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Sample records for reference experiments phase

  1. FALSIRE Phase II. CSNI project for Fracture Analyses of Large-Scale International Reference Experiments (Phase II). Comparison report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sievers, J.; Schulz, H.; Bass, R.; Pugh, C.; Keeney, J.

    1996-11-01

    A summary of Phase II of the Project for Fracture Analysis of Large-Scale International Reference Experiments (FALSIRE) is presented. A FALSIRE II Workshop focused on analyses of reference fracture experiments. More than 30 participants representing 22 organizations from 12 countries took part in the workshop. Final results for 45 analyses of the reference experiments were received from the participating analysts. For each experiment, analysis results provided estimates of variables that include temperature, crack-mouth-opening displacement, stress, strain, and applied K and J values. The data were sent electronically to the Organizing Committee, who assembled the results into a comparative data base using a special-purpose computer program. A comparative assessment and discussion of the analysis results are presented in the report. Generally, structural responses of the test specimens were predicted with tolerable scatter bands. (orig./DG)

  2. FALSIRE. CSNI project for fracture analyses of large-scale international reference experiments. Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sievers, J.; Schulz, H.; Bass, B.R.; Pugh, C.E.; Keeney, J.

    1994-04-01

    The six experiments used in Project FALSIRE (performed in the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the U.S.A.) were designed to examine various aspects of crack growth in reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels under pressurized-thermal-shock (PTS) loading conditions. The CSNI/FAG established a common format for comprehensive statements of these experiments, including supporting information and available analysis results. For each experiment, analysis results provided estimates of variables such as crack growth, crack-mouth-opening displacement, temperature, stress, strain, and applied J and K values. A comparative assessment and discussion of the analysis results are presented; also, the current status of the entire results data base is summarized. Generally, these results highlight the importance of adequately modeling structural behavior of specimens before performing fracture mechanics evaluations. Applications of the various fracture methodologies were found to be partially successful in some cases but not in others. Based on these assessments, some conclusions concerning predictive capabilities of selected ductile fracture methodologies, as applied to RPVs subjected to PTS loading are given. (orig.)

  3. Falsire: CSNI project for fracture analyses of large-scale international reference experiments (Phase 1). Comparison report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    A summary of the recently completed Phase I of the Project for Fracture Analysis of Large-Scale International Reference Experiments (Project FALSIRE) is presented. Project FALSIRE was created by the Fracture Assessment Group (FAG) of Principal Working Group No. 3 (PWG/3) of the OECD/NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI), formed to evaluate fracture prediction capabilities currently used in safety assessments of nuclear vessel components. The aim of the Project FALSIRE was to assess various fracture methodologies through interpretive analyses of selected large-scale fracture experiments. The six experiments used in Project FALSIRE (performed in the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the U.S.A.) were designed to examine various aspects of crack growth in reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels under pressurized-thermal-shock (PTS) loading conditions. The analysis techniques employed by the participants included engineering and finite-element methods, which were combined with Jr fracture methodology and the French local approach. For each experiment, analysis results provided estimates of variables such as crack growth, crack-mouth-opening displacement, temperature, stress, strain, and applied J and K values. A comparative assessment and discussion of the analysis results are presented; also, the current status of the entire results data base is summarized. Some conclusions concerning predictive capabilities of selected ductile fracture methodologies, as applied to RPVs subjected to PTS loading, are given, and recommendations for future development of fracture methodologies are made

  4. Two-dimensional numerical experiments with DRIX-2D on two-phase-water-flows referring to the HDR-blowdown-experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moesinger, H.

    1979-08-01

    The computer program DRIX-2D has been developed from SOLA-DF. The essential elements of the program structure are described. In order to verify DRIX-2D an Edwards-Blowdown-Experiment is calculated and other numerical results are compared with steady state experiments and models. Numerical experiments on transient two-phase flow, occurring in the broken pipe of a PWR in the case of a hypothetic LOCA, are performed. The essential results of the two-dimensional calculations are: 1. The appearance of a radial profile of void-fraction, velocity, sound speed and mass flow-rate inside the blowdown nozzle. The reason for this is the flow contraction at the nozzle inlet leading to more vapour production in the vicinity of the pipe wall. 2. A comparison between modelling in axisymmetric and Cartesian coordinates and calculations with and without the core barrel show the following: a) The three-dimensional flow pattern at the nozzle inlet is poorly described using Cartesian coordinates. In consequence a considerable difference in pressure history results. b) The core barrel alters the reflection behaviour of the pressure waves oscillating in the blowdown-nozzle. Therefore, the core barrel should be modelled as a wall normal to the nozzle axis. (orig./HP) [de

  5. The CEBAF fiber optic phase reference system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, K.; Simrock, S.; Hovater, C.; Krycuk, A.

    1995-01-01

    The specified phase stability of the CEBAF RF distribution system is 2.9 degree rms per linac. Stability is achieved through the use of a temperature and pressure regulated coaxial drive line. Purpose of the fiber optic phase reference system is to monitor the relative phase at the beginning and ending of this drive line, between linacs, injector and separator to determine drift due to ambient temperature fluctuations. The system utilizes an Ortel 1310 nm single mode laser driving Sumitumo optical fiber to distribute a reference signal at 1497 MHz. Phase of this reference signal is compared to the 1427 MHz (LO) and the 70 MHz (IF) via a 360 degree phase detector. The detected information is then routed to the CEBAF control system for display with a specified resolution of ±0.2 degree over a 20 degree phase delta

  6. SWITCHED REFERENCE PHASE LOCK LOOP (SRPLL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KERNER, T.

    2001-01-01

    The Brookhaven National Laboratory Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) has two beam synchronous event links (BSL), one for each ring, which use the 28 MHz ring low level rf to distribute event codes synchronously with a precise phase relationship to the beam. During a cogging reset just before injection, the low level rf sine wave is interrupted which causes the BSL receivers to lose lock. Lock loss in turn causes false triggers and other undesirable-effects on the beam position monitors (BPM), ionization profile monitors (IPM), the tune meter and various experiments which use the BSLs. To rectify these problems, a SRPLL has been inserted between the beam synchronous master and the low level rf source. The SRPLL inserts a frequency and phase continuous splice over the dead-band gap in the rf source created during a cogging reset. The splice removes the gap and prevents the distributed BSL receivers from losing lock

  7. Optical atomic phase reference and timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollberg, L; Cornell, E H; Abdelrahmann, A

    2017-08-06

    Atomic clocks based on laser-cooled atoms have made tremendous advances in both accuracy and stability. However, advanced clocks have not found their way into widespread use because there has been little need for such high performance in real-world/commercial applications. The drive in the commercial world favours smaller, lower-power, more robust compact atomic clocks that function well in real-world non-laboratory environments. Although the high-performance atomic frequency references are useful to test Einstein's special relativity more precisely, there are not compelling scientific arguments to expect a breakdown in special relativity. On the other hand, the dynamics of gravity, evidenced by the recent spectacular results in experimental detection of gravity waves by the LIGO Scientific Collaboration, shows dramatically that there is new physics to be seen and understood in space-time science. Those systems require strain measurements at less than or equal to 10 -20 As we discuss here, cold atom optical frequency references are still many orders of magnitude away from the frequency stability that should be achievable with narrow-linewidth quantum transitions and large numbers of very cold atoms, and they may be able to achieve levels of phase stability, Δ Φ / Φ total  ≤ 10 -20 , that could make an important impact in gravity wave science.This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantum technology for the 21st century'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  8. Optical atomic phase reference and timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollberg, L.; Cornell, E. H.; Abdelrahmann, A.

    2017-06-01

    Atomic clocks based on laser-cooled atoms have made tremendous advances in both accuracy and stability. However, advanced clocks have not found their way into widespread use because there has been little need for such high performance in real-world/commercial applications. The drive in the commercial world favours smaller, lower-power, more robust compact atomic clocks that function well in real-world non-laboratory environments. Although the high-performance atomic frequency references are useful to test Einstein's special relativity more precisely, there are not compelling scientific arguments to expect a breakdown in special relativity. On the other hand, the dynamics of gravity, evidenced by the recent spectacular results in experimental detection of gravity waves by the LIGO Scientific Collaboration, shows dramatically that there is new physics to be seen and understood in space-time science. Those systems require strain measurements at less than or equal to 10-20. As we discuss here, cold atom optical frequency references are still many orders of magnitude away from the frequency stability that should be achievable with narrow-linewidth quantum transitions and large numbers of very cold atoms, and they may be able to achieve levels of phase stability, ΔΦ/Φtotal ≤ 10-20, that could make an important impact in gravity wave science. This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantum technology for the 21st century'.

  9. Phase modulated high density collinear holographic data storage system with phase-retrieval reference beam locking and orthogonal reference encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinpeng; Horimai, Hideyoshi; Lin, Xiao; Huang, Yong; Tan, Xiaodi

    2018-02-19

    A novel phase modulation method for holographic data storage with phase-retrieval reference beam locking is proposed and incorporated into an amplitude-encoding collinear holographic storage system. Unlike the conventional phase retrieval method, the proposed method locks the data page and the corresponding phase-retrieval interference beam together at the same location with a sequential recording process, which eliminates piezoelectric elements, phase shift arrays and extra interference beams, making the system more compact and phase retrieval easier. To evaluate our proposed phase modulation method, we recorded and then recovered data pages with multilevel phase modulation using two spatial light modulators experimentally. For 4-level, 8-level, and 16-level phase modulation, we achieved the bit error rate (BER) of 0.3%, 1.5% and 6.6% respectively. To further improve data storage density, an orthogonal reference encoding multiplexing method at the same position of medium is also proposed and validated experimentally. We increased the code rate of pure 3/16 amplitude encoding method from 0.5 up to 1.0 and 1.5 using 4-level and 8-level phase modulation respectively.

  10. Probabilistic cloning of coherent states without a phase reference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Christian R.; Wittmann, Christoffer; Marek, Petr

    2012-01-01

    We present a probabilistic cloning scheme operating independently of any phase reference. The scheme is based solely on a phase-randomized displacement and photon counting, omitting the need for nonclassical resources and nonlinear materials. In an experimental implementation, we employ the scheme...... to clone coherent states from a phase covariant alphabet and demonstrate that the cloner is capable of outperforming the hitherto best-performing deterministic scheme. An analysis of the covariances between the output states shows that uncorrelated clones can be approached asymptotically...

  11. Berry's phase factors in moving frames of reference and their observable effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Changpu; Zhang Linzhi

    1990-01-01

    Under non-relativistic conditions, the properties of adiabatic solutions of the Schroedinger equation in moving frame of reference and the behaviours of the corresponding Berry's Phase are analysed. Two cases of translation and rotation are discussed in detail, which show that the existence of Berry's phase depends on the choice of frame of reference. While Bitter and Dubbers's experiment is explained by the first-order approximation in the discussion. The non-adiabatic effects in this experiment are predicted by the second-order approximation when the adiabatic condition is broken

  12. Prototype plant for nuclear process heat (PNP), reference phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fladerer, R.; Schrader, L.

    1982-07-01

    The coal gasification processes using nuclear process heat being developed within the framwork of the PNP project, have the advantages of saving feed coal, improving efficiency, reducing emissions, and stabilizing energy costs. One major gasification process is the hydrogasification of coal for producing SNG or gas mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen; this process can also be applied in a conventional route. The first steps to develop this process were planning, construction and operation of a semi-technical pilot plant for hydrogasification of coal in a fluidized bed having an input of 100 kg C/h. Before the completion of the development phase (reference phase) describing here, several components were tested on part of which no operational experience had so far been gained; these were the newly developed devices, e.g. the inclined tube for feeding coal into the fluidized bed, and the raw gas/hydrogenation gas heat exchanger for utilizing the waste heat of the raw gas leaving the gasifier. Concept optimizing of the thoroughly tested equipment parts led to an improved operational behaviour. Between 1976 and 1980, the semi-technical pilot plant was operated for about 19,400 hours under test conditions, more than 7,400 hours of which it has worked under gasification conditions. During this time approx. 1,100 metric tons of dry brown coal and more than 13 metric tons of hard coal were gasified. The longest coherent operational phase under gasification conditions was 748 hours in which 85.4 metric tons of dry brown coal were gasified. Carbon gasification rates up to 82% and methane contents in the dry raw gas (free of N 2 ) up to 48 vol.% were obtained. A detailed evaluation of the test results provided information of the results obtained previously. For the completion of the test - primarily of long-term tests - the operation of the semi-technical pilot plant for hydrogasification of coal is to be continued up to September 1982. (orig.) [de

  13. Speedup of minimum discontinuity phase unwrapping algorithm with a reference phase distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yihang; Han, Yu; Li, Fengjiao; Zhang, Qican

    2018-06-01

    In three-dimensional (3D) shape measurement based on phase analysis, the phase analysis process usually produces a wrapped phase map ranging from - π to π with some 2 π discontinuities, and thus a phase unwrapping algorithm is necessary to recover the continuous and nature phase map from which 3D height distribution can be restored. Usually, the minimum discontinuity phase unwrapping algorithm can be used to solve many different kinds of phase unwrapping problems, but its main drawback is that it requires a large amount of computations and has low efficiency in searching for the improving loop within the phase's discontinuity area. To overcome this drawback, an improvement to speedup of the minimum discontinuity phase unwrapping algorithm by using the phase distribution on reference plane is proposed. In this improved algorithm, before the minimum discontinuity phase unwrapping algorithm is carried out to unwrap phase, an integer number K was calculated from the ratio of the wrapped phase to the nature phase on a reference plane. And then the jump counts of the unwrapped phase can be reduced by adding 2K π, so the efficiency of the minimum discontinuity phase unwrapping algorithm is significantly improved. Both simulated and experimental data results verify the feasibility of the proposed improved algorithm, and both of them clearly show that the algorithm works very well and has high efficiency.

  14. Investigations of the EPR reference concept (KATS experiments)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fieg, G.; Werle, H.; Huber, F.

    1995-01-01

    The reference concept of an EPR core catcher envisages the spreading of the melt on a protective layer (150 m 2 area) and water cooling from above. Two variants are considered: Spreading on a dry area and on an area covered by water of condensation (1 cm depth). For the reference concept the KATS experiments are performed with thermite melts. After initial problems had rendered it difficult to interprete the first test, repeated tests have been successful. (orig.)

  15. Complex amplitude reconstruction by iterative amplitude-phase retrieval algorithm with reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Cheng; Guo, Cheng; Tan, Jiubin; Liu, Shutian; Liu, Zhengjun

    2018-06-01

    Multi-image iterative phase retrieval methods have been successfully applied in plenty of research fields due to their simple but efficient implementation. However, there is a mismatch between the measurement of the first long imaging distance and the sequential interval. In this paper, an amplitude-phase retrieval algorithm with reference is put forward without additional measurements or priori knowledge. It gets rid of measuring the first imaging distance. With a designed update formula, it significantly raises the convergence speed and the reconstruction fidelity, especially in phase retrieval. Its superiority over the original amplitude-phase retrieval (APR) method is validated by numerical analysis and experiments. Furthermore, it provides a conceptual design of a compact holographic image sensor, which can achieve numerical refocusing easily.

  16. Reference analysis of the signal + background model in counting experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadei, D.

    2012-01-01

    The model representing two independent Poisson processes, labelled as ``signal'' and ``background'' and both contributing additively to the total number of counted events, is considered from a Bayesian point of view. This is a widely used model for the searches of rare or exotic events in presence of a background source, as for example in the searches performed by high-energy physics experiments. In the assumption of prior knowledge about the background yield, a reference prior is obtained for the signal alone and its properties are studied. Finally, the properties of the full solution, the marginal reference posterior, are illustrated with few examples.

  17. The HypHI Phase 0 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, T.R. [GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Inst. fuer Kernphysik, Johannes Gutenberg Univ. Mainz, J.J.Becherweg 45, 55099 Mainz (Germany)], E-mail: t.saito@gsi.de; Bianchin, S. [GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Borodina, O. [GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Inst. fuer Kernphysik, Johannes Gutenberg Univ. Mainz, J.J. Becherweg 45, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Bozkurt, V.; Goekuezuem, B. [GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Dept. of Physics, Nigde Univ., 51100 Nigde (Turkey); Kavatsyuk, M. [KVI, Zernikelaan 25, NL-9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands); Kim, E. [GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National Univ., Gwanakro Sillim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Minami, S. [GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Nakajima, D. [GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Dept. of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Univ. of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Ozel-Tashenov, B. [GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Rappold, C. [GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Univ. Louis Pasteur Strasbourg, 4 rue Blaise Pascal, 67070 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Achenbach, P. [Inst. fuer Kernphysik, Johannes Gutenberg Univ. Mainz, J.J.Becherweg 45, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Ajimura, S. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), 10-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka, 567-0047 (Japan); Aumann, T.; Caesar, C. [GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)] (and others)

    2010-04-01

    The HypHI Phase 0 experiment to demonstrate the feasibility of precise hypernuclear spectroscopy with induced reactions of heavy ion beams was performed at GSI in August and October in 2009, with a projectile of {sup 6}Li at 2 A GeV impinged on carbon graphite target with a thickness of 8 g/cm{sup 2}. The experiment mainly aims to reconstruct events of {sup 3}{sub {lambda}}H, {sup 4}{sub {lambda}}H and {sup 5}{sub {lambda}}He by observing the {pi}{sup -} decay channel. Details of the HypHI Phase 0 experiment performed in August in 2009 will be discussed.

  18. Universal Reference RNA as a standard for microarray experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fero Michael

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obtaining reliable and reproducible two-color microarray gene expression data is critically important for understanding the biological significance of perturbations made on a cellular system. Microarray design, RNA preparation and labeling, hybridization conditions and data acquisition and analysis are variables difficult to simultaneously control. A useful tool for monitoring and controlling intra- and inter-experimental variation is Universal Reference RNA (URR, developed with the goal of providing hybridization signal at each microarray probe location (spot. Measuring signal at each spot as the ratio of experimental RNA to reference RNA targets, rather than relying on absolute signal intensity, decreases variability by normalizing signal output in any two-color hybridization experiment. Results Human, mouse and rat URR (UHRR, UMRR and URRR, respectively were prepared from pools of RNA derived from individual cell lines representing different tissues. A variety of microarrays were used to determine percentage of spots hybridizing with URR and producing signal above a user defined threshold (microarray coverage. Microarray coverage was consistently greater than 80% for all arrays tested. We confirmed that individual cell lines contribute their own unique set of genes to URR, arguing for a pool of RNA from several cell lines as a better configuration for URR as opposed to a single cell line source for URR. Microarray coverage comparing two separately prepared batches each of UHRR, UMRR and URRR were highly correlated (Pearson's correlation coefficients of 0.97. Conclusion Results of this study demonstrate that large quantities of pooled RNA from individual cell lines are reproducibly prepared and possess diverse gene representation. This type of reference provides a standard for reducing variation in microarray experiments and allows more reliable comparison of gene expression data within and between experiments and

  19. Reference free phasing and representation of complex variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob Malte

    2017-01-01

    High throughput sequencing has revolutionized our ability to interrogate genomes and entire human genomes are sequenced daily across the world. Mapping of short reads to a reference genome has enhanced our ability to detect genetic variation and is currently the most widely used technology....... Therefore, new methods for detecting variation that reduce reference bias are needed including ways of representing genomes that account for the variability within and between populations. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region is one of the most diverse and complex regions of the human genome...... to detect and call variation in humans. However, it has become evident that mapping of short reads to a single reference genome is subject to ascertainment bias (reference bias). This bias is especially pronounced in complex regions of the genome and particularly hampers detection of structural variation...

  20. LHC Experiments Phase II - TDRs Approval Process

    CERN Document Server

    Forti, F

    2017-01-01

    The overall review process and steps of Phase II were described in CERN-LHCC-2015-077. As experiments submit detailed technical design reports (TDRs), the LHCC and UCG work in close connection to ensure a timely review of the scientific and technical feasibility as well as of the budget and schedule of the upgrade programme.

  1. Commentary Variations: Level of Verbalization, Personal Reference, and Phase Relations in Instructional Films on Perceptual-Motor Tasks. Technical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, John V.

    In an experiment to determine the most efficient design for the commentary of an instructional film, special consideration was given to three variables concerned with the construction of commentaries: the level of verbalization (the amount of talk), the personal reference of the narrator, and the phase relationship between the commentary and the…

  2. Status of the Gerda phase II experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzaro, Andrea [Physik-Department and Excellence Cluster Universe, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The Gerda experiment searches for the neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) in {sup 76}Ge. The first phase of the experiment collected 21.6 kg. yr of exposure with a background index (BI) of 0.01 cts/(keV . kg . yr). No signal was observed and a lower limit for the 0νββ half-life was set to T{sup 0νββ}{sub 1/2} < 2.1 . 10{sup 25} yr (90% C.L). The apparatus has now been upgraded to the Phase II configuration. In Phase II 38 kg of HPGe detectors will be operated to reach an exposure of 100 kg . yr. The goal of Gerda Phase II is to lower the BI to 10{sup -3} cts/(keV . kg . y), in order to reach the sensitivity for T{sup 0νββ}{sub 1/2} = O(10{sup 26}) yr. The additional target mass is constituted of 30 custom made BEGe detectors with higher energy resolution and better pulse shape discrimination performance. The detectors are operated in new radio-pure low-mass holders. The liquid argon surrounding the detectors has been instrumented to veto the background events which produce scintillation light. In this talk the current status and the performance of the Gerda Phase II are presented.

  3. [Merkel cell carcinoma experience in a reference medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesch-Dietlen, Federico; Devezé-Bocardi, Raúl; Ruiz-Juárez, Isabel; Grube-Pagola, Peter; Romero-Sierra, Graciela; Remes-Troche, José María; Silva-Cañetas, Carmen Sofía; Lozoya-López Escalera, Hilda

    2013-01-01

    Background: Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare tumor that occurs on areas exposed to ultraviolet light. It is usually asymptomatic and it is diagnosed late often. The treatment is surgical, associated with adjuvant radiotherapy. The objective was to present the experience in the management of Merkel cell carcinoma in a reference medical center. Methods: all patients with Merkel cell carcinoma treated at the Instituto de Investigaciones Médico-Biológicas of the Universidad Veracruzana during the period 2008 to 2011 were studied. Sex, age, evolution time, tumor localization, size, metastases and treatment were analyzed. Results: of 3217 patients treated, three cases were Merkel cell carcinoma (0.09 %), their age was 52.1 ± 14.17, male predominance of 66.67 %; the evolution time was of 29.66 ± 35.36 months; the tumour localization was on inguinal region, anterior chest and left arm; the noodle size was of 6.0 ± 5.19 cm; two patients had lymph node metastases. In two cases, resection and lymphadenectomy were performed. They all received radiation therapy and chemotherapy in one case. Histologically the medium variant predominated; immunohistochemistry was positive in the three cases. One patient died ten months after the study was done. Conclusions: our experience is similar with others authors, Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare tumor, usually diagnosed late, and it has poor survival.

  4. Polymers as reference partitioning phase: polymer calibration for an analytically operational approach to quantify multimedia phase partitioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, Dorothea; Witt, Gesine; Smedes, Foppe

    2016-01-01

    Polymers are increasingly applied for the enrichment of hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs) from various types of samples and media in many analytical partitioning-based measuring techniques. We propose using polymers as a reference partitioning phase and introduce polymer-polymer partitioning......-air) and multimedia partition coefficients (lipid-water, air-water) were calculated by applying the new concept of a polymer as reference partitioning phase and by using polymer-polymer partition coefficients as conversion factors. The present study encourages the use of polymer-polymer partition coefficients...

  5. Young Children Use Shared Experience to Interpret Definite Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmerse, Daniel; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether children at the ages of two and three years understand that a speaker's use of the definite article specifies a referent that is in common ground between speaker and listener. An experimenter and a child engaged in joint actions in which the experimenter chose one of three similar objects of the same category to perform an…

  6. Experiments for the premixing phase (QUEOS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, L.; Huber, R.; Haessler, M.; Kirstahler, M.; Kuhn, D.; Rehme, K.; Schumacher, G.; Schwall, M.; Wachter, E.; Woerner, G.

    1995-01-01

    Experiments are performed with solid spheres at high temperatures to establish a data base for the premixing phase of a steam explosion, which will be used for code improvement and validation. The hot spheres (T≤2600 K) are being dropped into saturated water at 1 bar pressure. The objective of the experiments is to obtain data on the cooling rate of the spheres, their distribution in the water, the amount of generated steam and its distribution with respect to the spheres. The spheres have a diameter of 4.2 mm, 4.8 mm and 10 mm, respectively, depending on the material used. Molybdenum coated with Rhenium to inhibit oxidation and ZrO 2 are used. The experimental parameters are the mass flow of the spheres, their density and their temperature. The QUEOS test facility has been set up and tested. A series of first tests has been performed with cold spheres and spheres at 1000 C. The main results are the distribution of the spheres during the fall through the water and their distribution at the bottom of the water vessel. A large air bubble is being entrained into the water in both the cold and hot tests. (orig./HP)

  7. Combined experiment Phase 2 data characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M.S.; Shipley, D.E.; Young, T.S.; Robinson, M.C.; Luttges, M.W. [Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States); Simms, D.A. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s ``Combined Experiment`` has yielded a large quantity of experimental data on the operation of a downwind horizontal axis wind turbine under field conditions. To fully utilize this valuable resource and identify particular episodes of interest, a number of databases were created that characterize individual data events and rotational cycles over a wide range of parameters. Each of the 59 five-minute data episodes collected during Phase 11 of the Combined Experiment have been characterized by the mean, minimum, maximum, and standard deviation of all data channels, except the blade surface pressures. Inflow condition, aerodynamic force coefficient, and minimum leading edge pressure coefficient databases have also been established, characterizing each of nearly 21,000 blade rotational cycles. In addition, a number of tools have been developed for searching these databases for particular episodes of interest. Due to their extensive size, only a portion of the episode characterization databases are included in an appendix, and examples of the cycle characterization databases are given. The search tools are discussed and the FORTRAN or C code for each is included in appendices.

  8. Laser-to-RF phase detection with femtosecond precision for remote reference phase stabilization in particle accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamb, Thorsten

    2017-05-15

    The operation of modern free-electron lasers (FELs) requires the synchronization of different accelerator subsystems with femtosecond precision. A pulsed optical synchronization system is for this reason operated at the Free-Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH) and it is under construction for the upcoming European X-ray Free-Electron Laser (XFEL). Laser pulses from the optical master oscillator are transmitted by timing stabilized optical fiberlinks to dedicated end stations along the accelerator. Devices which cannot operate with optical synchronization signals are instead conventionally synchronized with radio frequency (RF) reference signals. These signals are distributed in the accelerator by coaxial cables. Especially the low -level radio frequency (LLRF) system requires RF reference signals with femtosecond stability in order to meet nowadays femtosecond demands. Due to cable drifts and the length of the accelerators, this level of stability cannot be provided by conventional RF transport. A laser-to-RF (L2RF) phase detector has been invented, which allows to measure with femtosecond precision the relative phase between a phase stable optical pulse train from an optical fiberlink and an RF signal. The L2RF phase detector is based on an integrated MACH-ZEHNDER modulator (MZM) in which the phase error between both signals is encoded in an amplitude modulation of the optical pulse train. Different configurations, based on single output and dual output MZMs have been evaluated for different operation scenarios. A full mathematical representation of the chosen configuration has been derived. The impact of multiple error sources has been investigated. It has been proven that most error sources have only second or higher order influence on the detection principle which is a significant advantage over existing schemes. The invented L2RF phase detector is for example balanced and in its working point insensitive to power variations of the optical reference pulse train

  9. Laser-to-RF phase detection with femtosecond precision for remote reference phase stabilization in particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, Thorsten

    2017-05-01

    The operation of modern free-electron lasers (FELs) requires the synchronization of different accelerator subsystems with femtosecond precision. A pulsed optical synchronization system is for this reason operated at the Free-Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH) and it is under construction for the upcoming European X-ray Free-Electron Laser (XFEL). Laser pulses from the optical master oscillator are transmitted by timing stabilized optical fiberlinks to dedicated end stations along the accelerator. Devices which cannot operate with optical synchronization signals are instead conventionally synchronized with radio frequency (RF) reference signals. These signals are distributed in the accelerator by coaxial cables. Especially the low -level radio frequency (LLRF) system requires RF reference signals with femtosecond stability in order to meet nowadays femtosecond demands. Due to cable drifts and the length of the accelerators, this level of stability cannot be provided by conventional RF transport. A laser-to-RF (L2RF) phase detector has been invented, which allows to measure with femtosecond precision the relative phase between a phase stable optical pulse train from an optical fiberlink and an RF signal. The L2RF phase detector is based on an integrated MACH-ZEHNDER modulator (MZM) in which the phase error between both signals is encoded in an amplitude modulation of the optical pulse train. Different configurations, based on single output and dual output MZMs have been evaluated for different operation scenarios. A full mathematical representation of the chosen configuration has been derived. The impact of multiple error sources has been investigated. It has been proven that most error sources have only second or higher order influence on the detection principle which is a significant advantage over existing schemes. The invented L2RF phase detector is for example balanced and in its working point insensitive to power variations of the optical reference pulse train

  10. Geometric phase in a split-beam experiment measured with coupled neutron interference loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Yuji; Zawisky, M.; Rauch, H.; Ioffe, A.

    1996-01-01

    A geometric phase factor is derived for a split-beam experiment as an example of cyclic evolutions. The geometric phase is given by one half of the solid angle independent of the spin of the beam. We observe this geometric phase with a two-loop neutron interferometer, where a reference beam can be added to the beam from one interference loop. All the experimental results show complete agreement with our theoretical treatment. (author)

  11. A self-reference PRF-shift MR thermometry method utilizing the phase gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langley, Jason; Potter, William; Phipps, Corey; Zhao Qun; Huang Feng

    2011-01-01

    In magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, the most widely used and accurate method for measuring temperature is based on the shift in proton resonance frequency (PRF). However, inter-scan motion and bulk magnetic field shifts can lead to inaccurate temperature measurements in the PRF-shift MR thermometry method. The self-reference PRF-shift MR thermometry method was introduced to overcome such problems by deriving a reference image from the heated or treated image, and approximates the reference phase map with low-order polynomial functions. In this note, a new approach is presented to calculate the baseline phase map in self-reference PRF-shift MR thermometry. The proposed method utilizes the phase gradient to remove the phase unwrapping step inherent to other self-reference PRF-shift MR thermometry methods. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated using numerical simulations with temperature distributions following a two-dimensional Gaussian function as well as phantom and in vivo experimental data sets. The results from both the numerical simulations and experimental data show that the proposed method is a promising technique for measuring temperature. (note)

  12. A New Synchronous Reference Frame-Based Method for Single-Phase Shunt Active Power Filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monfared, Mohammad; Golestan, Saeed; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the design of a novel method in the synchronous reference frame (SRF) to extract the reference compensating current for single-phase shunt active power filters (APFs). Unlike previous works in the SRF, the proposed method has an innovative feature that it does not need...... the fictitious current signal. Frequency-independent operation, accurate reference current extraction and relatively fast transient response are other key features of the presented strategy. The effectiveness of the proposed method is investigated by means of detailed mathematical analysis. The results confirm...

  13. Phase locking of a 2.7 THz quantum cascade laser to a microwave reference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khosropanah, P.; Baryshev, A.; Zhang, W.; Jellema, W.; Hovenier, J.N.; Gao, J.R.; Klapwijk, T.M.; Paveliev, D.G.; Williams, B.S.; Kumar, S.; Hu, Q.; Reno, J.L.; Klein, B.; Hesler, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate the phase locking of a 2.7 THz metal–metal waveguide quantum cascade laser (QCL) to an external microwave signal. The reference is the 15th harmonic, generated by a semiconductor superlattice nonlinear device, of a signal at 182 GHz, which itself is generated by a multiplier chain

  14. Phase locking of a 2.7 THz quantum cascade laser to a microwave reference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khosropanah, P.; Baryshev, A.; Zhang, W.; Jellema, W.; Hovenier, J. N.; Gao, J. R.; Klapwijk, T. M.; Paveliev, D. G.; Williams, B. S.; Kumar, S.; Hu, Q.; Reno, J. L.; Klein, B.; Hesler, J. L.

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate the phase locking of a 2.7 THz metal-metal waveguide quantum cascade laser (QCL) to an external microwave signal. The reference is the 15th harmonic, generated by a semiconductor superlattice nonlinear device, of a signal at 182 GHz, which itself is generated by a multiplier chain

  15. Conventional Synchronous Reference Frame Phase-Locked Loop Is An Adaptive Complex Filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestan, Saeed; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the wide acceptance and use of the conventional synchronous reference frame phase-locked loop (SRFPLL) no transfer function describing its actual input-output relationship has been developed so far. Arguably, the absence of such transfer function has hampered the application of SRF...

  16. Phase Locking of a 2.7 THz Quantum Cascade Laser to a Microwave Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosropanah, P.; Baryshev, A.; Zhang, W.; Jellema, W.; Hovenier, J. N.; Gao, J. R.; Klapwijk, T. M.; Paveliev, D. G.; Williams, B. S.; Hu, Q.; hide

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate the phase locking of a 2.7 THz metal-metal waveguide quantum cascade laser (QCL) to an external microwave signal. The reference is the 15th harmonic, generated by a semiconductor superlattice nonlinear device, of a signal at 182 GHz, which itself is generated by a multiplier chain (x 12) from a microwave synthesizer at approx. 15 GHz. Both laser and reference radiations are coupled into a bolometer mixer, resulting in a beat signal, which is fed into a phase-lock loop. The spectral analysis of the beat signal confirms that the QCL is phase locked. This result opens the possibility to extend heterodyne interferometers into the far-infrared range.

  17. CSNI Project for Fracture Analyses of Large-Scale International Reference Experiments (FALSIRE II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bass, B.R.; Pugh, C.E.; Keeney, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schulz, H.; Sievers, J. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Koeln (Gemany)

    1996-11-01

    A summary of Phase II of the Project for FALSIRE is presented. FALSIRE was created by the Fracture Assessment Group (FAG) of the OECD/NEA`s Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CNSI) Principal Working Group No. 3. FALSIRE I in 1988 assessed fracture methods through interpretive analyses of 6 large-scale fracture experiments in reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels under pressurized- thermal-shock (PTS) loading. In FALSIRE II, experiments examined cleavage fracture in RPV steels for a wide range of materials, crack geometries, and constraint and loading conditions. The cracks were relatively shallow, in the transition temperature region. Included were cracks showing either unstable extension or two stages of extensions under transient thermal and mechanical loads. Crack initiation was also investigated in connection with clad surfaces and with biaxial load. Within FALSIRE II, comparative assessments were performed for 7 reference fracture experiments based on 45 analyses received from 22 organizations representing 12 countries. Temperature distributions in thermal shock loaded samples were approximated with high accuracy and small scatter bands. Structural response was predicted reasonably well; discrepancies could usually be traced to the assumed material models and approximated material properties. Almost all participants elected to use the finite element method.

  18. CSNI Project for Fracture Analyses of Large-Scale International Reference Experiments (FALSIRE II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, B.R.; Pugh, C.E.; Keeney, J.; Schulz, H.; Sievers, J.

    1996-11-01

    A summary of Phase II of the Project for FALSIRE is presented. FALSIRE was created by the Fracture Assessment Group (FAG) of the OECD/NEA's Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CNSI) Principal Working Group No. 3. FALSIRE I in 1988 assessed fracture methods through interpretive analyses of 6 large-scale fracture experiments in reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels under pressurized- thermal-shock (PTS) loading. In FALSIRE II, experiments examined cleavage fracture in RPV steels for a wide range of materials, crack geometries, and constraint and loading conditions. The cracks were relatively shallow, in the transition temperature region. Included were cracks showing either unstable extension or two stages of extensions under transient thermal and mechanical loads. Crack initiation was also investigated in connection with clad surfaces and with biaxial load. Within FALSIRE II, comparative assessments were performed for 7 reference fracture experiments based on 45 analyses received from 22 organizations representing 12 countries. Temperature distributions in thermal shock loaded samples were approximated with high accuracy and small scatter bands. Structural response was predicted reasonably well; discrepancies could usually be traced to the assumed material models and approximated material properties. Almost all participants elected to use the finite element method

  19. Achalasia: pneumatic Dilation. Experience in a reference hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garzon, Martin; Farfan, Yezid; Molano, Juan; Rey, Mario; Martinez, Julian; Marulanda, Juan

    2005-01-01

    Chalasia has an incidence of 1:100.000. The therapy for achalasia, focus on reducing the pressure gradient across the LES, which can be achieved by forceful pneumatic dilation of the gastroesophageal junction, surgical myotomy or by pharmacological agents, injected endoscopically or taken orally. Pneumatic balloon dilation is regarded as the first-Line treatment, with an initial success rate of 85% to 90%. The objective of this study is to show our experience with pneumatic balloon dilation in the patients with diagnosis of achalasia from the hospital La Samaritana during a period from February 2002 to February 2005. Patients diagnosed with achalasia from the department of gastroenterology and endoscopy of the Hospital La Samaritana during period of February 2002 to February 2005 was included. Procedures were made in fluoroscopy room. The patients received intravenous sedation and analgesia. We used a Regiflex balloon, 3.5 cm diameter. Balloons were inflated with saline water and water-soluble contrast during one minute. We diagnosed 19 patients with achalasia during period from February 2002 to February 2005, 14 were females and 5 males (26%); we made pneumatic dilation in 11 patients (60%), 9 were females (82%) with mean age 38.9 years (ranged from 16 to 13 years). Three patients (21%) underwent once pneumatic dilation and the rest (8 patients) underwent twice (73%). We don't report any perforation. So far we have followed the patients ambulatory during period from 6 months to 2 years. We find recurrence one year after of the pneumatic dilation in a female patient 22 years old (9%). The pneumatic dilation as cost-effective therapy, with a good initial success, but in the longer the follow-up lower the success rate and low morbidity (4). We suggest making only two pneumatic dilations. Today, there isn't consensus on the optimal endoscopic dilation technique and we believe that the sedation must be included in this procedure. In the future, we need more comparative

  20. DQ reference frame modeling and control of single-phase active power decoupling circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Yi; Qin, Zian; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    . This paper presents the dq synchronous reference frame modeling of single-phase power decoupling circuits and a complete model describing the dynamics of dc-link ripple voltage is presented. The proposed model is universal and valid for both inductive and capacitive decoupling circuits, and the input...... of decoupling circuits can be either dependent or independent of its front-end converters. Based on this model, a dq synchronous reference frame controller is designed which allows the decoupling circuit to operate in two different modes because of the circuit symmetry. Simulation and experimental results...... are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed modeling and control method....

