and economic structure of feudal society to determine how women's status was affected by Thai Buddhism, absolute monarchy (the affect of the legal system on upper-class women), and matrifocal kinship (the effect of subsistence agriculture on lower-class women). This section also compares the historic status of upper- and lower-class Thai women. The second section of the article considers the effects of 1) the encroachment of Western colonialism in Southeast Asia during the period 1850-1925 and attendant criticisms of polygamy, 2) the post-1932 revolution that resulted in a constitutional monarchy, and 3) the post 1950s period of economic nationalism that has resulted in globalization. The article concludes that lower-class women have certain rights under the feudal system (before 1932) but were forced into certain roles by economic necessity and motherhood. Upper-class women enjoyed high status, but all women were victims of the Buddhist patriarchy and hierarchical systems. Western modernization caused a decline in polygamy and new opportunities for educated women but the status of Thai women has not changed substantially, and class-specific forms of female oppression continues unabated making lower-class women vulnerable to sexual exploitation.

  5. Effects of the sample size of reference population on determining BMD reference curve and peak BMD and diagnosing osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Y-L; Liao, E-Y; Wu, X-P; Peng, Y-Q; Zhang, H; Dai, R-C; Luo, X-H; Cao, X-Z

    2008-01-01

    Establishing reference databases generally requires a large sample size to achieve reliable results. Our study revealed that the varying sample size from hundreds to thousands of individuals has no decisive effect on the bone mineral density (BMD) reference curve, peak BMD, and diagnosing osteoporosis. It provides a reference point for determining the sample size while establishing local BMD reference databases. This study attempts to determine a suitable sample size for establishing bone mineral density (BMD) reference databases in a local laboratory. The total reference population consisted of 3,662 Chinese females aged 6-85 years. BMDs were measured with a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry densitometer. The subjects were randomly divided into four different sample groups, that is, total number (Tn) = 3,662, 1/2n = 1,831, 1/4n = 916, and 1/8n = 458. We used the best regression model to determine BMD reference curve and peak BMD. There was no significant difference in the full curves between the four sample groups at each skeletal site, although some discrepancy at the end of the curves was observed at the spine. Peak BMDs were very similar in the four sample groups. According to the Chinese diagnostic criteria (BMD >25% below the peak BMD as osteoporosis), no difference was observed in the osteoporosis detection rate using the reference values determined by the four different sample groups. Varying the sample size from hundreds to thousands has no decisive effect on establishing BMD reference curve and determining peak BMD. It should be practical for determining the reference population while establishing local BMD databases.

  6. Adequacy of representation of the National Drug File Reference Terminology Physiologic Effects reference hierarchy for commonly prescribed medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbloom, S Trent; Awad, Joseph; Speroff, Ted; Elkin, Peter L; Rothman, Russell; Spickard, Anderson; Peterson, Josh; Bauer, Brent A; Wahner-Roedler, Dietland L; Lee, Mark; Gregg, William M; Johnson, Kevin B; Jirjis, Jim; Erlbaum, Mark S; Carter, John S; Lincoln, Michael J; Brown, Steven H

    2003-01-01

    The National Drug File Reference Terminology contains a novel reference hierarchy to describe physiologic effects (PE) of drugs. The PE reference hierarchy contains 1697 concepts arranged into two broad categories; organ specific and generalized systemic effects. This investigation evaluated the appropriateness of the PE concepts for classifying a random selection of commonly prescribed medications. Ten physician reviewers classified the physiologic effects of ten drugs and rated the accuracy of the selected term. Inter reviewer agreement, overall confidence, and concept frequencies were assessed and were correlated with the complexity of the drug's known physiologic effects. In general, agreement between reviewers was fair to moderate (kappa 0.08-0.49). The physiologic effects modeled became more disperse with drugs having and inducing multiple physiologic processes. Complete modeling of all physiologic effects was limited by reviewers focusing on different physiologic processes. The reviewers were generally comfortable with the accuracy of the concepts selected. Overall, the PE reference hierarchy was useful for physician reviewers classifying the physiologic effects of drugs. Ongoing evolution of the PE reference hierarchy as it evolves should take into account the experiences of our reviewers.

  7. INFLUENCE OF GENDER RELATIONS ON THE CULTURE OF THE WORKERS AT THE COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Yurevich Pripoten

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to a discover of gender relations of main managers of industrial companies and their subordinate groups. We have used a technique that is based on the effective head of the list as the «Сycle of control skills», that are identified to the major gender differences in management, based on the check of the possibility of a business and personal qualities of leaders, as we take to a consider the influence of gender on the culture of main control managers.Purpose. To study the influence of main relations on the culture of the workers, check and research a way for the companies to develop.Method and methodology of work. Expert survey, the use of methods of Clark L. Wilson «Сycle management skills», «The level of progress of the organizational culture», V. Snetkova.Results. The basic personal and business qualities of men and women leaders. The influence of gender on the culture of the staff of presented companies.Practical implications. Companies of all possible kinds and their specialization.

  8. Gender-related differences in kidney of rats with chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Carla C S; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos A; Carvalho, Jorge J; Bregman, Rachel

    2014-04-01

    Chronic renal failure is characterized by adaptive mechanisms secondary to the loss of functioning nephrons. Clinical and experimental studies suggest participation of gender-related hormones on renal function and progression of chronic renal failure. We evaluated the effect of castration on renal alterations in male and female Wistar control rats and after 30 days of chronic renal failure (CRF) induced by 5/6 nephrectomy. The CRF male group showed higher proteinuria. Glomerular hypertrophy was similar among groups. Podocyte morphology showed disorders of foot processes and thickening of the basement membrane in the CRF male group. The CRF female group showed fewer alterations compared to males. Castration changed the profile in CRF male animals and the filtration barrier was preserved. CRF males showed the presence of alfa-smooth muscle actin suggesting an early prefibrotic event in this group. After castration this phenomenon was not observed. Noteworthy, in females, castration exacerbated the presence of alfa-smooth muscle actin. In summary, proteinuria was higher in males and appeared early in the course of CRF, probably contributing to fibrotic events. Data were influenced by gender suggesting that male sex hormones aggravate renal alterations.

  9. Tabulations of Responses from the 2002 Status of the Armed Forces Survey - Workplace and Gender Relations: Volume 1, Demographics, Workplace Information, Readiness, Health and Well-being

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greenlees, James

    2003-01-01

    The 2002 Status of the Armed Forces Survey - Workplace and Gender Relations gathered information on demographics, workplace information, mentoring, readiness, and health and well-being, gender related...

  10. Effects of reference pricing in pharmaceutical markets: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galizzi, Matteo Maria; Ghislandi, Simone; Miraldo, Marisa

    2011-01-01

    This work aims to provide a systematic and updated survey of original scientific studies on the effect of the introduction of reference pricing (RP) policies in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. We searched PubMed, EconLit and Web of Knowledge for articles on RP. We reviewed studies that met the inclusion criteria established in the search strategy. From a total of 468 references, we selected the 35 that met all of the inclusion criteria. Some common themes emerged in the literature. The first was that RP was generally associated with a decrease in the prices of the drugs subject to the policy. In particular, price drops seem to have been experienced in virtually every country that implemented a generic RP (GRP) policy. A GRP policy applies only to products with expired patents and generic competition, and clusters drugs according to chemical equivalence (same form and active compound). More significant price decreases were observed in the sub-markets in which drugs were already facing generic competition prior to RP. Price drops varied widely according to the amount of generic competition and industrial strategies: brand-named drugs originally priced above RP values decreased their prices to a greater extent. A second common theme was that both therapeutic RP (TRP) and GRP have been associated with significant and consistent savings in the first years of application. A third general result is that generic market shares significantly increased whenever the firms producing brand-named drugs did not adopt one of the following strategies: lowering prices to RP values; launching new dosages and/or formulations; or marketing substitute drugs still under patent protection. Finally, concerning TRP, although more evidence is needed, studies based on a large number of patient-level observations showed no association between the RP policy and health outcomes.

  11. Getting in Touch with Our Feelings: The Emotional Geographies of Gender Relations in PETE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Fiona

    2008-01-01

    This paper attempts to illustrate how embodied ways of knowing may enhance our theoretical understanding within the field of physical education teacher education (PETE). It seeks to illustrate how teacher educators' viewpoints and understanding of gender relations are inevitably linked to socially constructed webs of emotions, as much as to…

  12. Perspectives on Cross-Gender Relations in a Traditional Society: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... roles induced stereotypes that made it possible for their subordination and consequent marginalization by their male counterparts. It was from this prism that the real implications of socio-cultural attitudes towards women became critical issues in the type of gender relations which emerged. Humanities Review Journal Vol.

  13. Gender Relations in Access to and Control over Resources in Awra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper explores gender relations in access to and control over resources in Awra Amba Community of Amhara Region, Ethiopia. The study employed primary and secondary data sources. The primary data were gathered through semistructured interviews with selected community members and key informants, focus ...

  14. 2015 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey of Reserve Component Members: Statistical Methodology Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-17

    completion use the same methodology as Step 1 (CHAID and logistic model).  Step 3: Create final weights – The weights were poststratified to match...2015 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey of Reserve Component Members Statistical Methodology Report Additional copies of this report...RESERVE COMPONENT MEMBERS: STATISTICAL METHODOLOGY REPORT Defense Research, Surveys, and Statistics Center (RSSC) Defense Manpower Data Center

  15. Study on Gender-Related Speech Communication in Classical Chinese Poetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xinhe; Qin, Dandan

    2016-01-01

    Gender, formed in men and women's growth which is constrained by social context, is tightly tied to the distinction which is presented in the process of men and women's language use. Hence, it's a new breakthrough for studies on gender and difference by analyzing gender-related speech communication on the background of ancient Chinese culture.

  16. Perceptions about gender relations and sexual division of labor for people with disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Barros Moreira

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary society has discussed the idea of “diversity”, and among its possibilities, the insertion of people with disabilities (PWDs in organizations has been often discussed in organizational studies. Although disability appears to be no longer an uncomfortable subject to be discussed, it is still a very delicate issue to be talked about. In addition to it, gender relations and sexual division of   labor are not solved issues when work is involved. This work was carried out with the objective of understanding the perceptions of PWDs about gender relations and sexual division of  labor. We argue that both this perception and its origin are connected to the subjectivity. The research was conducted in a hospital, where five people were interviewed. The interviews were analyzed through the method of content analysis. They did not show explicitly the interviewees’ perception of unequal gender relations, but this was noticed through the method of observation. The interviewees’ view of gender relations was found to be full of social stereotypes. Finally, questions were asked that intended to lead the reader to a deeper reflection about sexual division of labor, disability and prejudice in the organizational environment.

  17. Gender-related differences in computer-mediated communication and computer-supported collaborative learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinsen, F.R.; Volman, M.L.L.; Terwel, J.

    2007-01-01

    A question associated with the introduction of computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) is whether all participants profit equally from working in CSCL environments. This article reports on a review study into gender-related differences in participation in CSCL. As many of the processes in

  18. Spatial Rotation and Recognizing Emotions: Gender Related Differences in Brain Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jausovec, Norbert; Jausovec, Ksenija

    2008-01-01

    In three experiments, gender and ability (performance and emotional intelligence) related differences in brain activity--assessed with EEG methodology--while respondents were solving a spatial rotation tasks and identifying emotions in faces were investigated. The most robust gender related difference in brain activity was observed in the lower-2…

  19. Gender-related explanatory models of depression: a critical evaluation of medical articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarström, A; Lehti, A; Danielsson, U; Bengs, C; Johansson, E E

    2009-10-01

    Although research has consistently shown a higher prevalence of depression among women compared with men, there is a lack of consensus regarding explanatory factors for these gender-related differences. The aim of this paper was to analyse the scientific quality of different gender-related explanatory models of depression in the medical database PubMed. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of PubMed articles. In a database search in PubMed for 2002, 82 articles on gender and depression were selected and analysed with qualitative and quantitative content analyses. In total, 10 explanatory factors and four explanatory models were found. The ISI Web of Science database was searched in order to obtain the citation number and journal impact factor for each article. The most commonly used gender-related explanatory model for depression was the biomedical model (especially gonadal hormones), followed by the sociocultural and psychological models. Compared with the other models, the biomedical model scored highest on bibliometric measures but lowest on measures of multifactorial dimensions and differences within the group of men/women. The biomedical model for explaining gender-related aspects of depression had the highest quality when bibliometric methods were used. However, the sociocultural and psychological models had higher quality than the biomedical model when multifactoriality and intersectionality were analysed. There is a need for the development of new methods in order to evaluate the scientific quality of research.

  20. Detecting a Gender-Related Differential Item Functioning Using Transformed Item Difficulty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedalaziz, Nabeel; Leng, Chin Hai; Alahmadi, Ahlam

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine gender differences in performance on multiple-choice mathematical ability test, administered within the context of high school graduation test that was designed to match eleventh grade curriculum. The transformed item difficulty (TID) was used to detect a gender related DIF. A random sample of 1400 eleventh…

  1. Analyzing the effects of past prices on reference price formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.D. van Oest (Rutger); R. Paap (Richard)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWe propose a new reference price framework for brand choice. In this framework, we employ a Markov-switching process with an absorbing state to model unobserved price recall of households. Reference prices result from the prices households are able to remember. Our model can be used to

  2. The influence of sex difference on self-reference effects in a male-dominated culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xuan; Shang, Rui; Bi, Qi; Zhang, Xin; Wu, Yanhong

    2012-10-01

    52 secondary school students from the Chaoshan, China, area, where males are highly valued, were examined for self-reference, mother-reference, and father-reference effects. Because the father is the primary role model in Chaoshan culture, it was predicted that male participants would demonstrate a father-reference effect while females would show a mother-reference effect. The results confirmed that females showed significant self-, mother-, and father-reference effects in terms of memory performance, while males showed only a significant father-reference effect and a marginally significant self-reference effect. This study highlights the importance of researching subcultures such as the Chaoshan subculture to gain a comprehensive understanding of self-construct.

  3. From House Structure to Gender Relations: Exploring the Na (Mosuo of Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Yunchuan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Architectural features of houses are frequently loaded with meanings expressing fundamental values embedded in social relations. The symbolism of such features is a convenient starting point for exploring the organization of social life. Among the Na of Yunnan province house symbolism raises a range of questions relating to the character of gender relations and the universality of marriage. The qualitative cultural factors structuring gender interactions are analyzed by drawing on perspectives from role analysis. Finally the quantitative behavioral consequences of these interactions are documented. Key words: Na (Mosuo; China; matrilineality; gender relations; house symbolism. DOI: 10.3126/dsaj.v3i0.2780 Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol.3 2009 19-40

  4. Challenges, strategies, and gender relations among parents of children recently diagnosed with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparud-Lundin, Carina; Hallström, Inger; Erlandsson, Lena-Karin

    2013-05-01

    This study explored (a) parents' process of changes and challenges in their patterns of daily activities after the onset of diabetes in their children; and (b) how personal gender relations can restrain or create functional strategies for managing the changes and challenges of illness. Interviews were conducted with 21 mothers and 15 fathers of 23 children with type 1 diabetes 8 to 10 months after onset. Using a constant comparative analysis method, the core category depicts how the illness forced parents to reconstruct their family project with respect to patterns of daily activities and gender structures. The emerging subcategories of reinforced mothering and adjusted fathering illustrate the parents' effort to handle contemporary and contradictory demands. With increased knowledge of the dynamics of gender relations of families in the context of a child's illness, health care professionals can assist in promoting well-being and functional strategies in families when a child is newly diagnosed with diabetes.

  5. Familial and Economic Influences on the Gender-Related Educational and Occupational Aspirations of Rural Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meece, Judith L; Askew, Karyl J S; Agger, Charlotte A; Hutchins, Bryan C; Byun, Soo-Yong

    Economic, occupational, and social shifts in rural economies have influenced nuanced changes in the educational and occupational aspirations of rural adolescent women and men. However, there is limited contemporary research that examines the aspirations of rural adolescents at the beginning of the 21(st) century. Drawing on a sample of 8,756 rural adolescents in the United States, we examine how familial, geographic, and economic variables influence gender-related differences in educational and occupational aspirations. Findings revealed significant gender differences, favoring girls, in youth's educational aspirations, occupational aspirations, and aspirations for nontraditional careers. Results highlight the importance of contextual variables such as parental expectations, family income, and motivation variables in predicting gender-related aspirations of rural youth.

  6. 2016 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey of Active Duty Members: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    OPA), has been conducting surveys of gender issues for the active duty military since 1988. RSSC uses scientific state of the art statistical...misunderstood. The following details some common questions about our methodology as a whole and the 2016 WGRA specifically. 1. What was the population of...subgroups. 2016 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey of Active Duty Members 2017 434 | OPA OPA scientifically weights the data so findings can

  7. Gender-related survival differences associated with EGFR polymorphisms in metastatic colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, Oliver A; Zhang, Wu; Gordon, Michael A; Yang, Dongyun; Lurje, Georg; Iqbal, Syma; El-Khoueiry, Anthony; Lenz, Heinz-Josef

    2008-04-15

    Evidence is accumulating supporting gender-related differences in the development of colonic carcinomas. Sex steroid hormone receptors are expressed in the colon and interact with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a gene widely expressed in colonic tissue. Increased EGFR expression is linked with poor prognosis in colon cancer. Within the EGFR gene there are two functional polymorphisms of interest: a polymorphism located at codon 497 (HER-1 R497K) and a dinucleotide (CA)(n) repeat polymorphism located within intron 1. These germ-line polymorphisms of EGFR were analyzed in genomic DNA from 318 metastatic colon cancer patients, 177 males and 141 females, collected from 1992 to 2003. Gender-related survival differences were associated with the HER-1 R497K polymorphism (P(interaction) = 0.003). Females with the HER-1 497 Arg/Arg variant had better overall survival (OS) when compared with the Lys/Lys and/or Lys/Arg variants. In males the opposite was true. The EGFR dinucleotide (CA)(n) repeat also trended with a gender-related OS difference (P(interaction) = 0.11). Females with both short or=20 (CA)(n) repeats. In males the opposite was true. Combination analysis of the two polymorphisms taken together also revealed the same gender-related survival difference (P(interaction) = 0.002). These associations were observed using multivariable analysis. The two polymorphisms were not in linkage disequilibrium and are independent of one another. This study supports the role of functional EGFR polymorphisms as independent prognostic markers in metastatic colon cancer. As a prognostic factor, these variants had opposite prognostic implications based on gender.

  8. Gender-related differences in β-adrenergic receptor-mediated cardiac remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Baoling; Liu, Kai; Yang, Chengzhi; Qiao, Yuhui; Li, Zijian

    2016-12-01

    Cardiac remodeling is the pathological basis of various cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we found gender-related differences in β-adrenergic receptor (AR)-mediated pathological cardiac remodeling. Cardiac remodeling model was established by subcutaneous injection of isoprenaline (ISO) for 14 days. Heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and echocardiography were obtained on 7th and 14th days during ISO administration. Myocardial cross-sectional area and the ratio of heart mass to tibia length (HM/TL) were detected to assess cardiac hypertrophy. Picro-Sirius red staining (picric acid + Sirius red F3B) was used to evaluate cardiac fibrosis. Myocardial capillary density was assessed by immunohistochemistry for von Willebrand factor. Further, real-time PCR was used to measure the expression of β1-AR and β2-AR. Results showed that ISO induced cardiac remodeling, the extent of which was different between female and male mice. The extent of increase in cardiac wall thickness, myocardial cross-sectional area, and collagen deposition in females was less than that in males. However, no gender-related difference was observed in HR, MAP, cardiac function, and myocardial capillary density. The distinctive decrease of β2-AR expression, rather than a decrease of β1-AR expression, seemed to result in gender-related differences in cardiac remodeling.

  9. Töre (Custurmary Law in the Changing Gender Relation in Central Asia during Pre-Islamic Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilgün Dalkesen

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Before entering under the influence of the Islamic culture and civilization, Turkish and Mongolian societies were administered according to customary law (Töre and yasa. Later, customary law, in front of Islamic law (sharia, preserved its validity and functions at administrative level and among the folk people. These societies both kept their inhereted laws and continued to make new laws when they needed. Throughout history, different social, political factors which effect gender relations. In this article, in order to bring different approach to the debates of customary law (töre, roles of social and political factors in the changing gender roles and women’s status among the pre-Islamic Central Asia are examined from a comarative perspective

  10. Visual Complexity and Its Effects on Referring Expression Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsner, Micha; Clarke, Alasdair; Rohde, Hannah

    2017-06-26

    Speakers' perception of a visual scene influences the language they use to describe it-which objects they choose to mention and how they characterize the relationships between them. We show that visual complexity can either delay or facilitate description generation, depending on how much disambiguating information is required and how useful the scene's complexity can be in providing, for example, helpful landmarks. To do so, we measure speech onset times, eye gaze, and utterance content in a reference production experiment in which the target object is either unique or non-unique in a visual scene of varying size and complexity. Speakers delay speech onset if the target object is non-unique and requires disambiguation, and we argue that this reflects the cost of deciding on a high-level strategy for describing it. The eye-tracking data demonstrate that these delays increase when speakers are able to conduct an extensive early visual search, implying that when speakers scan too little of the scene early on, they may decide to begin speaking before becoming aware that their description is underspecified. Speakers' content choices reflect the visual makeup of the scene-the number of distractors present and the availability of useful landmarks. Our results highlight the complex role of visual perception in reference production, showing that speakers can make good use of complexity in ways that reflect their visual processing of the scene. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  11. Women supporting patients, men curing cancer: gender-related variations among Israeli Arab practitioners of traditional medicine in their treatment of patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popper-Giveon, Ariela; Schiff, Elad; Samuels, Noah; Ben-Arye, Eran

    2015-06-01

    The use of complementary traditional medicine (CTM) is prevalent among patients with cancer. An understanding of cultural and religious values is needed to design an effective patient-centered supportive treatment program. To examine gender-related demographic and professional characteristics; treatment goals and approaches; and attitudes toward integration among Arab practitioners of CTM. Male and female Arab CTM practitioners treating patients with cancer were located by snowballing through practitioner and clientele networks. Participants underwent semi-structured, in-depth interviews which were analyzed thematically, with a focus on gender-related issues. A total of 27 Arab CTM practitioners participated in the study (17 males, 10 females). Female practitioners were found to be treating women exclusively, with male practitioners treating both genders. Female practitioners tend to be younger, unmarried, urban-based and non-Muslim. Male practitioners set out to "cure" the cancer, while female practitioners focus on symptoms and quality of life. Male practitioners employ a more schematic and structured therapeutic approach; female practitioners a more eclectic and practical one. Male practitioners employ a collectivist approach, involving family members, while female practitioners interact exclusively with the patient. Finally, male CTM practitioners see integration as a means for recognition, increasing their power base. In contrast, female practitioners perceive integration as a foothold in fields from which they have previously been shut out. A number of gender-related issues can have a significant impact on CTM therapy among Arab patients. Further research is needed in order to understand the implications of these differences.

  12. Beyond face validity - A comment on Nicholls, Licht, and Pearl. [gender-related personality traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Janet T.; Helmreich, Robert L.

    1983-01-01

    In their discussion of the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI; Bem, 1974) and the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ; Spence and Helmrich, 1978), Nicholls, et al. (1982) blur two issues. The first concerns the legitimacy of equating the clusters of gender-related personality traits tapped by these instruments with the global constructs of masculinity and feminity. The second concerns item similarity between the PAQ and BSRI M scales and measures of self-esteem and the question of whether the several instruments measure the same or separable constructs. Decisions about each of these issues involve complex considerations that do not directly involve face validity.

  13. Comparison of gender relation to information and communication technologies at the to BERG Faculty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Horovčák

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The contribution deals with the valuation of computer literacy poll and students‘ readiness to ICT (Information and Communication Technologies at the beginning of the academic study. The questionnaire was realized in the electronic form and was oriented on data about the students, secondary school, operating and knowledge of ICT, interests and opinion about the course of informatics. By the individual categories, theattention was devoted to the comparison of the gender relation to ICT. The poll results are compared with other available resources. Results of our students’ reconnaissance are better than the results of TNS Company relative to the digital literacy level in Slovakia.

  14. Effects of Reference Performance Testing During Aging Using Commercial Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jon P. Christophersen; Chinh D. Ho; David Howell

    2005-07-01

    The Advanced Technology Development Program, under the oversight of the U.S. Department of Energy’s FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program, is investigating lithium-ion batteries for hybrid-electric vehicle applications. Cells are aged under various test conditions, including temperatures and states-of-charge. Life testing is interrupted at regular intervals to conduct reference performance tests (RPTs), which are used to measure changes in the electrical performance of the cells and then to determine cell degradation as a function of test time. Although designed to be unobtrusive, data from the Advanced Technology Development Gen 2 cells indicated that RPTs actually contributed to cell degradation and failure. A study was performed at the Idaho National Laboratory using commercially available lithium-ion cells to determine the impact of RPTs on life. A series of partial RPTs were performed at regular intervals during life testing and compared to a control group that was life tested without RPT interruption. It was determined that certain components of the RPT were detrimental, while others appeared to improve cell performance. Consequently, a new "mini" RPT was designed as an unobtrusive alternative. Initial testing with commercial cells indicates that the impact of the mini RPT is significantly less than the Gen 2 cell RPT.

  15. Effects Of Radiation On Electronics-Additional References

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouquet, Frank L.

    1988-01-01

    Bibliography abstracts summarizing literature on effects of radiation on new electronic devices. This and second volume cover years 1984 and 1985. Third volume, covers 1982 and 1983 (previously published).

  16. Select Bibliography and Overview of Bunge's Publications Related to the Measurement of Reference Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watstein, Sarah B.

    1999-01-01

    Lists eight journal articles written by Charles Bunge that address the measurement of library reference effectiveness. Topics include determining goals; gathering data to determine effectiveness through user satisfaction; assessing reference output; costs and benefits; interpreting data; and the use of computerized forms to gather data. (LRW)

  17. Impact of air pollution on age and gender related increase in cough reflex sensitivity of healthy children in Slovakia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia eDemoulin-Alexikova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Numerous studies show higher cough reflex sensitivity (CRS and cough outcomes in children compared to adults and in females compared to males. Despite close link that exists between cough and environment the potential influence of environmental air pollution on age- and gender -related differences in cough has not been studied yet. Purpose. The purpose of our study was to analyse whether the effects of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS from parental smoking and PM10 from living in urban area are implied in age- and gender-related differences in cough outcomes of healthy, non asthmatic children. Assessment of CRS using capsaicin and incidence of dry and wet cough was performed in 290 children (mean age 13.3±2.6 yrs (138 females/152 males.Results. CRS was significantly higher in girls exposed to ETS [22.3 μmol/l (9.8 – 50.2 μmol/l] compared to not exposed girls [79.9 μmol/l (56.4 – 112.2 μmol/l, p=0.02] as well as compared to exposed boys [121.4 μmol/l (58.2 – 253.1 μmol/l, p=0.01]. Incidence of dry cough lasting more than 3 weeks was significantly higher in exposed compared to not exposed girls. CRS was significantly higher in school-aged girls living in urban area [22.0 μmol/l (10.6 – 45.6 μmol/l] compared to school-aged girls living in rural area [215.9 μmol/l (87.3 – 533.4 μmol/l; p=0.003], as well as compared to teenage girls living in urban area [108.8 μmol/l (68.7 – 172.9 μmol/l; p=0.007]. No CRS differences were found between urban and rural boys when controlled for age group. No CRS differences were found between school-aged and teenage boys when controlled for living area. Conclusions. Our results have shown that the effect of ETS on CRS was gender specific, linked to female gender and the effect of PM10 on CRS was both gender and age specific, related to female gender and school-age. We suggest that age and gender related differences in incidence of cough and CRS might be, at least

  18. Effects of sleep deprivation with reference to military operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giam, G C

    1997-01-01

    This review discusses the need for sleep, effects of sleep deprivation on behaviour and performance in the military, and sleep management recommendations to optimise combat effectiveness. Most people, regardless of sex or race, prefer 7 to 8 hours of sleep each night. Sleeping during the day is less recuperative. Continuous sleep is more effective than multiple short naps-even when the total hours for naps is more. Ten to 20 minute naps are useful when continuous sleep is not possible. Sleep inertia is the 5 to 30 minute period of sluggishness after awakening and important military tasks should be avoided. Previously, continuous work episodes (CWEs) duration was restricted by limited night vision, unreliable equipment and reduced endurance of military personnel. With improved technology, CWEs are now restricted primarily by endurance which is affected by sleep deprivation. This was one of the experiences noted in recent conflicts (e.g. Desert Storm) by personnel in the air force, army and navy. Since there will be changes in operational requirements, several work-rest-sleep plans must be prepared. Sleeping the preferred 7 to 8 hours per 24 hours the week before an operation may help prepare for optimal performance. Personnel should be familiarised with conditions under which they may sleep. During combat, sleep management should ideally avoid situations where all personnel are exhausted at the same time. As sleep debt accumulates, a person's mood, motivation, attention, alertness, short-term memory, ability to complete routines, task performance (errors of omission more than errors of commission) and physical performance will become more negatively affected. Counter measures must then be taken (e.g. time for sleep or naps, changing routines or rotating jobs). Drugs like caffeine and amphetamine can help personnel stay awake. However, they may also keep them awake when they need to sleep- and on awakening, they could suffer from "hang-overs" and are less efficient

  19. Hematologic reference intervals and age effect in European Strigiformes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agusti Montolio, Susana; Molina López, Rafael; Cray, Carolyn; Lavín González, Santiago; Nicolás Francisco, Olga; Marco Sánchez, Ignasi; Casas-Díaz, Encarna; Cuenca Valera, Rafaela

    2017-09-01

    The clinical importance of hematologic testing in avian veterinary medicine is reflected in the increasing number of studies for the establishment of hematologic RIs of Strigiformes and other species. Age is an important physiologic factor in birds and the effect on hematology variable should be understood. The objective of this study was to determine baseline data of hematologic variables in 5 species of Iberian Strigiformes in different age classes. Nocturnal birds of prey were sampled at Wildlife Health Centers. Packed cell volume was determined by the microhematocrit centrifugation method, and RBC and WBC counts were determined using the direct hemocytometer count method with Natt and Herrick solution. Hemoglobin concentration was measured spectrophotometrically. The MCV, MCHC, and MHC were calculated using the standard formulas. The differential WBC count was performed by the routine microscopic evaluation of 200 cells on a blood smear manually stained with Wright stain. Thrombocyte blood count estimate was obtained from the blood film. No differences were observed between juveniles and adults for any variable evaluated in Tawny owl, Little owl, Scops owl, Long-eared owl, and Barn owl. In addition, PCV, RBC, and HGB of chicks were statistically significantly lower than in juveniles and adults, and total WBC was significantly higher in Tawny owl, Little owl, Scops owl, and Long-eared owl. Our findings provide evidence that laboratory data from chicks of Strigiformes are different compared to juveniles and adults; therefore, separate RIs were defined. © 2017 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  20. Gender-related Histological Changes in the Thymus Gland After Pinealectomy and Short-term Melatonin Treatment in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susko, Irfan; Alicelebic, Selma; Cosovic, Esad; Sahinovic, Maida; Kapic, Dina; Custovic, Samra; Muzika, Visnja

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pinealectomy and melatonin treatment on the rat thymus gland characteristics, taking into consideration possible gender differences. Thirty adult Wistar rats of both sexes were divided into three groups. Group C and group PX served as control groups and included sham-pinealectomized and pinealectomized animals that were treated with 10% ethanol solution (0,1ml/daily, subcutaneous). Animals from third group (group PXM) underwent pinealectomy and seven days after surgery started receiving melatonin dissolved in 10% ethanol solution (3mg/kg/daily, subcutaneous). All animals were treated for 4 weeks. Volume density of the thymus cortex showed statistically significant (pthymus medulla was increased in the pinealectomized compared to the sham-pinealectomized female rats. Numerical density of macrophages as well as the distribution of blood vessels showed no gender differences. The numerical density of lymphocytes was statistically significantly decreased in female in comparison to the male pinealectomized rats. Melatonin treatment was proved to cause reverse effects in the sense that the results from the melatonin treated group corresponded to the results obtained from the control group of animals. The results of this study suggest that the pinealectomy causes gender-related changes in the rat thymus. Short-term melatonin treatment showed reverse effect, equally in both sexes.

  1. EMERGENT GENDER RELATIONS IN FEMALE EMPLOYMENT WITHIN THE SOCIAL STRATIFICATION IN RURAL INDIA

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    Sanghamitra Kanjilal Bhaduri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper has presented an empirical picture of inequalities, both within and outside the labour market for women, from gender relations emerging within the framework of overlapping social stratification in rural India. Analysis is based on secondary data, where the emphasis is not only on measurement of quantitative variables, but also on the interactions between various qualitative, socio-economic and socio-cultural variables. Main finding of the present study is that the participation of women in labour force varies across economic classes, social groups, religions, regions and the rural urban divide. Factors determining labour supply decisions of women are different from those of men. Interconnectedness of female employment with other social parameters which are outside the realm of the standard labour market analysis gets highlighted in the study.

  2. EMERGENT GENDER RELATIONS IN FEMALE EMPLOYMENT WITHIN THE SOCIAL STRATIFICATION IN RURAL INDIA

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    Sanghamitra Kanjilal Bhaduri

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper has presented an empirical picture of inequalities, both within and outside the labour market for women, from gender relations emerging within the framework of overlapping social stratification in rural India. Analysis is based on secondary data, where the emphasis is not only on measurement of quantitative variables, but also on the interactions between various qualitative, socio-economic and socio-cultural variables. Main finding of the present study is that the participation of women in labour force varies across economic classes, social groups, religions, regions and the rural urban divide. Factors determining labour supply decisions of women are different from those of men. Interconnectedness of female employment with other social parameters which are outside the realm of the standard labour market analysis gets highlighted in the study.

  3. Ischemic heart disease and primary care: identifying gender-related differences. An observational study

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    Real Jordi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gender-related differences are seen in multiple aspects of both health and illness. Ischemic heart disease (IHD is a pathology in which diagnostic, treatment and prognostic differences are seen between sexes, especially in the acute phase and in the hospital setting. The objective of the present study is to analyze whether there are differences between men and women when examining associated cardiovascular risk factors and secondary pharmacological prevention in the primary care setting. Methods Retrospective descriptive observational study from January to December of 2006, including 1907 patients diagnosed with ischemic heart disease in the city of Lleida, Spain. The clinical data were obtained from computerized medical records and pharmaceutical records of medications dispensed in pharmacies with official prescriptions. Data was analyzed using bivariate descriptive statistical analysis as well as logistic regression. Results There were no gender-related differences in screening percentages for arterial hypertension, diabetes, obesity, dyslipemia, and smoking. A greater percentage of women were hypertensive, obese and diabetic compared to men. However, men showed a tendency to achieve control targets more easily than women, with no statistically significant differences. In both sexes cardiovascular risk factors control was inadequate, between 10 and 50%. For secondary pharmaceutical prevention, the percentages of prescriptions were greater in men for anticoagulants, beta-blockers, lipid-lowering agents and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers, with age group variations up to 10%. When adjusting by age and specific diagnoses, differences were maintained for anticoagulants and lipid-lowering agents. Conclusion Screening of cardiovascular risk factors was similar in men and women with IHD. Although a greater percentage of women were hypertensive, diabetic or obese, their management of risk

  4. Sonification of reference markers for auditory graphs: effects on non-visual point estimation tasks

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    Oussama Metatla

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Research has suggested that adding contextual information such as reference markers to data sonification can improve interaction with auditory graphs. This paper presents results of an experiment that contributes to quantifying and analysing the extent of such benefits for an integral part of interacting with graphed data: point estimation tasks. We examine three pitch-based sonification mappings; pitch-only, one-reference, and multiple-references that we designed to provide information about distance from an origin. We assess the effects of these sonifications on users’ performances when completing point estimation tasks in a between-subject experimental design against visual and speech control conditions. Results showed that the addition of reference tones increases users accuracy with a trade-off for task completion times, and that the multiple-references mapping is particularly effective when dealing with points that are positioned at the midrange of a given axis.

  5. Age- and gender-related characteristics of the pubic symphysis and triradiate cartilage in pediatric computed tomography

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    Bayer, Joerg; Suedkamp, Norbert P.; Reising, Kilian [Medical Centre -University of Freiburg, Department of Orthopedics and Trauma Surgery, Freiburg (Germany); Neubauer, Jakob [Medical Centre - University of Freiburg, Department of Radiology, Freiburg (Germany); Saueressig, Ulrich [Kreiskrankenhaus Emmendingen, Department of Radiology, Emmendingen (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    There is little information on the pubic symphysis' normal CT appearance in children. We sought to generate age-, gender- and maturity-related symphyseal width appearances in CT scans. Pelvic CT scans performed for any reason during a 6-year period in patients younger than 18 years were retrospectively analyzed. The symphysis width was measured in the axial plane and the triradiate cartilage was classified as open or closed. Four hundred twenty-seven CT scans were evaluated and 350 remained for analysis. Age- and gender-related measurements of the symphysis width are illustrated on various centile graphs. When grouping children by age in years 0-6, 7-11, 12-15 and 16-17, mean (standard deviation) symphysis width was 5.4 mm (0.9), 5.3 mm (1.1), 4.1 mm (1.1) and 3.5 mm (1.0), respectively, in girls and 5.9 mm (1.3), 5.4 mm (1.2), 5.2 mm (1.1) and 4.0 mm (1.0), respectively, in boys. Boys and girls were significantly different in the age groups 12-15 years (P<0.001) and 16-17 years (P=0.04). In the mature pelvis, the symphyseal gap is significantly (P<0.001) shorter in both genders, and in girls compared to boys (P=0.04). The pubic symphysis width in children differs according to age, gender and maturity. The reference values published herein may help detect symphyseal injury. (orig.)

  6. [Gender-related achievements and challenges in the 2006 National Health Survey: analysis of adults and households].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Cantero, María Teresa; Carrasco-Portiño, Mercedes; Artazcoz, Lucía

    2011-01-01

    To examine the ability of the 2006 Spanish Health Survey (SHS-2006) to analyze the population's health from a gender perspective and identify gender-related inequalities in health, and to compare the 2006 version with that of 2003. A contents analysis of the adults and households questionnaires was performed from the gender perspective, taking gender as (a) the basis of social norms and values, (b) the organizer of social structure: gender division of labor, double workload, vertical/horizontal segregation, and access to resources and power, and (c) a component of individual identity. The 2006 SHS uses neutral language. The referent is the interviewee, substituting the head of the family/breadwinner of past surveys. A new section focuses on reproductive labor (caregiving and domestic tasks) and the time distribution for these tasks. However, some limitations in the questions about time distribution were identified, hampering accurate estimations. The time devoted to paid labor is not recorded. The 2006 version includes new information about family commitments as an obstacle to accessing healthcare and on the delay between seeking and receiving healthcare appointments. The SHS 2006 introduces sufficient variations to confirm its improvement from a gender perspective. Future surveys should reformulate the questions about the time devoted to paid and reproductive labor, which is essential to characterize gender division of labor and double workload. Updating future versions of the SHS will also involve gathering information on maternity/paternity and parental leave. The 2006 survey allows delays in receiving healthcare to be measured, but does not completely allow other delays, such as diagnostic and treatment delays, to be quantified. Copyright © 2010 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Graphical Arrays of Chemical-Specific Health Effect Reference Values for Inhalation Exposures (2009 Final Report)

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    This document provides graphical arrays and tables of key information on the derivation of human inhalation health effect reference values for specific chemicals, allowing comparisons across durations, populations, and intended use. A number of program offices within the Agency, ...

  8. Effect of yoga training on lipid metabolism in industrial workers with reference to body constitution (Prakriti

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    Suchitra Doddoli

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: The study concludes that yoga practices can effectively regulate lipid metabolism and total body energy expenditure with reference to specific constitutional type (Prakriti that may act as a tool to assess magnitude of metabolic functions.

  9. Couples' joint decision-making: the construction and validation of a key proxy for understanding gender relations in contemporary families

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    Maira Covre-Sussai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Gender relations have become a key dimension in family studies, and understanding gender relations as both determining and resulting from outcome of new family configurations requires the use of specific surveys aimed at the dynamics of couples. Unfortunately, nationally representative surveys of this type are not available for Latin American countries. Nonetheless, the most recent versions of the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS include a section called "Women's Status and Empowerment", which can provide information about gender relations as well. This study aims at assessing the construct of gender relations in terms of couples' joint decision-making for all five Brazilian geographical regions. To this end, a step-by-step multi-group confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA was applied in order to verify whether this concept can be compared across Brazilian regions. Results show that the DHS items can be used reliably for measuring couples' joint decision-making and that this construct can be meaningfully compared over the regions. These findings will contribute to further demographic and sociological research on gender relations which can use this concept and other indicators provided by the DHS to identify the causal processes related to it.

  10. 'Women now wear trousers': men's perceptions of family planning in the context of changing gender relations in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, Mellissa; Dworkin, Shari L; Zakaras, Jennifer M; Onono, Maricianah; Oyier, Beryl; Cohen, Craig R; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Grossman, Daniel; Newmann, Sara J

    2015-01-01

    Gender inequity has been closely linked with unmet need for family planning among women in sub-Saharan Africa but the factors related to male family planning disapproval are not well-understood. This qualitative study explored men's perspectives of gender roles and cultural norms as they pertain to family planning. Twelve small group meetings were held with 106 married men in Nyanza Province, Kenya. Shifting gender relations made the definitions of manhood more tenuous than ever. Men's previous identities as sole breadwinners, which gave them significant control over decision-making, were being undermined by women's increasing labour force participation. While many men viewed family planning positively, fears that family planning would lead to more female sexual agency and promiscuity or that male roles would be further jeopardised were widespread and were major deterrents to male family planning approval. By addressing such fears, gender-sensitive programmes could help more men to accept family planning. Increased family planning education for men is needed to dispel misconceptions regarding family planning side-effects. Focusing on the advantages of family planning, namely financial benefits and reduced conflict among couples, could resonate with men. Community leaders, outreach workers and healthcare providers could help shift men's approval of joint decision-making around family size to other reproductive domains, such as family planning use.

  11. Prenatal sex hormones (maternal and amniotic fluid) and gender-related play behavior in 13-month-old Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Beek, Cornelieke; van Goozen, Stephanie H M; Buitelaar, Jan K; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T

    2009-02-01

    Testosterone, estradiol, and progesterone levels were measured in the second trimester of pregnancy in maternal serum and amniotic fluid, and related to direct observations of gender-related play behavior in 63 male and 63 female offspring at age 13 months. During a structured play session, sex differences in toy preference were found: boys played more with masculine toys than girls (d = .53) and girls played more with feminine toys than boys (d = .35). Normal within-sex variation in prenatal testosterone and estradiol levels was not significantly related to preference for masculine or feminine toys. For progesterone, an unexpected significant positive relationship was found in boys between the level in amniotic fluid and masculine toy preference. The mechanism explaining this relationship is presently not clear, and the finding may be a spurious one. The results of this study may indicate that a hormonal basis for the development of sex-typed toy preferences may manifest itself only after toddlerhood. It may also be that the effect size of this relationship is so small that it should be investigated with more sensitive measures or in larger populations.

  12. Long-term survival after use of internal thoracic artery in octogenarians is gender related.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Arun K; Maslow, Andrew D; Machan, Jason T; Fingleton, James G; Feng, William C; Schwartz, Carl; Rotenberg, Fred A; Bert, Arthur A

    2015-10-01

    The goal of this study is to assess the benefits of a left internal thoracic artery as a bypass conduit in octogenarians undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting. We hypothesize that there is no survival advantage and that outcome may be gender related. In a retrospective analysis of 1141 octogenarians (aged >80 years) undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting from 1996 to 2012, patients were divided into 2 groups: Group I (coronary artery bypass grafting-left internal thoracic artery) included 870 patients (339 female/531 male), and group II (coronary artery bypass grafting-saphenous vein graft) included 271 patients (131 female/140 male). The overall 30-day mortality was 5.7%: 4.3% in group I and 7.0% in group II (P = .1). Group II had a lower trend of any postoperative complication (P = .05) and pneumonia (P = .05). When analyzed by gender, there were no discernable differences in long-term survival for male patients in group I (65% at 5 years and 29% at 10 years) versus male patients in group II (65% at 5 years and 31% at 10 years) (P = .2). However, survival was significantly greater for female patients in group I (70% at 5 years and 35% at 10 years) versus female patients in group II (63% at 5 years and 21% at 19 years) (P = .01). Multiple logistic and Cox regression analysis showed that left internal thoracic artery use is associated with improved survival in female patients (hazard ratio [HR], 0.72; confidence interval [CI], 0.56-0.93) but not in male patients (HR, 1.14; CI, 0.9-1.4). Advanced age was associated with an increased risk of mortality (HR, 1.08 per year; CI, 1.05-1.1). Both patient age (P = .01) and Society of Thoracic Surgeons-predicted 30-day mortality (P = .03) remain in the final model for 30-day mortality. The benefit of the left internal thoracic artery after coronary artery bypass grafting in octogenarians may be gender related. This study shows that the benefit of the left internal thoracic artery in the

  13. Non-linear Analysis of Scalp EEG by Using Bispectra: The Effect of the Reference Choice

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    Federico Chella

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Bispectral analysis is a signal processing technique that makes it possible to capture the non-linear and non-Gaussian properties of the EEG signals. It has found various applications in EEG research and clinical practice, including the assessment of anesthetic depth, the identification of epileptic seizures, and more recently, the evaluation of non-linear cross-frequency brain functional connectivity. However, the validity and reliability of the indices drawn from bispectral analysis of EEG signals are potentially biased by the use of a non-neutral EEG reference. The present study aims at investigating the effects of the reference choice on the analysis of the non-linear features of EEG signals through bicoherence, as well as on the estimation of cross-frequency EEG connectivity through two different non-linear measures, i.e., the cross-bicoherence and the antisymmetric cross-bicoherence. To this end, four commonly used reference schemes were considered: the vertex electrode (Cz, the digitally linked mastoids, the average reference, and the Reference Electrode Standardization Technique (REST. The reference effects were assessed both in simulations and in a real EEG experiment. The simulations allowed to investigated: (i the effects of the electrode density on the performance of the above references in the estimation of bispectral measures; and (ii the effects of the head model accuracy in the performance of the REST. For real data, the EEG signals recorded from 10 subjects during eyes open resting state were examined, and the distortions induced by the reference choice in the patterns of alpha-beta bicoherence, cross-bicoherence, and antisymmetric cross-bicoherence were assessed. The results showed significant differences in the findings depending on the chosen reference, with the REST providing superior performance than all the other references in approximating the ideal neutral reference. In conclusion, this study highlights the importance of

  14. Effects of communication with important social referents on beliefs and intentions to use condoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strader, M K; Beaman, M L; McSweeney, M

    1992-06-01

    Data from a 1989 survey using the condom attitude and belief instrument with 310 clients from two sexually transmitted disease clinics identified significant social referents who influence condom-use intentions. They are sexual partner, father and friends. The present study found that communication with these referents had a positive net effect on beliefs about and intentions to use condoms. Implications applicable for intervention programmes to increase condom use are to promote talking about condoms between the sexual partners and important social referents and to develop such communication skills.

  15. Nurses' daily life: gender relations from the time spent in hospital

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    Audrey Vidal Pereira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the everyday life of nurses through the sexual work division as well as through interdependence relations and the time in hospital.Method: quanti-qualitative study, based on the Time Use Survey and in Norbert Elias's Configuration Theory of Interdependencies. Daily shifts distribution record, directed by 42 participants - with self-confrontation - by interviews which drew dialogues on subjective aspects of the everyday experiences related to use of time, based on a job at a university hospital. The theoretical intake that founded data analysis was based on concepts of conflicts of interest, power struggles, sexual work division and polychronic-monochronic concepts - whether the work environment demands multitasking nurses or not.Results: time records allowed to observe differences between the groups studied, useful to identify conflicts, tensions, power struggles and gender inequalities in interviewees' everyday affairs that do not only affect physical and mental health, but also their way of life.Conclusion: the analytical path pointed out the need for public policies that promote equity in gender relations, keeping at sight the exercise of plural discourses and tolerant stances capable to respect differences between individual and collective time.

  16. Gender-related diet composition and morphometry of the Restinga Antwren, Formicivora littoralis (Aves: Thamnophilidae

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    Flávia G. Chaves

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Formicivora littoralis (Gonzaga and Pacheco, 1990, the Restinga Antwren, considered the only endemic bird species of the Restinga ecosystem (sandy plain coastal vegetation, is threatened with extinction. The scientific literature provides little information on the biology of this bird, which was discovered in 1990. We evaluate gender-related differences in the composition of the diet and morphometric measurements of this species. We tested the hypothesis that the sexes differ in what they eat and in morphometric characters. Our results revealed that the diet of the Restinga Antwren includes mainly arthropods, which is consistent with the diets of other Thamnophilidae. The lack of differences in the composition of the diet between the sexes does not support the hypothesis that habitat partitioning to avoid intraspecific competition is taking place. We found significant differences in six morphometric measurements, two in the beak and four in body size. It is possible that intraspecific differences between the sexes are a result of sexual selection, a hypothesis that needs to be tested.

  17. Jealousy and violence in dating relationships: gender-related differences among a Spanish sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastián, Julia; Verdugo, Alba; Ortiz, Beatriz

    2014-12-19

    The present study analyzes violent behavior (psychological, physical, and sexual violence) that may occur in dating relationships. Data was collected from couples of adolescents and young adults in a sample of 579 students from the region of Madrid, consisting of 319 females and 260 males aged between 12 and 22 years. A novel aspect of this study compared with the great majority of published studies is analysis of a) the frequency of violent behaviors (and not only their presence or absence) to study significant mean differences and b) potential gender and age related differences in the patterns of violence. Results indicate the high prevalence of violence in Spanish dating relationships. Specifically, females carry out more mild physical (p < .001) and psychological violence (p < .05), whereas males perpetrate more sexual violence (p < .001). However, with regard to victimization, no significant gender related differences in frequency were found between boys and girls in any type of violence. With regard to age, young adolescents perform (p < .05) and suffer (p < .01) significantly more jealous behavior, whereas the young adults of our sample commit and suffer more sexual violence (p < .05). Directions for future research are outlined, mainly concerning instruments used that ought to be more sensitive to the reality being measured.

  18. Gender-related differences in reasoning skills and learning interests of junior high school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemesh, Michal

    The purpose of this study was to investigate gender-related differences in the relationship between the development of formal reasoning skills and learning interests during the early adolescent stage. For this purpose, 249 students, from seventh to ninth grade, were assessed for their level of mastery of formal reasoning skills by a test based on videotaped simple experiments. Learning interests were assessed by a written response to an open question. Results showed that adolescent boys develop patterns of formal reasoning before their girl classmates. In addition, boys tend to prefer science and technology subjects, while girls tend to prefer language, social studies, and humanities. Analysis of interactions showed that boys' tendency toward science and technology is positively correlated to their age and development of formal reasoning, while girls' tendency to the above subjects is positively related to their development of formal reasoning capacity, but inversely related to their age. Possible explanations to the above-described findings and suggestions for instructional modes that may increase girls' interest in science and technology are discussed.

  19. Not so ‘invisible’: A Qualitative Case Study Exploring Gender Relations and Farm Management Software

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    Dale Carolyn Mackrell

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative case study explored farm management practices by women cotton growers who used computer-based information systems, most particularly the agricultural farm management software, CottonLOGIC, within the Australian cotton industry. This study found that, although gender differences and inequalities persist in rural parts of the region, the agency of women cotton growers ensures not only a sustainable future for themselves and their families, but also for the broader cotton industry as a whole. The use of farm management software by women cotton farmers was informed by Connell’s theoretical framework of gender relations (2002. The findings suggested that, women’s active participation in family farm partnerships and their acquisition of technological skills through the use of farm management software like CottonLOGIC, meant that all cotton growers benefit through the feminizing of specific farm management practices in family farm enterprises. This, therefore, has significant implications for developing the cotton industry into a truly sustainable entity.

  20. Gender-related factors influencing tuberculosis control in shantytowns: a qualitative study

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    Alva Jessica

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence that female gender is associated with reduced likelihood of tuberculosis diagnosis and successful treatment. This study aimed to characterize gender-related barriers to tuberculosis control in Peruvian shantytowns. Methods We investigated attitudes and experiences relating gender to tuberculosis using the grounded theory approach to describe beliefs amongst key tuberculosis control stakeholders. These issues were explored in 22 semi-structured interviews and in four focus group discussions with 26 tuberculosis patients and 17 healthcare workers. Results We found that the tuberculosis program was perceived not to be gender discriminatory and provided equal tuberculosis diagnostic and treatment care to men and women. This contrasted with stereotypical gender roles in the broader community context and a commonly expressed belief amongst patients and healthcare workers that female health inherently has a lower priority than male health. This belief was principally associated with men's predominant role in the household economy and limited employment for women in this setting. Women were also generally reported to experience the adverse psychosocial and economic consequences of tuberculosis diagnosis more than men. Conclusions There was a common perception that women's tuberculosis care was of secondary importance to that of men. This reflected societal gender values and occurred despite apparent gender equality in care provision. The greatest opportunities for improving women's access to tuberculosis care appear to be in improving social, political and economic structures, more than tuberculosis program modification.