  1. Phase camera experiment for Advanced Virgo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agatsuma, Kazuhiro, E-mail: agatsuma@nikhef.nl [National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Beuzekom, Martin van; Schaaf, Laura van der [National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Brand, Jo van den [National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-07-11

    We report on a study of the phase camera, which is a frequency selective wave-front sensor of a laser beam. This sensor is utilized for monitoring sidebands produced by phase modulations in a gravitational wave (GW) detector. Regarding the operation of the GW detectors, the laser modulation/demodulation method is used to measure mirror displacements and used for the position controls. This plays a significant role because the quality of controls affect the noise level of the GW detector. The phase camera is able to monitor each sideband separately, which has a great benefit for the manipulation of the delicate controls. Also, overcoming mirror aberrations will be an essential part of Advanced Virgo (AdV), which is a GW detector close to Pisa. Especially low-frequency sidebands can be affected greatly by aberrations in one of the interferometer cavities. The phase cameras allow tracking such changes because the state of the sidebands gives information on mirror aberrations. A prototype of the phase camera has been developed and is currently tested. The performance checks are almost completed and the installation of the optics at the AdV site has started. After the installation and commissioning, the phase camera will be combined to a thermal compensation system that consists of CO{sub 2} lasers and compensation plates. In this paper, we focus on the prototype and show some limitations from the scanner performance. - Highlights: • The phase camera is being developed for a gravitational wave detector. • A scanner performance limits the operation speed and layout design of the system. • An operation range was found by measuring the frequency response of the scanner.

  2. Phase camera experiment for Advanced Virgo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agatsuma, Kazuhiro; Beuzekom, Martin van; Schaaf, Laura van der; Brand, Jo van den

    2016-01-01

    We report on a study of the phase camera, which is a frequency selective wave-front sensor of a laser beam. This sensor is utilized for monitoring sidebands produced by phase modulations in a gravitational wave (GW) detector. Regarding the operation of the GW detectors, the laser modulation/demodulation method is used to measure mirror displacements and used for the position controls. This plays a significant role because the quality of controls affect the noise level of the GW detector. The phase camera is able to monitor each sideband separately, which has a great benefit for the manipulation of the delicate controls. Also, overcoming mirror aberrations will be an essential part of Advanced Virgo (AdV), which is a GW detector close to Pisa. Especially low-frequency sidebands can be affected greatly by aberrations in one of the interferometer cavities. The phase cameras allow tracking such changes because the state of the sidebands gives information on mirror aberrations. A prototype of the phase camera has been developed and is currently tested. The performance checks are almost completed and the installation of the optics at the AdV site has started. After the installation and commissioning, the phase camera will be combined to a thermal compensation system that consists of CO 2 lasers and compensation plates. In this paper, we focus on the prototype and show some limitations from the scanner performance. - Highlights: • The phase camera is being developed for a gravitational wave detector. • A scanner performance limits the operation speed and layout design of the system. • An operation range was found by measuring the frequency response of the scanner.

  3. RF Phase Reference Distribution System for the TESLA Technology Based Projects

    CERN Document Server

    Czuba, K; Romaniuk, R S

    2013-01-01

    Since many decades physicists have been building particle accelerators and usually new projects became more advanced, more complicated and larger than predecessors. The importance and complexity of the phase reference distribution systems used in these accelerators have grown significantly during recent years. Amongst the most advanced of currently developed accelerators are projects based on the TESLA technology. These projects require synchronization of many RF devices with accuracy reaching femtosecond levels over kilometre distances. Design of a phase reference distribution system fulfilling such requirements is a challenging scientific task. There are many interdisciplinary problems which must be solved during the system design. Many, usually negligible issues, may became very important in such system. Furthermore, the design of a distribution system on a scale required for the TESLA technology based projects is a new challenge and there is almost no literature sufficiently covering this subject. This th...

  4. Phasing out nuclear power, the swedish experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredriksson, Y.

    2000-01-01

    This article presents the chronological steps in the phasing-out of nuclear energy in Sweden. In 1980 a consultative referendum was held and it was decided that: i) no further expansion of nuclear capacity beyond the 12 reactors in operation or already under construction, ii) all nuclear power plants should be decommissioned by the year 2010. In 1988, as a consequence of the Chernobyl nuclear accident, the Swedish parliament decided that one reactor should be closed down in 1995 and a second in 1996. In 1991 the parliament proposed a new energy program for a 5 year period. The main measure was a huge financial support for increasing energy efficiency and for developing environmental sound technologies. At the same time the parliament repealed the 1991 decision of closing 1 reactor in 1995 and made the phase-out process dependent on the results of the new energy policy. In 1994 a parliamentary Commission was appointed to estimate the results of 1991 energy policy. The results were meager and disappointing so the Commission considered that a number of objectives (the climate issue, employment, welfare and competitiveness) remained unresolved if all nuclear power generation should be phased out by 2010. However, the Commission also considered it important to start the phasing-out process at an early stage and stated that one reactor could be closed down without noticeably affecting the power balance. The Barsebaeck reactor is to be closed before the end of november 1999. (A.C.)

  5. Body composition, symptoms, and survival in advanced cancer patients referred to a phase I service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Henrique A; Baracos, Vickie E; Dhillon, Navjot; Hong, David S; Kurzrock, Razelle

    2012-01-01

    Body weight and body composition are relevant to the outcomes of cancer and antineoplastic therapy. However, their role in Phase I clinical trial patients is unknown. We reviewed symptom burden, body composition, and survival in 104 patients with advanced cancer referred to a Phase I oncology service. Symptom burden was analyzed using the MD Anderson Symptom Assessment Inventory(MDASI); body composition was evaluated utilizing computerized tomography(CT) images. A body mass index (BMI)≥25 kg/m² was considered overweight. Sarcopenia, severe muscle depletion, was assessed using CT-based criteria. Most patients were overweight (n = 65, 63%); 53 patients were sarcopenic (51%), including 79% of patients with a BMIbody composition: 215 (71-358) (BMIcancer diagnosis predicted longer survival in multivariate analysis after controlling for age, gender, performance status, and fat index. Patients referred to a Phase I clinic had a high frequency of sarcopenia and a BMI≥25 kg/m², independent of symptom burden. Body composition variables were predictive of clinically relevant survival differences, which is potentially important in developing Phase I studies.

  6. Phase-encoded measurement device independent quantum key distribution without a shared reference frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo-Dan, Zhu; Shang-Hong, Zhao; Chen, Dong; Ying, Sun

    2018-07-01

    In this paper, a phase-encoded measurement device independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) protocol without a shared reference frame is presented, which can generate secure keys between two parties while the quantum channel or interferometer introduces an unknown and slowly time-varying phase. The corresponding secret key rate and single photons bit error rate is analysed, respectively, with single photons source (SPS) and weak coherent source (WCS), taking finite-key analysis into account. The numerical simulations show that the modified phase-encoded MDI-QKD protocol has apparent superiority both in maximal secure transmission distance and key generation rate while possessing the improved robustness and practical security in the high-speed case. Moreover, the rejection of the frame-calibrating part will intrinsically reduce the consumption of resources as well as the potential security flaws of practical MDI-QKD systems.

  7. Word learning in adults with second language experience: Effects of phonological and referent familiarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Yoo, Jeewon; Van Hecke, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this research was to examine whether phonological familiarity exerts different effects on novel word learning for familiar vs. unfamiliar referents, and whether successful word-learning is associated with increased second-language experience. Method Eighty-one adult native English speakers with various levels of Spanish knowledge learned phonologically-familiar novel words (constructed using English sounds) or phonologically-unfamiliar novel words (constructed using non-English and non-Spanish sounds) in association with either familiar or unfamiliar referents. Retention was tested via a forced-choice recognition-task. A median-split procedure identified high-ability and low-ability word-learners in each condition, and the two groups were compared on measures of second-language experience. Results Findings suggest that the ability to accurately match newly-learned novel names to their appropriate referents is facilitated by phonological familiarity only for familiar referents but not for unfamiliar referents. Moreover, more extensive second-language learning experience characterized superior learners primarily in one word-learning condition: Where phonologically-unfamiliar novel words were paired with familiar referents. Conclusions Together, these findings indicate that phonological familiarity facilitates novel word learning only for familiar referents, and that experience with learning a second language may have a specific impact on novel vocabulary learning in adults. PMID:22992709

  8. Experiments for the premixing phase (PREMIX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherdron, W.; Huber, F.; Kaiser, A.; Schuetz, W.; Steinbrueck, M.; Will, H.

    1995-01-01

    In the PREMIX experiment, the premixing phenomena are studied by means of real high temperature melt jets. Jet fragmentation as well as (coarse) fragmentation of melt drops are being investigated. The objective is to avoid as far as possible a fine fragmentation and thus to help prevent explosions. Therefore water is used close to boiling temperature. The pressure can be varied in a relevant range up to nearly 10 bar. The melt is created by a thermite reaction after which most of the iron is separated from the melt. In this way a predominantly oxide melt with temperatures of about 2700 K is produced. Preliminary experiments showed as a surprising result that melt jets can penetrate into the water as far as nearly 1 m depth before a violant evaporation comes about. (orig.)

  9. Exploiting elastic anharmonicity in aluminum nitride matrix for phase-synchronous frequency reference generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghatge, Mayur; Tabrizian, Roozbeh

    2018-03-01

    A matrix of aluminum-nitride (AlN) waveguides is acoustically engineered to realize electrically isolated phase-synchronous frequency references through nonlinear wave-mixing. AlN rectangular waveguides are cross-coupled through a periodically perforated plate that is engineered to have a wide acoustic bandgap around a desirable frequency ( f1≈509 MHz). While the coupling plate isolates the matrix from resonant vibrations of individual waveguide constituents at f1, it is transparent to the third-order harmonic waves (3f1) that are generated through nonlinear wave-mixing. Therefore, large-signal excitation of the f1 mode in a constituent waveguide generates acoustic waves at 3f1 with an efficiency defined by elastic anharmonicity of the AlN film. The phase-synchronous propagation of the third harmonic through the matrix is amplified by a high quality-factor resonance mode at f2≈1529 MHz, which is sufficiently close to 3f1 (f2 ≅ 3f1). Such an architecture enables realization of frequency-multiplied and phase-synchronous, yet electrically and spectrally isolated, references for multi-band/carrier and spread-spectrum wireless communication systems.

  10. Coherence in consciousness: paralimbic gamma synchrony of self-reference links conscious experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, Hans C; Gross, Joachim; Biermann-Ruben, Katja

    2010-01-01

    . In minimal self-reference subjective experiences are self-aware in the weak sense that there is something it feels like for the subject to experience something. In autonoetic consciousness, consciousness emerges, by definition, by retrieval of memories of personally experienced events (episodic memory...

  11. Somali refugees' experiences with their general practitioners: frames of reference and critical episodes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feldmann, C.T.; Bensing, J.M.; Ruijter, A. de; Boeije, H.R.

    2006-01-01

    The article presents the results of a qualitative study based on in-depth interviews with Somali refugees living in The Netherlands, on their experiences with general practitioners (GPs). The central question is: what are the frames of reference participants use to interpret their experiences? The

  12. Somali refugees’ experiences with their general practitioners: frames of reference and critical episodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Titia Feldmann, C.; Bensing, J.; Ruijter, Arie de; Boeije, H.R.

    2006-01-01

    The article presents the results of a qualitative study based on in-depth interviews with Somali refugees living in The Netherlands, on their experiences with general practitioners (GPs). The central question is: what are the frames of reference participants use to interpret their experiences? The

  13. Microgravity Multi-Phase Flow Experiment for Suborbital Testing (MFEST)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary objective is to conduct a pathfinder, suborbital flight experiment for two-phase fluid flow and separator operations.The primary purpose of this test...

  14. CSNI Project for Fracture Analyses of Large-Scale International Reference Experiments (Project FALSIRE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, B.R.; Pugh, C.E.; Keeney-Walker, J.; Schulz, H.; Sievers, J.

    1993-06-01

    This report summarizes the recently completed Phase I of the Project for Fracture Analysis of Large-Scale International Reference Experiments (Project FALSIRE). Project FALSIRE was created by the Fracture Assessment Group (FAG) of Principal Working Group No. 3 (PWG/3) of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)/Nuclear Energy Agency's (NEA's) Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI). Motivation for the project was derived from recognition by the CSNI-PWG/3 that inconsistencies were being revealed in predictive capabilities of a variety of fracture assessment methods, especially in ductile fracture applications. As a consequence, the CSNI/FAG was formed to evaluate fracture prediction capabilities currently used in safety assessments of nuclear components. Members are from laboratories and research organizations in Western Europe, Japan, and the United States of America (USA). On behalf of the CSNI/FAG, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen--und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS), Koeln, Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) had responsibility for organization arrangements related to Project FALSIRE. The group is chaired by H. Schulz from GRS, Koeln, FRG

  15. CSNI Project for Fracture Analyses of Large-Scale International Reference Experiments (Project FALSIRE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bass, B.R.; Pugh, C.E.; Keeney-Walker, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schulz, H.; Sievers, J. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Koeln (Gemany)

    1993-06-01

    This report summarizes the recently completed Phase I of the Project for Fracture Analysis of Large-Scale International Reference Experiments (Project FALSIRE). Project FALSIRE was created by the Fracture Assessment Group (FAG) of Principal Working Group No. 3 (PWG/3) of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)/Nuclear Energy Agency`s (NEA`s) Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI). Motivation for the project was derived from recognition by the CSNI-PWG/3 that inconsistencies were being revealed in predictive capabilities of a variety of fracture assessment methods, especially in ductile fracture applications. As a consequence, the CSNI/FAG was formed to evaluate fracture prediction capabilities currently used in safety assessments of nuclear components. Members are from laboratories and research organizations in Western Europe, Japan, and the United States of America (USA). On behalf of the CSNI/FAG, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC`s) Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen--und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS), Koeln, Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) had responsibility for organization arrangements related to Project FALSIRE. The group is chaired by H. Schulz from GRS, Koeln, FRG.

  16. Two-dimensional distributed-phase-reference protocol for quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacco, Davide; Christensen, Jesper Bjerge; Castaneda, Mario A. Usuga; Ding, Yunhong; Forchhammer, Søren; Rottwitt, Karsten; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo

    2016-12-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) and quantum communication enable the secure exchange of information between remote parties. Currently, the distributed-phase-reference (DPR) protocols, which are based on weak coherent pulses, are among the most practical solutions for long-range QKD. During the last 10 years, long-distance fiber-based DPR systems have been successfully demonstrated, although fundamental obstacles such as intrinsic channel losses limit their performance. Here, we introduce the first two-dimensional DPR-QKD protocol in which information is encoded in the time and phase of weak coherent pulses. The ability of extracting two bits of information per detection event, enables a higher secret key rate in specific realistic network scenarios. Moreover, despite the use of more dimensions, the proposed protocol remains simple, practical, and fully integrable.

  17. Carrier phase altimetry using Zeppelin based GNSS-R observations and water gauge reference data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmling, Maximilian; Schön, Steffen; Beckheinrich, Jamila; Beyerle, Georg; Ge, Maorong; Wickert, Jens

    2014-05-01

    The increasing number of transmitters in global navigation satellite systems (GNSS), like GPS, Galileo, Glonass or Compass, provide observations with an increasing coverage for positioning but also for remote sensing. A space based GNSS remote sensing application is radio occultation, a limb sounding method. Globally distributed vertical profiles of temperature, water vapour and electron density are provided operationally for weather forecast and ionospheric monitoring. Another application is GNSS reflectometry (GNSS-R) that is currently developed especially for ocean remote sensing. The high reflection coefficient of water is crucial for GNSS-R. This study presents a method that uses GNSS phase observations for lake altimetry with the potential for ocean application. Phase observations are deduced from a GORS (GNSS Occultaction Reflectometry Scatterometry) receiver in Master-Slave-Configuration. The Master sampling dedicated for direct signal acquisition is connected to an up-looking antenna with right hand circular polarization (RHCP). Two Slave samplings dedicated for acquisition of the reflected signals are connected to down-looking antennas with right- and left-hand circular polarization (RHCP and LHCP). Based on in-phase and quad-phase (I, Q) sample components, an altimetric phase residual is retrieved. This residual can be related to the height of the reflecting surface. An altimetric challenge arises from the unknown ambiguity of phase residuals that introduces a height bias. The presented study uses ancillary data deduced from water gauges to mitigate the ambiguity bias. Reference tracks are formed by linear surface height interpolation between the water gauge stations. At crossover points of reflection tracks with reference tracks a phase ambiguity estimate is determined for bias mitigation. For this study airborne GNSS measurements were conducted aboard a Zeppelin NT (New Technology) airship with a geodetic receiver for navigation and a GORS receiver for

  18. Two-dimensional distributed-phase-reference protocol for quantum key distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacco, Davide; Christensen, Jesper Bjerge; Usuga Castaneda, Mario A.

    2016-01-01

    10 years, long-distance fiber-based DPR systems have been successfully demonstrated, although fundamental obstacles such as intrinsic channel losses limit their performance. Here, we introduce the first two-dimensional DPR-QKD protocol in which information is encoded in the time and phase of weak......Quantum key distribution (QKD) and quantum communication enable the secure exchange of information between remote parties. Currently, the distributed-phase-reference (DPR) protocols, which are based on weak coherent pulses, are among the most practical solutions for long-range QKD. During the last...... coherent pulses. The ability of extracting two bits of information per detection event, enables a higher secret key rate in specific realistic network scenarios. Moreover, despite the use of more dimensions, the proposed protocol remains simple, practical, and fully integrable....

  19. Body composition, symptoms, and survival in advanced cancer patients referred to a phase I service.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique A Parsons

    Full Text Available Body weight and body composition are relevant to the outcomes of cancer and antineoplastic therapy. However, their role in Phase I clinical trial patients is unknown.We reviewed symptom burden, body composition, and survival in 104 patients with advanced cancer referred to a Phase I oncology service. Symptom burden was analyzed using the MD Anderson Symptom Assessment Inventory(MDASI; body composition was evaluated utilizing computerized tomography(CT images. A body mass index (BMI≥25 kg/m² was considered overweight. Sarcopenia, severe muscle depletion, was assessed using CT-based criteria.Most patients were overweight (n = 65, 63%; 53 patients were sarcopenic (51%, including 79% of patients with a BMI<25 kg/m² and 34% of those with BMI≥25 kg/m². Sarcopenic patients were older and less frequently African-American. Symptom burden did not differ among patients classified according to BMI and presence of sarcopenia. Median (95% confidence interval survival (days varied according to body composition: 215 (71-358 (BMI<25 kg/m²; sarcopenic, 271 (99-443 (BMI<25 kg/m²; non-sarcopenic, 484 (286-681 (BMI≥25 kg/m²; sarcopenic; 501 d (309-693 (BMI≥25 kg/m²; non-sarcopenic. Higher muscle index and gastrointestinal cancer diagnosis predicted longer survival in multivariate analysis after controlling for age, gender, performance status, and fat index.Patients referred to a Phase I clinic had a high frequency of sarcopenia and a BMI≥25 kg/m², independent of symptom burden. Body composition variables were predictive of clinically relevant survival differences, which is potentially important in developing Phase I studies.

  20. Solid phase speciation of arsenic by sequential extraction in standard reference materials and industrially contaminated soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herreweghe, Samuel van; Swennen, Rudy; Vandecasteele, Carlo; Cappuyns, Valerie

    2003-01-01

    Leaching experiments, a mineralogical survey and larger samples are preferred when arsenic is present as discrete mineral phases. - Availability, mobility, (phyto)toxicity and potential risk of contaminants is strongly affected by the manner of appearance of elements, the so-called speciation. Operational fractionation methods like sequential extractions have been applied for a long time to determine the solid phase speciation of heavy metals since direct determination of specific chemical compounds can not always be easily achieved. The three-step sequential extraction scheme recommended by the BCR and two extraction schemes based on the phosphorus-like protocol proposed by Manful (1992, Occurrence and Ecochemical Behaviours of Arsenic in a Goldsmelter Impacted Area in Ghana, PhD dissertation, at the RUG) were applied to four standard reference materials (SRM) and to a batch of samples from industrially contaminated sites, heavily contaminated with arsenic and heavy metals. The SRM 2710 (Montana soil) was found to be the most useful reference material for metal (Mn, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb) fractionation using the BCR sequential extraction procedure. Two sequential extraction schemes were developed and compared for arsenic with the aim to establish a better fractionation and recovery rate than the BCR-scheme for this element in the SRM samples. The major part of arsenic was released from the heavily contaminated samples after NaOH-extraction. Inferior extraction variability and recovery in the heavily contaminated samples compared to SRMs could be mainly contributed to subsample heterogeneity

  1. Status report of the GERDA experiment phase I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riboldi, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Phase I of GERDA, aimed at investigating neutrino-less double beta decay of 76 Ge is in the active phase since November 2011 at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory of INFN—Italy. GERDA Ge detectors are non-encapsulated and operate immersed in liquid argon, equipped with a front-end readout electronics consisting of cryogenic charge sensitive preamplifiers designed and manufactured to cope with the characteristics of the GERDA experiment (radio-purity, long and resistive cables, etc.). The presentation will report on the current status of the GERDA experiment phase I, focusing on Ge detectors performance in terms of energy resolution, stability over time, counting rate and related issues

  2. Status report of the GERDA experiment phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riboldi, Stefano; Gerda Collaboration

    2013-08-01

    Phase I of GERDA, aimed at investigating neutrino-less double beta decay of 76Ge is in the active phase since November 2011 at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory of INFN-Italy. GERDA Ge detectors are non-encapsulated and operate immersed in liquid argon, equipped with a front-end readout electronics consisting of cryogenic charge sensitive preamplifiers designed and manufactured to cope with the characteristics of the GERDA experiment (radio-purity, long and resistive cables, etc.). The presentation will report on the current status of the GERDA experiment phase I, focusing on Ge detectors performance in terms of energy resolution, stability over time, counting rate and related issues.

  3. The active phasing experiment: Part II. Design and developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonte, F.; Yaitskova, N.; Derie, F.; Araujo, C.; Brast, R.; Delabre, B.; Dierickx, P.; Dupuy, C.; Frank, C.; Guisard, S.; Karban, R.; Noethe, L.; Sedghi, B.; Surdej, I.; Wilhelm, R.; Reyes, M.; Esposito, S.; Langlois, M.

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of the Active Phasing Experiment, designed under the lead of ESO, is to validate wavefront control concepts for ELT class telescopes. This instrument includes an Active Segmented Mirror, located in a pupil image. It will be mounted at a Nasmyth focus of one of the Unit Telescopes of the ESO VLT. APE contains four different types of phasing sensors, which are developed by Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica in Arcetri, Instituto Astrofisica Canarias, Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille and ESO. These phasing sensors can be compared simultaneously under identical optical and environmental conditions. All sensors receive telecentric F/15 beams with identical optical quality and intensity. Each phasing sensor can measure segmentation errors of the active segmented mirror and correct them in closed loop. The phasing process is supervised by an Internal Metrology system developed by FOGALE Nanotech and capable of measuring piston steps with an accuracy of a few nanometers. The Active Phasing Experiment is equipped with a turbulence generator to simulate atmospheric seeing between 0.45 and 0.85 arcsec in the laboratory. In addition, the Active Phasing Experiment is designed to control simultaneously with the phasing corrections the guiding and the active optics of one of the VLT Unit Telescopes. This activity is supported by the European Community (Framework Programme 6, ELT Design Study, contract No 011863).

  4. Upgrade for Phase II of the Gerda experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, M.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Belyaev, S. T.; Benato, G.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode, T.; Borowicz, D.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; D'Andrea, V.; Demidova, E. V.; Di Marco, N.; Domula, A.; Doroshkevich, E.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Frodyma, N.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Hakenmüller, J.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Hiller, R.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Ioannucci, L.; Janicskó Csáthy, J.; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kazalov, V.; Kermaïdic, Y.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Kish, A.; Klimenko, A.; Kneißl, R.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Lehnert, B.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Macolino, C.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Medinaceli, E.; Miloradovic, M.; Mingazheva, R.; Misiaszek, M.; Moseev, P.; Nemchenok, I.; Nisi, S.; Panas, K.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pullia, A.; Ransom, C.; Riboldi, S.; Rumyantseva, N.; Sada, C.; Salamida, F.; Salathe, M.; Schmitt, C.; Schneider, B.; Schönert, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schütz, A.-K.; Schulz, O.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Selivanenko, O.; Shevchik, E.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Vanhoefer, L.; Vasenko, A. A.; Veresnikova, A.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wiesinger, C.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zsigmond, A. J.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2018-05-01

    The Gerda collaboration is performing a sensitive search for neutrinoless double beta decay of ^{76}Ge at the INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Italy. The upgrade of the Gerda experiment from Phase I to Phase II has been concluded in December 2015. The first Phase II data release shows that the goal to suppress the background by one order of magnitude compared to Phase I has been achieved. Gerda is thus the first experiment that will remain "background-free" up to its design exposure (100 kg year). It will reach thereby a half-life sensitivity of more than 10^{26} year within 3 years of data collection. This paper describes in detail the modifications and improvements of the experimental setup for Phase II and discusses the performance of individual detector components.

  5. Reference Determinant Dependence of the Random Phase Approximation in 3d Transition Metal Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, J E; Mezei, P D; Csonka, G I; Sun, J; Ruzsinszky, A

    2017-01-10

    Without extensive fitting, accurate prediction of transition metal chemistry is a challenge for semilocal and hybrid density funcitonals. The Random Phase Approximation (RPA) has been shown to yield superior results to semilocal functionals for main group thermochemistry, but much less is known about its performance for transition metals. We have therefore analyzed the behavior of reaction energies, barrier heights, and ligand dissociation energies obtained with RPA and compare our results to several semilocal and hybrid functionals. Particular attention is paid to the reference determinant dependence of RPA. We find that typically the results do not vary much between semilocal or hybrid functionals as a reference, as long as the fraction of exact exchange (EXX) mixing in the hybrid functional is small. For large fractions of EXX mixing, however, the Hartree-Fock-like nature of the determinant can severely degrade the performance. Overall, RPA systematically reduces the errors of semilocal functionals and delivers excellent performance from a single reference determinant for inherently multireference reactions. The behavior of dual hybrids that combine RPA correlation with a hybrid exchange energy was also explored, but ultimately did not lead to a systematic improvement compared to traditional RPA for these systems. We rationalize this conclusion by decomposing the contributions to the reaction energies, and briefly discuss the possible implications for double-hybrid functionals based on RPA. The correlation between EXX mixing and spin-symmetry breaking is also discussed.

  6. High frequency dielectric reference materials BCR projekt 43. Final report of phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chantry, G.

    1980-01-01

    The Group of High Frequency Specialists from Belgium, France, Germany, The Netherlands and the UK, was awarded contracts in 1975 to carry out a programme of measurements on the high frequency dielectric properties of materials. The object of this first phase of a projected three phase programme was to establish the reliability of existing methods of measurement and to examine the possibilities of specifying and producing some standard reference materials, both liquid and solid, which could be used for calibrating and checking the performance of industrial measurement equipment. The liquids chosen for the first phase were cyclohexane, cis and trans decalin, chlorobenzene and 0.1, 1, and 10% solutions of chlorobenzene in cyclohexane. Each group had a limited frequency range over which it could make meaningful measurements but there was sufficient overlap to ensure that all random and systematic errors could be quantitatively assayed. The real (epsilon') and imaginary (epsilon'') components of the complex permittivity for all the liquids were measured over the frequency range 10 - 3,000 GHz and for the two most lossy liquids (chlorobenzene and 10% chlorobenzene in cyclohexane) this range was extended downwards to one GHz. The programme established for the first time the possible experimental imprecisions to be expected in high frequency dielecric measurements and showed that the chosen liquids could be useful standard reference materials if sufficiently pure specimens could be obtained commercially at a reasonable price. The programme did however reveal an unexpected snag in that the liquids, especially cyclohexane, were found to be rather more liable to contamination than expected. Since cyclohexane is a very low-loss liquid, only a small amount of a lossy contaminant need be absorbed to make the observed loss increase dramatically. This report contains all the measured results in both tabular and graphical form and in addition full technical details are given of the

  7. Operators Manual and Technical Reference for the Z-Beamlet Phase Modulation Failsafe System: Version 1.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, Darrell J.

    2014-09-01

    The need for pulse energies exceeding 4 kJ and pulse lengths [?] 2 ns in Sandia's Z-Beamlet laser (ZBL) requires that the single-frequency spectrum of its fiber-laser master oscillator be converted to a phase modulated spectrum with a modulation in dex [?] 5. Because accidental injection of single-frequency light into ZBL could result i n damage to optical materials from transverse stimulated Brillouin scattering, the presence of phase modulated (PM) light must be monitored by a reliable failsafe system that can stop a las er shot within of a few 10's of ns following a failure of the PM system. This requirement is met by combining optical heterodyne detection with high-speed electronics to indicate the pres ence or absence of phase modulated light. The transition time for the failsafe signal resultin g from a sudden failure using this technique is approximately 35 ns. This is sufficiently short to safely stop a single-frequency laser pulse from leaving ZBL's regenerative amplifier with a n approximately 35 ns margin of safety. This manual and technical reference contains detai led instructions for daily use of the PM failsafe system and provides enough additional informat ion for its maintenance and repair.

  8. Analysis, Design, and Experimental Verification of A Synchronous Reference Frame Voltage Control for Single-Phase Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monfared, Mohammad; Golestan, Saeed; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    Control of three-phase power converters in the synchronous reference frame is now a mature and well developed research topic. However, for single-phase converters, it is not as well-established as three-phase applications. This paper deals with the design of a synchronous reference frame multi-lo...... on a frequency response approach is presented. Finally, the theoretical achievements are supported by experimental results.......-loop control strategy for single phase inverter-based islanded distributed generation (DG) systems. The proposed controller uses a synchronous reference frame PI (SRFPI) controller to regulate the instantaneous output voltage, a capacitor current shaping loop in the stationary reference frame to provide active...

  9. Two-phase alkali-metal experiments in reduced gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniak, Z.I.

    1986-06-01

    Future space missions envision the use of large nuclear reactors utilizing either a single or a two-phase alkali-metal working fluid. The design and analysis of such reactors require state-of-the-art computer codes that can properly treat alkali-metal flow and heat transfer in a reduced-gravity environment. A literature search of relevant experiments in reduced gravity is reported on here, and reveals a paucity of data for such correlations. The few ongoing experiments in reduced gravity are noted. General plans are put forth for the reduced-gravity experiments which will have to be performed, at NASA facilities, with benign fluids. A similar situation exists regarding two-phase alkali-metal flow and heat transfer, even in normal gravity. Existing data are conflicting and indequate for the task of modeling a space reactor using a two-phase alkali-metal coolant. The major features of past experiments are described here. Data from the reduced-gravity experiments with innocuous fluids are to be combined with normal gravity data from the two-phase alkali-metal experiments. Analyses undertaken here give every expectation that the correlations developed from this data base will provide a valid representation of alkali-metal heat transfer and pressure drop in reduced gravity

  10. Analysis of expansion phase experiments with improved approximation schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foit, J.J.

    1987-05-01

    A steady-state flow of a single-phase and incompressible fluid across a singularity is studied. Based on these theoretical considerations new approximation methods for the pressure gradient term in the SIMMER-II momentum equations are proposed which give a satisfactory pressure change in flows across singularities. The expansion phase experiments with a dipplate performed by SRI-International are evaluated to examine the quality of the proposed approximation schemes. (orig.) [de

  11. Does Environmental Experience Shape Spatial Cognition? Frames of Reference among Ancash Quechua Speakers (Peru)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapero, Joshua A.

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that language contributes to humans' ability to orient using landmarks and shapes their use of frames of reference (FoRs) for memory. However, the role of environmental experience in shaping spatial cognition has not been investigated. This study addresses such a possibility by examining the use of FoRs in a nonverbal…

  12. Word Learning in Adults with Second-Language Experience: Effects of Phonological and Referent Familiarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Yoo, Jeewon; Van Hecke, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this research was to examine whether phonological familiarity exerts different effects on novel word learning for familiar versus unfamiliar referents and whether successful word learning is associated with increased second-language experience. Method: Eighty-one adult native English speakers with various levels of Spanish…

  13. Experience feedback of operation events in Ling'ao phase Ⅱ nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Zhi; Tao Shusheng; Sun Guochen; Zhang Zengqing

    2012-01-01

    As a new operating nuclear power plant, Ling'ao Phase Ⅱ occurred 20 pieces of operational events in one year of first cycle. By analyzing the events in this paper, the causes of the events are mainly concentrated in three aspects: interface between commissioning and operating, DCS system and the management of human factors. Finally, author gives some suggestions on experience feedback, as a reference to other similar nuclear power plants. (authors)

  14. Computer Aided Reference Services in the Academic Library: Experiences in Organizing and Operating an Online Reference Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Ryan E.

    1979-01-01

    Summarizes the development of the Computer-Aided Reference Services (CARS) division of the University of Utah Libraries' reference department. Development, organizational structure, site selection, equipment, management, staffing and training considerations, promotion and marketing, budget and pricing, record keeping, statistics, and evaluation…

  15. Batch and column studies of adsorption of Li, Ni and Br by a reference sand for contaminant transport experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seigel, M.D.; Ward, D.B.; Bryan, C.R.

    1995-09-01

    A processed quartz sand (Wedron 510), mined from the St. Peter sandstone, has been characterized by a variety of chemical and physical methods for use as a reference porous media in transport model validation experiments. Wedron 510 sand was used in an intermediate-scale experiment involving migration of Ni, Li and Br through a 6-m high x 3-m diameter caisson. Ni and Li adsorption/desorption, and Li/Ni site-competition experiments yielded information on the importance of the trace mineral phases to adsorption of Li and Ni by the sand. The presence of an iron hydroxide coating similar to goethite on the sand grains is suggested by visual observation and leaching experiments. Kaolinite was identified by SEM and XRD as a significant trace mineral phase in the sand and occurs as small particles coating the sand grains. Quartz, the predominant constituent of the sand by weight, does not appear to contribute significantly to the adsorption properties of the sand. Qualitatively, the adsorption properties of the sand can be adequately modeled as a two-mineral system (goethite and kaolinite). The studies described in this report should provide a basis for understanding transport of Ni, Li and Br through porous media similar to the reference sand. Techniques were developed for obtaining parameter values for surface complexation and kinetic adsorption models for the sand and its mineral components. These constants can be used directly in coupled hydrogeochemical transport codes. The techniques should be useful for characterization of other natural materials and elements in high-level nuclear waste in support of coupled hydrogeochemical transport calculations for Yucca Mountain

  16. A Simple Ultrasonic Experiment Using a Phase Shift Detection Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, W. Mahmood Mat; Ahmad, Maulana

    1996-01-01

    Describes a simple ultrasonic experiment that can be used to measure the purity of liquid samples by detecting variations in the velocity of sound. Uses a phase shift detection technique that incorporates the use of logic gates and a piezoelectric transducer. (JRH)

  17. Status report of the GERDA experiment phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riboldi, Stefano, E-mail: stefano.riboldi@mi.infn.it [Universita' degli Studi di Milano and INFN, Milano (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    Phase I of GERDA, aimed at investigating neutrino-less double beta decay of {sup 76}Ge is in the active phase since November 2011 at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory of INFN—Italy. GERDA Ge detectors are non-encapsulated and operate immersed in liquid argon, equipped with a front-end readout electronics consisting of cryogenic charge sensitive preamplifiers designed and manufactured to cope with the characteristics of the GERDA experiment (radio-purity, long and resistive cables, etc.). The presentation will report on the current status of the GERDA experiment phase I, focusing on Ge detectors performance in terms of energy resolution, stability over time, counting rate and related issues.

  18. The active phasing experiment: Part I. Concept and objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaitskova, Natalia; Gonte, Frederic; Derie, Frederic; Noethe, Lothar; Surdej, Isabelle; Karban, Robert; Dohlen, Kjetil; Langlois, Maud; Esposito, Simone; Pinna, Enrico; Reyes, Marcos; Montoya, Lusma; Terrett, David

    2006-06-01

    In a framework of ELT design study our group is building an Active Phasing Experiment (APE), the main goals of which is to demonstrate the non-adaptive wavefront control scheme and technology for Extremely Large Telescope (ELT). The experiment includes verification and test of different phasing sensors and integration of a phasing wavefront sensor into a global scheme of segmented telescope active control. After a sufficient number of tests in the laboratory APE will be mounted and tested on sky at a Nasmyth focus of a VLT unit telescope. The paper presents APE as a demonstrator of particular aspects of ELT and provides a general understanding concerning the strategy of segmented mirrors active control.

  19. SIMMER-II analysis of transition-phase experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehner, T.R.; Bell, C.R.

    1985-01-01

    Analyses of Los Alamos transition-phase experiments with the SIMMER-II computer code are reported. These transient boilup experiments simulated the recriticality-induced transient motion of a boiling pool of molten fuel, molten steel and steel vapor, within a subassembly duct in a liquid-metal fast breeder reactor during the transition phase of a core-disruptive accident. The two purposes of these experiments were to explore and reach a better understanding of fast reactor safety issues, and to provide data for SIMMER-II verification. Experimental data, consisting of four pressure traces and a high-speed movie, were recorded for four sets of initial conditions. For three of the four cases, SIMMER-II-calculated pressures compared reasonably well with the experimental pressures. After a modification to SIMMER-II's liquid-vapor drag correlation, the comparison for the fourth case was reasonable also. 12 refs., 4 figs

  20. Nuclear emergency response exercises and decision support systems - integrating domestic experience with international reference systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavnicu, D.S.; Vamanu, D.V.; Gheorghiu, D.; Acasandrei, V.T.; Slavnicu, E.

    2010-01-01

    The paper glosses on the experience of a research-oriented team routinely involved in emergency preparedness and response management activities, with the assimilation, implementation, and application of decision support systems (DSS) of continental reference in Europe, and the development of supportive, domestic radiological assessment tools. Two exemplary nuclear alert exercises are discussed, along with solutions that emerged during drill planning and execution, to make decision support tools of various origins and strength to work synergistically and complement each other. (authors)

  1. Two-phase LMMHD mixer-development experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabris, G.; Dunn, P.F.; Chow, J.C.F.