  1. Gender related differences in response to "in favor of myself" wellness program to enhance positive self & body image among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golan, Moria; Hagay, Noa; Tamir, Snait

    2014-01-01

    Physical, neurological and psychological changes are often experienced differently by male and female adolescents. Positive self-esteem, emotional well-being, school achievements, and family connectedness are considered as protective factors against health-compromising behaviors. This study examines the gender differences in respect to the effect of a school-based interactive wellness program--"In Favor of Myself"--on self-image, body image, eating attitudes and behaviors of young adolescents. Two hundred and ten adolescents (mean age 13.5) participated in the intervention group, 55% were girls and 45% boys. Program consisted of eight 90-minutes structured sessions integrated into a regular school coping skills curriculum. The program focused on self-esteem, self-image, body image, media literacy and cognitive dissonance. The overall impact of the program and the study protocol were previously published. Overall, there are gender related differences in respect to body image and self-image in young adolescents in response to "In Favor of Myself". Compared to boys, girls reported at baseline higher self-esteem, being more contingent by appearance, and their self-image was more influenced by popularity, appearance, interpersonal communication and admired people. Furthermore girls presented greater gap between current body figure and perceived ideal figure. Not only were girls more dissatisfied with their body, but they were more active in attempts to become and/or remain "thin". At program termination, gender × time effect was detected in reduction of self-worth contingent by others, change in importance given to achievements at schools, parents' perceptions, as well as the impact of comparisons to friends and family members on self-image. Girls exhibited more gains than boys from 'In Favor of Myself' which raise the questions about how effective would be the program when delivered in mixed gender groups vs. mono-gender groups.

  2. Gender related differences in response to "in favor of myself" wellness program to enhance positive self & body image among adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moria Golan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physical, neurological and psychological changes are often experienced differently by male and female adolescents. Positive self-esteem, emotional well-being, school achievements, and family connectedness are considered as protective factors against health-compromising behaviors. This study examines the gender differences in respect to the effect of a school-based interactive wellness program--"In Favor of Myself"--on self-image, body image, eating attitudes and behaviors of young adolescents. METHODS: Two hundred and ten adolescents (mean age 13.5 participated in the intervention group, 55% were girls and 45% boys. Program consisted of eight 90-minutes structured sessions integrated into a regular school coping skills curriculum. The program focused on self-esteem, self-image, body image, media literacy and cognitive dissonance. The overall impact of the program and the study protocol were previously published. RESULTS: Overall, there are gender related differences in respect to body image and self-image in young adolescents in response to "In Favor of Myself". Compared to boys, girls reported at baseline higher self-esteem, being more contingent by appearance, and their self-image was more influenced by popularity, appearance, interpersonal communication and admired people. Furthermore girls presented greater gap between current body figure and perceived ideal figure. Not only were girls more dissatisfied with their body, but they were more active in attempts to become and/or remain "thin". At program termination, gender × time effect was detected in reduction of self-worth contingent by others, change in importance given to achievements at schools, parents' perceptions, as well as the impact of comparisons to friends and family members on self-image. CONCLUSIONS: Girls exhibited more gains than boys from 'In Favor of Myself' which raise the questions about how effective would be the program when delivered in mixed gender groups

  3. Word learning in adults with second-language experience: effects of phonological and referent familiarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Yoo, Jeewon; Van Hecke, Stephanie

    2013-04-01

    The goal of this research was to examine whether phonological familiarity exerts different effects on novel word learning for familiar versus unfamiliar referents and whether successful word learning is associated with increased second-language experience. Eighty-one adult native English speakers with various levels of Spanish knowledge learned phonologically familiar novel words (constructed using English sounds) or phonologically unfamiliar novel words (constructed using non-English and non-Spanish sounds) in association with either familiar or unfamiliar referents. Retention was tested via a forced-choice recognition task. A median-split procedure identified high-ability and low-ability word learners in each condition, and the two groups were compared on measures of second-language experience. Findings suggest that the ability to accurately match newly learned novel names to their appropriate referents is facilitated by phonological familiarity only for familiar referents but not for unfamiliar referents. Moreover, more extensive second-language learning experience characterized superior learners primarily in one word-learning condition: in which phonologically unfamiliar novel words were paired with familiar referents. Together, these findings indicate that phonological familiarity facilitates novel word learning only for familiar referents and that experience with learning a second language may have a specific impact on novel vocabulary learning in adults.

  4. Word learning in adults with second language experience: Effects of phonological and referent familiarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Yoo, Jeewon; Van Hecke, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this research was to examine whether phonological familiarity exerts different effects on novel word learning for familiar vs. unfamiliar referents, and whether successful word-learning is associated with increased second-language experience. Method Eighty-one adult native English speakers with various levels of Spanish knowledge learned phonologically-familiar novel words (constructed using English sounds) or phonologically-unfamiliar novel words (constructed using non-English and non-Spanish sounds) in association with either familiar or unfamiliar referents. Retention was tested via a forced-choice recognition-task. A median-split procedure identified high-ability and low-ability word-learners in each condition, and the two groups were compared on measures of second-language experience. Results Findings suggest that the ability to accurately match newly-learned novel names to their appropriate referents is facilitated by phonological familiarity only for familiar referents but not for unfamiliar referents. Moreover, more extensive second-language learning experience characterized superior learners primarily in one word-learning condition: Where phonologically-unfamiliar novel words were paired with familiar referents. Conclusions Together, these findings indicate that phonological familiarity facilitates novel word learning only for familiar referents, and that experience with learning a second language may have a specific impact on novel vocabulary learning in adults. PMID:22992709

  5. Effect of alcohol references in music on alcohol consumption in public drinking places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Rutger C M E; Slettenhaar, Gert; ter Bogt, Tom; Scholte, Ron H J

    2011-01-01

    People are exposed to many references to alcohol, which might influence their consumption of alcohol directly. In a field experiment, we tested whether textual references to alcohol in music played in bars lead to higher revenues of alcoholic beverages. We created two databases: one contained songs referring to alcohol, the parallel database contained songs with matching artists, tempo, and energetic content, but no references to alcohol. Customers of three bars were exposed to either music textually referring to alcohol or to the control condition, resulting in 23 evenings in both conditions. Bartenders were instructed to play songs with references to alcohol (or not) during a period of 2 hours each of the evenings of interest. They were not blind to the experimental condition. The results showed that customers who were exposed to music with textual references to alcohol spent significantly more on alcoholic drinks compared to customers in the control condition. This pilot study provides preliminary evidence that alcohol-related lyrics directly affect alcohol consumption in public drinking places. Since our study is one of the first testing direct effects of music lyrics on consumption, our small-scale, preliminary study needs replication before firm conclusions can be drawn. Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  6. Effect of enalapril in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats; gender-related difference

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    Zohreh Zamani

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Enalapril as an ACE inhibitor failed to ameliorate nephrotoxicity induced by CP in both male and female rats. In addition, enalapril aggravated CP-induced nephrotoxicity in female possibly due to gender-dependent RAS response.

  7. Inbreeding depression and purging in a haplodiplois: gender-related effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tien, N.S.H.; Sabelis, M.W.; Egas, M.

    2015-01-01

    Compared with diploid species, haplodiploids suffer less inbreeding depression because male haploidy imposes purifying selection on recessive deleterious alleles. However, alleles of genes only expressed in the diploid females are protected in heterozygous individuals. This leads to the prediction

  8. Inbreeding Depression and Purging in a Haplodiploid: Gender-Related Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tien, N.S.H.; Sabelis, M.W.; Egas, M.

    2015-01-01

    Compared with diploid species, haplodiploids suffer less inbreeding depression because male haploidy imposes purifying selection on recessive deleterious alleles. However, alleles of genes only expressed in the diploid females are protected in heterozygous individuals. This leads to the prediction

  9. Higher?order ionospheric effects on the GPS reference frame and velocities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrie, E.J.; King, M.A.; Moore, P.; Lavallée, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    We describe how GPS time series are influenced by higher?order ionospheric effects over the last solar cycle (1995–2008) and examine implications for geophysical studies. Using 14 years of globally reprocessed solutions, we demonstrate the effect on the reference frame. Including second? and

  10. Teacher Frame of Reference and the Big-Fish-Little-Pond Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludtke, O.; Koller, O.; Marsh, H.W.; Trautwein, U.

    2005-01-01

    Teachers with an individualized teacher frame of reference (TFR) emphasize improvement in relation to prior achievement, effort, and learning. Individualized TFRs were hypothesized to enhance self-concept and reduce the negative effects associated with the big fish little pond effect (BFLPE). Math achievement and math self-concept data (2150…

  11. Do Transmasculine Speakers Present with Gender-Related Voice Problems? Insights from a Participant-Centered Mixed-Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azul, David; Arnold, Aron; Neuschaefer-Rube, Christiane

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there are indications of gender-related voice problems in our transmasculine participants and to analyze how discrepancies between participant self-evaluations and researcher-led examinations can be best negotiated to ensure a participant-centered interpretation. Method: We conducted a…

  12. Analyzing Ethics in the Administration of Interscholastic Sports: Three Key Gender-Related Ethical Dilemmas Faced by Educational Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisenant, Warren A.; Pedersen, Paul M.; Clavio, Galen

    2010-01-01

    Athletic administrators and decision makers within interscholastic athletics are expected to embrace a code of ethics that serves as a set of rules to guide their professional behavior. Included within this code are areas of controversy that present gender-related ethical dilemmas for administrators. Three specific ethical dilemmas involve (1)…

  13. Gender relations, gender-based violence and sport for development and peace : Questions, concerns and cautions emerging from Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayhurst, Lyndsay M C; MacNeill, Margaret; Kidd, Bruce; Knoppers, Annelies

    2014-01-01

    In this study we discuss how gender relations are influenced by a 'girls only' martial arts-based sport, gender and development (SGD) programme that aims to improve young women's discipline, leadership skills and self-defence capabilities in a rural Ugandan community with widespread domestic and

  14. Gender-related inequalities in the division of family work in close relationships: A social psychological perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluwer, E.S.; Mikula, G.

    2003-01-01

    We offer a social psychological perspective on gender-related inequalities in close relationships and integrate two lines of research that have focused on the intrapersonal perceptions and interpersonal consequences respectively of the gendered division of labour. We start with a brief summary of

  15. Prenatal sex hormones (maternal and amniotic fluid) and gender-related play behavior in 13-month-old Infants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, C.; Goozen, S.H.M. van; Buitelaar, J.K.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.

    2009-01-01

    Testosterone, estradiol, and progesterone levels were measured in the second trimester of pregnancy in maternal serum and amniotic fluid, and related to direct observations of gender-related play behavior in 63 male and 63 female offspring at age 13 months. During a structured play session, sex

  16. Gender-Related Barriers and Delays in Accessing Tuberculosis Diagnostic and Treatment Services: A Systematic Review of Qualitative Studies

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    Lakshmi Krishnan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Tuberculosis (TB remains a significant global public health problem with known gender-related (male versus female disparities. We reviewed the qualitative evidence (written/spoken narrative for gender-related differences limiting TB service access from symptom onset to treatment initiation. Methods. Following a systematic process, we searched 12 electronic databases, included qualitative studies that assessed gender differences in accessing TB diagnostic and treatment services, abstracted data, and assessed study validity. Using a modified “inductive coding” system, we synthesized emergent themes within defined barriers and delays limiting access at the individual and provider/system levels and examined gender-related differences. Results. Among 13,448 studies, 28 studies were included. All were conducted in developing countries and assessed individual-level barriers; 11 (39% assessed provider/system-level barriers, 18 (64% surveyed persons with suspected or diagnosed TB, and 7 (25% exclusively surveyed randomly sampled community members or health care workers. Each barrier affected both genders but had gender-variable nature and impact reflecting sociodemographic themes. Women experienced financial and physical dependence, lower general literacy, and household stigma, whereas men faced work-related financial and physical barriers and community-based stigma. Conclusions. In developing countries, barriers limiting access to TB care have context-specific gender-related differences that can inform integrated interventions to optimize TB services.

  17. Negotiation of Gender Relations Meaning among Female Interpretation Community in Housing and Village Settlement

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    Sri Budi Lestari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The sitcom of Husbands fearing Wives (SSTI-Suami-Suami Takut Istri, is one of the private television sitcoms which highlights violence as a joke to provoke laughter of its audiences. In SSTI, the joke involves the concept of gender, exchanging the role of women and men which has been socially and culturally constructed. One of the main objectives of this study is to analyze the role of the interpretation community in understanding the gender relations in SSTI sitcom. The study aims to discover the media interpretation by a group of female audiences living in the village and sub-district of Tembalang, Semarang. The results show that the negotiation of interpretation community on SSTI sitcom is not in line with the goal of the media; because the nature of men and women roles that are exchanged is interpreted as an “abnormal” relation. Therefore, the hierarchical power relation between men and women which tends to disadvantage women, for interpretation community is regarded as a normal & natural.Tayangan sinetron komedi Suami-suami Takut Istri (SSTI, merupakan salah satu program televisi swasta yang menonjolkan kekerasan sebagai lelucon untuk tujuan memancing tawa. Dalam prakteknya SSTI melibatkan konsep jender, yang mempertukarkan sifat-sifat perempuan dan laki-laki  sebagai hasil kontruksi secara sosial maupun kultural. Salah satu tujuan penelitian ini ingin menganalisis peran komunitas interpretasi dalam pemaknaan tentang relasi jender pada tayangan sinetron SSTI. Penelitian ini berlangsung pada penonton perempuan yang tinggal di perumahan dan perkampungan wilayah kecamatan Tembalang, kota Semarang. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa negosiasi komunitas interpretasi pada tayangan sinetron SSTI tidak sejalan dengan arahan media karena ternyata sifat laki-laki dan perempuan yang dipertuarkan dimaknai sebagai relasi yang tidak ‘normal’. Dengan demikian relasi kuasa hirarkis antara laki-laki dan perempuan  yang cenderung merugikan

  18. Transmasculine people's vocal situations: a critical review of gender-related discourses and empirical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azul, David

    2015-01-01

    Transmasculine people assigned female sex at birth but who do not identify with this classification have traditionally received little consideration in the voice literature. Some voice researchers and clinicians suggest that transmasculine people do not need attention because testosterone treatment leads to a satisfactory masculinization of their voice organs and voices. Others, however, argue that transmasculine people are a heterogeneous group whose members might not share the same body type, gender identity or desire for medical approaches to gender transitioning. Therefore, testosterone-induced voice changes may not necessarily meet the needs and expectations of all transmasculine people. To evaluate the gender-related discursive and empirical data about transmasculine people's vocal situations to identify gaps in the current state of knowledge and to make suggestions for future voice research and clinical practice. A comprehensive review of peer-reviewed academic and clinical literature was conducted. Publications were identified by searching seven electronic databases and bibliographies of relevant articles. Thirty-one publications met inclusion criteria. Discourses and empirical data were analysed thematically. Potential problem areas that transmasculine people may experience were identified and the quality of evidence appraised. The extent and quality of voice research conducted with transmasculine people so far was found to be limited. There was mixed evidence to suggest that transmasculine people's vocal situations could be regarded as problematic. The diversity that characterizes the transmasculine population received little attention and the complexity of the factors that contribute to a successful or unsuccessful vocal communication of gender in this group appeared to be under-researched. While most transmasculine people treated with testosterone can expect a lowering of their pitch, it remains unclear whether the extent of the pitch change is enough

  19. Gender related differences in demographic and clinical manifestations in patients suffering from various subtypes of schizophrenia

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    Gorana Sulejmanpašić Arslanagić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Schizophrenia is devastating neuropsychiatric disorder that has no clearly identified etiology. The subtypes of schizophrenia are distinguished by the prevalent symptomatology. The aim of this study was to determine gender related differences in demographic and clinical manifestations in patients suffering from various subtypes of schizophrenia.Methods: A longitudinal, prospective,original,clinical investigation first in our local area, with application of Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IV Axis I Disorders (SCID I was used in this work. The study included 121 patients during five years period. Patients were recruited as consecutive admissions to the Psychiatric clinic, from all parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina, mostly Sarajevo region.Results: The study was conducted on a group of schizophrenic patients which consisted of 52.1% male and 47.9% female patients. Average duration of the episode was about a month. Majority of patients (male were in the group of disorganized (hebephrenic schizophrenia. The duration of current psychotic episode was similar in all three groups regarding subtypes of schizophrenia. Psychotic episodes appear equally in both gender (higher in disorganized group with a statistically significant difference between all groups (p<0.001.Conclusions: Male group patients showed tendency to be younger than women. Most of the schizophrenic individuals start to suffer from this disease between age of 20 and 39 years. Male group patients suffered mostly of disorganized (hebephrenic type of schizophrenia. Duration of psychotic episode was proportionally the same in both groups while in male group the highest number of episodes was found in group of disorganized schizophrenia.

  20. Effect of Different References on Auditory-Evoked Potentials in Children with Cochlear Implants

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    Maojin Liang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nose reference (NR, mastoid reference (MR, and montage average reference (MAR are usually used in auditory event-related potential (AEP studies with a recently developed reference electrode standardization technique (REST, which may reduce the reference effect. For children with cochlear implants (CIs, auditory deprivation may hinder normal development of the auditory cortex, and the reference effect may be different between CIs and a normal developing group.Methods: Thirteen right-side-CI children were recruited, comprising 7 males and 6 females, ages 2–5 years, with CI usage of ~1 year. Eleven sex- and age-matched healthy children were recruited for normal controls; 1,000 Hz pure tone evoked AEPs were recorded, and the data were re-referenced to NR, left mastoid reference (LMR, which is the opposite side of the implanted cochlear, MAR, and REST. CI artifact and P1–N1 complex (latency, amplitudes at Fz were analyzed.Results: Confirmed P1–N1 complex could be found in Fz using NR, LMR, MAR, and REST with a 128-electrode scalp. P1 amplitude was larger using LMR than MAR and NR, while no statistically significant difference was found between NR and MAR in the CI group; REST had no significant difference with the three other references. In the control group, no statistically significant difference was found with different references. Group difference of P1 amplitude could be found when using MR, MAR, and REST. For P1 latency, no significant difference among the four references was shown, whether in the CI or control group. Group difference in P1 latency could be found in MR and MAR. N1 amplitude in LMR was significantly lower than NR and MAR in the control group. LMR, MAR, and REST could distinguish the difference in the N1 amplitude between the CI and control group. Contralateral MR or MAR was found to be better in differentiating CI children versus controls. No group difference was found for the artifact component

  1. Optimal dynamic pricing for deteriorating items with reference-price effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Musen; Tang, Wansheng; Zhang, Jianxiong

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, a dynamic pricing problem for deteriorating items with the consumers' reference-price effect is studied. An optimal control model is established to maximise the total profit, where the demand not only depends on the current price, but also is sensitive to the historical price. The continuous-time dynamic optimal pricing strategy with reference-price effect is obtained through solving the optimal control model on the basis of Pontryagin's maximum principle. In addition, numerical simulations and sensitivity analysis are carried out. Finally, some managerial suggestions that firm may adopt to formulate its pricing policy are proposed.

  2. Effect of genotyped cows in the reference population on the genomic evaluation of Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemoto, Y; Osawa, T; Saburi, J

    2017-03-01

    This study evaluated the dependence of reliability and prediction bias on the prediction method, the contribution of including animals (bulls or cows), and the genetic relatedness, when including genotyped cows in the progeny-tested bull reference population. We performed genomic evaluation using a Japanese Holstein population, and assessed the accuracy of genomic enhanced breeding value (GEBV) for three production traits and 13 linear conformation traits. A total of 4564 animals for production traits and 4172 animals for conformation traits were genotyped using Illumina BovineSNP50 array. Single- and multi-step methods were compared for predicting GEBV in genotyped bull-only and genotyped bull-cow reference populations. No large differences in realized reliability and regression coefficient were found between the two reference populations; however, a slight difference was found between the two methods for production traits. The accuracy of GEBV determined by single-step method increased slightly when genotyped cows were included in the bull reference population, but decreased slightly by multi-step method. A validation study was used to evaluate the accuracy of GEBV when 800 additional genotyped bulls (POPbull) or cows (POPcow) were included in the base reference population composed of 2000 genotyped bulls. The realized reliabilities of POPbull were higher than those of POPcow for all traits. For the gain of realized reliability over the base reference population, the average ratios of POPbull gain to POPcow gain for production traits and conformation traits were 2.6 and 7.2, respectively, and the ratios depended on heritabilities of the traits. For regression coefficient, no large differences were found between the results for POPbull and POPcow. Another validation study was performed to investigate the effect of genetic relatedness between cows and bulls in the reference and test populations. The effect of genetic relationship among bulls in the reference

  3. Gender-related immune-inflammatory factors, age-related diseases, and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candore, Giuseppina; Balistreri, Carmela Rita; Colonna-Romano, Giuseppina; Lio, Domenico; Listì, Florinda; Vasto, Sonya; Caruso, Calogero

    2010-01-01

    This review discusses the role of estrogens as pro- or antiinflammatory players in immune-inflammatory responses. In particular, their role in Alzheimer's disease (AD), an example of immune-inflammatory disease, is discussed briefly. AD is a progressive neurodegenerative disease, which in Western societies accounts for the majority of cases of clinical senile dementia. However, sexual dimorphism of diseases may also depend on factors independent of sex hormones (i.e., a gender effect), as demonstrated by our data on differential longevity in females and males. In fact, differences in mortality between men and women are not only a question of sex that refers to biological differences, but rather a question of "socially constructed sex," a question of gender (i.e., the characteristics that a society or culture delineates as masculine or feminine). In gender medicine, we conclude that it is important to consider the role played both by hormones, customs, and educational levels regarding the different propensity of males and females to fall ill. So, in programming antiaging strategies, we have also to take these aspects into account.

  4. Gender-related long-term outcome of primary femoropopliteal stent placement for peripheral artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavroulakis, Konstantinos; Donas, Konstantinos P; Torsello, Giovanni; Osada, Nani; Schönefeld, Eva

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate gender-related long-term outcomes in patients undergoing stent treatment of femoropopliteal peripheral artery disease. Between September 2006 and August 2010, all 517 patients (333 men and 184 women; mean age 70.6 years) undergoing primary stent placement in femoropopliteal atherosclerotic lesions at 2 European vascular centers were prospectively enrolled in the study. The main study outcome was primary stent patency. Secondary outcomes included secondary patency, limb salvage, and all-cause mortality. Women had a higher incidence of critical limb ischemia (32.1% vs. 16.9%, pSociety Consensus (TASC) classification were comparable in both genders (p=0.52), although total occlusions and popliteal involvement were observed more frequently in female patients (p=0.043 and p=0.001, respectively). Both genders showed similar 5-year primary patency rates (64.3% men vs. 58.1% women, p=0.11). A statistically significant difference was observed concerning the secondary patency rates in favor of men (71.9% vs. 66.8% at 5 years, p=0.005). Limb salvage rates did not vary between the groups (p=0.83). Survival rates were comparable at 5 years (83.3% and 82.6% for men and women, respectively; p=0.63), although female patients were older at their presentation (68.5 vs. 74.3 years, pgender was an independent risk factor for restenosis for TASC C/D lesions (primary patency rate 39.8% in women vs. 62.0% in men; p=0.002). Finally, critical limb ischemia was an independent risk factor for restenosis in women (odds ratio 1.5). Female gender was associated with a higher prevalence of critical limb ischemia, poorer secondary patency, and more frequent restenosis in TASC C/D lesions. Endovascular treatment of femoropopliteal lesions provides equal results between genders in terms of primary stent patency in the long term. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Age- and gender-related prevalence of multimorbidity in primary care: the swiss fire project

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    Rizza Alessandro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background General practitioners often care for patients with several concurrent chronic medical conditions (multimorbidity. Recent data suggest that multimorbidity might be observed more often than isolated diseases in primary care. We explored the age- and gender-related prevalence of multimorbidity and compared these estimates to the prevalence estimates of other common specific diseases found in Swiss primary care. Methods We analyzed data from the Swiss FIRE (Family Medicine ICPC Research using Electronic Medical Record project database, representing a total of 509,656 primary care encounters in 98,152 adult patients between January 1, 2009 and July 31, 2011. For each encounter, medical problems were encoded using the second version of the International Classification of primary Care (ICPC-2. We defined chronic health conditions using 147 pre-specified ICPC-2 codes and defined multimorbidity as 1 two or more chronic health conditions from different ICPC-2 rubrics, 2 two or more chronic health conditions from different ICPC-2 chapters, and 3 two or more medical specialties involved in patient care. We compared the prevalence estimates of multimorbidity defined by the three methodologies with the prevalence estimates of common diseases encountered in primary care. Results Overall, the prevalence estimates of multimorbidity were similar for the three different definitions (15% [95%CI 11-18%], 13% [95%CI 10-16%], and 14% [95%CI 11-17%], respectively, and were higher than the prevalence estimates of any specific chronic health condition (hypertension, uncomplicated 9% [95%CI 7-11%], back syndrome with and without radiating pain 6% [95%CI 5-7%], non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus 3% [95%CI 3-4%], and degenerative joint disease 3% [95%CI 2%-4%]. The prevalence estimates of multimorbidity rose more than 20-fold with age, from 2% (95%CI 1-2% in those aged 20–29 years, to 38% (95%CI 31-44% in those aged 80 or more years. The

  6. Pharmaceutical policies: effects of reference pricing, other pricing, and purchasing policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Angela; Ciapponi, Agustín; Aaserud, Morten; Vietto, Valeria; Austvoll-Dahlgren, Astrid; Kösters, Jan Peter; Vacca, Claudia; Machado, Manuel; Diaz Ayala, Diana Hazbeydy; Oxman, Andrew D

    2014-10-16

    Pharmaceuticals are important interventions that could improve people's health. Pharmaceutical pricing and purchasing policies are used as cost-containment measures to determine or affect the prices that are paid for drugs. Internal reference pricing establishes a benchmark or reference price within a country which is the maximum level of reimbursement for a group of drugs. Other policies include price controls, maximum prices, index pricing, price negotiations and volume-based pricing. To determine the effects of pharmaceutical pricing and purchasing policies on health outcomes, healthcare utilisation, drug expenditures and drug use. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), part of The Cochrane Library (including the Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group Register) (searched 22/10/2012); MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations and MEDLINE, Ovid (searched 22/10/2012); EconLit, ProQuest (searched 22/10/2012); PAIS International, ProQuest (searched 22/10/2012); World Wide Political Science Abstracts, ProQuest (searched 22/10/2012); INRUD Bibliography (searched 22/10/2012); Embase, Ovid (searched 14/12/2010); NHSEED, part of The Cochrane Library (searched 08/12/2010); LILACS, VHL (searched 14/12/2010); International Political Science Abstracts (IPSA), Ebsco (searched (17/12/2010); OpenSIGLE (searched 21/12/10); WHOLIS, WHO (searched 17/12/2010); World Bank (Documents and Reports) (searched 21/12/2010); Jolis (searched 09/10/2011); Global Jolis (searched 09/10/2011) ; OECD (searched 30/08/2005); OECD iLibrary (searched 30/08/2005); World Bank eLibrary (searched 21/12/2010); WHO - The Essential Drugs and Medicines web site (browsed 21/12/2010). Policies in this review were defined as laws; rules; financial and administrative orders made by governments, non-government organisations or private insurers. To be included a study had to include an objective measure of at least one of the following outcomes: drug use

  7. Pharmaceutical policies: effects of reference pricing, other pricing, and purchasing policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaserud, M; Dahlgren, A T; Kösters, J P; Oxman, A D; Ramsay, C; Sturm, H

    2006-04-19

    Pharmaceuticals can be important for people's health. At the same time drugs are major components of health care costs. Pharmaceutical pricing and purchasing policies are used to determine or affect the prices that are paid for drugs. Examples are price controls, maximum prices, price negotiations, reference pricing, index pricing and volume-based pricing policies. The essence of reference pricing is to establish a maximum level of reimbursement for a group of drugs assumed to be therapeutically equivalent. To determine the effects of pharmaceutical pricing and purchasing policies on drug use, healthcare utilisation, health outcomes and costs (expenditures). We searched the following databases and web sites: Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group Register (date of last search: 22/08/03), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (15/10/03), MEDLINE (07/09/05), EMBASE (07/09/05), ISI Web of Science (08/09/05), CSA Worldwide Political Science Abstracts (21/10/03), EconLit (23/10/03), SIGLE (12/11/03), INRUD (21/11/03), PAIS International (23/03/04), International Political Science Abstracts (09/01/04), NHS EED (20/02/04), PubMed (25/02/04), NTIS (03/03/04), IPA (22/04/04), OECD Publications & Documents (30/08/05), SourceOECD (30/08/05), World Bank Documents & Reports (30/08/05), World Bank e-Library (04/05/05), JOLIS (22/08/05), Global Jolis (22/08/05 and 23/08/05), WHOLIS (29/08/05). Policies in this review were defined as laws, rules, financial and administrative orders made by governments, non-government organisations or private insurers. To be included a study had to include an objective measure of at least one of the following outcomes: drug use, healthcare utilisation, health outcomes, and costs (expenditures); the study must be a randomised controlled trial, non-randomised controlled trial, interrupted time series analysis, repeated measures study or controlled before-after study of a pharmaceutical pricing or purchasing policy for a large

  8. A field study of frame-of-reference effects on personality test validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunthausen, John M; Truxillo, Donald M; Bauer, Talya N; Hammer, Leslie B

    2003-06-01

    As part of a test validation study at a major U.S.-based airline, the authors tested the effects of providing an "at work" frame-of-reference on the validity of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory among a sample of customer service supervisors (N = 206). Frame-of-reference moderated the validity of the Extraversion and Openness to Experience subscales after controlling for cognitive ability. In addition, the frame-of-reference personality test showed incremental validity over cognitive ability (deltaR2 = .16), but the standard personality test did not (deltaR2 = .05). The authors' discussion focuses on implications for personality theory and research and on implications for increasing the validity of personality tests in organizational settings.

  9. Development of an Ion Sensitive Field Effect Transistor Based Urea Biosensor with Solid State Reference Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kow-Ming Chang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Ion sensitive field-effect transistor (ISFET based urease biosensors with solid state reference systems for single-ended and two-ended differential readout electronics were investigated. The sensing membranes of the biosensors were fabricated with urease immobilized in a conducting polymer-based matrix. The responses of 12.9~198.1 mV for the urea concentrations of 8~240 mg/dL reveal that the activity of the enzyme was not significantly decreased. Biosensors combined with solid state reference systems were fabricated, and the evaluation results demonstrated the feasibility of miniaturization. For the differential system, the optimal transconductance match for biosensor and reference field-effect transistors (REFET pair was determined through the modification of the membranes of the REFETs and enzyme field-effect transistors (EnFETs. The results show that the transconductance curve of polymer based REFET can match with that of the EnFET by adjusting the photoresist/NafionTM ratio. The match of the transconductance curves for the differential pairs provides a wide dynamic operating measurement range. Accordingly, the miniaturized quasi-reference electrode (QRE/REFET/EnFET combination with differential arrangement achieved similar urea response curves as those measured by a conventional large sized discrete sensor.

  10. Effect of Reference Scheme on Power and Phase of the Local Field Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirhatti, Vinay; Borthakur, Ayon; Ray, Supratim

    2016-05-01

    Brain signals are often analyzed in the spectral domain, where the power spectral density (PSD) and phase differences and consistency can reveal important information about the network. However, for proper interpretation, it is important to know whether these measures depend on stimulus/behavioral conditions or the reference scheme used to analyze data. We recorded local field potential (LFP) from an array of microelectrodes chronically implanted in area V1 of monkeys under different stimulus/behavioral conditions and computed PSD slopes, coherence, and phase difference between LFPs as a function of frequency and interelectrode distance while using four reference schemes: single wire, average, bipolar, and current source density. PSD slopes were dependent on reference scheme at low frequencies (below 200 Hz) but became invariant at higher frequencies. Average phase differences between sites also depended critically on referencing, switching from 0 degrees for single-wire to 180 degrees for average reference. Results were consistent across different stimulus/behavioral conditions. We were able to account for these results based on the coherence profile across sites and properties of the spectral estimator. Our results show that using different reference schemes can have drastic effects on phase differences and PSD slopes and therefore must be interpreted carefully to gain insights about network properties.

  11. [Negative bias on self-referent processing in depression: focused on mood congruent effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagami, Kyoko

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate negative bias on self-referent processing in depression, focused on the mood congruent effects in a natural depressed state and an experimentally induced transient depressed mood state. In Experiment 1, autobiographical memories and self-relevant ratings of personality trait words were examined in a natural depressed state or non-depressed state, which were measured by Beck Depression Inventory. Results revealed the mood congruent effects on both tasks. In Experiment 2, the same tasks as Experiment 1 were conducted in a transient depressed mood state or non-depressed mood state, which were induced through listening music. Unlike Experiment 1, there were no effects in both tasks, and a positive bias was observed in both mood states. It was suggested that transient mood state did not bias self-referent processing in depression, and Beck's schema hypothesis was supported.

  12. Regional probability distribution of the annual reference evapotranspiration and its effective parameters in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanmohammadi, Neda; Rezaie, Hossein; Montaseri, Majid; Behmanesh, Javad

    2017-10-01

    The reference evapotranspiration (ET0) plays an important role in water management plans in arid or semi-arid countries such as Iran. For this reason, the regional analysis of this parameter is important. But, ET0 process is affected by several meteorological parameters such as wind speed, solar radiation, temperature and relative humidity. Therefore, the effect of distribution type of effective meteorological variables on ET0 distribution was analyzed. For this purpose, the regional probability distribution of the annual ET0 and its effective parameters were selected. Used data in this research was recorded data at 30 synoptic stations of Iran during 1960-2014. Using the probability plot correlation coefficient (PPCC) test and the L-moment method, five common distributions were compared and the best distribution was selected. The results of PPCC test and L-moment diagram indicated that the Pearson type III distribution was the best probability distribution for fitting annual ET0 and its four effective parameters. The results of RMSE showed that the ability of the PPCC test and L-moment method for regional analysis of reference evapotranspiration and its effective parameters was similar. The results also showed that the distribution type of the parameters which affected ET0 values can affect the distribution of reference evapotranspiration.

  13. Oral bioavailability and gender-related pharmacokinetics of celastrol following administration of pure celastrol and its related tablets in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Li, Chang-Yin; Xu, Mei-juan; Wu, Ting; Chu, Ji-Hong; Liu, Shi-Jia; Ju, Wen-Zheng

    2012-10-31

    Celastrol is a natural compound extracted from the traditional Chinese medicinal herb, Thunder God Vine (TGV). Owing to its potential anti-inflammatory and antitumor effects, celastrol has been considered as a promising candidate for drug development. To establish a sensitive LC-MS/MS method to investigate the pharmacokinetic properties of celastrol in rats. Key pharmacokinetic issues of celastrol including oral bioavailability, comparative pharmacokinetics between pure compound and tablet preparation, as well as gender-related pharmacokinetic difference are to be addressed for the first time. Sprague-Dawley rats were administrated an intravenous dose (100 μg kg(-1)) of pure celastrol and an oral dose (1000 μg kg(-1)) of pure celastrol and TGV tablets (corresponding to 534 μg kg(-1) of celastrol), respectively. At different time points, the concentration of celastrol in rat plasma was determined by a sensitive and well-validated LC-MS/MS method. Main pharmacokinetic parameters including area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC), maximal plasma concentration (Cmax), the time for maximal concentration (Tmax) and mean residence time (MRT) were estimated by Drug and Statistic1.0 pharmacokinetic software (Chinese Pharmacological Association, Anhui, PR China). Statistical analysis was performed using two one-side t test with p-values less than 0.05 as the level of significance. The standard curve of celastrol showed good linearity in the concentration range of 0.11~54.3 ng mL(-1) in our current method, with acceptable selectivity, precision, recovery, and stability. The oral absolute bioavailability of celastrol significantly increased from 17.06% for pure celastrol to 94.19% for TGV tablets containing equivalent celastrol. After oral administration of TGV tablets, the Cmax and AUC values of celastrol in female rats were (32.03±8.41) μg L(-1) and (379.49±118.19) μg h L(-1), which were significantly higher (pTGV tablets orally administered, and thereby

  14. Gender relations, sexual behaviour, and risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections among women in union in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Nankinga

    2016-05-01

    partners. Interventions promoting sexual health must effectively address negative masculine attitudes and roles that perpetuate unhealthy sexual behaviours and gender relations within marriage. It is also important to promote marital fidelity and better communication within union and to encourage women to take charge of their health jointly with their partners.

  15. Static and Dynamic Pricing Strategies in a Closed-Loop Supply Chain with Reference Quality Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhichao Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Remanufacturing of returned products has been increasingly recognized in industries as an effective approach to face environmental responsibility, government regulations, and increased awareness of consumers. In this paper, we address a closed-loop supply chain (CLSC in which the manufacturer produces the brand-new products, as well as the remanufactured goods while the retailer sells these products to customers. We consider several different scenarios: the manufacturer and the retailer adopt a steady-state price or a dynamic price with reference quality effects in a centralized case; either, neither or both the manufacturer and the retailer price dynamically with reference quality effects, respectively, in a decentralized model. We solve the problem with the retailer recycling the sold copies and deduce the optimal pricing strategies while the manufacturer in charge of recovering the used items in such a CLSC. The result shows that dynamic pricing strategies are much more profitable for the supply chain and its members when compared with pricing statically; the dynamic pricing strategies with time-varying quality characterized by reference quality are more suited to a long-term and cooperative closed-loop supply chain. Moreover, the optimal recycling fraction relies on the recovery cost coefficient and proves to be uniform despite adopting a dynamic price and quality in all distinct cases.

  16. Methodological considerations about the use of bimodal oddball P300 in psychiatry: topography and reference effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Schroder

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Event-Related Potentials (ERPs bimodal oddball task has disclosed increased sensitivity to show P300 modulations to subclinical symptoms. Even if the utility of such a procedure has still to be confirmed at a clinical level, gathering normative values of this new oddball variant may be of the greatest interest. We specifically addressed the challenge of defining the best location for the recording of P3a and P3b components and selecting the best reference to use by investigating the effect of an offline re-reference procedure on recorded bimodal P3a and P3b. Forty young and healthy subjects were submitted to a bimodal (synchronized and always congruent visual and auditory stimuli three-stimulus oddball task in which 140 frequent bimodal stimuli, 30 deviant target stimuli and 30 distractors were presented. Task consisted in clicking as soon as possible on the targets, and not paying attention to frequent stimuli and distractors. This procedure allowed us to record, for each individual, the P3a component, referring to the novelty process related to distractors processing, and the P3b component, linked to the processing of the target stimuli. Results showed that both P3a and P3b showed maximal amplitude in Pz. However, P3a displayed a more central distribution. Nose reference was also shown to give maximal amplitudes compared with average and linked mastoids references. These data were discussed in light of the necessity to develop multi-site recording guidelines to furnish sets of ERPs data comparable across laboratories.

  17. Methodological Considerations about the Use of Bimodal Oddball P300 in Psychiatry: Topography and Reference Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Elisa; Kajosch, Hendrik; Verbanck, Paul; Kornreich, Charles; Campanella, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) bimodal oddball task has disclosed increased sensitivity to show P300 modulations to subclinical symptoms. Even if the utility of such a procedure has still to be confirmed at a clinical level, gathering normative values of this new oddball variant may be of the greatest interest. We specifically addressed the challenge of defining the best location for the recording of P3a and P3b components and selecting the best reference to use by investigating the effect of an offline re-reference procedure on recorded bimodal P3a and P3b. Forty young and healthy subjects were submitted to a bimodal (synchronized and always congruent visual and auditory stimuli) three-stimulus oddball task in which 140 frequent bimodal stimuli, 30 deviant "target" stimuli and 30 distractors were presented. Task consisted in clicking as soon as possible on the targets, and not paying attention to frequent stimuli and distractors. This procedure allowed us to record, for each individual, the P3a component, referring to the novelty process related to distractors processing, and the P3b component, linked to the processing of the target stimuli. Results showed that both P3a and P3b showed maximal amplitude in Pz. However, P3a displayed a more central distribution. Nose reference was also shown to give maximal amplitudes compared with average and linked mastoids references. These data were discussed in light of the necessity to develop multi-site recording guidelines to furnish sets of ERPs data comparable across laboratories.

  18. [Body, strength, and labor: reflexions in the light of gender relations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, L H

    2000-01-01

    The present paper intends to contribute on a reflection and discussion of some issues related to female's body and the strength present in laborwork, understood as the moment in which through the support of another person, a woman "gives birth". It also discusses the perspective of male dominance having as reference the symbolic violence from Bordieu, proposing that the humanizing of labor demands a thorough discussion on gender dominance.

  19. Dynamic Pricing of Fashion-Like Multiproducts with Customers’ Reference Effect and Limited Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengqi Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a fashion retailer’s dynamic pricing problem in which consumers present reference effect and memory window. Based on the theory of Baucells et al. (2011, we propose a new reference-price updating mechanism in fashion and textile (FT industry where consumers have a bounded memory window and anchor on the first and most recent price in any memory window. Moreover, we study the impacts of this mechanism on optimal pricing policy for a retailer selling multiple fashion-like products and analyze optimal price’s steady state, monotonicity, and convergence. For two-product case, we find that, for otherwise identical products, the steady-state price of a core product is lower than that of a noncore product. We compute the retailer’s loss of revenue if he incorrectly assumes the reference-price effect to be at the product level and prices the products individually. Further, as illustrated with numerical results, our model is a flexible way to make pricing strategy if the retailer can anticipate the length of consumers’ memory window.

  20. Effects of concomitant methylphenidate and ethanol administration on working and reference memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Anthony R; McGovern, Robin; Buffalari, Deanne M

    Recent studies have suggested that college students are heavily engaged in non-medical use of stimulant drugs prescribed to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. This age group is also at high risk for alcohol use. Despite their potential co-abuse, little work has examined how these drugs interact to affect cognitive abilities. In fact, these drugs have opposing effects on working memory, which brings into question how they may interact to affect this particular behavior. The purpose of this research was to examine the concomitant effects of methylphenidate (MPH) and ethanol (EtOH) on working and reference memory. Rats were first trained on the radial arm maze task to establish a baseline performance rate measured as average number of reference and working memory errors. Performance was then assessed after injections of saline, MPH alone, EtOH alone, and MPH+EtOH combined. While both doses of MPH caused nonsignificant improvements in working memory, when combined with EtOH, there was an overall impairment in working and reference memory compared to other conditions. EtOH alone also decreased memory. These data indicate increased impairment of memory function with combined MPH and EtOH use. By understanding how the combination of methylphenidate and alcohol affects memory, we can better assess the risks of taking both substances simultaneously. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Age- and gender-related test performance in community-dwelling adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, T M; Mollinger, L A

    2005-12-01

    Interpretation of patient scores on functional tests is enhanced by an understanding of test performance in reference groups. The purpose of this study was to expand performance values, by age and gender, on balance tests [the Multi-Directional Reach (MDRT); Berg Balance (BBS); Sharpened Romberg, eyes open (SREO), eyes closed (SREC); Activities-Specific Balance Confidence (ABC)], and a general mobility test [Physical Performance Test, (PPT-7, PPT-9)]. The study also examined relationships between test performance and subject characteristics. Eighty-three community-dwelling adults over 50 participated in the study and completed the 5 functional tests during one test session. Means, standard deviations, and confidence intervals were calculated for each of the tests. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to examine relationships between test scores and age, gender, height, and weight. Test performance is reported by gender,within 10-year age cohorts. Regression analysis showed that age contributed significantly to prediction of performance on all of the tests and gender contributed significantly to prediction of scores on the Berg, SREO, and SREC. Test performance values, in a sample of community-dwelling adults, is provided by age and gender cohorts to provide additional reference data that can be used by clinicians for comparison with client data. The small sample size for subjects over 80 years limits the reference value of data for this age group. In regression analyses, age and gender help predict outcomes on the dependent variables used in the study.

  2. When being a girl matters less: accessibility of gender-related self-knowledge in single-sex and coeducational classes and its impact on students' physics-related self-concept of ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessels, Ursula; Hannover, Bettina

    2008-06-01

    Establishing or preserving single-sex schooling has been widely discussed as a way of bringing more girls into the natural sciences. We test the assumption that the beneficial effects of single-sex education on girls' self-concept of ability in masculine subjects such as physics are due to the lower accessibility of gender-related self-knowledge in single-sex classes. N=401 eighth-graders (mean age 14.0 years) from coeducational comprehensive schools. Random assignment of students to single-sex vs. coeducational physics classes throughout the eighth grade. At the end of the year, students' physics-related self-concept of ability was measured using a questionnaire. In a subsample of N=134 students, the accessibility of gender-related self-knowledge during physics classes was assessed by measuring latencies and endorsement of sex-typed trait adjectives. Girls from single-sex physics classes reported a better physics-related self-concept of ability than girls from coeducational classes, while boys' self-concept of ability did not vary according to class composition. For both boys and girls, gender-related self-knowledge was less accessible in single-sex classes than in mixed-sex classes. To the extent that girls' feminine self-knowledge was relatively less accessible than their masculine self-knowledge, their physics-related self-concept of ability improved at the end of the school year. By revealing the importance of the differential accessibility of gender-related self-knowledge in single- and mixed-sex settings, our study clarifies why single-sex schooling helps adolescents to gain a better self-concept of ability in school subjects that are considered inappropriate for their own sex.

  3. Auditory word recognition of verbs: Effects of verb argument structure on referent identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Torrent, Mònica; Rodriguez Ferreiro, Javier; Coll-Florit, Marta; Trueswell, John C.

    2017-01-01

    Word recognition includes the activation of a range of syntactic and semantic knowledge that is relevant to language interpretation and reference. Here we explored whether or not the number of arguments a verb takes impinges negatively on verb processing time. In this study, three experiments compared the dynamics of spoken word recognition for verbs with different preferred argument structure. Listeners’ eye movements were recorded as they searched an array of pictures in response to hearing a verb. Results were similar in all the experiments. The time to identify the referent increased as a function of the number of arguments, above and beyond any effects of label appropriateness (and other controlled variables, such as letter, phoneme and syllable length, phonological neighborhood, oral and written lexical frequencies, imageability and rated age of acquisition). The findings indicate that the number of arguments a verb takes, influences referent identification during spoken word recognition. Representational complexity and amount of information generated by the lexical item that aids target identification are discussed as possible sources of this finding. PMID:29206841

  4. Auditory word recognition of verbs: Effects of verb argument structure on referent identification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mònica Sanz-Torrent

    Full Text Available Word recognition includes the activation of a range of syntactic and semantic knowledge that is relevant to language interpretation and reference. Here we explored whether or not the number of arguments a verb takes impinges negatively on verb processing time. In this study, three experiments compared the dynamics of spoken word recognition for verbs with different preferred argument structure. Listeners' eye movements were recorded as they searched an array of pictures in response to hearing a verb. Results were similar in all the experiments. The time to identify the referent increased as a function of the number of arguments, above and beyond any effects of label appropriateness (and other controlled variables, such as letter, phoneme and syllable length, phonological neighborhood, oral and written lexical frequencies, imageability and rated age of acquisition. The findings indicate that the number of arguments a verb takes, influences referent identification during spoken word recognition. Representational complexity and amount of information generated by the lexical item that aids target identification are discussed as possible sources of this finding.

  5. Auditory word recognition of verbs: Effects of verb argument structure on referent identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Torrent, Mònica; Andreu, Llorenç; Rodriguez Ferreiro, Javier; Coll-Florit, Marta; Trueswell, John C

    2017-01-01

    Word recognition includes the activation of a range of syntactic and semantic knowledge that is relevant to language interpretation and reference. Here we explored whether or not the number of arguments a verb takes impinges negatively on verb processing time. In this study, three experiments compared the dynamics of spoken word recognition for verbs with different preferred argument structure. Listeners' eye movements were recorded as they searched an array of pictures in response to hearing a verb. Results were similar in all the experiments. The time to identify the referent increased as a function of the number of arguments, above and beyond any effects of label appropriateness (and other controlled variables, such as letter, phoneme and syllable length, phonological neighborhood, oral and written lexical frequencies, imageability and rated age of acquisition). The findings indicate that the number of arguments a verb takes, influences referent identification during spoken word recognition. Representational complexity and amount of information generated by the lexical item that aids target identification are discussed as possible sources of this finding.

  6. Effectiveness of the 'Hold me Tight' Relationship Enhancement Program in a Self-referred and a Clinician-referred Sample: An Emotionally Focused Couples Therapy-Based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradi, Henk Jan; Dingemanse, Pieter; Noordhof, Arjen; Finkenauer, Catrin; Kamphuis, Jan H

    2017-09-04

    While evidence-based couple therapies are available, only a minority of troubled couples seek help and they often do this too late. To reach more couples earlier, the couple relationship education (CRE) group program "Hold me Tight" (HmT) based on Emotionally Focused Couples Therapy (EFCT) was developed. This study is the first to examine the effectiveness of HmT. Using a three-wave (waiting period, treatment, and follow-up) within-subject design, HmT was delivered to 79 self-referred couples and 50 clinician-referred couples. We applied a comprehensive outcome measure battery. Our main findings were that (1) self-referred couples significantly improved during HmT on all measures, that is relationship satisfaction, security of partner-bond, forgiveness, daily coordination, maintenance behavior, and psychological complaints, with a moderate-to-large mean effect size (d = .63), which was maintained (d = .57) during the 3.5 month follow-up; (2) in clinician-referred couples, who were vulnerable in terms of insecure attachment status and psychopathology, the improvement during HmT was moderate (d = .42), but this was reduced during the 3.5-month follow-up to a small effect (d = .22); (3) emotional functioning (typical HmT target) as well as behavioral functioning (typical Behavioral Couples Therapy-based CRE target) improved during HmT; and (4) individual psychological complaints, although not specifically targeted, were reduced during HmT. These findings suggest that HmT is a promising intervention for enhancement of relationship functioning. Clinical implications are discussed. © 2017 Family Process Institute.

  7. Age- and gender-related regional variations of human brain cortical thickness, complexity, and gradient in the third decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creze, Maud; Versheure, Leslie; Besson, Pierre; Sauvage, Chloe; Leclerc, Xavier; Jissendi-Tchofo, Patrice

    2014-06-01

    Brain functional and cytoarchitectural maturation continue until adulthood, but little is known about the evolution of the regional pattern of cortical thickness (CT), complexity (CC), and intensity or gradient (CG) in young adults. We attempted to detect global and regional age- and gender-related variations of brain CT, CC, and CG, in 28 healthy young adults (19-33 years) using a three-dimensional T1 -weighted magnetic resonance imaging sequence and surface-based methods. Whole brain interindividual variations of CT and CG were similar to that in the literature. As a new finding, age- and gender-related variations significantly affected brain complexity (P middle temporal cortices (age), and the fronto-orbital cortex (gender), all in the right hemisphere. Regions of interest analyses showed age and gender significant interaction (P middle temporal-entorrhinal cortices bilaterally, as well as left inferior parietal. In addition, we found significant inverse correlations between CT and CC and between CT and CG over the whole brain and markedly in precentral and occipital areas. Our findings differ in details from previous reports and may correlate with late brain maturation and learning plasticity in young adults' brain in the third decade. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Gender-related and city- and countryside-related differences in patients with ulcerative colitis in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Aiping; Guo, Yuan; Shen, Yuhuan; Xie, Yong; Lu, Nonghua

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine gender-related and city- and countryside-related differences of ulcerative colitis in a Chinese population, and to determine information on the role of lifestyle in the onset of ulcerative colitis. Patients with a diagnosis of ulcerative colitis established between Jan 2000 and Dec 2007 were investigated according to the age, gender and inductive factors of onset. Assessment of living condition of the patients was performed according to the place of living: city or countryside. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test. A total of 293 ulcerative colitis patients were involved in the study. The onset age of the rural patients was earlier than that of the urban patients (p=0.00295), while there was no difference in onset age between male and female patients (p=0.067995). Some inductive factors, such as psychological stress, fatigue, cold catching, and spicy or unwashed food, may contribute to the progress of ulcerative colitis. Both gender-related and city- and countryside-related differences were found in the expression of ulcerative colitis in the Chinese population. Lifestyle factors such as psychological stress and fatigue may contribute to the expression of ulcerative colitis.

  9. Negative Emotion Weakens the Degree of Self-reference Effect: Evidence from ERPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Fan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the influence of negative emotion on the degree of self-reference effect using event-related potentials (ERPs. We presented emotional pictures and self-referential stimuli (stimuli that accelerate and improve processing and improve memory of information related to an individual’s self-concept in sequence. Participants judged the color of the target stimulus (self-referential stimuli. ERP results showed that the target stimuli elicited larger P2 amplitudes under neutral conditions than under negative emotional conditions. Under neutral conditions, N2 amplitudes for highly self-relevant names (target stimulus were smaller than those for any other names. Under negative emotional conditions, highly and moderately self-referential stimuli activated smaller N2 amplitudes. P3 amplitudes activated by self-referential processing under negative emotional conditions were smaller than neutral conditions. In the left and central sites, highly self-relevant names activated larger P3 amplitudes than any other names. But in the central sites, moderately self-relevant names activated larger P3 amplitudes than non-self-relevant names. The findings indicate that negative emotional processing could weaken the degree of self-reference effect.