    1978-01-01

    The results of a series of experiments conducted to evaluate the fluid mechanical performance of various two-phase LMMHD mixer designs are presented. The results from both flow visualization studies of the local two-phase flows downstream from various mixer-element configurations and local measurements performed to characterize these flows are presented. A conceptual LMMHD mixer design is described that insures the generation of small bubbles, prevents the formation of gas slugs and separated regions, and favors the stabilization of a homogeneous foam flow

  2. Phase change in uranium: Discrepancy between experiment and theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akella, J.

    1996-01-01

    Using a diamond-anvil cell (DAC) phase transformation and room temperature Equation of State (EOS) for some actinides and lanthanides were studied to multimegabar (megabar = 100 GPa) pressures. Experimental data are compared with the theoretically predicted crystal structural changes and the pressure-volume relationships. There is a general agreement between theory and experiment for the structural changes in the lighter actinides, however in detail there are some discrepancies still. A generalized trend for the phase transformations in the lanthanides can be seen, which again has broad agreement with theory. We conclude that an accurate and robust theoretical base for predicting the phase transformations in the f-electron metals can be developed by incorporating the DAC data

  3. Gouy Phase Radial Mode Sorter for Light: Concepts and Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xuemei; Krenn, Mario; Erhard, Manuel; Zeilinger, Anton

    2018-03-09

    We present an in principle lossless sorter for radial modes of light, using accumulated Gouy phases. The experimental setups have been found by a computer algorithm, and can be intuitively understood in a geometric way. Together with the ability to sort angular-momentum modes, we now have access to the complete two-dimensional transverse plane of light. The device can readily be used in multiplexing classical information. On a quantum level, it is an analog of the Stern-Gerlach experiment-significant for the discussion of fundamental concepts in quantum physics. As such, it can be applied in high-dimensional and multiphotonic quantum experiments.

  4. Phased Array Radar Network Experiment for Severe Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushio, T.; Kikuchi, H.; Mega, T.; Yoshikawa, E.; Mizutani, F.; Takahashi, N.

    2017-12-01

    Phased Array Weather Radar (PAWR) was firstly developed in 2012 by Osaka University and Toshiba under a grant of NICT using the Digital Beamforming Technique, and showed a impressive thunderstorm behavior with 30 second resolution. After that development, second PAWR was installed in Kobe city about 60 km away from the first PAWR site, and Tokyo Metropolitan University, Osaka Univeristy, Toshiba and the Osaka Local Government started a new project to develop the Osaka Urban Demonstration Network. The main sensor of the Osaka Network is a 2-node Phased Array Radar Network and lightning location system. Data products that are created both in local high performance computer and Toshiba Computer Cloud, include single and multi-radar data, vector wind, quantitative precipitation estimation, VIL, nowcasting, lightning location and analysis. Each radar node is calibarated by the baloon measurement and through the comparison with the GPM (Global Precipitation Measurement)/ DPR (Dual Frequency Space borne Radar) within 1 dB. The attenuated radar reflectivities obtained by the Phased Array Radar Network at X band are corrected based on the bayesian scheme proposed in Shimamura et al. [2016]. The obtained high resolution (every 30 seconds/ 100 elevation angles) 3D reflectivity and rain rate fields are used to nowcast the surface rain rate up to 30 minutes ahead. These new products are transferred to Osaka Local Government in operational mode and evaluated by several section in Osaka Prefecture. Furthermore, a new Phased Array Radar with polarimetric function has been developed in 2017, and will be operated in the fiscal year of 2017. In this presentation, Phased Array Radar, network architecuture, processing algorithm, evalution of the social experiment and first Multi-Prameter Phased Array Radar experiment are presented.

  5. Phase transition in traffic jam experiment on a circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadaki, Shin-ichi; Kikuchi, Macoto; Fukui, Minoru; Yosida, Taturu; Nakayama, Akihiro; Nishinari, Katsuhiro; Shibata, Akihiro; Sugiyama, Yuki; Yukawa, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of a traffic jam is considered to be a dynamical phase transition in a physics point of view; traffic flow becomes unstable and changes phase into a traffic jam when the car density exceeds a critical value. In order to verify this view, we have been performing a series of circuit experiments. In our previous work (2008 New J. Phys. 10 033001), we demonstrated that a traffic jam emerges even in the absence of bottlenecks at a certain high density. In this study, we performed a larger indoor circuit experiment in the Nagoya Dome in which the positions of cars were observed using a high-resolution laser scanner. Over a series of sessions at various values of density, we found that jammed flow occurred at high densities, whereas free flow was conserved at low densities. We also found indications of metastability at an intermediate density. The critical density is estimated by analyzing the fluctuations in speed and the density–flow relation. The value of this critical density is consistent with that observed on real expressways. This experiment provides strong support for physical interpretations of the emergence of traffic jams as a dynamical phase transition. (paper)

  6. Phase transition in traffic jam experiment on a circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadaki, Shin-ichi; Kikuchi, Macoto; Fukui, Minoru; Nakayama, Akihiro; Nishinari, Katsuhiro; Shibata, Akihiro; Sugiyama, Yuki; Yosida, Taturu; Yukawa, Satoshi

    2013-10-01

    The emergence of a traffic jam is considered to be a dynamical phase transition in a physics point of view; traffic flow becomes unstable and changes phase into a traffic jam when the car density exceeds a critical value. In order to verify this view, we have been performing a series of circuit experiments. In our previous work (2008 New J. Phys. 10 033001), we demonstrated that a traffic jam emerges even in the absence of bottlenecks at a certain high density. In this study, we performed a larger indoor circuit experiment in the Nagoya Dome in which the positions of cars were observed using a high-resolution laser scanner. Over a series of sessions at various values of density, we found that jammed flow occurred at high densities, whereas free flow was conserved at low densities. We also found indications of metastability at an intermediate density. The critical density is estimated by analyzing the fluctuations in speed and the density-flow relation. The value of this critical density is consistent with that observed on real expressways. This experiment provides strong support for physical interpretations of the emergence of traffic jams as a dynamical phase transition.

  7. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program A Reference Plan for Control Room Modernization: Planning and Analysis Phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques Hugo; Ronald Boring; Lew Hanes; Kenneth Thomas

    2013-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program is collaborating with a U.S. nuclear utility to bring about a systematic fleet-wide control room modernization. To facilitate this upgrade, a new distributed control system (DCS) is being introduced into the control rooms of these plants. The DCS will upgrade the legacy plant process computer and emergency response facility information system. In addition, the DCS will replace an existing analog turbine control system with a display-based system. With technology upgrades comes the opportunity to improve the overall human-system interaction between the operators and the control room. To optimize operator performance, the LWRS Control Room Modernization research team followed a human-centered approach published by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. NUREG-0711, Rev. 3, Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model (O’Hara et al., 2012), prescribes four phases for human factors engineering. This report provides examples of the first phase, Planning and Analysis. The three elements of Planning and Analysis in NUREG-0711 that are most crucial to initiating control room upgrades are: • Operating Experience Review: Identifies opportunities for improvement in the existing system and provides lessons learned from implemented systems. • Function Analysis and Allocation: Identifies which functions at the plant may be optimally handled by the DCS vs. the operators. • Task Analysis: Identifies how tasks might be optimized for the operators. Each of these elements is covered in a separate chapter. Examples are drawn from workshops with reactor operators that were conducted at the LWRS Human System Simulation Laboratory HSSL and at the respective plants. The findings in this report represent generalized accounts of more detailed proprietary reports produced for the utility for each plant. The goal of this LWRS report is to disseminate the technique and provide examples sufficient to

  8. ONKALO POSE experiment. Phase 1 and 2: execution and monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, E. [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Siren, T. [Posiva Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Hakala, M. [KMS-Hakala Oy, Nokia (Finland); Kantia, P. [Geofcon Oy, Rovaniemi (Finland)

    2014-02-15

    Posiva has conducted in the ONKALO rock characterisation facility during 2010 - 2011 an in situ experiment named POSE (Posiva's Olkiluoto Spalling Experiment). The POSE experiment had three objectives: to establish the in situ spalling/damage strength of Olkiluoto migmatitic gneiss, to establish the state of in situ stress at the -345 m depth level, and to act as a Prediction-Outcome (P-O) exercise. The POSE experiment consisted of drilling with full-face boring machine two near fullscale deposition holes, diameter 1.52 m (compared to 1.75 m for the actual deposition holes), to a depth of 7.2 m, leaving a 0.9 m pillar between the holes. The holes were planned to be located in such way that maximum excavation-induced stresses could act in the pillar and damage could then take place. Boring of the two holes in 2010 was called Phase 1 (Pillar test). This was followed in 2011 by Phase 2 (Pillar heating test) where four heaters with a length of 7.5 m heated the test area to increase the stresses around the experimental holes. In the heating phase the other hole was back-filled with sand. The test was extensively monitored during the execution using temperature monitoring, strain gauge monitoring, video monitoring, microseismic monitoring and pressure monitoring. In addition, the holes were after the test measured using ground penetration radar (GPR) and 3D photogrammetry for detailed modelling. The outcomes from the test showed that no damage, except for three opened/sheared fractures, was noticed during the boring of the holes (Phase 1). Surface damage was, though, induced by heating (Phase 2). The damage was well localized around the holes and controlled by the foliation (mica rich layers) and rock type contacts which were known to be relatively weak. Surface type failures were not observed in the gneiss, but it was noticed in limited areas in the pegmatite-granite. The depths of the damaged areas due to heating were less than 100 mm. The depths and sizes of the

  9. ONKALO POSE experiment. Phase 1 and 2: execution and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, E.; Siren, T.; Hakala, M.; Kantia, P.

    2014-02-01

    Posiva has conducted in the ONKALO rock characterisation facility during 2010 - 2011 an in situ experiment named POSE (Posiva's Olkiluoto Spalling Experiment). The POSE experiment had three objectives: to establish the in situ spalling/damage strength of Olkiluoto migmatitic gneiss, to establish the state of in situ stress at the -345 m depth level, and to act as a Prediction-Outcome (P-O) exercise. The POSE experiment consisted of drilling with full-face boring machine two near fullscale deposition holes, diameter 1.52 m (compared to 1.75 m for the actual deposition holes), to a depth of 7.2 m, leaving a 0.9 m pillar between the holes. The holes were planned to be located in such way that maximum excavation-induced stresses could act in the pillar and damage could then take place. Boring of the two holes in 2010 was called Phase 1 (Pillar test). This was followed in 2011 by Phase 2 (Pillar heating test) where four heaters with a length of 7.5 m heated the test area to increase the stresses around the experimental holes. In the heating phase the other hole was back-filled with sand. The test was extensively monitored during the execution using temperature monitoring, strain gauge monitoring, video monitoring, microseismic monitoring and pressure monitoring. In addition, the holes were after the test measured using ground penetration radar (GPR) and 3D photogrammetry for detailed modelling. The outcomes from the test showed that no damage, except for three opened/sheared fractures, was noticed during the boring of the holes (Phase 1). Surface damage was, though, induced by heating (Phase 2). The damage was well localized around the holes and controlled by the foliation (mica rich layers) and rock type contacts which were known to be relatively weak. Surface type failures were not observed in the gneiss, but it was noticed in limited areas in the pegmatite-granite. The depths of the damaged areas due to heating were less than 100 mm. The depths and sizes of the

  10. An improved synchronous reference frame phase-locked loop for stand-alone variable speed constant frequency power generation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yi; Xu, Wei; Ke, Longzhang

    2017-01-01

    The phase-locked loop (PLL) based on conventional synchronous reference frame, i.e. dqPLL, is usually employed in grid-connected variable speed constant frequency (VSCF) power generation systems (PGSs). However, the voltage amplitude drop of stand-alone PGSs is often greater than that of the grid...

  11. Experiments indicating a second hydrogen ordered phase of ice VI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Tobias M; Thoeny, Alexander V; Plaga, Lucie J; Köster, Karsten W; Etter, Martin; Böhmer, Roland; Loerting, Thomas

    2018-05-14

    In the last twelve years five new ice phases were experimentally prepared. Two of them are empty clathrate hydrates and three of them represent hydrogen ordered counterparts of previously known disordered ice phases. Here, we report on hydrogen ordering in ice VI samples produced by cooling at pressures up to 2.00 GPa. Based on results from calorimetry, dielectric relaxation spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and powder X-ray diffraction the existence of a second hydrogen ordered polymorph related to ice VI is suggested. Powder X-ray data show the oxygen network to be the one of ice VI. For the 1.80 GPa sample the activation energy from dielectric spectroscopy is 45 kJ mol -1 , which is much larger than for the known hydrogen ordered proxy of ice VI, ice XV. Raman spectroscopy indicates the 1.80 GPa sample to be more ordered than ice XV. It is further distinct from ice XV in that it experiences hydrogen disordering above ≈103 K which is 26 K below the ice XV to ice VI disordering transition. Consequently, below 103 K it is thermodynamically more stable than ice XV, adding a stability region to the phase diagram of water. For the time being we suggest to call this new phase ice β-XV and to relabel it ice XVIII once its crystal structure is known.

  12. Annotated references on shielding experiment and calculation of high energy particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, H.; Ban, S.; Nakamura, T.

    1990-12-01

    The literature on shielding experiment and calculation of high energy particles above 20 MeV has been surveyed. The survey covers thirteen journals, from 1965 up to 1989. For each paper, applicable information is listed on type and energy of the projectile, the accelerator used, composition and thickness of the target and shielding materials, shielding geometry, the experimental and calculational methods, and the quantities obtained. The references on shielding experiment and on shielding calculation are accessed through two indices which list the projectile-target and shielding material combination, shielding geometry and the projectile energy range. The literature on neutron, photon and hadron production from thick target bombarded by charged particles has been surveyed mainly from 1984 as a complement of the previous work. (author)

  13. Compendium of Phase-I Mini-SHINE Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youker, Amanda J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chemerisov, Sergey D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tkac, Peter [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kalensky, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Heltemes, Thad A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Rotsch, David A [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Krebs, John F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Makarashvili, Vakhtang [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Stepinski, Dominique C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Alford, Kurt [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bailey, James [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Byrnes, James [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gromov, Roman [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hafenrichter, Lohman [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hebden, Andrew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jerden, James [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jonah, Charles [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Micklich, Brad [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Quigley, Kevin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Schneider, John [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wesolowski, Kenneth [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vandegrift, George F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sun, Zaijing [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is assisting SHINE Medical Technologies in their efforts to develop the technology to become a domestic Mo-99 producer using low-enriched uranium (LEU). Mini-SHINE experiments are being performed with the high-current electron linear accelerator (linac) at Argonne. The target solution is a 90-150 g-U/L LEU uranyl sulfate at pH 1. In Phase 1, the convertor was tantalum with a maximum beam power on the convertor of 10 kW, and the target solution was limited to 5 L. This configuration generated a peak fission power density of 0.05 W/mL. Nine experiments were performed between February and October 2015. Results are reported and discussed for each experiment regarding the off-gas analysis system, the sampling and Mo-recovery operation, and the Mo-product concentration and purification system. In Phase 2, the convertor will be depleted uranium; beam power will increase to 20 kW; and the solution volume will be 18 L. This configuration will generate a fission power density of up to 1 W/mL.

  14. Ionospheric Tomography from a Reference GPS/MET Experiment Through the IRI Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lung-Chih Tsai

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In earlier studies, we implemented the Multiplicative Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (MART to reconstruct two-dimensional ionospheric structures from measured TECs through the receptions of the GPS-to-LEO signals and/or the NNSS-to-ground beacon signals. To examine the accuracy of the reconstructed image we need ground-based validation systems which are difficult to obtain. However, such comparative investigation is needed if one aims to improve tomography inverse techniques and algorithms. In this study, we propose a simulation scheme to carry out this task. We first simulate the GPS-to-LEO TEC measurements through the IRI model by integrating electron densities along the ¡§straight¡¨ ray occultation paths between the GPS and LEO satellite obtained from the real GPS/MET experiment. Contiguous tomographic images are then derived by the MART algorithm within the ¡§reference¡¨ GPS/MET experiment. They are verified by comparison with the ¡§true¡¨ IRI-modelled ionosphere. We show that simulation/reference results can be used to find the optimal reconstruction strategy in space-based ionospheric tomography.

  15. First phase of small diameter heater experiments in tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    As part of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) project, we have undertaken small diameter heater experiments in the G-Tunnel Underground Facility on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). These experiments are to evaluate the thermal and hydrothermal behavior which might be encountered if heat producing nuclear waste were disposed of in welded and nonwelded tuffs. The two Phase I experiments discussed have focused on vertical borehole emplacements. In each experiment, temperatures were measured along the surface of the 10.2-cm-dia heater and the 12.7-cm-dia boreholes. For each experiment, measurements were compared with computer model representations. Maximum temperatures reached were: 196 0 C for the welded tuff after 21 days of operations at 800W and 173 0 C for the nonwelded tuff after 35 days of operations at 500W. Computed results indicate that the same heat transfer model (includes conduction and radiation only) can describe the behavior of both tuffs using empirical techniques to describe pore water vaporization. Hydrothermal measurements revealed heat-indiced water migration. Results indicated that small amounts of liquid water migrated into the welded tuff borehole early in the heating period. Once the rock-wall temperatures exceeded 94 0 C, in both tuffs, there was mass transport of water vapor as evidence indicated condensation cooler regions. Borehole pressures remained essentially ambient during the thermal periods

  16. ONKALO POSE experiment. Phase 3: execution and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valli, J.; Hakala, M.; Wanne, T.; Kantia, P.; Siren, T.

    2014-01-01

    In-depth knowledge of the in situ stress state at the Olkiluoto site is critical for stability assessment both prior to and after deposition of spent nuclear fuel in order to understand and avoid potential damage to the rock at the site. Posiva's Olkiluoto Spalling Experiment (POSE) was designed specifically for this purpose with three primary goals: establish the in situ spalling/damage strength of Olkiluoto migmatitic gneiss, establish the state of in situ stress at the -345 m depth level and act as a Prediction-Outcome (P-O) exercise. Phases 1 and 2 of POSE are outlined in WR 2012-60. The objectives of the third phase of the POSE experiment are the same as the original objectives outlined above. This report outlines the execution and results of the third phase of the POSE experiment. The third phase of the experiment involved internally heating the third experimental hole (ONK-EH3) of the POSE niche in order to cause a symmetrical thermal stress increase around the hole due to the thermal expansion of rock. This thermomechanically induced stress increase, coupled with the estimated existing in situ stress state, should cause the maximum principal stress around the hole to exceed the predicted spalling strength of the rock around the hole. ONK-EH3 is located almost completely in pegmatitic granite. Four fractures near the top of the hole were mapped after boring ONK-EH3, and a tensile failure located at the contact between mica-rich gneiss and pegmatitic granite was observed 18 months after boring, prior to the experiment. Based on predictive calculations and the estimated in situ state of stress, the maximum principal stress magnitude should reach ca. 100 MPa when the temperature was just below 100 deg C after 12 weeks of heating. There were problems with the heater control unit at the beginning of the experiment, after which heating proceeded according to plan. The crack damage threshold of pegmatitic granite has been determined to be 85 ±17 MPa at Olkiluoto

  17. MinION Analysis and Reference Consortium: Phase 2 data release and analysis of R9.0 chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Miten; Tyson, John R; Loose, Matthew; Ip, Camilla L C; Eccles, David A; O'Grady, Justin; Malla, Sunir; Leggett, Richard M; Wallerman, Ola; Jansen, Hans J; Zalunin, Vadim; Birney, Ewan; Brown, Bonnie L; Snutch, Terrance P; Olsen, Hugh E

    2017-01-01

    Long-read sequencing is rapidly evolving and reshaping the suite of opportunities for genomic analysis. For the MinION in particular, as both the platform and chemistry develop, the user community requires reference data to set performance expectations and maximally exploit third-generation sequencing. We performed an analysis of MinION data derived from whole genome sequencing of Escherichia coli K-12 using the R9.0 chemistry, comparing the results with the older R7.3 chemistry. We computed the error-rate estimates for insertions, deletions, and mismatches in MinION reads. Run-time characteristics of the flow cell and run scripts for R9.0 were similar to those observed for R7.3 chemistry, but with an 8-fold increase in bases per second (from 30 bps in R7.3 and SQK-MAP005 library preparation, to 250 bps in R9.0) processed by individual nanopores, and less drop-off in yield over time. The 2-dimensional ("2D") N50 read length was unchanged from the prior chemistry. Using the proportion of alignable reads as a measure of base-call accuracy, 99.9% of "pass" template reads from 1-dimensional ("1D")  experiments were mappable and ~97% from 2D experiments. The median identity of reads was ~89% for 1D and ~94% for 2D experiments. The total error rate (miscall + insertion + deletion ) decreased for 2D "pass" reads from 9.1% in R7.3 to 7.5% in R9.0 and for template "pass" reads from 26.7% in R7.3 to 14.5% in R9.0. These Phase 2 MinION experiments serve as a baseline by providing estimates for read quality, throughput, and mappability. The datasets further enable the development of bioinformatic tools tailored to the new R9.0 chemistry and the design of novel biological applications for this technology. K: thousand, Kb: kilobase (one thousand base pairs), M: million, Mb: megabase (one million base pairs), Gb: gigabase (one billion base pairs).

  18. Gouy Phase Radial Mode Sorter for Light: Concepts and Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xuemei; Krenn, Mario; Erhard, Manuel; Zeilinger, Anton

    2018-03-01

    We present an in principle lossless sorter for radial modes of light, using accumulated Gouy phases. The experimental setups have been found by a computer algorithm, and can be intuitively understood in a geometric way. Together with the ability to sort angular-momentum modes, we now have access to the complete two-dimensional transverse plane of light. The device can readily be used in multiplexing classical information. On a quantum level, it is an analog of the Stern-Gerlach experiment—significant for the discussion of fundamental concepts in quantum physics. As such, it can be applied in high-dimensional and multiphotonic quantum experiments.

  19. FIX-II. Loca-blowdown heat transfer and pump trip experiments. Summary report of phase 1: Design of experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waaranperae, Y.; Nilsson, L.; Gustafsson, P.Aa.; Jonsson, N.O.

    1979-06-01

    FIX-II is a loss of coolant blowdown heat transfer experiment, performed under contract for The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, SKI. The purpose of the experiments is to provide measurements from simulations of a pipe rupture on an external recirculation line in a Swedish BWR. Pump trips in BWRs with internal recirculation pumps will also be simulated. The existing FIX-loop at the Thermal Engineering Laboratory of Studsvik Energiteknik AB will be modified and used for the experiments. Components are included to simulate the steam dome, downcomer, two recirculation lines with one pump each, lower plenum, core (36-rod full length bundle), control rod guide tubes, core bypass, upper plenum and steam separators. The results of the first phase of the project are reported here. The following tasks are included in Phase 1: reactor reference analysis, scaling calculations of the FIX loop, development of fuel rod simulators, design of test section and test loop layout and proposal for test program. Further details of the work and results obtained for the different sub-projects are published in a number ofdetailed reports. (author)

  20. Quality specifications for the extra-analytical phase of laboratory testing: Reference intervals and decision limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceriotti, Ferruccio

    2017-07-01

    Reference intervals and decision limits are a critical part of the clinical laboratory report. The evaluation of their correct use represents a tool to verify the post analytical quality. Four elements are identified as indicators. 1. The use of decision limits for lipids and glycated hemoglobin. 2. The use, whenever possible, of common reference values. 3. The presence of gender-related reference intervals for at least the following common serum measurands (besides obviously the fertility relate hormones): alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatine kinase (CK), creatinine, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), IgM, ferritin, iron, transferrin, urate, red blood cells (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct). 4. The presence of age-related reference intervals. The problem of specific reference intervals for elderly people is discussed, but their use is not recommended; on the contrary it is necessary the presence of pediatric age-related reference intervals at least for the following common serum measurands: ALP, amylase, creatinine, inorganic phosphate, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, urate, insulin like growth factor 1, white blood cells, RBC, Hb, Hct, alfa-fetoprotein and fertility related hormones. The lack of such reference intervals may imply significant risks for the patients. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Inclusion of Population-specific Reference Panel from India to the 1000 Genomes Phase 3 Panel Improves Imputation Accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Meraj; Sinha, Anubhav; Ghosh, Sreya; Kumar, Vikrant; Davila, Sonia; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Chandak, Giriraj R

    2017-07-27

    Imputation is a computational method based on the principle of haplotype sharing allowing enrichment of genome-wide association study datasets. It depends on the haplotype structure of the population and density of the genotype data. The 1000 Genomes Project led to the generation of imputation reference panels which have been used globally. However, recent studies have shown that population-specific panels provide better enrichment of genome-wide variants. We compared the imputation accuracy using 1000 Genomes phase 3 reference panel and a panel generated from genome-wide data on 407 individuals from Western India (WIP). The concordance of imputed variants was cross-checked with next-generation re-sequencing data on a subset of genomic regions. Further, using the genome-wide data from 1880 individuals, we demonstrate that WIP works better than the 1000 Genomes phase 3 panel and when merged with it, significantly improves the imputation accuracy throughout the minor allele frequency range. We also show that imputation using only South Asian component of the 1000 Genomes phase 3 panel works as good as the merged panel, making it computationally less intensive job. Thus, our study stresses that imputation accuracy using 1000 Genomes phase 3 panel can be further improved by including population-specific reference panels from South Asia.

  2. Controlled VLF phase reversal experiment in the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koons, H.C.; Dazey, M.H.; Dowden, R.L.; Amon, L.E.S.

    1976-01-01

    During the 1973 operations of the transportable very low frequency transmitter near Anchorage, Alaska (Lapprox.4), an experiment was performed to determine the effect of controlled phase change of the transmitted wave on the magnetospherically propagated signal received in the conjugate region. At periodic intervals the phase of the driving voltage was changed (essentially instantaneously) by 180degree. The amplitude of the 6.6-kHz signal detected in the conjugate region went to zero and recovered with a characteristic time constant of 33 ms. This is 10 times longer than the antenna current response time and is in fact comparable with characteristic electron interaction times with whistler mode waves. Between the times at which the phase reversals occurred the received signal was amplitude modulated. The period of the modulation was approx.26 ms. An upper side band was present in the spectrum while these pulsations were occurring. These characteristic times are in general agreement with theoretical predictions of bandwidths, growth rates, and particle-trapping frequencies for whistler instabilities in the magnetosphere. Data obtained from the controlled transmissions and from lightning-generated whistlers propagating in the same duct were combined to determine the plasma and wave parameters at the geomagnetic equator. Of particular interest is the level at which the magnetic field of the wave saturated. During the time period for which the data were analyzed this was found to be 3.5 pT (mγ)

  3. Phase Change Material Heat Sink for an ISS Flight Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Gregory; Stieber, Jesse; Sheth, Rubik; Ahlstrom, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    A flight experiment is being constructed to utilize the persistent microgravity environment of the International Space Station (ISS) to prove out operation of a microgravity compatible phase change material (PCM) heat sink. A PCM heat sink can help to reduce the overall mass and volume of future exploration spacecraft thermal control systems (TCS). The program is characterizing a new PCM heat sink that incorporates a novel phase management approach to prevent high pressures and structural deformation that often occur with PCM heat sinks undergoing cyclic operation in microgravity. The PCM unit was made using brazed aluminum construction with paraffin wax as the fusible material. It is designed to be installed into a propylene glycol and water cooling loop, with scaling consistent with the conceptual designs for the Orion Multipurpose Crew Vehicle. This paper reports on the construction of the PCM heat sink and on initial ground test results conducted at UTC Aerospace Systems prior to delivery to NASA. The prototype will be tested later on the ground and in orbit via a self-contained experiment package developed by NASA Johnson Space Center to operate in an ISS EXPRESS rack.

  4. Results from phase I of the GERDA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wester, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The GERmanium Detector Array Gerda at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso of the INFN in Italy is an experiment dedicated to the search for the neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay in 76 Ge. The experiment employs high purity germanium detectors enriched in 76 Ge inside a 64 m 3 cryostat filled with liquid argon. Gerda was planned in two phases of data taking with the goal to reach a half-life sensitivity in the order of 10 26 yr. Phase I of Gerda was running from November 2011 until May 2013. With about 18 kg total detector mass, data with an exposure of 21.6 kg·yr was collected and a background index of 0.01 cts/(keV·kg·yr) was achieved in the region of interest. No signal was found for the 0νββ decay and a new limit of T 1/2 > 2.1 · 10 25 yr (90% C.L.) was obtained, strongly disfavoring the previous claim of observation. Furthermore, the 2νββ decay half-life of 76 Ge was measured with unprecedented precision. Other results include new half-life limits of the order of 10 23 yr for Majoron emitting double beta decay modes with spectral indices n = 1, 2, 3, 7 and new limits in the order of 10 23 yr for 2νββ decays to the first 3 excited states of 76 Se. In Phase II, currently in preparation, the detector mass will be doubled while reducing the background index by a factor of 10

  5. Results from phase I of the GERDA experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wester, Thomas [Institute of Nuclear and Particle Physics, TU Dresden, Zellescher Weg 19, Germany thomas.wester@tu-dresden.de (Germany)

    2015-10-28

    The GERmanium Detector Array Gerda at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso of the INFN in Italy is an experiment dedicated to the search for the neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay in {sup 76}Ge. The experiment employs high purity germanium detectors enriched in {sup 76}Ge inside a 64 m{sup 3} cryostat filled with liquid argon. Gerda was planned in two phases of data taking with the goal to reach a half-life sensitivity in the order of 10{sup 26} yr. Phase I of Gerda was running from November 2011 until May 2013. With about 18 kg total detector mass, data with an exposure of 21.6 kg·yr was collected and a background index of 0.01 cts/(keV·kg·yr) was achieved in the region of interest. No signal was found for the 0νββ decay and a new limit of T{sub 1/2} > 2.1 · 10{sup 25} yr (90% C.L.) was obtained, strongly disfavoring the previous claim of observation. Furthermore, the 2νββ decay half-life of {sup 76}Ge was measured with unprecedented precision. Other results include new half-life limits of the order of 10{sup 23} yr for Majoron emitting double beta decay modes with spectral indices n = 1, 2, 3, 7 and new limits in the order of 10{sup 23} yr for 2νββ decays to the first 3 excited states of {sup 76}Se. In Phase II, currently in preparation, the detector mass will be doubled while reducing the background index by a factor of 10.

  6. Results from phase I of the GERDA experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    The GERmanium Detector Array Gerda at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso of the INFN in Italy is an experiment dedicated to the search for the neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay in 76Ge. The experiment employs high purity germanium detectors enriched in 76Ge inside a 64 m3 cryostat filled with liquid argon. Gerda was planned in two phases of data taking with the goal to reach a half-life sensitivity in the order of 1026 yr. Phase I of Gerda was running from November 2011 until May 2013. With about 18 kg total detector mass, data with an exposure of 21.6 kg.yr was collected and a background index of 0.01 cts/(keV.kg.yr) was achieved in the region of interest. No signal was found for the 0νββ decay and a new limit of T1/2 > 2.1 . 1025 yr (90% C.L.) was obtained, strongly disfavoring the previous claim of observation. Furthermore, the 2νββ decay half-life of 76Ge was measured with unprecedented precision. Other results include new half-life limits of the order of 1023 yr for Majoron emitting double beta decay modes with spectral indices n = 1, 2, 3, 7 and new limits in the order of 1023 yr for 2νββ decays to the first 3 excited states of 76Se. In Phase II, currently in preparation, the detector mass will be doubled while reducing the background index by a factor of 10.

  7. Anandan quantum phase for a neutral particle with Fermi-Walker reference frame in the cosmic string background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakke, Knut; Furtado, C.

    2010-01-01

    We study geometric quantum phases in the relativistic and non-relativistic quantum dynamics of a neutral particle with a permanent magnetic dipole moment interacting with two distinct field configurations in a cosmic string spacetime. We consider the local reference frames of the observers are transported via Fermi-Walker transport and study the influence of the non-inertial effects on the phase shift of the wave function of the neutral particle due to the choice of this local frame. We show that the wave function of the neutral particle acquires non-dispersive relativistic and non-relativistic quantum geometric phases due to the topology of the spacetime, the interaction between the magnetic dipole moment with external fields and the spin-rotation coupling. However, due to the Fermi-Walker reference frame, no phase shift associated to the Sagnac effect appears in the quantum dynamics of a neutral particle. We show that in the absence of topological defect, the contribution to the quantum phase due to the spin-rotation coupling is equivalent to the Mashhoon effect in non-relativistic dynamics. (orig.)

  8. The role of space communication in promoting national development with specific reference to experiments conducted in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitnis, E. V.

    The paper describes the role of space communication in promoting national development with special reference to experiments conducted in India, namely SITE (1975-1976), STEP (1977-1979) and APPLE (1981 onwards). The impact of these experiments in economic, cultural and educational terms are discussed, pointing out social implications involved in using advance space communication technology for instruction and information in the areas of education, national integration and development. The paper covers special requirements which arise when a communication system covers backward and remote rural areas in a developing country. The impact on the population measured by conducting social surveys has been discussed - especially the gains of predominently illiterate new media - participants have been highlighted. Possibilities of improving skills of teachers, the quality of the primary and higher education have been covered. The preparation required both on ground as well as space to derive benefits of space technology are considered. A profile of INSAT which marks the culmination of the experimental phase and the beginning of operational domestic satellite system is sketched.

  9. Experiences on current national income measures with reference to environmental and natural resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzese, R.; Gaudioso, D.

    1995-06-01

    The environment provides both a source of goods and services and a 'sink' for residues of the production and consumption processes. This is not reflected into conventional estimate of GDP (gross domestic product), the most commonly used measure of aggregate income. The purpose of this paper is to explore whether environmentally-adjusted national income measure can be derived. In the first part, the authors discuss both the shortcomings of the current national income measures, with reference to environmental and natural resources, and the debate on this issues; then they analyse the existing experiences to provide environmentally-adjusted indicators of national accounts. In the second part, the authors present an evaluation of the costs of environmental degradation in Italy in the period 1988-1990, based on the methodologies adopted in a pilot study carried out by UNSO (United Nations Statistical Office) and the World Bank for Mexico

  10. Large field of view quantitative phase imaging of induced pluripotent stem cells and optical pathlength reference materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwee, Edward; Peterson, Alexander; Stinson, Jeffrey; Halter, Michael; Yu, Liya; Majurski, Michael; Chalfoun, Joe; Bajcsy, Peter; Elliott, John

    2018-02-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are reprogrammed cells that can have heterogeneous biological potential. Quality assurance metrics of reprogrammed iPSCs will be critical to ensure reliable use in cell therapies and personalized diagnostic tests. We present a quantitative phase imaging (QPI) workflow which includes acquisition, processing, and stitching multiple adjacent image tiles across a large field of view (LFOV) of a culture vessel. Low magnification image tiles (10x) were acquired with a Phasics SID4BIO camera on a Zeiss microscope. iPSC cultures were maintained using a custom stage incubator on an automated stage. We implement an image acquisition strategy that compensates for non-flat illumination wavefronts to enable imaging of an entire well plate, including the meniscus region normally obscured in Zernike phase contrast imaging. Polynomial fitting and background mode correction was implemented to enable comparability and stitching between multiple tiles. LFOV imaging of reference materials indicated that image acquisition and processing strategies did not affect quantitative phase measurements across the LFOV. Analysis of iPSC colony images demonstrated mass doubling time was significantly different than area doubling time. These measurements were benchmarked with prototype microsphere beads and etched-glass gratings with specified spatial dimensions designed to be QPI reference materials with optical pathlength shifts suitable for cell microscopy. This QPI workflow and the use of reference materials can provide non-destructive traceable imaging method for novel iPSC heterogeneity characterization.

  11. ONKALO POSE experiment. Phase 3: acoustic and ultrasonic monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes-Montes, J.; Flynn, W.; Huang, J.

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of the third phase of the POSE experiment are to determine the in situ state of stress at Olkiluoto and the spalling strength of Olkiluoto rock, by internal heating of the experimental hole (ONK-EH3) using 8 vertically installed heaters. This report presents the results from the Acoustic and ultrasonic monitoring carried out around the third experimental hole of the POSE niche between November 2012 and May 2013. The experiment was monitored using an array of 24 transducers installed along 4 monitoring drillholes and data was automatically acquired and processed using the system installed at the niche by Applied Seismology Consultants in May 2012. Daily ultrasonic surveys were carried out between 14 th November 2012 and 21 st May 2013, monitoring the changes in transmission velocities of P and S-waves with an estimated error of ±2 m x s -1 (ASC, 2013). Changes in transmission velocities closely follow the evolution of the temperature profile in the hole wall. An increase in both P-and S-wave transmission velocities is observed at all depth levels and surveyed raypaths during the heating phase, with the highest changes observed in raypaths skimming the hole surface and depths between 2.33 m and 3.7 m. This observation indicates the closure of in situ and excavation-induced microcracks due to thermal stress. After the heaters were switched off, P-wave velocities show a marked decrease, in all raypaths reaching values below those measured at the start of the monitoring approximately 4 weeks after the heaters were switched off. The highest decrease was observed along raypaths surveying the region skimming the hole wall. This decrease below original background values indicates the induction of rock degradation as microcracking induced through the heating-cooling cycle. Changes in P- and S-wave transmission velocity were used to calculate changes in Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio along the different raypaths and depth levels. An overall

  12. Fresnel's phase observation by means of the pinhole Young's experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, F.F.; Matteucci, G.

    2000-04-01

    Using the conventional Young's experiment with two pinholes, we observe the shift effect of the Fresnel's phase on the interference patterns, by measuring its intensity on the optical axis. It allows us to propose a criterion for distinguishing between Fraunhofer and Fresnel diffraction. Indeed, in the Fraunhofer domain the Young's patterns will be centered on the optical axis. As a consequence, only constructive interference will occur at this point. But in the Fresnel domain, the Young's patterns will be laterally shifted in such a way that constructive and destructive interference will occur alternatively on the optical axis, and the intensity of the diffraction pattern at this point will oscillate. Extended diffracting apertures can be analyzed as ensembles of Young's pairs of wavelet sources. From this point of view, the intensity distribution they produce on the detector plane results from the superposition of all their interference patterns. (author)

  13. Department of Defense Costing References Web. Phase 1. Establishing the Foundation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Medlock, Michael

    1997-01-01

    ...) Business Process Reengineering (BPR) Program's "toolbox," feedback from BPR practitioners regarding experiences with functional economic analysis and Major Automated Information Systems Review Council requirements, and the Government...