  10. Underestimating calorie content when healthy foods are present: an averaging effect or a reference-dependent anchoring effect?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanna E Forwood

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that estimations of the calorie content of an unhealthy main meal food tend to be lower when the food is shown alongside a healthy item (e.g. fruit or vegetables than when shown alone. This effect has been called the negative calorie illusion and has been attributed to averaging the unhealthy (vice and healthy (virtue foods leading to increased perceived healthiness and reduced calorie estimates. The current study aimed to replicate and extend these findings to test the hypothesized mediating effect of ratings of healthiness of foods on calorie estimates.In three online studies, participants were invited to make calorie estimates of combinations of foods. Healthiness ratings of the food were also assessed.The first two studies failed to replicate the negative calorie illusion. In a final study, the use of a reference food, closely following a procedure from a previously published study, did elicit a negative calorie illusion. No evidence was found for a mediating role of healthiness estimates.The negative calorie illusion appears to be a function of the contrast between a food being judged and a reference, supporting the hypothesis that the negative calorie illusion arises from the use of a reference-dependent anchoring and adjustment heuristic and not from an 'averaging' effect, as initially proposed. This finding is consistent with existing data on sequential calorie estimates, and highlights a significant impact of the order in which foods are viewed on how foods are evaluated.

  11. Neural correlates of the self-reference effect: evidence from evaluation and recognition processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaoi, Ken; Osaka, Mariko; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2015-01-01

    The self-reference effect (SRE) is defined as better recall or recognition performance when the memorized materials refer to the self. Recently, a number of neuroimaging studies using self-referential and other-referential tasks have reported that self- and other-referential judgments basically show greater activation in common brain regions, specifically in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) when compared with nonmentalizing judgments, but that a ventral-to-dorsal gradient in MPFC emerges from a direct comparison between self- and other-judgments. However, most of these previous studies could not provide an adequate explanation for the neural basis of SRE because they did not directly compare brain activation for recognition/recall of the words referenced to the self with another person. Here, we used an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) that measured brain activity during processing of references to the self and another, and for recognition of self and other referenced words. Results from the fMRI evaluation task indicated greater activation in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) in the self-referential condition. While in the recognition task, VMPFC, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and bilateral angular gyrus (AG) showed greater activation when participants correctly recognized self-referenced words versus other-referenced words. These data provide evidence that the self-referenced words evoked greater activation in the self-related region (VMPFC) and memory-related regions (PCC and AG) relative to another person in the retrieval phase, and that the words remained as a stronger memory trace that supports recognition.

  12. Neural correlates of the self-reference effect: evidence from evaluation and recognition processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken eYaoi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The self-reference effect (SRE is defined as better recall or recognition performance when the memorized materials refer to the self. Recently, a number of neuroimaging studies using self-referential and other-referential tasks have reported that self- and other-referential judgments basically show greater activation in common brain regions, specifically in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC when compared with nonmentalizing judgments, but that a ventral-to-dorsal gradient in MPFC emerges from a direct comparison between self- and other-judgments. However, most of these previous studies could not provide an adequate explanation for the neural basis of SRE because they did not directly compare brain activation for recognition/recall of the words referenced to the self with another person. Here, we used an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI that measured brain activity during processing of references to the self and another, and for recognition of self and other referenced words. Results from the fMRI evaluation task indicated greater activation in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC in the self-referential condition. While in the recognition task, VMPFC, posterior cingulate cortex and bilateral angular gyrus showed greater activation when participants correctly recognized self-referenced words versus other-referenced words. These data provide evidence that the self-referenced words evoked greater activation in the self-related region (VMPFC and memory-related regions (PCC and angular gyrus relative to another person in the retrieval phase, and that the words remained as a stronger memory trace that supports recognition.

  13. Spectral effect: each population must have its own normal midnight salivary cortisol reference values determined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mert, Meral; Tanakol, Refik; Karpuzoglu, Hande; Abbasoglu, Semra; Yarman, Sema; Boztepe, Harika; Alagol, Faruk

    2013-10-31

    The mesurement of midnight salivary cortisol provides the most sensitive method for screening of Cushing's sendrome. However the clinical significance of spectral error is the requirement for determination of normal reference values in each population for each test, which will be used as the diagnostic method. Salivary cortisol levels may be affected by individual factors such as nutrition, sleep, medication, activity, and gender. Being a non-invasive method, midnight salivary cortisol (MSC) has been used as a valuable indicator of free plasma cortisol. Midnight salivary cortisol was assessed in randomly selected 100 Turkish patents who underwent to a detailed physical examination. Saliva samples were collected at 00:00 to plastic tubes with the help of plastic pipettes, without brushing their teeth, but after rinsing their mouth. Salivary cortisol was measured with luminescense immunoassay kit. Differences and correlations were analysed. The mean midnight salivary cortisol of the healthy population was 0.21 ±0.03 µg/dl. Body mass index, age, sex, smoking, exercise, educational status alcohol, had no effect on the MSC. Consequently, normal salivary cortisol reference ranges must be used for different assays and different populations in order to evaluate more accurately pituitary-adrenal axis pathology in clinical practice.

  14. Effects of ventilation behaviour on indoor heat load based on test reference years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfelder, Madeleine; Koppe, Christina; Pfafferott, Jens; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    Since 2003, most European countries established heat health warning systems to alert the population to heat load. Heat health warning systems are based on predicted meteorological conditions outdoors. But the majority of the European population spends a substantial amount of time indoors, and indoor thermal conditions can differ substantially from outdoor conditions. The German Meteorological Service (Deutscher Wetterdienst, DWD) extended the existing heat health warning system (HHWS) with a thermal building simulation model to consider heat load indoors. In this study, the thermal building simulation model is used to simulate a standardized building representing a modern nursing home, because elderly and sick people are most sensitive to heat stress. Different types of natural ventilation were simulated. Based on current and future test reference years, changes in the future heat load indoors were analyzed. Results show differences between the various ventilation options and the possibility to minimize the thermal heat stress during summer by using an appropriate ventilation method. Nighttime ventilation for indoor thermal comfort is most important. A fully opened window at nighttime and the 2-h ventilation in the morning and evening are more sufficient to avoid heat stress than a tilted window at nighttime and the 1-h ventilation in the morning and the evening. Especially the ventilation in the morning seems to be effective to keep the heat load indoors low. Comparing the results for the current and the future test reference years, an increase of heat stress on all ventilation types can be recognized.

  15. Academic mentorship: an effective professional development strategy for medical reference librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H

    2001-01-01

    Academic mentorship is a professional development strategy that enables fledgling professionals to take advantage of the skills and expertise of the senior members for professional growth. Although widely practiced in many other professions, academic mentorship has not been widely reported in medical librarianship. Drawing upon personal experience, the author reports the success story of an academic mentorship program implemented in an academic medical library and argues for academic mentorship to be widely adopted in academic medical libraries. This paper first reviews the literature on the concept of mentoring in an academic setting, and then describes the background, rationale, methods, and results of the mentorship programs the author has experienced. Lastly, based upon an analysis of several surveys and studies on coping skills for quality job performance of health sciences reference librarians, the paper discusses mentorship as one effective means to ease a new medical reference librarian's transition from his/her pre-service experience to the professional world of medical librarianship. It calls on other health sciences librarians to consider developing their own mentorship programs to promote their professional development and personal growth.

  16. Gender-related power differences, beliefs and reactions towards people living with HIV/AIDS: an urban study in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbonu, Ngozi C; Van den Borne, Bart; De Vries, Nanne K

    2010-06-12

    Although there are an increasing number of studies on HIV-related stigma in Nigeria, very little research has focused on how power differences based on gender perpetuate the stigmatization of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and how these gender differences affect the care that PLWHA receive in health care institutions. We explore gender-related beliefs and reactions of society, including health care professionals (HCPs), with regard to PLWHA, using Connell's theoretical framework of gender and power (1987). With Connell's structural theory of gender and power (financial inequality, authority and structure of social norms), we can describe gender differences in stigmatization of PLWHA. We conducted in-depth semi-structured interviews, lasting 60 to 90 minutes, with 100 persons (40 members of the general public, 40 HCPs and 20 PLWHA) in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. The interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed verbatim. The Nvivo 7 computer package was used to analyze the data. There are similarities and differences between the general public and HCPs towards PLWHA in gender-related beliefs and reactions. For instance, although association with promiscuity and power differences were commonly acknowledged in the different groups, there are differences in how these reactions are shown; such as HCPs asking the female PLWHA to inform their partners to ensure payment of hospital bills. Women with HIV/AIDS in particular are therefore in a disadvantaged position with regard to the care they receive. Despite the fact that men and women with HIV/AIDS suffer the same illness, clear disparities are apparent in the negative reaction women and men living with HIV/AIDS experience in society. We show that women's generally low status in society contributes to the extreme negative reactions to which female PLWHA are subject. The government should create policies aimed at reducing the power differences in family, society and health care systems, which would be important to

  17. Gender-related power differences, beliefs and reactions towards people living with HIV/AIDS: an urban study in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Vries Nanne K

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although there are an increasing number of studies on HIV-related stigma in Nigeria, very little research has focused on how power differences based on gender perpetuate the stigmatization of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA and how these gender differences affect the care that PLWHA receive in health care institutions. We explore gender-related beliefs and reactions of society, including health care professionals (HCPs, with regard to PLWHA, using Connell's theoretical framework of gender and power (1987. With Connell's structural theory of gender and power (financial inequality, authority and structure of social norms, we can describe gender differences in stigmatization of PLWHA. Method We conducted in-depth semi-structured interviews, lasting 60 to 90 minutes, with 100 persons (40 members of the general public, 40 HCPs and 20 PLWHA in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. The interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed verbatim. The Nvivo 7 computer package was used to analyze the data. Results There are similarities and differences between the general public and HCPs towards PLWHA in gender-related beliefs and reactions. For instance, although association with promiscuity and power differences were commonly acknowledged in the different groups, there are differences in how these reactions are shown; such as HCPs asking the female PLWHA to inform their partners to ensure payment of hospital bills. Women with HIV/AIDS in particular are therefore in a disadvantaged position with regard to the care they receive. Conclusion Despite the fact that men and women with HIV/AIDS suffer the same illness, clear disparities are apparent in the negative reaction women and men living with HIV/AIDS experience in society. We show that women's generally low status in society contributes to the extreme negative reactions to which female PLWHA are subject. The government should create policies aimed at reducing the power differences in family, society

  18. Sex Role Orientation, Self-Disclosure, and Gender-Related Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banikiotes, Paul G.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    A study of college students showed the subject's own level of disclosure had an impact on perceptions of males and females moderately high and moderately low in disclosure. Those more similar were viewed to be better adjusted and more likable. Subject's sex role orientation had no effect on perceptions. (Author)

  19. Intervention effects on negative affect of CPS-referred children: results of a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Teresa; Bernard, Kristin; Ross, Emily; Dozier, Mary

    2014-09-01

    Exposure to early adversity places young children at risk for behavioral, physiological, and emotional dysregulation, predisposing them to a range of long-term problematic outcomes. Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up (ABC) is a 10-session intervention designed to enhance children's self-regulatory capabilities by helping parents to behave in nurturing, synchronous, and non-frightening ways. The effectiveness of the intervention was assessed in a randomized clinical trial, with parents who had been referred to Child Protective Services (CPS) for allegations of maltreatment. Parent-child dyads received either the ABC intervention or a control intervention. Following the intervention, children from the ABC intervention (n=56) expressed lower levels of negative affect during a challenging task compared to children from the control intervention (n=61). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Search for evidence of a preferred reference frame. [gravitational anisotropic effect on earth tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, R. J.; Goodkind, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    Some gravitation theories, in contradiction to general relativity, allow the existence of a universal preferred reference frame. Also allowed in some theories can be a galaxy-induced anisotropy of the gravitation constant. The parametrized post-Newtonian theory predicts that in these cases, there will be anomalous earth-tide amplitudes at specific frequencies. An 18-month earth-tide record obtained with the superconducting gravimeter has been examined for such anomalies. The data allow for the existence of such effects but cannot prove it because of uncertainties concerning geophysical perturbations of the tides. However, an upper limit to the preferred frame parameter of the parametrized post-Newtonian formalism is established at 0.002. The results also set a less rigorous limit on the anisotropy parameter, of the order of 0.001.

  1. The effect of Bandura's social cognitive theory implementation on addiction quitting of clients referred to addiction quitting clinics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heydari, Abbas; Dashtgard, Ali; Moghadam, Zahra Emami

    2014-01-01

    .... Thus, the present study was conducted with an aim to examine the effect of Bandura's social cognitive theory implementation on addiction quitting of clients referred to Imam Reza Hospital addiction quitting clinic...

  2. Women Sociability in the outskirts: an ethnographic essay about gender relations in a football tournament in Porto Alegre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Myskiw

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8042.2016v28n49p114 This article addresses the issue of gender relations in the world of sports practices, specifically in football. It focuses on ‘women’s’ sociabilities in matches of a football tournament in the outskirts of Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. It seeks to present elements for understanding the place of ‘women in the outskirts’. It is based on a multi-site ethnographic study conducted between February 2009 and December 2011, marked by situations experienced while circulating and staying with groups of ‘men’. Practices and ethnographic experiences resulted in interpretations that emphasize immersion and tensions in/between homogender and heterogender sociabilities related to positions and engagements in the outskirts tournament.

  3. MRI 3D lateral cerebral ventricles in living humans: morphological and morphometrical age-, gender-related preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimarchi, Fabio; Bramanti, Placido; Marino, Silvia; Milardi, Demetrio; Di Mauro, Debora; Ielitro, Giuseppe; Valenti, Barbara; Vaccarino, Gianluigi; Milazzo, Carmelo; Cutroneo, Giuseppina

    2013-03-01

    Morphological and volumetric variabilities of lateral ventricles are considered indirect indicators of age-and gender-related reductions of white and gray matter. However, no studies have classified lateral ventricles with different morphologies or showed its asymmetric shapes in healthy subjects. We performed an analysis on living subjects, using 3D volume rendering techniques. Eighty-five healthy Caucasian volunteers (49 women and 36 men aged 19-69 years) were scanned by a Philips Achieva 3T R2.6. Three-dimensional reconstruction allowed us to identify three main morphological shapes in living subjects and to show asymmetries between horns. We also assessed the surface deformation of the cerebral ventricles to identify region-specific shape differences in aging healthy adults. Statistical analysis showed significant gender- and age-related volume differences. An increase in lateral ventricle volume appears to be a constant, linear function of age throughout adult life.

  4. Military Personnel Dilemmas: Perspectives on Gender-Related Issues. A Selected List of Resource Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    PSYCHOANALYSIS . No Date. Defines gender identity and describes how it develops, drawing heavily on the concepts of j3. Money and R. Stoller. The...ANB MILITARY SOCIOLOGY. Spring 1980. p. 71. Soloff, Paul H. "Pseudohomosexual Psychosis In Basic Military Train- ing." ARCHIVES OF SEXUAL BEHAVIOP...pseudohornosexual psychosis defends the patient against perceiving his inability to effect separation from mother, bear the object loss, and attain

  5. The effects of the Korean reference value on the prevalence of osteoporosis and the prediction of fracture risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungwha; Choi, Moon-Gi; Yu, Jaemyung; Ryu, Ohk-Hyun; Yoo, Hyung Joon; Ihm, Sung-Hee; Kim, Doo-Man; Hong, Eun-Gyung; Park, Kyutae; Choi, Myungjin; Choi, Hyunhee

    2015-03-27

    Since the reference value is the core factor of the T-score calculation, it has a significant impact on the prevalence of osteoporosis. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of using the Korean reference value on the prevalence of osteoporosis and on the prediction of fracture risk. We used femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008-2011. The Korean reference was identified by the mean and standard deviation of men and women aged 20-29 years. We compared the prevalence and the fracture risk assessment tool (FRAX™) probability obtained from the Korean reference and the NHANES III reference. In men, the prevalence of osteoporosis increased when using the Korean men's reference, and the difference increased up to 9% for those in their 80s. In women, the prevalence increased when using the NHANES III reference, and the difference increased up to 17% for those in their 80s. The reference value also affected the fracture risk probability, and the difference from changing the reference value increased in women and in subjects with more clinical fracture risk factors. In major osteoporotic fractures, the difference of the risk probability was up to 6% in women aged 70-79 years with two clinical risk factors. For femoral neck fractures, the difference was up to 7% in women aged 50-59 years with two clinical risk factors. We confirmed that the reference value had significant effects on the prevalence of osteoporosis and on the fracture risk probability. The KNHANES 2008-2011 BMD data reflected the characteristics of the Korean BMD status well with regard to data size and study design; therefore, these data can be used as reference values.

  6. A first principles atmospheric propagation & characterization tool: the laser environmental effects definition and reference (LEEDR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorino, Steven T.; Bartell, Richard J.; Krizo, Matthew J.; Caylor, Gregory L.; Moore, Kenneth P.; Harris, Thomas R.; Cusumano, Salvatore J.

    2008-02-01

    The Air Force Institute of Technology Center for Directed Energy (AFIT/CDE) has developed a first principles atmospheric propagation and characterization model called the Laser Environmental Effects Definition and Reference or LEEDR. This package enables the creation of profiles of temperature, pressure, water vapor content, optical turbulence, and atmospheric particulates and hydrometeors as they relate to line-by-line layer extinction coefficient magnitude at wavelengths from the UV to the RF. Worldwide seasonal, diurnal, and geographical variability in these parameters is accessed from probability density function (PDF) databases using a variety of recently available resources to include the Extreme and Percentile Environmental Reference Tables (ExPERT), the Master Database for Optical Turbulence Research in Support of the Airborne Laser, and the Global Aerosol Data Set (GADS). GADS provides aerosol constituent number densities on a 5° x 5° grid worldwide. ExPERT mapping software allows the LEEDR operator to choose from specific site or regional upper air data to characterize correlated molecular absorption, aerosol absorption and scattering by percentile. The integration of the Surface Marine Gridded Climatology database, the Advanced Navy Aerosol Model (ANAM), and the Navy Surface Layer Optical Turbulence (NSLOT) model provides worldwide coverage over all ocean regions on a 1° x 1° grid. Molecular scattering is computed based on Rayleigh theory. Molecular absorption effects are computed for the top 13 absorbing species using line strength information from the HITRAN 2004 database in conjunction with a community standard molecular absorption continuum code. Aerosol scattering and absorption are computed with the Wiscombe Mie model. Each atmospheric particulate/hydrometeor is evaluated based on its wavelength-dependent forward and off-axis scattering characteristics and absorption effects on laser energy delivered at any wavelength from 0.355 μm to 8.6 m

  7. Gender-related differences in clinical course of crohn?s disease in an Asian population: a retrospective cohort review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Siu-tong; Li, Kin Kong

    2014-01-01

    Data from Asian populations about gender-related differences in Crohn's disease are few. Objectives This study was to analyze the clinical characteristics between women and men affected by Crohn's disease. This was a retrospective cohort study to analyze consecutive Crohn's disease patients from Jan 2000 to Dec 2012. Clinical and phenotypic characteristics and treatment outcomes were evaluated. 79 patients (55 male and two of them with positive family history) were diagnosed with Crohn's disease. Ileocolonic disease and inflammatory lesion was the most dominant site of involvement and disease behavior respectively in both men and women. Apart from higher frequency of nausea (45.83 vs 23.64%, P 0.024) and lower body mass index (19.44 vs 22.03 kg/m2, P 0.003) reported in women, no significant gender-related differences in clinical characteristics were observed. Women were more associated with delay use of immunosuppressive therapy (12 vs 36 months, P = 0.028), particularly for those aged less than 40 years old (85 vs 62.6%, P = 0.023). Cox proportional hazard regression analysis revealed that active smoking (HR, 4.679; 95% CI, 1.03-21.18) and delayed use of immunosuppressive therapy (HR, 4.13; 95% CI, 1.01-16.88) were only independent risk factors associated with increased risk of complications. There were no significant gender-specific differences in clinical and phenotypic characteristics between male and female Crohn's disease patients. Smoking history and delay use of immunosuppressive therapy were associated with higher risk of complications.

  8. GENDER-RELATED DIFFERENCES IN CLINICAL COURSE OF CROHN?S DISEASE IN AN ASIAN POPULATION: a retrospective cohort review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siu-tong LAW

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Context Data from Asian populations about gender-related differences in Crohn’s disease are few. Objectives This study was to analyze the clinical characteristics between women and men affected by Crohn’s disease. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study to analyze consecutive Crohn’s disease patients from Jan 2000 to Dec 2012. Clinical and phenotypic characteristics and treatment outcomes were evaluated. Results 79 patients (55 male and two of them with positive family history were diagnosed with Crohn’s disease. Ileocolonic disease and inflammatory lesion was the most dominant site of involvement and disease behavior respectively in both men and women. Apart from higher frequency of nausea (45.83 vs 23.64%, P 0.024 and lower body mass index (19.44 vs 22.03 kg/m2, P 0.003 reported in women, no significant gender-related differences in clinical characteristics were observed. Women were more associated with delay use of immunosuppressive therapy (12 vs 36 months, P = 0.028, particularly for those aged less than 40 years old (85 vs 62.6%, P = 0.023. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis revealed that active smoking (HR, 4.679; 95% CI, 1.03-21.18 and delayed use of immunosuppressive therapy (HR, 4.13; 95% CI, 1.01-16.88 were only independent risk factors associated with increased risk of complications. Conclusions There were no significant gender-specific differences in clinical and phenotypic characteristics between male and female Crohn’s disease patients. Smoking history and delay use of immunosuppressive therapy were associated with higher risk of complications.

  9. Macroeconomic effects of fiscal policy in the European Union, with particular reference to transition countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rilind Kabashi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study empirically investigates the short- to medium-term effects of fiscal policy on output and other macroeconomic variables in European Union countries between 1995 and 2012, with particular reference to transition countries. It applies Panel Vector Auto Regression with recursive identification of government spending shocks as the most appropriate method for the aim of the study and the sample used. The main results indicate that expansionary spending shocks have a positive, but a relatively low effect on output, with the fiscal multiplier around one in the year of the shock and the following year, and lower thereinafter. There are indications that this result is driven by the recent crisis, as multipliers are considerably lower in the pre-crisis period. Effects of fiscal policy are strongly dependent on country structural characteristics. Fiscal multipliers are higher in new European Union member states, in countries with low public debt and low trade openness. Further, spending shocks are followed by rising debt levels in old member states, which could be related well to the recent European debt crisis. Finally, the analysis of the transmission mechanism of fiscal policy yields results that are consistent with both extended Real Business Cycle models and extended New Keynesian models.

  10. Effective density of Aquadag and fullerene soot black carbon reference materials used for SP2 calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gysel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The mass and effective density of black carbon (BC particles generated from aqueous suspensions of Aquadag and fullerene soot was measured and parametrized as a function of their mobility diameter. The measurements were made by two independent research groups by operating a differential mobility analyser (DMA in series with an aerosol particle mass analyser (APM or a Couette centrifugal particle mass analyser (CPMA. Consistent and reproducible results were found in this study for different production lots of Aquadag, indicating that the effective density of these particles is a stable quantity and largely unaffected by differences in aerosol generation procedures and suspension treatments. The effective density of fullerene soot particles from one production lot was also found to be stable and independent of suspension treatments. Some differences to previous literature data were observed for both Aquadag and fullerene soot at larger particle diameters. Knowledge of the exact relationship between mobility diameter and particle mass is of great importance, as DMAs are commonly used to size-select particles from BC reference materials for calibration of single particle soot photometers (SP2, which quantitatively detect the BC mass in single particles.

  11. Bibliography of selected references on the effects of coal mine pollutants on aquatic ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, T F; Daniels, L K; Olsen, R D; Johnson, D O

    1979-12-01

    This bibliography contains more than 1400 references dealing with field and laboratory research on potential toxicities and disturbances known or postulated to be caused by pollutants found in coal mine effluents. The first of the three sections into which the bibliography is divided contains a select list of published bibliographies and literature reviews. In the second section are references on mine drainage studies, general references on environmental pollutants, and references dealing with two or more specific parameters. The third section includes references for 40 parameters under individual parameter headings. The multi parameter references in the second section are therefore also listed in the third section under individual headings. An author index is also provided.

  12. A review of problem drinking in young Mexicans and possible correlations with gender-related factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Quintero Soto

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Increased alcohol consumption in the Mexican population has lead to serious problems around this addiction. The age of onset of alcohol intake is occurring at younger ages increasingly and first contact with alcohol tends to occur at the beginning of adolescence, a period of life fraught with conflicts. In some cases, the teenager will seek evasion or refuge in drinking, or social acceptance from peers and peer groups. In this critical phase, the individual is trying to forge his or her own identity and tends to rebel against figures of authority. All of this leads to a variety of behaviors that many times disregard possible consequences on oneself, one’s family and one’s community. By adopting a gender perspective, this article attempts to provide some insight as to how men and women develop problem-drinking, factors that may bear an effect on its occurrence, as well as to highlight some actions points that may help to solve and prevent this adverse problem.

  13. Effect of Distance on Open Innovation: Differences among Institutions According to Patent Citation and Reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JinHyo Joseph Yun

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The main topic of this paper is the effects of distance between technology and the market, on open innovation. For this, we set up two research questions, as follows: Is there any relation between the distance between technology and the market, and open innovation? If there is, what differences are there in the relation among Fortune 500 companies, non-Fortune 500 companies, laboratories, universities, and start-ups? First, this study measured the distance between technology and the market of a patent by the size of its list of references and citations. Second, the OI network among patent application subjects was described based on patent similarity. Third and most importantly, regression analyses were used to answer the research questions. The first result was that there were differences in the distance and OI among Fortune 500 firms, Fortune non-500 firms, laboratories, universities, and start-ups. Thus, there are relations between the distance between technology and the market, and open innovation. The second result was that the distance between technology and the market was found to moderate the open innovation effect in Fortune 500 companies and laboratories.

  14. Effect of Alcohol References in Music on Alcohol Consumption in Public Drinking Places

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engels, R.C.M.E.; Slettenhaar, H.G.J.; Bogt, T.F.M. ter; Scholte, R.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    People are exposed to many references to alcohol, which might influence their consumption of alcohol directly. In a field experiment, we tested whether textual references to alcohol in music played in bars lead to higher revenues of alcoholic beverages. We created two databases: one contained songs

  15. Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems: REFERENCE SITE INITIAL ASSESSMENT FOR A SALT DOME REPOSITORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harwell, M. A.; Brandstetter, A.; Benson, G. L.; Raymond, J. R.; Brandley, D. J.; Serne, R. J.; Soldat, J. K.; Cole, C. R.; Deutsch, W. J.; Gupta, S. K.; Harwell, C. C.; Napier, B. A.; Reisenauer, A. E.; Prater, L. S.; Simmons, C. S.; Strenge, D. L.; Washburn, J. F.; Zellmer, J. T.

    1982-06-01

    As a methodology demonstration for the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI), the Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Program conducted an initial reference site analysis of the long-term effectiveness of a salt dome repository. The Hainesville Salt Dome in Texas was chosen to be representative of the Gulf Coast interior salt domes; however, the Hainesville Site has been eliminated as a possible nuclear waste repository site. The data used for this exercise are not adequate for an actual assessment, nor have all the parametric analyses been made that would adequately characterize the response of the geosystem surrounding the repository. Additionally, because this was the first exercise of the complete AEGIS and WASTE Rock Interaction Technology (WRIT) methodology, this report provides the initial opportunity for the methodology, specifically applied to a site, to be reviewed by the community outside the AEGIS. The scenario evaluation, as a part of the methodology demonstration, involved consideration of a large variety of potentially disruptive phenomena, which alone or in concert could lead to a breach in a salt dome repository and to a subsequent transport of the radionuclides to the environment. Without waste- and repository-induced effects, no plausible natural geologic events or processes which would compromise the repository integrity could be envisioned over the one-million-year time frame after closure. Near-field (waste- and repository-induced) effects were excluded from consideration in this analysis, but they can be added in future analyses when that methodology development is more complete. The potential for consequential human intrusion into salt domes within a million-year time frame led to the consideration of a solution mining intrusion scenario. The AEGIS staff developed a specific human intrusion scenario at 100 years and 1000 years post-closure, which is one of a whole suite of possible scenarios. This scenario

  16. Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems: REFERENCE SITE INITIAL ASSESSMENT FOR A SALT DOME REPOSITORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harwell, M. A.; Brandstetter, A.; Benson, G. L.; Bradley, D. J.; Serne, R. J.; Soldat, J. K; Cole, C. R.; Deutsch, W. J.; Gupta, S. K.; Harwell, C. C.; Napier, B. A.; Reisenauer, A. E.; Prater, L. S.; Simmons, C. S.; Strenge, D. L.; Washburn, J. F.; Zellmer, J. T.

    1982-06-01

    As a methodology demonstration for the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI), the Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Program conducted an initial reference site analysis of the long-term effectiveness of a salt dome repository. The Hainesville Salt Dome in Texas was chosen to be representative of the Gulf Coast interior salt domes; however, the Hainesville Site has been eliminated as a possible nuclear waste repository site. The data used for this exercise are not adequate for an actual assessment, nor have all the parametric analyses been made that would adequately characterize the response of the geosystem surrounding the repository. Additionally, because this was the first exercise of the complete AEGIS and WASTE Rock Interaction Technology (WRIT) methodology, this report provides the initial opportunity for the methodology, specifically applied to a site, to be reviewed by the community outside the AEGIS. The scenario evaluation, as a part of the methodology demonstration, involved consideration of a large variety of potentially disruptive phenomena, which alone or in concert could lead to a breach in a salt dome repository and to a subsequent transport of the radionuclides to the environment. Without waste- and repository-induced effects, no plausible natural geologic events or processes which would compromise the repository integrity could be envisioned over the one-million-year time frame after closure. Near-field (waste- and repository-induced) effects were excluded from consideration in this analysis, but they can be added in future analyses when that methodology development is more complete. The potential for consequential human intrusion into salt domes within a million-year time frame led to the consideration of a solution mining intrusion scenario. The AEGIS staff developed a specific human intrusion scenario at 100 years and 1000 years post-closure, which is one of a whole suite of possible scenarios. This scenario

  17. Contents, Sources and Methodology for the Study of Gender Relations in Ptolemaic and Roman Egypt (4th century B.C.- 4th century A. D.. Women’s identities, power and socioeconomic situation through papyrus sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaia Goñi Zabalegui

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The following work intends to show the contents and methodology of aresearch that will conclude in a PhD. The main aim of the work is to study in depth the gender relations in Ptolemaic and Roman Egypt between the fourth century b.C. and fourth century a.d, for what it's necessary to know the identities, power and socioeconomic situationof women in this historic framework. In this way, this work, whose basis are exposed in article below, serves as an illustration of the implantation of a gender perspective in the study of the ancient world. In order to achieve this purpose, papyrus sources written or ordered by women will be used, as well as sources that make explicit reference to them. Specifically, the work will focus on personal letters that report on the existence and preoccupations of a certain group of women of Greco-Roman Egypt.

  18. Effect of Age on Hypertension: Analysis of Over 4,800 Referred Hypertensive Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Gunnar

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate in this study the factors associated with the effect of age on blood pressure in more than 4800 patients. Their physicians referred them to evaluate for secondary causes for their hypertension. Factors studied included history and physical examination, serum sodium, potassium and creatinine, a stimulated plasma renin and catecholamine. We also studied the blood pressure response to infusion of either saralasin (an angiotensin II analogue or enalapril (an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, and plasma aldosterone and cortisol after infusion of saline. We measured serum thyroxin and thyroid stimulating hormone concentrations on 1061 consecutive patients in this series. The results of our study show that increased age is associated with a significant increase in the prevalence of hypertension and especially of systolic hypertension after age 60 years. Increased obesity between age 30-50 years is associated with significant increases in diastolic blood pressure and this trend is also seen in African-Americans who are heavier than whites. Increased age is associated with an increased prevalence of secondary forms of hypertension including atherosclerotic renovascular hypertension, renal insufficiency and primary hypothyroidism.

  19. Theory of pollution control in electricity supply with reference to transnational and transmedia effects. [Monograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Highton, N.H.; Webb, M.G.

    1980-01-01

    There has been increasing concern in recent years about man-made sources of sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) and, although there is currently no restriction on the volume of SO/sub 2/ emitted by electric power plants in Britain, there is some pressure to do so. The technically feasible options for controlling SO/sub 2/ emmission are discussed, followed by an examination of the main analytical problem: what effect control options would have on the optimal short-run operation of a generating plant, and the extent of the investment in pollution control equipment over some planning period with an exogenously given forecast of electricity demand. The analysis admits the possibility of damage occurring outside national boundaries due to the transport of SO/sub 2/ over long distances (transnational) and the possibility of damage occurring in other parts of the environment inside national boundaries (transmedia) due to the waste byproducts of SO/sub 2/ control. 2 references, 1 figure.

  20. Gender related issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hacer Özel Doğan; Birgül Piyal

    2017-01-01

    .... Gender stereotypes created by society do not simply differentiate between men and women, but importantly affect access tosocial resources, use of opportunities, distribution of resources and responsibilities...

  1. Dimensions of gender relations and reproductive health inequity perceived by female undergraduate students in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam: a qualitative exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Thanh Cong; Markham, Christine M; Ross, Michael W; Williams, Mark L; Beasley, R Palmer; Tran, Ly T H; Nguyen, Huong T H; Le, Thach Ngoc

    2012-10-24

    Increasing evidence indicates that gender equity has a significant influence on women's health; yet few culturally specific indicators of gender relations exist which are applicable to health. This study explores dimensions of gender relations perceived by female undergraduate students in southern Vietnamese culture, and qualitatively examines how this perceived gender inequity may influence females' sexual or reproductive health. Sixty-two female undergraduate students from two universities participated in eight focus group discussions to talk about their perspectives regarding national and local gender equity issues. Although overall gender gaps in the Mekong Delta were perceived to have decreased in comparison to previous times, several specific dimensions of gender relations were emergent in students' discussions. Perceived dimensions of gender relations were comparable to theoretical structures of the Theory of Gender and Power, and to findings from several reports describing the actual inferiority of women. Allocation of housework and social paid work represented salient dimensions of labor. The most salient dimension of power related to women in positions of authority. Salient dimensions of cathexis related to son preference, women's vulnerability to blame or criticism, and double standards or expectations. Findings also suggested that gender inequity potentially influenced women's sexual and reproductive health as regards to health information seeking, gynecological care access, contraceptive use responsibility, and child bearing. Further investigations of the associations between gender relations and different women's sexual and reproductive health outcomes in this region are needed. It may be important to address gender relations as a distal determinant in health interventions in order to promote gender-based equity in sexual and reproductive health.

  2. Dimensions of gender relations and reproductive health inequity perceived by female undergraduate students in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam: a qualitative exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bui Thanh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Increasing evidence indicates that gender equity has a significant influence on women’s health; yet few culturally specific indicators of gender relations exist which are applicable to health. This study explores dimensions of gender relations perceived by female undergraduate students in southern Vietnamese culture, and qualitatively examines how this perceived gender inequity may influence females’ sexual or reproductive health. Methods Sixty-two female undergraduate students from two universities participated in eight focus group discussions to talk about their perspectives regarding national and local gender equity issues. Results Although overall gender gaps in the Mekong Delta were perceived to have decreased in comparison to previous times, several specific dimensions of gender relations were emergent in students’ discussions. Perceived dimensions of gender relations were comparable to theoretical structures of the Theory of Gender and Power, and to findings from several reports describing the actual inferiority of women. Allocation of housework and social paid work represented salient dimensions of labor. The most salient dimension of power related to women in positions of authority. Salient dimensions of cathexis related to son preference, women’s vulnerability to blame or criticism, and double standards or expectations. Findings also suggested that gender inequity potentially influenced women’s sexual and reproductive health as regards to health information seeking, gynecological care access, contraceptive use responsibility, and child bearing. Conclusion Further investigations of the associations between gender relations and different women’s sexual and reproductive health outcomes in this region are needed. It may be important to address gender relations as a distal determinant in health interventions in order to promote gender-based equity in sexual and reproductive health.

  3. A statistically robust EEG re-referencing procedure to mitigate reference effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepage, Kyle Q; Kramer, Mark A; Chu, Catherine J

    2014-09-30

    The electroencephalogram (EEG) remains the primary tool for diagnosis of abnormal brain activity in clinical neurology and for in vivo recordings of human neurophysiology in neuroscience research. In EEG data acquisition, voltage is measured at positions on the scalp with respect to a reference electrode. When this reference electrode responds to electrical activity or artifact all electrodes are affected. Successful analysis of EEG data often involves re-referencing procedures that modify the recorded traces and seek to minimize the impact of reference electrode activity upon functions of the original EEG recordings. We provide a novel, statistically robust procedure that adapts a robust maximum-likelihood type estimator to the problem of reference estimation, reduces the influence of neural activity from the re-referencing operation, and maintains good performance in a wide variety of empirical scenarios. The performance of the proposed and existing re-referencing procedures are validated in simulation and with examples of EEG recordings. To facilitate this comparison, channel-to-channel correlations are investigated theoretically and in simulation. The proposed procedure avoids using data contaminated by neural signal and remains unbiased in recording scenarios where physical references, the common average reference (CAR) and the reference estimation standardization technique (REST) are not optimal. The proposed procedure is simple, fast, and avoids the potential for substantial bias when analyzing low-density EEG data. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Weight status and gender-related differences in motor skills and in child care - based physical activity in young children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonvin Antoine

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last decades, a decline in motor skills and in physical activity and an increase in obesity has been observed in children. However, there is a lack of data in young children. We tested if differences in motor skills and in physical activity according to weight or gender were already present in 2- to 4-year-old children. Methods Fifty-eight child care centers in the French part of Switzerland were randomly selected for the Youp'là bouge study. Motor skills were assessed by an obstacle course including 5 motor skills, derived from the Zurich Neuromotor Assessment test. Physical activity was measured with accelerometers (GT1M, Actigraph, Florida, USA using age-adapted cut-offs. Weight status was assessed using the International Obesity Task Force criteria (healthy weight vs overweight for body mass index (BMI. Results Of the 529 children (49% girls, 3.4 ± 0.6 years, BMI 16.2 ± 1.2 kg/m2, 13% were overweight. There were no significant weight status-related differences in the single skills of the obstacle course, but there was a trend (p = 0.059 for a lower performance of overweight children in the overall motor skills score. No significant weight status-related differences in child care-based physical activity were observed. No gender-related differences were found in the overall motor skills score, but boys performed better than girls in 2 of the 5 motor skills (p ≤ 0.04. Total physical activity as well as time spent in moderate-vigorous and in vigorous activity during child care were 12-25% higher and sedentary activity 5% lower in boys compared to girls (all p Conclusions At this early age, there were no significant weight status- or gender-related differences in global motor skills. However, in accordance to data in older children, child care-based physical activity was higher in boys compared to girls. These results are important to consider when establishing physical activity recommendations or targeting

  5. A statistically robust EEG re-referencing procedure to mitigate reference effect

    OpenAIRE

    Lepage, Kyle Q.; Kramer, Mark Nathan; Chu, Catherine Jean

    2014-01-01

    Background: The electroencephalogram (EEG) remains the primary tool for diagnosis of abnormal brain activity in clinical neurology and for in vivo recordings of human neurophysiology in neuroscience research. In EEG data acquisition, voltage is measured at positions on the scalp with respect to a reference electrode. When this reference electrode responds to electrical activity or artifact all electrodes are affected. Successful analysis of EEG data often involves re-referencing procedures th...

  6. Impacts of both reference population size and inclusion of a residual polygenic effect on the accuracy of genomic prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rensing Stephan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this work was to study the impact of both the size of genomic reference populations and the inclusion of a residual polygenic effect on dairy cattle genetic evaluations enhanced with genomic information. Methods Direct genomic values were estimated for German Holstein cattle with a genomic BLUP model including a residual polygenic effect. A total of 17,429 genotyped Holstein bulls were evaluated using the phenotypes of 44 traits. The Interbull genomic validation test was implemented to investigate how the inclusion of a residual polygenic effect impacted genomic estimated breeding values. Results As the number of reference bulls increased, both the variance of the estimates of single nucleotide polymorphism effects and the reliability of the direct genomic values of selection candidates increased. Fitting a residual polygenic effect in the model resulted in less biased genome-enhanced breeding values and decreased the correlation between direct genomic values and estimated breeding values of sires in the reference population. Conclusions Genetic evaluation of dairy cattle enhanced with genomic information is highly effective in increasing reliability, as well as using large genomic reference populations. We found that fitting a residual polygenic effect reduced the bias in genome-enhanced breeding values, decreased the correlation between direct genomic values and sire's estimated breeding values and made genome-enhanced breeding values more consistent in mean and variance as is the case for pedigree-based estimated breeding values.

  7. Age- and Gender-related Disparities in Primary Percutaneous Coronary Interventions for Acute ST-segment elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Pilgrim

    Full Text Available Previous analyses reported age- and gender-related differences in the provision of cardiac care. The objective of the study was to compare circadian disparities in the delivery of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI for acute myocardial infarction (AMI according to the patient's age and gender.We investigated patients included into the Acute Myocardial Infarction in Switzerland (AMIS registry presenting to one of 11 centers in Switzerland providing primary PCI around the clock, and stratified patients according to gender and age.A total of 4723 patients presented with AMI between 2005 and 2010; 1319 (28% were women and 2172 (54% were ≥65 years of age. More than 90% of patients 90 minutes was found in elderly males (adj HR 1.66 (95% CI 1.40-1.95, p<0.001 and females (adj HR 1.57 (95% CI 1.27-1.93, p<0.001, as well as in females <65 years (adj HR 1.47 (95% CI 1.13-1.91, p = 0.004 as compared to males <65 years of age, with significant differences in circadian patterns during on- and off-duty hours.In a cohort of patients with AMI in Switzerland, we observed discrimination of elderly patients and females in the circadian provision of primary PCI.

  8. Serum ghrelin levels and gender-related indices of body composition in prepubertal children: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Minoo; Ansari, Sara; Sotoudeh, Gity; Mahmoudi, Mahmood; Speakman, John R; Djafarian, Kurosh

    2015-03-01

    A wide variety of functions has been attributed to ghrelin, a peptide hormone secreted in the stomach. The objective of the study was to assess the association of ghrelin concentrations with body composition among Iranian children. In this study, blood samples of 57 boys and 54 girls aged 6-10 were collected to measure ghrelin levels. Fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) were examined by body composition analyzer. Actigraph GT3X was administered to assess children's physical activity and sleep. Data were analyzed using linear regression models. All measured parameters did not differ between genders except for sleep time which was higher and sleep efficacy which was lower in boys compared with girls. None of the FM and FFM indices studied in boys was significantly associated with ghrelin levels. In girls, however, ghrelin concentrations were significantly associated with FM (β = 0.04, P = 0.01), fat mass index (β = 0.07, P = 0.008), and fat-free mass index (β = 0.08, P = 0.04) and near-significantly associated with FFM (β = 0.03, P = 0.09) after adjusting for age, physical activity, sleep, and dietary intake. Girls with higher ghrelin levels were more likely to have increased total FM and FFM. Conversely, body composition was not associated with ghrelin levels in boys. Consequently, ghrelin may influence the gender-related differences of body composition during childhood in girls. But, further study is needed to confirm our findings.

  9. Ethnicity and gender related differences in extended intraesophageal pH monitoring parameters in infants: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolia Vasundhara

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD is believed to be more common in adult males as compared to females. It also has been shown in adults to be more common in Caucasians. We wanted to determine ethnicity and gender related differences for extended pH monitoring parameters in infancy. Methods Extended pH monitoring data (EPM from infants Results There were 569 infants, 388 controls, 181 with GERD (320 males, 249 females; 165 Caucasians, 375 AA. No statistical difference in EPM parameters was detected between genders in both groups. However, Caucasian infants had a significantly higher incidence of GERD than AA infants (p = 0.036. On stratifying by gender, Caucasian females had a significantly higher number of reflux episodes >5 minutes as compared to AA females in the control group (p = 0.05. Furthermore, Caucasian females with GERD showed an overall higher trend for all parameters. Caucasian males had a trend for higher mean number of reflux episodes as compared to AA males in the control group (p = 0.09. Conclusion Although gender specific control data do not appear warranted in infants undergoing EPM, ethnic differences related to an overall increased incidence of pathologic GERD in Caucasian infants should be noted.

  10. Gender-related differences in patients with acute heart failure: management and predictors of in-hospital mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parissis, John T; Mantziari, Lilian; Kaldoglou, Nikolaos; Ikonomidis, Ignatios; Nikolaou, Maria; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Altenberger, Johann; Delgado, Juan; Vilas-Boas, Fabio; Paraskevaidis, Ioannis; Anastasiou-Nana, Maria; Follath, Ferenc

    2013-09-20

    Gender-related differences in clinical phenotype, in-hospital management and prognosis of acute heart failure (AHF) patients have been previously reported in European and US registries. The ALARM-HF survey is the first to include a cohort of 4953 patients hospitalized for AHF in 666 hospitals in 6 European countries, Mexico and Australia. Women accounted for 37% of the study population, were older and had higher rates of de novo heart failure (45% vs 36%, pacute coronary syndrome (ACS) was the predominant precipitating factor in both genders, but to a lesser extent in females (30% vs 42%, pvalvular heart disease, diabetes, obesity, anemia and depression in women (pdisease, renal failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (p1.5mg/dL and diabetes. Furthermore, recent ACS, valvular heart disease and dementia contributed to prognosis in women, while LVEF, hypertension and anemia were independent predictors in men. Among patients with AHF, there are significant differences in co-morbidities, precipitating factors and predictors of in-hospital mortality between genders. Nevertheless, in-hospital mortality remains similar between genders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Gender-related differences of inguinal hernia and asymptomatic patent processus vaginalis in term and preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgmeier, Christine; Dreyhaupt, Jens; Schier, Felix

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the gender-related differences of inguinal hernia (IH) and patent processus vaginalis (PPV) in term and preterm infants. Over a nine-year-period 411 infants underwent laparoscopic herniorrhaphy within the first six months of life. 246 term (191 male; 55 female) and 165 preterm (118 male; 47 female) infants were included in this retrospective study. Initial presentation of IH and intraoperative anatomical findings of PPV were reviewed. We found that term boys (58.6%) and girls (58.2%) predominantly presented with right-sided IH whereas preterm boys (36.4%) and girls (44.7%) mostly presented with bilateral IH. Female babies had a higher incidence of initial left-sided IH. Term and preterm girls with initial left-sided hernia were found to have highest incidence of PPV. Male term babies with initial left-sided IH were found to have the lowest incidence of PPV (25.0%). The highest incidence of PPV in male was found in preterm boys with either left- or right-sided IH. Incidence and laterality of IH and PPV differ between term and preterm girls and boys. In open hernia repair decision concerning contralateral groin exploration should consider term/preterm birth as well as gender. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Different Views about the Nature of Gender-Related Asymmetries in Tasks Based on Biological or Artefact Categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Gainotti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sex-related asymmetries in the ability to process different semantic categories have been reported both in normal subjects and in brain-damaged patients, but the nature of these asymmetries is still controversial. Some authors suggest that these differences might be due to social-role related familiarity factors, whereas others attribute them to inborn neural differences rooted in evolution. Drawing in part on this second line of thought, some authors have suggested that gender-related asymmetries might be due to differences in stimulus processing between men and women, namely, to the tendency of females to focus mainly on perceptual features and of males to focus equally on both perceptual and functional features. To test this hypothesis, we asked 53 male and 65 female undergraduate students to evaluate the relevance of a number of perceptual and functional features in the representation of various kinds of biological and artefact categories. Contrary to the hypothesis, evaluation of the weight of different sources of knowledge in representing living and artefact categories was similar in males and females.

  13. Gender Related Differences in Response to “In Favor of Myself” Wellness Program to Enhance Positive Self & Body Image among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golan, Moria; Hagay, Noa; Tamir, Snait

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical, neurological and psychological changes are often experienced differently by male and female adolescents. Positive self-esteem, emotional well-being, school achievements, and family connectedness are considered as protective factors against health-compromising behaviors. This study examines the gender differences in respect to the effect of a school-based interactive wellness program – “In Favor of Myself” – on self-image, body image, eating attitudes and behaviors of young adolescents. Methods Two hundred and ten adolescents (mean age 13.5) participated in the intervention group, 55% were girls and 45% boys. Program consisted of eight 90-minutes structured sessions integrated into a regular school coping skills curriculum. The program focused on self-esteem, self-image, body image, media literacy and cognitive dissonance. The overall impact of the program and the study protocol were previously published. Results Overall, there are gender related differences in respect to body image and self-image in young adolescents in response to “In Favor of Myself”. Compared to boys, girls reported at baseline higher self-esteem, being more contingent by appearance, and their self-image was more influenced by popularity, appearance, interpersonal communication and admired people. Furthermore girls presented greater gap between current body figure and perceived ideal figure. Not only were girls more dissatisfied with their body, but they were more active in attempts to become and/or remain “thin”. At program termination, gender × time effect was detected in reduction of self-worth contingent by others, change in importance given to achievements at schools, parents' perceptions, as well as the impact of comparisons to friends and family members on self-image. Conclusions Girls exhibited more gains than boys from ‘In Favor of Myself’ which raise the questions about how effective would be the program when delivered in mixed gender groups vs

  14. Gender-related influences of parental alcoholism on the prevalence of psychiatric illnesses: Analysis of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Peter T.; Desai, Rani A.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2010-01-01

    Background Offspring of individuals with alcoholism are at increased risk for psychiatric illness, but the effects of gender on this risk are not well known. In this study we tested the hypothesis that the gender of the parent with alcoholism and the gender of offspring affect the association between parental alcoholism and offspring psychiatric illness. Method We analyzed the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) data to examine the gender-specific prevalence of Axis I and Axis II disorders in 23,006 male and 17,368 female respondents with and without a history of paternal or maternal alcoholism. Adjusted odds-ratios were calculated for the disorders based on gender and presence of maternal or paternal alcoholism. Results Maternal or paternal alcoholism was associated with a higher prevalence of every disorder examined, regardless of the gender of offspring. Gender-related differences in prevalences were present in nearly all examined disorders and the association between parental alcoholism and offspring psychiatric disorders was significantly different in men and women. These differences included stronger associations in female offspring of men with alcoholism (alcohol abuse without dependence); in female offspring of women with alcoholism (mania, nicotine dependence, alcohol abuse, and schizoid personality disorder); in male offspring of men with alcoholism (mania); and in male offspring of women with alcoholism (panic disorder). Conclusions Interactions between gender and parental alcoholism were specific to certain disorders but varied in their effects, and in general female children of women with alcoholism appear at greatest risk for adult psychopathology. PMID:20645936

  15. Effects of different reference periods on drought index (SPEI) estimations from 1901 to 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Myoung-Jin; Kim, Yeonjoo; Park, Daeryong; Kim, Jeongbin

    2017-10-01

    This study aims to understand how different reference periods (i.e., calibration periods) of climate data used to estimate drought indices influence regional drought assessments. Specifically, we investigate the influences of different reference periods on historical drought characteristics, such as the trend, frequency, intensity and spatial extent, using the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) with a 12-month lag (SPEI-12), which was estimated from the datasets of the Climate Research Unit (CRU) and the University of Delaware (UDEL). For the 1901-1957 (P1) and 1958-2014 (P2) estimation periods, three different types of reference periods are used to compute the SPEI: P1 and P2 together, P1 and P2 separately and P1 only. Focusing on East Asia, Europe, the United States and West Africa, we find that the influence of the reference period is significant in East Asia and West Africa, with dominant drying trends from P1 to P2. The reference period influenced the assessment of drought characteristics, particularly the severity and spatial extent, whereas the influence on the frequency was relatively small. Finally, self-calibration, which is the most common practice for indices such as the SPEI, tends to underestimate the drought severity and spatial extent relative to the other approaches used in this study. Although the conclusions drawn in this study are limited by the use of two global datasets, they highlight the need for clarification of the reference period in drought assessments to better understand regional drought characteristics and the associated temporal changes, particularly under climate change scenarios.

  16. Effects on Chilean Vertical Reference Frame due to the Maule Earthquake co-seismic and post-seismic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montecino, Henry D.; de Freitas, Silvio R. C.; Báez, Juan C.; Ferreira, Vagner G.

    2017-12-01

    The Maule Earthquake (Mw = 8.8) of February 27, 2010 is among the strongest earthquakes that occurred in recent years throughout the world. The crustal deformation caused by this earthquake has been widely studied using GNSS, InSAR and gravity observations. However, there is currently no estimation of the possible vertical deformations produced by co-seismic and post-seismic effects in segments of the Chilean Vertical Reference Frame (CHVRF). In this paper, we present an estimation of co-seismic and post-seismic deformations on the CHVRF using an indirect approach based on GNSS and Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data as well as by applying a trajectory model. GNSS time series were used from 10 continuous GNSS stations in the period from 2007 to 2015, as well as 28 GNSS temporary stations realized before and after the earthquake, and 34 vertical deformation vectors in the region most affected by the earthquake. We considered a set of 147 monthly solutions of spherical harmonic gravity field that were expanded up to degree, as well as order 96 of the GRACE mission provided by Center for Space Research, University of Texas at Austin (UT-CSR) process center. The magnitude of vertical deformation was estimated in part of the Chilean vertical network due to the co-seismic and post-seismic effects. Once we evaluated the hydrological effect, natural and artificial jumps, and the effect of glacial isostatic adjustment in GNSS and GRACE time series, the maximum values associated to co- and post-seismic deformations on orthometric height were found to be ∼-34 cm and 5 cm, respectively. Overall, the deformation caused by the Maule earthquake in orthometric heights is almost entirely explained by the variation in the ellipsoidal heights (over 85% in co-seismic jump); however, coseismic jump in the geoid reached -3.3 mm, and could influence the maintenance of a modern vertical reference network in a medium to long term. We evaluated the consistency for a

  17. Reference citation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brkić, Silvija

    2013-01-01

    .... This paper deals with different styles of reference citation. Special emphasis was placed on the Vancouver Style for reference citation in biomedical journals established by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors...