  14. Dynamical phase separation using a microfluidic device: experiments and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aymard, Benjamin; Vaes, Urbain; Radhakrishnan, Anand; Pradas, Marc; Gavriilidis, Asterios; Kalliadasis, Serafim; Complex Multiscale Systems Team

    2017-11-01

    We study the dynamical phase separation of a binary fluid by a microfluidic device both from the experimental and from the modeling points of view. The experimental device consists of a main channel (600 μm wide) leading into an array of 276 trapezoidal capillaries of 5 μm width arranged on both sides and separating the lateral channels from the main channel. Due to geometrical effects as well as wetting properties of the substrate, and under well chosen pressure boundary conditions, a multiphase flow introduced into the main channel gets separated at the capillaries. Understanding this dynamics via modeling and numerical simulation is a crucial step in designing future efficient micro-separators. We propose a diffuse-interface model, based on the classical Cahn-Hilliard-Navier-Stokes system, with a new nonlinear mobility and new wetting boundary conditions. We also propose a novel numerical method using a finite-element approach, together with an adaptive mesh refinement strategy. The complex geometry is captured using the same computer-aided design files as the ones adopted in the fabrication of the actual device. Numerical simulations reveal a very good qualitative agreement between model and experiments, demonstrating also a clear separation of phases.

  15. A review of phase separation in borosilicate glasses, with reference to nuclear fuel waste immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, P.

    1990-08-01

    This report reviews information on miscibility limits in borosilicate glass-forming systems. It includes both a literature survey and an account of experimental work performed within the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. Emphasis is placed on the measurement and depiction of miscibility limits in multicomponent (mainly quaternary) systems, and the effects of individual components on the occurrence of phase separation. The behaviour of the multicomponent system is related to that of simpler (binary and ternary) glass systems. The possible occurrence of phase separation, as well as its avoidance, during processing of nuclear waste glasses is discussed

  16. Analytical quality assurance procedures developed for the IAEA's Reference Asian Man Project (Phase 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, H.; Parr, R.M.; Dang, H.S.; Tian, W.; Barnes, R.M.; Iyengar, G.V.

    2000-01-01

    Analytical quality assurance procedures adopted for use in the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project on Ingestion and Organ Content of Trace Elements of Importance in Radiological Protection are designed to ensure comparability of the analytical results for Cs, I, Sr, Th, U and other elements in human tissues and diets collected and analysed in nine participating countries. The main analytical techniques are NAA and ICP-MS. For sample preparation, all participants are using identical food blenders which have been centrally supplied after testing for contamination. For quality control of the analyses, six NIST SRMs covering a range of matrices with certified and reference values for the elements of interest have been distributed. A new Japanese reference diet material has also been developed. These quality assurance procedures are summarized here and new data are presented for Cs, I, Sr, Th and U in the NIST SRMs. (author)

  17. Stator fault detection for multi-phase machines with multiple reference frames transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchini, Claudio; Fornasiero, Emanuele; Matzen, T.N.

    2009-01-01

    The paper focuses on a new diagnostic index for fault detection of a five-phase permanent-magnet machine. This machine has been designed for fault tolerant applications, and it is characterized by a mutual inductance equal to zero and a high self inductance, in order to limit the short-circuit cu...

  18. Limb-body wall defect: experience of a reference service of fetal medicine from Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazolla, Ana C; da Cunha, André C; Telles, Jorge A B; Betat, Rosilene da S; Romano, Mayara A; Marshall, Isabel; Gobatto, Amanda M; de H Bicca, Anna M; Arcolini, Camila P; Dal Pai, Thaís K V; Vieira, Luciane R; Targa, Luciano V; Betineli, Ildo; Zen, Paulo R G; Rosa, Rafael F M

    2014-10-01

    Limb-body wall defect is a rare condition characterized by a combination of large and complex defects of the ventral thorax and abdominal wall with craniofacial and limb anomalies. The aim of this study was to describe the experience of our fetal medicine service, a reference from Southern Brazil, with prenatally diagnosed patients with a limb-body wall defect in a 3 years period. Only patients who fulfilled the criteria suggested by Hunter et al. (2011) were included in the study. Clinical data and results of radiological and cytogenetic evaluation were collected from their medical records. Our sample was composed of 8 patients. Many of their mothers were younger than 25 years (50%) and in their first pregnancy (62.5%). It is noteworthy that one patient was referred due to suspected anencephaly and another due to a twin pregnancy with an embryonic sac. Craniofacial defects were verified in three patients (37.5%), thoracic/abdominal abnormalities in 6 (75%) and limb defects in eight (100%). Congenital heart defects were observed in five patients (62.5%). One of them presented a previously undescribed complex heart defect. The results disclosed that complementary exams, such as MRI and echocardiography, are important to better define the observed defects. Some of them, such as congenital heart defects, may be more common than previously reported. This definition is essential for the proper management of the pregnancy and genetic counseling of the family. The birth of these children must be planned with caution and for the prognosis a long survival possibility, despite unlikely and rare, must be considered. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Experiments for the premixing phase (QUEOS); Experimente zur Vorvermischungsphase (QUEOS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, L.; Huber, R.; Haessler, M.; Kirstahler, M.; Kuhn, D.; Rehme, K.; Schumacher, G.; Schwall, M.; Wachter, E.; Woerner, G.

    1995-08-01

    Experiments are performed with solid spheres at high temperatures to establish a data base for the premixing phase of a steam explosion, which will be used for code improvement and validation. The hot spheres (T{<=}2600 K) are being dropped into saturated water at 1 bar pressure. The objective of the experiments is to obtain data on the cooling rate of the spheres, their distribution in the water, the amount of generated steam and its distribution with respect to the spheres. The spheres have a diameter of 4.2 mm, 4.8 mm and 10 mm, respectively, depending on the material used. Molybdenum coated with Rhenium to inhibit oxidation and ZrO{sub 2} are used. The experimental parameters are the mass flow of the spheres, their density and their temperature. The QUEOS test facility has been set up and tested. A series of first tests has been performed with cold spheres and spheres at 1000 C. The main results are the distribution of the spheres during the fall through the water and their distribution at the bottom of the water vessel. A large air bubble is being entrained into the water in both the cold and hot tests. (orig./HP)

  20. Experiments on Quantum Hall Topological Phases in Ultra Low Temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Rui-Rui

    2015-01-01

    This project is to cool electrons in semiconductors to extremely low temperatures and to study new states of matter formed by low-dimensional electrons (or holes). At such low temperatures (and with an intense magnetic field), electronic behavior differs completely from ordinary ones observed at room temperatures or regular low temperature. Studies of electrons at such low temperatures would open the door for fundamental discoveries in condensed matter physics. Present studies have been focused on topological phases in the fractional quantum Hall effect in GaAs/AlGaAs semiconductor heterostructures, and the newly discovered (by this group) quantum spin Hall effect in InAs/GaSb materials. This project consists of the following components: 1) Development of efficient sample cooling techniques and electron thermometry: Our goal is to reach 1 mK electron temperature and reasonable determination of electron temperature; 2) Experiments at ultra-low temperatures: Our goal is to understand the energy scale of competing quantum phases, by measuring the temperature-dependence of transport features. Focus will be placed on such issues as the energy gap of the 5/2 state, and those of 12/5 (and possible 13/5); resistive signature of instability near 1/2 at ultra-low temperatures; 3) Measurement of the 5/2 gaps in the limit of small or large Zeeman energies: Our goal is to gain physics insight of 5/2 state at limiting experimental parameters, especially those properties concerning the spin polarization; 4) Experiments on tuning the electron-electron interaction in a screened quantum Hall system: Our goal is to gain understanding of the formation of paired fractional quantum Hall state as the interaction pseudo-potential is being modified by a nearby screening electron layer; 5) Experiments on the quantized helical edge states under a strong magnetic field and ultralow temperatures: our goal is to investigate both the bulk and edge states in a quantum spin Hall insulator under

  1. A reference device for evaluating the thermal behavior of installed multilayered wall containing a phase change material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagliolico, S.L.; Sassi, G.; Cascone, Y.; Bongiovanni, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal analysis of installed wallboards embedding phase change material layer. • Simple devices and real conditions for thermal analysis toward a standardization. • Scanning calorimetric measurements as initial condition for data regression. • Bias correction of calorimetric measurements data by installation factors. • Practical approach to identify a reliable thermal curve for capacitive wallboards. - Abstract: Thermal inertia of lightweight building envelopes can be improved including phase change materials in multilayered wallboards. The thermal modeling of buildings for design purposes needs a robust description of the thermal properties of installed phase change materials. A standard method would improve the thermal characterization of commercial products. The aim of the study is to develop a simple methodology to obtain reliable thermal data for phase change materials integrated in multilayered wallboards. The methodology modifies differential scanning calorimetry measurements on phase change material by installation factors to obtain the apparent specific heat vs. temperature for the wallboard layer embedding phase change material. Simple cubic cells were realized as reference devices to simulate a confined environment. A dynamic model of heat transfer was developed to simulate the thermal behavior of devices. Installation factors were calculated by regression of the monitored temperatures inside and outside the devices operating under real environmental conditions. The apparent specific heat of phase change material, measured by differential scanning calorimetry at different rates, resulted in a spread of curves vs. temperature. Mean curves were used as initial condition for regression. The mean calculation method did not significantly affect the installed resulted curve. A unique curve of apparent specific heat vs. temperature best fit data measured over a wide range of experimental devices and conditions. Good regression

  2. Off-Diagonal Geometric Phase in a Neutron Interferometer Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Y.; Loidl, R.; Baron, M.; Badurek, G.; Rauch, H.

    2001-01-01

    Off-diagonal geometric phases acquired by an evolution of a 1/2 -spin system have been observed by means of a polarized neutron interferometer. We have successfully measured the off-diagonal phase for noncyclic evolutions even when the diagonal geometric phase is undefined. Our data confirm theoretical predictions and the results illustrate the significance of the off-diagonal phase

  3. A Review on Current Reference Calculation of Three-Phase Grid-Connected PV Converters under Grid Faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshari, Ehsan; Moradi, Gholam Reza; Yang, Yongheng

    2017-01-01

    Unbalanced grid voltage dips may lead to unbalanced non-sinusoidal current injections, dc-link voltage oscillations, and active and/or reactive power oscillations with twice the grid fundamental frequency in three-phase grid-connected Photovoltaic (PV) systems. Double grid frequency oscillations...... of the most important issues that should be coped with for a reliable operation of grid-connected converters under unbalanced grid faults. Accordingly, this paper reviews the existing CRC methods and presents a current reference generation method, which can have 16 unique modes. Issues are also investigated...... at the dc-link of the conventional two-stage PV inverters can further deteriorate the dc-link capacitor, which is one of the most life-limiting components in the system. Proper controls of these converters may efficiently address this problem. In those solutions, Current Reference Calculation (CRC) is one...

  4. Reference genome-independent assessment of mutation density using restriction enzyme-phased sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monson-Miller Jennifer

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The availability of low cost sequencing has spurred its application to discovery and typing of variation, including variation induced by mutagenesis. Mutation discovery is challenging as it requires a substantial amount of sequencing and analysis to detect very rare changes and distinguish them from noise. Also challenging are the cases when the organism of interest has not been sequenced or is highly divergent from the reference. Results We describe the development of a simple method for reduced representation sequencing. Input DNA was digested with a single restriction enzyme and ligated to Y adapters modified to contain a sequence barcode and to provide a compatible overhang for ligation. We demonstrated the efficiency of this method at SNP discovery using rice and arabidopsis. To test its suitability for the discovery of very rare SNP, one control and three mutagenized rice individuals (1, 5 and 10 mM sodium azide were used to prepare genomic libraries for Illumina sequencers by ligating barcoded adapters to NlaIII restriction sites. For genome-dependent discovery 15-30 million of 80 base reads per individual were aligned to the reference sequence achieving individual sequencing coverage from 7 to 15×. We identified high-confidence base changes by comparing sequences across individuals and identified instances consistent with mutations, i.e. changes that were found in a single treated individual and were solely GC to AT transitions. For genome-independent discovery 70-mers were extracted from the sequence of the control individual and single-copy sequence was identified by comparing the 70-mers across samples to evaluate copy number and variation. This de novo "genome" was used to align the reads and identify mutations as above. Covering approximately 1/5 of the 380 Mb genome of rice we detected mutation densities ranging from 0.6 to 4 per Mb of diploid DNA depending on the mutagenic treatment. Conclusions The

  5. Pulse heating tests on two reference Belgian clay formations. Laboratory experiments and numerical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, A.; Romero, E.; Vaunat, J.; Gens, A.; Li, X.L.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Two deep clay formations are being investigated in Belgium in connection with the design of a repository for 'High-Level Radioactive Waste': Boom clay at Mol (located between 160 and 270 m depths), considered the reference host formation, and Ypresian clay at Kallo (located between 300 and 450 m depths) as an alternative one. Thermal impact may play an important role on the behaviour of these low-permeability clayey formations. In this context, heating pulse tests on intact borehole samples retrieved in vertical and horizontal directions were carried out on both clays using an axisymmetric heating cell. Heating tests under nearly constant volume conditions and different target temperatures (maximum 85 C) were performed under controlled hydraulic boundary conditions. Attention is focused on the time evolution of temperature and pore water pressure changes during heating and cooling paths -i.e., pore pressure build-up during quasi-undrained heating and later dissipation to the applied hydraulic boundary conditions-. The finite element program CODE-BRIGHT was used to determine thermal parameters by back-analysis and to simulate the experimental results. Table 1 summarises the main properties of these clays. The experimental programme was carried out on a fully-instrumented cell (sample 75 mm diameter and 100 mm high) with a controlled-power heater housed inside the cell. Two miniature pore water pressure transducers located at different heights of the lateral wall of the cell and three thermocouples were used to monitor the sample response. The cell has top and bottom valves to control hydraulic conditions. The protocol of the tests included three main phases: hydration, heating and cooling. Throughout the heating and cooling phases, the bottom drainage was maintained open at a constant water pressure using an automatic pressure/volume controller, while the upper valve was kept closed. Figures 1a and 1c show the time

  6. Ingestion and organ content of trace elements of importance in radiological protection. Reference Asian man, phase-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhter, P.; Aslam, M.; Akram, M.; Rashid, A.; Orfi, S.D.

    2000-01-01

    The Second Phase of Reference Asian Man Project is in progress with the collaboration of IAEA under Regional Co-operative Agreement to strengthen the radiation protection infrastructure of the country. In this regard dietary samples are being collected from various ecological areas of Pakistan on market basket method. During this Project year, twenty two (22) diet samples were collected, prepared and stored for Neutron Activation Analysis. The stable radionuclides of our primary interest are Sr, Cs, Th, U, I, Ca and K whereas other essential and toxic elements have secondary importance. (author)

  7. Reference Asian man phase-2 entitled 'Ingestion and organ content of trace elements of importance in radiological protection'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhter, P.; Hussain, M.; Orfi, S.D.; Atta, M.A.; Zaidi, J.H.; Arif, M.; Fatima, I.

    1998-01-01

    The second phase of Reference Asian Man project was started with the collaboration of IAEA to strengthen the radiation protection infra-structure of the country. In this regard dietary samples are being collected from various ecological areas of Pakistan. The sample collection is being made on market basket method. Four diet samples were collected, prepared and stored in the refrigerator for analysis with the help of Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) . The stable radio nuclide of our interest are Sr, Cs, Th, U, I. The other minor, essential trace and toxic elements are Ca, K, Mg, Na, Cu, Fe, Mn, Sc, Zn, Cd, Hg, and Pb. (author)

  8. A Stationary Reference Frame Grid Synchronization System for Three-Phase Grid-Connected Power Converters Under Adverse Grid Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez, P.; Luna, A.; Muñoz-Aguilar, R. S.

    2012-01-01

    synchronization method for three-phase three-wire networks, namely dual second-order generalized integrator (SOGI) frequency-locked loop. The method is based on two adaptive filters, implemented by using a SOGI on the stationary αβ reference frame, and it is able to perform an excellent estimation......Grid synchronization algorithms are of great importance in the control of grid-connected power converters, as fast and accurate detection of the grid voltage parameters is crucial in order to implement stable control strategies under generic grid conditions. This paper presents a new grid...

  9. Investigations of the EPR reference concept (KATS experiments); Untersuchungen zum EPR-Referenz-Konzept (KATS-Experimente)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fieg, G.; Werle, H.; Huber, F.

    1995-08-01

    The reference concept of an EPR core catcher envisages the spreading of the melt on a protective layer (150 m{sup 2} area) and water cooling from above. Two variants are considered: Spreading on a dry area and on an area covered by water of condensation (1 cm depth). For the reference concept the KATS experiments are performed with thermite melts. After initial problems had rendered it difficult to interprete the first test, repeated tests have been successful. (orig.)

  10. Upper bounds for the security of two distributed-phase reference protocols of quantum cryptography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branciard, Cyril; Gisin, Nicolas; Scarani, Valerio

    2008-01-01

    The differential-phase-shift (DPS) and the coherent-one-way (COW) are among the most practical protocols for quantum cryptography, and are therefore the object of fast-paced experimental developments. The assessment of their security is also a challenge for theorists: the existing tools, that allow to prove security against the most general attacks, do not apply to these two protocols in any straightforward way. We present new upper bounds for their security in the limit of large distances (d∼>50 km with typical values in optical fibers) by considering a large class of collective attacks, namely those in which the adversary attaches ancillary quantum systems to each pulse or to each pair of pulses. We introduce also two modified versions of the COW protocol, which may prove more robust than the original one

  11. Improving the Virtual Reference Experience: How Closely Do Academic Libraries Adhere to RUSA Guidelines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Jessica; Benson, Pete

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the degree to which academic libraries or library staff members throughout the United States adhere to the Guidelines for Virtual Reference Services provided by the Reference & User Services Association (RUSA). The results of the study were analyzed to identify specific areas where improvement is needed…

  12. Concurrent non-deferred reference counting on the Microgrid: first experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herhut, S.; Joslin, C.; Scholz, S.-B.; Poss, R.; Grelck, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present a first evaluation of our novel approach for non- deferred reference counting on the Microgrid many-core architecture. Non-deferred reference counting is a fundamental building block of im- plicit heap management of functional array languages in general and Sin- gle Assignment C in

  13. Technical reference book for the Energy Economic Data Base Program: EEDB Phase 9 (1987)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-07-01

    This document provides the current technical design bases for each technical data model (of and electric generating plant) in the eighth update. It contains a set of detailed system design descriptions (supplemented with engineering drawings) for the technical data models. This distribution is the latest in a series published since 1978. The overall program purpose is to provide periodically updated, detailed base construction cost estimates for large nuclear electric operating plants. These data, which are representative of current US powerplant construction cost experience, are a useful contribution to program planning by the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy

  14. Taquiarritmias supraventriculares no feto. Experiência de uma unidade de referência em cardiologia fetal Fetal supraventricular tachyarrhythmias. Experience of a fetal cardiology reference center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Zielinsky

    1998-05-01

    referred for fetal cardiac evaluation. RESULTS: There were 17 fetuses with the diagnosis of supraventricular tachycardia (SVT and 8 patients with atrial flutter (AF. Gestational age ranged from 26 to 40 weeks. Twelve patients were hydropic at presentation (6 with SVT and 6 AF. Four fetuses with SVT showed structural abnormalities (two with Ebsten's anomaly and two with VSD. All patients were admitted to the Fetal Cardiology Unit for monitoring and treatment. Among 17 fetuses with SVT, twelve showed good response to digoxin administration, but this drug was not useful in any of the patients with flutter. In two patients with SVT and in six with AF, the pregnancy was interrupted to perform post-natal cardioversion. The mortality rate was 3/17 in the SVT group (including 2 patients with ebstein's anomaly and 0/8 in the flutter group CONCLUSION: Fetal supraventricular tachyarrithmias are rare in the general population. Nevertheless, the fetus may present with severe heart failure and death. Considering the satisfactory therapeutic response, accurate diagnosis and early treatment of these conditions are extremely important.

  15. The cost of model reference adaptive control - Analysis, experiments, and optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messer, R. S.; Haftka, R. T.; Cudney, H. H.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper the performance of Model Reference Adaptive Control (MRAC) is studied in numerical simulations and verified experimentally with the objective of understanding how differences between the plant and the reference model affect the control effort. MRAC is applied analytically and experimentally to a single degree of freedom system and analytically to a MIMO system with controlled differences between the model and the plant. It is shown that the control effort is sensitive to differences between the plant and the reference model. The effects of increased damping in the reference model are considered, and it is shown that requiring the controller to provide increased damping actually decreases the required control effort when differences between the plant and reference model exist. This result is useful because one of the first attempts to counteract the increased control effort due to differences between the plant and reference model might be to require less damping, however, this would actually increase the control effort. Optimization of weighting matrices is shown to help reduce the increase in required control effort. However, it was found that eventually the optimization resulted in a design that required an extremely high sampling rate for successful realization.

  16. A suggestion of reference data for flow distribution at ankle and foot level using quantitative 99Tc-HDP three-phase bone scintigraphy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøndevold, Niklas; Reving, Sofie; Møller, Nette

    2012-01-01

    To determine reference intervals for quantitative 99mTc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate (99mTc-HDP) three-phase bone scintigraphy regarding flow distribution at ankle and mid-foot level.......To determine reference intervals for quantitative 99mTc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate (99mTc-HDP) three-phase bone scintigraphy regarding flow distribution at ankle and mid-foot level....

  17. High incidence of secondary hypertension in patients referred for renal denervation--the Copenhagen experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Lene Kjær; Kamper, Anne-Lise; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Bang, Lia Evi; Frimodt-Møller, Marie; Kelbæk, Henning; Sander, Mikael; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo

    2014-08-01

    Percutaneous renal denervation is a new treatment option for patients with resistant hypertension and little is known about the eligibility of patients referred. 100 consecutive patients were referred for renal denervation from March 2011 through September 2012. Clinical data were prospectively extracted from letters and documents from referring clinics and from our physical examination. Of the 100 patients included, 68 were men and the mean age was 60 (± 12) years. Office blood pressure was 176 (± 28)/99 (± 19) mmHg and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure 156 (± 20)/88 (± 13) mmHg. The mean number of antihypertensive agents was 4.0 (± 1.6). Nearly four-fifths (82%) of the patients were categorized as having resistant hypertension based on the criteria stated by The American Heart Association's stated criteria. Nine patients declined interest in renal denervation before completing the clinical workup program. Thus, 91 patients were screened, and of those 51 were found to be candidates for renal denervation. Forty patients were not candidates, of which secondary hypertension was the most common cause (n = 10). Only 51% of patients referred for renal denervation were eligible for treatment. The prevalence of secondary hypertension was 10% of the referred population. Secondary hypertension should therefore be considered in the evaluation of candidates for renal denervation.

  18. UltraSail Solar Sail Flight Experiment, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A team of CU Aerospace, the University of Illinois, and ManTech SRS Technologies proposes Phase II development of a 3 kg CubeSat spacecraft for initial flight test...

  19. Cu–Ni nanoalloy phase diagram – Prediction and experiment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sopoušek, J.; Vřešťál, J.; Pinkas, J.; Brož, P.; Buršík, Jiří; Stýskalík, A.; Škoda, D.; Zobač, O.; Lee, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 45, June (2014), s. 33-39 ISSN 0364-5916 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : nanoalloy * phase diagram * thermodynamic modeling Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 1.370, year: 2014

  20. Control of humanoid robot motions with impacts : numerical experiments with reference spreading control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnen, M.W.L.M.; De Mooij, E.B.C.; Traversaro, S.; Nori, F.; Van De Wouw, N.; Saccon, A.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2017-01-01

    This work explores the stabilization of desired dynamic motion tasks involving hard impacts at non-negligible speed for humanoid robots. To this end, a so-called reference spreading hybrid control law is designed showing promising results in simulation. The simulations are performed employing a

  1. To implement REX today: why? How? References for an event-related return on experience as a source of learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bringaud, Violaine; Fayolle, Patrice; Madec, Veronique; Gauthereau, Vincent; Raud, Geraldine; Hernandez, Guillaume; Vautier, Jean-Francois; Le Roy, Guilhem; Maffre, Jean-Francois; Pichancourt, Isabelle; Rousseau, Jean-Marie

    2014-01-01

    The REX (Return on Experience) is an arrangement which is supposed to allow lessons to be learned from dysfunctions occurring during activities in nuclear installations. This report, written by a work group, proposes a synthesis of some references regarding REX arrangements, and aims at deepening the discussion and at the evolution of these arrangements. It presents the different components of a REX arrangement, and outlines its operational objectives: to understand, to share and to act. It highlights the conditions for an efficient REX arrangement: definition of an event, analysis methods, analysis abilities, management approaches, corrective actions, and so on. It indicates how to use this document and some useful references

  2. IVA2 verification: Expansion phase experiment in SNR geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolev, N.I.

    1987-09-01

    Using the IVA2/005 computer code the SNR model explosion experiment SGI-09-1 was numerically simulated. The experiment consists of high pressure gas injection into a low pressure liquid pool with a free surface in a cylindrical geometry with internals. Bubble formation and pressure history as a function of time was predicted and compared with the experimental observation. A good agreement between theory and experiment was obtained. Numerical diffusion and its influence on the results are discussed. (orig.) [de

  3. Determination of caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline in standard reference material 2384, baking chocolate, using reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jeanice Brown; Yen, James H; Schantz, Michele M; Porter, Barbara J; Sharpless, Katherine E

    2004-06-02

    A rapid and selective isocratic reversed-phase liquid chromatographic method has been developed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology to simultaneously measure caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline in a food-matrix standard reference material (SRM) 2384, Baking Chocolate. The method uses isocratic elution with a mobile phase composition (volume fractions) of 10% acetronitrile/90% water (pH adjusted to 2.5 using acetic acid) at a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min with ultraviolet absorbance detection (274 nm). Total elution time for these analytes is less than 15 min. Concentration levels of caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline were measured in single 1-g samples taken from each of eight bars of chocolate over an eight-day period. Samples were defatted with hexane, and beta-hydroxyethyltheophylline was added as the internal standard. The repeatability for the caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline measurements was 5.1, 2.3, and 1.9%, respectively. The limit of quantitation for all analytes was theobromine, and theophylline in SRM 2384.

  4. The new JET phased ICRH array: first experiments and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bures, M; Bhatnagar, V; Brown, T; Fechner, B; Gormezano, C; Kaye, A; Lennholm, M; Righi, E; Rimini, F; Sibley, A; Start, D; Wade, T [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Goulding, R [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Lamalle, P [Ecole Royale Militaire, Brussels (Belgium). Lab. de Physique des Plasmas; Nguyen, F [CEA Centre d` Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1994-07-01

    New ICRH antennas on JET were designed to couple to the new JET divertor plasma configurations and to improve the Fast Wave Current Drive (FWCD) capabilities. The A2 antenna consists of 4 straps whose currents can be phased at arbitrary angles. The real time automatic tuning acts on frequency, line length (line phase shifters) and stub length. Provision is made for the coupling resistance/plasma position feedback to accommodate the fast changes in antenna loading. The first coupling, tuning and heating results are reported in 0{pi}0{pi}, 0000 and 00{pi}{pi} phasing. A new antenna model is described, which was developed to simulate the measured antenna loading in terms of plasma parameters and to provide a starting point for the real time automatic tuning. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  5. The Cryogenic Test Bed experiments: Cryogenic heat pipe flight experiment CRYOHP (STS-53). Cryogenic two phase flight experiment CRYOTP (STS-62). Cryogenic flexible diode flight experiment CRYOFD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thienel, Lee; Stouffer, Chuck

    1995-09-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Cryogenic Test Bed (CTB) experiments including experiment results, integration techniques used, and lessons learned during integration, test and flight phases of the Cryogenic Heat Pipe Flight Experiment (STS-53) and the Cryogenic Two Phase Flight Experiment (OAST-2, STS-62). We will also discuss the Cryogenic Flexible Diode Heat Pipe (CRYOFD) experiment which will fly in the 1996/97 time frame and the fourth flight of the CTB which will fly in the 1997/98 time frame. The two missions tested two oxygen axially grooved heat pipes, a nitrogen fibrous wick heat pipe and a 2-methylpentane phase change material thermal storage unit. Techniques were found for solving problems with vibration from the cryo-collers transmitted through the compressors and the cold heads, and mounting the heat pipe without introducing parasitic heat leaks. A thermally conductive interface material was selected that would meet the requirements and perform over the temperature range of 55 to 300 K. Problems are discussed with the bi-metallic thermostats used for heater circuit protection and the S-Glass suspension straps originally used to secure the BETSU PCM in the CRYOTP mission. Flight results will be compared to 1-g test results and differences will be discussed.

  6. Fluid Phase Separation (FPS) experiment for flight on a space shuttle Get Away Special (GAS) canister

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Bruce; Wingo, Dennis; Bower, Mark; Amborski, Robert; Blount, Laura; Daniel, Alan; Hagood, Bob; Handley, James; Hediger, Donald; Jimmerson, Lisa

    1990-01-01

    The separation of fluid phases in microgravity environments is of importance to environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) and materials processing in space. A successful fluid phase separation experiment will demonstrate a proof of concept for the separation technique and add to the knowledge base of material behavior. The phase separation experiment will contain a premixed fluid which will be exposed to a microgravity environment. After the phase separation of the compound has occurred, small samples of each of the species will be taken for analysis on the Earth. By correlating the time of separation and the temperature history of the fluid, it will be possible to characterize the process. The experiment has been integrated into space available on a manifested Get Away Special (GAS) experiment, CONCAP 2, part of the Consortium for Materials Complex Autonomous Payload (CAP) Program, scheduled for STS-42. The design and the production of a fluid phase separation experiment for rapid implementation at low cost is presented.

  7. Experiments on phase retrapping in φ Josephson junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldobin, Edward; Menditto, Rosina; Koelle, Dieter; Kleiner, Reinhold [University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Weides, Martin [KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    We experimentally study retrapping of the phase in φ Josephson junctions (JJs) based on superconductor-insulator-ferromagnet-superconductor (SIFS) 0-π heterostructures. Such φ JJs have a doubly degenerate ground state (two potential energy wells) with the phases ±φ (0 < φ < π). We study in which of these two wells the phase is trapped upon return of the JJ to the zero voltage state. We find that for T>T* ∼ 2.4 K (large damping) the phase is always trapped in the +φ state. However, for lower T (small damping) the trapping result is a statistical mixture of the +φ and the -φ states due to the presence of noise in the system. The probability for retrapping to the -φ state increases and oscillates as T is decreasing below T*, reaching a saturation value of ∝ 30% for T

  8. Large block migration experiments: INTRAVAL phase 1, Test Case 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gureghian, A.B.; Noronha, C.J. (Battelle, Willowbrook, IL (USA). Office of Waste Technology Development); Vandergraaf, T.T. (Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Ottawa, ON (Canada))

    1990-08-01

    The development of INTRAVAL Test Case 9, as presented in this report, was made possible by a past subsidiary agreement to the bilateral cooperative agreement between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) encompassing various aspects of nuclear waste disposal research. The experimental aspect of this test case, which included a series of laboratory experiments designed to quantify the migration of tracers in a single, natural fracture, was undertaken by AECL. The numerical simulation of the results of these experiments was performed by the Battelle Office of Waste Technology Development (OWTD) by calibrating an in-house analytical code, FRACFLO, which is capable of predicting radionuclide transport in an idealized fractured rock. Three tracer migration experiments were performed, using nonsorbing uranine dye for two of them and sorbing Cs-137 for the third. In addition, separate batch experiments were performed to determine the fracture surface and rock matrix sorption coefficients for Cs-137. The two uranine tracer migration experiment were used to calculate the average fracture aperture and to calibrate the model for the fracture dispersivity and matrix diffusion coefficient. The predictive capability of the model was then tested by simulating the third, Cs-137, tracer test without changing the parameter values determined from the other experiments. Breakthrough curves of both the experimental and numerical results obtained at the outlet face of the fracture are presented for each experiment. The reported spatial concentration profiles for the rock matrix are based solely on numerical predictions. 22 refs., 12 figs., 8 tabs.

  9. Proposal of experimental setup on boiling two-phase flow on-orbit experiments onboard Japanese experiment module "KIBO"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, S.; Sakai, T.; Sawada, K.; Kubota, C.; Wada, Y.; Shinmoto, Y.; Ohta, H.; Asano, H.; Kawanami, O.; Suzuki, K.; Imai, R.; Kawasaki, H.; Fujii, K.; Takayanagi, M.; Yoda, S.

    2011-12-01

    Boiling is one of the efficient modes of heat transfer due to phase change, and is regarded as promising means to be applied for the thermal management systems handling a large amount of waste heat under high heat flux. However, gravity effects on the two-phase flow phenomena and corresponding heat transfer characteristics have not been clarified in detail. The experiments onboard Japanese Experiment Module "KIBO" in International Space Station on boiling two-phase flow under microgravity conditions are proposed to clarify both of heat transfer and flow characteristics under microgravity conditions. To verify the feasibility of ISS experiments on boiling two-phase flow, the Bread Board Model is assembled and its performance and the function of components installed in a test loop are examined.

  10. Referring physicians' experiences of outsourcing radiological examinations – A variety of views on the consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olofsson, P.T.; Blomqvist, L.; Fridell, K.; Aspelin, P.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: There are strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and challenges when outsourcing advanced radiological examinations such as magnetic resonance examinations from university hospitals to external private institutions. Aim: The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of referring physicians when their referrals for radiological examinations are outsourced from a university hospital in Stockholm, Sweden. Method: This qualitative study is a part of a larger study investigating the consequences of outsourcing referrals for radiological examinations from a university hospital to private external units. Ten referring physicians from orthopedic and oncology departments, representing clinics with large volumes of radiological referrals at a university hospital, were interviewed. Results: The results showed that the requirements for radiological services differ between these specialties. The overall opinion was that examinations performed by external radiology departments needed additional re-assessment work which causes higher costs for their clinics. This indicates that there is insufficient communication between referring physicians and the radiological department at the University Hospital. Conclusions: For better planning of radiological services, radiology departments must consider the referring physicians' needs and develop suitable contract when organizing the practice of outsourcing. The management structure in radiology departments and communication between referring physicians and radiologists in the radiology departments should be studied further, to promote better understanding and improve the efficiency of the outsourcing process. - Highlights: • The requirements for radiological services differ between specialties. • Outsourced examinations need more frequent re-assessment. • Outsourced examinations cause higher costs for referring departments. • Outsourcing radiological examinations entail more administrative work.

  11. Experiments in polydisperse two-phase turbulent flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachalo, W.D.; Houser, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    Aspects of turbulent two-phase flow measurements obtained with a laser Doppler velocimeter that was modified to also obtain particle size were investigated. Simultaneous measurements of the particle size and velocity allowed the determination of the lag characteristics of particles over a range of sizes. Relatively large particles were found to respond well to the turbulent fluctuations in low speed flows. Measurements of sprays were obtained at various points throughout the spray plume. Velocity measurements for each drop size class were obtained and revealed the relative velocity relaxation with downstream distance. The evolution of the rms velocities for each size class was also examined. Difficulties associated with seeding polydispersions to obtain gas phase turbulence data were discussed. Several approaches for mitigating the errors due to seed particle concentration bias were reviewed

  12. The Uhlenbeck-Ford model: Exact virial coefficients and application as a reference system in fluid-phase free-energy calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula Leite, Rodolfo; Freitas, Rodrigo; Azevedo, Rodolfo; de Koning, Maurice

    2016-11-01

    The Uhlenbeck-Ford (UF) model was originally proposed for the theoretical study of imperfect gases, given that all its virial coefficients can be evaluated exactly, in principle. Here, in addition to computing the previously unknown coefficients B11 through B13, we assess its applicability as a reference system in fluid-phase free-energy calculations using molecular simulation techniques. Our results demonstrate that, although the UF model itself is too soft, appropriately scaled Uhlenbeck-Ford (sUF) models provide robust reference systems that allow accurate fluid-phase free-energy calculations without the need for an intermediate reference model. Indeed, in addition to the accuracy with which their free energies are known and their convenient scaling properties, the fluid is the only thermodynamically stable phase for a wide range of sUF models. This set of favorable properties may potentially put the sUF fluid-phase reference systems on par with the standard role that harmonic and Einstein solids play as reference systems for solid-phase free-energy calculations.

  13. Oncogenetics service and the Brazilian public health system: the experience of a reference Cancer Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmero, Edenir I; Galvão, Henrique C R; Fernandes, Gabriela C; Paula, André E de; Oliveira, Junea C; Souza, Cristiano P; Andrade, Carlos E; Romagnolo, Luis G C; Volc, Sahlua; C Neto, Maximiliano; Sabato, Cristina; Grasel, Rebeca; Mauad, Edmundo; Reis, Rui M; Michelli, Rodrigo A D

    2016-05-13

    The identification of families at-risk for hereditary cancer is extremely important due to the prevention potential in those families. However, the number of Brazilian genetic services providing oncogenetic care is extremely low for the continental dimension of the country and its population. Therefore, at-risk patients do not receive appropriate assistance. This report describes the creation, structure and management of a cancer genetics service in a reference center for cancer prevention and treatment, the Barretos Cancer Hospital (BCH). The Oncogenetics Department (OD) of BCH offers, free of charge, to all patients/relatives with clinical criteria, the possibility to perform i) genetic counseling, ii) preventive examinations and iii) genetic testing with the best quality standards. The OD has a multidisciplinary team and is integrated with all specialties. The genetic counseling process consists (mostly) of two visits. In 2014, 614 individuals (371 families) were seen by the OD. To date, over 800 families were referred by the OD for genetic testing. The support provided by the Oncogenetics team is crucial to identify at-risk individuals and to develop preventive and personalized behaviors for each situation, not only to the upper-middle class population, but also to the people whose only possibility is the public health system.

  14. Tropospheric ozone lidar intercomparison experiment, TROLIX '91, field phase report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boesenberg, J.; Ancellet, G.; Bergwerff, H.; Cossart, G. v.; Fiedler, J.; Jonge, C. de; Mellqvist, J.; Mitev, V.; Sonnemann, G.; Swart, D.; Wallinder, E.

    1993-01-01

    The Tropospheric Ozone Lidar Intercomparison Experiment TROLIX '91 has been initiated as part of the TESLAS subproject of the cooperative programme EUROTRAC. It has been performed in June 1991 at the Rijksinstitut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieuhygiene (RIVM) in Bilthoven, The Netherlands. The experiment was based on the simultaneous operation of different types of differential absorption lidars (DIAL), a special version of a Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy Instrument (DOAS), helicopter borne in situ instruments, and many other supporting measurements. After a short introduction to the general methodology the instruments are described, the experimental operations are explained, and a selection of data are presented. Some examples are given for the results of the intercomparison, as far as they have been available at the present stage of evaluation. The main purpose of this report, however, is to provide an overview over the material collected during the experiment, on order to facilitate further detailed studies in cooperation between the different groups which have participated. (orig.)