  18. Health Related Quality of Life in a Dutch Rehabilitation Population: Reference Values and the Effect of Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krops, Leonie A; Jaarsma, Eva A; Dijkstra, Pieter U; Geertzen, Jan H B; Dekker, Rienk

    2017-01-01

    To establish reference values for Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) in a Dutch rehabilitation population, and to study effects of patient characteristics, diagnosis and physical activity on HRQoL in this population. Former rehabilitation patients (3169) were asked to fill in a questionnaire including the Dutch version of the RAND-36. Differences between our rehabilitation patients and Dutch reference values were analyzed (t-tests). Effects of patient characteristics, diagnosis and movement intensity on scores on the subscales of the RAND-36 were analyzed using block wise multiple regression analyses. In total 1223 patients (39%) returned the questionnaire. HRQoL was significantly poorer in the rehabilitation patients compared to Dutch reference values on all subscales (pbetter outcomes on all subscales except for mental health (p ranged rehabilitation patients compared to Dutch reference values. Physical components of HRQoL are affected by diagnosis. In rehabilitation patients an association between movement intensity and HRQoL was found. For clinical purposes, results of this study can be used as reference values for HRQoL in a rehabilitation setting.

  19. Issues in the Measurement of Contextual Effects: Homogeneity of Associations and Multiple Reference Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karweit, Nancy

    An argument is made against the use of school averages as composition measures by documenting the non-random nature of peer associations and by presenting evidence that different students are influenced by different reference groups. The structure of friendship associations among some 20,000 students in the McDill Twenty High School Sample is…

  20. Probe-microphone measurements with body-worn instruments: loudspeaker and reference microphone effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, J A; Hawkins, D B

    1994-03-01

    Probe-microphone measurements are typically made with behind-the-ear (BTE) and in-the-ear (ITE) hearing aids with the loudspeaker located at 0-degrees or 45-degrees azimuth at head level and the reference microphone positioned on the head near the hearing aid microphone. With body-worn instruments, these conditions may not accurately reflect in situ hearing aid performance. This study compared the real-ear aided response (REAR) and real-ear insertion response (REIR) for a body-worn hearing aid using the substitution method and an off-line equalization modified pressure method with three different loudspeaker locations (0 degrees and 45 degrees at head level and 0 degrees at body hearing aid level) and two reference microphone positions (over-the-ear [OTE] and next to the body hearing aid microphone). Results indicated that each of the responses was affected by changes in loudspeaker and reference microphone location. If the substitution method measured from 0-degrees azimuth at head level is considered to be the most realistic representation of hearing aid performance, the closest agreement with body-worn hearing aids was obtained with the modified pressure method when the loudspeaker was located at 0-degrees azimuth at head level and the reference microphone was located over the ear. If the clinician uses the modified pressure method and desires to approximate results with the substitution method, correction values are needed for REAR measurements but not for REIR measurements.

  1. Learning preferences for Referring Expression Generation: Effects of domain, language and algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolen, Ruud; Krahmer, Emiel; Theune, Mariet

    2012-01-01

    One important subtask of Referring Expression Generation (REG) algorithms is to select the attributes in a definite description for a given object. In this paper, we study how much training data is required for algorithms to do this properly. We compare two REG algorithms in terms of their

  2. Referent Selection in Determining Equity Perceptions: Differential Effects on Behavioral and Attitudinal Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Richard W.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Tested the hypothesis that different pay referents should result in different tactics to reduce inequities. Suggests that the various types of inequity relate differentially to each of three outcome variables: pay satisfaction, intent to remain with a company, and frequency of extra-role behavior. (Author/ABB)

  3. Choosing referring expressions in Belgian and Netherlandic Dutch : Effects of animacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogels, J.; Maes, A.A.; Krahmer, E.J.

    It has been argued that animate entities are referred to with more attenuated expressions than inanimate entities, because they are more accessible in memory. Two previously untested claims made for Dutch suggest that the situation may be more complex. Firstly, it has been stated that full pronouns

  4. Weight status and gender-related differences in motor skills and in child care - based physical activity in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvin, Antoine; Barral, Jérôme; Kakebeeke, Tanja H; Kriemler, Susi; Longchamp, Anouk; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Puder, Jardena J

    2012-03-09

    Over the last decades, a decline in motor skills and in physical activity and an increase in obesity has been observed in children. However, there is a lack of data in young children. We tested if differences in motor skills and in physical activity according to weight or gender were already present in 2- to 4-year-old children. Fifty-eight child care centers in the French part of Switzerland were randomly selected for the Youp'là bouge study. Motor skills were assessed by an obstacle course including 5 motor skills, derived from the Zurich Neuromotor Assessment test. Physical activity was measured with accelerometers (GT1M, Actigraph, Florida, USA) using age-adapted cut-offs. Weight status was assessed using the International Obesity Task Force criteria (healthy weight vs overweight) for body mass index (BMI). Of the 529 children (49% girls, 3.4 ± 0.6 years, BMI 16.2 ± 1.2 kg/m2), 13% were overweight. There were no significant weight status-related differences in the single skills of the obstacle course, but there was a trend (p = 0.059) for a lower performance of overweight children in the overall motor skills score. No significant weight status-related differences in child care-based physical activity were observed. No gender-related differences were found in the overall motor skills score, but boys performed better than girls in 2 of the 5 motor skills (p ≤ 0.04). Total physical activity as well as time spent in moderate-vigorous and in vigorous activity during child care were 12-25% higher and sedentary activity 5% lower in boys compared to girls (all p children, child care-based physical activity was higher in boys compared to girls. These results are important to consider when establishing physical activity recommendations or targeting health promotion interventions in young children.

  5. The effectiveness of parent management training—oregon model in clinically referred children with externalizing behavior problems in the netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijssen, Jill; Vink, G.; Muris, Peter; de Ruiter, Corine

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the effectiveness of parent management training—Oregon model (PMTO) as a treatment for children with externalizing behavior problems in The Netherlands. Clinically referred children (N = 146) aged 4–11 years and their parents were partly randomized to either PMTO (n = 91)

  6. Self-estimates of intelligence: interaction effects of the comparison to a specific reference group and neuroticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bipp, T; Kleingeld, A

    2012-04-01

    An experiment that investigated the interaction effect of Neuroticism and the comparison to different reference groups on self-estimates of intelligence is reported. University students (100 men, 15 women) were randomly assigned to two experimental groups and asked to rate their own intelligence on a one-item measure, in IQ points, having been provided with reference values for either the general population or a student sample. Analysis of data confirmed that the accuracy of self-estimates of intelligence was influenced by the variation of the instruction. Participants provided more accurate estimations when confronted with comparison information about fellow students than about the general population. Persons scoring high on Neuroticism estimated their intelligence lower, but only when their estimation was based on a general reference group. Theoretical and practical implications were discussed.

  7. Effect of T2* correction on contrast kinetic model analysis using a reference tissue arterial input function at 7 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Freed, Melanie; Winters, Kerryanne; Kim, Sungheon G

    2015-12-01

    We aimed to investigate the effect of T2* correction on estimation of kinetic parameters from T1-weighted dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI data when a reference-tissue arterial input function (AIF) is used. DCE-MRI data were acquired from seven mice with 4T1 mouse mammary tumors using a double gradient echo sequence at 7 T. The AIF was estimated from a region of interest in the muscle. The extended Tofts model was used to estimate pharmacokinetic parameters in the enhancing part of the tumor, with and without T2* correction of the lesion and AIF. The parameters estimated with T2* correction of both the AIF and lesion time-intensity curve were assumed to be the reference standard. For the whole population, there was significant difference (p model analysis, even if AIF is estimated from reference tissue where the concentration of contrast agent is relatively low.

  8. Myopic versus Far-Sighted Behaviors in Dynamic Supply Chain Coordination through Advertising with Reference Price Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yafei Zu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To better understand the different effects of the myopic and far-sighted behaviors on the advertising coordination in dynamic supply chain, this paper takes the reference price effect into consideration and formulates four differential game models for the two-level supply chain composed of a manufacturer and a retailer in the situation of Stackelberg game. In our models, the market demand is assumed to be affected by the goodwill, reference price, and the advertising investment, in which the advertising investment can promote the construction of goodwill and such goodwill can further enhance the reference price. The results show that the participating members in the supply chain should invest more in advertisement to improve the goodwill and the relative reference price reflected in the minds of consumers. A far-sighted manufacturer will invest more in the advertisement and charge a higher wholesale price regardless of the behavior choice of the retailer. However, such kind of ignorance leads to different results on the retail pricing strategies of the retailer. The numerical analyses are given in the end to verify the effectiveness of the conclusions which provide the theoretical support to the dynamic supply chain coordination in practice.

  9. Effect on the Reference Catalog System on the Asteroid Positions in the MPC Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maigurova, N.V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of analysis of the selected MPC asteroid positions are presented. Systematic errors in star positions, arising through the use of different reference catalogs, and astrometric weighting problems are discussed using observations of the 12 selected asteroids. The observational series for these asteroids include 30-year period obtained with Mykolaiv Zone Astrograph during 1960-1990. The analysis of the residuals (O-CRА,Dec of the selected asteroids has been performed.

  10. Spectral effect: each population must have its own normal midnight salivary cortisol reference values determined

    OpenAIRE

    Mert, Meral; Tanakol, Refik; Karpuzoglu, Hande; Abbasoglu, Semra; Yarman, Sema; Boztepe, Harika; Alagol, Faruk

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The mesurement of midnight salivary cortisol provides the most sensitive method for screening of Cushing's sendrome. However the clinical significance of spectral error is the requirement for determination of normal reference values in each population for each test, which will be used as the diagnostic method. Salivary cortisol levels may be affected by individual factors such as nutrition, sleep, medication, activity, and gender. Being a non-invasive method, midnight salivary co...

  11. Effects of tectonic plate deformation on the geodetic reference frame of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Franco, G. A.; Avalos, D.; Esquivel, R.

    2013-05-01

    Positioning for geodetic applications is commonly determined at one observation epoch, but tectonic drift and tectonic deformation cause the coordinates to be different for any other epoch. Finding the right coordinates at a different epoch from that of the observation time is necessary in Mexico in order to comply the official reference frame, which requires all coordinates to be referred to the standard epoch 2010.0. Available models of horizontal movement in rigid tectonic plates are used to calculate the displacement of coordinates; however for a portion of Mexico these models fail because of miss-modeled regional deformation, decreasing the quality of users' data transformed to the standard epoch. In this work we present the progress achieved in measuring actual horizontal motion towards an improved modeling of horizontal displacements for some regions. Miss-modeled velocities found are as big as 23mm/a, affecting significantly applications like cadastral and geodetic control. Data from a large set of GNSS permanent stations in Mexico is being analyzed to produce the preliminary model of horizontal crustal movement that will be used to minimize distortions of the reference frame.

  12. An effective method based on reference point for glucose sensing at 1100-1600nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jiaxiang; Xu, Kexin; Yang, Yue

    2011-03-01

    Non-invasive blood glucose sensing by near-infrared spectroscopy is easily interrupted by the strong background variations compared to the weak glucose signals. In this work, according to the distribution of diffuse reflectance intensity at different source-detector separations, a method based on a reference point and a measuring point, where the diffuse reflectance intensity is insensitive and most sensitive to the variation of glucose concentration, respectively, is applied. And the data processing method based on the information of two points is investigated to improve the precision of glucose sensing. Based on the Monte Carlo simulation in 5% intralipid solution model, the corresponding optical probe is designed which includes two detecting points: a reference point located at 1.3-1.7mm and a measuring point located at 1.7-2.1mm. Using the probe, the in vitro experiment with different glucose concentrations in the intralipid solution is conducted at 1100-1600nm. As a result, compared to the PLS model built by the signal of the measuring point, the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and root mean square error of cross calibration (RMSEC) of the corrected model built by reference point and measuring point reduces by 45.10%, and 32.15% respectively.

  13. Does whom you work with matter? Effects of referent group gender and age composition on managers' compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroff, Cheri; Atwater, Leanne E

    2003-08-01

    Much research has examined gender and age effects on compensation, concluding that a wage gap exists favoring men and negative stereotypes against older workers persist. Although the effect of an employee's gender or age has been widely studied, little work has examined the impact of the demographic characteristics of a focal employee's immediate referent groups (e.g., subordinates, peers, or supervisors) on pay. The effect of the gender and age composition of a focal manager's subordinates, peers, and supervisor on the manager's compensation levels was investigated in a sample of 2,178 managers across a wide range of organizations and functional areas. After controlling for a number of human capital variables, results indicated that not only does a wage gap favoring men exist, but also managerial pay is lower when managers' referent groups are largely female, when subordinates are outside the prime age group, and when peers and supervisors are younger.

  14. Health Related Quality of Life in a Dutch Rehabilitation Population: Reference Values and the Effect of Physical Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie A Krops

    Full Text Available To establish reference values for Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL in a Dutch rehabilitation population, and to study effects of patient characteristics, diagnosis and physical activity on HRQoL in this population.Former rehabilitation patients (3169 were asked to fill in a questionnaire including the Dutch version of the RAND-36. Differences between our rehabilitation patients and Dutch reference values were analyzed (t-tests. Effects of patient characteristics, diagnosis and movement intensity on scores on the subscales of the RAND-36 were analyzed using block wise multiple regression analyses.In total 1223 patients (39% returned the questionnaire. HRQoL was significantly poorer in the rehabilitation patients compared to Dutch reference values on all subscales (p<0.001 except for health change (p = 0.197. Longer time between questionnaire and last treatment was associated with a smaller health change (p = 0.035. Higher age negatively affected physical functioning (p<0.001, social functioning (p = 0.004 and health change (p = 0.001. Diagnosis affected outcomes on all subscales except role limitations physical, and mental health (p ranged <0.001 to 0.643. Higher movement intensity was associated with better outcomes on all subscales except for mental health (p ranged <0.001 to 0.190.HRQoL is poorer in rehabilitation patients compared to Dutch reference values. Physical components of HRQoL are affected by diagnosis. In rehabilitation patients an association between movement intensity and HRQoL was found. For clinical purposes, results of this study can be used as reference values for HRQoL in a rehabilitation setting.

  15. Effectiveness of Educational Programs on Nutritional Behavior in Addicts Referring to Baharan Hospital, Zahedan (Eastern of IR Iran)

    OpenAIRE

    Karajibani, Mansour; Montazerifar, Farzaneh; Dashipour, Alireza; Lashkaripour, Kobra; Abery, Maryam; Salari, Sajedeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: There are many factors which affect nutritional status of addicted such as lack o f knowledge, incorrect attitude toward modification of food pattern, and careless to food intake. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of educational program on nutritional behavior in addicts referring to Baharan hospital in Zahedan. Patients and Methods: Thirty-six addict patients were selected randomly. After recording general demographic data of patients, nutrition...

  16. Can gender difference in prescription drug use be explained by gender-related morbidity?: a study on a Swedish population during 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, Jessica; Midlöv, Patrik; Borgquist, Lars; Sundquist, Jan; Halling, Anders

    2014-04-08

    It has been reported that there is a difference in drug prescription between males and females. Even after adjustment for multi-morbidity, females tend to use more prescription drugs compared to males. In this study, we wanted to analyse whether the gender difference in drug treatment could be explained by gender-related morbidity. Data was collected on all individuals 20 years and older in the county of Östergötland in Sweden. The Johns Hopkins ACG Case-Mix System was used to calculate individual level of multi-morbidity. A report from the Swedish National Institute of Public Health using the WHO term DALY was the basis for gender-related morbidity. Prescription drugs used to treat diseases that mainly affect females were excluded from the analyses. The odds of having prescription drugs for males, compared to females, increased from 0.45 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.44-0.46) to 0.82 (95% CI 0.81-0.83) after exclusion of prescription drugs that are used to treat diseases that mainly affect females. Gender-related morbidity and the use of anti-conception drugs may explain a large part of the difference in prescription drug use between males and females but still there remains a difference between the genders at 18%. This implicates that it is of importance to take the gender-related morbidity into consideration, and to exclude anti-conception drugs, when performing studies regarding difference in drug use between the genders.

  17. Derivation of no-effect and reference-level sediment quality values for application at Saskatchewan uranium operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett-Seidel, Charlene; Liber, Karsten

    2013-11-01

    To date, the majority of empirical approaches used to derive sediment quality values (SQVs) have focused on metal concentrations in sediment associated with adverse effects on benthic invertebrate communities. Here, we propose the no-effect (NE) approach. This SQV derivation methodology uses metal concentrations in sediment associated with unaffected benthic communities (i.e., from reference sites and lightly contaminated no-effect sites) and accounts for local benthic invertebrate tolerance and potential chemical interactions at no-effect exposure sites. This NE approach was used to propose alternative regional SQVs for uranium operations in northern Saskatchewan. Three different sets of NE values were derived using different combinations of benthic invertebrate community effects criteria (abundance, richness, evenness, Bray-Curtis index). Additionally, reference values were derived based solely on sediment metal concentrations from reference sites. In general, NE values derived using abundance, richness, and evenness (NE1 and NE2 values) were found to be higher than the NE values derived using all four metrics (NE3 values). Derived NE values for Cr, Cu, Pb, and V did not change with the incorporation of additional effects criteria due to a lack of influence from the uranium operations on the concentrations of these metals in sediment. However, a gradient of exposure concentrations was apparent for As, Mo, Ni, Se, and U in sediment which allowed for tolerable exposure levels of these metals in sediment to be defined. The findings from this assessment have suggested a range of new, alternate metal SQVs for use at uranium operations in northern Saskatchewan.

  18. First-person perspective effects on theory of mind without self-reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Yuki; Osaka, Naoyuki; Yaoi, Ken; Osaka, Mariko

    2011-04-29

    This study examined dissociations between brain networks involved in theory of mind, which is needed for guessing others' mental states, and the self, which might constitute the basis for theory of mind's development. We used event-related fMRI to compare a condition that required participants to guess the mental state of a subject featured in first-person perspective sentences (1stPP condition) with a third-person perspective sentence condition (3rdPP condition). The caudate nucleus was marginally more activated in the 1stPP than in the 3rdPP condition, while the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) was significantly more activated in the 3rdPP condition as compared to the 1stPP condition. Furthermore, we examined the correlation between activation (signal intensity) of the caudate nucleus and left DLPFC with that of the right DLPFC, which is thought to be closely connected with sense of self. We found a significant correlation between caudate nucleus and right DLPFC activation in the 1stPP condition, and between left and right DLPFC activation in the 3rdPP condition. Although theory of mind and the self both appear to recruit the right DLPFC, this region seems to be accessed through the left DLPFC during theory of mind tasks, but through the caudate nucleus when tasks require self reference.

  19. First-person perspective effects on theory of mind without self-reference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Otsuka

    Full Text Available This study examined dissociations between brain networks involved in theory of mind, which is needed for guessing others' mental states, and the self, which might constitute the basis for theory of mind's development. We used event-related fMRI to compare a condition that required participants to guess the mental state of a subject featured in first-person perspective sentences (1stPP condition with a third-person perspective sentence condition (3rdPP condition. The caudate nucleus was marginally more activated in the 1stPP than in the 3rdPP condition, while the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC was significantly more activated in the 3rdPP condition as compared to the 1stPP condition. Furthermore, we examined the correlation between activation (signal intensity of the caudate nucleus and left DLPFC with that of the right DLPFC, which is thought to be closely connected with sense of self. We found a significant correlation between caudate nucleus and right DLPFC activation in the 1stPP condition, and between left and right DLPFC activation in the 3rdPP condition. Although theory of mind and the self both appear to recruit the right DLPFC, this region seems to be accessed through the left DLPFC during theory of mind tasks, but through the caudate nucleus when tasks require self reference.

  20. Effect of Adaptation Gain in Model Reference Adaptive Controlled Second Order System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Nema

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive control involves modifying the control law used by the controller to cope with the fact that the parameters of the system being controlled change drastically due to change in environmental conditions or in system itself. This technique is based on the fundamental characteristic of adaptation of living organism. The adaptive control process is one that continuously and automatically measures the dynamic behavior of plant, compares it with the desired output and uses the difference to vary adjustable system parameters or to generate an actuating signal in such a way so that optimal performance can be maintained regardless of system changes. Nature of adaptation mechanism for controlling the system performance is greatly affected by the value of adaptation gain. It is observed that for the lower order system wide range of adaptation gain can be used to study the performance of the system. As the order of the system increases the applicable range of adaptation gain becomes narrow. This paper deals with application of model reference adaptive control scheme to second order system with different values of adaptation gain. The rule which is used for this application is MIT rule. Simulation is done in MATLAB and simulink and the results are compared for varying adaptation mechanism due to variation in adaptation gain.

  1. Direct and indirect effects of injunctive norms on marijuana use: the role of reference groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBrie, Joseph W; Hummer, Justin F; Lac, Andrew; Lee, Christine M

    2010-11-01

    Little work has evaluated the relationship between injunctive norms and marijuana use. This study sought to establish whether misperceptions exist between perceived injunctive norms of typical college students and the actual approval level of the students. We also examined respondents' perceptions of which groups (typical student, close friends, and parents) were the most and least approving of marijuana. These variables were then applied to an explanatory model to assess their relationships with marijuana use. Participants were 3,753 students (61% female) randomly recruited from two West Coast campuses. Participants were asked about their own marijuana use and their own approval toward marijuana. Injunctive norms were assessed by asking respondents about their perceptions of how much other reference groups approved of marijuana. Students overestimated the extent to which the typical student approves of marijuana use. A path model showed that perceived approval of both close friends and parents predicted actual/self-approval, which in turn was most predictive of personal marijuana use. Perceptions of typical-student and close friends' approval also directly predicted one's own use, whereas the path from parental approval to marijuana use was fully mediated by one's own approval. Findings suggest that perceived injunctive norms may function differently with respect to marijuana use than they do with respect to alcohol use and raise questions about how to incorporate social-normative information into marijuana interventions.

  2. Physiological and Psychological Responses during Exercise and Recovery in a Cold Environment Is Gender-Related Rather Than Fabric-Related

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Cernych

    2017-08-01

    changes in the garment microclimates during exercise and recovery in the cold were associated with gender-related differences rather than with fabric-related differences.

  3. The effect of time from last food intake on arterial blood gases: Implication on reference values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahedpour Anaraki M

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Arterial blood gas parameters were analyzed in forty-nine healthy persons (31 males, 18 females to detemine reference values fo these parameters and their relation to the time from last food intake to arterial puncture (T. The mean ± standard deviation of arterial oxygen pressure, arterial carbon dioxide pressure and pH at core body temperature were 84.4±7.0 mmHg (Male: 83.0±6.5, Female: 86.7±73, 37.7±2.8 mmHg (Male: 38.5±2.7, Female: 36.2±2.4 respectively 7.41±0.02 (Male: 7.41±0.02 Female: 7.42±0.03. the mean PCO2 was lower in comparison with most of the studies at sea level. The difference between males and females was significant in PCO2 and PH (P=0.004, P=0.02 respectively but in was not significant in PO2 (P=0.07. The PCO2 and pH had no statistically significant relatioship with age (P=0.42, P=0.25 respectively. The relationship between Po2 with age, PCO2 and T was significant (P=0.02, P=0.017, and P=0.019 respectively. The best linear predictive equation was: Po2= 1.28 AO2-29.4 for T10hours Þ AO2 = 0.21(Baro-47 – (1.2PCO2

  4. Reference Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkus, Henk G.

    Reference materials for measurement of particle size and porosity may be used for calibration or qualification of instruments or for validation of operating procedures or operators. They cover a broad range of materials. On the one hand there are the certified reference materials, for which governmental institutes have certified one or more typical size or porosity values. Then, there is a large group of reference materials from commercial companies. And on the other hand there are typical products in a given line of industry, where size or porosity values come from the analysis laboratory itself or from some round-robin test in a group of industrial laboratories. Their regular application is essential for adequate quality control of particle size and porosity measurement, as required in e.g., ISO 17025 on quality management. In relation to this, some quality requirements for certification are presented.

  5. Reference Dependent Altruism

    OpenAIRE

    Breitmoser, Yves; Tan, Jonathan H.W.

    2014-01-01

    In view of behavioral patterns left unorganized by current social preference theories, we propose a theory of reference dependent altruism (RDA). With RDA, one's degree of altruism increases at reference points. It induces equity and efficiency effects that are conditional on whether or not payoffs meet reference points. We verify the theory first by experimentally analyzing majority bargaining, where observed behavior contradicts existing theories but confirms RDA. Using parameter estimates ...

  6. Respiratory health effects of volcanic ash with special reference to Iceland. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, Gunnar

    2011-01-01

    Volcano eruptions occur around the world and can have an impact on health in many ways both locally and on a global scale as a result of airborne dispersion of gases and ash or as impact on climate. In this review, a recent volcanic eruption in Eyjafjallajökull in Iceland is described and its effects on aviation around the globe and on respiratory health in those exposed to the volcanic ash in Iceland. Also, the effects of a large volcano eruption in Iceland in 1789 are described that also had effect on a global scale by causing air pollution. The available studies reviewed here suggest that the acute and chronic health effects of volcanic ash depend on particle size (how much respirable), mineralogical composition (crystalline silica content) and the physico-chemical properties of the surfaces of ash particles. These can vary between volcanoes and even between eruptions, making comparison difficult. Acute respiratory symptoms suggesting asthma and bronchitis have been well described. Exacerbations of pre-existing lung and heart disease are common after inhalation of volcanic ash. Limited information is available on increase in mortality from recent eruptions but historical evidence is well described. No long-term effects on lung function have been found after exposure to volcanic ash. There are concerns for the long-term risks of silicosis from chronic exposure to volcanic ash but no cases have been described. Acute respiratory symptoms after exposure to volcanic ash are well described but no long-term effects have been found. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Parents who hit and scream: interactive effects of verbal and severe physical aggression on clinic-referred adolescents' adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeRoy, Michelle; Mahoney, Annette; Boxer, Paul; Gullan, Rebecca Lakin; Fang, Qijuan

    2014-05-01

    The goals of this study were first, to delineate the co-occurrence of parental severe physical aggression and verbal aggression toward clinic-referred adolescents, and second, to examine the interactive effects of parental severe physical aggression and verbal aggression on adolescent externalizing and internalizing behavior problems. This research involved 239 referrals of 11- to 18-year-old youth and their dual-parent families to a non-profit, private community mental health center in a semi-rural Midwest community. Multiple informants (i.e., adolescents and mothers) were used to assess parental aggression and adolescent behavior problems. More than half of clinic-referred adolescents (51%) experienced severe physical aggression and/or high verbal aggression from one or both parents. A pattern of interactive effects of mother-to-adolescent severe physical aggression and verbal aggression on adolescent behavior problems emerged, indicating that when severe physical aggression was present, mother-to-adolescent verbal aggression was positively associated with greater adolescent behavior problems whereas when severe physical aggression was not present, the links between verbal aggression and behavior problems was no longer significant. No interactive effects were found for father-to-adolescent severe physical aggression and verbal aggression on adolescent adjustment; however, higher father-to-adolescent verbal aggression was consistently linked to behavior problems above and beyond the influence of severe physical aggression. The results of this study should promote the practice of routinely assessing clinic-referred adolescents and their parents about their experiences of verbal aggression in addition to severe physical aggression and other forms of abuse. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Review and evaluation of the effects of xenobiotic chemicals on microorganisms in soil. [139 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hicks, R.J.; Van Voris, P.

    1988-02-01

    The primary objective was to review and evaluate the relevance and quality of existing xenobiotic data bases and test methods for evaluating direct and indirect effects (both adverse and beneficial) of xenobiotics on the soil microbial community; direct and indirect effects of the soil microbial community on xenobiotics; and adequacy of test methods used to evaluate these effects and interactions. Xenobiotic chemicals are defined here as those compounds, both organic and inorganic, produced by man and introduced into the environment at concentrations that cause undesirable effects. Because soil serves as the main repository for many of these chemicals, it therefore has a major role in determining their ultimate fate. Once released, the distribution of xenobiotics between environmental compartments depends on the chemodynamic properties of the compounds, the physicochemical properties of the soils, and the transfer between soil-water and soil-air interfaces and across biological membranes. Abiotic and biotic processes can transform the chemical compound, thus altering its chemical state and, subsequently, its toxicity and reactivity. Ideally, the conversion is to carbon dioxide, water, and mineral elements, or at least, to some harmless substance. However, intermediate transformation products, which can become toxic pollutants in their own right, can sometimes be formed. 139 refs., 6 figs., 11 tabs.

  9. Potential effects of diurnal temperature oscillations on potato late blight with special reference to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, S K; Goss, E M; Dufault, N S; van Bruggen, A H C

    2015-02-01

    Global climate change will have effects on diurnal temperature oscillations as well as on average temperatures. Studies on potato late blight (Phytophthora infestans) development have not considered daily temperature oscillations. We hypothesize that growth and development rates of P. infestans would be less influenced by change in average temperature as the magnitude of fluctuations in daily temperatures increases. We investigated the effects of seven constant (10, 12, 15, 17, 20, 23, and 27°C) and diurnally oscillating (±5 and ±10°C) temperatures around the same means on number of lesions, incubation period, latent period, radial lesion growth rate, and sporulation intensity on detached potato leaves inoculated with two P. infestans isolates from clonal lineages US-8 and US-23. A four-parameter thermodynamic model was used to describe relationships between temperature and disease development measurements. Incubation and latency progression accelerated with increasing oscillations at low mean temperatures but slowed down with increasing oscillations at high mean temperatures (P effects of global climate change on disease development.

  10. Effect of Commiphora molmol on Bithynia connollyi with special reference to their morphology and medical importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoukry, Nahla M

    2006-08-01

    Morphological studies on B. connollyi dealt with the shell description, concerning colour, number of whorls, measurements, the correlation coefficient between shell shape and thickness, weight, length and width. Electrophoretic studies were carried out on snail's foot. Examination of B. connollyi showed a lot of gymnocephalus cercariae of liver fluke, Opisthorchis sp. Commiphora mohmol (Myrrh) has molluscicidal effect on B. connollyi at concentration (80 ppm) after 72 hr exposure. The mortality rate increased with the increasing the exposure time (death 100% at 72 hr. with 80 ppm & death 100% at 96 hr. with 40 ppm). Based on safety to man, animals and environment, C. molmol is highly recommended as a cheap herbal molluscicide.

  11. Effect of tDCS with an extracephalic reference electrode on cardio-respiratory and autonomic functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamart Jacques

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS is used in human physiological studies and for therapeutic trials in patients with abnormalities of cortical excitability. Its safety profile places tDCS in the pole-position for translating in real-world therapeutic application. However, an episode of transient respiratory depression in a subject receiving tDCS with an extracephalic electrode led to the suggestion that such an electrode montage could modulate the brainstem autonomic centres. We investigated whether tDCS applied over the midline frontal cortex in 30 healthy volunteers (sham n = 10, cathodal n = 10, anodal n = 10 with an extracephalic reference electrode would modulate brainstem activity as reflected by the monitoring and stringent analysis of vital parameters: heart rate (variability, respiratory rate, blood pressure and sympatho-vagal balance. We reasoned that this study could lead to two opposite but equally interesting outcomes: 1 If tDCS with an extracephalic electrode modulated vital parameters, it could be used as a new tool to explore the autonomic nervous system and, even, to modulate its activity for therapeutic purposes. 2 On the opposite, if applying tDCS with an extracephalic electrode had no effect, it could thus be used safely in healthy human subjects. This outcome would significantly impact the field of non-invasive brain stimulation with tDCS. Indeed, on the one hand, using an extracephalic electrode as a genuine neutral reference (as opposed to the classical "bi-cephalic" tDCS montages which deliver bi-polar stimulation of the brain would help to comfort the conclusions of several modern studies regarding the spatial location and polarity of tDCS. On the other hand, using an extracephalic reference electrode may impact differently on a given cortical target due to the change of direct current flow direction; this may enlarge the potential interventions with tDCS. Results Whereas the respiratory

  12. Some health effects of aircraft noise with special reference to shift work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizk, Sanaa A M; Sharaf, Nevin E; Mahdy-Abdallah, Heba; ElGelil, Khalid S Abd

    2016-06-01

    Aircraft noise is an environmental stressor. A positive relationship exists between noise and high blood pressure. Shift work is an additional hazardous working condition with negative effect on the behavior attitude of workers. This study aimed at investigating some health hazards for shift work on workers at Cairo International Airport (CIA), Egypt, as a strategic work place, with more than one stressor. Assessment of noise effects were carried out in four working sites at the airport besides control sites. The average noise level in the exposure sites was 106.5 dB compared with 54 dB at the control sites. The study comprised a group of 200 male workers exposed to aircraft noise and 110 male workers not exposed to noise as control group. All workers had full general medical examination after filling specially formulated questionnaire. Hearing impairment, raised blood pressure, headaches, disturbed sleep, and symptoms of anxiety were more prominent among the exposed workers than the control. Symptoms of upper respiratory tract were reported among night shifters of both groups with high tendency for smoking. Thus, night-shift workers at CIA work under more than one stressor. Hypertension and smoking might act as intermediate factors on the causal pathway of complaints, making aircraft noise and night shift acting as two synergistic stressors. Airport workers are in need for aggressive hearing conservation programs. Organization of the working hours schedule is mandatory to avoid excessive noise exposure. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Effect of irradiation on acrylic cement with special reference to fixation of pathological fractures. [Gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eftekhar, N.S.; Thurston, C.W.

    1975-01-01

    Self-curing cement is generally used in conjunction with conventional metallic devices. If the acrylic cement was supplemented, the primary goal would be a rigid immobiliztion of the fracture to alleviate the pain; usually, however, the final aim is toward osteosynthesis. During the course of rehabilitation, it is often desirous to supplement the treatment by irradiation. Although the industrial, dental and surgical literature has adequately dealt with many aspects of bone cement; for example, physical and chemical properties in joint replacement, and so on, the effects of irradiation on the acrylic cement have not been previously reported. It is the purpose of this paper to analyze the experimental studies conducted to evaluate the mechanical properties of the polymethylmethacrylate when subjected to irradiation within a maximum range of a therapeutic dose.

  14. Possible allelopathic effects of cyanotoxins, with reference to microcystin-LR, in aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflugmacher, Stephan

    2002-01-01

    During recent years a shift from macrophyte-dominated to more phytoplankton-dominated lakes has been correlated to the process of eutrophication. The existence of numerous substances exhibiting allelopathic effects on the growth of algae has been shown in different aquatic macrophytes (e.g., Myriophyllum spicatum) and is thought to be an important mechanism in stabilizing the macrophyte-dominated clear-water state of a lake. A few recent studies have shown that algae themselves can produce special substances inhibiting growth or photosynthetic processes in other algae. A well-known cyanobacterial secondary metabolite, microcystin-LR, was tested for its allelopathic power on aquatic macrophytes such as Ceratophyllum demersum and Myriophyllum spicatum, resulting in growth inhibition, reduction in photosynthetic oxygen production, and changes in pigment pattern. This shows that microcystin-LR has a possible role as an allelopathic infochemical. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Effect of activated charcoal on the pharmacokinetics of pholcodine, with special reference to delayed charcoal ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, K; Kivistö, K T; Ojala-Karlsson, P; Neuvonen, P J

    1997-02-01

    We conducted a randomized study with four parallel groups to investigate the effect of single and multiple doses of activated charcoal on the absorption and elimination of pholcodine administered in a cough syrup. The first group received 100 mg of pholcodine on an empty stomach with water only (control); the second group took 25 g of activated charcoal immediately after pholcodine; the third group received 25 g of activated charcoal 2 h and the fourth group 5 h after ingestion of the 100-mg dose of pholcodine. In addition, the fourth group received multiple doses (10 g each) of charcoal every 12 h for 84 h. Blood samples were collected for 96 h and urine for 72 h. Pholcodine concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. A significant reduction in absorption was found when charcoal was administered immediately after pholcodine; the AUC0-96h was reduced by 91% (p pholcodine excreted into urine by 85% (p pholcodine, the AUC0-96h was reduced by 26% (p = 0.002), the Cmax by 23% (p = NS), and the urinary excretion by 28% (p = 0.004). When administered 5 h after pholcodine, charcoal produced only a 17% reduction in the AUC0-96h (p = 0.06), but reduced the further absorption of pholcodine still present in the gastrointestinal tract at the time of charcoal administration, as measured by AUC5-96h (p = 0.006). Repeated administration of charcoal failed to accelerate the elimination of pholcodine. We conclude that activated charcoal is effective in preventing the absorption of pholcodine, and its administration can be beneficial even several hours after pholcodine ingestion.

  16. Effect of sildenafil citrate on women affected by sexual dysfunction referred to health clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Zeinalzadeh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Female sexual dysfunction is a serious, multifactorial problem which affects women’s quality of life. Objectives. This study aimed at assessing the effect of sildenafil citrate on sexual dysfunction among women of reproductive age. Materials and methods. The present randomized clinical trial was conducted on 84 married women between 18 and 40 years old who suffered from sexual dysfunction. The inclusion criteria of the study were being married and between 18–40 years old, obtaining scores ≥ 22 in FSFI, not having a history of hypothyroidism or hyperprolactinemia, and not suffering from dyspareunia or vaginismus. The intervention group was required to consume 50 mg sildenafil citrate 1 hour before sexual intercourse for 5 weeks, and the control group received placebo. FSFI was completed by both study groups before and 5 weeks after the treatment. The data were analyzed through SPSS (v. 18 and paired t-test and independent t-test. Results . Most of the women (67.2% were between 30 and 40 years old. The study results revealed a significant difference between the two groups regarding the mean scores of sexual desire (p = 0.011, sexual arousal (p = 0.001, lubrication (p = 0.026, orgasm and sexual satisfaction (p < 0.001, and the whole dimension (p < 0.001. Besides, total mean sexual function before and after for the intervention and control groups was 21.1 ± 3.28 vs. 17.22 ± 5.9 (p < 0.001. Conclusion . In this study, sildenafil citrate was effective in enhancing sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, and sexual satisfaction. Of course, more studies need to be conducted on this issue.

  17. Chronic retinal effects by ultraviolet irradiation, with special reference to superoxide dismutases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguni, M; Tamura, H; Kato, K; Setogawa, T

    1996-07-01

    Recently ultraviolet light (UV) reaching the Earth's surface has been gradually increasing in amounts by the destruction of the ozone layers. Large parts of UV are absorbed in the cornea and lens, and only a few amounts reached the retina; however, the effect on the retina is not fully elucidated. 38 rats were irradiated 0.5-5.0 J/cm2 UV from 6 to 50 times every 24 hours, and immunohistochemically and immunochemically for superoxide dismutases (SOD). Morphologically, the destruction of rod outer segments (ROS) and dissociation of cell membranes between the pigment epithelial cells (PE) were already observed by 6 times 0.5 J/cm2 UV irradiations. As the doses of UV increased, heterochromatins and lipid droplets increased in the PE. In normal retina, Cu/Zn SOD were mainly distributed from the inner limiting membrane (ILM) to the ganglion cell layer, and the PE; however, after 6 times 0.5 J/cm2 UV irradiations, the distribution became widened from inner to outer plexiform layer (OPL). At that time, the concentrations of Cu/Zn and Mn SOD increased in the retina. The present study reveals that the morphological damage caused by UV irradiation is observed in the ROS and PE, where no immunoreactivities could be detected to Cu/Zn and Mn SOD. However, morphological damage was not from the ILM to OPL, where the immunoreactivities to both Cu/Zn and Mn SOD were observed.

  18. Deformation of the reference Korean voxel model and its effect on dose calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jong Hwi; Cho, Sung Koo; Kim, Chan Hyeong [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kun Woo [KINS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Recently a high-quality voxel model of a Korean adult male was constructed at Hanyang University by using very high resolution serially-sectioned anatomical images of a cadaver, which was provided by the Korean Institute of Science and Technology Information (KISTI). Most existing voxel phantoms are developed based on an individual in the supine posture. This study converted the HDRK-Man voxel model into surface model and adjusted the flattened back of the HDRK-Man to a normal shape in the upright posture using 3D graphic software such as 3D-DOCTOR{sup TM}, Rapidform 2006, Rhinoceros 4.0, MAYA 8.5. The effective doses of adjusted model were compared with those of unadjusted model for some standard irradiation geometries (i.e., AP, PA, LLAT, RLAT). In general, the differences were not very large and, among those, the largest difference was found for the PA radiation geometry, as expected. These methodologies can be used for the development of various deformed posture models of HDRK-Man in the later stage of this project.

  19. Staffing an Academic Reference Desk with Librarians is not Cost-effective. A Review of: Ryan, Susan M. “Reference Transactions Analysis: The Cost-effectiveness of Staffing a Traditional Academic Reference Desk.” Journal of Academic Librarianship 34.5 (2008: 389-99.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cari Merkley

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine whether it is cost effective to staff an academic reference desk with librarians through an examination of the types of reference questions being asked and the qualifications required to answer them.Design – Content analysis of reference transaction logs and activity-based costing for reference services based on quantitative data derived from the logs.Setting – Stetson University, a private institution in the United States with an FTE of approximately 2500.Subjects – 6959 phone, email, and in-person reference transactions logged at the reference desk by four full-time and two part-time librarians.Methods – This study repurposes data originally collected to determine the frequency with which librarians turned to online versus print sources when responding to questions at the reference desk. Librarians working at the Stetson University library reference desk recorded all reference queries received in person, by phone, or by email for a total of eight months between 2002 and 2006. Data collection took place in two month intervals in fall 2002, spring 2003, spring 2006, and fall 2006. Each question and the sources used to address it were logged by the librarian. Directional questions that were not related to the library’s collections and technical questions dealing with printer or copier mechanical problems were counted, but the specifics of these questions were not recorded. It was felt that these queries would not yield data relevant to the original research question on sources used as they “did not directly relate to an information need” (391. A total of 6959 questions were logged by librarians during the four collection periods. Questions were recorded for only 4431 transactions; the remaining 2528 queries related to printer/copier problems or non-library specific directions and were described as “direction and machine: non- informational” (394. The 4431 recorded questions were then divided into four

  20. Internet's Impact on Reference Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromer, Donna E.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Six articles cover topics related to the impact of the Internet on reference services, including Internet's effect on communication between reference librarians; integrating the use of electronic resources with traditional reference duties; reference services and the virtual library; offering remote services; Internet instruction; and Internet…

  1. Adenosine A1 receptor antagonist mitigates deleterious effects of sleep deprivation on adult neurogenesis and spatial reference memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, G; Ray, K; Sahu, S; Roy, K; Jain, V; Wadhwa, M; Panjwani, U; Kishore, K; Singh, S B

    2016-11-19

    Sleep deprivation (SD) upsurges intracellular levels of adenosine, impairs adult neuronal cell proliferation (NCP) and cognition while caffeine, a non-selective adenosine A1 receptor (A1R) antagonist improves cognition and adult NCP during SD. We examined the selective antagonistic effects of adenosine A1R using 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dimethylxanthine (8-CPT) on impairment of spatial reference memory and adult NCP during 48h SD. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were sleep deprived for 48h, using an automatic cage vibrating stimulus based on animal activity. Spatial reference memory was tested as a measure of cognitive performance employing Morris Water Maze. Rats were given 8-CPT dissolved in 50% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), twice daily (10mg/kg, i.p.) along with 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) (50mg/kg/day, i.p.). The rats treated with 8-CPT showed significantly short mean latency and path-length to reach the platform compared to the SD rats. Consistent with these findings, 8-CPT-treated group was found to have significantly increased the number of BrdU, Ki-67 and doublecortin (DCX) positive cells. However, no significant difference was seen in NeuN expression in the Dentate Gyrus (DG). Brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) expression in the DG and CA1 region was observed to decrease significantly after SD and be rescued by 8-CPT treatment. Furthermore, latency to reach platform showed a negative correlation with number of BrdU, DCX type-1 cells and BDNF expression in DG. Thus, it may be concluded that treatment with 8-CPT, an adenosine A1R antagonist during SD mitigates SD induced decline in spatial reference memory and adult NCP possibly via up regulation of BDNF levels in DG and CA1 regions. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Use of the reference organism Eisenia foetida to investigate bioaccumulation and biological effects following contamination of soil by uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovanetti, A.; Cozzella, M.L.; Basso, E. [ENEA, Institute of Radiation Protection, CR Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301 00060, Rome (Italy); Ninova, P. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Molecular Biology, G. Bonchev St. 21, 1130, Sofia (Bulgaria); Fesenko, S.; Sansone, U. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agency Laboratories Seibersdorf, A -1400, Vienna (Austria)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: The use of reference organisms for radiological assessments on non -human species is an integral part of the current systemic approach for the management of radiation effects in the environment. The reference organisms approach allows the evaluation of radiological impact on the environment taking into account relationships among ambient radionuclide activity concentrations, dose and expected adverse biological effects. Four broad categories of biological damages are included: mortality, morbidity, DNA damage and reproductive failure. Earthworms are one of the most important biotic components in the soil, they are commonly used in studies of toxicity and they are included in the list of the reference organisms suggested by International (ICRP) and national organisations. However, up to now, no adequate results have been obtained for earthworms allowing the identification of the dose-response relationship, essentially for the contamination scenarios where radionuclide can provide both radiation and chemical impact. Uranium (U) is a naturally occurring heavy metal. Recently there has been public concern on the presence in the environment of depleted uranium (DU), a by-product of the process used to enrich natural uranium ore for use in nuclear reactors and in nuclear weapons. The presence of uranium in soil could lead to both toxic and radiation impact and it is difficult to distinguish the different impacts and their contribution to possible biological effects. European Union, OECD and FAO have selected the earthworms Eisenia for testing soil toxicity because it is an organism that can be easily cultured in the laboratory, an extensive database is available, and it feeds at the soil surface level. The prime objective of the present study was to evaluate the possible use of Eisenia foetida as a bio-marker of U environmental impact. Four groups of six sexually mature Eisenia foetida were maintained in the dark at 21 deg. C in Petri

  3. On Being the Same in Different Places: Evaluating Frame-of-Reference Effects Across Two Social Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, John E; Palfrey, Amy Pastva

    2016-02-01

    Frame-of-reference (FOR) effects in personality assessment are demonstrated when self-rated items oriented to specific contexts (e.g., workplace) show better predictive validity than noncontextualized items. Empirical support of FOR effects typically relies on job performance ratings or academic grades for criteria. The current study evaluates FOR effects using ratings of personality provided by informants from the home or school context. Items from the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI; Costa & McCrae, 1992) were contextualized to the home and school contexts to create NEO-Home and NEO-School versions. One hundred fifty-eight college students completed the NEO-Home and NEO-School questionnaires, and 161 college students completed the standard, noncontextualized NEO-FFI. All participants recruited one peer from college and at least one parent to complete standard rater versions of the NEO-FFI. Contextualized self-ratings did not show FOR effects. NEO-Home self-ratings did not correlate higher with parent ratings than with peer ratings, and NEO-School self-ratings did not correlate higher with peer ratings than with parent ratings. Standard NEO-FFI self-ratings generally showed higher self-informant agreement with both types of informants than contextualized self-ratings. The pattern of correlations suggests that validity is enhanced more by specific trait-informant combinations than by the contextualization of items to social contexts. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Gewaltphänomene und Geschlechterverhältnisse in Gegenwartsliteratur Violent Phenomena and Gender Relations in Contemporary Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margret Karsch

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Andrea Geiers umfangreiche Studie „Gewalt“ und „Geschlecht“ wirft ein neues Licht auf literarische Darstellungen von Gewalt und deren vielfältige Bezugnahmen auf Muster von „Männlichkeit“ und „Weiblichkeit”. Geier untersucht sieben deutschsprachige Prosatexte, die von sechs Autorinnen stammen und in den 1980er und 1990er Jahren erschienen sind. Die Verfasserin spürt den narrativen Verfahren nach, mit denen verschiedene literarische und außerliterarische Diskurse verknüpft werden und die spezifische Konstellationen des Verhältnisses von Gewalt und Geschlecht bilden.Andrea Geier’s comprehensive study “Violence” and “Gender” places literary presentations of violence and their diverse references to models of “masculinity” and “femininity” in a new light. Geier examines seven German-language prose texts written by six authors and published in the 1980s and 1990s. The author traces the narrative modes connecting different literary and extra-literary discourses, discourses that create specific constellations for the relationship between violence and gender.

  5. Effects of Progressive Muscle Relaxation Counseling on Anxiety among Primigravida Women Referred to Health Care Centers in Hamadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Shobeiri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Progressive muscle relaxation is a non-invasive, cost-effective and complication less method which can be performed independently by the individual. Considering the importance of psychological problems during pregnancy, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of progressive muscle relaxation counseling on anxiety among primigravida women referred to health care centers in Hamadan, Iran. Materials and Methods: This study was a randomized clinical trial with two groups (experimental and control with pre-test and post-test. A total of 120 women were referred to health centers in Hamadan who were experiencing their first pregnancy and were consecutively enrolled in the study, after obtaining informed consents. They were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups (60 women in each group by allocation concealment. The control group only received routine prenatal care, but the experimental group after two counseling sessions and learning muscle relaxation techniques performed progressive muscle relaxation exercises from 21-22 weeks for 10 weeks, and completed the daily performance sheet of relaxation. The study data collection tools included a demographic questionnaire, Spielberger state-trait anxiety inventory, and the daily performance sheet for the intervention group. Data were analyzed in SPSS 20 using independent samples t-test, Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA, and paired t-test. Results: Data analysis reflected the homogeneity of the state and trait anxiety levels in both groups before the intervention. The results showed that state and trait anxiety in the control group after the intervention was significantly increased (P<0.001, but the experimental group showed a significant decrease in state and trait anxiety after the intervention (P<0.001. Conclusions: Teaching progressive muscle relaxation techniques to pregnant women can have a significant impact on reducing pregnancy anxiety.

  6. The effectiveness of collaborative couple Therapy on communication patterns and intimacy of couples referring to counseling centers of Behbahan city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of collaborative couple Therapy on communication patterns and intimacy of couples referring to counseling centers of Behbahan city Mansour sodani[1]*, Mansour shogaeyan1, Rerza khojastamhr2, Khadija shiralinia2 1Ph.D student, Faculty of educational Science and Psychology,  University of shahid Chamran, Ahvaz 2 Counselling group.Faculty of educational Science and Psychology,   University of shahid Chamran, Ahvaz, Iran Abstract Background and Objectives:Intimacy is a main and basic feature in marital relations and was numerated manifest characteristics in successful marriage also communication patterns can determine marital satisfaction.  The aim of this research was to determined effectiveness of collaborative couple therapy on communication patterns and intimacy of couples referring to counseling centers of  Behbahan city Methods: In this research was used from Single-case experimental design that entitled Single subject experiment and include of clinical testing.This design has different kinds(AB.ABAB, multiple baseline and changing criterion designs. In the research used nonconcurrent multiple baseline design. Unlike group comparison with a lot measure, this design concentrate on individual levels not mean differences in pre andpost test.The other advantage of this design need more less subjects.The couples complicated communication patterns and intimacy Questionnaire in baseline, treatment and follow-up stages. The method of sampling was purposive-volunteer. Statistical universes were all chaotic couples who referring to clinics in Behbahan. Three couples were selected according to include and exclude criteria. . The data analyzed with visual analysis, Clinically meaningful (reliable change index and normative comparison and percent improvement formula, Results: The result showed the couples have experienced improvement in intimacy (30.95% and communication pattern of  mutual constructive (%47/05 and decrease

  7. Establishing a reference rock site for the site effect study in and around the Kathmandu valley, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Mukunda; Adhikari, Lok Bijaya; Gautam, Umesh Prasad; Bollinger, Laurent; Hernandez, Bruno; Yokoi, Toshiaki; Hayashida, Takumi

    2016-05-01

    We propose a reference site for the site effect study in and around the Kathmandu valley, Nepal. The used data were the accelerograms recorded at two stations, DMG and KKA, and velocity seismograms co-recorded at the PKIN station during nine shallow local and regional earthquakes of local magnitude equal to or greater than 5.0. The DMG station is located on the thick sediments of the Kathmandu valley, whereas the others are rock sites. The KKA station is located on the granite and gneisses of the Shivapuri Lekh about 10 km northwest of the capital, and the PKIN station is in the tunnel of an old iron mine on the southern slope of the Phulchauki Hill about 15 km southeast. The spectral ratios of the ground motion records of the DMG station compared to those of the PKIN station, for all considered earthquakes, confirm that the DMG station has amplification ranging from 1 to 10 in the frequency range of 0.5-10 Hz, and spectral ratios of the KKA station referenced by the PKIN station show that the KKA station has significant amplification in the frequency range of 4-10 Hz and the peak value of the spectral ratio is at most over 25. Therefore, the site amplification in and around Kathmandu valley would be significantly underestimated in the frequency range from 4 to 10 Hz if the records of the KKA station were used as a proxy for input seismic motions to the sediment. Based on the above analysis, we propose that the PKIN station should be considered as a reliable reference site for the assessment of seismic hazards in and around the Kathmandu valley.