  15. Program of experiments for the operating phase of the Underground Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, G.R.; Bilinsky, D.M.; Davison, C.C.; Gray, M.N.; Kjartanson, B.H.; Martin, C.D.; Peters, D.A.; Lang, P.A.

    1992-09-01

    The Underground Research Laboratory (URL) is one of the major research and development facilities that AECL Research has constructed in support of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. The URL is a unique geotechnical research facility constructed in previously undisturbed plutonic rock, which was well characterized before construction. The site evaluation and construction phases of the URL project have been completed and the operating phase is beginning. A program of operating phase experiments that address AECL's objectives for in situ testing has been selected. These experiments were subjected to an external peer review and a subsequent review by the URL Experiment Committee in 1989. The comments from the external peer review were incorporated into the experiment plans, and the revised experiments were accepted by the URL Experiment Committee. Summaries of both reviews are presented. The schedule for implementing the experiments and the quality assurance to be applied during implementation are also summarized. (Author) (9 refs., 11 figs.)

  16. Phase Equilibrium, Chemical Equilibrium, and a Test of the Third Law: Experiments for Physical Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannhauser, Walter

    1980-01-01

    Described is an experiment designed to provide an experimental basis for a unifying point of view (utilizing theoretical framework and chemistry laboratory experiments) for physical chemistry students. Three experiments are described: phase equilibrium, chemical equilibrium, and a test of the third law of thermodynamics. (Author/DS)

  17. Plasticity induced by phase transformation in steel: experiment vs modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahimi, Abdeladhim

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this work are: (i) understand the mechanisms and phenomena involved in the plasticity of steels in the presence of a diffusive or martensitic phase transformation. (ii) develop tools for predicting TRIP, which are able to correctly reproduce the macroscopic deformation for cases of complex loading and could also provide information about local elasto-visco-plastic interactions between product and parent phases. To this purpose, new experimental tests are conducted on 35NCD16 steel for austenite to martensite transformation and on 100C6 steel for austenite to pearlite transformation. The elasto viscoplastic properties of austenite and pearlite of the 100C6 steel are characterized through tension compression and relaxation tests. The parameters of macro-homogeneous and crystal-based constitutive laws could then be identified such as to analyse different models with respect to the experimental TRIP: the analytical models of Leblond (1989) and Taleb and Sidoroff (2003) but also, above all, different numerical models which can be distinguished by the prevailing assumptions concerning the local kinetics and the constitutive laws. An extension of the single-grain model dedicated to martensitic transformations developed during the thesis of S. Meftah (2007) is proposed. It consists in introducing the polycrystalline character of the austenite through a process of homogenization based on a self-consistent scheme by calculating the properties of an Equivalent Homogeneous Medium environment (EHM). (author)

  18. Stability of reference class ionization chambers used for radiotherapy dosimetry: IAEA experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czap, L.; Meghzifene, A.; Shortt, K.R.; Andreo, P.

    2002-01-01

    The IAEA calibrates ionization chambers, used in radiotherapy, for its Member States. The calibrations are either for Secondary Standards Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) or hospitals from countries without a SSDL. For that purpose, the IAEA calibrates mainly reference class instruments that are in turn used to cross-calibrate field class instruments at the hospital. Typically, the IAEA calibrates about 30-40 ionization chambers per year, of which about half are new chambers purchased by the IAEA for its Member States using Technical Cooperation funds. The IAEA database includes the calibration coefficients of 189 reference class ionization chambers of the following types: NE-2561/2611, NE-2571, W-30001/W-30010. The results of the calibrations and recalibrations of the ionization chambers in terms of air kerma and absorbed dose to water are presented and discussed. The ratio of 60 Co calibration coefficients N D,w /N K , labelled C K , was determined for all chambers. The use of C K as a chamber dependent parameter and quality control indicator to check the results of the routine IAEA calibrations is discussed. In the process of its routine calibrations, the IAEA identified a specific problem related to the W- 30001 ionization chambers. The stability of these chambers was found to exceed the 0.5% tolerance limit set by the International IEC standard. Other SSDLs reported similar findings. The manufacturer stopped the production of these W-30001 chambers to investigate the reasons for this anomalous behaviour. After identifying and correcting the problem, the manufacturer produced a new type of ionization chamber. Five of these chambers were tested at the IAEA and found to be within the tolerance limit

  19. Experiments for the premixing phase (PREMIX); Experimente zur Vorvermischungsphase (PREMIX)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherdron, W.; Huber, F.; Kaiser, A.; Schuetz, W.; Steinbrueck, M.; Will, H.

    1995-08-01

    In the PREMIX experiment, the premixing phenomena are studied by means of real high temperature melt jets. Jet fragmentation as well as (coarse) fragmentation of melt drops are being investigated. The objective is to avoid as far as possible a fine fragmentation and thus to help prevent explosions. Therefore water is used close to boiling temperature. The pressure can be varied in a relevant range up to nearly 10 bar. The melt is created by a thermite reaction after which most of the iron is separated from the melt. In this way a predominantly oxide melt with temperatures of about 2700 K is produced. Preliminary experiments showed as a surprising result that melt jets can penetrate into the water as far as nearly 1 m depth before a violant evaporation comes about. (orig.)

  20. Lacie phase 1 Classification and Mensuration Subsystem (CAMS) rework experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhikara, R. S.; Hsu, E. M.; Liszcz, C. J.

    1976-01-01

    An experiment was designed to test the ability of the Classification and Mensuration Subsystem rework operations to improve wheat proportion estimates for segments that had been processed previously. Sites selected for the experiment included three in Kansas and three in Texas, with the remaining five distributed in Montana and North and South Dakota. The acquisition dates were selected to be representative of imagery available in actual operations. No more than one acquisition per biophase were used, and biophases were determined by actual crop calendars. All sites were worked by each of four Analyst-Interpreter/Data Processing Analyst Teams who reviewed the initial processing of each segment and accepted or reworked it for an estimate of the proportion of small grains in the segment. Classification results, acquisitions and classification errors and performance results between CAMS regular and ITS rework are tabulated.

  1. Solar photovoltaic/thermal residential experiment. Phase I. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darkazalli, G.

    1980-07-01

    Month-by-month energy transfer data between an occupied residence and its energy supply systems are presented. The data were obtained during the first phase of photovoltaic/thermal residential research conducted at the University of Texas at Arlington/Solar Energy Research Facility. This research was part of the US Department of Energy Photovoltaic/Thermal Project managed by the M.I.T. Lincoln Laboratory. Energy transfer data are divided into different categories depending on how the energy is consumed. Energy transfers between some system components are also categorized. These components include a flat-plate thermal collector array, a flat-plate photovoltaic array, a dc-to-ac inverter, thermal storage tanks, and a series heat pump. System operations included directing surplus electrical energy (generated by the photovoltaic array) into the local utility grid. The heat pump used off-peak utility power to chill water during the cooling season.

  2. Vapor-phase biofiltration: Laboratory and field experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, P.J.; Bourbonais, K.A.; Peterson, L.E.; Lee, J.H.; Laakso, G.L.

    1995-01-01

    Application of vapor-phase bioreactors (VPBs) to petroleum hydrocarbons is complicated by the different mass transfer characteristics of aliphatics and aromatics. Laboratory- and pilot-scale VPB studies were conducted to evaluate treatment of soil vapor extraction (SVE) off-gas. A mixture of compost, perlite, and activated carbon was the selected medium based on pressure drop, microbial colonization, and adsorption properties. Two different pilot-scale reactors were built with a difference of 70:1 in scale. The smaller VPB's maximum effective elimination capacity (EC) was determined to be 7.2 g m -3 h -1 ; the larger unit's EC was 70% to 80% of this value. Low EC values may be attributable to a combination of mass-transfer and kinetic limitations

  3. Two-phase flow experiments through intergranular stress corrosion cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, R.P.; Norris, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    Experimental studies of critical two-phase water flow, through simulated and actual intergranular stress corrosion cracks, were performed to obtain data to evaluate a leak flow rate model and investigate acoustic transducer effectiveness in detecting and sizing leaks. The experimental program included a parametric study of the effects of crack geometry, fluid stagnation pressure and temperature, and crack surface roughness on leak flow rate. In addition, leak detection, location, and leak size estimation capabilities of several different acoustic transducers were evaluated as functions of leak rate and transducer position. This paper presents flow rate data for several different cracks and fluid conditions. It also presents the minimum flows rate detected with the acoustic sensors and a relationship between acoustic signal strength and leak flow rate

  4. "The refer less resolve more" initiative: A five-year experience from CMC Vellore, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jachin Velavan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available India′s one billion plus strong population presents huge health care needs. Presently, approximately 250,000 general practitioners and 30,000 Government doctors are a part of the Indian healthcare workforce, but 80% of them are based in urban India. Problems which plague healthcare delivery and attributed to physician practice may be enumerated as - physicians (1 lack competencies, (2 lack updating, (3 prescribe irrationally (pressures from pharmaceutical companies and patients, (4 practice unethically, (5 refer excessively to specialists and other clinical professionals, and (6 investigate for diseases without justification. A multi-competent Family Physician who could provide a single-window, ethical, and holistic healthcare to patients and families is the need of the hour. Therefore, training, equipping, and empowering these 250,000 doctors to become such physicians will reduce health costs considerably. Distance medical education using all the andragogic methods can be used to train large number of individuals without displacing them from their work-places. Distance learning provides a useful interface for rapidly developing a specialized pool of doctors practicing and advocating family medicine as most-needed discipline. This motivated CMC Vellore, a premier institution for medical education in India, to start a the "refer less resolve more initiative" by offering "two year family medicine diploma course" by distance mode. This is an innovatively-written program consisting of problem-based self-learning modules, video-lectures, video-conferencing, and face-to-face contact programs. Ten secondary level hospitals, across the country, under the supervision of national and international family medicine faculty form the pillars of this program. This distance learning program offered by CMC Vellore has become the platform for change as there is special focus is on ethics, rational prescribing, consultation skills, application of family medicine

  5. "The Refer Less Resolve More" Initiative: A Five-year Experience from CMC Vellore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velavan, Jachin

    2012-01-01

    India's one billion plus strong population presents huge health care needs. Presently, approximately 250,000 general practitioners and 30,000 Government doctors are a part of the Indian healthcare workforce, but 80% of them are based in urban India. Problems which plague healthcare delivery and attributed to physician practice may be enumerated as - physicians (1) lack competencies, (2) lack updating, (3) prescribe irrationally (pressures from pharmaceutical companies and patients), (4) practice unethically, (5) refer excessively to specialists and other clinical professionals, and (6) investigate for diseases without justification. A multi-competent Family Physician who could provide a single-window, ethical, and holistic healthcare to patients and families is the need of the hour. Therefore, training, equipping, and empowering these 250,000 doctors to become such physicians will reduce health costs considerably. Distance medical education using all the andragogic methods can be used to train large number of individuals without displacing them from their work-places. Distance learning provides a useful interface for rapidly developing a specialized pool of doctors practicing and advocating family medicine as most-needed discipline. This motivated CMC Vellore, a premier institution for medical education in India, to start a the "refer less resolve more initiative" by offering "two year family medicine diploma course" by distance mode. This is an innovatively-written program consisting of problem-based self-learning modules, video-lectures, video-conferencing, and face-to-face contact programs. Ten secondary level hospitals, across the country, under the supervision of national and international family medicine faculty form the pillars of this program. This distance learning program offered by CMC Vellore has become the platform for change as there is special focus is on ethics, rational prescribing, consultation skills, application of family medicine principles

  6. When referring physicians and researchers disagree on equipoise: the TOTAL trial experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, H C M L; Deprest, J; v d Berg, P P

    2011-06-01

    In this article, we reflect on whether randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are adequate for the clinical evaluation of maternal-fetal surgery for congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), focusing on the role of patients' preferences in the setting up of research protocols, on the requirement of equipoise and on the concept of therapeutic misconception (TM). We describe the conception and setting up of the tracheal occlusion (TO) to accelerate lung growth trial and analyze the ethical dilemmas faced by the research team during that time. Depending on the view adopted regarding the scope of equipoise, there are two ways of dealing with patient's preferences concerning fetoscopic endoluminal TO and expectant management during pregnancy for CDH. The solution adopted for fetoscopic endoluminal tracheal occlusion (FETO) is justified by the extended period of time it has been available to patients before the start of the RCT. Strong patient and referring physician preferences do not entail a right to have FETO, since it is a procedure of yet unproven efficacy and safety. In the future, to avoid the dilemmas posed by the TM and in name of the right of future generations of patients to have access to treatment of proven safety and efficacy, researchers must be able to plan RCT in due time. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Benchmark enclosure fire suppression experiments - phase 1 test report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, Victor G.; Nichols, Robert Thomas; Blanchat, Thomas K.

    2007-06-01

    A series of fire benchmark water suppression tests were performed that may provide guidance for dispersal systems for the protection of high value assets. The test results provide boundary and temporal data necessary for water spray suppression model development and validation. A review of fire suppression in presented for both gaseous suppression and water mist fire suppression. The experimental setup and procedure for gathering water suppression performance data are shown. Characteristics of the nozzles used in the testing are presented. Results of the experiments are discussed.

  8. Second Order Generalized Integrator Based Reference Current Generation Method for Single-Phase Shunt Active Power Filters Under Adverse Grid Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestan, Saeed; Monfared, Mohammad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2013-01-01

    The reference current generation (RCG) is a crucial part in the control of a shunt active power filter (APF). A variety of RCG techniques have been proposed in literature. Among these, the instantaneous reactive power theory, called pq theory, is probably the most widely used technique. The pq...... theory offers advantages such as satisfactory steady-state and dynamic performance, and at the same time simple digital implementation, however its application was limited to three-phase systems. To exploit the advantages of pq theory in single-phase systems, the single-phase pq theory has been proposed...... recently. In this paper, a simple and effective implementation of the single phase pq theory for single-phase shunt APFs is proposed. The suggested approach is based on employing second order generalized integrators (SOGI), and a phase locked loop (PLL). To fine tune the control parameters, a systematic...

  9. Numerically derived parametrisation of optimal RMP coil phase as a guide to experiments on ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, D. A.; Liu, Y. Q.; Li, L.; Kirk, A.; Dunne, M.; Dudson, B.; Piovesan, P.; Suttrop, W.; Willensdorfer, M.; the ASDEX Upgrade Team; the EUROfusion MST1 Team

    2017-02-01

    Edge localised modes (ELMs) are a repetitive MHD instability, which may be mitigated or suppressed by the application of resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs). In tokamaks which have an upper and lower set of RMP coils, the applied spectrum of the RMPs can be tuned for optimal ELM control, by introducing a toroidal phase difference {{Δ }}{{Φ }} between the upper and lower rows. The magnitude of the outermost resonant component of the RMP field | {b}{{res}}1| (other proposed criteria are discussed herein) has been shown experimentally to correlate with mitigated ELM frequency, and to be controllable by {{Δ }}{{Φ }} (Kirk et al 2013 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 53 043007). This suggests that ELM mitigation may be optimised by choosing {{Δ }}{{Φ }}={{Δ }}{{{Φ }}}{{opt}}, such that | {b}{{res}}1| is maximised. However it is currently impractical to compute {{Δ }}{{{Φ }}}{{opt}} in advance of experiments. This motivates this computational study of the dependence of the optimal coil phase difference {{Δ }}{{{Φ }}}{{opt}}, on global plasma parameters {β }N and q 95, in order to produce a simple parametrisation of {{Δ }}{{{Φ }}}{{opt}}. In this work, a set of tokamak equilibria spanning a wide range of ({β }N, q 95) is produced, based on a reference equilibrium from an ASDEX Upgrade experiment. The MARS-F code (Liu et al 2000 Phys. Plasmas 7 3681) is then used to compute {{Δ }}{{{Φ }}}{{opt}} across this equilibrium set for toroidal mode numbers n = 1-4, both for the vacuum field and including the plasma response. The computational scan finds that for fixed plasma boundary shape, rotation profiles and toroidal mode number n, {{Δ }}{{{Φ }}}{{opt}} is a smoothly varying function of ({β }N, q 95). A 2D quadratic function in ({β }N, q 95) is used to parametrise {{Δ }}{{{Φ }}}{{opt}}, such that for given ({β }N, q 95) and n, an estimate of {{Δ }}{{{Φ }}}{{opt}} may be made without requiring a plasma response computation. To quantify the uncertainty

  10. Portal vein thrombosis in children and adolescents: 20 years experience of a pediatric hepatology reference center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Menezes Ferri

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Portal vein thrombosis refers to a total or partial obstruction of the blood flow in this vein due to a thrombus formation. It is an important cause of portal hypertension in the pediatric age group with high morbidity rates due to its main complication - the upper gastrointestinal bleeding. OBJECTIVE: To describe a group of patients with portal vein thrombosis without associated hepatic disease of the Pediatric Hepatology Clinic of the Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil with emphasis on diagnosis, presentation form and clinical complications, and the treatment of portal hypertension. METHODS: This is a descriptive study of a series of children and adolescents cases assisted from January 1990 to December 2010. The portal vein thrombosis diagnosis was established by ultrasound. RESULTS: Of the 55 studied patients, 30 (54.5% were male. In 29 patients (52.7%, none of the risk factors for portal vein thrombosis was observed. The predominant form of presentation was the upper gastrointestinal bleeding (52.7%. In 20 patients (36.4%, the initial manifestation was splenomegaly. During the whole following period of the study, 39 patients (70.9% showed at least one episode of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The mean age of patients in the first episode was 4.6 ± 3.4 years old. The endoscopic procedure carried out in the urgency or electively for search of esophageal varices showed its presence in 84.9% of the evaluated patients. The prophylactic endoscopic treatment was performed with endoscopic band ligation of varices in 31.3% of patients. Only one died due to refractory bleeding. CONCLUSIONS: The portal vein thrombosis is one of the most important causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in children. In all non febrile children with splenomegaly and/or hematemesis and without hepatomegaly and with normal hepatic function tests, it should be suspect of portal vein thrombosis. Thus, an

  11. Assessing bioavailability of DDT and metabolites in marine sediments using solid-phase microextraction with performance reference compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Lian-Jun; Jia, Fang; Crago, J; Zeng, Eddy Y; Schlenk, D; Gan, Jay

    2013-09-01

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) has often been used to estimate the freely dissolved concentration (Cfree ) of organic contaminants in sediments. A significant limitation in the application of SPME for Cfree measurement is the requirement for attaining equilibrium partition, which is often difficult for strongly hydrophobic compounds such as DDT. A method was developed using SPME with stable isotope-labeled analogues as performance reference compounds (PRCs) to measure Cfree of DDT and metabolites (DDTs) in marine sediments. Six (13) C-labeled or deuterated PRCs were impregnated into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fiber before use. Desorption of PRCs from PDMS fibers and absorption of DDTs from sediment were isotropic in a range of sediments evaluated ex situ under well-mixed conditions. When applied to a historically contaminated marine sediment from a Superfund site, the PRC-SPME method yielded Cfree values identical to those found by using a conventional equilibrium SPME approach (Eq-SPME), whereas the time for mixing was reduced from 9 d to only 9 h. The PRC-SPME method was further evaluated against bioaccumulation of DDTs by Neanthes arenaceodentata in the contaminated sediment with or without amendment of activated carbon or sand. Strong correlations were consistently found between the derived equilibrium concentrations on the fiber and lipid-normalized tissue residues for DDTs in the worms. Results from the present study clearly demonstrated the feasibility of coupling PRCs with SPME sampling to greatly shorten sampling time, thus affording much improved flexibility in the use of SPME for bioavailability evaluation. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  12. Stord Orographic Precipitation Experiment (STOPEX: an overview of phase I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sandvik

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available STOPEX (Stord Orographic Precipitation Experiment is a research project of the Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen, Norway, dedicated to the investigation of orographic effects on fine scale precipitation patterns by a combination of numerical modelling and tailored measurement campaigns. Between 24 September and 16 November 2005 the first field campaign STOPEX I has been performed at and around the island of Stord at the west coast of Norway, about 50 km south of Bergen. 12 rain gauges and 3 autonomous weather stations have been installed to measure the variability of precipitation and the corresponding meteorological conditions. This paper gives an overview of the projects motivation, a description of the campaign and a presentation of the precipitation measurements performed. In addition, the extreme precipitation event around 14 November with precipitation amounts up to 240 mm in less than 24 h, is described and briefly discussed. In this context preliminary results of corresponding MM5 simulations are presented, that indicate the problems as well as potential improvement strategies with respect to modelling of fine scale orographic precipitation.

  13. CFD Simulations of a Single-phase Mixing Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolotto, Davide; Chawla, Rakesh; Manera, Annalisa; Prasser, Horst-Michael

    2008-01-01

    The current paper reports on an investigation of the capabilities of CFD codes to model multidimensional mixing phenomena in a loop. For the purpose, a test facility consisting of two loops connected by a double T-junction has been built at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI). Experiments were carried out, in which a tracer was injected in one loop and the tracer distribution before and after the T-junction was measured by means of wire-mesh sensors located at the outlets of the junction. The tracer distribution after the T-junction is strongly dependent on 3D mixing phenomena, which are dominant due to the particular geometry of the set-up. For the CFD analysis, a 3D model of the double T-junction was created, and different simulations were performed with ANSYS-CFX to study the sensitivity of the results with respect to parameters such as mesh refinement, integration time step, turbulence model, profiles for inlet velocity and injected tracer concentration. Thereafter, these results were compared with the experimental data. The comparisons have clearly pointed out that 3D modelling is able to reproduce (at least qualitatively) the experimental results. Moreover, it has been found that the CFD results are strongly influenced by the velocity profile assumptions at the inlets of the double T-junction. (authors)

  14. Passive houses in Sweden. Experiences from design and construction phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Ulla

    2008-07-01

    is supplied by district heating. The two storeys are separated by an intermediate floor with a prefabricated filigree system. The wooden outer walls and roof are prefabricated. The tenants moved in during December 2006. In Lidkoeping close to Lake Vaenern, a single-family house in two storeys was built with passive house standard and has a total living area of 170 m2. The house is heated by air. The air is supplied by mechanical ventilation with an air-to-air heat exchanger. The prefabricated blocks in the exterior walls have a wooden frame construction with mineral wool, each made in two parts, mounted at site with a polystyrene layer between. The family moved in during April 2007. Alingsaashem, the public housing company in Alingsaas owns 300 apartments in the Brogaarden area. These apartments were built in 1970 and are in great need of renovation. The apartments will be renovated aiming to the energy levels of a passive house. Well accomplished demonstration projects are seen as reference objects and are used as a basis for future projects. The results show that the project leader has here a key role. The proud carpenters with straight backs are priceless as advertisers for building passive houses. It is possible to build passive houses with good results even if the project leader does not lead the project in a perfect way. Skilled contractors and external experts can together create a very good final result. Clear goals that are followed up during the whole process are a key issue. It is expensive to make corrections and changes at a late stage in the project. Lack of good leadership might not affect the final result but the final cost. (author)

  15. Results of two-phase natural circulation in hot-leg U-bend simulation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, M.; Lee, S.Y.; Abou El-Seoud, S.

    1987-01-01

    In order to study the two-phase natural circulation and flow termination during a small break loss of coolant accident in LWR, simulation experiments have been performed using two different thermal-hydraulic loops. The main focus of the experiment was the two-phase flow behavior in the hot-leg U-bend typical of BandW LWR systems. The first group of experiments was carried out in the nitrogen gas-water adiabatic simulation loop and the second in the Freon 113 boiling and condensation loop. Both of the loops have been designed as a flow visualization facility and built according to the two-phase flow scaling criteria developed under this program. The nitrogen gas-water system has been used to isolate key hydrodynamic phenomena such as the phase distribution, relative velocity between phases, two-phase flow regimes and flow termination mechanisms, whereas the Freon loop has been used to study the effect of fluid properties, phase changes and coupling between hydrodynamic and heat transfer phenomena. Significantly different behaviors have been observed due to the non-equilibrium phase change phenomena such as the flashing and condensation in the Freon loop. The phenomena created much more unstable hydrodynamic conditions which lead to cyclic or oscillatory flow behaviors

  16. Changes in the referent body location and configuration may underlie human gait, as confirmed by findings of multi-muscle activity minimizations and phase resetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Anatol G; Krasovsky, Tal; Baniña, Melanie C; Lamontagne, Anouk; Levin, Mindy F

    2011-04-01

    Locomotion is presumably guided by feed-forward shifts in the referent body location in the desired direction in the environment. We propose that the difference between the actual and the referent body locations is transmitted to neurons that virtually diminish this difference by appropriately changing the referent body configuration, i.e. the body posture at which muscles reach their recruitment thresholds. Muscles are activated depending on the gap between the actual and the referent body configurations resulting in a step being made to minimize this gap. This hypothesis implies that the actual and the referent leg configurations can match each other at certain phases of the gait cycle, resulting in minimization of leg muscle activity. We found several leg configurations at which EMG minima occurred, both during forward and backward gait. It was also found that the set of limb configurations associated with EMG minima can be changed by modifying the pattern of forward and backward gait. Our hypothesis predicts that, in response to perturbations of gait, the rate of shifts in the referent body location can temporarily be changed to avoid falling. The rate influences the phase of rhythmic limb movements during gait. Therefore, following the change in the rate of the referent body location, the whole gait pattern, for all four limbs, will irreversibly be shifted in time (long-lasting and global phase resetting) with only transient changes in the gait speed, swing and stance timing and cycle duration. Aside from transient changes in the duration of the swing and/or stance phase in response to perturbation, few previous studies have documented long-lasting and global phase resetting of human gait in response to perturbation. Such resetting was a robust finding in our study. By confirming the notion that feed-forward changes in the referent body location and configuration underlie human locomotion, this study solves the classical problem in the relationship between

  17. In-Space technology experiments program. A high efficiency thermal interface (using condensation heat transfer) between a 2-phase fluid loop and heatpipe radiator: Experiment definition phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohner, John A.; Dempsey, Brian P.; Herold, Leroy M.

    1990-01-01

    Space Station elements and advanced military spacecraft will require rejection of tens of kilowatts of waste heat. Large space radiators and two-phase heat transport loops will be required. To minimize radiator size and weight, it is critical to minimize the temperature drop between the heat source and sink. Under an Air Force contract, a unique, high-performance heat exchanger is developed for coupling the radiator to the transport loop. Since fluid flow through the heat exchanger is driven by capillary forces which are easily dominated by gravity forces in ground testing, it is necessary to perform microgravity thermal testing to verify the design. This contract consists of an experiment definition phase leading to a preliminary design and cost estimate for a shuttle-based flight experiment of this heat exchanger design. This program will utilize modified hardware from a ground test program for the heat exchanger.

  18. The impact of stigma, experience, and group referent on HIV risk assessments and HIV testing intentions in Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rachel A; Morrison, Daniel

    2006-11-01

    People often perceive risks for others and themselves differently. This study examines whether personal beliefs about HIV and experience with those living with HIV influence personal risk assessments of contracting HIV in an interview sample of northern Namibians (N=400), but not others' assessments as explained by singular-distribution theory [Klar, Medding, & Sarel (1996). Nonunique invulnerability: Singular versus distributional probabilities and unrealistic optimism in comparative risk judgments. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 67, 229-245]. Findings indicate that personal risk perceptions decrease with more HIV stigmatizing beliefs and increase with greater experience, but that those characteristics had no impact on assessments for others' risk. The study also examines whether the size and characteristics of the referent group, peers and the general Namibian population, influence others' risk assessments. Optimistic biases for personal risk versus others' risk appear with the highest discrepancy emerging between personal and general population risk assessments. Further, we found that personal risk perceptions did not mediate the relationship between personal characteristics, beliefs and experiences, and intentions to seek HIV testing.

  19. BCR: a service to quality assurance in analytical chemistry - some experiences and achievements with regard to reference material preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griepink, B. (Commission of the European Communities, Measurements and Testing Programme (BCR), Brussels (Belgium)); Quevauviller, P. (Commission of the European Communities, Measurements and Testing Programme (BCR), Brussels (Belgium)); Maier, E.A. (Commission of the European Communities, Measurements and Testing Programme (BCR), Brussels (Belgium)); Vandendriessche, S. (Commission of the European Communities, Measurements and Testing Programme (BCR), Brussels (Belgium))

    Despite all efforts to improve the quality of results of measurements, intercomparisons demonstrate a considerable discrepancy. This fact was also shown by many of the round robins organised by the BCR (Commission of the European Communities) on inorganic, speciation, and organic determinations in various environmental matrices. It is clear that further efforts have to be made to improve the state of the art of a wide variety of analyses. This means that the demand for certified reference materials (CRMs) is and will be in constant increase. RMs are required for the validation of methods, for proficiency testing or for training purposes. The production of RMs and CRMs resembling the composition of real matrices poses difficult problems for some compounds and is a challenge for the producers. This paper presents some recent experiences and achievements of the BCR in special cases. (orig.)

  20. Phase III Randomized Study of SB5, an Adalimumab Biosimilar, Versus Reference Adalimumab in Patients With Moderate‐to‐Severe Rheumatoid Arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Weinblatt, Michael E.; Baranauskaite, Asta; Niebrzydowski, Jaroslaw; Dokoupilova, Eva; Zielinska, Agnieszka; Jaworski, Janusz; Racewicz, Artur; Pileckyte, Margarita; Jedrychowicz‐Rosiak, Krystyna; Cheong, Soo Yeon; Ghil, Jeehoon; Sokolovic, S.; Mekic, M.; Prodanovic, N.; Gajic, B.

    2017-01-01

    Objective SB5 is a biosimilar agent for adalimumab (ADA). The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, pharmacokinetics (PK), safety, and immunogenicity of SB5 in comparison with reference ADA in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods In this phase III, randomized, double‐blind, parallel‐group study, patients with moderately to severely active RA despite treatment with methotrexate were randomized 1:1 to receive SB5 or reference ADA at a dosage of 40 mg subcutaneously every o...

  1. Experiment of forced convection heat transfer using microencapsulated phase-change-material slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Shinji; Akino, Norio; Tanaka, Amane; Nagashima, Akira.

    1997-01-01

    The present study describes an experiment on forced convective heat transfer using a water slurry of Microencapsulated Phase-change-material. A normal paraffin hydrocarbon is microencapsulated by melamine resin, melting point of 28.1degC. The heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop in a circular tube were evaluated. The heat transfer coefficient using the slurry in case with and without phase change were compared to in case of using pure water. (author)

  2. Phase II Upgrade of the GERDA Experiment for the Search of Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majorovits, B.

    Observation of neutrinoless double beta decay could answer the question regarding the Majorana or Dirac nature of neutrinos. The GERDA experiment utilizes HPGe detectors enriched with the isotope 76Ge to search for this process. Recently the GERDA collaboration has unblinded data of Phase I of the experiment. In order to further improve the sensitivity of the experiment, additionally to the coaxial detectors used, 30 BEGe detectors made from germanium enriched in 76Ge will be deployed in GERDA Phase II. BEGe detectors have superior PSD capability, thus the background can be further reduced. The liquid argon surrounding the detector array will be instrumented in order to reject background by detecting scintillation light induced in the liquid argon by radiation. After a short introduction the hardware preparations for GERDA Phase II as well as the processing and characterization of the 30 BEGe detectors are discussed.

  3. Accounting for variation in designing greenhouse experiments with special reference to greenhouses containing plants on conveyor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background There are a number of unresolved issues in the design of experiments in greenhouses. They include whether statistical designs should be used and, if so, which designs should be used. Also, are there thigmomorphogenic or other effects arising from the movement of plants on conveyor belts within a greenhouse? A two-phase, single-line wheat experiment involving four tactics was conducted in a conventional greenhouse and a fully-automated phenotyping greenhouse (Smarthouse) to investigate these issues. Results and discussion Analyses of our experiment show that there was a small east–west trend in total area of the plants in the Smarthouse. Analyses of the data from three multiline experiments reveal a large north–south trend. In the single-line experiment, there was no evidence of differences between trios of lanes, nor of movement effects. Swapping plant positions during the trial was found to decrease the east–west trend, but at the cost of increased error variance. The movement of plants in a north–south direction, through a shaded area for an equal amount of time, nullified the north–south trend. An investigation of alternative experimental designs for equally-replicated experiments revealed that generally designs with smaller blocks performed best, but that (nearly) trend-free designs can be effective when blocks are larger. Conclusions To account for variation in microclimate in a greenhouse, using statistical design and analysis is better than rearranging the position of plants during the experiment. For the relocation of plants to be successful requires that plants spend an equal amount of time in each microclimate, preferably during comparable growth stages. Even then, there is no evidence that this will be any more precise than statistical design and analysis of the experiment, and the risk is that it will not be successful at all. As for statistical design and analysis, it is best to use either (i) smaller blocks, (ii) (nearly) trend

  4. Conversion of Phase II Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment Data to Common Format; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hand, M. M.

    1999-01-01

    A vast amount of aerodynamic, structural, and turbine performance data were collected during three phases of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment (UAE). To compare data from the three phases, a similar format of engineering unit data is required. The process of converting Phase II data from a previous engineering unit format to raw integer counts is discussed. The integer count files can then be input to the new post-processing software, MUNCH. The resulting Phase II engineering unit files are in a common format with current and future UAE engineering unit files. An additional objective for changing the file format was to convert the Phase II data from English units to SI units of measurement

  5. Probabilistic safety goals. Phase 1 - Status and experiences in Sweden and Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, J.E.; Knochenhauer, M.

    2007-03-01

    The outcome of a probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) for a nuclear power plant is a combination of qualitative and quantitative results. Quantitative results are typically presented as the Core Damage Frequency (CDF) and as the frequency of an unacceptable radioactive release. In order to judge the acceptability of PSA results, criteria for the interpretation of results and the assessment of their acceptability need to be defined. Ultimately, the goals are intended to define an acceptable level of risk from the operation of a nuclear facility. However, safety goals usually have a dual function, i.e., they define an acceptable safety level, but they also have a wider and more general use as decision criteria. The exact levels of the safety goals differ between organisations and between different countries. There are also differences in the definition of the safety goal, and in the formal status of the goals, i.e., whether they are mandatory or not. In this first phase of the project, the aim has been on providing a clear description of the issue of probabilistic safety goals for nuclear power plants, to define and describe important concepts related to the definition and application of safety goals, and to describe experiences in Finland and Sweden. Based on a series of interviews and on literature reviews as well as on a limited international over-view, the project has described the history and current status of safety goals in Sweden and Finland, and elaborated on a number of issues, including the following: 1) The status of the safety goals in view of the fact that they have been exceeded for much of the time they have been in use, as well as the possible implications of these exceedances. 2) Safety goals as informal or mandatory limits. 3) Strategies for handling violations of safety goals, including various graded approaches, such as ALARP (As Low As Reasonably Practicable). 4) Relation between safety goals defined on different levels, e.g., for core damage

  6. Probabilistic Safety Goals. Phase 1 Status and Experiences in Sweden and Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, Jan-Erik (VTT, FI-02044 VTT (Finland)); Knochenhauer, Michael (Relcon Scandpower AB, SE-172 25 Sundbyberg (Sweden))

    2007-02-15

    The outcome of a probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) for a nuclear power plant is a combination of qualitative and quantitative results. Quantitative results are typically presented as the Core Damage Frequency (CDF) and as the frequency of an unacceptable radioactive release. In order to judge the acceptability of PSA results, criteria for the interpretation of results and the assessment of their acceptability need to be defined. Ultimately, the goals are intended to define an acceptable level of risk from the operation of a nuclear facility. However, safety goals usually have a dual function, i.e., they define an acceptable safety level, but they also have a wider and more general use as decision criteria. The exact levels of the safety goals differ between organisations and between different countries. There are also differences in the definition of the safety goal, and in the formal status of the goals, i.e., whether they are mandatory or not. In this first phase of the project, the aim has been on providing a clear description of the issue of probabilistic safety goals for nuclear power plants, to define and describe important concepts related to the definition and application of safety goals, and to describe experiences in Finland and Sweden. Based on a series of interviews and on literature reviews as well as on a limited international over-view, the project has described the history and current status of safety goals in Sweden and Finland, and elaborated on a number of issues, including the following: The status of the safety goals in view of the fact that they have been exceeded for much of the time they have been in use, as well as the possible implications of these exceedances. Safety goals as informal or mandatory limits. Strategies for handling violations of safety goals, including various graded approaches, such as ALARP (As Low As Reasonably Practicable). Relation between safety goals defined on different levels, e.g., for core damage and for

  7. Probabilistic Safety Goals. Phase 1 Status and Experiences in Sweden and Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, Jan-Erik; Knochenhauer, Michael

    2007-02-01

    The outcome of a probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) for a nuclear power plant is a combination of qualitative and quantitative results. Quantitative results are typically presented as the Core Damage Frequency (CDF) and as the frequency of an unacceptable radioactive release. In order to judge the acceptability of PSA results, criteria for the interpretation of results and the assessment of their acceptability need to be defined. Ultimately, the goals are intended to define an acceptable level of risk from the operation of a nuclear facility. However, safety goals usually have a dual function, i.e., they define an acceptable safety level, but they also have a wider and more general use as decision criteria. The exact levels of the safety goals differ between organisations and between different countries. There are also differences in the definition of the safety goal, and in the formal status of the goals, i.e., whether they are mandatory or not. In this first phase of the project, the aim has been on providing a clear description of the issue of probabilistic safety goals for nuclear power plants, to define and describe important concepts related to the definition and application of safety goals, and to describe experiences in Finland and Sweden. Based on a series of interviews and on literature reviews as well as on a limited international over-view, the project has described the history and current status of safety goals in Sweden and Finland, and elaborated on a number of issues, including the following: The status of the safety goals in view of the fact that they have been exceeded for much of the time they have been in use, as well as the possible implications of these exceedances. Safety goals as informal or mandatory limits. Strategies for handling violations of safety goals, including various graded approaches, such as ALARP (As Low As Reasonably Practicable). Relation between safety goals defined on different levels, e.g., for core damage and for

  8. Probabilistic safety goals. Phase 1 - Status and experiences in Sweden and Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, J.E. [VTT (Finland); Knochenhauer, M. [Relcon Scandpower AB (Sweden)

    2007-03-15

    The outcome of a probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) for a nuclear power plant is a combination of qualitative and quantitative results. Quantitative results are typically presented as the Core Damage Frequency (CDF) and as the frequency of an unacceptable radioactive release. In order to judge the acceptability of PSA results, criteria for the interpretation of results and the assessment of their acceptability need to be defined. Ultimately, the goals are intended to define an acceptable level of risk from the operation of a nuclear facility. However, safety goals usually have a dual function, i.e., they define an acceptable safety level, but they also have a wider and more general use as decision criteria. The exact levels of the safety goals differ between organisations and between different countries. There are also differences in the definition of the safety goal, and in the formal status of the goals, i.e., whether they are mandatory or not. In this first phase of the project, the aim has been on providing a clear description of the issue of probabilistic safety goals for nuclear power plants, to define and describe important concepts related to the definition and application of safety goals, and to describe experiences in Finland and Sweden. Based on a series of interviews and on literature reviews as well as on a limited international over-view, the project has described the history and current status of safety goals in Sweden and Finland, and elaborated on a number of issues, including the following: 1) The status of the safety goals in view of the fact that they have been exceeded for much of the time they have been in use, as well as the possible implications of these exceedances. 2) Safety goals as informal or mandatory limits. 3) Strategies for handling violations of safety goals, including various graded approaches, such as ALARP (As Low As Reasonably Practicable). 4) Relation between safety goals defined on different levels, e.g., for core damage

  9. Emergent Power-Law Phase in the 2D Heisenberg Windmill Antiferromagnet: A Computational Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevanesan, Bhilahari; Chandra, Premala; Coleman, Piers; Orth, Peter P.