  8. The effects of positioning, reason for screening and the referring veterinarian on prevalence estimates of canine hip dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeckx, B J G; Verhoeven, G; Coopman, F; Van Haeringen, W; Bosmans, T; Gielen, I; Henckens, S; Saunders, J H; van Bree, H; Van Ryssen, B; Verbeke, V; Van Steendam, K; Van Nieuwerburgh, F; Deforce, D

    2014-09-01

    Although the prevalence of canine hip dysplasia (HD) has been the subject of a number of published studies, estimates vary widely. This study evaluated several possible causes for these differences. Sixty Belgian, Dutch and German veterinarians were asked to submit all hip radiographs obtained for screening purposes (irrespective of HD status) over a 2-year period, resulting in a database of 583 dogs. Each set of radiographs was accompanied by information on the reason for screening (breeding soundness examination, clinical complaint, assistance dogs, or other reasons), and dog breed, date of birth and age. Dog positioning exerted an effect at multiple levels. The agreement among different observers regarding correct or incorrect positioning was limited and incorrect positioning itself reduced the inter-observer agreement for radiographic hip conformation. Dysplastic dogs were more commonly positioned incorrectly than non-dysplastic dogs. The clinical complaint population had a high prevalence of dysplastic dogs (>70%) compared with the breeding population (11%) and the assistance dogs (6%). There was a significantly lower prevalence of HD among cases referred by veterinarians who frequently submitted hip-extended radiographs for evaluation (P = 0.002) compared to those who refer less frequently. However, this was likely to be selection bias, as radiographs that were from dogs suspected to be dysplastic were not submitted by frequent senders. The prevalence of dysplastic dogs varied widely between breeds (16.7-71.4%). Dogs diagnosed with dysplasia were significantly older than dogs considered healthy (P = 0.001) and dogs classified as borderline dysplastic (P = 0.035). Inter-observer agreement for hip conformation was moderately low, resulting in >7% variation in prevalence estimates for dysplasia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Gender-related association between uric acid, homocysteine, γ-glutamyltransferase, inflammatory biomarkers and metabolic syndrome in subjects affected by obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigna, Luisella; Vassalle, Cristina; Tirelli, Amedea Silvia; Gori, Francesca; Tomaino, Laura; Sabatino, Laura; Bamonti, Fabrizia

    2017-10-26

    Evaluation of gender-related differences in uric acid (UA), homocysteine and inflammatory biomarkers as metabolic syndrome (MetS) determinants. Anthropometric and routine data were obtained from 825 obese subjects (591 F, mean age 54 ± 14 years). Hyperuricemia was 24% in both genders. Waist circumference, creatinine, triglycerides, C-reactive protein and γ-glutamyltransferase were identified as UA-independent determinants in females and creatinine and insulin in males. Hyperuricemia increased MetS risk in both genders (2.8-fold and 1.5-fold in males and females). UA and γ-glutamyltransferase positively relate to MetS in both genders, although inflammatory abnormalities are closer related to UA and MetS in females. These differences in gender physiology may account for epidemiologic gender disparities and help to develop gender-targeted clinical strategies.

  10. Deterioration of bone quality in the tibia and fibula in growing mice during skeletal unloading: gender-related differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Chang-Yong; Seo, Dong Hyun; Kim, Han Sung

    2011-11-01

    Skeletal unloading causes bone loss in both men and women; however, only a few studies have been performed on the effects of gender differences on bone quality during skeletal unloading. Moreover, although the fibula also plays an important role in load bearing and ankle stability, the effects of unloading on the fibula have been rarely investigated. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of skeletal unloading on bone quality of the tibia and fibula in growing animals and to determine whether differences existed between genders. Six-week-old female and male mice were randomly allocated into two groups. The right hindlimb of each mouse in the skeletal unloading group was subjected to sciatic neurectomy. After two weeks of skeletal unloading, the structural characteristics of the tibia and fibula in both genders were worsened. In addition, the bone mineralization density distribution (MDD) of the tibia and fibula in both genders were altered. However, the magnitude of deterioration and alteration of the MDD in the bones of females were larger than in those of males. These results demonstrate that skeletal unloading diminishes bone quality in the tibia and fibula, leading to an increase in bone fracture risks, particularly in females.

  11. Neural correlates of the females' susceptibility to negative emotions: an insight into gender-related prevalence of affective disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jiajin; Luo, Yuejia; Yan, Jin H; Meng, Xianxin; Yu, Fengqiong; Li, Hong

    2009-11-01

    Considerable studies reported that females are more susceptible to affective disturbances such as depression, anxiety disorder, and phobia compared to males. Based on the close relation between emotional sensitivity and liability to affective disturbances (Hofer et al. [2006]: NeuroImage 32, 854-862; Spearing [2001]: Bipolar disorder, 2nd ed. Bethesda (MA): National institute of Mental Health), this study investigated the neural mechanism underlying the females' liability to affective disturbances by hypothesizing that females are more susceptible to negative emotions than males. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded for highly negative (HN), moderately negative (MN), and neutral images in Experiment 1, and for highly positive, moderately positive, and neutral images in Experiment 2, whereas subjects (15 males and 15 females) performed a standard/deviant distinction task, irrespective of the emotional valence of deviants in both experiments. In addition to the prominent emotional reactions evoked by HN stimuli in both genders, Experiment 1 displayed conspicuous emotional responses of females to MN stimuli across N2 and P3 components, which were absent in males. In contrast, Experiment 2 demonstrated neither significant valence effect, nor significant valence by gender interaction effect at these components. Thus, although both genders are sensitive to HN stimuli, females, instead of males, are particularly susceptible to negative stimuli of lesser salience, and this female specific susceptibility does not exist to the positive stimuli. Therefore, females must be more susceptible to negative emotions in life settings, which may be one important mechanism underlying their higher prevalence of affective disturbances.

  12. From work with men and boys to changes of social norms and reduction of inequities in gender relations: a conceptual shift in prevention of violence against women and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewkes, Rachel; Flood, Michael; Lang, James

    2015-04-18

    Violence perpetrated by and against men and boys is a major public health problem. Although individual men's use of violence differs, engagement of all men and boys in action to prevent violence against women and girls is essential. We discuss why this engagement approach is theoretically important and how prevention interventions have developed from treating men simply as perpetrators of violence against women and girls or as allies of women in its prevention, to approaches that seek to transform the relations, social norms, and systems that sustain gender inequality and violence. We review evidence of intervention effectiveness in the reduction of violence or its risk factors, features commonly seen in more effective interventions, and how strong evidence-based interventions can be developed with more robust use of theory. Future interventions should emphasise work with both men and boys and women and girls to change social norms on gender relations, and need to appropriately accommodate the differences between men and women in the design of programmes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The effect of Omega3 and Feluvoxamine on Patients with bipolar disorder typeI referred to psychiatric clinc

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    mitra saffa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar disorder type I is one of the most disturbing psychiatric syndromes .It is basically treated by stablizing mood medicienes , psycho- social intervention and, in accute cases ,Electro convulsive therapy . As resources with Omega 3 have been considered effective in treatment of many diseases as well as mental disorders, we decided to study effect of Omega 3, compared to Feluvoxamine, on the treatment of depression in bipolar patients referring to. psychiatric clinic Materials and Methods:The present study which is a clinical trial , carried out on 80 patients selected using double blind randomization in two groups :case and cotrol .The case group Took Feluvoxamine and Omega3 tablets and the control group received only Feluvoxamine . All the subjects were given Hamilton Rating Scale as well as psychiatric clinical interview from the start of the study and after the second ,fourth eighth and twelfth weeks . The data were analyzed after they were collected . Results:The results of the study showed that the mean of the marks in Hamilton Depression Scale in both groups under study in the start of the study and in 2nd, 4th, 8th and 12th weeks was decreased significantly and the patients ‘performances were improved . The statestical Repeated Measures showed a significant difference in mean of depression marks in both groups before the treatment program and in weeks 2 , 4 , 8 and 12 . Conclusion :Considering research findings related to the effect of Omega3 and its harmlessness , it is suggested that Omega3 can be prescribed with other anti depressive medicines

  14. Test-enhanced learning may be a gender-related phenomenon explained by changes in cortisol level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kromann, Charles B; Jensen, Morten Lind; Ringsted, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    Context Testing increases memory of a topic studied more than additional study or training. The mechanisms by which this occurs are not clearly understood. Testing can be stressful and studies suggest that the stress hormone cortisol has modulating effects on memory, predominantly in men. The aim...... to one intervention and one control group. Students received a 4-hour course on CPR skills. During the final half-hour of the intervention course, participants were tested in CPR scenarios, whereas the control group underwent additional training. We assessed learning outcomes 2 weeks later by rating...... student performance in a CPR scenario using a checklist and a single blinded assessor. We measured salivary cortisol pre-course, half an hour before the end of the course and post-course, and compared learning outcomes and cortisol responses between groups and genders. Results In total, 146 of 202 (72...

  15. Gender-related attitudinal differences towards science fairs of students in Christian private schools in South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbury, Glenda F.

    Science fairs afford students at all grade levels the opportunity to practice thinking as a scientist does, a valuable 21st century skill (Jacobs, 2010) and may influence students to pursue STEM-related careers. Even though science fairs have been occurring since the 1920s, literature related to science competitions, especially science fairs, is limited (Dionne et al., 2012; Terzian, 2009). The purpose of this quantitative study was to use a causal comparative research design to determine if there is a difference in overall attitudes towards science fairs, enjoyment of science fairs, and usefulness of science fairs of female and male students at private Christian middle schools. The sample included 146 fifth through eighth grade students, 72 males and 74 females from four private Christian schools in the southern United States. The researcher visited each school and administered the Students' Attitudes toward Science Fairs (SATSFS) instrument (Michael & Huddleston, 2014) to the students on the day of the local science fair. A one-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to determine the difference in attitudes between the female and male participants toward science fairs in the areas of overall attitude, student's enjoyment, and student's usefulness of science fairs. The result of the MANOVA was not significant at an alpha level of .05, where F (2, 143) = 2.52, p = .08, partial eta2 = 0.034, suggesting there are no significant differences on the dependent variables (enjoyment, usefulness, and overall attitude toward science fairs) by gender of fifth through eighth grade students in Christian private schools. The effect size as measured by partial eta squared was small. Implications for educators include the need to address gender differences in STEM education at earlier stages of development, and the importance of stressing personal meaning and relevance to science-related activities. Recommendations for further studies were made.

  16. Gender-related traits in the dioecious shrub Empetrum rubrum in two plant communities in the Magellanic steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Barradas, Mari Cruz; Zunzunegui, María; Collantes, Marta; Álvarez-Cansino, Leonor; García Novo, Francisco

    2014-10-01

    Following the theory on costs of reproduction, sexually dimorphic plants may exhibit several trade-offs in energy and resources that can determine gender dimorphism in morphological or physiological traits, especially during the reproductive period. In this study we assess whether the sexes of the dioecious species Empetrum rubrum differ in morphological and ecophysiological traits related to water economy and photochemical efficiency and whether these differences change in nearby populations with contrasting plant communities. We conducted physiological, morphological, sex ratio, and cover measurements in E. rubrum plants in the Magellanic steppe, North-Eastern part of Tierra del Fuego (Argentina), from two types of heathlands with differing community composition. We found differences between sites in soil pH and wind speed at the canopy level. E. rubrum plants exhibited lower photosynthetic height and higher LAI (leaf area index), lower RWC (relative water content) and higher water-use efficiency (lower Δ13C) in the heathland with harsher environmental conditions. Gender dimorphism in the physiological response was patent for photochemical efficiency and water use (RWC and Δ13C discrimination), with males showing a more conservative strategy in relation to females. Accordingly, male-biased sex ratio in the stress-prone community suggested a better performance of male plants under stressful environmental conditions. The integrated analysis of all variables (photochemical efficiency, RWC, leaf dry matter content (LDMC), pigments, and Δ13C) indicated an interaction between gender and heathland community effects in the physiological response. We suggest that female plants may exhibit compensatory mechanisms to face their higher reproductive costs.

  17. Frame-of-reference training effectiveness: effects of goal orientation and self-efficacy on affective, cognitive, skill-based, and transfer outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierdorff, Erich C; Surface, Eric A; Brown, Kenneth G

    2010-11-01

    Empirical evidence supporting frame-of-reference (FOR) training as an effective intervention for calibrating raters is convincing. Yet very little is known about who does better or worse in FOR training. We conducted a field study of how motivational factors influence affective, cognitive, and behavioral learning outcomes, as well as near transfer indexed by achieving professional certification. Relying on goal orientation theory, we hypothesized effects for 3 goal orientations: learning, prove performance, and avoid performance. Results were generally supportive across learning outcomes and transfer. Findings further supported a hypothesized interaction between learning self-efficacy and avoid performance goal orientation, such that higher levels of learning self-efficacy mitigated the negative effects of higher performance avoid tendencies. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Gender-related Changes in Dorsal Hand and Foot Vein Function Following 60 Days of Head Down Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westby, Christian M.; Phillips, Tiffany; Stenger, Michael B.; Platts, Steven H.

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that female astronauts are more likely to experience post-flight orthostatic hypotension and presyncope compared to male astronauts. It has been suggested that the disproportionally higher incidence of presyncope (83% of female vs. 20% male crewmembers) may be due to sex-related differences in vascular function between the upper and lower limbs. However, much of this evidence is specific to changes in resistance vessels. Given that more than 70% of the circulating blood volume resides in compliance vessels, it is conceivable that even small changes in venous function may contribute to post-flight orthostatic hypotension. In spite of this, little is currently known regarding the influence of microgravity exposure on venous function between males and females. PURPOSE: To determine the influence of 60 days of HDBR on dorsal foot and hand vein function between healthy males (M) and females (F). METHODS: Using 2-D ultrasound, dorsal hand and foot vein diameter responses to intravenous infusions phenylephrine (PE), acetylcholine (ACh), and nitroglycerine (NTG) were determined in 26 adults; 10 females (age:37 +/- 2 yr ) and 16 males (age:34 +/- 2 yr ). Changes in venous function were calculated as the difference between diameter at baseline and following each venoactive drug. Differences in venous function between limb and sexes across HDBR were determined using mixed-effects linear regression. RESULTS: In response to 60 days of HDBR, the change in venousconstrictor response to PE in the dorsal hand veins was not significantly different between M and F. Interestingly, the change in constrictor response in the dorsal foot veins (compared to pre HDBR) was approximately 30% greater in the F, whereas the constrictor response was approximately 45% less in the M (p=0.026). HDBR had no influence on the change in dilator response to ACh, or NTG between M and F and between vascular beds. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that 60 days of HDBR contributes to sex

  19. The effects of heavy ion particles on the developing murine cerebellum, with special reference to cell death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, Chikako; Yaoi, Takeshi; Fushiki, Shinji [Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan). Research Inst. for Neurological Diseases and Geriatrics; Nojima, Kumie [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan). Internatinal Space Radiation Lab.

    2003-07-01

    We report here the effects of heavy ion beams on postnatal mouse cerebellar development, with reference to cell death. Eight-day-old B6C3F1 mice were irradiated with single doses of 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 Gy, using a carbon beam of 290 MeV delivered from a heavy ion medical accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC). To compare the effects of X-rays with those of accelerated carbon ions, 8-day-old mice were exposed to X-rays single doses of 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 Gy, respectively. Pups were fixed at 1, 6, 12 and 24 hr after exposure to HIMAC beams or X-rays. Four-{mu}m-thick parasagittal sections of the cerebella were processed for hematoxylin-eosin staining as well as for staining with the TUNEL (terminal dUTP nick-end labeling) technique. The density of fragmented nuclei in the external granular layer increased with time, peaking at 6 hr after exposure, in both the HIMAC and X-irradiated groups. In the HIMAC groups, the density was significantly higher in those animals exposed to 0.25 Gy or more compared to 0 Gy, whereas in the X-irradiated groups it was significantly higher in those mice exposed to 0.5 Gy or more. Electron microscopic examinations revealed chromatin condensation in the cell nuclei in the HIMAC groups. This is the first in vivo evidence that apoptotic cell death is induced in developing mouse cerebellum after exposure to heavy ion particles. The difference in the frequency of dying cells between exposure to heavy ion particles and to X-rays may reflect the high linear energy transfer (LET) associated with a heavy ion beam. (author)

  20. Scientific basis for risk analysis of food-related substances with particular reference to health effects on children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yuzo

    2009-01-01

    Based on the advance of toxicology and related sciences, a regulatory regime for the safety of chemicals related to daily life has been rapidly established. Especially for the food-related substances, the process of risk analysis has facilitated the collaboration by all the players including consumers toward the security of their safety. On the other hand, except for pharmaceuticals, science-based decisions and governmental actions on safety issues have not always gained confidence of the public. One of the reasons was the inadequacy in the way of use of scientific knowledge, or in other words, inappropriateness of decision making by "the regulatory science". Regulatory science is a science to warrant the decision making processes for governmental acts (Mitsuru Uchiyama). In the case of chemical safety, it can be redefined as a theoretical concept to complements the uncertainty of scientific knowledge for the decision of governmental acts that is adequate in both scientific and social ways. Therefore, the regulatory science is an indispensable discipline to effectively apply risk analysis. Here, the significance of the regulatory science for the hazard assessment of the chemicals, especially for children is described. In the past, the hazard effects of chemicals have been assessed for adults. Recently, however, the importance of the assessment for children has gained international emphases. Not only for pharmaceuticals, but for food-related substances, the acceptable daily intake (ADI) and tolerable daily intake (TDI) are often set differently for adults and children. The child-specific responses against chemicals are related not only to the physiological factors such as body weight, basal metabolism, but also rapid growth of the body with developmental status of various organs. General knowledge on these issues will be discussed mainly referring the World Health Organization (WHO) documents. Although the cutting edge technology backs up the development of

  1. Effectiveness of Educational Programs on Nutritional Behavior in Addicts Referring to Baharan Hospital, Zahedan (Eastern of IR Iran).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karajibani, Mansour; Montazerifar, Farzaneh; Dashipour, Alireza; Lashkaripour, Kobra; Abery, Maryam; Salari, Sajedeh

    2014-06-01

    There are many factors which affect nutritional status of addicted such as lack o f knowledge, incorrect attitude toward modification of food pattern, and careless to food intake. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of educational program on nutritional behavior in addicts referring to Baharan hospital in Zahedan. Thirty-six addict patients were selected randomly. After recording general demographic data of patients, nutritional behaviors were determined. To determine the effectiveness of nutritional educational program, pre and post-tests were performed. Evaluation of nutritional behavior was determined as poor, fair and satisfactory levels. Statically analysis was performed by SPSS software. Most addict patients had a medium level of education. Improvement in knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of patients after intervention was observed as follows; decreasing KAP in poor level (2.8% vs. 30.6%), (3% vs. 50%), (25% vs. 80.6%), respectively; also, increasing KAP in fair level (7% vs. 55.6 %), (15% vs. 15%), (19% vs. 7%), respectively and increasing KAP in satisfactory levels (77.8% vs. 13.8%), (50% vs. 8.3%), and (22.2% vs. 0%), respectively (P education level after education (P nutritional KAP was improved in addicts. After intervention, there was a significant difference in the score of knowledge, attitude, and practice scores in patients in the current study. KAP was improved in patients after intervention including; decreased KAP in poor level and increased KAP in fair and satisfactory levels. This finding indicates that addict patients would like to modify their life style.

  2. Comparative analysis of biofilm formation by Bacillus cereus reference strains and undomesticated food isolates and the effect of free iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayrapetyan, Hasmik; Muller, Lisette; Tempelaars, Marcel; Abee, Tjakko; Nierop Groot, Masja

    2015-05-04

    Biofilm formation of Bacillus cereus reference strains ATCC 14579 and ATCC 10987 and 21 undomesticated food isolates was studied on polystyrene and stainless steel as contact surfaces. For all strains, the biofilm forming capacity was significantly enhanced when in contact with stainless steel (SS) as a surface as compared to polystyrene (PS). For a selection of strains, the total CFU and spore counts in biofilms were determined and showed a good correlation between CFU counts and total biomass of these biofilms. Sporulation was favoured in the biofilm over the planktonic state. To substantiate whether iron availability could affect B. cereus biofilm formation, the free iron availability was varied in BHI by either the addition of FeCl3 or by depletion of iron with the scavenger 2,2-Bipyridine. Addition of iron resulted in increased air-liquid interface biofilm on polystyrene but not on SS for strain ATCC 10987, while the presence of Bipyridine reduced biofilm formation for both materials. Biofilm formation was restored when excess FeCl3 was added in combination with the scavenger. Further validation of the iron effect for all 23 strains in microtiter plate showed that fourteen strains (including ATCC10987) formed a biofilm on PS. For eight of these strains biofilm formation was enhanced in the presence of added iron and for eleven strains it was reduced when free iron was scavenged. Our results show that stainless steel as a contact material provides more favourable conditions for B. cereus biofilm formation and maturation compared to polystyrene. This effect could possibly be linked to iron availability as we show that free iron availability affects B. cereus biofilm formation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Estimate Of Reference Effective Dose And Renal Dose During Abdominal CT Scan For Dose Optimization Procedures In Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issahaku Shirazu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study is to estimate renal and effective dose during abdominal MDCT scan using image data for dose optimization for purposes of radiation protection in Ghana. In addition dose influencing parameters including CTDIVOL DLP and MSAD were recorded and compared with ICRPICRU AAPM EU and IAEA dose optimization recommendations. All the measurements were done during abdominal MDCT examination. The measured parameters were part of image data on the MeVisLab DICOM application software platform. The total photon fluence mAs per area and the photon energy fluence kVp per area on the abdominal and renal surface was also determined. Renal and effective dose were estimated using ICRP publication 103 recommendations. The results of the measured parameters based on the average renal surface area of 29.52cm2 and 30.67cm2 for the right and left kidney respectively shows that The mean dose parameters were 6.33mGy 7.78mGy 936.25mGy cm 5.76mGy 10.99mSv and 14.09mSv for CTDIV CTDIW DLP MSAD RD and E respectively. The average values were lower than the general recommended average critical values but this seems misleading based on the fact that 37 of the individual dose and exposure parameters exceeded the recommended critical values. A tradeoff between patient radiation dose and image quality in abdominal CT has been established. Where at a mean SNR of 6.6 decibels an adequate images were produce to answer all the clinical questions with an average effective dose of 14.09mSv and renal dose of 10.99mSv. Radiation dose during x-ray CT imaging is an important patient safety concern. Reducing radiation dose result in a reduction of the risk to patient however reducing dose also reduces the signal strength and thereby reduces the signal to noise ratio in the resulting CT image hence the image quality is affected. It is recommended that the established reference values be use as clinical advisory mechanism to protect patience and clinicians. It is also recommended that

  4. The Effectiveness of Group Cognitive Hypnotherapy on Major Depression Referred to Residential and Semi-residential Addiction Recovery Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Haghighi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: Psychological consequences of addiction, such as major depression regardless of physical problems, economic, cultural and social is cause problems for both families and society. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of group cognitive hypnotherapy on major depression in residential and semi-residential addiction recovery centers in the city of Yasuj. Methods: The present quasi-experimental study was conducted using a pre-test, post-test and control group. The population included all patients drug dependent as residential and semi-residential referred to Yasuj addiction recovery centers. 40 patients were selected by convenience sampling and randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. The instrument used in this study included Beck Depression Inventory which depressed patients diagnosed and according to clinical interview they entered the study. Group cognitive Hypnotherapy intervention model was carried out on the experimental group for 8 sessions for one hour once a week, but there was no intervention on control group. After the intervention both experimental and control groups were assessed. Collected   data was analyzed using covariance analysis. Results: The results revealed that the cognitive hypnotherapy treatment of group, leading to depression reduced significantly in the experimental group compared control group significantly (p <0.001. The mean pre-test score of major depression in the experimental group and in control group was 39/5 ± 10/54 and 61/4 ± 20/52 respectively.  Whereas the mean and standard deviation of major depression and post-test scores in the experimental group 55/2 ± 05/25 and in the control group was 50/3 ± 55/51. Conclusion: Cognitive hypnotherapy can be used as adjunctive therapy in reducing major depression or used in addiction recovery centers.

  5. Effect of Counseling on Preventive Behaviors of Osteoporosis in Women Referred to Health Centers in Hamedan, Iran in 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Shobeiri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Osteoporosis is a most common metabolic bone disease that increase the risk of bone fracture by creating a structural abnormality in the bone. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of counseling based on Health Belief Model (HBM on preventive behaviors regarding osteoporosis in women referring to health centers in Hamadan city, Iran in 2015. Materials and Methods:This quasi-experimental before and after study was conducted among 80women, which were stratified randomly into two -40member groups of case and control. Then, through three stages (before, immediately after, and two month after intervention, these groups were evaluated. Analyzing the data was performed by SPSS-18, using t-test, χ2, Fisher’s exact and repeated measurement tests. Results:There were significant differences between the two groups in terms of age, menarche age, education, job, and body mass index (BMI. No significant differences between the mean scores of the various structures of this model were observed among the two groups before the intervention. The mean scores of the awareness and various structures of the model (perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, perceived barriers and performance increased significantly in the case group over time (before, immediately after and two months after intervention (P < 0.05. Conclusions:Although HBM is effective for planning programs to prevent disease or accidents, it seems that it is not suitable for the promotion of behaviors, particularly long-term behavioral change and behaviors that depend on economic and social factors.

  6. Enterprise Reference Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickham, Grandin; Saile, Lynn; Havelka, Jacque; Fitts, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Johnson Space Center (JSC) offers two extensive libraries that contain journals, research literature and electronic resources. Searching capabilities are available to those individuals residing onsite or through a librarian s search. Many individuals have rich collections of references, but no mechanisms to share reference libraries across researchers, projects, or directorates exist. Likewise, information regarding which references are provided to which individuals is not available, resulting in duplicate requests, redundant labor costs and associated copying fees. In addition, this tends to limit collaboration between colleagues and promotes the establishment of individual, unshared silos of information The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) team has utilized a centralized reference management tool during the development, test, and operational phases of this project. The Enterprise Reference Library project expands the capabilities developed for IMM to address the above issues and enhance collaboration across JSC. Method: After significant market analysis for a multi-user reference management tool, no available commercial tool was found to meet this need, so a software program was built around a commercial tool, Reference Manager 12 by The Thomson Corporation. A use case approach guided the requirements development phase. The premise of the design is that individuals use their own reference management software and export to SharePoint when their library is incorporated into the Enterprise Reference Library. This results in a searchable user-specific library application. An accompanying share folder will warehouse the electronic full-text articles, which allows the global user community to access full -text articles. Discussion: An enterprise reference library solution can provide a multidisciplinary collection of full text articles. This approach improves efficiency in obtaining and storing reference material while greatly reducing labor, purchasing and

  7. GENDER-RELATED DIFFERENCE IN AQUEOUS HUMOR MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES MMP-2 AND TISSUE INHIBITOR OF MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES IN PATIENTS WITH PSEUDOEXFOLIATION SYNDROME/GLAUCOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Zlatanović

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PEX Sy is a common age–related disorder of the extracellular matrix that is frequently associated with severe secondary chronic open-angle glaucoma and cataract. Pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (PEX gl is one of the most common causes of optic disc damage, low visual accuracy, damage of visual field and blidness. Deposits of white material on the anterior lens surface are the most consistent and important diagnostic feature of PEX syndrome/glaucoma. It is thought that PEX represents aberrant extracellular matrix synthesis. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the gender-related difference in the level of matrix metalloproetinases MMP-2 and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproetinases (TIMP-1, TIMP-2, TIMP-3, TIMP-4 in aqueous humor in patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome/glaucoma.Aqueous humor was aspirated during surgery from 15 patients with PEX syndrome without glaucoma, 42 patients with PEX glaucoma, 36 patients with POAG and 14 age-matched control patients with cataract during cataract surgery or trabeculectomy. Data about medical history, medications, and demographic information were obtained from case notes. In all patients we determined Intra Ocular Pressure (IOP by (measurement by Goldman aplanation tonometry, PEX appereance (determined with slet lamp examination. Fluorokine MultiAnalite Profiling kits (R&D Systems, Minneapolis, MN and Luminex technology (Luminex Corporation, Austin, TX were used to simultaneously measure MMP-2, and TIMP-1, TIMP-2, TIMP-3 and TIMP-4 in aqueous humor samples.Patients with PEX glaucoma are older and of male sex compared to the patients with POAG. Male patients with PEX glaucoma and POAG were significantly older than female patients. Patients with PEX Sy have bilateral ocular changes more often compared to other groups. There were no significant gender differences in aqueous humour MMP-2, TIMP-2, TIMP-3, TIMP-4 levels among examined groups. In the group with PEX syndrome a

  8. Opção pela vasectomia e relações de gênero The option for vasectomy and implications for gender relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádia Maria Marchi

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um estudo qualitativo para conhecer o processo de decisão de casais pela vasectomia, as relações de gênero envolvidas e identificar as fontes de informação sobre o método. Foram feitas entrevistas semi-estruturadas com vinte casais que solicitaram a vasectomia no Ambulatório de Reprodução Humana do Centro de Assistência Integral à Saúde da Mulher, Universidade Estadual de Campinas. Para a análise dos dados, utilizou-se a técnica de análise do conteúdo. A maioria dos casais optou pela vasectomia como último recurso anticoncepcional, após ter utilizado outros métodos, nem sempre com sucesso. Os homens se auto-atribuíram a iniciativa de se submeterem à cirurgia dada a impossibilidade de criarem mais filhos. Pessoas significativas para eles foram as principais fontes de informação, suscitando interesse pelo método e afastando os temores. As relações de gênero desveladas oscilaram entre um modelo quase patriarcal, com o predomínio dos homens nas decisões da vida familiar, e um modelo ambíguo nas decisões reprodutivas, em que as mulheres haviam assumido a responsabilidade da anticoncepção até que, diante da inevitabilidade da esterilização, os homens consideraram que deveriam colaborar.A qualitative study was performed to: investigate the process that leads couples to decide for vasectomy; characterize the gender relations involved in this process; and identify sources of information on vasectomy. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 couples who had requested vasectomy at the outpatient clinic of the Center for Integrated Women's Health Care, State University in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil. A structured form was used to collect social, economic, and demographic data. The content analysis technique was used for data analysis. The majority of couples opted for vasectomy as a last resort after attempting numerous other contraceptive methods, not always successfully. The emerging gender

  9. Development of discrete choice model considering internal reference points and their effects in travel mode choice context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarif; Kurauchi, Shinya; Yoshii, Toshio

    2017-06-01

    In the conventional travel behavior models such as logit and probit, decision makers are assumed to conduct the absolute evaluations on the attributes of the choice alternatives. On the other hand, many researchers in cognitive psychology and marketing science have been suggesting that the perceptions of attributes are characterized by the benchmark called “reference points” and the relative evaluations based on them are often employed in various choice situations. Therefore, this study developed a travel behavior model based on the mental accounting theory in which the internal reference points are explicitly considered. A questionnaire survey about the shopping trip to the CBD in Matsuyama city was conducted, and then the roles of reference points in travel mode choice contexts were investigated. The result showed that the goodness-of-fit of the developed model was higher than that of the conventional model, indicating that the internal reference points might play the major roles in the choice of travel mode. Also shown was that the respondents seem to utilize various reference points: some tend to adopt the lowest fuel price they have experienced, others employ fare price they feel in perceptions of the travel cost.

  10. The effect of attitudes on reference-dependent preferences: Estimation and validation for the case of alternative-fuel vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mabit, Stefan Lindhard; Cherchi, Elisabetta; Jensen, Anders Fjendbo

    2015-01-01

    Several recent studies in transportation have analysed how choices made by individuals are influenced by attitudes. Other studies have contributed to our understanding of apparently non-rational behaviour by examining how choices may reflect reference-dependent preferences. This paper examines how...... elasticities. Using a data set with stated choices among alternative-fuel vehicles, we see that allowing for reference-dependent preferences improves our ability to explain the stated choices in the data and that the attitude (appreciation of car features) explains part of the preference heterogeneity across...... individuals. The results indicate that individuals have reference-dependent preferences that could be explained by loss aversion and that these are indeed related to an individual's attitude towards car features. The models are validated using a large hold-out sample. This shows that the inclusion...

  11. CSS Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Eric A

    2007-01-01

    They say that good things come in small packages, and it's certainly true for this edition of CSS Pocket Reference. Completely revised and updated to reflect the latest Cascading Style Sheet specifications in CSS 2.1, this indispensable little book covers the most essential information that web designers and developers need to implement CSS effectively across all browsers. Inside, you'll find: A short introduction to the key concepts of CSS A complete alphabetical reference to all CSS 2.1 selectors and properties A chart displaying detailed information about CSS support for every style ele

  12. [Mechanics and effects of European reference pricing for vaccines in Germany according to §130a Abs. 2 SGB V: an analysis using the example of influenza vaccines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, J; Hammerschmidt, T; Vollmar, J; Bierbaum, M; Schöffski, O

    2014-04-01

    On 01 January 2011 the bill for the reorganisation of the pharmaceutical market became effective. Since that time there is a European reference pricing (ERP) system for vaccines in order to bring down the German vaccine prices to an assumed lower European level. This study describes the implementation, functioning and effect of this new system. For influenza vaccines the impact of ERP on the price level and spread of prices is analysed. The description of the mechanism is based on the law and corresponding regulations of the head association of sickness funds (GKV-SV). The analysis of vaccine prices is based on the data of the i:data report (status of 01 September 2011) of ifap Service Institute. The European reference price is calculated as the average price of the manufacturer-selling-prices of the corresponding vaccine in the 4 countries of the European Union whose gross national income comes closest to the German one and in which the vaccine is distributed. The relied prices are weighted by sales and purchasing power parities of the respective countries. This analysis suggests that in particular the practical implementation of the reference price system should be further improved and specified. The calculation of the reference prices should ensure price comparability. In addition, significant problems remain in the deduction of discounts, because no distinction is made in the documentation of vaccinating doctors, whether vaccination was performed as a compulsory or statutory benefit. The comparison of the manufacturer-selling-prices of individual influenza vaccines with the corresponding reference prices shows an enlargement of the existing price differences, which have evolved in a competitive environment, after the implementation of the reference pricing -system. There is still a need for improvement in implementing the reference pricing system. In the most competitive vaccine market of influenza vaccines, the ERP-system lowers the prices, but seems to

  13. Cultural and gender-related differences of concepts of love between Iranian and Swiss adults based on Hafez’ poetry of love

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafez Bajoghli

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Falling and being in love is a cross-cultural universal. The poet Khwaja Šams ud-Din Muhammad Hafez-e Širazi, or simply Hafez (14th century D.C., an important influence for both Persian and European culture, is noted for his love poetry. The first aim of the present study was to check to what extent items of a current questionnaire of love match themes of love found in Hafez‘ poetry. Then, we explored gender- and cultural differences in the importance of these themes. First, themes of Hafez‘s poems were compared with the items of Fisher‘s ―Being in Love Inventory‖. Second, a set of items was presented to Iranian and Swiss female and male adult participants (N=325; age (years: M =31.29; SD =16.28; 161 Iranian; 164 Swiss. Generally, cultural differences were weak. Female participants agreed more with the assumption of love as taking one away from reality. Swiss male participants reported an increased ambivalence towards the partner, and Iranian female participants reported an increased fear of being betrayed. Our results seem to confirm that Hafez‘s themes of love are still up-to-date, and that falling and being in love is a cross-cultural universal, though with some subtle cultural and gender-related differences.

  14. Climate change effects on reference crop evapotranspiration across different climatic zones of China during 1956-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Junliang; Wu, Lifeng; Zhang, Fucang; Xiang, Youzhen; Zheng, Jing

    2016-11-01

    Global climate change has been an increasing challenge to agricultural ecosystems, which will significantly affect the reference crop evapotranspiration (ET0) and subsequently crop water requirements. In this study, the temporal trends and magnitudes of key climatic variables and the accompanying effects on ET0 during 1956-2015 were evaluated at 200 meteorological stations across the temperate continental zone (TCZ), temperate monsoon zone (TMZ), mountain plateau zone (MPZ), and subtropical monsoon zone (SMZ) of China. Results show that maximum and minimum temperatures have increased significantly over the past 60 years, whilst relative humidity, wind speed and sunshine hour exhibited significant decreasing trends across all climatic zones. The overall decreasing trends in annual ET0 were more pronounced than the increasing trends, whereas more increasing trends were found in spring and winter. Abrupt changes for climatic variables and ET0 series were detected in 1990s in the MPZ, while in 1980s in the other climatic zones mainly due to the aggregated emission of greenhouse gases and air pollution from energy consumption in recent decades. Relative humidity was the most sensitive climatic variable in all climatic zones except for the MPZ where ET0 was most sensitive to sunshine hour. However, ET0 had different responses to changing climatic variables in different regions and climatic conditions. The negative contribution of wind speed to the decrease in ET0 was greater than the other climatic variables in the TCZ and the TMZ, whilst the significant increase in minimum temperature and the decrease in sunshine hour contributed most to increasing ET0 in the MPZ and to decreasing ET0 in the SMZ, respectively. Although ET0 displayed a generally decreasing trend during 1956-2015, there was a significantly increasing trend from 1985 to 2015 across China except for the SMZ, especially in the arid and semi-arid zones of China during dry seasons (spring and winter). This may

  15. The Self-Reference Effect on Perception: Undiminished in Adults with Autism and No Relation to Autism Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David M; Nicholson, Toby; Grainger, Catherine

    2017-11-21

    Memory for (and perception of) information about the self is superior to memory for (and perception of) other kinds of information. This self-reference effect (SRE) in memory appears diminished in ASD and related to the number of ASD traits manifested by neurotypical individuals (fewer traits = larger SRE). Here, we report the first experiments exploring the relation between ASD and the SRE in perception. Using a "Shapes" Task (Sui et al., Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 38, 1105, 2012), participants learned to associate three different shapes (triangle, circle, square) with three different labels representing self, a familiar other, or an unfamiliar other (e.g., "you", "mother", "stranger"). Participants then completed trials during which they were presented with one shape and one label for 100 ms, and made judgments about whether the shape and label was a match. In Experiment 1, neurotypical participants (n = 124) showed the expected SRE, detecting self-related matches more reliably and quickly than matches involving familiar or unfamiliar other. Most important, number of ASD traits was unrelated to the size of the SRE for either accuracy or RT. Bayesian association analyses strongly supported the null hypothesis. In Experiment 2, there were no differences between 22 adults with ASD and 21 matched comparison adults in performance on the Shapes Task. Despite showing large and significant theory of mind impairments, participants with ASD showed the typical SRE and there were no associations with ASD traits in either group. In every case, Bayesian analyses favored the null hypothesis. These findings challenge theories about self-representation in ASD, as discussed in the article. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 The Authors Autism Research published by International Society for Autism Research and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Neurotypical people tend to find it easier to perceive and remember information that relates to themselves

  16. Conversational Grounding in Younger and Older Adults: The Effect of Partner Visibility and Referent Abstractness in Task-Oriented Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysander, Katya; Horton, William S.

    2012-01-01

    Many communicative situations present interlocutors with the opportunity to use multiple modalities to establish shared perspectives on conversational referents, a process known as grounding. In the current study, we use a card-matching task to examine how conversational grounding in younger and older adults is influenced both by direct visual…

  17. Comparative analysis of biofilm formation by Bacillus cereus reference strains and undomesticated food isolates and the effect of free iron

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayrapetyan, H.; Muller, L.K.; Tempelaars, M.H.; Abee, T.; Nierop Groot, M.N.

    2015-01-01

    Biofilm formation of Bacillus cereus reference strains ATCC 14579 and ATCC 10987 and 21 undomesticated food isolates was studied on polystyrene and stainless steel as contact surfaces. For all strains, the biofilm forming capacity was significantly enhanced when in contact with stainless steel (SS)

  18. Long-term effect of selective dorsal rhizotomy on gross motor function in ambulant children with spastic bilateral cerebral palsy, compared with reference centiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolster, E.A.M.; van Schie, P.E.M.; Becher, J.G.; van Ouwerkerk, W.J.R.; Strijers, R.L.M.; Vermeulen, R.J.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term effect of selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) on the gross motor function of ambulant children with spastic bilateral cerebral palsy (CP), compared with reference centiles. Method: The study used a prospective cohort design and participants

  19. The Effect of Motion Analysis Activities in a Video-Based Laboratory in Students' Understanding of Position, Velocity and Frames of Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleza, Eugenia; Pappas, John

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we present the results of a qualitative research project on the effect of motion analysis activities in a Video-Based Laboratory (VBL) on students' understanding of position, velocity and frames of reference. The participants in our research were 48 pre-service teachers enrolled in Education Departments with no previous strong…

  20. 77 FR 19033 - Effect of Adding References to HS 6104.32 To Correct the U.S.-Korea FTA Product-Specific Rules of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2012-7566] INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. Korea FTA-103-026] Effect of Adding References to HS 6104.32 To Correct the U.S.- Korea FTA Product-Specific Rules of Origin AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of investigation and notice of...

  1. Angiotensin 1-7 receptor and angiotensin ii receptor 2 blockades prevent the increased serum and kidney nitric oxide levels in response to angiotensin ii administration: Gender-related difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Safari

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: The renal vasculature of male rats may provide more response to Ang II administration-induced NO, which is dependent on masR and AT2R. During dual masR + AT2R blockades, the kidney NO formation wasreduced in a non-gender related manner.

  2. Gender-related differences in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction: results from the registry study of the ST elevation myocardial infarction network Essen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailer, Birgit; Naber, Christoph; Koslowski, Bernd; van Leeuwen, Peter; Schäfer, Harald; Budde, Thomas; Jacksch, Rainer; Sabin, Georg; Erbel, Raimund

    2011-05-01

    The Myocardial Infarction Network Essen was initiated in order to establish a standardized procedure with immediate reopening of the infarcted vessel for patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in the city of Essen, Germany. The present study aims to evaluate gender-related differences in presentation of disease and clinical outcome. Gender is associated with differences in presentation and outcome of STEMI. All patients with STEMI were included without exception. Parameters such as risk profile, mortality, and relevant time intervals were documented. The follow-up period was 1 year. For this study, 1365 patients (72.1% male) were recruited. Women were significantly older, with higher prevalence of diabetes (28.1% vs 20.3%, P = 0.004) and hypertension (76.5% vs 64.8%, P<0.0005). Analysis of time intervals between symptoms to actions showed no significant differences. However, women tended to wait longer before calling for medical assistance (358 vs 331 min, P = 0.091). In-hospital mortality was comparable with respect to gender, whereas women had higher 1-year mortality (18.6% vs 13.2%). Age and diabetes were associated with a higher mortality. Adjusted for age, gender is no longer an independent risk factor. In the follow-up period, significantly more women were readmitted to the hospital without a difference in the frequency of reangiography, surgery, or target-vessel revascularization. The present data display a successful implementation of a standardized procedure in patients with STEMI. Although differences between genders are not as obvious as expected, efforts should be taken to perform a gender-specific risk analysis as well as to promote education about proper behavior in case of new onset of angina. 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Representações e relações de gênero nos grupos pentecostais Representations and gender relations in pentecostal groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria das Dores Campos Machado

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é realizar um balanço das principais transformações ocorridas nos últimos 15 anos no sistema de gênero hegemônico no pentecostalismo. Inicialmente, procuro apresentar o perfil demográfico e socioeconômico dos pentecostais. Em seguida, discuto as conseqüências da opção religiosa dos homens e das mulheres e chamo atenção para os limites do processo de reconfiguração das subjetividades femininas e masculinas no interior das comunidades. O exame das tendências de crescimento do sacerdócio feminino e da participação política das mulheres pentecostais complementa esta análise e ajuda no entendimento das ambivalências na revisão das representações e relações de gênero nesses grupos religiosos.The objective of this article is to conduct an evaluation of the main changes produced throughout the last fifteen years in the hegemonic gender system of pentecostalism. After presenting the demographic and socio-economic profile of Pentecostals, I discuss the consequences of religious choice for men and women , and the limits of the rearrangement process of female and male subjectivities inside the communities. The growth trends of female priesthood and the political participation of pentecostal women are also analysed, to help us understand the ambivalences in reviewing the representations and gender relations in these religious groups.

  4. Analysis of variance, normal quantile-quantile correlation and effective expression support of pooled expression ratio of reference genes for defining expression stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Priyadarshi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification of a reference gene unaffected by the experimental conditions is obligatory for accurate measurement of gene expression through relative quantification. Most existing methods directly analyze variability in crossing point (Cp values of reference genes and fail to account for template-independent factors that affect Cp values in their estimates. We describe the use of three simple statistical methods namely analysis of variance (ANOVA, normal quantile-quantile correlation (NQQC and effective expression support (EES, on pooled expression ratios of reference genes in a panel to overcome this issue. The pooling of expression ratios across the genes in the panel nullify the sample specific effects uniformly affecting all genes that are falsely reflected as instability. Our methods also offer the flexibility to include sample specific PCR efficiencies in estimations, when available, for improved accuracy. Additionally, we describe a correction factor from the ANOVA method to correct the relative fold change of a target gene if no truly stable reference gene could be found in the analyzed panel. The analysis is described on a synthetic data set to simplify the explanation of the statistical treatment of data.

  5. Analysis of variance, normal quantile-quantile correlation and effective expression support of pooled expression ratio of reference genes for defining expression stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadarshi, Himanshu; Das, Rekha; Kumar, Shivendra; Kishore, Pankaj; Kumar, Sujit

    2017-01-01

    Identification of a reference gene unaffected by the experimental conditions is obligatory for accurate measurement of gene expression through relative quantification. Most existing methods directly analyze variability in crossing point (Cp) values of reference genes and fail to account for template-independent factors that affect Cp values in their estimates. We describe the use of three simple statistical methods namely analysis of variance (ANOVA), normal quantile-quantile correlation (NQQC) and effective expression support (EES), on pooled expression ratios of reference genes in a panel to overcome this issue. The pooling of expression ratios across the genes in the panel nullify the sample specific effects uniformly affecting all genes that are falsely reflected as instability. Our methods also offer the flexibility to include sample specific PCR efficiencies in estimations, when available, for improved accuracy. Additionally, we describe a correction factor from the ANOVA method to correct the relative fold change of a target gene if no truly stable reference gene could be found in the analyzed panel. The analysis is described on a synthetic data set to simplify the explanation of the statistical treatment of data.

  6. The Effect of Matrix Method on Anxiety and Attitude Toward Methamphetamine and Crack Abuse in Males Referring to Addiction Treatment Centers in Tonkabon, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemmati Sabet

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Drug abuse is a major problem in the communities and has many harmful effects on human body. Objectives The current study aimed to compare the efficacy of matrix method on anxiety and attitude of male crack abusers referred to addiction treatment centers in Tonkabon, Iran, in 2014. Patients and Methods The current semi -experimental study included 1,000 males referred to addiction treatment centers in Tonkabon with crack abuse history in 2014. Based on Morgan sample volume formula, 278 males with anxiety and higher attitude to drug abuse were randomly selected from 1,000 males referred to addiction treatment centers in Tonkabon. Then, 30 subjects were reselected out of them and equally assigned into two groups of experimental and control, 15 subjects in each group. The experimental group received 24 sessions of 30 - 60 minutes matrix treatment method in group, but the control group received no training. At the end of training period the post-test was carried out. The research findings confirmed the efficacy of matrix method on anxiety and attitude to crack abuse among those referring to the addition treatment center. Results The single covariance analysis of ANCOVA indicated that the value of Eta about 72% of variance of anxiety variable and about 76% of variance of drug abuse variable are taken in to account for variable of group. The intervention was effective in reducing anxiety and attitude to crack in males. Evaluating the adjusted mean showed the effectiveness of matrix method on anxiety and attitude to crack abuse in males. Conclusions The research result showed that matrix method affected the reduction of methamphetamine and attitude to crack abuse in males referred to the addition treatment center.

  7. Effects of morphine dependence on the performance of rats in reference and working versions of the water maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miladi Gorji, Hossein; Rashidy-Pour, Ali; Fathollahi, Yaghoub

    2008-02-27

    Numerous studies have dealt with the role of opiate system in tasks aimed at measurement of cognitive behavior, but the role of morphine dependence on learning and memory is still controversial. In this study chronic exposure to morphine was employed to evaluate learning ability and spatial short-term memory (working memory) and long-term memory (reference memory) in the water maze task. Male albino rats were made dependent by chronic administration of morphine in drinking water that lasted at least 21 days. In Experiment 1, the performance of animals was evaluated in reference memory version of the water maze. Rats were submitted to a session of 6 trials for 6 consecutive days to find the submerged platform that was located in the center of a quadrant. Latency and traveled distance to find the platform were measured as indexes of learning. Memory retention was tested 24 h after the last training session in a probe trial (60 s) in which there was no platform and the time spent in each quadrant of the water maze was recorded. Results indicated that latency and traveled distance to find the platform were same in control and dependent rats during training days, but during the probe test morphine-dependent group spent significantly less time in the target quadrant. In Experiment 2, training on working memory version of the water maze task was started. Only two trials per day were given until the performance of animals was stabilized (at least 5 days). Final test was done at day 6. Acquisition-retention interval was 75 min. No significant differences were found on acquisition and retention trials between morphine and control groups. Our findings indicate that chronic exposure to morphine did not impair learning ability, but partially impaired retention of spatial long-term (reference) memory. Moreover, dependence on morphine did not affect either acquisition or retention of spatial short (working) memory.

  8. Effect of predictor traits on accuracy of genomic breeding values for feed intake based on a limited cow reference population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pszczola, M; Veerkamp, R F; de Haas, Y; Wall, E; Strabel, T; Calus, M P L

    2013-11-01

    The genomic breeding value accuracy of scarcely recorded traits is low because of the limited number of phenotypic observations. One solution to increase the breeding value accuracy is to use predictor traits. This study investigated the impact of recording additional phenotypic observations for predictor traits on reference and evaluated animals on the genomic breeding value accuracy for a scarcely recorded trait. The scarcely recorded trait was dry matter intake (DMI, n = 869) and the predictor traits were fat-protein-corrected milk (FPCM, n = 1520) and live weight (LW, n = 1309). All phenotyped animals were genotyped and originated from research farms in Ireland, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. Multi-trait REML was used to simultaneously estimate variance components and breeding values for DMI using available predictors. In addition, analyses using only pedigree relationships were performed. Breeding value accuracy was assessed through cross-validation (CV) and prediction error variance (PEV). CV groups (n = 7) were defined by splitting animals across genetic lines and management groups within country. With no additional traits recorded for the evaluated animals, both CV- and PEV-based accuracies for DMI were substantially higher for genomic than for pedigree analyses (CV: max. 0.26 for pedigree and 0.33 for genomic analyses; PEV: max. 0.45 and 0.52, respectively). With additional traits available, the differences between pedigree and genomic accuracies diminished. With additional recording for FPCM, pedigree accuracies increased from 0.26 to 0.47 for CV and from 0.45 to 0.48 for PEV. Genomic accuracies increased from 0.33 to 0.50 for CV and from 0.52 to 0.53 for PEV. With additional recording for LW instead of FPCM, pedigree accuracies increased to 0.54 for CV and to 0.61 for PEV. Genomic accuracies increased to 0.57 for CV and to 0.60 for PEV. With both FPCM and LW available for evaluated animals, accuracy was highest (0.62 for CV and 0.61 for PEV in

  9. Single-Patient Molecular Testing with NanoString nCounter Data Using a Reference-Based Strategy for Batch Effect Correction

    OpenAIRE

    Talhouk, Aline; Kommoss, Stefan; Mackenzie, Robertson; Cheung, Martin; Leung, Samuel; Chiu, Derek S.; Kalloger, Steve E.; Huntsman, David G.; Chen, Stephanie; Intermaggio, Maria; Gronwald, Jacek; Chan, Fong C.; Ramus, Susan J.; Steidl, Christian; Scott, David W.

    2016-01-01

    A major weakness in many high-throughput genomic studies is the lack of consideration of a clinical environment where one patient at a time must be evaluated. We examined generalizable and platform-specific sources of variation from NanoString gene expression data on both ovarian cancer and Hodgkin lymphoma patients. A reference-based strategy, applicable to single-patient molecular testing is proposed for batch effect correction. The proposed protocol improved performance in an established H...

  10. The Effectiveness of Unified Treatment Approach on Quality of Life and Symptoms of Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome Referred to Gastrointestinal Clinics

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Johari-Fard; Raha Ghafourpour

    2015-01-01

    Background: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional disorder of the lower gastrointestinal tract caused by stress, and may benefit from a psychological intervention such as unified treatment approach. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of unified treatment approach on the symptoms and quality of life (QOL) of patients with IBS.Methods: The study population included all patients with IBS referred to gastrointestinal clinics of Ahwaz, Iran. Therefore, in a semi-exper...

  11. Sed and Awk Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Robbins, Arnold D

    2002-01-01

    The sed & awk Pocket Reference is a handy, quick reference guide to frequently used functions, commands, and regular expressions used for day-to-day text processing needs. This book is a companion to both sed & awk, Second Edition and Effective awk Programming, Third Edition

  12. Map-mediated dialogues: effects of map orientation differences and shared reference points on map location-finding speed and accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kleij, Rick; te Brake, Guido

    2010-08-01

    The effects of individual differences in map orientation on a location-finding dyadic team task were examined in a controlled experimental setting. Research on maps has been mainly directed at individuals navigating with cartographic maps. An important question remains about how to present information about others' locations to distributed team members. In a repeated-measures factorial design, distributed dyad members had to reach a shared understanding through map-mediated human-to-human dialogues about specific preset locations on digitized maps. Maps were rotated independently to different degrees, which produced alignment differences of various magnitudes between both members. Some of these maps were complemented with additional geospatial information (i.e., landmarks, compass rose, and map grid) to provide for shared reference points. Dyads using maps with identical orientations for both members performed the task more accurately than dyads using maps that varied in orientation between dyad members.The addition of geospatial information to maps providing for shared reference points helped the teamwork. Distributed dyads using maps that vary in orientation between dyad members benefit more from shared reference points than dyads using maps with orientations that are identical for both members. We conclude that shared reference points help distributed dyads using maps that vary in orientation between dyad members to perform as well as dyads using maps with identical alignment. This article shows how to provide support for team coordination in distributed settings and facilitates the development of groupware to support distributed teamwork.

  13. The Behavioral Effects of tDCS on Visual Search Performance Are Not Influenced by the Location of the Reference Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Ellison

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the role of reference electrode placement (ipsilateral v contralateral frontal pole on conjunction visual search task performance when the transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS cathode is placed over right posterior parietal cortex (rPPC and over right frontal eye fields (rFEF, both of which have been shown to be causally involved in the processing of this task using TMS. This resulted in four experimental manipulations in which sham tDCS was applied in week one followed by active tDCS the following week. Another group received sham stimulation in both sessions to investigate practice effects over 1 week in this task. Results show that there is no difference between effects seen when the anode is placed ipsi or contralaterally. Cathodal stimulation of rPPC increased search times straight after stimulation similarly for ipsi and contralateral references. This finding does not extend to rFEF stimulation. However, for both sites and both montages, practice effects as seen in the sham/sham condition were negated. This can be taken as evidence that for this task, reference placement on either frontal pole is not important, but also that care needs to be taken when contextualizing tDCS “effects” that may not be immediately apparent particularly in between-participant designs.

  14. Morning Salivary Cortisol in Young Children: Reference Values and the Effects of Age, Sex, and Acute Bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfsjord, Leif Bjarte; Bakkeheim, Egil; Berents, Teresa Løvold; Alm, Johan; Skjerven, Håvard Ove; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; Mowinckel, Petter; Sjöbeck, Ann-Christine; Carlsen, Karin Cecilie Lødrup

    2017-05-01

    To identify morning salivary cortisol reference values in infancy and at 2 years of age and to investigate the influence of age, sex and acute bronchiolitis. In this South-East Norwegian cohort study, 308 children hospitalized with moderate to severe acute bronchiolitis in infancy in 2010-2011 were compared with 223 healthy controls included in 2012 by measuring morning salivary cortisol levels at inclusion and at 2 years of age. Samples were collected shortly after awakening after 6 am. The influences of age, sex, and acute bronchiolitis were assessed by regression analysis. In infancy, cortisol values were higher in acute bronchiolitis, with an age- and sex-adjusted weighted mean group difference of 13.9 nmol/L (95% CI 8.1-19.7; P infants at the time of acute bronchiolitis than in healthy infants. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00817466. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The effects of dysphoria and personality on negative self-referent attitudes and perceptions of the attitudes of others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshai, Shadi; Prentice, Jennifer L; Swan, Jennifer L; Dobson, Keith S

    2015-01-01

    The cognitive model of depression posits that depressed individuals harbor more dysfunctional self-referent attitudes, but little is known about how depressed individuals perceive the attitudes and perceptions of others in their social arena. This study examined whether dysphoric individuals perceive others to hold equally negative attitudes about themselves, and whether such perceptions depend on sociotropic (i.e., highly invested in social approval and relationship success) and autonomous (i.e., highly invested in vocational or academic achievement and goal attainment) personality styles. A sample of undergraduate students (N = 197) was recruited, and after the assessment of their depression symptoms and personality style, participants read vignettes that described negative scenarios, and imagined that these scenarios occurred to themselves or the general university student. After reading each vignette, participants also rated their agreement with a number of statements that assessed dysfunctional attitudes. Results indicated that elevated dysphoria (i.e., showing signs of depression) scores were positively associated with dysfunctional self-referent attitudes. Further, moderational analyses examining the interaction of sociotropy and dysphoria did not support the hypothesis that individuals higher on dysphoria and sociotropy were less likely to perceive others as harboring negative attitudes about themselves in comparison to those with elevated dysphoria and lower levels of sociotropy. Last, individuals showing elevated dysphoria and higher scores on subdomains of autonomy were more likely to perceive others as exhibiting negative attitudes about themselves than those with low levels of the trait. These findings, their implications, and strengths and limitations of the current investigation are further discussed.

  16. Spatial disaggregation of POWER-NASA air temperatures and effects on grass reference evapotranspiration in Sicily, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negm, Amro; Minacapilli, Mario; Provenzano, Giuseppe

    2017-04-01

    The accurate estimation of grass reference evapotranspiration (ET0) is important for many fields, including hydrology and irrigation water management. Being direct measure of ET0 difficult, expensive and time consuming, application of simplified approaches and web-based meteorological information are often preferred. The Prediction of Worldwide Energy Resource project developed by the American National Aeronautics and Space Administration (POWER-NASA) provides meteorological observations and surface energy fluxes on 1° latitude by 1° longitude grid, with a continuous daily coverage and for the entire globe. However, the broad spatial resolution of these data represents a limiting factor, for example when they have to be used for local estimations of reference ET0. In this work, a procedure for the spatial disaggregation of POWER-NASA daily average air temperature was proposed. In particular, a daily scaling factor was initially defined as the ratio between disaggregated average air temperature and the corresponding native value. This ratio was then modeled with a cosine function, characterized by three parameters depending on elevation, so to account for seasonal and regional variability. The proposed model was calibrated with three years of ground measurements (2006-2008) and then validated over six years (2009-2014). The suitability of the procedure was finally assessed by applying two simplified empirical models to estimate ET0 (Turc, 1961; Hargreaves, 1975). When compared to ET0 values obtained with FAO-56 PM equation, both simplified equations associated to downscaled meteorological observations, were characterized by RMSE ranging between 0.44 and 1.08 mm (average of 0.72-0.74 mm), and average MBE of -0.06 (Turc equation) and 0.13 mm (Hargreaves equation). These results indicated the strength of the proposed procedure to estimate ET0, even for regions characterized by the lack of detailed meteorological information.

  17. Effect of ribonucleic acid (RNA) isolation methods on putative reference genes messenger RNA abundance in human spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragán, M; Martínez, A; Llonch, S; Pujol, A; Vernaeve, V; Vassena, R

    2015-07-01

    Although the male gamete participates in a significant proportion of infertility cases, there are currently no proven molecular markers of sperm quality. The search for significant gene expression markers is partially hindered by the lack of a recognized set of reference genes (RGs) to normalize reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) data across studies. The aim of this study is to define a set of RGs in assisted reproduction patients undergoing different sample collection and RNA isolation methods. Twenty-two normozoospermic men were included in the study. From each man, semen was either cryopreserved by slow freezing or analyzed fresh, and, for each, RNA was extracted with either phenol-free or phenol-based methods. In two cases, both methods were used to isolate RNA. Twenty putative RGs were analyzed and their mRNA abundance across samples was estimated by RT-qPCR. To determine the genes whose steady-state mRNA abundance remains unchanged, three different algorithms (geNorm, BestKeeper and NormFinder) were applied to the qPCR data. We found that RGs such as GAPDH or ACTB, useful in other biological contexts, cannot be used as reference for human spermatozoa. It is possible to compare gene expression from fresh and cryopreserved sperm samples using the same isolation method, while the mRNA abundance of expressed genes becomes different depending on the RNA isolation technique employed. In our conditions, the most appropriate RGs for RT-qPCR analysis were RPLP1, RPL13A, and RPLP2. Published discrepancies in gene expression studies in human spermatozoa may be due in part to inappropriate RGs selection, suggesting a possible different interpretation of PCR data in several reports, which were normalized using unstable RGs. © 2015 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  18. Standard Reference Tables -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Standard Reference Tables (SRT) provide consistent reference data for the various applications that support Flight Standards Service (AFS) business processes and...

  19. Mechanical engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Parrish, A

    1973-01-01

    Mechanical Engineer's Reference Book: 11th Edition presents a comprehensive examination of the use of Systéme International d' Unités (SI) metrication. It discusses the effectiveness of such a system when used in the field of engineering. It addresses the basic concepts involved in thermodynamics and heat transfer. Some of the topics covered in the book are the metallurgy of iron and steel; screw threads and fasteners; hole basis and shaft basis fits; an introduction to geometrical tolerancing; mechanical working of steel; high strength alloy steels; advantages of making components as castings

  20. Reference stand condition - Effects of Thinning on Forest Structure important to the recovery of ESA-listed species

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study evaluates the effects of thinning regimes designed to accelerate the development of late-successional forest structure for the benefit of salmon and other...

  1. Fundamentals of Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulac, Carolyn M.

    2012-01-01

    The all-in-one "Reference reference" you've been waiting for, this invaluable book offers a concise introduction to reference sources and services for a variety of readers, from library staff members who are asked to work in the reference department to managers and others who wish to familiarize themselves with this important area of…

  2. Effects of object color stimuli on human brain activities in perception and attention referred to EEG alpha band response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoto, Ai; Katsuura, Tetsuo; Iwanaga, Koichi; Shimomura, Yoshihiro

    2007-05-01

    This study was designed to investigate the physiological effects of color in terms of blood pressure and the results of electroencephalogram (EEG) as subjects looked at the sheets of paper of various colors. A questionnaire was also used to assess psychological effects. Three colors (red, green, blue) were shown to each subject in randomized order. The various colors showed distinctly different effects on the mean power of the alpha band, theta band, and on the total power in the theta-beta EEG bandwidth and alpha attenuation coefficient (AAC). Scores of the subjective evaluations concerning heavy, excited, and warm feelings also indicated significant differences between red and blue conditions. Against to our prediction, blue elicited stronger arousal than did red as expressed by the results of AAC and the mean power of the alpha band, which conflicted with the results of the subjective evaluations scores. This phenomenon might be caused by bluish light's biological activating effect. The powers of the alpha band, and the theta band, and the total power of the theta-beta bandwidth as measured by EEG showed larger values while the subjects looked at red paper than while they looked at blue paper. This indicated that red possibly elicited an anxiety state and therefore caused a higher level of brain activity in the areas of perception and attention than did the color blue. Red paper's effect to activate the central cortical region with regard to perception and attention was considerably more distinguishable than was the biological activating effect of bluish light in our study.

  3. A life-history evaluation of the impact of maternal effects on recruitment and fisheries reference points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calduch-Verdiell, Núria; MacKenzie, Brian R.; Vaupel, James W.

    2014-01-01

    Fishing causes dramatic changes in the age and size structure of fish stocks. In particular, the targeting of the largest and oldest individuals in a stock changes the age and size distribution of that stock. A large female produces a higher quantity of eggs than a young female because of its...... are largely unaffected by maternal effects. Our results indicate that the incorporation of maternal effects into impact assessments of fisheries is not expected to change advice substantially. Important exceptions are stocks whose demography is very vulnerable to fishing (and which therefore have low fishing...

  4. Effect of sitagliptin on the working memory and reference memory in type 2 diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats: possible role of adiponectin receptors 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakr, H F

    2013-10-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with increased incidence of behavioral changes and memory loss. Memory loss could be caused by Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD). So, we aimed to investigate the effect of sitagliptin in improving the working and reference memories in diabetic rats. Thirty six male Sprague-Dawley rats divided equally (n=12) into three groups: control, type 2 DM and type 2 DM treated with DPP-4 inhibitor (sitagliptin) for one month (10 mg/kg) orally. Working memory and reference memory were assessed by using the holeboard memory test. In all rats, serum glucose, insulin, adiponectin, total cholesterol (TC), TG, low (LDL) and high (HDL) density lipoprotein with calculation of the homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) and atherogenic index. The hypothalamus was separated for determination of the acetylcholine level and adiponectin receptors 1 (Adipo R1) m-RNA expression. Type 2 diabetic rats exhibited a significant decrease in both working and reference memories, with increased glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR. The adiponectin level, acetylcholine content of the hypothalamus and Adipo R1 m-RNA expression were significantly reduced. Treatment with sitagliptin significantly improved the working and reference memories with significant reduction in the glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR. Moreover, sitagliptin increased significantly the acetylcholine content of the hypothalamus and Adipo R1 expression. In conclusion, sitagliptin might improve the cognitive function of the diabetic rats and the hypothalamic acetylcholine level possibly through increased AdipoR1 expression.

  5. The short term effects of straight leg raise neurodynamic treatment on pressure pain and vibration thresholds in individuals with spinally referred leg pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridehalgh, Colette; Moore, Ann; Hough, Alan

    2016-06-01

    Limited research exists for the effects of neurodynamic treatment techniques. Understanding short term physiological outcomes could help to better understand immediate benefits or harm of treatment. To assess the short-term effects of a straight leg raise (SLR) tensioner 'intervention' on pressure pain thresholds (PPT) and vibration thresholds (VT), and establish if additional factors influence outcome in individuals with spinally referred leg pain. Experimental, repeated measures. Sixty seven participants (mean age (SD) 52.9 (13.3), 33 female) with spinally referred leg pain were divided into 3 sub-groups: somatic referred pain, radicular pain and radiculopathy. Individuals were assessed for central sensitisation (CS) and completed 5 disability and psychosocial questionnaires. PPT and VT were measured pre and post a 3 × 1 min SLR tensioner intervention. No significant differences (p > 0.05) were found between the 3 groups for either outcome measure, or after treatment. Slight improvements in VT were seen in the radiculopathy group after treatment, but were not significant. Only 2 participants were identified with CS. Disability and psychological factors were not significantly different at baseline between the 3 sub-groups, and did not correlate with the outcome measures. No beneficial effects of treatment were found, but the trend for a decrease in VT indicated that even in individuals with radiculopathy, no detrimental changes to nerve function occurred. Psychosocial factors and levels of disability did not influence short term outcome of SLR treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Effects of Austerity on Collection Development in Nigerian University Libraries with Particular Reference to Usmanu Danfodiyo University Library, Sokoto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekoja, Innocent I.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a study that examined the effects of austerity on collection development at the Usmanu Danfodiyo University (Nigeria) library since its inception in 1977 through 1990. The findings reported indicate that decreased allocations have led to declining book purchases and journal subscriptions and large debts to foreign book dealers. (23…

  7. Calculations of S values and effective dose for the radioiodine carrier and surrounding individuals based on Chinese hybrid reference phantoms using the Monte Carlo technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Changran; Tang, Xiaobin; Qian, Wei; Guan, Fada; Johns, Jesse; Yu, Haiyan; Gong, Chunhui; Shu, Diyun; Chen, Da

    2015-09-01

    The S values for the thyroid as the radioiodine source organ to other target organs were investigated using Chinese hybrid reference phantoms and the Monte Carlo code MCNP5. Two radioiodine isotopes (125)I and (131)I uniformly distributed in the thyroid were investigated separately. We compared our S values for (131)I in Chinese phantoms with previous studies using other types of phantoms: Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) stylized phantoms, International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) voxel phantoms, and University of Florida (UF) phantoms. Our results are much closer to the UF phantoms. For each specific target organ, the S value for (131)I is larger than for (125)I in both male and female phantoms. In addition, the S values and effective dose to surrounding face-to-face exposed individuals, including different genders and ages (10- and 15-year-old juniors, and adults) from an adult male radioiodine carrier were also investigated. The target organ S values and effective dose for surrounding individuals obey the inverse square law with the distance between source and target phantoms. The obtained effective dose data in Chinese phantoms are comparable to the results in a previous study using the UF phantoms. The data generated in this study can serve as the reference to make recommendations for radiation protection of the Chinese patients or nuclear workers.

  8. Healthy effects exerted by prebiotics, probiotics, and symbiotics with special reference to their impact on the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirillo, Emilio; Jirillo, Felicita; Magrone, Thea

    2012-06-01

    Pre-, pro-, and symbiotics are endowed with a broad spectrum of beneficial effects when administered to animals and humans. A series of experimental and clinical studies have clearly demonstrated that prebiotics, probiotics, or their combination are very effective in attenuating chronic inflammatory conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease or obesity. In addition, these natural products are able to prevent or arrest tumor development, acting on the intestinal microbiota as well as potentiating the immune response.Aging is characterized by a dramatic reduction of both innate and adaptive immune responses, the so-called immunosenescence. This leads to an increased incidence of infections, autoimmune diseases, and cancer in the elderly. Pre-, pro-, and symbiotic administration has been shown to ameliorate the immune response in aging. In particular, administration of a symbiotic to free-living elderly was able to potentiate the release of interleukin-8, thus increasing neutrophils in the host, perhaps explaining the reduced frequency of winter infections in the elderly.

  9. Attitudes towards and effects of the use of video games in classroom learning with specific reference to literacy attainment

    OpenAIRE

    Mifsud, Charles L.; Vella, Rosalind; Camilleri, Liberato;

    2013-01-01

    The first part of this study shows that there is increased support for using video games in the classroom from different stakeholders, namely students, teachers and parents. The potential role that video games can play in the classroom learning process needs to be more well defined. There is a dire need for research work under experimental conditions which measures tangibly the effectiveness of videogame use in classroom learning. The experimental study described here seeks to address this ne...

  10. Effect of general relativity on a near-Earth satellite in the geocentric and barycentric reference frames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ries, J.C.; Huang, C.; Watkins, M.M.

    1988-08-22

    Whether one uses a solar-system barycentric frame or a geocentric frame when including the general theory of relativity in orbit determination for near-Earth satellites, the results should be equivalent to some limiting accuracy. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the effects of relativity in each frame and to demonstrate their equivalence through the analysis of real laser tracking data. A correction to the conventional barycentric equations of motion is shown to be required.

  11. Effect of general relativity on a near-Earth satellite in the geocentric and barycentric reference frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, J. C.; Huang, C.; Watkins, M. M.

    1988-01-01

    Whether one uses a solar-system barycentric frame or a geocentric frame when including the general theory of relativity in orbit determinations for near-Earth satellites, the results should be equivalent to some limiting accuracy. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the effects of relativity in each frame and to demonstrate their equivalence through the analysis of real laser-tracking data. A correction to the conventional barycentric equations of motion is shown to be required.

  12. The urban heat island effect, its causes, and mitigation, with reference to the thermal properties of asphalt concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohajerani, Abbas; Bakaric, Jason; Jeffrey-Bailey, Tristan

    2017-07-15

    The Urban Heat Island (UHI) is a phenomenon that affects many millions of people worldwide. The higher temperatures experienced in urban areas compared to the surrounding countryside has enormous consequences for the health and wellbeing of people living in cities. The increased use of manmade materials and increased anthropogenic heat production are the main causes of the UHI. This has led to the understanding that increased urbanisation is the primary cause of the urban heat island. The UHI effect also leads to increased energy needs that further contribute to the heating of our urban landscape, and the associated environmental and public health consequences. Pavements and roofs dominate the urban surface exposed to solar irradiation. This review article outlines the contribution that pavements make to the UHI effect and analyses localized and citywide mitigation strategies against the UHI. Asphalt Concrete (AC) is one of the most common pavement surfacing materials and is a significant contributor to the UHI. Densely graded AC has low albedo and high volumetric heat capacity, which results in surface temperatures reaching upwards of 60 °C on hot summer days. Cooling the surface of a pavement by utilizing cool pavements has been a consistent theme in recent literature. Cool pavements can be reflective or evaporative. However, the urban geometry and local atmospheric conditions should dictate whether or not these mitigation strategies should be used. Otherwise both of these pavements can actually increase the UHI effect. Increasing the prevalence of green spaces through the installation of street trees, city parks and rooftop gardens has consistently demonstrated a reduction in the UHI effect. Green spaces also increase the cooling effect derived from water and wind sources. This literature review demonstrates that UHI mitigation techniques are best used in combination with each other. As a result of the study, it was concluded that the current mitigation

  13. 2002 reference document; Document de reference 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This 2002 reference document of the group Areva, provides information on the society. Organized in seven chapters, it presents the persons responsible for the reference document and for auditing the financial statements, information pertaining to the transaction, general information on the company and share capital, information on company operation, changes and future prospects, assets, financial position, financial performance, information on company management and executive board and supervisory board, recent developments and future prospects. (A.L.B.)

  14. Commercial reference shape standards use in the study of particle shape effect on laser diffraction particle size analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Richard N; Kazanjian, Jacqueline

    2006-05-26

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the use of LGC Promochem AEA 1001 to AEA 1003 monosized fiber-analog shape standards in the study of the effect of particle shape on laser diffraction (LD) particle size analysis (psa). The psa of the AEA standards was conducted using LD psa systems from Beckman Coulter, Horiba, and Malvern Instruments. Flow speed settings, sample refractive index values, and sample cell types were varied to examine the extent to which the shape effect on LD psa results is modified by these variables. The volume and number probability plots resulting from these measurements were each characterized by a spread in the particle size distribution that roughly extended from the breadth to the longest dimension of the particles. For most of the selected sample refractive index values, the volume probability plots were characterized by apparent bimodal distributions. The results, therefore, provide experimental verification of the conclusions from theoretical studies of LD psa system response to monosized elliptical particles in which this apparent bimodality was the predicted result in the case of flow-oriented particles. The data support the findings from previous studies conducted over the past 10 years that have called into question the verity of the tenets of, and therefore the value of the application of, the equivalent spherical volume diameter theory and the random particle orientation model to the interpretation of LD psa results from measurements made on nonspherical particles.

  15. Curative effect of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nut milk extract against adjuvant arthritis -- with special reference to bone metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramprasath, Vanu Ramkumar; Shanthi, Palanivelu; Sachdanandam, Panchanatham

    2006-04-15

    Localised bone loss in the form of bone erosions and peri-articular osteopenia constitutes an important criteria for the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. In the present study, the effect of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nut milk extract (SA) on the metabolism of bone turn over has been studied by analyzing various markers of bone turnover and by histological and radiological analysis of the joints in adjuvant arthritis in rats. Arthritis was induced in rats by injecting Freund's complete adjuvant containing 10mg of heat killed mycobacterium tuberculosis in 1 ml paraffin oil (0.1 ml) into the left hind paw of the rat intradermally. After 14 days of induction, SA (150 mg/kg body weight/day) was administered orally by gastric intubations for 14 days. SA significantly reverted the alterations in the bone turnover observed in arthritic animals by modulating the levels of calcium, phosphorus and the activities of the enzymes names tartrate resistant acid phosphatase, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase. The drug increased the bone weights that were found to be decreased during arthritis. Protective effect of SA was also observed by the decrease in the levels and expression of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) as well as the histopathological and radiological observations. From all these observations it can be concluded that SA possesses strong anti-arthritic property by regulating bone turnover.

  16. Effect of psychological preparation on anxiety level before colonoscopy in outpatients referred to Golestan Hospital in Ahvaz

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hatam Boustani; Sirus Pakseresht; Mohammad-Reza Haghdoust; Saeid Qanbari; Hadis Mehregan-Nasab

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Gastrointestinal disorders are common complaints for which endoscopy and colonoscopy are the most important diagnostic procedures.Anxiety is an unpleasant,ambiguous feeling of apprehension and fear of unknown origin that occurs during stressful situations or injury.Lack of sufficient information and fear of pain can cause anxiety prior to a colonoscopy,reducing the number of patients willing to undergo the procedure and increasing colonoscopy time.The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of psychological preparation on anxiety before colonoscopy in patients presenting to Golestan Hospital during the years 1994 and 1995.MATERIAL and METHODS:This study was a double-blind clinical trial of patients presenting to the colonoscopy unit in Golestan Hospital in 1994 and 1995.A total of 80 patients were divided into two groups:intervention and control.A primary assessment of anxiety was performed using Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory.Before the colonoscopy,the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was completed by the patients again.The effectiveness of psychological preparation before colonoscopy and its effect on anxiety were evaluated using statistical software SPSS 20.RE SULTS:The mean age of participants was 46.33 ± 12.2 years in the intervention group and 44.8 ± 12.26 years in the control group.In this study,there were 41 males (51.3%) and 39 females (48.7%);15 patients (18.7%) were single and the rest married.In terms of demographic variables,there were no significant differences between the two groups (p > 0.05).The average scores of state and trait anxiety in the intervention group showed a statistically significant difference before and after the intervention (p =0.000).CONCLUSION:Trait and state anxiety levels after psychological preparation showed a statistically significant reduction.This indicates the effectiveness of intervention programs to reduce anxiety before colonoscopy.

  17. The Survey of SMS Effect on General Health and Quality of Life in People with Diabetes Type 2 Referring to Clinic of 22-Bahman Hospital of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Atarodi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases of the present era. This disease with its many complications has so many effects on quality of life that affects people. Since awareness increase is effective on self-control, some strategies can improve quality of life and technology has changed the way of education and life1. So, this study was performed to survey SMS effect on general health and quality of life in people with diabetes type 2 referring to clinic of 22-Bahman hospital of Gonabad city in 2011. Materials and Methods: This is a quasi-experimental study. The samples were chosen with a simple random sampling from those referring to clinic of 22-Bahman hospital of Gonabad city in 2011. The data were collected by SF-36 quality of life questionnaire. In both of the intervention (X = 40 and the control groups (X = 40 SF-36, quality of life questionnaire was completed before intervention and again one month after sending educational short messages through mobile phone, and then the data were analyzed by independent Mann-whitney, Wilcoxon, Chi square and T-test and using SPSS-14 software.Results: This study reviewed the mean quality of life before and after sending educational short messages in two intervention and control groups. The findings showed that the average quality of life score before intervention was 56.9 in the control group and 58.3 in the intervention group (p=0. But the comparison of the quality of life scores showed a significant difference in the intervention group according to t-test before and after sending educational mobile messages to them (p=0.Conclusion: SMS based on educational text is effective on quality of life increasing and then modern technology can be effective positively if it used approprately.

  18. Search For Effects of an Electrostatic Potential on Clocks in the Frame of Reference of a Charged Particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringermacher, Harry I.; Conradi, Mark S.; Cassenti, Brice N.; Millis, Marc G. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Program Planning meeting was held on Jan 27-28 at the Washington University, Dept. of Physics. Experiment strategies and details were discussed and milestones mapped. Dr. Ringermacher, the program technical leader and Co-Principal Investigator, presented a Physics Department seminar on the theory and experiment in progress. Following the meeting Professor Conradi (CO-PI) and his students designed the NMR probe and electronics required for the experiment and submitted the drawings to the shop for fabrication. Dr. Cassenti, at UTRC, initiated analytic and computer analysis of the experimental conditions in order to anticipate possible classical effects. Dr. Ringermacher, at KRONOTRAN, re-evaluated the experiment interpretation from the theory and continued working to secure its underpinnings.

  19. Effect of practice management softwares among physicians of developing countries with special reference to Indian scenario by Mixed Method Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Davey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Currently, many cheaper "practice management software" (PMS are available in developing countries including India; despite their availability and benefits, its penetration and usage vary from low to moderate level, justifying the importance of this study area. Materials and Methods : First preferred reporting items for systematic-review and meta-analysis (2009 guidelines were considered; followed by an extensive systematic-review of available studies in literature related to developing countries, on key search term from main abstracting databases: PubMed, EMBASE, EBSCO, BIO-MED Central, Cochrane Library, world CAT-library till 15 June 2014; where any kind of article whether published or unpublished, in any sort or form or any language indicating the software usage were included. Thereafter, meta-analysis on Indian studies revealing the magnitude of usage in Indian scenario by Open Meta-(analyst software using binary random effects (REs model was done. Studies from developed countries were excluded in our study. Results : Of 57 studies included in a systematic review from developing countries, only 4 Indian studies were found eligible for meta-analysis. RE model revealed although not-significant results (total participants = 243,526; range: 100-226,228, overall odds ratio = 2.85, 95% confidence interval = P < 0.05 and tests for heterogeneity: Q [df = 3] = 0.8 Het. P = 0.85. The overall magnitude of usage of PMS on Indian physicians practice was however found between 10% and 45%. Conclusion : Although variable and nonsignificant effect of usage of PM software on practice of physicians in developing countries like India was found; there is a need to recognize the hidden potential of this system. Hence, more in-depth research in future needs to be done, in order to find a real impact of this system.

  20. Correcting for cell-type effects in DNA methylation studies: reference-based method outperforms latent variable approaches in empirical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattab, Mohammad W; Shabalin, Andrey A; Clark, Shaunna L; Zhao, Min; Kumar, Gaurav; Chan, Robin F; Xie, Lin Ying; Jansen, Rick; Han, Laura K M; Magnusson, Patrik K E; van Grootheest, Gerard; Hultman, Christina M; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Aberg, Karolina A; van den Oord, Edwin J C G

    2017-01-30

    Based on an extensive simulation study, McGregor and colleagues recently recommended the use of surrogate variable analysis (SVA) to control for the confounding effects of cell-type heterogeneity in DNA methylation association studies in scenarios where no cell-type proportions are available. As their recommendation was mainly based on simulated data, we sought to replicate findings in two large-scale empirical studies. In our empirical data, SVA did not fully correct for cell-type effects, its performance was somewhat unstable, and it carried a risk of missing true signals caused by removing variation that might be linked to actual disease processes. By contrast, a reference-based correction method performed well and did not show these limitations. A disadvantage of this approach is that if reference methylomes are not (publicly) available, they will need to be generated once for a small set of samples. However, given the notable risk we observed for cell-type confounding, we argue that, to avoid introducing false-positive findings into the literature, it could be well worth making this investment.Please see related Correspondence article: https://genomebiology.biomedcentral.com/articles/10/1186/s13059-017-1149-7 and related Research article: https://genomebiology.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13059-016-0935-y.

  1. Collaborative Chat Reference Service Effectiveness Varies by Question Type for Public Library Patrons. A review of: Kwon, Nahyun. ʺPublic Library Patronsʹ Use of Collaborative Chat Reference Service: The Effectiveness of Question Answering by Question Type.ʺ Library & Information Science Research 29.1 (Mar. 2007: 70‐91.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Hall

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To assess the effectiveness of a collaborative chat reference service in answering different types of question. Specifically, the study compares the degree of answer completion and the level of user satisfaction for simple factual questions vs. more in‐depth subject‐based reference questions, and for ‘local’ (pertaining to a particular library and non‐local questions.Design – Content analysis of 415 transcripts of reference transactions, which were also compared to corresponding user satisfaction survey results.Setting – An online collaborative reference service offered by a large public library system (33 branch and regional locations. This service is part of the Metropolitan Cooperative Library System: a virtual reference consortium of U.S. libraries (public, academic, special, and corporate that provides 24/7 service.Subjects – Reference librarians from around the U.S. (49 different libraries, and users logging into the service via the public library system’s portal (primarily patrons of the 49 libraries. Method – Content analysis was used to evaluate virtual reference transcripts recorded between January and June, 2004. Reliability was enhanced through triangulation, with researchers comparing the content analysis of each transcript against the results of a voluntary exit survey. Of 1,387 transactions that occurred during the period of study, 420 users completed the survey and these formed the basis of the study, apart from 5 transactions that were omitted because the questions were incomprehensible. Questions were examined and assigned to five categories: “simple, factual questions; subject‐based research questions; resource access questions; circulation‐related questions; and local library information inquiries” (80‐81. Answers were classed as either “completely answered, partially answered or unanswered, referred, and problematic endings” (82. Lastly, user satisfaction was surveyed on three

  2. CMS Statistics Reference Booklet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The annual CMS Statistics reference booklet provides a quick reference for summary information about health expenditures and the Medicare and Medicaid health...

  3. Onic reference in discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Shilikhina, K.

    2011-01-01

    the paper discusses the relation between ironic nomination and the real world. Starting with a brief overview of existing theories of reference the paper explores various ways of ironic reference indefinite pronouns and noun phrases for pseudo-indefinite and definite reference respectively. Metalinguistic assessment of ironic reference is used as yet another source of information. Ironic nomination fulfills several functions: referentive, evaluative and regulative. The evaluative function bec...

  4. Effects of Parent Immigration Status on Mental Health Service Use Among Latino Children Referred to Child Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finno-Velasquez, Megan; Cardoso, Jodi Berger; Dettlaff, Alan J; Hurlburt, Michael S

    2016-02-01

    Latino families may be at risk of experiencing stressors resulting from the immigration process, such as those related to documentation status and acculturation, that may increase their need for mental health services. However, little research exists on the mental health needs and service use of Latino children. This study examined how parental nativity and legal status influence mental health needs and service utilization among children in Latino families investigated by child welfare. Data from the second National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, a nationally representative, prospective study of families investigated by child welfare agencies for maltreatment, were used to examine mental health need and service use in a subset of Latino children who remained in the home following a maltreatment investigation (N=390). Although children of immigrants did not differ from children of U.S.-born parents in levels of clinical need, they had lower rates of mental health service receipt. After the analyses accounted for other relevant variables, the odds of receiving services were significantly lower (odds ratio=.09) for children whose parents were undocumented compared with children whose parents were U.S. citizens. This study contributes to growing discourse on Latino family needs within the child welfare system. Analyses support earlier research regarding the effects of parent nativity on mental health service use and advance the literature by identifying parent legal status as a unique barrier to child service receipt.

  5. The Effect of Applied Pressure During Feeding of Critical Cast Aluminum Alloy Components With Particular Reference to Fatigue Resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.T. Berry; R. Luck; B. Zhang; R.P. Taylor

    2003-06-30

    the medium to long freezing range alloys of aluminum such as A356, A357, A206, 319 for example are known to exhibit dispersed porosity, which is recognized as a factor affecting ductility, fracture toughness, and fatigue resistance of light alloy castings. The local thermal environment, for example, temperature gradient and freezing from velocity, affect the mode of solidification which, along with alloy composition, heat treatment, oxide film occlusion, hydrogen content, and the extent to which the alloy contracts on solidification, combine to exert strong effects on the porosity formation in such alloys. In addition to such factors, the availability of liquid metal and its ability to flow through the partially solidified casting, which will be affect by the pressure in the liquid metal, must also be considered. The supply of molten metal will thus be controlled by the volume of the riser available for feeding the particular casting location, its solidification time, and its location together with any external pressure that might be applied at the riser.

  6. RAFT Polymerization of Styrene and Maleimide in the Presence of Fluoroalcohol: Hydrogen Bonding Effects with Classical Alternating Copolymerization as Reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangjun Yao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of hydrogen bonding on polymerization behavior has been of interest for a long time; however, universality and in-depth understanding are still lacking. For the first time, the effect of hydrogen bonding on the classical alternating-type copolymerization of styrene and maleimide was explored. N-phenylmaleimide (N-PMI/styrene was chosen as a model monomer pair in the presence of hydrogen bonding donor solvent 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP, which interacted with N-PMI via hydrogen bonding. Reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization (RAFT technique was used to guarantee the “living” polymerization and thus the homogeneity of chain compositions. In comparison with the polymerization in nonhydrogen bonding donor solvent (toluene, the copolymerization in HFIP exhibited a high rate and a slight deviation from alternating copolymerization tendency. The reactivity ratios of N-PMI and St were revealed to be 0.078 and 0.068, respectively, while the reactivity ratios in toluene were 0.026 and 0.050. These interesting results were reasonably explained by using computer simulations, wherein the steric repulsion and electron induction by the hydrogen bonding between HFIP and NPMI were revealed. This work first elucidated the hydrogen bonding interaction in the classical alternating-type copolymerization, which will enrich the research on hydrogen bonding-induced polymerizations.

  7. Effect of Self–Care Educational Program to Improving Quality of Life among Elderly Referred to Health Centers in Zanjan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Salimi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Since elderlies are susceptible to various impairments due to different physical and mental problems, they need more attention and abiding and efficient self-care program for their health promotion. The present study investigated the effect of self-care training program on quality of life of elderlies. Materials and Methods: This pre- and post-quasi-experimental study was carried out on 160 elderly clients selected from eight health care centers in Zanjan, Iran. The elderlies were selected by randomized sampling and assigned to two groups of experimental (n = 80 and control (n = 80 groups. The experimental group participated in the self-care training program for six sessions of one hour. The study instruments were questionnaires regarding demographic information and short-form health survey (SF-36. Data analysis was performed using SPSS-22 software by independent t-test, Mann-Whitney and chi-squared. Results: The finding showed a significant difference in mean scores of quality of life between the experimental and control groups after the intervention (P < 0.001. Conclusions: Self-care education to elderlies about the practices of proper nutrition, exercise, rest and medication can prevent several problems and help them to improve their quality of lives.

  8. Effects on anthropometry and appetite of vitamins and minerals given in lipid nutritional supplements for malnourished HIV-infected adults referred for antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehman, Andrea M; Woodd, Susannah; PrayGod, George

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND:: The evidence base for effects of nutritional interventions for malnourished HIV-infected patients starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) is limited and inconclusive. OBJECTIVE:: We hypothesised that both vitamin and mineral deficiencies and poor appetite limit weight gain in malnouris......BACKGROUND:: The evidence base for effects of nutritional interventions for malnourished HIV-infected patients starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) is limited and inconclusive. OBJECTIVE:: We hypothesised that both vitamin and mineral deficiencies and poor appetite limit weight gain...... in malnourished patients starting ART and that vitamin and mineral supplementation would improve appetite and permit nutritional recovery. DESIGN:: The randomised controlled Nutritional Support for Africans Starting Antiretroviral Therapy (NUSTART) trial was conducted in Mwanza, Tanzania and Lusaka, Zambia. ART......-naïve adults referred for ART and with body mass index (BMI)vitamins and minerals (LNS-VM), beginning prior to ART initiation. Participants were given 30 g/day LNS from recruitment until 2 weeks after starting ART...

  9. Herbal reference standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Michael; Klier, Bernhard; Sievers, Hartwig

    2009-06-01

    This review describes the current definitions and regulatory requirements that apply to reference standards that are used to analyse herbal products. It also describes and discusses the current use of reference substances and reference extracts in the European and United States pharmacopoeias.

  10. Effects of Different Containers on Radioactivity Measurements using a Dose Calibrator with Special Reference to (111)In and (123)I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yusuke; Abe, Yutaka; Kikuchi, Kei; Miyatake, Hiroki; Watanabe, Atsushi

    2017-01-01

    Low-energy characteristic x-rays emitted by (111)In and (123)I sources are easily absorbed by the containers of the sources, affecting radioactivity measurements using a dose calibrator. We examined the effects of different containers on the estimated activities. The radioactivities of (111)In, (123)I, (201)Tl, and (99m)Tc were measured in containers frequently employed in clinical practice in Japan. The (111)In measurements were performed in the vials A and B of the (111)In-pentetreotide preparation kit and in the plastic syringe. The activities of (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine and (201)Tl chloride were measured in the prefilled glass syringes and plastic syringes. The milking vial, vial A, vial B, and plastic syringe were used to assay (99m)Tc. For (111)In and (123)I, measurements were performed with and without a copper filter. The filter was inserted into the well of the dose calibrator to absorb low-energy x-rays. The relative estimate was defined as the ratio of the activity estimated with the dose calibrator to the standard activity. The estimated activities varied greatly depending on the container when (111)In and (123)I sources were assayed without the copper filter. The relative estimates of (111)In were 0.908, 1.072, and 1.373 in the vial A, vial B, and plastic syringe, respectively. The relative estimates of (123)I were 1.052 and 1.352 in the glass syringe and plastic syringe, respectively. Use of the copper filter eliminated the container-dependence in (111)In and (123)I measurements. Container-dependence was demonstrated in neither (201)Tl nor (99m)Tc measurements. The activities of (111)In and (123)I estimated with a dose calibrator differ greatly among the containers. Accurate estimation may be attained using the container-specific correction factor or using the copper filter.

  11. Topographic effects on solar radiation distribution in mountainous watersheds and their influence on reference evapotranspiration estimates at watershed scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Aguilar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Distributed energy and water balance models require time-series surfaces of the climatological variables involved in hydrological processes. Among them, solar radiation constitutes a key variable to the circulation of water in the atmosphere. Most of the hydrological GIS-based models apply simple interpolation techniques to data measured at few weather stations disregarding topographic effects. Here, a topographic solar radiation algorithm has been included for the generation of detailed time-series solar radiation surfaces using limited data and simple methods in a mountainous watershed in southern Spain. The results show the major role of topography in local values and differences between the topographic approximation and the direct interpolation to measured data (IDW of up to +42% and −1800% in the estimated daily values. Also, the comparison of the predicted values with experimental data proves the usefulness of the algorithm for the estimation of spatially-distributed radiation values in a complex terrain, with a good fit for daily values (R2 = 0.93 and the best fits under cloudless skies at hourly time steps. Finally, evapotranspiration fields estimated through the ASCE-Penman-Monteith equation using both corrected and non-corrected radiation values address the hydrologic importance of using topographically-corrected solar radiation fields as inputs to the equation over uniform values with mean differences in the watershed of 61 mm/year and 142 mm/year of standard deviation. High speed computations in a 1300 km2 watershed in the south of Spain with up to a one-hour time scale in 30 × 30 m2 cells can be easily carried out on a desktop PC.

  12. Inverse of Wallin's relation for the effect of strain rate on the ASTM E-1921 reference temperature and its application to reference temperature estimation from Charpy tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreenivasan, P.R., E-mail: sreeprs@yahoo.co.i [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)

    2011-01-15

    Research highlights: An inverse relation for the Wallin strain rate equation (WSRE), that is, IWSRE, has been derived for predicting the static reference temperature from dynamic results. Using the IWSRE and some other correlations, a procedure, called IGCAR-procedure, has been developed for conservative estimation of the ASTM E-1921 reference temperature, T{sub 0-est}, from Charpy V-notch ductile-brittle transition tests alone. The T{sub 0-est} by the IGCAR-procedure is termed T{sub q-IGC} to distinguish it from other estimates. {yields}T{sub q-IGC} is neither too conservative nor unacceptably non-conservative. The T{sub q-IGC} along with the conservative Master Curve procedure helps provide assuredly conservative lower-bound fracture toughness curve. - Abstract: An inverse relation to that of Wallin's strain rate equation has been obtained for predicting the static reference temperature from dynamic results. Wallin strain rate equation (WSRE) predicts the reference temperature at faster loading rates (expressed as stress intensity factor - SIF-rates) from room temperature yield strength (RT-YS) and quasi-static reference temperature, T{sub 0}. The inverse WSRE (IWSRE) predicts T{sub 0} from T{sub 0}{sup dy}, that is, T{sub 0} at dynamic loading rates as obtained in impact and other dynamic tests. For this purpose, the same dataset that was used by Wallin for deriving the original WSRE has been used. It has also been found that the dynamic reference temperature obtained by applying the modified Schindler procedure (MSP) to Charpy V-notch (CVN) impact tests, that is, T{sub QSch}{sup dy}, provides a conservative or close estimate of reference temperature corresponding to a loading rate of {approx}10{sup 6} MPa {radical}m s{sup -1}. Then using the T{sub QSch}{sup dy} in the IWSRE along with RT-YS and SIF rate of 10{sup 6} MPa {radical}m s{sup -1}, results in an estimate of quasi-static T{sub 0}, namely, T{sub QMSP-IW}, the subscript indicating use of both the

  13. Effect of Educational Program to Encourage Safe Sexual Behaviors Among Addicted Men Refered to Substance Abuse Treatment Centers in Hamadan, Western Iran: Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Moeini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Unsafe sexual behaviors as important risky behaviors can expose individuals and society to dangerous infectious disease such as AIDS and viral hepatitis. Considering the high prevalence of unsafe sexual behaviors, this study aimed to determine the effect of educational programs to encourage safe sexual behaviors among substance abusers referred to substance abuse treatment centers in Hamadan, Western Iran by applying the theory of planned behavior. Materials & Methods: This quasi-experimental study was performed on 104 men substance abusers (52 participants in each of the control and intervention groups referred to substance abuse treatment centers in Hamadan. Data collection tool was a questionnaire containing demographic information and the theory of planned behavior constructs. Before the educational program, questionnaires were completed by both groups. After the pretest in both groups, participants in the intervention group participated in four educational sessions designed based on the theory of planned behavior. Two months after the end of program, posttest was performed. Data was analyzed using independent T-test, chi-square, fisher exact test, McNemar’s test and multiple linear regressions using SPSS-16. Results: After educational intervention, the mean scores of the theory constructs (attitude toward behavior, subjective norms, behavioral control, behavioral intention and behaviors, in the intervention group increased significantly (P<0.05, despite the fact, changes were not significant in the control group. Conclusion: Implementation of educational courses to encourage safe sexual behaviors based on the theory of planned behavior can be beneficial for substance abusers referred to substance abuse treatment centers.

  14. Evaluation of PUVA-induced skin side effects in patients referred to the Imam Reza Hospital of Mashhad in 2005-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Maleki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Systemic oral psoralens plus UVA therapy (PUVA is a therapeutic method used with considerable success in many different skin disorders. PUVA therapy causes some cutaneous and noncutaneous side effects and in the present research we deal with cutaneous side effects. Aims: Evaluation of patients to know the different skin side effects of PUVA and their importance. Materials and Methods: All patients referred to the phototherapy unit of Imam Reza Hospital of Mashhad entered the research and skin examination was taken place initially and every 3 months thereafter. Whenever any side effect appeared, it was recorded in the information sheet. Results: One hundred and twenty-eight patients were included in the research, 61 were male between 15 and 75 years and 67 were female between 10 and 61 years of age. Age of female patients at the time of cutaneous side effect appearance was less than male patients. The most common early side effect was pruritus (34.3% and the rarest was telangiectasia (0.7%. One case of late side effect in the form of squamous cell carcinoma was observed in a patient who had received other carcinogenic drugs as well. Complications such as skin dryness, pruritus, erythema and burning sensation occurred at low doses of UVA, while dermatitis, severe limb pain and acne at moderate doses and PUVA lentigines, hypertrichosis and lichenoid lesions appeared at high doses of UVA. Conclusion: Considering the significant therapeutic effects and few serious side effects, PUVA therapy is a suitable and safe method for treatment of certain skin diseases.

  15. The use of a standardized gray reference card in dental photography to correct the effects of five commonly used diffusers on the color of 40 extracted human teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Sascha; Zangl, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the color changes of human teeth caused by five different diffuser materials commonly used in dental photography, as well as software influence, and to confirm whether the use of a standardized gray reference card is effective in correcting these color changes during digital postproduction. Forty extracted human teeth were obtained from a specialized oral surgery practice in Cham, Germany. Five commonly used diffuser materials were chosen to be investigated, which included: polyethylene (PET), White Frost photographic paper, LumiQuest polyamide (nylon) material, 80 gsm white printing paper, and 3M linear polarizing filter sheet used for cross polarization. A digital single-lens reflex camera (Canon EOS 5D MKII) was used, together with a twin flash suitable for macrophotography (Canon MT-24EX Macro Twin Lite). Images were tethered into Adobe Lightroom CC using the RAW format. A standardized gray reference card (WhiBal, Michael Tapes Design) was used for exposure calibration and white balancing. Classic Color Me- ter software (Ricci Adams, version 1.6 (122)) was used to obtain CIE L*a*b* values of the specimens before and after white balancing and exposure correction. All diffusers caused visually perceivable color changes on the extracted teeth: White Frost (ΔE* 1.24; sd 0.47), 80 gsm printing paper (ΔE* 2.94; sd 0.35), LumiQuest polyamide (ΔE* 3.68; sd 0.54), PET (ΔE* 6.55; sd 0.41), and 3M linear polarizing filter sheet (ΔE* 7.58; sd 1.00). The use of a standardized gray reference card (WhiBal) could correct these values below the visually perceivable threshold: White Frost (ΔE* 0.58; sd 0.36), 80 gsm printing paper (ΔE* 0.93; sd 0.54), LumiQuest polyamide (ΔE* 0.66; sd 0.58), PET (ΔE* 0.59; sd 0.33), and 3M linear polarizing filter sheet (ΔE* 0.53; sd 0.42). The use of a standardized gray reference card with specified CIE L*a*b* values should be considered when diffusers are used in dental photography in

  16. Effect of the BASNEF Model on Maternal-Fetal Attachment in the Pregnant Women Referring to the Prenatal Clinics Affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Akbarzadeh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prenatal attachment and positive adaptation with the concept of motherhood play a pivotal role in maternal and fetal health. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of the beliefs, attitudes, subjective norms, and enabling factors (BASNEF model on maternal fetal attachment in the pregnant women referring to prenatal clinics. Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 100 nulliparous women in their third pregnancy trimester (36-41 weeks, who referred to the selected prenatal clinics in Shiraz, Iran during 2011-2012. Intervention was performed based on the BASNEF model in six training sessions for 90 minutes. Data collection tools were the Cranley’s maternal-fetal attachment scale and BASNEF model. Data analysis was performed in SPSS version 18 using Pearson’s correlation-coefficient, independent t-test, and Chi-square at the significance level of 0.05.Results: After the intervention, a significant difference was observed in the mean score of maternal-fetal attachment in the intervention group compared to the control group (P

  17. Single-Patient Molecular Testing with NanoString nCounter Data Using a Reference-Based Strategy for Batch Effect Correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talhouk, Aline; Kommoss, Stefan; Mackenzie, Robertson; Cheung, Martin; Leung, Samuel; Chiu, Derek S; Kalloger, Steve E; Huntsman, David G; Chen, Stephanie; Intermaggio, Maria; Gronwald, Jacek; Chan, Fong C; Ramus, Susan J; Steidl, Christian; Scott, David W; Anglesio, Michael S

    2016-01-01

    A major weakness in many high-throughput genomic studies is the lack of consideration of a clinical environment where one patient at a time must be evaluated. We examined generalizable and platform-specific sources of variation from NanoString gene expression data on both ovarian cancer and Hodgkin lymphoma patients. A reference-based strategy, applicable to single-patient molecular testing is proposed for batch effect correction. The proposed protocol improved performance in an established Hodgkin lymphoma classifier, reducing batch-to-batch misclassification while retaining accuracy and precision. We suggest this strategy may facilitate development of NanoString and similar molecular assays by accelerating prospective validation and clinical uptake of relevant diagnostics.

  18. Single-Patient Molecular Testing with NanoString nCounter Data Using a Reference-Based Strategy for Batch Effect Correction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Talhouk

    Full Text Available A major weakness in many high-throughput genomic studies is the lack of consideration of a clinical environment where one patient at a time must be evaluated. We examined generalizable and platform-specific sources of variation from NanoString gene expression data on both ovarian cancer and Hodgkin lymphoma patients. A reference-based strategy, applicable to single-patient molecular testing is proposed for batch effect correction. The proposed protocol improved performance in an established Hodgkin lymphoma classifier, reducing batch-to-batch misclassification while retaining accuracy and precision. We suggest this strategy may facilitate development of NanoString and similar molecular assays by accelerating prospective validation and clinical uptake of relevant diagnostics.

  19. Effect of externally applied electrostatic fields, microwave radiation and electric currents on plants and other organisms, with special reference to weed control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diprose, M.F.; Benson, F.A.; Willis, A.J.

    High electric fields are reported to damage plants if currents greater than 10/sup -6/ A are induced to flow through leaves causing corona discharges from the tips. The nature of the damage and the effects on metabolic processes are discussed. The results from experiments on the growth of plants in which the density and charge of air ions have been varied are also reviewed. The effects of microwave radiation (mostly 2450 MHz) upon seeds, plants and other organisms in soil are discussed. These effects depend upon the power density of the radiation and the electrical properties of the targets. Although microwaves can be effective in killing plants and also seeds that are buried several centimeters deep in soil, high power equipment is required and treatment times are long e.g. a 60 kW machine could take up to 92.6 hours per hectare. Other experiments reported show that microwave radiation can kill nematodes in the soil and that it is also very effective in killing fungi and bacteria. The potential of the various possible uses of microwave radiation in agriculture is also described. Electric currents have been caused to flow through plants by the applicaton of electrodes to the leaves. The effects range from nil, when 50-100 V and 1 or 2 ..mu..A are used, to very striking when voltages from 5 to 15 kV are applied causing currents of several amperes to flow and resulting in the rapid destruction of the target. Small electric currents passed through soil containing plants are reported to increase their growth. The effects of small current on the growth of individual leaves are reviewed. The use of high voltage tractor-borne equipment for weed control is also considered. 152 references, 9 tables.

  20. Android quick APIs reference

    CERN Document Server

    Cinar, Onur

    2015-01-01

    The Android Quick APIs Reference is a condensed code and APIs reference for the new Google Android 5.0 SDK. It presents the essential Android APIs in a well-organized format that can be used as a handy reference. You won't find any technical jargon, bloated samples, drawn out history lessons, or witty stories in this book. What you will find is a software development kit and APIs reference that is concise, to the point and highly accessible. The book is packed with useful information and is a must-have for any mobile or Android app developer or programmer. In the Android Quick APIs Refe

  1. Workplace Ergonomics Reference Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workplace Ergonomics Reference Guide 2 nd Edition A Publication of the Computer/Electronic Accommodations Program Real Solutions for Real ... Table of Contents.................................................................................................................................. ... Checklist ........................................................................................................................... 3 Ergonomic ...