    2015-10-01

    In an extensive computational experiment, we test Polyakov's conjecture that under certain circumstances an isotropic Heisenberg model can develop algebraic spin correlations. We demonstrate the emergence of a multispin U(1) order parameter in a Heisenberg antiferromagnet on interpenetrating honeycomb and triangular lattices. The correlations of this relative phase angle are observed to decay algebraically at intermediate temperatures in an extended critical phase. Using finite-size scaling we show that both phase transitions are of the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless type, and at lower temperatures we find long-range Z6 order.

  10. Phase transitions and dynamic entropy in small two-dimensional systems: Experiment and numerical simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koss, K. G.; Petrov, O. F.; Myasnikov, M. I., E-mail: miasnikovmi@mail.ru; Statsenko, K. B.; Vasiliev, M. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-15

    The results of experimental and numerical analysis are presented for phase transitions in strongly nonequilibrium small systems of strongly interacting Brownian particles. The dynamic entropy method is applied to analysis of the state of these systems. Experiments are carried out with kinetic heating of the structures of micron-size particles in a laboratory rf discharge plasma. Three phase states of these small systems are observed: crystalline, liquid, and transient. The mechanism of phase transitions in cluster structures of strongly interacting particles is described.

  11. Summary report of the 3. research co-ordination meeting on development of reference input parameter library for nuclear model calculations of nuclear data (Phase 1: Starter File)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oblozinsky, P.

    1997-09-01

    The report contains the summary of the third and the last Research Co-ordination Meeting on ''Development of Reference Input Parameter Library for Nuclear Model Calculations of Nuclear Data (Phase I: Starter File)'', held at the ICTP, Trieste, Italy, from 26 to 29 May 1997. Details are given on the status of the Handbook and the Starter File - two major results of the project. (author)

  12. Mine-by experiment committee report phase 1: excavation response summary and implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, C.D.; Kaiser, P.K.

    1996-05-01

    The first phase of the Mine-by Experiment, i.e., excavation of a 3.5-m-diameter tunnel, was carried out at the 420 Level of the Underground Research Laboratory to investigate rock mass damage and progressive failure around a circular opening in brittle unfractitred Lac du Bonnet granite. The tunnel was excavated without explosives, and state-of-the-art instrumentation comprising both geomechanical and geophysical instruments was used to monitor the failure process. The experiment showed that rock mass damage begins once the deviatoric stress (0'1 - 0'3) near the advancing face of the tunnel exceeds a critical level. Crack propagation can lead to progressive failure around the tunnel; however, it is limited to a region, referred to as the excavation damaged zone, of less than one tunnel radius. Within the damaged zone, stabbing (a typical form of brittle failure) began at stress levels equivalent to about 50% of the short-term laboratory unconfined compressive strength. This reduction in strength between laboratory and in situ conditions occurs because the in situ loading path is far more complex than the monotonic loading path used to test laboratory samples. There is no evidence to suggest that the stabbing failure process would extend beyond the depth of damage defined by the deviatoric stress criterion. The stabbing process stops when the tunnel face has advanced sufficiently (approximately 2 tunnel diameters) such that the rock mass is no longer subjected to excavation-induced stress changes. The strength of the rock mass in the damaged zone must be back-calculated from in situ tests, because the loading path cannot be duplicated readily in the laboratory. Thus, the back-calculated damaged strength must be used to evaluate the stability of the excavation. Sealing systems to reduce the permeability in the axial direction of a tunnel must be keyed into the rock mass beyond the radial extent of the damaged zone. The shape of the seals must be designed so as to

  13. Experiments of steady state head and torque of centrifugal pumps in two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minato, Akihiko; Tominaga, Kenji.

    1988-01-01

    Circulation pump behavior has large effect on coolant discharge flow rate in case of reactor pipe break. Experiment of two-phase pump performance was conducted as a joint study of Japanese BWR user utilities and makers. Two-phase head and torque of three centrifugal pumps in high temperature and high pressure (around 6 MPa) steam/water were measured. Head was decreased from single-phase characteristics when gas was mixed in liquid flow in condition with normal flow and normal rotation directions. When flow rate was large enough, two-phase head was about the same as single-phase one in reversal flow conditions. Two-phase head was smoothly increased as flowing steam volumetic concentration increased when flow rate was small and flow direction was reversal. Changes of torque with gas concentration were correspondent to those of head. This suggested that changes of interaction between flow and impellers due to phase slip effected on torque which caused head differences between single- and two-phase flows. Dependence of dimensionless head and torque of three test pumps on steam concentration were almost the same as each other. (author)

  14. Studies of nematic to smectic-A phase transitions using synchrotron radiation. Experimental techniques and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, F.

    1981-10-01

    High resolution X-ray diffraction on liquid crystals, with a triple-axis spectrometer, was initiated 4-5 years ago, using rotating-anode sources. The triple-axis spectrometer, built at Risoe, is permanently positioned at the DORIS storage ring. Triple-axis X-ray spectrometer work in general and especially at the synchrotron source is a new field and a description of the techniques used is given. The experiments described are studies of the nematic to smectic-A phase transition in liquid crystals. The first is a study of the monomolecular liquid crystal 8-barS5 (C 8 H 17 O-phi-COS-phi-C 5 H 11 , where phi denotes a benzene ring). The second experimental study is one of the reentrance phenomenon in the ternary mixture: 5CTsub(.09):7CBsub(.x):80CBsub(.91-x); where 5CT(C 5 H 11 -phi-phi-phi-CN) and 7CB(C 7 H 15 -phi-phi-CN) have only a nematic phase and not the smectic-A phase. The results are interpreted in terms of Landau theory. Finally, a frame is given for discussing the nature of the smectic-A phase and an experiment is proposed to explore the nature of the smectic-A phase together with detailed calculations of (001)- and (002)-lineshapes for the smectic-A phase. (Auth.)

  15. Teachers' Experiences of Technology-Based Teaching and Learning in the Foundation Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannaway, D. M.; Steyn, M. G.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents one aspect of a larger scale doctoral study, namely the teachers' experiences of technology-based teaching and learning in the Foundation Phase. Technology is a huge driver of change and South African education has to change regularly to meet the requirements set out by the Department of Education, including the development of…

  16. An FPGA-based trigger for the phase II of the MEG experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldini, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pisa (Italy); Bemporad, C.; Cei, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pisa (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa (Italy); Galli, L.; Grassi, M.; Morsani, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pisa (Italy); Nicolò, D., E-mail: donato.nicolo@pi.infn.it [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pisa (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa (Italy); Ritt, S. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen AG (Switzerland); Venturini, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pisa (Italy); Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa (Italy)

    2016-07-11

    For the phase II of MEG, we are going to develop a combined trigger and DAQ system. Here we focus on the former side, which operates an on-line reconstruction of detector signals and event selection within 450 μs from event occurrence. Trigger concentrator boards (TCB) are under development to gather data from different crates, each connected to a set of detector channels, to accomplish higher-level algorithms to issue a trigger in the case of a candidate signal event. We describe the major features of the new system, in comparison with phase I, as well as its performances in terms of selection efficiency and background rejection. - Highlights: • A new, two-level trigger scheme for the phase-II of the MEG experiment is presented. • Improvements with respect to phase-I are underlined. • The role of detector upgrades and the use of a new generation of FPGA as well are emphasized.

  17. THEREDA. Thermodynamic reference data base. Phase II. Release of thermodynamic data. Summary and final report; THEREDA. Thermodynamische Referenz-Datenbasis. Phase II. Freigabe thermodynamischer Daten. Zusammenfassung der Abschlussberichte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altmaier, Marcus; Gaona, Xavier; Marquardt, Christian; Montoya, Vanessa [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Institut fuer Nukleare Entsorgung; Bok, Frank; Richter, Anke [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Resource Ecology; Moog, Helge C.; Scharge, Tina [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Koeln (Germany); Voigt, Wolfgang [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany); Wilhelm, Stefan [AF Consult AG, Baden-Daettwil (Switzerland)

    2015-12-15

    The final report on the thermodynamic reference data base THEREDA covers the following issues: project management, quality management (Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf HZDR and GRS), data base interfaces, documentation, uranium (HZDR), other nuclides (Karlsruhe Institute for technology, KIT), data for cement minerals and their reaction products (AF-Consult, GRS), phosphate (GRS), systems with CO2 and carbonate at variable temperatures and pressure (Bergakademie Freiberg, TUBAF).

  18. Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment Phases II-IV Test Configurations and Available Data Campaigns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simms, D. A.; Hand, M. M.; Fingersh, L. J.; Jager, D. W.

    1999-08-19

    The main objective of the Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment is to provide information needed to quantify the full-scale three-dimensional aerodynamic behavior of horizontal axis wind turbines. To accomplish this, an experimental wind turbine configured to meet specific research objectives was assembled and operated at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The turbine was instrumented to characterize rotating blade aerodynamic performance, machine structural responses, and atmospheric inflow conditions. Comprehensive tests were conducted with the turbine operating in an outdoor field environment under diverse conditions. Resulting data are used to validate aerodynamic and structural dynamics models which are an important part of wind turbine design and engineering codes. Improvements in these models are needed to better characterize aerodynamic response in both the steady-state post-stall and dynamic stall regimes. Much of the effort in the earlier phase of the Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment focused on developing required data acquisition systems. Complex instrumentation and equipment was needed to meet stringent data requirements while operating under the harsh environmental conditions of a wind turbine rotor. Once the data systems were developed, subsequent phases of experiments were then conducted to collect data for use in answering specific research questions. A description of the experiment configuration used during Phases II-IV of the experiment is contained in this report.

  19. Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment Phase V: Test Configuration and Available Data Campaigns; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hand, M. M.; Simms, D. A.; Fingersh, L. J.; Jager, D. W.; Cotrell, J. R.

    2001-01-01

    The main objective of the Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment is to provide information needed to quantify the full-scale, three-dimensional, unsteady aerodynamic behavior of horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWTs). To accomplish this, an experimental wind turbine configured to meet specific research objectives was assembled and operated at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The turbine was instrumented to characterize rotating-blade aerodynamic performance, machine structural responses, and atmospheric inflow conditions. Comprehensive tests were conducted with the turbine operating in an outdoor field environment under diverse conditions. Resulting data are used to validate aerodynamic and structural dynamics models, which are an important part of wind turbine design and engineering codes. Improvements in these models are needed to better characterize aerodynamic response in both the steady-state post-stall and dynamic-stall regimes. Much of the effort in the first phase of the Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment focused on developing required data acquisition systems. Complex instrumentation and equipment was needed to meet stringent data requirements while operating under the harsh environmental conditions of a wind turbine rotor. Once the data systems were developed, subsequent phases of experiments were then conducted to collect data for use in answering specific research questions. A description of the experiment configuration used during Phase V of the experiment is contained in this report

  20. A Sun-Earth-Moon Activity to Develop Student Understanding of Lunar Phases and Frames of Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashmann, Scott

    2012-01-01

    The Moon is an ever-present subject of observation, and it is a recurring topic in the science curriculum from kindergarten's basic observations through graduate courses' mathematical analyses of its orbit. How do students come to comprehend Earth's nearest neighbor? What is needed for them to understand the lunar phases and other phenomena and…

  1. Recent references

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramavataram, S.

    1991-01-01

    In support of a continuing program of systematic evaluation of nuclear structure data, the National Nuclear Data Center maintains a complete computer file of references to the nuclear physics literature. Each reference is tagged by a keyword string, which indicates the kinds of data contained in the article. This master file of Nuclear Structure References (NSR) contains complete keyword indexes to literature published since 1969, with partial indexing of older references. Any reader who finds errors in the keyword descriptions is urged to report them to the National Nuclear Data Center so that the master NSR file can be corrected. In 1966, the first collection of Recent References was published as a separate issue of Nuclear Data Sheets. Every four months since 1970, a similar indexed bibliography to new nuclear experiments has been prepared from additions to the NSR file and published. Beginning in 1978, Recent References was cumulated annually, with the third issue completely superseding the two issues previously published during a given year. Due to publication policy changes, cumulation of Recent Reference was discontinued in 1986. The volume and issue number of all the cumulative issues published to date are given. NNDC will continue to respond to individual requests for special bibliographies on nuclear physics topics, in addition to those easily obtained from Recent References. If the required information is available from the keyword string, a reference list can be prepared automatically from the computer files. This service can be provided on request, in exchange for the timely communication of new nuclear physics results (e.g., preprints). A current copy of the NSR file may also be obtained in a standard format on magnetic tape from NNDC. Requests for special searches of the NSR file may also be directed to the National Nuclear Data Center

  2. Applying Information Retrieval Techniques to Detect Duplicates and to Rank References in the Preliminary Phases of Systematic Literature Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Abilio

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Systematic Literature Review (SLR is a means to synthesize relevant and high quality studies related to a specific topic or research questions. In the Primary Selection stage of an SLR, the selection of studies is usually performed manually by reading title, abstract and keywords of each study. In the last years, the number of published scientific studies has grown increasing the effort to perform this sort of reviews. In this paper, we proposed strategies to detect non-papers and duplicated references in results exported by search engines, and strategies to rank the references in decreasing order of importance for an SLR, regarding the terms in the search string. These strategies are based on Information Retrieval techniques. We implemented the strategies and carried out an experimental evaluation of their applicability using two real datasets. As results, the strategy to detect non-papers presented 100% of precision and 50% of recall; the strategy to detect duplicates detected more duplicates than the manual inspection; and one of the strategies to rank relevant references presented 50% of precision and 80% of recall. Therefore, the results show that the proposed strategies can minimize the effort in the Primary Selection stage of an SLR.

  3. Long Term Sorption Diffusion Experiment (LTDE-SD). Performance of main in situ experiment and results from water phase measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widestrand, Henrik; Byegaard, Johan; Nilsson, Kersti; Hoeglund, Susanne; Gustafsson, Erik; Kronberg, Magnus

    2010-12-01

    The LTDE-SD experiment, (Long Term Sorption Diffusion Experiment) aimed at increasing the scientific knowledge of sorption and diffusion under in situ conditions and to provide data for performance and safety assessment calculations. Performance and results of the in situ experiment phase are presented in the report. In total, 21 radionuclide trace elements and one stable trace element were injected, circulated and sampled for ∼6.5 months in a closed borehole section. The trace elements represented non-sorbing tracers and sorbing tracers for which the sorption was dominated by a cation exchange mechanism, a surface complexation mechanism, or dependent on an electrochemical reduction in order to reach the tetravalent state (oxidation state IV) considered very strongly sorbing. The borehole section in contact with the tracer labelled groundwater consisted in part of a natural fracture surface and a borehole section in the unaltered matrix rock, devoid of natural fractures. Water samples were regularly extracted and analysed for trace element concentration and a few ion exchange speciation and filtered samplings were also conducted. Independent colloid filtering and chemical speciation calculations were performed in support the evaluation. Sorption was demonstrated for a series of elements present in the experiment. The amounts lost of the different respective tracers from the aqueous phase follow very well the general understanding of the relative sorption strength of the tracers, as inferred from e.g. batch sorption experiments and dynamic in situ tracer experiments. The chemical speciation calculations of the different tracers were in line with the results of the ion exchange speciation performed during the experiment. With the exception of UO 2 2+ carbonate complexes formed, no strong indications were obtained that aqueous complexation prevents adsorption under the chemical conditions of the experiment. The 20 nm filtered sampling indicated that radionuclide

  4. Long Term Sorption Diffusion Experiment (LTDE-SD). Performance of main in situ experiment and results from water phase measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widestrand, Henrik; Byegaard, Johan; Nilsson, Kersti; Hoeglund, Susanne; Gustafsson, Erik (Geosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden)); Kronberg, Magnus (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    The LTDE-SD experiment, (Long Term Sorption Diffusion Experiment) aimed at increasing the scientific knowledge of sorption and diffusion under in situ conditions and to provide data for performance and safety assessment calculations. Performance and results of the in situ experiment phase are presented in the report. In total, 21 radionuclide trace elements and one stable trace element were injected, circulated and sampled for approx6.5 months in a closed borehole section. The trace elements represented non-sorbing tracers and sorbing tracers for which the sorption was dominated by a cation exchange mechanism, a surface complexation mechanism, or dependent on an electrochemical reduction in order to reach the tetravalent state (oxidation state IV) considered very strongly sorbing. The borehole section in contact with the tracer labelled groundwater consisted in part of a natural fracture surface and a borehole section in the unaltered matrix rock, devoid of natural fractures. Water samples were regularly extracted and analysed for trace element concentration and a few ion exchange speciation and filtered samplings were also conducted. Independent colloid filtering and chemical speciation calculations were performed in support the evaluation. Sorption was demonstrated for a series of elements present in the experiment. The amounts lost of the different respective tracers from the aqueous phase follow very well the general understanding of the relative sorption strength of the tracers, as inferred from e.g. batch sorption experiments and dynamic in situ tracer experiments. The chemical speciation calculations of the different tracers were in line with the results of the ion exchange speciation performed during the experiment. With the exception of UO{sub 2} 2+ carbonate complexes formed, no strong indications were obtained that aqueous complexation prevents adsorption under the chemical conditions of the experiment. The 20 nm filtered sampling indicated that

  5. Biodegradation of vapor-phase toluene in unsaturated porous media: Column experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Ali M.; Wick, Lukas Y.; Harms, Hauke; Thullner, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Biodegradation of organic chemicals in the vapor phase of soils and vertical flow filters has gained attention as promising approach to clean up volatile organic compounds (VOC). The drivers of VOC biodegradation in unsaturated systems however still remain poorly understood. Here, we analyzed the processes controlling aerobic VOC biodegradation in a laboratory setup mimicking the unsaturated zone above a shallow aquifer. The setup allowed for diffusive vapor-phase transport and biodegradation of three VOC: non-deuterated and deuterated toluene as two compounds of highly differing biodegradability but (nearly) identical physical and chemical properties, and MTBE as (at the applied experimental conditions) non-biodegradable tracer and internal control. Our results showed for toluene an effective microbial degradation within centimeter VOC transport distances despite high gas-phase diffusivity. Degradation rates were controlled by the reactivity of the compounds while oxic conditions were found everywhere in the system. This confirms hypotheses that vadose zone biodegradation rates can be extremely high and are able to prevent the outgassing of VOC to the atmosphere within a centimeter range if compound properties and site conditions allow for sufficiently high degradation rates. - Highlights: • The column setup allows resolving vapor-phase VOC concentration gradients at cm scale resolution. • Vapor-phase and liquid-phase concentrations are measured simultaneously. • Isotopically labelled VOC was used as reference species of low biodegradability. • Biodegradation rates in the unsaturated zone can be very high and act at a cm scale. • Unsaturated material can be an effective bio-barrier avoiding biodegradable VOC emissions. - Microbial degradation activity can be sufficient to remove VOC from unsaturated porous media after a few centimeter of vapor-phase diffusive transport and mayeffectively avoid atmospheric emissions.

  6. Green infrastructure planning for cooling urban communities: Overview of the contemporary approaches with special reference to Serbian experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Igor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates contemporary approaches defined by the policies, programs or standards that favor green infrastructure in urban planning for cooling urban environments with special reference to Serbian experiences. The research results reveal an increasing emphasis on the multifunctionality of green infrastructure as well the determination to the development of policies, guidelines and standards with the support of the overall community. Further, special importance is given to policies that promote ‘cool communities’ strategies resulting in the increase of vegetation-covered areas, what has contributed in adapting urban environments to the impacts of climate change. In addition, this research indicates the important role of local authorities and planners in Serbia in promoting planning policies and programs that take into consideration the role of green infrastructure in terms of improving climatic conditions, quality of life and reducing energy needed for cooling and heating. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 36035: Spatial, ecological, energy, and social aspects of developing settlements and climate change - mutual impacts i br. 43007: The investigation of climate change and its impacts, climate change adaptation and mitigation

  7. Nordic working group for medical x-ray diagnostics: Diagnostic reference levels within xray diagnostics - experiences in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitz, W.; Groen, P.; Servomaa, A.; Einarsson, G.; Olerud, H.

    2003-01-01

    Medical x-ray diagnostics is one of the few applications of ionising radiation where people are irradiated on purpose. The strategy for radiation protection is also different compared to that in other areas that have the zero-alternative as its ultimate goal, meaning that no human beings at all are exposed in these practices. The focus in x-ray diagnostics concerning radiation protection is justification and optimisation. Optimisation implies that the examination is performed in such a way that the radiation dose is as small as possible without jeopardising the diagnostic security. X- ray diagnostics is a complex method where many technical parameters and methodology factors together are interacting in the determination of radiation dose and image quality. The optimisation process is not a simple and uncomplicated procedure, this difficulty is reflected in many international and national surveys showing a large spread of patient doses for one and the same type of examination. The concept diagnostic reference levels (DRL) has been introduced as a tool for reducing this wide distribution that is obviously indicating a lack of optimisation, and for cutting the highest radiation doses. In this presentation the concept for DRL and the experience gained in the Nordic countries with DRL are described. (orig.)

  8. Modeling, analysis, and design of stationary reference frame droop controlled parallel three-phase voltage source inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasquez, Juan Carlos; Guerrero, Josep M.; Savaghebi, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Power electronics based MicroGrids consist of a number of voltage source inverters (VSIs) operating in parallel. In this paper, the modeling, control design, and stability analysis of parallel connected three-phase VSIs are derived. The proposed voltage and current inner control loops and the mat......Power electronics based MicroGrids consist of a number of voltage source inverters (VSIs) operating in parallel. In this paper, the modeling, control design, and stability analysis of parallel connected three-phase VSIs are derived. The proposed voltage and current inner control loops...... control restores the frequency and amplitude deviations produced by the primary control. Also, a synchronization algorithm is presented in order to connect the MicroGrid to the grid. Experimental results are provided to validate the performance and robustness of the parallel VSI system control...

  9. A New 4D Imaging Method for Three-Phase Analogue Experiments in Volcanology (and Other Three-Phase Systems)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, J.; Patel, K. B.; Lev, E.; Hillman, E. M. C.

    2017-12-01

    Bubbles and crystals suspended in magmas interact with each other on a small scale, which affects large-scale volcanic processes. Studying these interactions on relevant scales of time and space is a long-standing challenge. Therefore, the fundamental explanations for the behavior of bubble- and crystal-rich magmas are still largely speculative. Recent application of X-ray tomography to experiments with synthetic magmas has already improved our understanding of small-scale 4D (3D + time) phenomena. However, this technique has low imaging rates Confocally Aligned Planar Excitation (SCAPE) microscopy. This method based on laser-fluorescence has been used to image live biological processes at high speed and in 3D. It allows imaging rates of up to several hundred vps and image volumes up to 1 x 1 x 0.5 mm3, with a trade-off between speed and spatial resolution. We ran two sets of experiments with silicone oil and soda-lime glass beads of <50 µm diameter, contained within a vertical glass casing 50 x 5 x 4 mm3. We used two different bubble generation methods. In the first set of experiments, small air bubbles (< 1 mm) were introduced through a hole at the bottom of the sample and allowed to rise through a suspension with low-viscosity oil. We successfully imaged bubble rise and particle movements around the bubble. In the second set, bubbles were generated by mixing acetone into the suspension and decreasing the surface pressure to cause a phase change to gaseous acetone. This bubble generation method compared favorably with previous gum rosin-acetone experiments: they provided similar degassing behaviors, along with more control on suspension viscosity and optimal optical properties for laser transmission. Large volumes of suspended bubbles, however, interfered with the laser path. In this set, we were able to track bubble nucleation sites and nucleation rates in 4D. This promising technique allows the study of small-scale interactions in two- and three-phase systems

  10. Two-phase reduced gravity experiments for a space reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniak, Z.I.

    1986-08-01

    Future space missions envision the use of large nuclear reactors utilizing either a single or a two-phase alkali-metal working fluid. The design and analysis of such reactors require state-of-the-art computer codes that can properly treat alkali-metal flow and heat transfer in a reduced-gravity environment. New flow regime maps, models, and correlations are required if the codes are to be successfully applied to reduced-gravity flow and heat transfer. General plans are put forth for the reduced-gravity experiments which will have to be performed, at NASA facilities, with benign fluids. Data from the reduced-gravity experiments with innocuous fluids are to be combined with normal gravity data from two-phase alkali-metal experiments. Because these reduced-gravity experiments will be very basic, and will employ small test loops of simple geometry, a large measure of commonality exists between them and experiments planned by other organizations. It is recommended that a committee be formed, to coordinate all ongoing and planned reduced gravity flow experiments

  11. Two-phase natural circulation experiments in a pressurized water loop with CANDU geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardron, K.H.; Krishnan, V.S.; McGee, G.R.; Anderson, J.W.D.; Hawley, E.H.

    1984-07-01

    To provide information on two-phase natural circulation in a CANDU-type coolant circuit a series of tests has been performed in the RD-12 loop at the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment. RD-12 is a 10-MPa pressurized-water loop containing two active boilers, two pumps, and two, or four, heated horizontal channels arranged in a symmetrical figure-of-eight configuration characteristic of the CANDU reactor primary heat-transport system. In the tests, single-phase natural circulation was established in the loop and void was introduced by controlled draining, with the surge tank (pressurizer) valved out of the system. The paper reviews the experimental results obtained and describes the evolution of natural circulation flow in particular cases as voidage is progressively increased. The stability behaviour is discussed briefly with reference to a simple stability model

  12. Effect of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) phase transition at 19°C on the use of Spectralon as a reference standard for reflectance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Christopher P; Levick, Andrew P; Woolliams, Emma R; Green, Paul D; Dury, Martin R; Winkler, Rainer; Deadman, Andrew J; Fox, Nigel P; King, Martin D

    2013-07-10

    Sintered polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is highly reflective and is widely used as a reference standard in remote sensing, radiometry, and spectroscopy. The relative change in output flux from a PTFE integrating sphere over the room temperature phase transition at 19°C has been measured at a monochromatic wavelength of 633 nm as 1.82±0.21%. The change in output flux was attributed to a small change of 0.09±0.02% in the total hemispherical reflectance of PTFE, caused by a change in its material density as a result of the phase transition. For the majority of users, this small change measured in total hemispherical reflectance is unlikely to impact significantly the accuracy of PTFE flat panel reflectors used as reference standards. However, owing to the multiple reflections that occur inside an integrating sphere cavity, the effect is multiplied and remedial action should be applied, either via a mathematical correction or through temperature stabilization of the integrating sphere when high accuracy (PTFE-based integrating spheres at temperatures close to the phase transition at 19°C.

  13. The study of membrane formation via phase inversion method by cloud point and light scattering experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arahman, Nasrul; Maimun, Teuku; Mukramah, Syawaliah

    2017-01-01

    The composition of polymer solution and the methods of membrane preparation determine the solidification process of membrane. The formation of membrane structure prepared via non-solvent induced phase separation (NIPS) method is mostly determined by phase separation process between polymer, solvent, and non-solvent. This paper discusses the phase separation process of polymer solution containing Polyethersulfone (PES), N-methylpirrolidone (NMP), and surfactant Tetronic 1307 (Tet). Cloud point experiment is conducted to determine the amount of non-solvent needed on induced phase separation. Amount of water required as a non-solvent decreases by the addition of surfactant Tet. Kinetics of phase separation for such system is studied by the light scattering measurement. With the addition of Tet., the delayed phase separation is observed and the structure growth rate decreases. Moreover, the morphology of fabricated membrane from those polymer systems is analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The images of both systems show the formation of finger-like macrovoids through the cross-section.

  14. Modeling, analysis, and design of stationary reference frame droop controlled parallel three-phase voltage source inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasquez, Juan Carlos; Guerrero, Josep M.; Savaghebi, Mehdi

    2011-01-01

    and discussed. Experimental results are provided to validate the performance and robustness of the VSIs functionality during Islanded and grid-connected operations, allowing a seamless transition between these modes through control hierarchies by regulating frequency and voltage, main-grid interactivity......Power electronics based microgrids consist of a number of voltage source inverters (VSIs) operating in parallel. In this paper, the modeling, control design, and stability analysis of three-phase VSIs are derived. The proposed voltage and current inner control loops and the mathematical models...

  15. Study of phase transitions in cerium in shock-wave experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhernokletov M.V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerium has a complex phase diagram that is explained by the presence of structure phase transitions. Planar gauges were used in various combinations in experiments for determination of sound velocity dependence on pressure in cerium by the technique of PVDF gauge. The data of time dependence on pressure profiles with use of x(t diagrams and the D(u relation for cerium allowed the definition of the Lagrangian velocity of the unloading wave CLagr and the Eulerian velocity CEul by taking into account the compression σ. These results accords with data obtained by using the technique of VISAR and a manganin-based gauge, and calculated pressure dependence of isentropic sound velocity according to the VNIITF EOS. Metallography analysis of post-experimental samples did not find any changes in a phase composition.

  16. Development of the Two Phase Flow Separator Experiment for a Reduced Gravity Aircraft Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golliher, Eric; Gotti, Daniel; Owens, Jay; Gilkey, Kelly; Pham, Nang; Stehno, Philip

    2016-01-01

    The recent hardware development and testing of a reduced gravity aircraft flight experiment has provided valuable insights for the future design of the Two Phase Flow Separator Experiment (TPFSE). The TPFSE is scheduled to fly within the Fluids Integration Rack (FIR) aboard the International Space Station (ISS) in 2020. The TPFSE studies the operational limits of gas and liquid separation of passive cyclonic separators. A passive cyclonic separator utilizes only the inertia of the incoming flow to accomplish the liquid-gas separation. Efficient phase separation is critical for environmental control and life support systems, such as recovery of clean water from bioreactors, for long duration human spaceflight missions. The final low gravity aircraft flight took place in December 2015 aboard NASA's C9 airplane.

  17. Annual report for fiscal 1995, Kamaishi in-situ experiments (phase 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Kazuhiro; Araki, Ryusuke; Koide, Kaoru; Sawada, Atsushi; Shimizu, Isao; Fujita, Asao; Yoshida, Eiichi [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-04-01

    The Kamaishi in-situ experiments (Phase 2) have strived to ascertain geological characteristics of the deep underground and the various phenomenon occurring therein and to improve technologies and methodologies required for such studies since fiscal 1993. Fiscal 1995 is the third year of Phase 2. The in-situ experiments are conducted at the northern most end of the Kamaishi mine in order to minimize the effect of the already excavated drifts totaling approximately 140 km long. The studies are conducted in Kurihashi granodiorite of Early Cretaceous widely distributed in this area. Major activities performed in this fiscal year are summarized below: (1) TASK 1 (Characterization of the deep underground geological environment). (2) TASK 2 (Study of excavation disturbance in fractured rock). (3) TASK 3 (Study of groundwater flow and solute transport in crystalline rock). (4) TASK 4 (Study of engineered barrier). (5) TASK 5 (Study of earthquakes). (J.P.N.)

  18. Horonobe underground research laboratory project. The plan for the in-situ experiments in Phase 2 and Phase 3 in/around URL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Hiroya

    2005-09-01

    This report describes for preliminary research plan in Phase 2 and Phase 3 taken into consideration of expected geological environment at location of URL based on the results of the investigations until FY 2003/2004. Duration of construction phase and total cost are considered as important factors for planning as well. The below items are planned for in-situ experiments in Phase 2 and Phase 3 in/around URL are planning. Phase 2. (In-situ experiments for understanding of geological environment) Geological survey at tunnel. Inflow measurement in shafts. Water pressure monitoring and groundwater sampling around shafts during excavation of URL. Investigation for EDZ around shafts. Stress measurement on support. Detail investigations for geological environment around drifts. Excavation disturbance experiment in a drift. Investigation for desaturation zone and REDOX condition around drifts. (Engineered barrier system) In-situ experiment on low-alkali concrete. In-situ experiment for gas migration in engineering barrier system. Phase 3. (In-situ experiments for understanding of geological environment) EDZ experiment for stress interference. Investigation of long-term behavior of EDZ around drifts. Detail investigation on fault/fault zone. Monitoring for the change of geological environment at earthquake. Backfill test in boreholes. (Engineered barrier system) T-H-M-C experiment. In-situ experiment for corrosion of overpack. Investigation of the influence of a concrete to engineering barrier system and geological environment. In-situ experiment for interference between backfill material and geological environment. Backfill test in a drift. (Safety assessment) Tracer tests in engineering barrier system, natural barrier and fault/fault zone. (author)

  19. Nuclear model parameter testing for nuclear data evaluation (Reference Input Parameter Library: Phase II). Summary report of the third research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, M.

    2002-04-01

    This report summarises the results and recommendations of the third Research Co-ordination Meeting on improving and testing the Reference Input Parameter Library: Phase II. A primary aim of the meeting was to review the achievements of the CRP, to assess the testing of the library and to approve the final contents. Actions were approved that will result in completion of the file and a draft report by the end of February 2002. Full release of the library is scheduled for July 2002. (author)

  20. Nuclear model parameter testing for nuclear data evaluation (Reference Input Parameter Library: Phase II). Summary report of the second research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, M.

    2000-09-01

    This report summarizes the results and recommendations of the Second Research Coordination Meeting on Testing and Improvement of the Reference Input Parameter Library: Phase II. A primary aim of this meeting was to review progress in the CRP work, to review results of testing the library, to establish the RIPL-2 format and to decide on the contents of the library. The actions were agreed with an aim to complete the project by the end of 2001. Separate abstracts were prepared for 10 individual papers

  1. Parameters for calculation of nuclear reactions of relevance to non-energy nuclear applications (Reference Input Parameter Library: Phase III). Summary report of the first research coordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capote Noy, R.

    2004-08-01

    A summary is given of the First Research Coordination Meeting on Parameters for Calculation of Nuclear Reactions of Relevance to Non-Energy Nuclear Applications (Reference Input Parameter Library: Phase III), including a critical review of the RIPL-2 file. The new library should serve as input for theoretical calculations of nuclear reaction data at incident energies up to 200 MeV, as needed for energy and non-energy modern applications of nuclear data. Technical discussions and the resulting work plan of the Coordinated Research Programme are summarized, along with actions and deadlines. Participants' contributions to the RCM are also attached. (author)

  2. Family members' experience of the pre-diagnostic phase of dementia: a synthesis of qualitative evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Kirrily; Coleman, Honor; Brodtmann, Amy; Darby, David; Anderson, Vicki

    2017-09-01

    Most research on family members' experience of dementia has focused on the time after diagnosis. Yet, once people reach clinical attention, families have already been living with the changes for some time. These pre-diagnosis experiences can influence later caregiving. We aimed to synthesize qualitative research exploring family members' experiences of the pre-diagnostic phase of dementia to inform clinical practice. We conducted a thematic synthesis of 11 studies that met our inclusion criteria following a comprehensive literature search. An overarching theme, sense-making, captured the primary process that family members engage in throughout the pre-diagnostic period. Within this, four major analytic themes were extracted as central concepts in understanding family members' experiences of the pre-diagnostic phase of dementia: the nature of change; appraisals of change; reactions to change; and the influence of others. Relevant features of the family experience of dementia onset can be characterized within several major themes. These findings highlight the complex process of recognizing early symptoms of dementia for people living with this condition and their families. Our findings also provide the foundation for developing theoretical frameworks that will ultimately assist with improving recognition of dementia onset, clinical communication with family members, and interventions to reduce family burden.

  3. Application Of Empirical Phase Diagrams For Multidimensional Data Visualization Of High Throughput Microbatch Crystallization Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klijn, Marieke E; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2018-04-27

    Protein phase diagrams are a tool to investigate cause and consequence of solution conditions on protein phase behavior. The effects are scored according to aggregation morphologies such as crystals or amorphous precipitates. Solution conditions affect morphological features, such as crystal size, as well as kinetic features, such as crystal growth time. Common used data visualization techniques include individual line graphs or symbols-based phase diagrams. These techniques have limitations in terms of handling large datasets, comprehensiveness or completeness. To eliminate these limitations, morphological and kinetic features obtained from crystallization images generated with high throughput microbatch experiments have been visualized with radar charts in combination with the empirical phase diagram (EPD) method. Morphological features (crystal size, shape, and number, as well as precipitate size) and kinetic features (crystal and precipitate onset and growth time) are extracted for 768 solutions with varying chicken egg white lysozyme concentration, salt type, ionic strength and pH. Image-based aggregation morphology and kinetic features were compiled into a single and easily interpretable figure, thereby showing that the EPD method can support high throughput crystallization experiments in its data amount as well as its data complexity. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. A facility for liquid-phase radiation experiments on heavy ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuglik, Z; Zvara, I; Yakushev, A B; Timokhin, S N [Flerov Lab. of Nuclear Reactions, Dubna (Russian Federation). Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research

    1994-05-01

    The facility for liquid-phase radiation experiments installed on the beam line of the U-400 cyclotron in the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, JINR, Dubna, is described. The accelerator provides intermediate energy (some 10 MeV/nucleon) beams of ions ranging from Li to Xe. Preliminary results on the radiolysis of the Fricke solution and malachite green in ethanol by {sup 11}B, {sup 24}Mg and {sup 40}Ca ions are presented. (author).