  2. Helicobacter pylori test-and-treat program can be cost-effective to prevent gastric cancer in Taiwanese adults: referred to the nationwide reimbursement database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hsiu-Chi; Wang, Jung-Der; Chen, Wei-Ying; Chen, Chian-Wei; Chang, Shun-Chiao; Sheu, Bor-Shyang

    2015-04-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection increases the risk of gastric cancer. The study aimed to compare cost-effectiveness ratios of H. pylori test-and-treat programs to prevent gastric cancer in Taiwan, referring to the nationwide reimbursement database and expected years of life lost. During 1998-2009, there were 12,857 females and 24,945 males with gastric adenocarcinoma in Taiwan National Cancer Registry. They were followed up to 2010 and linked to the reimbursement database of National Health Insurance and the national mortality registry to determine lifetime health expenditures and expected years of life lost. Cost-effectiveness ratios of H. pylori test-and-treat programs for prevention of gastric adenocarcinoma were compared between screenings with (13) C-urea breath test and with anti-H. pylori IgG. The test-and-treat program with anti-H. pylori IgG to prevent gastric adenocarcinoma had lower incremental cost-effectiveness ratios than that with (13) C-urea breath test in both sexes (females: 244 vs 1071 US dollars/life-year; males: 312 vs 1431 US dollars/life-year). Cost saving would be achieved in an endemic area where H. pylori prevalence was >73.5%, or by selecting subpopulations with high absolute risk reduction rates of cancer after eradication. Moreover, expected years of life lost of gastric adenocarcinoma were higher and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of test-and-treat programs were more cost-effective in young adults (30-69 y/o) than in elders (≥70 y/o). The test-and-treat program with anti-H. pylori IgG shall be cost-effective to prevent gastric adenocarcinoma in a high endemic area, especially beginning at 30 years of age when H. pylori prevalence rates become stabilized. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cree, Johnathan V.; Dansu, A.; Fuhr, P.; Lanzisera, Steven M.; McIntyre, T.; Muehleisen, Ralph T.; Starke, M.; Banerjee, Pranab; Kuruganti, T.; Castello, C.

    2013-04-01

    The Buildings Technologies Office (BTO), within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), is initiating a new program in Sensor and Controls. The vision of this program is: • Buildings operating automatically and continuously at peak energy efficiency over their lifetimes and interoperating effectively with the electric power grid. • Buildings that are self-configuring, self-commissioning, self-learning, self-diagnosing, self-healing, and self-transacting to enable continuous peak performance. • Lower overall building operating costs and higher asset valuation. The overarching goal is to capture 30% energy savings by enhanced management of energy consuming assets and systems through development of cost-effective sensors and controls. One step in achieving this vision is the publication of this Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide. The purpose of the guide is to inform building owners and operators of the current status, capabilities, and limitations of sensor technologies. It is hoped that this guide will aid in the design and procurement process and result in successful implementation of building sensor and control systems. DOE will also use this guide to identify research priorities, develop future specifications for potential market adoption, and provide market clarity through unbiased information

  4. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated and genotoxic effects of fractionated extract of standard reference diesel exhaust particle material in pulmonary, liver and prostate cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pálková, Lenka; Vondráček, Jan; Trilecová, Lenka; Ciganek, Miroslav; Pěnčíková, Kateřina; Neča, Jiří; Milcová, Alena; Topinka, Jan; Machala, Miroslav

    2015-04-01

    Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) and the associated complex mixtures of organic pollutants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), or their derivatives, have been suggested to exert deleterious effects on human health. We used a set of defined cellular models representing liver, lung and prostate tissues, in order to compare non-genotoxic and genotoxic effects of crude and fractionated extract of a standard reference DEP material - SRM 1650b. We focused on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated activity, modulation of cell proliferation, formation of DNA adducts, oxidative DNA damage, and induction of DNA damage responses, including evaluation of apoptosis, and phosphorylation of p53 tumor suppressor and checkpoint kinases (Chk). Both PAHs and the polar aromatic compounds contributed to the AhR-mediated activity of DEP-associated organic pollutants. The principal identified AhR agonists included benzo[k]fluoranthene, indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene, chrysene and several non-priority PAHs, including benzochrysenes and methylated PAHs. In contrast to PAHs, polar compounds contributed more significantly to overall formation of DNA adducts associated with phosphorylation of p53, Chk1 or Chk2, and partly with apoptosis. Therefore, more attention should be paid to identification of DEP-associated polar organic compounds, contributing to the AhR activation and cytotoxic/genotoxic effects of complex airborne mixtures of organic contaminants produced by diesel engines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Echocardiography and conventional Doppler examination in clinically healthy adult Cavalier King Charles Spaniels: effect of body weight, age, and gender, and establishment of reference intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misbach, Charlotte; Lefebvre, Hervé P; Concordet, Didier; Gouni, Vassiliki; Trehiou-Sechi, Emilie; Petit, Amandine M P; Damoiseaux, Cécile; Leverrier, Alice; Pouchelon, Jean-Louis; Chetboul, Valérie

    2014-06-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to assess the potential effect of body weight (BW), age, and gender on the most commonly used echocardiographic and conventional Doppler variables in a large population of healthy Cavalier King Charles Spaniels (CKCS), and (2) to establish the corresponding reference intervals (RI). 134 healthy adult CKCS. Ultrasound examinations were performed by trained observers in awake dogs. M-mode variables included left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic and end-systolic diameters, LV free wall and interventricular septal thicknesses at end-diastole and end-systole, and LV fractional shortening (FS%). The left atrium (LA) and aortic (Ao) diameters were measured using a 2D method, and the LA/Ao was calculated. Pulsed-wave Doppler variables included peak systolic aortic and pulmonary flow velocities, mitral E and A waves, and E/A ratio. Effects of BW, age, and gender on these 15 variables were tested using a general linear model, and RIs were determined by applying the statistical procedures recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. A significant BW effect was observed for all variables, except LA/Ao, FS%, and mitral E/A ratio. A significant but negligible effect of gender and age was also observed for 5/15 and 4/15 of the tested variables, respectively. Only the BW effect on M-mode variables was considered as clinically relevant and the corresponding regression-based RIs were calculated. Body weight should be taken into account when interpreting echocardiographic values in CKCS, except for LA/Ao, FS%, and mitral E/A ratio. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The Reference Interview

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Geraldine B.

    1972-01-01

    Good reference librarians need to be good interviewers. Unfortunately most librarians have not learned to use the technique of open questions to obtain information about the user and what he is looking for. Examples of open and closed questions with typical responses are given. (4 references) (DH)

  7. California's Reference Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, Thomas A.

    1994-01-01

    Social and economic issues affecting the vitality of public libraries in California are discussed. A 1993 study by the California State Library identified diminishing reference skills and reference collections, reduced funding which impacted staffing, increased demand, technology change, and language/culture issues as contributing factors to…

  8. The Reference Return Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Jeppe; Faber Frandsen, Tove

    2008-01-01

    The paper introduces a new journal impact measure called The Reference Return Ratio (3R). Unlike the traditional Journal Impact Factor (JIF), which is based on calculations of publications and citations, the new measure is based on calculations of bibliographic investments (references) and returns...

  9. [Developmental Placement.] Collected Research References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorklund, Gail

    Drawing on information and references in the ERIC system, this literature review describes research related to a child's developmental placement. The issues examined include school entrance age; predictive validity, reliability, and features of Gesell School Readiness Assessment; retention; and the effectiveness of developmental placement. A…

  10. Organ doses, effective doses, and risk indices in adult CT: Comparison of four types of reference phantoms across different examination protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yakun; Li, Xiang; Paul Segars, W.; Samei, Ehsan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation exposure from computed tomography (CT) to the public has increased the concern among radiation protection professionals. Being able to accurately assess the radiation dose patients receive during CT procedures is a crucial step in the management of CT dose. Currently, various computational anthropomorphic phantoms are used to assess radiation dose by different research groups. It is desirable to better understand how the dose results are affected by different choices of phantoms. In this study, the authors assessed the uncertainties in CT dose and risk estimation associated with different types of computational phantoms for a selected group of representative CT protocols. Methods: Routinely used CT examinations were categorized into ten body and three neurological examination categories. Organ doses, effective doses, risk indices, and conversion coefficients to effective dose and risk index (k and q factors, respectively) were estimated for these examinations for a clinical CT system (LightSpeed VCT, GE Healthcare). Four methods were used, each employing a different type of reference phantoms. The first and second methods employed a Monte Carlo program previously developed and validated in our laboratory. In the first method, the reference male and female extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantoms were used, which were initially created from the Visible Human data and later adjusted to match organ masses defined in ICRP publication 89. In the second method, the reference male and female phantoms described in ICRP publication 110 were used, which were initially developed from tomographic data of two patients and later modified to match ICRP 89 organ masses. The third method employed a commercial dosimetry spreadsheet (ImPACT group, London, England) with its own hermaphrodite stylized phantom. In the fourth method, another widely used dosimetry spreadsheet (CT-Expo, Medizinische Hochschule, Hannover, Germany) was employed together with its associated

  11. Effect of Orem's Self-Care Model on Self-Esteem of Adolescents with Asthma Referred to an Asthma and Allergy Clinic in Isfahan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemati, Zeinab; Mosaviasl, Fatemeh Sadat; Abasi, Samira; Ghazavi, Zohre; Kiani, Davood

    2015-01-01

    Acquisition of chronic diseases such as asthma leads to psychological, mental and physical complications in adolescents, and hence their self-esteem may be compromised. Therefore, the present study was conducted to assess the effect of Orem's self-care model on self-esteem of adolescents with asthma. This semi-experimental study enrolled 64 asthmatic adolescents referred to Shariati Hospital, Isfahan. Subjects were assigned to two groups of control and intervention consecutively. Then, the self-care training program was conducted according to Orem's self-care model in eight two-hour sessions based on self-care needs, and self-esteem was measured in the two groups prior to and two months after the last training session. The data were collected by a questionnaire of demographic characteristics and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventories (CSEI) and analyzed by SPSS version 20. Independent t-test showed a significant difference in the mean score of self-esteem between the intervention and control groups after the training (Pself-esteem before and after the training in the intervention group (P0.05). Regarding the effect of Orem's self-care model on self-esteem of adolescents with asthma, we recommend the use of this model as a care intervention in healthcare centers to promote adolescents' health.

  12. Effectiveness of Nutrition Education Based on Health Belief Model during Pregnancy on Knowledge and Attitude of Women Referred to Health Centers of Gonbad Kavoos City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamideh Ahmadpoor

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Aims Pregnancy is a good time for changing the feeding behaviors. Nutritional education plays an important role in maternal and child health promotion. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of nutrition education based on Health Belief Model during pregnancy on knowledge and attitude of women. Materials and Methods This quasi-experimental study was conducted among pregnant women referred to health centers of Gonbad Kavoos city in 2013. Cluster sampling was used for selection of 80 subjects in each study groups, and data were collected using an unstructured questionnaire. Validity and reliability of questionnaire were evaluated by panel of experts, test-retest and reported as Cronbach’s alpha. Classified information of two groups were compared before and 2 months after intervention. Data were analyzed by SPSS v.16. Results After educational intervention, the mean score of knowledge and Health Belief Model constructs, were significantly increased in intervention group than the control. But the mean of cuse to action of the experiment group, was not significantly different compared to the control. Conclusion Education based on Health Belief Model was effective on knowledge and attitude of pregnant women about nutrition and educational interventions in this field are recommended. * Corresponding Author: Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Public Health. Email: Shojae5@yahoo.com

  13. The Effectiveness of Unified Treatment Approach on Quality of Life and Symptoms of Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome Referred to Gastrointestinal Clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Johari-Fard

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a functional disorder of the lower gastrointestinal tract caused by stress, and may benefit from a psychological intervention such as unified treatment approach. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of unified treatment approach on the symptoms and quality of life (QOL of patients with IBS.Methods: The study population included all patients with IBS referred to gastrointestinal clinics of Ahwaz, Iran. Therefore, in a semi-experimental method, patients diagnosed with IBS were selected and underwent 8 2-hour group interventions. The data collection tools included Rome-III Diagnostic Criteria for Irritable Bowel Syndrome and the Irritable Bowel Syndrome Quality of Life (IBS-QOL Questionnaires which were completed in three stages of pre-test, post-test, and follow-up. The collected data were analyzed using repeated measures MANCOVA in SPSS software.Results: The results of repeated measures MANCOVA and the follow-up study indicated significant decrease in the scores of symptoms and significant increase in the scores of QOL.Conclusion: According to the results of the present research, we can conclude that devising a treatment plan based on the unified treatment approach is effective in the increasing of QOL and decreasing of IBS symptoms.

  14. STL pocket reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lischner, Ray

    2003-01-01

    The STL Pocket Reference describes the functions, classes, and templates in that part of the C++ standard library often referred to as the Standard Template Library (STL). The STL encompasses containers, iterators, algorithms, and function objects, which collectively represent one of the most important and widely used subsets of standard library functionality. The C++ standard library, even the subset known as the STL, is vast. It's next to impossible to work with the STL without some sort of reference at your side to remind you of template parameters, function invocations, return types--ind

  15. R quick syntax reference

    CERN Document Server

    Tollefson, Margot

    2014-01-01

    The R Quick Syntax Reference is a handy reference book detailing the intricacies of the R language. Not only is R a free, open-source tool, R is powerful, flexible, and has state of the art statistical techniques available. With the many details which must be correct when using any language, however, the R Quick Syntax Reference makes using R easier.Starting with the basic structure of R, the book takes you on a journey through the terminology used in R and the syntax required to make R work. You will find looking up the correct form for an expression quick and easy. With a copy of the R Quick

  16. LINQ Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Albahari, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Ready to take advantage of LINQ with C# 3.0? This guide has the detail you need to grasp Microsoft's new querying technology, and concise explanations to help you learn it quickly. And once you begin to apply LINQ, the book serves as an on-the-job reference when you need immediate reminders. All the examples in the LINQ Pocket Reference are preloaded into LINQPad, the highly praised utility that lets you work with LINQ interactively. Created by the authors and free to download, LINQPad will not only help you learn LINQ, it will have you thinking in LINQ. This reference explains: LINQ's ke

  17. Regular Expression Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Stubblebine, Tony

    2007-01-01

    This handy little book offers programmers a complete overview of the syntax and semantics of regular expressions that are at the heart of every text-processing application. Ideal as a quick reference, Regular Expression Pocket Reference covers the regular expression APIs for Perl 5.8, Ruby (including some upcoming 1.9 features), Java, PHP, .NET and C#, Python, vi, JavaScript, and the PCRE regular expression libraries. This concise and easy-to-use reference puts a very powerful tool for manipulating text and data right at your fingertips. Composed of a mixture of symbols and text, regular exp

  18. CSS Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Eric

    2011-01-01

    When you're working with CSS and need a quick answer, CSS Pocket Reference delivers. This handy, concise book provides all of the essential information you need to implement CSS on the fly. Ideal for intermediate to advanced web designers and developers, the 4th edition is revised and updated for CSS3, the latest version of the Cascading Style Sheet specification. Along with a complete alphabetical reference to CSS3 selectors and properties, you'll also find a short introduction to the key concepts of CSS. Based on Cascading Style Sheets: The Definitive Guide, this reference is an easy-to-us

  19. Handbook of reference electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Inzelt, György; Scholz, Fritz

    2013-01-01

    Reference Electrodes are a crucial part of any electrochemical system, yet an up-to-date and comprehensive handbook is long overdue. Here, an experienced team of electrochemists provides an in-depth source of information and data for the proper choice and construction of reference electrodes. This includes all kinds of applications such as aqueous and non-aqueous solutions, ionic liquids, glass melts, solid electrolyte systems, and membrane electrodes. Advanced technologies such as miniaturized, conducting-polymer-based, screen-printed or disposable reference electrodes are also covered. Essen

  20. Biomedical Engineering Desk Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Ratner, Buddy D; Schoen, Frederick J; Lemons, Jack E; Dyro, Joseph; Martinsen, Orjan G; Kyle, Richard; Preim, Bernhard; Bartz, Dirk; Grimnes, Sverre; Vallero, Daniel; Semmlow, John; Murray, W Bosseau; Perez, Reinaldo; Bankman, Isaac; Dunn, Stanley; Ikada, Yoshito; Moghe, Prabhas V; Constantinides, Alkis

    2009-01-01

    A one-stop Desk Reference, for Biomedical Engineers involved in the ever expanding and very fast moving area; this is a book that will not gather dust on the shelf. It brings together the essential professional reference content from leading international contributors in the biomedical engineering field. Material covers a broad range of topics including: Biomechanics and Biomaterials; Tissue Engineering; and Biosignal Processing* A hard-working desk reference providing all the essential material needed by biomedical and clinical engineers on a day-to-day basis * Fundamentals, key techniques,

  1. Effects of achievement differences for internal/external frame of reference model investigations: A test of robustness of findings over diverse student samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Isabelle; Brunner, Martin; Preckel, Franzis

    2017-11-12

    Achievement in math and achievement in verbal school subjects are more strongly correlated than the respective academic self-concepts. The internal/external frame of reference model (I/E model; Marsh, 1986, Am. Educ. Res. J., 23, 129) explains this finding by social and dimensional comparison processes. We investigated a key assumption of the model that dimensional comparisons mainly depend on the difference in achievement between subjects. We compared correlations between subject-specific self-concepts of groups of elementary and secondary school students with or without achievement differences in the respective subjects. The main goals were (1) to show that effects of dimensional comparisons depend to a large degree on the existence of achievement differences between subjects, (2) to demonstrate the generalizability of findings over different grade levels and self-concept scales, and (3) to test a rarely used correlation comparison approach (CCA) for the investigation of I/E model assumptions. We analysed eight German elementary and secondary school student samples (grades 3-8) from three independent studies (Ns 326-878). Correlations between math and German self-concepts of students with identical grades in the respective subjects were compared with the correlation of self-concepts of students having different grades using Fisher's Z test for independent samples. In all samples, correlations between math self-concept and German self-concept were higher for students having identical grades than for students having different grades. Differences in median correlations had small effect sizes for elementary school students and moderate effect sizes for secondary school students. Findings generalized over grades and indicated a developmental aspect in self-concept formation. The CCA complements investigations within I/E-research. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  2. Spectral transmittance reference standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruglyakova, M.A.; Belyaeva, O.N.; Nikitin, M.V.

    1995-06-01

    This paper presents spectral transmittance reference standards for UV and IR spectrophotometers, developed, studied, and certified by a precision spectrophotometry laboratory (the RSP Complex). 8 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Toxicity Reference Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxicity Reference Database (ToxRefDB) contains approximately 30 years and $2 billion worth of animal studies. ToxRefDB allows scientists and the interested...

  4. Genetics Home Reference: aceruloplasminemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an inherited neurodegenerative disease with impairment of iron homeostasis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004 Mar;1012:299-305. Review. Citation on PubMed More from Genetics Home Reference Bulletins Crick, Watson, and Wilkins Awarded ...

  5. Ozone Standard Reference Photometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Standard Reference Photometer (SRP) Program began in the early 1980s as collaboration between NIST and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to design,...

  6. Dissolution processes. [224 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, G.L.

    1976-10-22

    This review contains more than 100 observations and 224 references on the dissolution phenomenon. The dissolution processes are grouped into three categories: methods of aqueous attack, fusion methods, and miscellaneous observations on phenomena related to dissolution problems. (DLC)

  7. Introduction to Reference Links

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Unlike most traditional metadata systems, the power of ServCat comes in relating a Reference to others. This module discusses the different types of links (aka...

  8. Reflectance Reference Targets (OTTER)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Spectral reflectance measurements of flat field targets as reference points representative of pseudo-invariant targets as measured by Spectron SE590...

  9. Reflectance Reference Targets (OTTER)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spectral reflectance measurements of flat field targets as reference points representative of pseudo-invariant targets as measured by Spectron SE590 spectrophotometer

  10. Collaborative networks: Reference modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camarinha-Matos, L.M.; Afsarmanesh, H.

    2008-01-01

    Collaborative Networks: Reference Modeling works to establish a theoretical foundation for Collaborative Networks. Particular emphasis is put on modeling multiple facets of collaborative networks and establishing a comprehensive modeling framework that captures and structures diverse perspectives of

  11. Python essential reference

    CERN Document Server

    Beazley, David M

    2009-01-01

    Python Essential Reference is the definitive reference guide to the Python programming language — the one authoritative handbook that reliably untangles and explains both the core Python language and the most essential parts of the Python library. Designed for the professional programmer, the book is concise, to the point, and highly accessible. It also includes detailed information on the Python library and many advanced subjects that is not available in either the official Python documentation or any other single reference source. Thoroughly updated to reflect the significant new programming language features and library modules that have been introduced in Python 2.6 and Python 3, the fourth edition of Python Essential Reference is the definitive guide for programmers who need to modernize existing Python code or who are planning an eventual migration to Python 3. Programmers starting a new Python project will find detailed coverage of contemporary Python programming idioms.

  12. Reference Climatological Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Reference Climatological Stations (RCS) network represents the first effort by NOAA to create and maintain a nationwide network of stations located only in areas...

  13. X Python reference manual

    OpenAIRE

    Mullender, Sjoerd

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThis document describes the built-in types, exceptions, and functions of the X windows extension to Python. It assumes basic knowledge about the Python language and access to the X windows documentation. For an informal introduction to the language, see the Python Tutorial. The Python Reference Manual gives a more formal definition of the language. The Python Library Reference describes the built-in and standard modules of Python. This document can be seen as en extension to that ...

  14. Frequency reference in VSAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Jonathon Y. C.

    1994-02-01

    A low cost technique of frequency reference distribution within a VSAT network is discussed. This technique allows the use of a modestly frequency stable oscillator as the master frequency reference in the hub of a star-connected VSAT network. The need for extremely frequency stable OCXOs in VSATs is completely avoided. This technique was successfully incorporated in the early commercial VSAT networks. It contributes partially to the low cost nature of some of the VSAT networks available today.

  15. Electronics engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, L W

    1976-01-01

    Electronics Engineer's Reference Book, 4th Edition is a reference book for electronic engineers that reviews the knowledge and techniques in electronics engineering and covers topics ranging from basics to materials and components, devices, circuits, measurements, and applications. This edition is comprised of 27 chapters; the first of which presents general information on electronics engineering, including terminology, mathematical equations, mathematical signs and symbols, and Greek alphabet and symbols. Attention then turns to the history of electronics; electromagnetic and nuclear radiatio

  16. Recognising and referring children exposed to domestic abuse: a multi-professional, proactive systems-based evaluation using a modified Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Laura; Armitage, Gerry; Taylor, Julie

    2017-03-01

    Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) is a prospective quality assurance methodology increasingly used in healthcare, which identifies potential vulnerabilities in complex, high-risk processes and generates remedial actions. We aimed, for the first time, to apply FMEA in a social care context to evaluate the process for recognising and referring children exposed to domestic abuse within one Midlands city safeguarding area in England. A multidisciplinary, multi-agency team of 10 front-line professionals undertook the FMEA, using a modified methodology, over seven group meetings. The FMEA included mapping out the process under evaluation to identify its component steps, identifying failure modes (potential errors) and possible causes for each step and generating corrective actions. In this article, we report the output from the FMEA, including illustrative examples of the failure modes and corrective actions generated. We also present an analysis of feedback from the FMEA team and provide future recommendations for the use of FMEA in appraising social care processes and practice. Although challenging, the FMEA was unequivocally valuable for team members and generated a significant number of corrective actions locally for the safeguarding board to consider in its response to children exposed to domestic abuse. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Comparing the Effects of Progressive Muscle Relaxation and Guided Imagery on sleep quality in primigravida women referring to Mashhad health care centers-1393

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Golmakani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Decreased sleep quality is a common complaint during pregnancy. Relaxation is one of the non-pharmaceutical treatments for sleep disorders. Different techniques could have different impacts on various biological and mental stressors. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the effects of progressive muscle relaxation and guided imagery on the sleep quality of primigravida women. Methods:This three-group clinical trial was conducted on 100 primigravida women, referring to Mashhad health care centers in 2014. All women, who met the inclusion criteria, were randomly assigned to three groups: progressive muscle relaxation, guided imagery, and control groups. The intervention groups performed the exercises twice a day for a period of four weeks at home after two sessions of relaxation training (held during two weeks. Then, the quality of sleep was measured using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. For data analysis, ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, paired t-test, and post-hoc test were performed, using SPSS version 11.5. Results: The total score of sleep quality and its components (except use of sleep medication was significantly lower after the intervention, compared to the pre-intervention period in progressive muscle relaxation and guided imagery groups (P

  18. Evaluation of chronic alcohol self-administration by a 3-bottle choice paradigm in adult male rats. Effects on behavioural reactivity, spatial learning and reference memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacace, Silvana; Plescia, Fulvio; La Barbera, Marco; Cannizzaro, Carla

    2011-06-01

    Chronic ethanol consumption is able to modify emotional behaviour and cognition in humans. In particular, the effects exerted by alcohol may depend on doses, time and modalities of administration. In this study we investigated, in adult male rats, ethanol self-administration and preference patterns using a 3-bottle choice paradigm with water, 10% ethanol solution, and white wine (10%, v/v), along a four-week period. The influence of alcohol free-access on novelty-induced explorative behaviour in the open field, and on spatial learning and reference memory in the Morris water maze was also evaluated. Our results indicate that: (i) rats show a higher preference for alcohol, in the first two weeks of the paradigm, displaying a higher consumption of 10% ethanol solution than white wine; in the last two weeks, they reduce their alcoholic preference, drinking the same moderate amounts of the two alcoholic beverages; (ii) at the fourth week of the free-access paradigm rats show a high explorative behaviour in the central squares of the open field and an improvement in spatial information processing in the new-place learning task of the Morris water maze. In conclusion our data suggest that, interestingly, rats exposed to the free-access paradigm were able to self-regulate their alcoholic intake, and indicated that a moderate alcohol consumption was able to induce an increase in behavioural reactivity and an enhancement in spatial learning flexibility. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Reference Man anatomical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristy, M.

    1994-10-01

    The 70-kg Standard Man or Reference Man has been used in physiological models since at least the 1920s to represent adult males. It came into use in radiation protection in the late 1940s and was developed extensively during the 1950s and used by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in its Publication 2 in 1959. The current Reference Man for Purposes of Radiation Protection is a monumental book published in 1975 by the ICRP as ICRP Publication 23. It has a wealth of information useful for radiation dosimetry, including anatomical and physiological data, gross and elemental composition of the body and organs and tissues of the body. The anatomical data includes specified reference values for an adult male and an adult female. Other reference values are primarily for the adult male. The anatomical data include much data on fetuses and children, although reference values are not established. There is an ICRP task group currently working on revising selected parts of the Reference Man document.

  20. Effect of communication skills training on outcomes in critically ill patients with life-limiting illness referred for intensive care management: a before-and-after study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orford, Neil R; Milnes, Sharyn; Simpson, Nicholas; Keely, Gerry; Elderkin, Tania; Bone, Allison; Martin, Peter; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Bailey, Michael; Corke, Charlie

    2017-06-28

    To describe the effect of a communication skills training programme on patient-centred goals of care documentation and clinical outcomes in critically ill patients with life-limiting illnesses (LLI) referred for intensive care management. Prospective before-and-after cohort study in a tertiary teaching hospital in Australia. The population was 222 adult patients with LLI referred to the intensive care unit (ICU). The study was divided into two periods, before (1 May to 31 July 2015) and after (15 September to 15December 2015) the intervention. The intervention was a 2-day, small group, simulated-patient, communication skills course, and process of care for patients with LLI. The primary outcome was documentation of patient-centred goals of care discussion (PCD) within 48 hours of referral to the ICU. Secondary outcomes included clinical outcomes and 90-day mortality. The intervention was associated with increased documentation of a PCD from 50% to 69% (p=0.004) and 43% to 94% (p<0.0001) in patients deceased by day 90. A significant decrease in critical care as the choice of resuscitation goal (61% vs 42%, p=0.02) was observed. Although there was no decrease in admission to ICU, there was a significant decrease in medical emergency team call prevalence (87% vs 73%, p=0.009). The cancer and organ failure groups had a significant decrease in 90-day mortality (75% vs 44%, p=0.02; 42% vs 16%, p=0.01), and the frailty group had a significant decrease in 90-day readmissions (48% vs 19%, p=0.003). The intervention was associated with increased PCD documentation and decrease in the choice of critical care as the resuscitation goal. Admissions to ICU did not decrease, and although limited by study design, condition-specific trajectory changes, clinical interventions and outcomes warrant further study. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise

  1. Gender Related Differences in Response to “In Favor of Myself” Wellness Program to Enhance Positive Self & Body Image among Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Moria Golan; Noa Hagay; Snait Tamir

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physical, neurological and psychological changes are often experienced differently by male and female adolescents. Positive self-esteem, emotional well-being, school achievements, and family connectedness are considered as protective factors against health-compromising behaviors. This study examines the gender differences in respect to the effect of a school-based interactive wellness program--"In Favor of Myself"--on self-image, body image, eating attitudes and behaviors of young...

  2. Interpreting Mobile and Handheld Air Sensor Readings in Relation to Air Quality Standards and Health Effect Reference Values: Tackling the Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodall, George M.; Hoover, Mark D.; Williams, Ronald; Benedict, Kristen; Harper, Martin; Soo, Jhy-Charm; Jarabek, Annie M.; Stewart, Michael J.; Brown, James S.; Hulla, Janis E.; Caudill, Motria; Clements, Andrea L.; Kaufman, Amanda; Parker, Alison J.; Keating, Martha; Balshaw, David; Garrahan, Kevin; Burton, Laureen; Batka, Sheila; Limaye, Vijay S.; Hakkinen, Pertti J.; Thompson, Bob

    2017-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other federal agencies face a number of challenges in interpreting and reconciling short-duration (seconds to minutes) readings from mobile and handheld air sensors with the longer duration averages (hours to days) associated with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for the criteria pollutants-particulate matter (PM), ozone, carbon monoxide, lead, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur oxides. Similar issues are equally relevant to the hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) where chemical-specific health effect reference values are the best indicators of exposure limits; values which are often based on a lifetime of continuous exposure. A multi-agency, staff-level Air Sensors Health Group (ASHG) was convened in 2013. ASHG represents a multi-institutional collaboration of Federal agencies devoted to discovery and discussion of sensor technologies, interpretation of sensor data, defining the state of sensor-related science across each institution, and provides consultation on how sensors might effectively be used to meet a wide range of research and decision support needs. ASHG focuses on several fronts: improving the understanding of what hand-held sensor technologies may be able to deliver; communicating what hand-held sensor readings can provide to a number of audiences; the challenges of how to integrate data generated by multiple entities using new and unproven technologies; and defining best practices in communicating health-related messages to various audiences. This review summarizes the challenges, successes, and promising tools of those initial ASHG efforts and Federal agency progress on crafting similar products for use with other NAAQS pollutants and the HAPs. NOTE: The opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not necessary represent the opinions of their Federal Agencies or the US Government. Mention of product names does not constitute endorsement. PMID:29093969

  3. Interpreting Mobile and Handheld Air Sensor Readings in Relation to Air Quality Standards and Health Effect Reference Values: Tackling the Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George M. Woodall

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA and other federal agencies face a number of challenges in interpreting and reconciling short-duration (seconds to minutes readings from mobile and handheld air sensors with the longer duration averages (hours to days associated with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS for the criteria pollutants-particulate matter (PM, ozone, carbon monoxide, lead, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur oxides. Similar issues are equally relevant to the hazardous air pollutants (HAPs where chemical-specific health effect reference values are the best indicators of exposure limits; values which are often based on a lifetime of continuous exposure. A multi-agency, staff-level Air Sensors Health Group (ASHG was convened in 2013. ASHG represents a multi-institutional collaboration of Federal agencies devoted to discovery and discussion of sensor technologies, interpretation of sensor data, defining the state of sensor-related science across each institution, and provides consultation on how sensors might effectively be used to meet a wide range of research and decision support needs. ASHG focuses on several fronts: improving the understanding of what hand-held sensor technologies may be able to deliver; communicating what hand-held sensor readings can provide to a number of audiences; the challenges of how to integrate data generated by multiple entities using new and unproven technologies; and defining best practices in communicating health-related messages to various audiences. This review summarizes the challenges, successes, and promising tools of those initial ASHG efforts and Federal agency progress on crafting similar products for use with other NAAQS pollutants and the HAPs. NOTE: The opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not necessary represent the opinions of their Federal Agencies or the US Government. Mention of product names does not constitute endorsement.

  4. Mechanography in childhood: references for force and power in counter movement jumps and chair rising tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busche, P; Rawer, R; Rakhimi, N; Lang, I; Martin, D D

    2013-06-01

    We sought to procure age- and gender- related reference data and study the characteristics of body weight related peak force (pFrel), body mass related peak power (pPrel) for counter movement jumps (single two-legged jumps, s2LJ) and chair rising tests (CRT) in children. We examined 868 healthy participants (436 female) aged 3 to 19 years. Weight-related results of the s2LJ and CRT Mechanography parameters were reported. pPrel during s2LJ (pPrel(s2LJ)) increased linearly with age for males age 5 to 19 and female age 5 to 11 at a rate of 4.6 W/kg per year. pPrel(s2LJ) for females age 12 to 19 increased only by 2.5 W/kg. CRT time per repetition was 1.065 s, independent of age and gender. pPrel per body mass during the rise phase (pPrel(CRT)) showed similar but smaller age and gender relations as peak power during s2LJ. pFrel was 2.5 g (multiples of earth's gravity) for s2LJ and 1.5 g for CRT. This data from normal children from a healthy Caucasian population provide reference values for tests that reflect everyday motor function.

  5. [Educational effects of PBL for students in the Faculty of Dentistry--with special reference to the educational effects on dysphagia--].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchimiya, Yoichiro

    2007-03-01

    Although the importance of student education has long been emphasized and various educational strategies have been attempted, the PBL method is deemed to be effective among them. Recently, the PBL method was therefore employed in our lecture on dysphagia in order to examine its efficacy. Thirty-one female and 35 male students (66 in total, 6th-grade students in the Department of Dentistry) were enrolled in this study which was performed from February 9 to June 29, 2006. The students were allocated into 2 groups, 3-4 per group. Two kinds of educational training program on dysphagia were given by a director/tutor experienced in clinical practice for dysphagia. The first group received a lecture of the conventional type (conventional group), while the latter group received a lecture of PBL (PBL group). In both groups, an identical X-ray film taken during swallowing was evaluated. In addition, the students' impression on the lecture they received was obtained by means of questionnaires. The coincident rate of evaluation on the swallowing image was better in the PBL group than the conventional group on average. Among 23 evaluation items, a coincident rate more than moderate was obtained on 4 and 8 items in the conventional and PBL groups respectively. From the results of the questionnaire survey, it was revealed that the item "motivation" was rated to be significantly better in the PBL than in the conventional group. A lecture on dysphagia was given by 2 kinds of educational strategy. From the results of this study, it was revealed that the PBL method was more effective for enhancing the students' motivation on the lecture. In the PBL group, the lecture was given by individual cases with subsequently increased questions and answers and promoted positive participation in the lecture as compared to the conventional group. Furthermore, students' motivation was raised probably due to a good understanding of the case details upon evaluation of the swallowing image with the

  6. Effects of the Heartbeat Wales programme over five years on behavioural risks for cardiovascular disease: quasi-experimental comparison of results from Wales and a matched reference area

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tudor-Smith, Chris; Nutbeam, Don; Moore, Laurence; Catford, John

    1998-01-01

    ...: Quasi-experimental design comparing results from two independent cross sectional population surveys conducted in 1985 and 1990 in Wales and a matched reference area in north east England. Subjects...

  7. Income-, education- and gender-related inequalities in out-of-pocket health-care payments for 65+ patients - a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrieri Sandro

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In all OECD countries, there is a trend to increasing patients' copayments in order to balance rising overall health-care costs. This systematic review focuses on inequalities concerning the amount of out-of-pocket payments (OOPP associated with income, education or gender in the Elderly aged 65+. Methods Based on an online search (PubMed, 29 studies providing information on OOPP of 65+ beneficiaries in relation to income, education and gender were reviewed. Results Low-income individuals pay the highest OOPP in relation to their earnings. Prescription drugs account for the biggest share. A lower educational level is associated with higher OOPP for prescription drugs and a higher probability of insufficient insurance protection. Generally, women face higher OOPP due to their lower income and lower labour participation rate, as well as less employer-sponsored health-care. Conclusions While most studies found educational and gender inequalities to be associated with income, there might also be effects induced solely by education; for example, an unhealthy lifestyle leading to higher payments for lower-educated people, or exclusively gender-induced effects, like sex-specific illnesses. Based on the considered studies, an explanation for inequalities in OOPP by these factors remains ambiguous.

  8. Reference Based Genome Compression

    CERN Document Server

    Chern, Bobbie; Manolakos, Alexandros; No, Albert; Venkat, Kartik; Weissman, Tsachy

    2012-01-01

    DNA sequencing technology has advanced to a point where storage is becoming the central bottleneck in the acquisition and mining of more data. Large amounts of data are vital for genomics research, and generic compression tools, while viable, cannot offer the same savings as approaches tuned to inherent biological properties. We propose an algorithm to compress a target genome given a known reference genome. The proposed algorithm first generates a mapping from the reference to the target genome, and then compresses this mapping with an entropy coder. As an illustration of the performance: applying our algorithm to James Watson's genome with hg18 as a reference, we are able to reduce the 2991 megabyte (MB) genome down to 6.99 MB, while Gzip compresses it to 834.8 MB.

  9. Setting reference targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruland, R.E.

    1997-04-01

    Reference Targets are used to represent virtual quantities like the magnetic axis of a magnet or the definition of a coordinate system. To explain the function of reference targets in the sequence of the alignment process, this paper will first briefly discuss the geometry of the trajectory design space and of the surveying space, then continue with an overview of a typical alignment process. This is followed by a discussion on magnet fiducialization. While the magnetic measurement methods to determine the magnetic centerline are only listed (they will be discussed in detail in a subsequent talk), emphasis is given to the optical/mechanical methods and to the task of transferring the centerline position to reference targets.

  10. Remembering my friends: Medial prefrontal and hippocampal contributions to the self-reference effect on face memories in a social context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamawaki, Rie; Nakamura, Kimihiro; Aso, Toshihiko; Shigemune, Yayoi; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Tsukiura, Takashi

    2017-08-01

    Memories associated with the self are remembered more accurately than those associated with others. The memory enhancement related to the self is known as the self-reference effect (SRE). However, little is known regarding the neural mechanisms underlying the SRE in a social context modulated by social relationships. In the present fMRI study, we investigated encoding-related activation of face memories encoded with the self-referential process in a social context that was manipulated by imagining a person-to-person relationship. Healthy young adults participated in the present study. During encoding, participants encoded unfamiliar target faces by imagining a future friendship with themselves (Self), their friends (Friend), or strangers (Other). During retrieval, participants were presented with target and distracter faces one by one, and they judged whether each face had been previously learned. In the behavioral results, target faces encoded in the Self condition were remembered more accurately than those encoded in the Other condition. fMRI results demonstrated that encoding-related activation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) was significantly greater in the Self condition than in the Friend or Other conditions. In addition, the generalized psycho-physiological interaction (gPPI) analysis showed that functional connectivity between activation in the hippocampus and the cortical midline structures (CMSs), including the mPFC and precuneus, was significant in the Self but not in the Other condition. These findings suggest that the SRE in a social context could be involved in the interaction between the CMS regions, which are related to the self-referential process, and the hippocampus related to the memory process. Hum Brain Mapp 38:4256-4269, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Perl Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Vromans, Johan

    2011-01-01

    If you have a Perl programming question, you'll find the answer quickly in this handy, easy-to-use quick reference. The Perl Pocket Reference condenses and organizes stacks of documentation down to the most essential facts, so you can find what you need in a heartbeat. Updated for Perl 5.14, the 5th edition provides a summary of Perl syntax rules and a complete list of operators, built-in functions, and other features. It's the perfect companion to O'Reilly's authoritative and in-depth Perl programming books, including Learning Perl, Programming Perl, and the Perl Cookbook..

  12. Electrical engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, G R

    2013-01-01

    A long established reference book: radical revision for the fifteenth edition includes complete rearrangement to take in chapters on new topics and regroup the subjects covered for easy access to information.The Electrical Engineer's Reference Book, first published in 1945, maintains its original aims: to reflect the state of the art in electrical science and technology and cater for the needs of practising engineers. Most chapters have been revised and many augmented so as to deal properly with both fundamental developments and new technology and applications that have come to the fore since

  13. JDBC Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Bales, Donald

    2003-01-01

    JDBC--the Java Database Connectivity specification--is a complex set of application programming interfaces (APIs) that developers need to understand if they want their Java applications to work with databases. JDBC is so complex that even the most experienced developers need to refresh their memories from time to time on specific methods and details. But, practically speaking, who wants to stop and thumb through a weighty tutorial volume each time a question arises? The answer is the JDBC Pocket Reference, a data-packed quick reference that is both a time-saver and a lifesaver. The JDBC P

  14. Reference class forecasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    Underbudgettering og budgetoverskridelser forekommer i et flertal af større bygge- og anlægsprojekter. Problemet skyldes optimisme og/eller strategisk misinformation i budgetteringsprocessen. Reference class forecasting (RCF) er en prognosemetode, som er udviklet for at reducere eller eliminere...... projekterne er almindelige nationalt eller internationalt, er det muligt at etablere en reference-klasse af tilsvarende projekter og dermed alligevel opnå et pålideligt lokalt budget. Denne projekttype er relativt almindelig. RCF kan ikke anvendes på projekter som er reelt unikke, d.v.s. projekter for hvilke...

  15. bash Quick Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Robbins, Arnold

    2008-01-01

    In this quick reference, you'll find everything you need to know about the bash shell. Whether you print it out or read it on the screen, this PDF gives you the answers to the annoying questions that always come up when you're writing shell scripts: What characters do you need to quote? How do you get variable substitution to do exactly what you want? How do you use arrays? It's also helpful for interactive use. If you're a Unix user or programmer, or if you're using bash on Windows, you'll find this quick reference indispensable.

  16. HTML & XHTML Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Robbins, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    After years of using spacer GIFs, layers of nested tables, and other improvised solutions for building your web sites, getting used to the more stringent standards-compliant design can be intimidating. HTML and XHTML Pocket Reference is the perfect little book when you need answers immediately. Jennifer Niederst-Robbins, author Web Design in a Nutshell, has revised and updated the fourth edition of this pocket guide by taking the top 20% of vital reference information from her Nutshell book, augmenting it judiciously, cross-referencing everything, and organizing it according to the most com

  17. Python pocket reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lutz, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This is the book to reach for when you're coding on the fly and need an answer now. It's an easy-to-use reference to the core language, with descriptions of commonly used modules and toolkits, and a guide to recent changes, new features, and upgraded built-ins -- all updated to cover Python 3.X as well as version 2.6. You'll also quickly find exactly what you need with the handy index. Written by Mark Lutz -- widely recognized as the world's leading Python trainer -- Python Pocket Reference, Fourth Edition, is the perfect companion to O'Reilly's classic Python tutorials, also written by Mark

  18. User satisfaction with referrals at a collaborative virtual reference service Virtual reference services, Reference services, Referrals, User satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahyun Kwon

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This study investigated unmonitored referrals in a nationwide, collaborative chat reference service. Specifically, it examined the extent to which questions are referred, the types of questions that are more likely to be referred than others, and the level of user satisfaction with the referrals in the collaborative chat reference service. Method. The data analysed for this study were 420 chat reference transaction transcripts along with corresponding online survey questionnaires submitted by the service users. Both sets of data were collected from an electronic archive of a southeastern state public library system that has participated in 24/7 Reference of the Metropolitan Cooperative Library System (MCLS. Results. Referrals in the collaborative chat reference service comprised approximately 30% of the total transactions. Circulation-related questions were the most often referred among all question types, possibly because of the inability of 'outside' librarians to access patron accounts. Most importantly, user satisfaction with referrals was found to be significantly lower than that of completed answers. Conclusion. The findings of this study addressed the importance of distinguishing two types of referrals: the expert research referrals conducive to collaborative virtual reference services; and the re-directional local referrals that increase unnecessary question traffic, thereby being detrimental to effective use of collaborative reference. Continuing efforts to conceptualize referrals in multiple dimensions are anticipated to fully grasp complex phenomena underlying referrals.

  19. Obesity related eating behaviour patterns in Swedish preschool children and association with age, gender, relative weight and parental weight - factorial validation of the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svensson Viktoria

    2011-12-01

    . Conclusions Our results support the use of the CEBQ as a psychometric instrument for assessing children's eating behaviours in Swedish children aged 1-6 years. Measuring obesity related eating behaviours in longitudinal and interventional studies would offer opportunities for studying causal effects of eating behaviours in the development of obesity in children.

  20. Men and women should be separately investigated in studies of orthostatic challenge due to different gender-related dynamics of autonomic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reulecke, S; Charleston-Villalobos, S; Voss, A; González-Camarena, R; González-Hermosillo, J; Gaitán-González, M J; Hernández-Pacheco, G; Schroeder, R; Aljama-Corrales, T

    2016-03-01

    In studies of autonomic regulation during orthostatic challenges only a few nonlinear methods have been considered without investigating the effect of gender in young controls. Especially, the temporal development of the autonomic regulation has not yet been explicitly analyzed using short-term segments in supine position, transition and orthostatic phase (OP). In this study, nonlinear analysis of cardiovascular and respiratory time series was performed to investigate how nonlinear indices are dynamically changing with respect to gender during orthostatic challenges. The analysis was carried out using shifted short-term segments throughout a head-up tilt test in 24 healthy subjects, 12 men (26  ±  4 years) and 12 age-matched women (26  ±  5 years), at supine position and during OP at 70°. The nonlinear methods demonstrated statistical differences in the autonomic regulation between males and females. Orthostatic stress caused significantly decreased heart rate variability due to increased sympathetic activity mainly in men, already at the beginning and during the complete OP, revealed by (a) increased occurrence of specific word types with constant fluctuations as pW111 from symbolic dynamics, (b) augmented fractal correlation properties by the short-term index alpha1 from detrended fluctuation analysis, (c) increased slope indices (21ati and 31ati) from auto-transinformation and (d) augmented time irreversibility indices demonstrating more temporal asymmetries and nonlinear dynamics in men than in women. After tilt-up, both men and women increased their sympathetic activity but in a different way. Time-dependent gender differences during orthostatic challenge were shown directly between men and women or indirectly comparing baseline and different temporal stages of OP. The proposed dynamical study of autonomic regulation has the advantage of screening the fluctuations of the sympathetic and vagal activities that can be quantified by the temporal

  1. Multimedia Reference Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzberg, Carol S.

    2001-01-01

    Presents suggestions for content-rich classroom encyclopedias on CO-ROM and DVD, including: the Encarta Reference Suite 2001; the 2001 Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia, School Edition; the Britannica 2001 DVD; and the World Book 2001 Deluxe Edition, v5.0. (SM)

  2. Extending reference assembly models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Church, Deanna M.; Schneider, Valerie A.; Steinberg, Karyn Meltz

    2015-01-01

    The human genome reference assembly is crucial for aligning and analyzing sequence data, and for genome annotation, among other roles. However, the models and analysis assumptions that underlie the current assembly need revising to fully represent human sequence diversity. Improved analysis tools...... and updated data reporting formats are also required....

  3. ROOT Reference Documentation

    CERN Document Server

    Fuakye, Eric Gyabeng

    2017-01-01

    A ROOT Reference Documentation has been implemented to generate all the lists of libraries needed for each ROOT class. Doxygen has no option to generate or add the lists of libraries for each ROOT class. Therefore shell scripting and a basic C++ program was employed to import the lists of libraries needed by each ROOT class.

  4. Tracking referents in discourse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, M.J.A.; Spooren, W.P.M.S.

    2012-01-01

    This reading study registered eye movements to investigate the influence of different discourse constructional factors on anaphor resolution in written discourse. More specifically, the study focused on the influence of the possible interplay of proximity between a possible referent and the anaphor

  5. Reference-Dependent Sympathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Deborah A.

    2010-01-01

    Natural disasters and other traumatic events often draw a greater charitable response than do ongoing misfortunes, even those that may cause even more widespread misery, such as famine or malaria. Why is the response disproportionate to need? The notion of reference dependence critical to Prospect Theory (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979) maintains that…

  6. Python library reference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. van Rossum (Guido)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractPython is an extensible, interpreted, object-oriented programming language. It supports a wide range of applications, from simple text processing scripts to interactive WWW browsers. While the Python Reference Manual describes the exact syntax and semantics of the language, it does not

  7. Questions in Reference Interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Marilyn Domas

    1998-01-01

    Characterizes the questioning behavior in reference interviews preceding delegated online searches of bibliographic databases and relates it to questioning behavior in other types of interviews/settings. Compares questions asked by the information specialist and those asked by the client; findings show the information specialist dominates the…

  8. Genetics Home Reference: bradyopsia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... they often have trouble watching or participating in sports with a ball, such as soccer or tennis. ... IAE.0b013e31827e2306. Review. Citation on PubMed More from Genetics Home Reference Bulletins Rare Disease Day 2018 Darwin ...

  9. Generating Multimodal References

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, Ielka; Krahmer, E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new computational model for the generation of multimodal referring expressions, based on observations in human communication. The algorithm is an extension of the graph-based algorithm proposed by Krahmer et al. (2003) and makes use of a so-called Flashlight Model for pointing.

  10. Synthetic growth reference charts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermanussen, Michael; Stec, Karol; Aßmann, Christian; Meigen, Christof; Van Buuren, Stef|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074806777

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To reanalyze the between-population variance in height, weight, and body mass index (BMI), and to provide a globally applicable technique for generating synthetic growth reference charts. Methods: Using a baseline set of 196 female and 197 male growth studies published since 1831, common

  11. Pollen reference collection digitization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ercan, F.E.Z.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/41250085X; Donders, T.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/290469872; Bijl, P.K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314028110; Wagner, F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/173870783

    2016-01-01

    The extensive Utrecht University pollen reference collection holds thousands of pollen samples of many species and genera from all over the world and has been a basis for the widely-used North West European Pollen Flora. These samples are fixed on glass slides for microscopy use, but the aging

  12. A GUJARATI REFERENCE GRAMMAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CARDONA, GEORGE

    THIS REFERENCE GRAMMAR WAS WRITTEN TO FILL THE NEED FOR AN UP-TO-DATE ANALYSIS OF THE MODERN LANGUAGE SUITABLE FOR LANGUAGE LEARNERS AS WELL AS LINGUISTS. THE AUTHOR LISTS IN THE INTRODUCTION THOSE STUDIES PREVIOUS TO THIS ONE WHICH MAY BE OF INTEREST TO THE READER. INCLUDED IN HIS ANALYSIS OF THE LANGUAGE ARE MAJOR CHAPTERS ON--(1) PHONOLOGY, (2)…

  13. MIT Scheme Reference Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    their Butterfly Scheme Reference, and to Margaret O’Connell for translating it from BBN’s text-formatting language to ours. Special thanks to Richard ... Stallman , Bob Chassell, and Brian Fox, all of the Free Software Foundation, for creating and maintaining the Texinfo formatting language in which this

  14. Internet Issues in Reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenopir, Carol

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the impact of Internet access on library reference services based on 1994 interviews with almost two dozen university librarians. Highlights include library policy, overcrowded workstations and methods of controlling use, recreational use of terminals that interferes with more formal library use, restriction as a form of censorship, and…

  15. Effect of Orem’s Self-Care Model on Perceived Stress in Adolescents with Asthma Referring the Asthma and Allergy Clinic, Isfahan, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Hemati

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Incidence of asthma in adolescents leads to variations in family status, roles and interaction with peers for them, which could be a source of stress and psychological tensions in them. Therefore, the present study was conducted to investigate the effect of Orem’s self-care model on perceived stress in adolescents with asthma. Methods: In this semi-experimental study conducted from April 2013 to February 2014, 64 asthmatic adolescents referring Shariati Hospital, Isfahan were enrolled by simple random sampling and the patients were assigned to two groups of control and intervention. Then, Orem’s self-care model-based training was implemented throughout eight sessions of two hours each and the Cohen Perceived Stress Scale was administered to both groups prior to and two months after the completion of the training. The data were analyzed by descriptive and analytical statistics consisting of paired t-test, independent t-test, Chi-square and Mann-Whitney using SPSS Version 20. Results: Mean age of the participants was 14.15±3.12 years in the intervention group and 15.21±3.09 years in the control groups. 68.8% and 59.4% of the participants were male in the intervention and control groups, respectively. Independent t-test indicated a significant difference in the mean scores of perceived stress in the intervention (25.46±5.31 and control groups (28.90±5.27 after the training. Also, the result of paired t-test indicated a significant difference in the mean score of perceived stress between before (29.18±5.27 and after (25.46±5.31 training. Conclusion: As the training based on Orem’s model had a positive effect on declining perceived stress in asthmatic adolescents, continuation of using these training interventions could contribute to ultimately achieving positive outcomes in health functions of these patients.