  5. Simple material physics experiment for studying phase diagrams and solid state transformations in alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, S; Kamal, R [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Dept. of Physics

    1977-09-01

    Study of phase diagram and accompanying solid state transformations is essential to determine the best possible composition, manufacturing techniques and physical properties of an alloy. A simple technique having wide applications in metallurgical industry is to study the temperature--time curve of the alloy undergoing cooling with an uniform rate. An experiment which uses this technique is described. It is widely applicable in the fields of materials science, applied solid state physics, physical metallurgy and physical chemistry.

  6. Effect of Drawer Master Modeling of ZPPR15 Phase A Reactor Physics Experiment on Integral Parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Jae Woon; Kim, Sang Ji

    2011-01-01

    As a part of an International-Nuclear Engineering Research Initiative (I-NERI) Project, KAERI and ANL are analyzing the ZPPR-15 reactor physics experiments. The ZPPR-15 experiments were carried out in support of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) project. Because of lack of the experimental data, verifying and validating the core neutronics analysis code for metal fueled sodium cooled fast reactors (SFR) has been one of the big concerns. KAERI is developing the metal fuel loaded SFR and plans to construct the demonstration SFR by around 2028. Database built through this project and its result of analysis will play an important role in validating the SFR neutronics characteristics. As the first year work of I-NERI project, KAERI analyzed ZPPR-15 Phase A experiment among four phases (Phase A to D). The effect of a drawer master modeling on the integral parameter was investigated. The approximated benchmark configurations for each loading were constructed to be used for validating a deterministic code

  7. Design of a Comprehensive Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Experiment: Phase Variation Caused by Recombinational Regulation of Bacterial Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Xiumei; Xu, Shungao; Lu, Renyun; Isaac, Dadzie; Zhang, Xueyi; Zhang, Haifang; Wang, Huifang; Qiao, Zheng; Huang, Xinxiang

    2014-01-01

    Scientific experiments are indispensable parts of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. In this study, a comprehensive Biochemistry and Molecular Biology experiment about "Salmonella enterica" serovar Typhi Flagellar phase variation has been designed. It consisted of three parts, namely, inducement of bacterial Flagellar phase variation,…

  8. Phase-IIC experiments of the JAERI/USDOE collaborative program on fusion blanket neutronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyama, Yukio

    1992-12-01

    Neutronics experiments on two types of heterogeneous blankets have been performed as the Phase-IIC experiment of JAERI/USDOE collaborative program on fusion blanket neutronics. The experimental system was used in the same geometry as the previous Phase-IIA series which was a closed geometry using neutron source enclosure of lithium carbonate. The heterogeneous blankets selected here are the beryllium edge-on and the water coolant channel assemblies. In the former the beryllium and lithium-oxide layers are piled up alternately in the front part of test blanket. In the latter, the three simulated water cooling channels are settled in the Li 2 O blanket. These are producing steep gradient of neutron flux around material boundary. The calculation accuracy and measurement method for these features is a key of interest in the experiments. The measurements were performed for tritium production rate and the other nuclear parameters as well as the previous experiments. This report describes the experimental detail and the results enough to use for the benchmark data for testing the data and method of design calculation of fusion reactors. (author)

  9. The phase diagram and transport properties of MgO from theory and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulenburger, Luke

    2013-06-01

    Planetary structure and the formation of terrestrial planets have received tremendous interest due to the discovery of so called super-earth exoplanets. MgO is a major constituent of Earth's mantle, the rocky cores of gas giants and is a likely component of the interiors of many of these exoplanets. The high pressure - high temperature behavior of MgO directly affects equation of state models for planetary structure and formation. In this work, we examine MgO under extreme conditions using experimental and theoretical methods to determine its phase diagram and transport properties. Using plate impact experiments on Sandia's Z facility the solid-solid phase transition from B1 to B2 is clearly determined. The melting transition, on the other hand, is subtle, involving little to no signal in us-up space. Theoretical work utilizing density functional theory (DFT) provides a complementary picture of the phase diagram. The solid-solid phase transition is identified through a series of quasi-harmonic phonon calculations and thermodynamic integration, while the melt boundary is found using phase coexistence calculations. One issue of particular import is the calculation of reflectivity along the Hugoniot and the influence of the ionic structure on the transport properties. Particular care is necessary because of the underestimation of the band gap and attendant overestimation of transport properties due to the use of semi-local density functional theory. We will explore the impact of this theoretical challenge and its potential solutions in this talk. The integrated use of DFT simulations and high-accuracy shock experiments together provide a comprehensive understanding of MgO under extreme conditions. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Company, for the U.S. DOE's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  10. E-health, phase two: the imperative to integrate process automation with communication automation for large clinical reference laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, L; Terner, C

    2001-01-01

    The initial efforts of e-health have fallen far short of expectations. They were buoyed by the hype and excitement of the Internet craze but limited by their lack of understanding of important market and environmental factors. E-health now recognizes that legacy systems and processes are important, that there is a technology adoption process that needs to be followed, and that demonstrable value drives adoption. Initial e-health transaction solutions have targeted mostly low-cost problems. These solutions invariably are difficult to integrate into existing systems, typically requiring manual interfacing to supported processes. This limitation in particular makes them unworkable for large volume providers. To meet the needs of these providers, e-health companies must rethink their approaches, appropriately applying technology to seamlessly integrate all steps into existing business functions. E-automation is a transaction technology that automates steps, integration of steps, and information communication demands, resulting in comprehensive automation of entire business functions. We applied e-automation to create a billing management solution for clinical reference laboratories. Large volume, onerous regulations, small margins, and only indirect access to patients challenge large laboratories' billing departments. Couple these problems with outmoded, largely manual systems and it becomes apparent why most laboratory billing departments are in crisis. Our approach has been to focus on the most significant and costly problems in billing: errors, compliance, and system maintenance and management. The core of the design relies on conditional processing, a "universal" communications interface, and ASP technologies. The result is comprehensive automation of all routine processes, driving out errors and costs. Additionally, compliance management and billing system support and management costs are dramatically reduced. The implications of e-automated processes can extend

  11. Phase IIC experiments of the USDOE/JAERI collaborative program on fusion blanket neutronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youssef, M.Z.

    1992-12-01

    Effort in Phase IIC of the US/JAERI Collaborative Program on Fusion Neutronics was focused on performing integral experiments and post analyses on blankets that include the actual heterogeneities found in several blanket designs. Two geometrical arrangements were considered for the blanket assembly, namely multi-layers of Li 2 O and beryllium in an edge-on, horizontally alternating configuration for a front depth of 30 cm, followed by the Li 2 O breeding zone (Be edge-on, BEO, experiment), and vertical water coolant channels arrangement (WCC experiment). The objectives are to examine the accuracy of predicting tritium production. In the BEO system, it was shown that, with the zonal method to measure tritium production from natural lithium (Tn), the calculated-to-measured values (C/E) are 0.95-1.05 (JAERI) and 0.98-0.9 (U.S.), which is consistent with the results obtained in other Phases of the Program (Phases IIA and IIb)). In the WCC experiment, there is a noticeable change in C/E values for T 6 near the coolant channels where steep gradients in T 6 production are observed. The C/E values obtained with the Li-foil detectors are on the average closer to unity than those obtained by the Li-glass method. As for T 7 , the values obtained by NE213 method are within ±15% in JAERI's calculations, but larger values (∼20-25%) are obtained in the U.S. calculations due to the differences of cross-sections data files. Around heterogeneities, the prediction accuracy for T 7 is better than for T 6 . (J.P.N.)

  12. Experience-dependent phase-reversal of hippocampal neuron firing during REM sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poe, G R; Nitz, D A; McNaughton, B L; Barnes, C A

    2000-02-07

    The idea that sleep could serve a cognitive function has remained popular since Freud stated that dreams were "not nonsense" but a time to sort out experiences [S. Freud, Letter to Wilhelm Fliess, May 1897, in The Origins of Psychoanalysis - Personal Letters of Sigmund Freud, M. Bonaparte, A. Freud, E. Kris (Eds.), Translated by E. Mosbacher, J. Strachey, Basic Books and Imago Publishing, 1954]. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, which is associated with dream reports, is now known to be is important for acquisition of some tasks [A. Karni, D. Tanne, B.S. Rubenstein, J.J.M. Askenasy, D. Sagi, Dependence on REM sleep of overnight improvement of a perceptual skill, Science 265 (1994) 679-682; C. Smith, Sleep states and learning: a review of the animal literature, Biobehav. Rev. 9 (1985) 157-168]; although why this is so remains obscure. It has been proposed that memories may be consolidated during REM sleep or that forgetting of unnecessary material occurs in this state [F. Crick, G. Mitchison, The function of dream sleep, Nature 304 (1983) 111-114; D. Marr, Simple memory: a theory for archicortex, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B. 262 (1971) 23-81]. We studied the firing of multiple single neurons in the hippocampus, a structure that is important for episodic memory, during familiar and novel experiences and in subsequent REM sleep. Cells active in familiar places during waking exhibited a reversal of firing phase relative to local theta oscillations in REM sleep. Because firing-phase can influence whether synapses are strengthened or weakened [C. Holscher, R. Anwyl, M.J. Rowan, Stimulation on the positive phase of hippocampal theta rhythm induces long-term potentiation that can be depotentiated by stimulation on the negative phase in area CA1 in vivo, J. Neurosci. 15 (1977) 6470-6477; P.T. Huerta, J.E. Lisman, Bidirectional synaptic plasticity induced by a single burst during cholinergic theta oscillation in CA1 in vitro, Neuron 15 (1995) 1053-1063; C. Pavlides, Y

  13. Molten salt steam generator subsystem research experiment. Volume I. Phase 1 - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1984-10-01

    A study was conducted for Phase 1 of a two-phase project whose objectives were to develop a reliable, cost-effective molten salt steam generating subsystem for solar thermal plants, minimize uncertainty in capital, operating, and maintenance costs, and demonstrate the ability of molten salt to generate high-pressure, high-temperature steam. The Phase 1 study involved the conceptual design of molten salt steam generating subsystems for a nominal 100-MWe net stand-alone solar central receiver electric generating plant, and a nominal 100-MWe net hybrid fossil-fueled electric power generating plant that is 50% repowered by a solar central receiver system. As part of Phase 1, a proposal was prepared for Phase 2, which involves the design, construction, testing and evaluation of a Subsystem Research Experiment of sufficient size to ensure successful operation of the full-size subsystem designed in Phase 1. Evaluation of several concepts resulted in the selection of a four-component (preheater, evaporator, superheater, reheater), natural circulation, vertically oriented, shell and tube (straight) heat exchanger arrangement. Thermal hydraulic analysis of the system included full and part load performance, circulation requirements, stability, and critical heat flux analysis. Flow-induced tube vibration, tube buckling, fatigue evaluation of tubesheet junctions, steady-state tubesheet analysis, and a simplified transient analysis were included in the structural analysis of the system. Operating modes and system dynamic response to load changes were identified. Auxiliary equipment, fabrication, erection, and maintenance requirements were also defined. Installed capital costs and a project schedule were prepared for each design.

  14. Search for solar axions with the X-ray telescope of the CAST experiment (phase II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordt, Annika

    2009-01-01

    The CAST (CERN Solar Axion Telescope) experiment is searching for solar axions by their conversion into photons inside a transverse magnetic field. So far, no solar axionsignal has been detected, but a new upper limit could be given (CAST Phase I). Since 2005, CAST entered in its second phase where it operates with a buffer gas ( 4 He) in the conversion region to extend the sensitivity of the experiment to higher axionmasses. For the first time it is possible to enter the theoretically favored axion massrange and to give an upper limit for this solar axion mass-range (>0.02 eV). This thesis is about the analysis of the X-ray telescope data Phase II with 4 He inside the magnet. The result for the coupling constant of axions to photons is: g αγγ -10 GeV -1 (95%C.L.) for m a =0.02-0.4 eV. (2) This result is better than any result that has been given before in this mass range for solar axions. (orig.)

  15. Two-phase natural circulation experiments in a pressurized water loop with CANDU geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardron, K.H.; Krishnan, V.S.; McGee, G.R.; Anderson, J.W.D.; Hawley, E.H.

    1984-07-01

    A series of tests has been performed in the RD-12 loop, a 10-MPa pressurized-water loop containing two active boilers, two pumps, and two, or four, heated horizontal channels arranged in a symmetrical figure-of-eight configuration characteristic of the CANDU reactor primary heat-transport system. In the tests, single-phase natural circulation was established in the loop and void was introduced by controlled draining, with the surge tank (pressurizer) valved out of the system. Results indicate that a stable, two-phase, natural circulation flow can usually be established. However, as the void fraction in the loop is increased, large-amplitude flow oscillations can occur. The initial flow oscillations in the two halves of the loop are usually very nearly 180/sup 0/ out-of-phase. However, as the loop inventory is further decreased, an in-phase oscillation component is observed. In tests with two parallel, heated channels in each half-loop, oscillations associated with mass transfer between the channel pairs are also observed. Although flow oscillations can lead to intermittent dryout of the upper elements of the heater-rod assemblies in the horizontal channels, natural circulation cooling appears to be effective until about 50% of the loop inventory is drained; sustained flow stratification then occurs in the heated channels, leading to heater temperature excursions. The paper reviews the experimental results obtained and describes the evolution of natural circulation flow in particular cases as voidage is progressively increased. The stability behavior is discussed briefly with reference to a simple stability model.

  16. Simulation experiments for hot-leg U-bend two-phase flow phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, M.; Hsu, J.T.; Tucholke, D.; Lambert, G.; Kataoka, I.

    1986-01-01

    In order to study the two-phase natural circulation and flow termination during a small break loss of coolant accident in LWR, simulation experiments have been performed. Based on the two-phase flow scaling criteria developed under this program, an adiabatic hot leg U-bend simulation loop using nitrogen gas and water and a Freon 113 boiling and condensation loop were built. The nitrogen-water system has been used to isolate key hydrodynamic phenomena from heat transfer problems, whereas the Freon loop has been used to study the effect of phase changes and fluid properties. Various tests were carried out to establish the basic mechanism of the flow termination and reestablishment as well as to obtain essential information on scale effects of parameters such as the loop frictional resistance, thermal center, U-bend curvature and inlet geometry. In addition to the above experimental study, a preliminary modeling study has been carried out for two-phase flow in a large vertical pipe at relatively low gas fluxes typical of natural circulation conditions

  17. Design of a Rad-Hard eFuse Trimming Circuit for Bandgap Voltage Reference for LHC Experiments Upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Besirli, Mustafa; Koukab, Adil; Michelis, Stefano

    A precise and stable reference voltage is required to generate a stable output voltage in DC/DC converters. This reference voltage must be independent of temperature, power supply, radiation, intrinsic technology mismatch and process variation. This master's thesis reports the development of a rad-hard bandgap voltage reference with electrical fuse (eFuse) based analog calibration circuit in a commercial 130nm technology. According to the test results, the maximum error in the bandgap voltage (300mV in this application) was reduced from ±30mV to less than ±0.6mV thanks to the eFuse trimming. A temperature, power supply, radiation, mismatch and process-independent reference voltage was generated to provide reference voltage to first (bPOL12V) and second (bPOL2V5) stage DC/DC converters. This circuit will be integrated in bPOL12V and bPOL2V5 converters for high-luminosity LHC upgrades.

  18. The COSIMA-experiments, a data base for validation of two-phase flow computer codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Class, G.; Meyder, R.; Stratmanns, E.

    1985-12-01

    The report presents an overview on the large data base generated with COSIMA. The data base is to be used to validate and develop computer codes for two-phase flow. In terms of fuel rod behavior it was found that during blowdown under realistic conditions only small strains are reached. For clad rupture extremely high rod internal pressure is necessary. Additionally important results were found in the behavior of a fuel rod simulator and on the effect of thermocouples attached on the cladding outer surface. Post-test calculations, performed with the codes RELAP and DRUFAN show a good agreement with the experiments. This however can be improved if the phase separation models in the codes would be updated. (orig./HP) [de

  19. Dual-Phase Lock-In Amplifier Based on FPGA for Low-Frequencies Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Macias-Bobadilla

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Photothermal techniques allow the detection of characteristics of material without invading it. Researchers have developed hardware for some specific Phase and Amplitude detection (Lock-In Function applications, eliminating space and unnecessary electronic functions, among others. This work shows the development of a Digital Lock-In Amplifier based on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA for low-frequency applications. This system allows selecting and generating the appropriated frequency depending on the kind of experiment or material studied. The results show good frequency stability in the order of 1.0 × 10−9 Hz, which is considered good linearity and repeatability response for the most common Laboratory Amplitude and Phase Shift detection devices, with a low error and standard deviation.

  20. Phased-array antenna system for electron Bernstein wave heating and current drive experiments in QUEST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idei, H.; Sakaguchi, M.; Kalinnikova, E.I.

    2010-11-01

    The phased-array antenna system for Electron Bernstein Wave Heating and Current Drive (EBWH/CD) experiments has been developed in the QUEST. The antenna was designed to excite a pure O-mode wave in the oblique injection for the EBWH/CD experiments, and was tested at a low power level. The measured two orthogonal fields were in excellent agreements with the fields evaluated by a developed Kirchhoff code. The heat load and thermal stress in CW 200 kW operation were analyzed with finite element codes. The phased array has been fast scanned [∼10 4 degree/s] to control the incident polarization and angle to follow time evolutions of the plasma current and density. The RF startup and sustainment experiments were conducted using the developed antenna system. The plasma current (< ∼15 kA) with an aspect ratio of 1.5 was started up and sustained by only RF injection. The long pulse discharge of 10 kA was attained for 40 s with the 30 kW injection. (author)

  1. HRL Aespoe - two-phase flow experiment - gas and water flow in fractured crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kull, H.; Liedtke, L.

    1998-01-01

    (The full text of the contribution follows:) Gas generated from radioactive waste may influence the hydraulic and mechanical properties of the man-made barriers and the immediate surroundings of the repository. Prediction of alteration in fractured crystalline rock is difficult. There is a lack of experimental data, and calibrated models are not yet available. Because of the general importance of this matter the German Federal Ministry for Education, Science, Research and Technology decided to conduct a two-phase flow study at HRL Aespoe within the scope of the co-operation agreement with SKB. Within the presentation an overview of field experiments and modelling studies scheduled until end of '99 are given. Conceptual models for one- and two-phase flow, methodologies and with respect to numerical calculations necessary parameter set-ups are discussed. Common objective of in-situ experiments is to calibrate flow models to improve the reliability of predictions for gas migration through fractured rock mass. Hence, in a defined dipole flow field in niche 2/715 at HRL Aespoe effective hydraulic parameters are evaluated. Numerical modelling of non-isothermal, two-phase, two-component processes is feasible only for two-dimensional representation of a porous medium. To overcome this restriction a computer program will be developed to model three-dimensional, fractured, porous media. Rational aspects of two-phase flow studies are for the designing of geotechnical barriers and for the long-term safety analysis of potential radionuclide transport in a future repository required for the licensing process

  2. Site Characterization of the Source Physics Experiment Phase II Location Using Seismic Reflection Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, E. A.; Snelson, C. M.; Chipman, V.; Emer, D. F.; White, R. L.; Emmitt, R.; Wright, A. A.; Drellack, S.; Huckins-Gang, H.; Mercadante, J.; Floyd, M.; McGowin, C.; Cothrun, C.; Bonal, N.

    2013-12-01

    An objective of the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) is to identify low-yield nuclear explosions from a regional distance. Low-yield nuclear explosions can often be difficult to discriminate among the clutter of natural and man-made explosive events (e.g., earthquakes and mine blasts). The SPE is broken into three phases. Phase I has provided the first of the physics-based data to test the empirical models that have been used to discriminate nuclear events. The Phase I series of tests were placed within a highly fractured granite body. The evolution of the project has led to development of Phase II, to be placed within the opposite end member of geology, an alluvium environment, thereby increasing the database of waveforms to build upon in the discrimination models. Both the granite and alluvium sites have hosted nearby nuclear tests, which provide comparisons for the chemical test data. Phase III of the SPE is yet to be determined. For Phase II of the experiment, characterization of the location is required to develop the geologic/geophysical models for the execution of the experiment. Criteria for the location are alluvium thickness of approximately 170 m and a water table below 170 m; minimal fracturing would be ideal. A P-wave mini-vibroseis survey was conducted at a potential site in alluvium to map out the subsurface geology. The seismic reflection profile consisted of 168 geophone stations, spaced 5 m apart. The mini-vibe was a 7,000-lb peak-force source, starting 57.5 m off the north end of the profile and ending 57.5 m past the southern-most geophone. The length of the profile was 835 m. The source points were placed every 5 m, equally spaced between geophones to reduce clipping. The vibroseis sweep was from 20 Hz down to 180 Hz over 8 seconds, and four sweeps were stacked at each shot location. The shot gathers show high signal-to-noise ratios with clear first arrivals across the entire spread and the suggestion of some shallow reflectors. The data were

  3. Electrochemistry of immobilized particles and droplets experiments with three-phase electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Scholz, Fritz; Gulaboski, Rubin; Schröder, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    This second edition of a successful and highly-accessed monograph has been extended by more than 100 pages. It includes an enlarged coverage of applications for materials characterization and analysis. Also a more detailed description of strategies for determining free energies of ion transfer between miscible liquids is provided. This is now possible with a "third-phase strategy" which the authors explain from theoretical and practical points of view. The book is still the only one detailing strategies for solid state electroanalysis. It also features the specific potential of the techniques to use immobilized particles (for studies of solid materials) and of immobilized droplets of immiscible liquids for the purpose of studying the three-phase electrochemistry of these liquids. This also includes studies of ion transfer between aqueous and immiscible non-aqueous liquids. The bibliography of all published papers in this field of research has been expanded from 318 to now 444 references in this second editi...

  4. Characterization of two-phase flow regimes in horizontal tubes using 81mKr tracer experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriol, Jean; Leclerc, Jean Pierre; Berne, Philippe; Gousseau, Georges; Jallut, Christian; Tochon, Patrice; Clement, Patrice

    2008-10-01

    The diagnosis of heat exchangers on duty with respect to flow mal-distributions needs the development of non-intrusive inlet-outlet experimental techniques in order to perform an online fault diagnosis. Tracer experiments are an example of such techniques. They can be applied to mono-phase heat exchangers but also to multi-phase ones. In this case, the tracer experiments are more difficult to perform. In order to check for the capabilities of tracer experiments to be used for the flow mal-distribution diagnosis in the case of multi-phase heat exchangers, we present here a preliminary study on the simplest possible system: two-phase flows in a horizontal tube. (81m)Kr is used as gas tracer and properly collimated NaI (TI) crystal scintillators as detectors. The specific shape of the tracer response allows two-phase flow regimes to be characterized. Signal analysis allows the estimation of the gas phase real average velocity and consequently of the liquid phase real average velocity as well as of the volumetric void fraction. These results are compared successfully to those obtained with liquid phase tracer experiments previously presented by Oriol et al. 2007. Characterization of the two-phase flow regimes and liquid dispersion in horizontal and vertical tubes using coloured tracer and no intrusive optical detector. Chem. Eng. Sci. 63(1), 24-34, as well as to those given by correlations from literature.

  5. Characterization of two-phase flow regimes in horizontal tubes using 81mKr tracer experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oriol, Jean; Leclerc, Jean Pierre; Berne, Philippe; Gousseau, Georges; Jallut, Christian; Tochon, Patrice; Clement, Patrice

    2008-01-01

    The diagnosis of heat exchangers on duty with respect to flow mal-distributions needs the development of non-intrusive inlet-outlet experimental techniques in order to perform an online fault diagnosis. Tracer experiments are an example of such techniques. They can be applied to mono-phase heat exchangers but also to multi-phase ones. In this case, the tracer experiments are more difficult to perform. In order to check for the capabilities of tracer experiments to be used for the flow mal-distribution diagnosis in the case of multi-phase heat exchangers, we present here a preliminary study on the simplest possible system: two-phase flows in a horizontal tube. 81m Kr is used as gas tracer and properly collimated NaI (TI) crystal scintillators as detectors. The specific shape of the tracer response allows two-phase flow regimes to be characterized. Signal analysis allows the estimation of the gas phase real average velocity and consequently of the liquid phase real average velocity as well as of the volumetric void fraction. These results are compared successfully to those obtained with liquid phase tracer experiments previously presented by Oriol et al. 2007. Characterization of the two-phase flow regimes and liquid dispersion in horizontal and vertical tubes using coloured tracer and no intrusive optical detector. Chem. Eng. Sci. 63(1), 24-34, as well as to those given by correlations from literature

  6. Characterization of two-phase flow regimes in horizontal tubes using {sup 81m}Kr tracer experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oriol, Jean [LPAC, CEA Grenoble, 17, rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Leclerc, Jean Pierre [Laboratoire des Sciences du Genie Chimique (LSGC), Nancy-Universite, CNRS, BP 20451, F-54001 Nancy (France)], E-mail: leclerc@ensic.inpl-nancy.fr; Berne, Philippe; Gousseau, Georges [L2T, CEA Grenoble, 17, rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Jallut, Christian [Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, LAGEP, UMR CNRS 5007, ESCPE, 43 Bd du 11 novembre 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Tochon, Patrice; Clement, Patrice [GRETh, CEA Grenoble, 17, rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2008-10-15

    The diagnosis of heat exchangers on duty with respect to flow mal-distributions needs the development of non-intrusive inlet-outlet experimental techniques in order to perform an online fault diagnosis. Tracer experiments are an example of such techniques. They can be applied to mono-phase heat exchangers but also to multi-phase ones. In this case, the tracer experiments are more difficult to perform. In order to check for the capabilities of tracer experiments to be used for the flow mal-distribution diagnosis in the case of multi-phase heat exchangers, we present here a preliminary study on the simplest possible system: two-phase flows in a horizontal tube. {sup 81m}Kr is used as gas tracer and properly collimated NaI (TI) crystal scintillators as detectors. The specific shape of the tracer response allows two-phase flow regimes to be characterized. Signal analysis allows the estimation of the gas phase real average velocity and consequently of the liquid phase real average velocity as well as of the volumetric void fraction. These results are compared successfully to those obtained with liquid phase tracer experiments previously presented by Oriol et al. 2007. Characterization of the two-phase flow regimes and liquid dispersion in horizontal and vertical tubes using coloured tracer and no intrusive optical detector. Chem. Eng. Sci. 63(1), 24-34, as well as to those given by correlations from literature.

  7. The next phase of the Axion Dark Matter eXperiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carosi, Gianpaolo; Asztalos, S.; Hagmann, C.; Kinion, D.; van Bibber, K.; Hotz, M.; Lyapustin, D.; Rosenberg, L.; Rybka, G.; Wagner, A.; Hoskins, J.; Martin, C.; Sikivie, P.; Sullivan, N.; Tanner, D.; Bradley, R.; Clarke, J.; ADMX Collaboration

    2011-04-01

    Axions are a well motivated dark matter candidate which may be detected by their resonant conversion to photons in the presence of a large static magnetic field. The Axion Dark Matter eXperiment recently finished a search for DM axions using a new ultralow noise microwave receiver based on a SQUID amplifier. The success of this precursor experiment has paved the way for a definitive axion search which will see the system noise temperature lowered from 1.8 K to 100 mK, dramatically increasing sensitivity to even pessimistic axion models as well as increasing scan speed. Here we discuss the implementation of this next experimental phase. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  8. Mitigation of ^{42}Ar/^{42}K background for the GERDA Phase II experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubashevskiy, A.; Agostini, M.; Budjáš, D.; Gangapshev, A.; Gusev, K.; Heisel, M.; Klimenko, A.; Lazzaro, A.; Lehnert, B.; Pelczar, K.; Schönert, S.; Smolnikov, A.; Walter, M.; Zuzel, G.

    2018-01-01

    Background coming from the ^{42}Ar decay chain is considered to be one of the most relevant for the Gerda experiment, which searches for the neutrinoless double beta decay of ^{76}Ge. The sensitivity strongly relies on the absence of background around the Q-value of the decay. Background coming from ^{42}K, a progeny of ^{42}Ar, can contribute to that background via electrons from the continuous spectrum with an endpoint at 3.5 MeV. Research and development on the suppression methods targeting this source of background were performed at the low-background test facility LArGe . It was demonstrated that by reducing ^{42}K ion collection on the surfaces of the broad energy germanium detectors in combination with pulse shape discrimination techniques and an argon scintillation veto, it is possible to suppress ^{42}K background by three orders of magnitude. This is sufficient for Phase II of the Gerda experiment.

  9. GOTHIC-IST model of ISP-47 phase B MISTRA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, Y.S.

    2006-01-01

    International Standard Problem 47 examined the ability of computer codes to predict local gas distributions during experiments simulating Loss of Coolant Accidents with Loss of Emergency Core Coolant (LOCA/LOECC) or Pressurized Water Reactor severe accident scenarios that involve hydrogen release to containment. It involved three experimental test facilities (TOSQAN, MISTRA and ThAI) located in France and Germany. This report documents AECL's GOTHIC-IST 6.1bp2 model of Phase B of the MISTRA experiment with steam condensation in an air-helium atmosphere. The GOTHIC-IST model used to model the TOSQAN test (open simulation) was scaled up to model the MISTRA test (blind simulation). The GOTHIC-IST results are in good agreement with the MISTRA results, except for some anomalies in the experimental results. (author)

  10. The University of Johannesburg merger: Academics experience of the pre-merger phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Goldman

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the study: The aim of this study is to gain an understanding of the merger experiences academic staff were exposed to during the pre-merger phase of the University of Johannesburg merger. Of particular interest is how these experiences translate into acceptance of the merger amongst academic staff. The study was borne out of the transformation of the higher education landscape in South Africa, which is typified by a spate of mergers between higher education institutions. Design/methodology/approach: As the purpose of the study was, inter alia, aimed at understanding the merger experiences of academic staff, the study was conducted according to an interpretive research paradigm, where interpretation of data calls for an insider perspective, in order to "see things through their eyes" as it were. In this regard, a qualitative methodology was employed. Findings: Findings indicate that academic staff members at the University of Johannesburg experience two distinct mental states during the pre-merger phase. Following the announcement of the merger, reaction and experience tend to be emotionally driven but as merging efforts become more concrete over time, this emotive state is replaced by a more rationally driven disposition. Implications: The distinction between an emotive and rational demeanour during the pre-merger phase of a merger affords managers and leaders the opportunity to plan change interventions in such a way that irrational, emotive responses and behaviour do not hamper progress in terms of merger implementation. In a more general sense, this study highlights the process of transition individual staff members pass through as they have to come to terms with the changes brought about by a merger. Originality / Value: The majority of merger literature, as well as change literature, focuses on the organisational context of change during a merger. Limited literature exists on the personal effects of a change event such as a

  11. Fluid Phase Separation (FPS) experiment for flight on the shuttle in a Get Away Special (GAS) canister: Design and fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    The separation of fluid phases in microgravity environments is of importance to environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) and materials processing in space. A successful fluid phase separation experiment will demonstrate a proof of concept for the separation technique and add to the knowledge base of material behavior. The phase separation experiment will contain a premixed fluid that will be exposed to a microgravity environment. After the phase separation of the compound has occurred, small samples of each of the species will be taken for analysis on Earth. By correlating the time of separation and the temperature history of the fluid, it will be possible to characterize the process. The phase separation experiment is totally self-contained, with three levels of containment on all fluids, and provides all necessary electrical power and control. The controller regulates the temperature of the fluid and controls data logging and sampling. An astronaut-activated switch will initiate the experiment and an unmaskable interrupt is provided for shutdown. The experiment has been integrated into space available on a manifested Get Away Special (GAS) experiment, CONCAP 2, part of the Consortium for Materials Complex Autonomous Payload (CAP) Program, scheduled for STS 42 in April 1991. Presented here are the design and the production of a fluid phase separation experiment for rapid implementation at low cost.

  12. Changing quantum reference frames

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, Matthew C.; Girelli, Florian; Bartlett, Stephen D.

    2013-01-01

    We consider the process of changing reference frames in the case where the reference frames are quantum systems. We find that, as part of this process, decoherence is necessarily induced on any quantum system described relative to these frames. We explore this process with examples involving reference frames for phase and orientation. Quantifying the effect of changing quantum reference frames serves as a first step in developing a relativity principle for theories in which all objects includ...

  13. Vibration response of a pipe subjected to two-phase flow: Analytical formulations and experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz-Vidal, L. Enrique, E-mail: leortiz@sc.usp.br [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sao Carlos School of Engineering, University of Sao Paulo (USP), Av., Trabalhador São-carlense, 400, 13566-970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Mureithi, Njuki W., E-mail: njuki.mureithi@polymtl.ca [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Polytechnique Montreal, Département de Géniemécanique 2900, H3T 1J7 Montreal, QC (Canada); Rodriguez, Oscar M.H., E-mail: oscarmhr@sc.usp.br [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sao Carlos School of Engineering, University of Sao Paulo (USP), Av., Trabalhador São-carlense, 400, 13566-970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Analytical formulations for two-phase flow-induced vibration (2-FIV) are presented. • Standard deviation of acceleration pipe response is a function of the square of shear velocity. • Peak frequency is correlated to hydrodynamic mass and consequently to void fraction. • Dynamic pipe response increases with increasing mixture velocity and void fraction. • Hydrodynamic mass in 2-FIV in horizontal pipe is proportional to mixture density. - Abstract: This paper treats the two-phase flow-induced vibration in pipes. A broad range of two-phase flow conditions, including bubbly, dispersed and slug flow, were tested in a clamped-clamped straight horizontal pipe. The vibration response of both transversal directions for two span lengths was measured. From experimental results, an in-depth discussion on the nature of the flow excitation and flow-parameters influence is presented. The hydrodynamic mass parameter is also studied. Experimental results suggest that it is proportional to mixture density. On the other hand, two analytical formulations were developed and tested against experimental results. One formulation predicts the quadratic trend between standard deviation of acceleration and shear velocity found in experiments. The other formulation indicates that the peak-frequency of vibration response depends strongly on void fraction. It provides accurate predictions of peak-frequency, predicting 97.6% of the data within ±10% error bands.

  14. Computer simulations of laser hot spots and implosion symmetry kiniform phase plate experiments on Nova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, R. R.; Lindman, E. L.; Delamater, N. D.; Magelssen, G. R.

    2000-01-01

    LASNEX computer code simulations have been performed for radiation symmetry experiments on the Nova laser with vacuum and gas-filled hohlraum targets [R. L. Kauffman et al., Phys. Plasmas 5, 1927 (1998)]. In previous experiments with unsmoothed laser beams, the symmetry was substantially shifted by deflection of the laser beams. In these experiments, laser beams have been smoothed with Kiniform Phase Plates in an attempt to remove deflection of the beams. The experiments have shown that this smoothing significantly improves the agreement with LASNEX calculations of implosion symmetry. The images of laser produced hot spots on the inside of the hohlraum case have been found to differ from LASNEX calculations, suggesting that some beam deflection or self-focusing may still be present or that emission from interpenetrating plasmas is an important component of the images. The measured neutron yields are in good agreement with simulations for vacuum hohlraums but are far different for gas-filled hohlraums. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  15. Experiment of the downcomer effective water head during a reflood phase of PWR LOCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudo, Yukio; Murao, Yoshio

    1978-12-01

    The results and analysis are described of a downcomer effective water head experiment. Downcomer effective water head is the driving force to feed an emergency coolant to the core during a reflood phase of PWR LOCA. The test rig has dimensions of the full-scale height and gap. Experimental conditions are: downcomer wall temperature = 250 0 -- 300 0 C, back pressure = 1 atm, coolant temperature = 98 0 -- 100 0 C, extraction water velocity = 0 -- 2 cm/s, and gap size = 200 mm. The effective water head histories obtained by experiment were compared with those predicted from the heat release from the downcomer walls. The heat release was calculated from the temperature histories indicated by thermocouples instrumented in and on the walls during experiment. The following were revealed: (1) The relation of heat flux and superheat (q vs ΔT sub(s)) obtained in the experiment is much different from that in pool boiling. (2) The predicted effective water head is in good agreement with the experimental one after 120 sec from the initiation of coolant injection. (3) The effect of extraction water velocity is negligible. (4) The effect of initial wall temperatures is evident. (author)

  16. Property Analysis of the Real-Time Uncalibrated Phase Delay Product Generated by Regional Reference Stations and Its Influence on Precise Point Positioning Ambiguity Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The real-time estimation of the wide-lane and narrow-lane Uncalibrated Phase Delay (UPD of satellites is realized by real-time data received from regional reference station networks; The properties of the real-time UPD product and its influence on real-time precise point positioning ambiguity resolution (RTPPP-AR are experimentally analyzed according to real-time data obtained from the regional Continuously Operating Reference Stations (CORS network located in Tianjin, Shanghai, Hong Kong, etc. The results show that the real-time wide-lane and narrow-lane UPD products differ significantly from each other in time-domain characteristics; the wide-lane UPDs have daily stability, with a change rate of less than 0.1 cycle/day, while the narrow-lane UPDs have short-term stability, with significant change in one day. The UPD products generated by different regional networks have obvious spatial characteristics, thus significantly influencing RTPPP-AR: the adoption of real-time UPD products employing the sparse stations in the regional network for estimation is favorable for improving the regional RTPPP-AR up to 99%; the real-time UPD products of different regional networks slightly influence PPP-AR positioning accuracy. After ambiguities are successfully fixed, the real-time dynamic RTPPP-AR positioning accuracy is better than 3 cm in the plane and 8 cm in the upward direction.

  17. Derived emergency reference levels for the introduction of countermeasures in the early to intermediate phases of emergencies involving the release of radioactive materials to atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsley, G.S.; Crick, M.J.; Simmonds, J.R.; Haywood, S.M.

    1986-03-01

    Derived Emergency Reference Levels (DERLs) are practical quantities intended for use in the aftermath of an accident involving the release of radioactive materials to atmosphere and for use in preparing emergency plans for the protection of the public. The results of environmental measurements may be compared with them as a means of assessing the seriousness of the release and in order to form judgements on the need to institute protective countermeasures. DERLs are the practical expression of Emergency Reference Levels, the radiological criteria for planning the introduction of emergency countermeasures. DERLs have been evaluated for a range of radionuclides which could be released in the event of an accident and for a number of different exposure pathways that are relevant in the initial phase of an accident. These pathways are: inhalation of activity both in the plume and resuspended from the ground; skin irradiation by β-emitting noble gases in the cloud; doses from β-emitters deposited on the skin; and external γ irradiation from ground deposits. (author)

  18. Studies in the Philippines on ingestion and organ content of trace elements of importance to radiological protection. Reference Asian man project (phase 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natera, E.S.