  16. Quality specifications for the extra-analytical phase of laboratory testing: Reference intervals and decision limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceriotti, Ferruccio

    2017-07-01

    Reference intervals and decision limits are a critical part of the clinical laboratory report. The evaluation of their correct use represents a tool to verify the post analytical quality. Four elements are identified as indicators. 1. The use of decision limits for lipids and glycated hemoglobin. 2. The use, whenever possible, of common reference values. 3. The presence of gender-related reference intervals for at least the following common serum measurands (besides obviously the fertility relate hormones): alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatine kinase (CK), creatinine, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), IgM, ferritin, iron, transferrin, urate, red blood cells (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct). 4. The presence of age-related reference intervals. The problem of specific reference intervals for elderly people is discussed, but their use is not recommended; on the contrary it is necessary the presence of pediatric age-related reference intervals at least for the following common serum measurands: ALP, amylase, creatinine, inorganic phosphate, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, urate, insulin like growth factor 1, white blood cells, RBC, Hb, Hct, alfa-fetoprotein and fertility related hormones. The lack of such reference intervals may imply significant risks for the patients. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Referent Salience Affects Second Language Article Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenkic, Danijela; Pongpairoj, Nattama

    2013-01-01

    The effect of referent salience on second language (L2) article production in real time was explored. Thai (-articles) and French (+articles) learners of English described dynamic events involving two referents, one visually cued to be more salient at the point of utterance formulation. Definiteness marking was made communicatively redundant with…

  18. Effects of age and gender on reference levels of biomarkers comprising the pediatric Renal Activity Index for Lupus Nephritis (p-RAIL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Michael R; Ma, Qing; Ying, Jun; Devarajan, Prasad; Brunner, Hermine

    2017-10-13

    Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem autoimmune disease that disproportionately effects women and children of minorities. Renal involvement (lupus nephritis, or LN) occurs in up to 80% of children with SLE and is a major determinant of poor prognosis. We have developed a non-invasive pediatric Renal Activity Index for Lupus (p-RAIL) that consists of laboratory measures that reflect histologic LN activity. These markers are neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1), adiponectin (APN), ceruloplasmin (CP) and hemopexin (HPX). A major gap in the knowledge base and a barrier to clinical utility is how these markers behave in healthy children. We set out to establish a reference range for the p-RAIL markers in a population of healthy children, and to determine if levels of these markers fluctuate with age or gender. Urine was collected from 368 healthy children presenting to Cincinnati Children's primary care clinic for well child visits and assayed for NGAL, KIM-1, MCP-1, APN, CP and HPX using commercially available kits or assay materials. Specimens were grouped by age (0-5 years (n = 94); 5-10 (n = 89); 10-15 (n = 93); 15-20 (n = 91)) and gender (M = 184, F = 184). For age and gender comparisons, values were log transformed prior to analysis. The medians (minimums, maximums) of each marker in the combined population were as follows: NGAL 6.65 (0.004, 391.52) ng/ml, KIM-1416.84 (6.22, 2512.43) pg/ml, MCP-1209.36 (9.49, 2237.06) pg/ml, APN 8.05 (0.07, 124.50) ng/ml, CP 465.15 (8.02, 7827.00) ng/ml, HPX 588.70 (6.85, 17,658.40)ng/ml. All p-RAIL biomarkers but adiponectin had weak but significant positive correlations with age, with NGAL being the strongest (r = 0.33, p RAIL biomarkers and have highlighted age and gender differences. This information is essential for rational interpretation of studies and clinical trials utilizing the p-RAIL algorithm.

  19. Biodegradation of the french reference nuclear glass SON 68 by Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans : protective effect of the biofilm,U and REE retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelet, M.; Crovisier, J.; Stille, P.; Boutin, R.; Vuilleumier, S.; Geoffroy, V.

    2008-12-01

    Although underground nuclear waste repositories are not expected to be favourable places for microbial activity, one should not exclude localized action of extremophilic bacteria on some materials involved in the storage concept. Among endogenous or accidentally introduced acidophiles, some are susceptible to lead to a locally drastic decreased in pH with potential consequences on materials corrosion. Experiments were performed with Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans on 100-125 μm french reference nuclear glass SON68 grains in a mineral medium under static conditions during 60 days at 25°C. Growth medium was periodically renewed and analyzed by ICP-AES and ICP-MS spectrometry for both major, traces and ultra-traces elements. Biofilm formation was evidenced by confocal laser microscopy, staining DNA with ethidium bromide and exopolysaccharides with calcofluor white. Biofilm thickness around material grains exceeded 20 μm under the chosen experimental conditions. It can be noticed that while numerous studies on biofilm formation upon interaction between Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and materials can be found in the literature, evidence for biofilm formation is still scarce for the case of the acidophilic bacterium A. thiooxidans. Presence of biofilm is a key parameter for material alteration at the solid/solution interface in biotic systems. Indeed, various constitutive elements of materials trapped in the polyanionic polymer of biofilm may also influence the alteration process. In particular, biofilm may reduce the alteration rate of materials by forming a protective barrier at their surface (Aouad et al., 2008). In this study, glass alteration rates, determined using strontium, molybdenum and caesium as tracers, showed that the biofilm has a protective effect against glass alteration. U and REE are efficiently trapped in the biogenic compartment of the system (exopolysaccharides (EPS) + bacterial cells). Biofilm analysis are in progress to determine whether these

  20. Letter in reference to: "Short-term effects of night shift work on breast cancer risk: a cohort study of payroll data".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Richard G

    2017-01-01

    it misleads the scientific community and the public. Reference 1. Vistisen HT, Garde AH, Frydenberg M, Christiansen P, Hansen ÅM, Hansen J, Bonde JPE, Kolstad HA. Short-term effects of night shift work on breast cancer risk: a cohort study of payroll data. Scand J Work Environ Health - online first. http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3603.

  1. The effect of Self-Management Training on Self-Efficacy of Cirrhotic Patients Referring to Transplantation Center of Nemazee Hospital: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Parisa; Ghadami, Maryam; Najafi, Seid Saeed; Yektatalab, Shahrzad

    2017-07-01

    Cirrhosis is a chronic and progressive disease that causes various complications for patients due to disturbance of the liver's usual function. Self-efficacy refers to an individual's belief in one's ability to perform the necessary behaviors to achieve one's goals. Self-management is also an important criterion for long-term change in behavior. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of self-management training on self-efficacy of patients suffering from liver cirrhosis. This randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 74 patients with liver cirrhosis randomly assigned to an intervention (receiving self-management training) and a control group (routine care) from 2012 to 2013. The data were collected in the transplantation center affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Self-management training was performed in six 90-minute sessions twice a week. Besides, the intervention group was followed up for a month via telephone. Levo self-efficacy questionnaire was filled out by the patients before, immediately after, and one month after the intervention. Then, the data were entered into the SPSS statistical software (v. 16) and analyzed using independent t-test, Chi-square test, and repeated measures ANOVA. At the beginning of the study, no statistically significant difference was found between the two groups regarding self-efficacy (P=0.18). However, the total score of the questionnaire and those of all its dimensions significantly improved in the intervention group immediately and one month after training self-management skills (Pself-efficacy was 102.24±7.79 and 76.78±9.49 in the intervention and control groups, respectively. On the other hand, no statistically significant difference was observed in the control group's self-efficacy immediately and one month after the intervention (P=0.6). The results showed that the self-management program resulted in improvement of self-efficacy in the patients with liver cirrhosis. Therefore, this

  2. 2011 Service Academy Gender Relations Focus Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    hear about how it will psychologically affect the victim and the aggressor and everyone else who knows them but I don’t know if we can — until we get...Defense Sexual Assault Prevention and Response Office); Jimmy Love, (Office of Diversity Management and Equal Opportunity); LTC Kay Emerson and MAJ...5 Sexual Assault

  3. Are Teacher Beliefs Gender-Related?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraker - de Pauw, Emmy; van Wesel, F.; Verwijmeren, Thijs; Denessen, Eddie; Krabbendam, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    Teacher beliefs influence student behaviour and learning outcomes. Little is known about the role of specific teacher characteristics (e.g., gender and teaching domain) in the formation of these beliefs. In the current study, three versions of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) were used to assess

  4. 2016 Service Academy Gender Relations Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    students from other Academies and foreign nationals. 9 Prior to 2014, all female students at all Academies and a sample of men at USMA, USNA, and USAFA...Gore, & Schell, 2014). 37 Two groups of students were excluded: visiting students from other Academies and foreign nationals. 38 Starting in 2014... stigma (Ullman, 2007). Findings from this section can help inform policies, programs, and treatment options. Specific breakouts for Total DoD

  5. Are teacher beliefs gender-related?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraker-Pauw, E. de; Wesel, F. van; Verwijmeren, T.; Denessen, E.J.P.G.; Krabbendam, L.

    2016-01-01

    Teacher beliefs influence student behaviour and learning outcomes. Little is known about the role of specific teacher characteristics (e.g., gender and teaching domain) in the formation of these beliefs. In the current study, three versions of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) were used to assess

  6. Service Academy 2007 Gender Relations Focus Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    being hospitalized . In some cases additional students were identified to participate as backups. Therefore, session sizes ranged from eight to...door to prevent anyone from coming to your room and having sex. It seems kind of childish . … They should give us the responsibility and say, ‘If you...indicated that they liked learning about sexual harassment and sexual assault in their psychology classes because it gives them a different perspective

  7. Service Academy 2006 Gender Relations Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    the establishment at each major installation of a 24-hour, 7- day sexual assault response capability and the creation of a multidisciplinary case...SAVI Liaisons and SAVI Advocates (officers and senior enlisted), SAVI Guides, psychotherapists , the chain of command, and through other assigned faculty...professionals from the Cadet Clinic and the USAFA Hospital provide Tier II health care services to victims, and credentialed psychotherapists at the ACC and

  8. Service Academy 2009 Gender Relations Focus Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    the chances of them being convicted are really, really slim , just as it is in the civilian world. A lot of cases with sexual assault at the Academy...just because the chances of that person being convicted are really slim . It’s almost like what’s the point of charging them, I might as well go this...more reputation. If that were to get out, then that would be somebody’s reputation going down the tubes as a man, as a warrior, as a cadet. You

  9. [Gender-related aspects of family caregiving].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deufert, D

    2013-08-01

    Most people in need of care and assistance are currently still being cared for at home by family members. The majority of family caregivers are women. However, the percentage of men assuming the role of main caregiver at home is increasing. This may point to a change in the distribution of caregiving within the family. The health-related and social stresses and strains affecting cargiving persons also show gender-specific differences and are experienced more frequently and with a higher intensity by female caregivers than caregiving men. Men approach the challenge of caring differently to women and also organize care differently to female family caregivers. Although a high percentage of those providing informal care to family members at home are now men, this fact is hardly appreciated by society. In the specialist literature, caring men are often seen from the perspective of women. This article aims to portray gender-specific perspectives concerning the situation of providing informal care and assistance to elderly people and the stresses and strains that are associated with it.

  10. Argentina - Women Weaving Equitable Gender Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Stubbs, Josefina

    2008-01-01

    In 2001, after a long period of recession, Argentina faced the greatest economic, political, and institutional crisis in its history. Unemployment reached levels nearing 18 percent and the poverty rate reached a peak of 58 percent in 2002, increasing twofold the number of people living the poverty line and impacting in a disproportionate manner the most vulnerable and poverty stricken fami...

  11. Gender Relations and Farm Household Pluriactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasson, Ruth; Winter, Michael

    1992-01-01

    Analyzed information on the activities of 272 principal male farmers and 245 wives from a random sample of 300 households in the Devon area of England. Found women were generally less involved than their husbands in farm tasks, farm management, and daily management. When both spouses had work other than farming, however, women were consulted much…

  12. Effects of packaging and process spread on a mobility-based frequency reference in 0.16-μm CMOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sebastiano, Fabio; Breems, Lucien; Makinwa, Kofi A.A.; Drago, S.; Leenaerts, Domine; Nauta, Bram

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the robustness of frequency references based on the electron mobility in a MOS transistor by implementing them with both thin-oxide and thick-oxide MOS transistors in a 0.16-μm CMOS process, and by testing samples packaged in both ceramic and plastic packages. The proposed

  13. OSH technical reference manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    In an evaluation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Occupational Safety and Health programs for government-owned contractor-operated (GOCO) activities, the Department of Labor`s Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) recommended a technical information exchange program. The intent was to share written safety and health programs, plans, training manuals, and materials within the entire DOE community. The OSH Technical Reference (OTR) helps support the secretary`s response to the OSHA finding by providing a one-stop resource and referral for technical information that relates to safe operations and practice. It also serves as a technical information exchange tool to reference DOE-wide materials pertinent to specific safety topics and, with some modification, as a training aid. The OTR bridges the gap between general safety documents and very specific requirements documents. It is tailored to the DOE community and incorporates DOE field experience.

  14. Electrical engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Laughton, M A

    1985-01-01

    Electrical Engineer's Reference Book, Fourteenth Edition focuses on electrical engineering. The book first discusses units, mathematics, and physical quantities, including the international unit system, physical properties, and electricity. The text also looks at network and control systems analysis. The book examines materials used in electrical engineering. Topics include conducting materials, superconductors, silicon, insulating materials, electrical steels, and soft irons and relay steels. The text underscores electrical metrology and instrumentation, steam-generating plants, turbines

  15. Reference fallible endgame play

    OpenAIRE

    Haworth, Guy McCrossan

    2002-01-01

    A reference model of fallible endgame play is defined in terms of a spectrum of endgame players whose play ranges in competence from the optimal to the anti-optimal choice of move. They may be used as suitably skilled practice partners, to assess a player, to differentiate between otherwise equi-optimal moves, to promote or expedite a game result, to run Monte-Carlo simulations, and to identify the difficulty of a position or a whole endgame.

  16. GDB Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Robbins, Arnold

    2009-01-01

    The GNU debugger is valuable for testing, fixing, and retesting software because it allows you to see exactly what's going on inside of a program as it's executing. This new pocket reference shows you how to specify a target for debugging, perform a careful examination to find the cause of program failure, and make quick changes for further testing. The guide covers several popular programming languages.

  17. Grep pocket reference

    CERN Document Server

    Bambenek, John

    2009-01-01

    grep Pocket Reference is the first guide devoted to grep, the powerful Unix content-location utility. This handy book is ideal for system administrators, security professionals, developers, and others who want to learn more about grep and take new approaches with it -- for everything from mail filtering and system log management to malware analysis. The book includes useful information not contained in the current grep documentation

  18. Reference to Galery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri F. Katorin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article it is told about some aspects of the application of military rowing vessels, composition and rules the formation of the command of rowers, special features of the organization of their work on bringing of ship into the motion, is analyzed the influence of the practice of use reference to gallery of the condemned criminals to entire legislation of this country.

  19. Electroacoustical reference data

    CERN Document Server

    Eargle, John M

    2002-01-01

    The need for a general collection of electroacoustical reference and design data in graphical form has been felt by acousticians and engineers for some time. This type of data can otherwise only be found in a collection of handbooks. Therefore, it is the author's intention that this book serve as a single source for many electroacoustical reference and system design requirements. In form, the volume closely resembles Frank Massa's Acoustic Design Charts, a handy book dating from 1942 that has long been out of print. The basic format of Massa's book has been followed here: For each entry, graphical data are presented on the right page, while text, examples, and refer­ ences appear on the left page. In this manner, the user can solve a given problem without thumbing from one page to the next. All graphs and charts have been scaled for ease in data entry and reading. The book is divided into the following sections: A. General Acoustical Relationships. This section covers the behavior of sound transmis­ sion in...

  20. Blending the Trends: A Holistic Approach to Reference Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Megan

    2011-01-01

    The growing trends of tiered reference, roving librarians, and virtual reference offer academic libraries several options for providing the most effective reference service. Increased enrollment at community colleges has prompted a reconsideration of how librarians can balance reference, teaching, and faculty responsibilities. This article…

  1. Dynamic HTML: the definitive reference

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goodman, Danny

    2007-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii Part I. Dynamic HTML Reference 1. HTML and XHTML Reference Attribute Value Types Shared HTML Element Attributes Shared Event Handler Attributes Alphabetical...

  2. Ein nicht-erwerbszentrierter Blick auf die Geschlechterverhältnisse in der DDR und Ostdeutschland A Look at Gender Relations in the GDR and East Germany, Focussing on the Social, Domestic, and Family Sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylka Scholz

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Im Mittelpunkt des Buches von Susanne Stolt steht die Frage nach alltäglichen Geschlechterbeziehungen in Ostdeutschland nach der Wende und der individuellen Suche nach Anerkennung von Männern und Frauen. Theoretisch stützt Stolt sich dabei v.a. auf den psychoanalytisch geprägten Ansatz von Jessica Benjamin mit der Fokussierung auf das Anerkennungsproblem und empirisch auf qualitative Interviews von Frauen und Ehepaaren. Sie distanziert sich von „erwerbszentrierten Perspektiven“, die die Dominanz des Erwerbssystems und die Abwertung von Fürsorgearbeit fortschreiben und damit die in die Erwerbssphäre eingeschriebene männliche Herrschaft reproduzieren.Stolt’s work investigates everyday gender relations in post-socialist East Germany, focusing on the search for recognition of individual men and women. Stolte’s work is informed by Jessica Benjamin’s psychoanalytical work on the search for recognition; furthermore, Stolte draws on qualitative interviews which she conducted with women and with heterosexual couples. Stolte makes a point of distancing herself from approaches which focus on the sphere of “gainful employment,” arguing that approaches which focus on a narrowly defined sphere of work do not problematise dominant ideas about the value of unpaid work (e.g., caretaking, and thus serve to reproduce male bias and male dominance which are intrinsic to the sphere of gainful employment.

  3. Instrumentation reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Boyes, Walt

    2002-01-01

    Instrumentation is not a clearly defined subject, having a 'fuzzy' boundary with a number of other disciplines. Often categorized as either 'techniques' or 'applications' this book addresses the various applications that may be needed with reference to the practical techniques that are available for the instrumentation or measurement of a specific physical quantity or quality. This makes it of direct interest to anyone working in the process, control and instrumentation fields where these measurements are essential.* Comprehensive and authoritative collection of technical information* Writte

  4. VBScript pocket reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lomax, Paul; Petrusha, Ron

    2008-01-01

    Microsoft's Visual Basic Scripting Edition (VBScript), a subset of Visual Basic for Applications, is a powerful language for Internet application development, where it can serve as a scripting language for server-side, client-side, and system scripting. Whether you're developing code for Active Server Pages, client-side scripts for Internet Explorer, code for Outlook forms, or scripts for Windows Script Host, VBScript Pocket Reference will be your constant companion. Don't let the pocket-friendly format fool you. Based on the bestsellingVBScript in a Nutshell, this small book details every V

  5. Optomechanical reference accelerometer

    CERN Document Server

    Gerberding, Oliver; Melcher, John; Pratt, Jon; Taylor, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    We present an optomechanical accelerometer with high dynamic range, high bandwidth and read-out noise levels below 8 {\\mu}g/$\\sqrt{\\mathrm{Hz}}$. The straightforward assembly and low cost of our device make it a prime candidate for on-site reference calibrations and autonomous navigation. We present experimental data taken with a vacuum sealed, portable prototype and deduce the achieved bias stability and scale factor accuracy. Additionally, we present a comprehensive model of the device physics that we use to analyze the fundamental noise sources and accuracy limitations of such devices.

  6. NUnit Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Hamilton, Bill

    2009-01-01

    The open source NUnit framework is an excellent way to test .NET code as it is written, saving hundreds of QA hours and headaches. Unfortunately, some of those hours saved can be wasted trying to master this popular but under-documented framework. Proof that good things come in small packages, the NUnit Pocket Reference is everything you need to get NUnit up and working for you. It's the only book you'll need on this popular and practical new open source framework.

  7. XSLT 10 Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lenz, Evan

    2008-01-01

    XSLT is an essential tool for converting XML into other kinds of documents: HTML, PDF file, and many others. It's a critical technology for XML-based platforms such as Microsoft .NET, Sun Microsystems' Sun One, as well as for most web browsers and authoring tools. As useful as XSLT is, however, most people have a difficult time getting used to its peculiar characteristics. The ability to use advanced techniques depends on a clear and exact understanding of how XSLT templates work and interact. The XSLT 1.0 Pocket Reference from O'Reilly wants to make sure you achieve that level of understan

  8. Xcode 5 developer reference

    CERN Document Server

    Wentk, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Design, code, and build amazing apps with Xcode 5 Thanks to Apple's awesome Xcode development environment, you can create the next big app for Macs, iPhones, iPads, or iPod touches. Xcode 5 contains gigabytes of great stuff to help you develop for both OS X and iOS devices - things like sample code, utilities, companion applications, documentation, and more. And with Xcode 5 Developer Reference, you now have the ultimate step-by-step guide to it all. Immerse yourself in the heady and lucrative world of Apple app development, see how to tame the latest features and functions, and find loads of

  9. Rails Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Berry, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Rails 2.1 brings a new level of stability and power to this acclaimed web development framework, but keeping track of its numerous moving parts is still a chore. Rails Pocket Reference offers you a painless alternative to hunting for resources online, with brief yet thorough explanations of the most frequently used methods and structures supported by Rails 2.1, along with key concepts you need to work through the framework's most tangled corners. Organized to help you quickly find what you need, this book will not only get you up to speed on how Rails works, it also provides a handy referenc

  10. Electronics engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Mazda, F F

    1989-01-01

    Electronics Engineer's Reference Book, Sixth Edition is a five-part book that begins with a synopsis of mathematical and electrical techniques used in the analysis of electronic systems. Part II covers physical phenomena, such as electricity, light, and radiation, often met with in electronic systems. Part III contains chapters on basic electronic components and materials, the building blocks of any electronic design. Part IV highlights electronic circuit design and instrumentation. The last part shows the application areas of electronics such as radar and computers.

  11. Nuclear Science References Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritychenko, B.; Běták, E.; Singh, B.; Totans, J.

    2014-06-01

    The Nuclear Science References (NSR) database together with its associated Web interface, is the world's only comprehensive source of easily accessible low- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics bibliographic information for more than 210,000 articles since the beginning of nuclear science. The weekly-updated NSR database provides essential support for nuclear data evaluation, compilation and research activities. The principles of the database and Web application development and maintenance are described. Examples of nuclear structure, reaction and decay applications are specifically included. The complete NSR database is freely available at the websites of the National Nuclear Data Center http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/nsr.

  12. Roaming Reference: Reinvigorating Reference through Point of Need Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kealin M. McCabe

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Roaming reference service was pursued as a way to address declining reference statistics. The service was staffed by librarians armed with iPads over a period of six months during the 2010-2011 academic year. Transactional statistics were collected in relation to query type (Research, Facilitative or Technology, location and approach (librarian to patron, patron to librarian or via chat widget. Overall, roaming reference resulted in an additional 228 reference questions, 67% (n=153 of which were research related. Two iterations of the service were implemented, roaming reference as a standalone service (Fall 2010 and roaming reference integrated with traditional reference desk duties (Winter 2011. The results demonstrate that although the Weller Library’s reference transactions are declining annually, they are not disappearing. For a roaming reference service to succeed, it must be a standalone service provided in addition to traditional reference services. The integration of the two reference models (roaming reference and reference desk resulted in a 56% decline in the total number of roaming reference questions from the previous term. The simple act of roaming has the potential to reinvigorate reference services as a whole, forcing librarians outside their comfort zones, allowing them to reach patrons at their point of need.

  13. Visual Basic 2010 Programmer's Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Stephens, Rod

    2010-01-01

    Build effective user interfaces with Windows Presentation Foundation. Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF) is included with the Windows operating system and provides a programming model for building applications that provide a clear separation between the UI and business logic. Written by a leading expert on Microsoft graphics programming, this richly illustrated book provides an introduction to WPF development and explains fundamental WPF concepts. Packed with helpful examples, this reference progresses through a range of topics that gradually increase in their complexity. You'll quickly sta

  14. JavaScript Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Flanagan, David

    1998-01-01

    JavaScript is a powerful, object-based scripting language that can be embedded directly in HTML pages. It allows you to create dynamic, interactive Web-based applications that run completely within a Web browser -- JavaScript is the language of choice for developing Dynamic HTML (DHTML) content. JavaScript can be integrated effectively with CGI and Java to produce sophisticated Web applications, although, in many cases, JavaScript eliminates the need for complex CGI scripts and Java applets altogether. The JavaScript Pocket Reference is a companion volume to JavaScript: The Definitive Guide

  15. Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    In 1990, the U.S. Congress enacted the Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act (CWPPRA) in response to growing awareness of a land loss crisis in Louisiana. Projects funded by CWPPRA require monitoring and evaluation of project effectiveness, and there is also a need to assess the cumulative effects of all projects to achieve a sustainable coastal environment. In 2003, the Louisiana Office of Coastal Protection and Restoration (OCPR) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) received approval from the CWPPRA Task Force to implement the Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) as a mechanism to monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of CWPPRA projects at the project, region, and coastwide levels. The CRMS design implements a multiple reference approach by using aspects of hydrogeomorphic functional assessments and probabilistic sampling. The CRMS program is as dynamic as the coastal habitats it monitors. The program is currently funded through CWPPRA and provides data for a variety of user groups, including resource managers, academics, landowners, and researchers.

  16. Sensor employing internal reference electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention concerns a novel internal reference electrode as well as a novel sensing electrode for an improved internal reference oxygen sensor and the sensor employing same.......The present invention concerns a novel internal reference electrode as well as a novel sensing electrode for an improved internal reference oxygen sensor and the sensor employing same....

  17. Coal data: A reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    This report, Coal Data: A Reference, summarizes basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the US. This report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ``Supplemental Figures and Tables`` contains statistics, graphs, maps, and other illustrations that show trends, patterns, geographic locations, and similar coal-related information. The section ``Coal Terminology and Related Information`` provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces some new terms. The last edition of Coal Data: A Reference was published in 1991. The present edition contains updated data as well as expanded reviews and additional information. Added to the text are discussions of coal quality, coal prices, unions, and strikes. The appendix has been expanded to provide statistics on a variety of additional topics, such as: trends in coal production and royalties from Federal and Indian coal leases, hours worked and earnings for coal mine employment, railroad coal shipments and revenues, waterborne coal traffic, coal export loading terminals, utility coal combustion byproducts, and trace elements in coal. The information in this report has been gleaned mainly from the sources in the bibliography. The reader interested in going beyond the scope of this report should consult these sources. The statistics are largely from reports published by the Energy Information Administration.

  18. Nuclear Science References Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritychenko, B., E-mail: pritychenko@bnl.gov [National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Běták, E. [Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, 84511 Bratislava (Slovakia); Singh, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4M1 (Canada); Totans, J. [National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States)

    2014-06-15

    The Nuclear Science References (NSR) database together with its associated Web interface, is the world's only comprehensive source of easily accessible low- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics bibliographic information for more than 210,000 articles since the beginning of nuclear science. The weekly-updated NSR database provides essential support for nuclear data evaluation, compilation and research activities. The principles of the database and Web application development and maintenance are described. Examples of nuclear structure, reaction and decay applications are specifically included. The complete NSR database is freely available at the websites of the National Nuclear Data Center (http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/nsr) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (http://www-nds.iaea.org/nsr)

  19. Service evaluation of weight outcomes as a function of initial BMI in 34,271 adults referred to a primary care/commercial weight management partnership scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background It is not clear if behaviour change programmes are more or less effective for weight management in people with high BMIs than for those who are moderately overweight. An earlier service evaluation reported on the rate and extent of weight loss in a primary care/commercial weight management organisation partnership scheme, in 34,271 patients were referred by their health care professionals to a UK commercial weight management organisation, Slimming World for 12 weekly sessions. This project updated that service evaluation by examining weight loss outcomes as a function of initial BMI in the same 34,271 patients. Findings Patients referred to the scheme (n = 34,271) were categorised by BMI groups <30 kg/m2, 30-34.9 kg/m2, 35-39.9 kg/m2 and to ≥ 40 kg/m2. Mean weight losses after 12 weekly sessions were 2.9, 3.6, 4.1, and 4.8 kg for each BMI category respectively. Regression analysis showed that after adjusting for age and gender, relative to the <30 kg/m2 group, absolute weight losses were 0.8, 1.4 and 2.4 kg more for the 30-34.9 kg/m2, 35-39.9 kg/m2 and to ≥ 40 kg/m2 groups, respectively (all p<0.001). Percent weight loss was similar in each BMI category: 3.7%, 4.0%, 4.0% and 3.9%, respectively (p<0.001). Conclusions This service evaluation demonstrates that 12 week referral to a commercial organisation is as effective for people with high BMIs as for those who are moderately overweight. PMID:23618381

  20. Effects of glomerular filtration rate estimating equations derived from different reference methods on staging and long term mortality risks of chronic kidney disease in a Southeast Asian cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamwong, Sukit; Kitiyakara, Chagriya; Vathesatogkit, Prin; Saranburut, Krittika; Chittamma, Anchalee; Cheepudomwit, Sayan; Vanavanan, Somlak; Akrawichien, Tawatchai; Sritara, Piyamitr

    2016-08-01

    There are limited data on the risks of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Southeast Asian populations. Several GFR estimating equations have been developed in diverse Asian populations, but they produce markedly discrepant results. We investigated the impact of Asian equations on the mortality risk of CKD in a Thai cohort during long term follow-up, and explored the differences between equations grouped according to the reference GFR methods used to develop them. Employees of the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (n = 3430) were enrolled in a health survey and followed up for 22 years. The risks for all-cause mortality for each GFR stage classified by CKD-EPI or different Asian equations were assessed by using Cox proportional hazard models. Equations derived from DTPA clearance (Chinese MDRD, Thai GFR, Singapore CKD-EPI) produced higher GFR, whereas equations from inulin clearance (Japanese CKD-EPI, Taiwan MDRD or Taiwan CKD-EPI) produced lower GFR compared to CKD-EPI. (Average ΔGFR: inulin, -14.9 vs. DTPA +5.80 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) , P Chronic kidney disease prevalence and prognosis in Thais varied widely depending on the equation used. Differences in the reference GFR methods could be an important cause for the discrepancies between Asian equations. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  1. Comparison of the effects of pollution on the marine bivalve Donax trunculus in the vicinity of polluted sites with specimens from a clean reference site (Mediterranean Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yawetz, Aminadav; Fishelson, Lev; Bresler, Vladimir; Manelis, Rami

    2010-02-01

    The physiological and biochemical characteristics of tissue samples of the marine mussel, Donax trunculus, from an oil-polluted site (Qiryat Yam) and from a site adjacent to an industrial factory (Frutarom) producing polyvinyl chloride (PVC) were compared with samples from a clean reference site (Akko). All sites were located along the sandy shores of the Israeli Mediterranean Sea. The mussels from the oil-polluted site showed increased activity of the system of active transport of organic anions (SATOA) in the gills and the renocardial organ and also of the multixenobiotic resistance transporter (MXR) in the gills. In contrast, samples collected near the PVC factory showed a decrease in SATOA activity and no increase in the activity of MXR in the gills. Specimens from the reference site demonstrated a redox state of equilibrium between energy production and utilization, while in Donax from both the oil polluted and the PVC-polluted sites, the mitochondrial redox state reflected intensive consumption of energy. No significant changes were found in the activity of reduced glutathione s-transferase (GST) in the cytosolic fraction of the digestive gland of Donax collected from any of the three sites. The data demonstrate a differential increase in the anti-chemical defense systems and an intensification of energy metabolism in the mussels exposed to pollution. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of mother-son incest and positive perceptions of sexual abuse experiences on the psychosocial adjustment of clinic-referred men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Robert J; Wood, Jeffrey J; Gonzalez, Lauren S; MacDonald, Virginia; Waterman, Jill

    2002-04-01

    The primary objective was to examine the long-term impact of mother-son incest and positive initial perceptions of sexual abuse experiences on adult male psychosocial functioning. Sixty-seven clinic-referred men with a history of sexual abuse participated. The participants completed self-report measures regarding their current psychosocial functioning and described the nature of their sexual and physical abuse experiences during childhood. Seventeen men reported mother-son incest, and these men endorsed more trauma symptoms than did other sexually abused men, even after controlling for a history of multiple perpetrators and physical abuse. Mother-son incest was likely to be subtle, involving behaviors that may be difficult to distinguish from normal caregiving (e.g., genital touching), despite the potentially serious long-term consequences. Twenty-seven men recalled positive or mixed initial perceptions of the abuse, including about half of the men who had been abused by their mothers. These men reported more adjustment problems than did men who recalled purely negative initial perceptions. Mother-son incest and positive initial perceptions of sexual abuse experiences both appear to be risk factors for more severe psychosocial adjustment problems among clinic-referred men.

  3. Articular saúde mental e relações de gênero: dar voz aos sujeitos silenciados Articulate mental health and social gender relations: giving voice to silenced subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Corbi Caldas dos Santos

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Analisa-se a experiência do sofrimento psíquico a partir de relatos de homens e mulheres usuários de serviço público de saúde do município de Araraquara (SP. Considera-se a construção social do sofrimento psíquico e, portanto, a conformação dos valores e normas de determinada sociedade e época histórica. Utilizaram-se entrevistas semi-estruturadas com usuários do Centro de Atenção Psicossocial (CAPS, homens e mulheres, analisadas sob a ótica das relações sociais de gênero e do contexto das mudanças no sistema psiquiátrico brasileiro a partir da luta antimanicomial. Conclui-se que o desafio a ser enfrentado pela sociedade brasileira contemporânea na construção de políticas públicas para saúde mental deve levar em conta questões postas pela perspectiva das relações sociais de gênero. Portanto, significa, ao incorporar o tema gênero no âmbito da saúde mental, questionar uma concepção reducionista e biologizante da saúde mental das mulheres. Verificou-se que o adoecimento psíquico feminino mantém estreita correlação com a violência contra as mulheres e a repressão sexual ainda vigente na sociedade. No que tange à vivência do adoecimento psíquico masculino, requer enfrentar a questão do estigma. Estes, ao adoecerem, são excluídos do espaço público e enfrentam maiores dificuldades de reinserção social e de reconstrução da identidade anterior.The experience of the psychological suffering based on testimonies of male and female users of a public health service in the municipality of Araraquara (SP. It is considered the social construction of the psychological suffering and, therefore, the arrangement of values and norms of a certain society and historical period. Semi-structured interviews were applied in male and female users of the Center of Psychosocial Attention (CAPS. These interviews were analyzed through the perspective of social gender relations and under the context of changes at the

  4. Roaming Reference: Reinvigorating Reference through Point of Need Service

    OpenAIRE

    Kealin M. McCabe; James R.W. MacDonald

    2011-01-01

    Roaming reference service was pursued as a way to address declining reference statistics. The service was staffed by librarians armed with iPads over a period of six months during the 2010-2011 academic year. Transactional statistics were collected in relation to query type (Research, Facilitative or Technology), location and approach (librarian to patron, patron to librarian or via chat widget). Overall, roaming reference resulted in an additional 228 reference questions, 67% (n=153) of whic...

  5. A MULHER NEGRA E AS RELAÇÕES DE GÊNERO EM MENINO DE ENGENHO DE JOSÉ LINS DO REGO THE BLACK WOMAN AND GENDER RELATIONS IN MENINO DE ENGENHO BY JOSÉ LINS DO REGO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zélia Monteiro Bora ; Marina Rodrigues de Oliveira

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Os romances do ciclo da cana-de-açúcar, do escritor paraibano José Lins do Rego (1901-1957 e a sua relação com a sociedade e a cultura destacam-se enquanto abordagens ficcionais, através das quais o escritor buscou representar aspectos relevantes para o entendimento das relações de gênero no Nordeste, no começo do século vinte. Tal representação, indiscutivelmente, reflete a perspectiva de um narrador profundamente marcado pelo lugar privilegiado de onde narra e de sua condição existencial, como o neto de um senhor de engenho. Diante desses aspectos, propomo- nos a analisar brevemente as implicações dessa perspectiva sobre a construção simbólica da personagem negra representada no romance. Para tanto, serão utilizados como referenciais críticos, além do citado romance, os estudos de Zagury (1982, Albuquerque Jr. (1999, Azevedo (1996, 2007, Freyre (2006 Chaguri (2009, Schwarz (2008 e Raboni (2010.The so called sugar cane cycle novels by the Parahyban writer Jose Lins do Rego (1901-197 and its relationship with society and culture constitute themselves as fictional approaches through which the writer sought to represent aspects to the understanding of gender relations in the Northeast of Brazil in the early twentieth century. Such representation, undoubtedly reflects the perspective of a narrator deeply marked by the privileged place from which he narrates and his existential condition, as the son of a plantation owner. Given these aspects, we propose to examine briefly the implications of his perspective on the symbolic construction of the black woman characteres represented in the novel. The following

  6. Effect of salt supplementation on the rate of inadequate sweat collection for infants less than 3 months of age referred for the sweat test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglani, Lokesh; Abdulhamid, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Sweat testing in young infants (≤ 3 months) with a positive newborn screen for Cystic Fibrosis (CF) can yield higher rates of inadequate sweat collection. The role of salt supplements in improving sweat collection has not been studied before. All young infants referred to our CF center for sweat testing were randomized to either receive salt supplements {1/8th teaspoon salt (750 mg)} mixed in formula feeds 1 day prior to sweat testing (study group) or no salt supplement (controls). Of the 151 young infants that underwent sweat testing over 18 months, 75 received salt supplements, while 76 did not. A total of 9 (11.8%) infants in the salt supplement group had inadequate sweat collection, as compared to 4 (5.2%) infants in the control group (p = 0.16, Fisher's Exact Test). Oral salt supplementation for young infants prior to sweat testing does not help to reduce the rates of inadequate sweat collection.

  7. Effects of laboratory housing on exploratory behaviour, novelty discrimination and spatial reference memory in a subterranean, solitary rodent, the Cape mole-rat (Georychus capensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kathleen Oosthuizen

    Full Text Available A large number of laboratory and field based studies are being carried out on mole-rats, both in our research group and others. Several studies have highlighted the development of adverse behaviours in laboratory animals and have emphasised the importance of enrichment for captive animals. Hence we were interested in evaluating how laboratory housing would affect behavioural performance in mole-rats. We investigated exploratory behaviour, the ability to discriminate between novel and familiar environments and reference memory in the solitary Cape mole-rat (Georychus capensis. Our data showed that both wild and captive animals readily explore open spaces and tunnels. Wild animals were however more active than their captive counterparts. In the Y maze two trial discrimination task, wild animals failed to discriminate between novel and familiar environments, while laboratory housed mole-rats showed preferential spatial discrimination in terms of the length of time spent in the novel arm. The performance of the laboratory and wild animals were similar when tested for reference memory in the Y maze, both groups showed a significant improvement compared to the first day, from the 3rd day onwards. Wild animals made more mistakes whereas laboratory animals were slower in completing the task. The difference in performance between wild and laboratory animals in the Y-maze may be as a result of the lower activity of the laboratory animals. Laboratory maintained Cape mole-rats show classic behaviours resulting from a lack of stimulation such as reduced activity and increased aggression. However, they do display an improved novelty discrimination compared to the wild animals. Slower locomotion rate of the laboratory animals may increase the integration time of stimuli, hence result in a more thorough inspection of the surroundings. Unlike the captive animals, wild animals show flexibility in their responses to unpredictable events, which is an important

  8. Effects of laboratory housing on exploratory behaviour, novelty discrimination and spatial reference memory in a subterranean, solitary rodent, the Cape mole-rat (Georychus capensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosthuizen, Maria Kathleen; Scheibler, Anne-Gita; Bennett, Nigel Charles; Amrein, Irmgard

    2013-01-01

    A large number of laboratory and field based studies are being carried out on mole-rats, both in our research group and others. Several studies have highlighted the development of adverse behaviours in laboratory animals and have emphasised the importance of enrichment for captive animals. Hence we were interested in evaluating how laboratory housing would affect behavioural performance in mole-rats. We investigated exploratory behaviour, the ability to discriminate between novel and familiar environments and reference memory in the solitary Cape mole-rat (Georychus capensis). Our data showed that both wild and captive animals readily explore open spaces and tunnels. Wild animals were however more active than their captive counterparts. In the Y maze two trial discrimination task, wild animals failed to discriminate between novel and familiar environments, while laboratory housed mole-rats showed preferential spatial discrimination in terms of the length of time spent in the novel arm. The performance of the laboratory and wild animals were similar when tested for reference memory in the Y maze, both groups showed a significant improvement compared to the first day, from the 3rd day onwards. Wild animals made more mistakes whereas laboratory animals were slower in completing the task. The difference in performance between wild and laboratory animals in the Y-maze may be as a result of the lower activity of the laboratory animals. Laboratory maintained Cape mole-rats show classic behaviours resulting from a lack of stimulation such as reduced activity and increased aggression. However, they do display an improved novelty discrimination compared to the wild animals. Slower locomotion rate of the laboratory animals may increase the integration time of stimuli, hence result in a more thorough inspection of the surroundings. Unlike the captive animals, wild animals show flexibility in their responses to unpredictable events, which is an important requirement under

  9. LISA Gravitational Reference Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Kexun [Ginzton Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Johann, Ulrich [EADS Astrium GmbH, Immenstaad (Germany); DeBra, Dan B; Buchman, Sasha [Ginzton Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Byer, Robert L [Ginzton Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2007-03-15

    We review state of the art of the gravitational reference sensor (GRS) for the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). LISA consists of three identical spacecraft placed at the corners of an equilateral triangle with a 5 million kilometer baseline. In the LISA baseline design, the spacecraft at each corner will have two optical assemblies subtending an angle of 60 degrees. A proof mass (PM) is housed in a GRS located at the center of each assembly. LISA measures the distance variation between PMs separated by 5 million kilometers to a precision of 40 pm/Hz{sup 1/2}. The GRS must shield the PM from external disturbances such as solar wind and functions as a drag-free sensor for spacecraft control. The GRS must minimize the back action and cross talk exerted by measurements themselves. Significant progress has been made in the design, fabrication and testing of the GRS. LISA Pathfinder will fly a test GRS system scheduled around 2009. In addition, there have also been new architectures proposed to simplify the LISA payloads by using a single PM and therefore only one GRS per spacecraft. Further a modular GRS (MGRS) structure is proposed to reduce complexity. Optical sensing and large gap size between the PM and the MGRS housing are proposed to lower the disturbance level. Many experimental, engineering design, and trade off studies are underway.

  10. Global Reference Tables Services Architecture

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This database stores the reference and transactional data used to provide a data-driven service access method to certain Global Reference Table (GRT) service tables.

  11. Effect of changing from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey III spirometry reference range to that of the Global Lung Initiative 2012 at Gold Coast Hospital and Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embling, Laura A K; Zagami, Debbie; Sriram, Krishna Bajee; Gordon, Robert J; Sivakumaran, Pathmanathan

    2016-12-01

    The categorisation of lung disease into obstructive ventilatory defect (OVD) and tendency to a restrictive ventilatory defect (TRVD) patterns using spirometry is used to guide both prognostication and treatment. The effectiveness of categorisation depends upon having reference ranges that accurately represent the population they describe. The Global Lung Initiative 2012 (GLI 2012) has spirometry reference ranges drawn from the largest sample size to date. This study aimed to determine whether using spirometry reference ranges from the new GLI 2012 dataset, compared to the previously used National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey III (NHANES III) dataset, resulted in a change in diagnosis between OVD, TRVD and normal ventilatory pattern (NVP). Spirometry data were collected from 301 patients, aged 18-80 years, undergoing investigation at the Gold Coast Hospital and Health Service (GCHHS) throughout February and March 2014. OVD was defined as a forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) divided by forced vital capacity (FVC) less than lower limit of normal (LLN). TRVD was defined as FEV1/FVC ≥ LLN, FEV1 < LLN, and FVC < LLN. The LLN values were determined by equations from the GLI and NHANES datasets. Spirometry interpreted using the NHANES III equations showed: 102 individuals (33.9%) with normal spirometry, 136 (45.2%) with an OVD pattern, 52 (17.3%) with a TRVD pattern, and 11 (3.7%) with a mixed pattern. When the spirometry data were interpreted using the GLI 2012 equations 2 (0.7%) individuals changed from OVD to NVP, 2 (0.7%) changed from NVP to OVD and 14 (4.7%) changed from TRVD to NVP. Using the GLI 2012 reference range resulted in a change in diagnosis of lung disease in 5.9% of the individuals included in this study. This variance in diagnosis when changing reference ranges should be taken into account by clinicians as it may affect patient management.

  12. Kerlinger's Criterial Referents Theory Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Itai; Birenbaum, Menucha

    1980-01-01

    Kerlinger's criterial referents theory of attitudes was tested cross-culturally by administering an education attitude referents summated-rating scale to 713 individuals in Israel. The response pattern to criterial and noncriterial referents was examined. Results indicated empirical cross-cultural validity of theory, but questioned measuring…

  13. What Determines the Response: Test or Reference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukova, S. V.; Ahumada, A. J., Jr.; Null, Cynthia (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The stability of sensory memory has been studied by presenting a reference stimulus, a delay, and a test stimulus. As has been pointed out by Lages and Treisman (1998 Vision Research 38 557-572), the usual measure of performance depends only on the effect of test variations on the responses. The Weber fraction characterizing performance is more properly called the test stimulus Weber fraction. We measure the relative contribution of the test and reference to the response by the ratio of the test Weber fraction to the reference Weber fraction. The stimuli were two dark lines on a bright background. Seven reference separations, varying from 9.5 to 16.7 arc min, were intermixed in each run. Interstimulus intervals (ISI) of 50, 200 and 2000 msec and intertrial intervals (ITI) of 500 and 2500 msec were investigated. When the ISI was short (50 or 200 msec), for both ITIs, responses were determined equally by the test and reference. For the long ISI (2000 msec), the reference stimulus contributed less. However, only for the 500 msec ITI (and not for all observers) was the contribution of the reference stimulus negligible, as Treisman's criterion setting theory might suggest.

  14. Effect of cooking on the chemical composition of low-salt, low-fat Wakame/olive oil added beef patties with special reference to fatty acid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, I; Cofrades, S; Cañeque, V; Díaz, M T; López, O; Jiménez-Colmenero, F

    2011-09-01

    Changes in chemical composition, with special reference to fatty acids, as affected by cooking, were studied in low-salt (0.5%)/low-fat patties (10%) with added Wakame (3%) and partial or total replacement of pork backfat with olive oil-in-water emulsion. The addition of Wakame and olive oil-in-water emulsion improved (P < 0.05) the binding properties and the cooking retention values of moisture, fat, fatty acids and ash, which were close to 100%. Partial and total replacement of animal fat with olive oil-in-water emulsion reduced (P < 0.05) saturated fatty acids (SFAs), while total replacement also reduced (P < 0.05) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFAs) contents. The fatty acid concentration in cooked patties was affected by product formulation. Unlike the case of all animal fat patties, when olive oil was added the cooking process increased (P < 0.05) SFAs, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and PUFA n-3 (linolenic acid) and n-6 (linoleic acid) contents. Cooked formulated patties with seaweed and partial or total replacement of pork backfat by oil-in-water emulsion and with seaweed added were less calorie-dense and had lower SFAs levels, while samples with olive oil had higher MUFAs levels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of education on quality of life of family caregivers of children with leukemia referred to the Oncology Clinic at Kerman's Afzali-Poor Hospital (Iran), 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodsbin, Fariba; Asadi, Navid; Javanmardi Fard, Sorur; Kamali, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the impact of education on the quality of life of parent of children with leukemia referred to the oncology clinic at Kerman's Afzali-Poor hospital (Iran). This was an interventional study with 80 parents of children with leukemia; all of the caregivers were mothers and were included in the research. They were chosen using the convenience sampling method and categorized randomly into two groups (intervention and control, each with 40 participants). Research tools included demographic information and Quality of Life (QoL) scale (a specific form for first-degree family caregivers of patients with leukemia). Questionnaires were applied at the beginning of the research and after three months; this second evaluation coincided in the study group with the end of the intervention. The intervention lasted four sessions of 45- to 65-minute classes, with lectures and question and answer sessions, educational booklets, and posters in groups with 4 - 6 members. In the first evaluation, mean QoL scores in the study and control groups were 224.9 and 225.7, which, after three months changed to 338.2 and 226.7, respectively. T-test verified these increases (pchildren with leukemia, to promote care, reduce anxiety, and consequently, enhance quality of life.

  16. Comparing the Effectiveness of Self-Paced and Collaborative Frame-of-Reference Training on Rater Accuracy in a Large-Scale Writing Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raczynski, Kevin R.; Cohen, Allan S.; Engelhard, George, Jr.; Lu, Zhenqiu

    2015-01-01

    There is a large body of research on the effectiveness of rater training methods in the industrial and organizational psychology literature. Less has been reported in the measurement literature on large-scale writing assessments. This study compared the effectiveness of two widely used rater training methods--self-paced and collaborative…

  17. Climate change reference guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    At the heart of climate change is the greenhouse effect, in which molecules of various gases trap heat in Earths atmosphere and keep it warm enough to support life. Carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases (GHGs) are an important part of Ea...

  18. Sexualidade e conjugalidade: a redefinição das relações de gênero na França contemporânea Sexuality and conjugality: the redefinition of gender relations in contemporary France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Bozon

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Um laço novo se estabeleceu entre sexualidade e vida conjugal nas últimas décadas do século XX. Tradicionalmente o direito à atividade sexual era adquirido com o estatuto de sujeito casado; hoje em dia, o intercâmbio sexual passou a ser o motor interno da conjugalidade. No entanto, esta inversão não gerou uma transformação completa das relações de gênero. A análise das mudanças dos comportamentos na França contemporânea mostra sem dúvida uma aproximação das trajetórias sexuais femininas e masculinas, e o desenvolvimento dum valor de reciprocidade entre parceiros. Mas o exame mais preciso do confronto dos homens e das mulheres nas várias etapas do intercâmbio sexual sugere a permanência de uma divergência de gênero: tanto a socialização adolescente como o curso da vida conjugal continuam sustentando interpretações muito assimétricas da sexualidade, nas quais o desejo feminino tem menos legitimidade do que o masculino.The relation between sexuality and conjugality has been deeply redefined in the last decades of the XXth century. Whereas sex was traditionally a right and an attribute of married people, sexual exchange has presently become the inner driving force in contemporary conjugality. Nevertheless, this reversal has not brought about radical shifts in gender relations. An analysis of trends in sexual behaviours in France doubtless shows the closing of the gap between male and female sexual trajectories and the rise of a value of reciprocity between partners. But a closer examination of the confronting of men and women at the various stages of sexual exchange suggests the permanence of a strong gender divergence: teen age socialization, as well as the very course of conjugal sex life continue fostering very assimetrical interpretations of sexuality, in which female desire is always less legitimate than the male one.

  19. Relation of oxygen uptake to work rate in prepubertal healthy children - reference for VO2/W-slope and effect on cardiorespiratory fitness assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompuri, Tuomo; Lintu, Niina; Laitinen, Tomi; Lakka, Timo A

    2017-08-09

    Exercise testing by cycle ergometer allows to observe the interaction between oxygen uptake (VO2 ) and workload (W), and VO2 /W-slope can be used as a diagnostic tool. Respectively, peak oxygen uptake (VO2PEAK ) can be estimated by maximal workload. We aim to determine reference for VO2 /W-slope among prepubertal children and define agreement between estimated and measured VO2PEAK . A total of 38 prepubertal children (20 girls) performed a maximal cycle ergometer test with respiratory gas analysis. VO2 /W-slopes were computed using linear regression. Agreement analysis by Bland and Altman for estimated and measured VO2PEAK was carried out including limits of agreement (LA). Determinants for VO2 /W-slopes and estimation bias were defined. VO2/W-slope was in both girls and boys ≥9·4 and did not change with exercise level, but the oxygen cost of exercise was higher among physically more active children. Estimated VO2PEAK had 6·4% coefficient of variation, and LA varied from 13% underestimation to 13% overestimation. Bias had a trend towards underestimation along lean mass proportional VO2PEAK . The primary determinant for estimation bias was VO2/W-slope (β = -0·65; PW-slope among healthy prepubertal children were similar to those published for adults and among adolescents. Estimated and measured VO2PEAK should not be considered to be interchangeable because of the variation in the relationship between VO2 and W. On other hand, variation in the relationship between VO2 and W enables that VO2 /W-slope can be used as a diagnostic tool. © 2017 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Cost-effective sequencing of full-length cDNA clones powered by a de novo-reference hybrid assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroshu, Reginaldo M; Watanabe, Junichi; Sugano, Sumio; Morishita, Shinichi; Suzuki, Yutaka; Kasahara, Masahiro

    2010-05-07

    Sequencing full-length cDNA clones is important to determine gene structures including alternative splice forms, and provides valuable resources for experimental analyses to reveal the biological functions of coded proteins. However, previous approaches for sequencing cDNA clones were expensive or time-consuming, and therefore, a fast and efficient sequencing approach was demanded. We developed a program, MuSICA 2, that assembles millions of short (36-nucleotide) reads collected from a single flow cell lane of Illumina Genome Analyzer to shotgun-sequence approximately 800 human full-length cDNA clones. MuSICA 2 performs a hybrid assembly in which an external de novo assembler is run first and the result is then improved by reference alignment of shotgun reads. We compared the MuSICA 2 assembly with 200 pooled full-length cDNA clones finished independently by the conventional primer-walking using Sanger sequencers. The exon-intron structure of the coding sequence was correct for more than 95% of the clones with coding sequence annotation when we excluded cDNA clones insufficiently represented in the shotgun library due to PCR failure (42 out of 200 clones excluded), and the nucleotide-level accuracy of coding sequences of those correct clones was over 99.99%. We also applied MuSICA 2 to full-length cDNA clones from Toxoplasma gondii, to confirm that its ability was competent even for non-human species. The entire sequencing and shotgun assembly takes less than 1 week and the consumables cost only approximately US$3 per clone, demonstrating a significant advantage over previous approaches.