    2000-01-01

    The first Coordinated Research Program (CRP) on Reference Asian Man was conducted for a period of six years. This study dealt with the collection of data in four areas namely, anthropometric measurements, organ mass measurements, nutritional and dietary intake, pulmonary and water balance studies. Results of this study participated by eight Asian member states including the Philippines are contained in the IAEA TECDOC-1005. Based on research needs with reference to radiation protection, dietary intake and tissue analysis appears to be important aspects of the RAM. Hence, the first CRM for Phase 2 held in Manila July 1-4, 1996 strengthened the need to continue the project. Protocols on its implementation were discussed during this meeting. The Philippines presented a report that described the sampling and analytical methods that will be applied. This report aim to present the initial samples collected as well as the data generated from these samples. Elements of interest to radiation protection include Sr, Th, U, 1, Cs and trace elements present in food, water and in selected tissues such as liver, lung, kidney, thyroid and bone

  19. Use of reference buildings to assess the energy saving potentials of the residential building stock: The experience of TABULA project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballarini, Ilaria; Corgnati, Stefano Paolo; Corrado, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Retrofit actions applied to the existent building stock aim at increasing the energy performance, considering the optimal trade-off between energy savings and costs, according to the Directive 2010/31/EU. To select effective refurbishment measures and to quantify the energy saving potentials of the existent building stock, the analysis should be performed on “reference buildings”. This article presents a methodology for the identification of reference buildings, according to the IEE-TABULA project (2009–12) aimed at creating a harmonised structure for “European Building Typologies”. Among the possible applications of the building typology, this work focuses on the potentialities of energy savings and CO 2 emission reductions for the European residential building stock. In particular, the Italian approach to model the energy balance of a subset of the national building stock is described; the results show the enormous potentialities of energy savings even with basic energy retrofit actions. Cost analyses were not in the scope of the project, but the results of this study are the basis for further investigations aimed at assessing the cost effectiveness of sets of measures. In this regard, the TABULA building-types are being applied by the Italian government for calculating cost-optimal levels of energy performance, complying with the Directive 2010/31/EU objectives. - Highlights: • European building stocks need retrofit actions to improve the energy performance. • Necessity to define “reference buildings” in order to perform cost-optimal analyses. • Definition of a National “Building Typology” according to IEE-TABULA project. • Methodology to identify reference buildings for assessing energy saving potentials

  20. The salience of social referents: a field experiment on collective norms and harassment behavior in a school social network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paluck, Elizabeth Levy; Shepherd, Hana

    2012-12-01

    Persistent, widespread harassment in schools can be understood as a product of collective school norms that deem harassment, and behavior allowing harassment to escalate, as typical and even desirable. Thus, one approach to reducing harassment is to change students' perceptions of these collective norms. Theory suggests that the public behavior of highly connected and chronically salient actors in a group, called social referents, may provide influential cues for individuals' perception of collective norms. Using repeated, complete social network surveys of a public high school, we demonstrate that changing the public behavior of a randomly assigned subset of student social referents changes their peers' perceptions of school collective norms and their harassment behavior. Social referents exert their influence over peers' perceptions of collective norms through the mechanism of everyday social interaction, particularly interaction that is frequent and personally motivated, in contrast to interaction shaped by institutional channels like shared classes. These findings clarify the development of collective social norms: They depend on certain patterns of and motivations for social interactions within groups across time, and are not static but constantly reshaped and reproduced through these interactions. Understanding this process creates opportunities for changing collective norms and behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. New Insights on the Creeping Phase of the Vajont Landslide form Rotary-Shear Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, F.; Spagnuolo, E.; Di Felice, F.; Di Toro, G.

    2014-12-01

    It is well known that 1963 catastrophic Vajont landslide (NE Italy) was preceded by a creeping phase monitored over three years before the collapse and that water played a significant role in the instability of the rock sequence. However, the transition from the creeping phase to instability still remains elusive. Here we report experiments carried out in a rotary-shear friction apparatus (SHIVA at INGV, Rome, Italy) on smectite-rich gouges collected from the landslide surface (60-70% smectite, 20-30% calcite and minor quartz). Experiments were performed under shear stress controlled conditions at normal stress σnof 3-5 MPa in the presence of water (20% weight), and at room humidity. During the experiments, the shear stress τ was increased by a constant value Δτ and maintained for a fixed time Δt before applying the following shear stress step. When frictional instability was achieved, the machine started to rotate at an imposed velocity. In the first set of experiments, the initial τ (0.05 MPa) was increased by steps of Δτ = 0.25 MPa with Δt of 150 seconds. In the room humidity material, a series of spontaneous slip bursts occurred at τ = 2.5 MPa (at σn = 5MPa) until the shear stress reached 3.0 MPa. At this point, a large stress drop occurred with concomitant dilation. In the wet material, instability took place at τ= 0.3 MPa (at σn= 3 MPa). After forcing τ down, the material re-strengthened. A second main instability occurred when τ was restored to 0.3 MPa, with expulsion of water drops accompanied by an episode of dilation. At this point, the material spontaneously re-strengthened with a stick-slip behavior similar to that observed at room humidity conditions. In the second set of experiments, Δτ was reduced to 0.05 MPa and Δt increased up to 360 seconds producing a general enhancement of the shear stress required to generate unstable sliding. Instability took place at very high τ (3.12 MPa at σn= 3 MPa) at room-humidity conditions, and at

  2. Interpretation Problem of Czubek's Σa Measurement Method. Reference Experiment on H3BO3 Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krynicka, E.; Gabanska, B.; Woznicka, U.; Dabrowska, J.; Burda, J.

    2001-12-01

    Czubek's method of measurement of the thermal neutron absorption cross section may be influenced by the energy spectrum of the thermal neutron flux (deviated from the Maxwellian distribution) which exist in the two-region geometric system. A correction function has been experimentally obtained to eliminate this disturbance. A series of reference measurements has been done on the H 3 BO 3 solution and Plexiglas outer moderator. The obtained function allows to interpret correctly measurements of the thermal neutron absorption rate in the range from 10 000 to 45 000 s -1 for hydrogenous samples. (author)

  3. Simulating and assessing boson sampling experiments with phase-space representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opanchuk, Bogdan; Rosales-Zárate, Laura; Reid, Margaret D.; Drummond, Peter D.

    2018-04-01

    The search for new, application-specific quantum computers designed to outperform any classical computer is driven by the ending of Moore's law and the quantum advantages potentially obtainable. Photonic networks are promising examples, with experimental demonstrations and potential for obtaining a quantum computer to solve problems believed classically impossible. This introduces a challenge: how does one design or understand such photonic networks? One must be able to calculate observables using general methods capable of treating arbitrary inputs, dissipation, and noise. We develop complex phase-space software for simulating these photonic networks, and apply this to boson sampling experiments. Our techniques give sampling errors orders of magnitude lower than experimental correlation measurements for the same number of samples. We show that these techniques remove systematic errors in previous algorithms for estimating correlations, with large improvements in errors in some cases. In addition, we obtain a scalable channel-combination strategy for assessment of boson sampling devices.

  4. Structure and dynamics of gas phase ions: Interplay between experiments and computations in IRMPD spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coletti, Cecilia; Corinti, Davide; Paciotti, Roberto; Re, Nazzareno; Crestoni, Maria Elisa; Fornarini, Simonetta

    2017-11-01

    The investigation of the molecular structure and dynamics of ions in gas phase is an item of increasing interest, due the role such species play in many areas of chemistry and physics, not to mention that they often represent elusive intermediates in more complex reaction mechanisms. Infrared Multiple Photon Dissociation spectroscopy is today one of the most advanced technique to this purpose, because of its high sensitivity to even small structure changes. The interpretation of IRMPD spectra strongly relies on high level quantum mechanical computations, so that a close interplay is needed for a detailed understanding of structure and kinetics properties which can be gathered from the many applications of this powerful technique. Recent advances in experiment and theory in this field are here illustrated, with emphasis on recent progresses for the elucidation of the mechanism of action of cisplatin, one of the most widely used anticancer drugs.

  5. Patients' experiences and care needs during the diagnostic phase of an Integrated Brain Cancer Pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedelø, Tina Wang; Sørensen, Jens Christian Hedemann; Delmar, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    of brain cancer, not knowing what to expect and participants' perceptions of the relationship with the health care providers. The analysis revealed that participants were in risk of having unmet information needs and that contextual factors seemed to cause fragmented care that led to feelings...... that the shock of the diagnosis, combined with the multiple symptoms, affect patients' ability to understand information and express needs of care and support. Unmet needs have been reported within this group of patients, however, the experiences and care needs of patients going through the diagnostic phase...... of a standardised Integrated Brain Cancer Pathway have not previously been explored. DESIGN: A Case Study design was used to provide detailed information of the complex needs of patients being diagnosed with a malignant brain tumour. METHODS: Research interviews and direct participant observation of four patients...

  6. Measuring Gas-Phase Basicities of Amino Acids Using an Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer: A Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderlin, Lee S.; Ryzhov, Victor; Keller, Lanea M. M.; Gaillard, Elizabeth R.

    2005-01-01

    An experiment is performed to measure the relative gas-phase basicities of a series of five amino acids to compare the results to literature values. The experiments use the kinetic method for deriving ion thermochemistry and allow students to perform accurate measurements of thermodynamics in a relatively short time.

  7. Design and construction of an experiment for two-phase flow in fractured porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayala, R.E.G.; Aziz, K.

    1993-08-01

    In numerical reservoir simulation naturally fractured reservoirs are commonly divided into matrix and fracture systems. The high permeability fractures are usually entirely responsible for flow between blocks and flow to the wells. The flow in these fractures is modeled using Darcy`s law and its extension to multiphase flow by means of relative permeabilities. The influence and measurement of fracture relative permeability for two-phase flow in fractured porous media have not been studied extensively, and the few works presented in the literature are contradictory. Experimental and numerical work on two-phase flow in fractured porous media has been initiated. An apparatus for monitoring this type of flow was designed and constructed. It consists of an artificially fractured core inside an epoxy core holder, detailed pressure and effluent monitoring, saturation measurements by means of a CT-scanner and a computerized data acquisition system. The complete apparatus was assembled and tested at conditions similar to the conditions expected for the two-phase flow experiments. Fine grid simulations of the experimental setup-were performed in order to establish experimental conditions and to study the effects of several key variables. These variables include fracture relative permeability and fracture capillary pressure. The numerical computations show that the flow is dominated by capillary imbibition, and that fracture relative permeabilities have only a minor influence. High oil recoveries without water production are achieved due to effective water imbibition from the fracture to the matrix. When imbibition is absent, fracture relative permeabilities affect the flow behavior at early production times.

  8. Maximizing the use of research reactors in training power reactor operating staff with special reference to US experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    Research reactors have been used in training nuclear power plant personnel for many years. Using the experience in the United States of America a programme is proposed that will maximize the training conducted at a research reactor and lessen the time that the staff must spend training elsewhere. The programme is adaptable to future training of replacement staff and for staff retraining. (author)

  9. Technical summary of AECL's Mine-by Experiment phase I: Excavation response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Read, R.S.; Martin, C.D.

    1996-02-01

    The first phase of the Mine-by Experiment was conducted at the 420 Level of the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) to investigate the response induced in the rock mass by excavating a 3.5-m-diameter circular tunnel using a non-explosive technique. The main objective of the experiment was to study the processes involved in progressive failure and the development of excavation-induced damage around underground openings. To this end, state-of-the-art geomechanical and geophysical instrumentation was used to monitor the excavation of the 46-m-long Mine-by Experiment test tunnel. The results from the experiment show that progressive failure in compressive regions around the tunnel initiates at stresses about 50% of the rock strength measured in uniaxial compression tests in the laboratory. The difference between the laboratory and in situ behaviour is attributed to complex stress changes that occur during excavation of the tunnel, especially in the vicinity of the advancing face. These effects are not simulated in standard laboratory tests. Numerical modelling and in situ characterization studies were conducted to establish the extent and characteristics of the damaged zone around the test tunnel. As part of this study, in situ stresses and material properties were established through back analysis of measured displacements and strains. Using these boundary conditions, it was shown that the damaged zone was limited to within 1 m of the original tunnel perimeter. The characteristics of the damaged zone, however, were found to be highly variable around the tunnel, and were dependent on the nature of the stress concentrations, geology, stress magnitudes and orientations and, to a lesser extent, the excavation method and sequence. (author) 136 refs., 14 tabs., 103 figs

  10. Intermediate Photovoltaic System Application Experiment. Oklahoma Center for Science and Arts. Phase II. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    This report presents the key results of the Phase II efforts for the Intermediate PV System Applications Experiment at the Oklahoma Center for Science and Arts (OCSA). This phase of the project involved fabrication, installation and integration of a nominal 140 kW flat panel PV system made up of large, square polycrystalline-silicon solar cell modules, each nominally 61 cm x 122 cm in size. The output of the PV modules, supplied by Solarex Corporation, was augmented, 1.35 to 1 at peak, by a row of glass reflectors, appropriately tilted northward. The PV system interfaces with the Oklahoma Gas and Electric Utility at the OCSA main switchgear. Any excess power generated by the system is fed into the utility under a one to one buyback arrangement. Except for a shortfall in the system output, presently suspected to be due to the poor performance of the modules, no serious problems were encountered. Certain value engineering changes implemented during construction and early operational failure events associated with the power conditioning system are also described. The system is currently undergoing extended testing and evaluation.

  11. OGLE-IV: Fourth Phase of the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udalski, A.; Szymański, M. K.; Szymański, G.

    2015-03-01

    We present both the technical overview and main science drivers of the fourth phase of the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (hereafter OGLE-IV). OGLE-IV is currently one of the largest sky variability surveys worldwide, targeting the densest stellar regions of the sky. The survey covers over 3000 square degrees in the sky and monitors regularly over a billion sources. The main targets include the inner Galactic Bulge and the Magellanic System. Their photometry spans the range of 12System and the Galactic disk. OGLE-IV provides the astronomical community with a number of real time services. The Early Warning System (EWS) contains information on two thousand gravitational microlensing events being discovered in real time annually, the OGLE Transient Detection System (OTDS) delivers over 200 supernovae a year. We also provide the real time photometry of unpredictable variables such as optical counterparts to the X-ray sources and R Coronae Borealis stars. Hundreds of thousands new variable stars have already been discovered and classified by the OGLE survey. The number of new detections will be at least doubled during the current OGLE-IV phase. The survey was designed and optimized primarily to conduct the second generation microlensing survey for exoplanets. It has already contributed significantly to the increase of the discovery rate of microlensing exoplanets and free-floating planets.

  12. Barriers in phase I cancer clinical trials referrals and enrollment: five-year experience at the Princess Margaret Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oza Amit M

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a paucity of literature on the referral outcome of patients seen in phase I trial clinics in academic oncology centres. This study aims to provide information on the accrual rate and to identify obstacles in the recruitment process. Methods A retrospective chart review was performed for all new patients referred and seen in the phase I clinic at the Princess Margaret Hospital between January 2000 and June 2005. Data on their demographics, medical history, and details of trial participation or non-entry were recorded. Results A total of 667 new phase I referrals were seen during the stated period. Of these patients, 197 (29.5% patients were enrolled into a phase I trial, and 64.5% of them started trial within 1 month of the initial visit. About a quarter (165 of 667 of the patients referred were deemed ineligible at their first visit, with the most frequent reasons for ineligibility being poor performance status, unacceptable bloodwork, too many prior treatments and rapid disease progression. The remaining 305 patients (45.7% were potentially eligible at their initial visit, but never entered a phase I trial. The main reasons for their non-entry were patient refusal, other treatment recommended first, and lack of available trials or trial spots. Conclusion This study provides information on the clinical realities underlying a referral to a phase I clinic and eventual trial enrollment. Better selection of patients, appropriate education of referring physicians, and opening phase I trials with fewer restrictions on some criteria such as prior therapy may enhance their recruitment rates.

  13. A decision tree for the genetic diagnosis of deficiency of adenosine deaminase 2 (DADA2): a French reference centres experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rama, Mélanie; Duflos, Claire; Melki, Isabelle; Bessis, Didier; Bonhomme, Axelle; Martin, Hélène; Doummar, Diane; Valence, Stéphanie; Rodriguez, Diana; Carme, Emilie; Genevieve, David; Heimdal, Ketil; Insalaco, Antonella; Franck, Nathalie; Queyrel-Moranne, Viviane; Tieulie, Nathalie; London, Jonathan; Uettwiller, Florence; Georgin-Lavialle, Sophie; Belot, Alexandre; Koné-Paut, Isabelle; Hentgen, Véronique; Boursier, Guilaine; Touitou, Isabelle; Sarrabay, Guillaume

    2018-04-23

    Deficiency of adenosine deaminase 2 (DADA2) is a recently described autoinflammatory disorder. Genetic analysis is required to confirm the diagnosis. We aimed to describe the identifying symptoms and genotypes of patients referred to our reference centres and to improve the indications for genetic testing. DNA from 66 patients with clinically suspected DADA2 were sequenced by Sanger or next-generation sequencing. Detailed epidemiological, clinical and biological features were collected by use of a questionnaire and were compared between patients with and without genetic confirmation of DADA2. We identified 13 patients (19.6%) carrying recessively inherited mutations in ADA2 that were predicted to be deleterious. Eight patients were compound heterozygous for mutations. Seven mutations were novel (4 missense variants, 2 predicted to affect mRNA splicing and 1 frameshift). The mean age of the 13 patients with genetic confirmation was 12.7 years at disease onset and 20.8 years at diagnosis. Phenotypic manifestations included fever (85%), vasculitis (85%) and neurological disorders (54%). Features best associated with a confirmatory genotype included fever with neurologic or cutaneous attacks (odds ratio [OR] 10.71, p = 0.003 and OR 10.9, p < 0.001), fever alone (OR 8.1, p = 0.01), and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) level with neurologic involvement (OR 6.63, p = 0.017). Our proposed decision tree may help improve obtaining genetic confirmation of DADA2 in the context of autoinflammatory symptoms. Prerequisites for quick and low-cost Sanger analysis include one typical cutaneous or neurological sign, one marker of inflammation (fever or elevated CRP level), and recurrent or chronic attacks in adults.

  14. Capturing the guest experience in hotels phase one : theoretical background and development of the guest experience scan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marle, van R.S.F. (Rienk); Pijls, R. (Ruth); Schreiber, G.H. (Gerrit)

    2011-01-01

    The goal for the coming years is to get insight in the guest experience in hotels. What is guest experience? How to measure guest experience? What is the relation between guest experience and guest loyalty? And finally, what tangible elements in the physical environment of hotels and the contact

  15. Midwives' experiences of referring obese women to either a community or home-based antenatal weight management service: Implications for service providers and midwifery practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Lou; French, David P; Ménage, Diane; Olander, Ellinor K

    2017-06-01

    a variety of services to support women to undertake weight management behaviours during pregnancy have recently been implemented as a means to reduce the risks to mother and infant. In the UK, midwives lead the care of the majority of pregnant women and are seen as the ideal source of referral into antenatal services. However, midwives have reported concerns regarding raising the topic of weight with obese women and negative referral experiences have been cited as a reason not to engage with a service. This study explored midwives' experiences of referring women to one of two antenatal weight management services. qualitative, cross-sectional interview and focus group study, with data analysed thematically. midwifery teams in the West Midlands, England. midwives responsible for referring to either a home-based, one to one service (N=12), or a community-based, group service (N=11). four themes emerged from the data. Participants generally had a positive View of the service, but their Information needs were not fully met, as they wanted more detail about the service and feedback regarding the women they had referred. Approaches to referral differed, with some participants referring all women who met the eligibility criteria, and some offering women a choice to be referred or not. Occasionally the topic was not raised at all when a negative reception was anticipated. Reasons for poor uptake of the services included pragmatic barriers, and their perception of women's lack of interest in weight management. midwives' differing views on choice and gaining agreement to refer means referral practices vary, which could increase the risk that obese women have inequitable access to weight management services. However, midwives' confidence in the services on offer may be increased with more detailed information about the service and feedback on referrals, which would additionally act as prompts to refer. weight management services need to improve communication with their

  16. Challenges in modeling unstable two-phase flow experiments in porous micromodels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meheust, Y.; Ferrari, A.; Jimenez-Martinez, J.; Le Borgne, T.; Lunati, I.

    2014-12-01

    The simulation of unstable invasion patterns in porous media flow is challenging since small perturbations tend to grow in time, so that slight differences in geometry or initial conditions potentially give rise to significantly different solutions. Here we present a detailed comparison of pore scale simulations and experiments of unstable primary drainage in porous micromodels. The porous medium consists of a Hele-Shaw cell containing cylindrical obstacles. Two experimental flow cells have been constructed by soft lithography, with different degrees of heterogeneity in the grain size distribution. To model two-phase flow at the pore scale, we solve Navier-Stokes equations for mass and momentum conservation in the discretized pore space and employ the Volume of Fluid (VOF) method to track the evolution of the interface. During drainage, if the defending fluid is the most viscous, viscous forces destabilize the interface, giving rise to the formation of preferential flow paths, in the form of a branched fingering structure. We test different numerical models (a 2D vertical integrated model and a full 3D model) and different initial conditions, studying their impact on the simulated spatial distributions of the fluid phases. Although due to the unstable nature of the invasion, small discrepancies between the experimental setup and the numerical model can result in different fluids patterns (see figure), simulations show a satisfactory agreement with the structures observed experimentally. To estimate the ability of the numerical approach to reproduce unstable displacement, we compare several quantities in both the statistical and deterministic sense. We demonstrate the impact of three main sources of uncertainty : i) the uncertainty on the pore space geometry, ii) the interface initialization and ii) three dimensional effects [1]. Simulations in weakly heterogeneous geometries are found to be more challenging because uncertainties on pore neck widths are on the same

  17. Mitigation of {sup 42}Ar/{sup 42}K background for the GERDA Phase II experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubashevskiy, A.; Klimenko, A.; Smolnikov, A. [Max Planck Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Agostini, M. [Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); Budjas, D.; Lazzaro, A.; Schoenert, S. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department E15, Munich (Germany); Gangapshev, A. [Max Planck Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gusev, K. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department E15, Munich (Germany); Russian Research Center Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Heisel, M. [Max Planck Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Lehnert, B. [Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik Technische Universitaet Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Carleton University, Physics Department, Ottawa (Canada); Pelczar, K. [Jagellonian University, Institute of Physics, Cracow (Poland); INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, LNGS, Assergi (Italy); Walter, M. [Physik Institut der Universitaet Zuerich, Zurich (Switzerland); Zuzel, G. [Jagellonian University, Institute of Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    2018-01-15

    Background coming from the {sup 42}Ar decay chain is considered to be one of the most relevant for the Gerda experiment, which searches for the neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 76}Ge. The sensitivity strongly relies on the absence of background around the Q-value of the decay. Background coming from {sup 42}K, a progeny of {sup 42}Ar, can contribute to that background via electrons from the continuous spectrum with an endpoint at 3.5 MeV. Research and development on the suppression methods targeting this source of background were performed at the low-background test facility LArGe. It was demonstrated that by reducing {sup 42}K ion collection on the surfaces of the broad energy germanium detectors in combination with pulse shape discrimination techniques and an argon scintillation veto, it is possible to suppress {sup 42}K background by three orders of magnitude. This is sufficient for Phase II of the Gerda experiment. (orig.)

  18. Validation of two-phase flow code THYC on VATICAN experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurel, F.; Portesse, A.; Rimbert, P.; Thomas, B.

    1997-01-01

    As part of a comprehensive program for THYC validation (THYC is a 3-dimensional two-phase flow computer code for PWR core configuration), an experimental project > has been initiated by the Direction des Etudes et Recherches of Electricite de France. Two mock-ups tested in Refrigerant-114, VATICAN-1 (with simple space grids) and VATICAN-2 (with mixing grids) were set up to investigate void fraction distributions using a single beam gamma densitometer. First, experiments were conducted with the VATICAN-1 mock-up. A set of constitutive laws to be used in rod bundles was determined but some doubts still remain for friction losses closure laws for oblique flow over tubes. From VATICAN-2 tests, calculations were performed using the standard set of correlations. Comparison with the experimental data shows an underprediction of void fraction by THYC in disturbed regions. Analyses highlight the poor treatment of axial relative velocity in these regions. A fitting of the radial and axial relative velocity values in the disturbed region improves the prediction of void fraction by the code but without any physical explanation. More analytical experiments should be carried out to validate friction losses closure laws for oblique flows and relative velocity downstream of a mixing grid. (author)

  19. Validation of two-phase flow code THYC on VATICAN experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurel, F.; Portesse, A.; Rimbert, P.; Thomas, B. [EDF/DER, Dept. TTA, 78 - Chatou (France)

    1997-12-31

    As part of a comprehensive program for THYC validation (THYC is a 3-dimensional two-phase flow computer code for PWR core configuration), an experimental project <> has been initiated by the Direction des Etudes et Recherches of Electricite de France. Two mock-ups tested in Refrigerant-114, VATICAN-1 (with simple space grids) and VATICAN-2 (with mixing grids) were set up to investigate void fraction distributions using a single beam gamma densitometer. First, experiments were conducted with the VATICAN-1 mock-up. A set of constitutive laws to be used in rod bundles was determined but some doubts still remain for friction losses closure laws for oblique flow over tubes. From VATICAN-2 tests, calculations were performed using the standard set of correlations. Comparison with the experimental data shows an underprediction of void fraction by THYC in disturbed regions. Analyses highlight the poor treatment of axial relative velocity in these regions. A fitting of the radial and axial relative velocity values in the disturbed region improves the prediction of void fraction by the code but without any physical explanation. More analytical experiments should be carried out to validate friction losses closure laws for oblique flows and relative velocity downstream of a mixing grid. (author)

  20. Laboratory experiments on heat-drive two-phase flows in natural and artificial rock fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Pruess, Karsten

    1998-01-01

    Water flow in partially saturated fractures under thermal drive may lead to fast flow along preferential localized pathways and heat pipe conditions. At the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, water flowing in fast pathways may ultimately contact waste packages and transport radionuclides to the accessible environment. Sixteen experiments were conducted to visualize heat-driven liquid flow in fracture models that included (1) assemblies of roughened glass plates, (2) epoxy replicas of rock fractures, and (3) a fractured specimen of Topopah Spring tuff. Continuous rivulet flow was observed for high liquid flow rates, intermittent rivulet flow and drop flow for intermediate flow rates, and film flow for lower flow rates and wide apertures. Heat pipe conditions (vapor-liquid counterflow with phase change) were identified in five of the seven experiments in which spatially resolved thermal monitoring was performed but not when vapor-liquid counterflow was hindered by very narrow apertures and when an inadequate working fluid volume was used

  1. Simulation and experiment for depth sizing of cracks in anchor bolts by ultrasonic phased array technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shan

    2018-04-01

    There have been lots of reports about the occurrence of cracks in bolts in aging nuclear and thermal power plants. Sizing of such cracks is crucial for assessing the integrity of bolts. Currently, hammering and visual tests are used to detect cracks in bolts. However, they are not applicable for sizing cracks. Although the tip diffraction method is well known as a crack sizing technique, reflection echoes from threads make it difficult to apply this technique to bolts. This paper addresses a method for depth sizing of cracks in bolts by means of ultrasonic phased array technology. Numerical results of wave propagation in bolts by the finite element method (FEM) shows that a peak associated within the vicinity of a crack tip can be observed in the curve of echo intensity versus refraction angle for deep cracks. The refraction angle with respect to this peak decreases as crack depth increases. Such numerical results are verified by experiments on bolt specimens that have electrical discharge machining notches or fatigue cracks with different depths. In the experiment, a 10-MHz linear array probe is used. Depth of cracks in bolts using the refraction angle associated with the peak is determined and compared to actual depths. The comparison shows that accurately determining a crack depth from the inspection results is possible.

  2. Mineralogical investigations of the interaction between iron corrosion products and bentonite from the NF-PRO Experiments (Phase 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milodowski, A.E.; Cave, M.R.; Kemp, S.J.; Taylor, B.H.; Green, K.A.; Williams, C.L.; Shaw, R.A.; Gowing, C.J.B.; Eatherington, N.D. (British Geological Survey (United Kingdom))

    2009-01-15

    present from the original MX-80 bentonite but part of this will also probably be secondary magnetite formed as a corrosion product of the steel. Nevertheless, sequential chemical extraction analyses also suggest that a large proportion of the iron (11-38%) may be present within the silicate/clay mineral lattice. The implication of this would be that there has been significant conversion of the original montmorillonite to an Fe-rich clay mineral within these alteration haloes. Although XRD does not detect very much change in clay mineralogy, and suggests that the smectite in the altered bentonite is dioctahedral, it is likely that the subsampling for XRD analysis was on too coarse a scale to be able to resolve the alteration within these very narrow reaction zones around the corroded wires. The alteration observed around the corroded steel wires in experiments NFC4, NFC7 and NFC13 is more complex than that in NFC1 or earlier experiments studied in Phase 1 or previously by Smart et al. 2006. The reacted bentonite from these experiments exhibited the formation of a Mg-Fe-rich clay mineral or aluminosilicate alteration product. This was formed within the Fe-enriched alteration halo but appears to have formed relatively early and was subsequently partially overprinted or replaced by more Fe-rich aluminosilicate. EDXA microchemical mapping did suggest some slight Mg enhancement in the reacted bentonite from NFC1 but no discrete Mg-rich phase was detected. Whilst Mg may potentially have been derived from the 'Allard' reference water used in experiment NFC4, in the case of NFC7 and NFC13 it could only have been derived from the breakdown of the bentonite itself since the porefluid only contained NaCl in these two experiments. XRD observations indicated a slight increase in d002/d003 peak ratio, which could possibly be accounted for by a small amount of substitution of Fe into the octahedral layers of the smectite. This is not supported by exchangeable cation analyses

  3. Extensive clinical experience: relative prevalence of different androgen excess disorders in 950 women referred because of clinical hyperandrogenism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmina, E; Rosato, F; Jannì, A; Rizzo, M; Longo, R A

    2006-01-01

    We undertook this study to estimate the prevalence of the various androgen excess disorders using the new criteria suggested for the diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The study was performed at two endocrine departments at the University of Palermo (Palermo, Italy). The records of all patients referred between 1980 and 2004 for evaluation of clinical hyperandrogenism were reevaluated. All past diagnoses were reviewed using the actual diagnostic criteria. To be included in this study, the records of the patients had to present the following available data: clinical evaluation of hyperandrogenism, body weight and height, testosterone (T), free T, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, progesterone, and pelvic sonography. A total of 1226 consecutive patients were seen during the study period, but only the scores of 950 patients satisfied all criteria and were reassessed for the diagnosis. The prevalence of androgen excess disorders was: PCOS, 72.1% (classic anovulatory patients, 56.6%; mild ovulatory patients, 15.5%), idiopathic hyperandrogenism, 15.8%; idiopathic hirsutism, 7.6%; 21-hydroxylase-deficient nonclassic adrenal hyperplasia, 4.3%; and androgen-secreting tumors, 0.2%. Compared with other androgen excess disorders, patients with PCOS had increased body weight whereas nonclassic adrenal hyperplasia patients were younger and more hirsute and had higher serum levels of T, free T, and 17-hydroxyprogesterone. Classic PCOS is the most common androgen excess disorder. However, mild androgen excess disorders (ovulatory PCOS and idiopathic hyperandrogenism) are also common and, in an endocrine setting, include about 30% of patients with clinical hyperandrogenism.

  4. Ask! Your Library at the HUB: Penn State Libraries’ Experiences Providing Reference Services at the Campus Student Union Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Charlotte Behler

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The Web 2.0 generation presents many service challenges to libraries. College students of today have work styles that emphasize collaboration, preference for flexible and comfortable spaces, and independent discovery of information. Given that challenge, it is important for libraries to experiment with new and unique models of service. Librarians and Staff at the Penn State University Libraries explored offering library service at the main campus’s student union building during two trials, during the Spring and Fall semesters of 2006.

  5. Serodiagnosis of celiac disease in children referred for evaluation of anemia: A pediatric hematology unit′s experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Bansal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children presenting with typical clinical features of celiac disease (CD are diagnosed relatively easily, however, diagnosis remains challenging and is often delayed when they present with ′difficult to treat anemia′ without overt gastrointestinal manifestations. Index study was undertaken to report profile of patients referred to pediatric hematology unit with ′difficult anemia′ who subsequently were diagnosed with CD. Materials and Methods: The records of 83 patients (1988-2008 with CD were scrutinized retrospectively who had presented with predominant hematological manifestations. Results: CD was confirmed histologically in 31 (37%, while 52 (63% were diagnosed by serology alone. The mean age at diagnosis was 8.0 ± 2.8 years. The mean duration of symptom-diagnosis interval was 40.9 ± 30.6 months. Eighty-one (98% children had anemia (Hb < 11 g/dl and 55 (66% had received iron supplements without discernible benefit. Thirty-nine (47% patients received a blood transfusion. Thirty-six (43% patients did not have diarrhea. Majority of the patients had either a microcytic-hypochromic (48% or dimorphic (43% anemia. Twenty-four (33% had thrombocytosis, while 5 (7% had thrombocytopenia. Mean duration of follow-up for patients on roll in the clinic for more than six months was 17.7 ± 20.9 months. Conclusion: Pediatricians and hematologists need to be aware of the extra-intestinal manifestations of CD. Prolonged duration of symptoms and a diagnosis at a relatively older age is striking in children presenting with predominantly hematological manifestations. Investigations for CD are recommended in children presenting with iron deficiency anemia refractory to hematinics or who have coexisting growth retardation. Necessity for biopsy in overtly symptomatic cases is discussed.

  6. CATERING STUDENTS' NEEDS TO PROMOTE AESTHETIC EXPERIENCE IN EFL LITERATURE CLASS WITH REFERENCE TO RESPONSE-CENTRED CURRICULUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishkak Said

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The success of literature instruction is dependent upon not only the teaching strategies, but also the well-developed curriculum, which accommodates student needs. Teaching practice of literature in the multicultural contexts has to do with teachers' belieft in approaching to their day-to-day practice endowed in the curriculum they are concerned with. In this respect, the existing literature curricula should ideally reflect aesthetic experiences that enhance students' freedom and enjoyment with literary works assigned The present study examines how three case High School English teachers from different sites with different multicultural entities in West Java, Indonesia, developed literature curricula in such a way that their students got 'free room' to express what they wanted and needed to say and to do. Following the traditions of a qualitative multi-case and -site study, the present study investigated the process of teaching literature in language studies streams of the three sites by occupying classroom observation and interview, and administering questionnaires as well. The findings revealed that, in their classroom practices, the three cases endeavored to cater their students' needs through developing negotiated response-based literature curriculum that led to varied and unique activities in the forms of celebrations showing their personal engagements in responding to.Jiterature assigned. Yet, their different schooling systems and contextual factors, and the subjects' perspectives in literature pedagogy and their lived-through literary. reading experiences, have made each case indicate typical and unique phenomena, which is in accordance with the spirit of school-based curriculum.

  7. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Characterisation methods and instruments. Experiences from the construction phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almen, Karl-Erik; Stenberg, Leif

    2005-12-01

    This report describes the different investigation methods used during the Aespoe HRL construction phase which commenced 1990 and ended 1995. The investigation methods are described with respect to performance, errors, uncertainty and usefulness in determined, analysed and/or calculated parameter values or other kind of geoscientific information. Moreover, other comments of the different methods, like those related to the practical performance of the measurements or tests are given. The practical performance is a major task as most of the investigations were conducted in parallel with the construction work. Much of the wide range of investigations carried out during the tunnelling work required special efforts of the personnel involved. Experiences and comments on these operations are presented in the report. The pre-investigation methods have been evaluated by comparing predictions based on pre-investigation models with data and results from the construction phase and updated geoscientific models. In 1997 a package of reports describe the general results of the pre-investigations. The investigation methods are in this report evaluated with respect to usefulness for underground characterisation of a rock volume, concerning geological, geohydrological, hydrochemical and rock mechanical properties. The report describes out opinion of the methods after the construction phase, i.e. the same platform of knowledge as for the package of reports of 1997. The evaluation of usefulness of the underground investigation methods are structured according to the key issues used for the preinvestigation modelling and predictions, i.e. Geological-structural model, Groundwater flow (hydrogeology), Groundwater chemistry (hydrochemistry), Transport of solutes and Mechanical stability models (or rock mechanics). The investigation methods selected for the different subjects for which the predictions were made are presented. Some of the subjects were slightly modified or adjusted during

  8. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Characterisation methods and instruments. Experiences from the construction phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-12-15

    This report describes the different investigation methods used during the Aespoe HRL construction phase which commenced 1990 and ended 1995. The investigation methods are described with respect to performance, errors, uncertainty and usefulness in determined, analysed and/or calculated parameter values or other kind of geoscientific information. Moreover, other comments of the different methods, like those related to the practical performance of the measurements or tests are given. The practical performance is a major task as most of the investigations were conducted in parallel with the construction work. Much of the wide range of investigations carried out during the tunnelling work required special efforts of the personnel involved. Experiences and comments on these operations are presented in the report. The pre-investigation methods have been evaluated by comparing predictions based on pre-investigation models with data and results from the construction phase and updated geoscientific models. In 1997 a package of reports describe the general results of the pre-investigations. The investigation methods are in this report evaluated with respect to usefulness for underground characterisation of a rock volume, concerning geological, geohydrological, hydrochemical and rock mechanical properties. The report describes out opinion of the methods after the construction phase, i.e. the same platform of knowledge as for the package of reports of 1997. The evaluation of usefulness of the underground investigation methods are structured according to the key issues used for the preinvestigation modelling and predictions, i.e. Geological-structural model, Groundwater flow (hydrogeology), Groundwater chemistry (hydrochemistry), Transport of solutes and Mechanical stability models (or rock mechanics). The investigation methods selected for the different subjects for which the predictions were made are presented. Some of the subjects were slightly modified or adjusted during

  9. Spatial correlations and probability density function of the phase difference in a developed speckle-field: numerical and natural experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mysina, N Yu; Maksimova, L A; Ryabukho, V P; Gorbatenko, B B

    2015-01-01

    Investigated are statistical properties of the phase difference of oscillations in speckle-fields at two points in the far-field diffraction region, with different shapes of the scatterer aperture. Statistical and spatial nonuniformity of the probability density function of the field phase difference is established. Numerical experiments show that, for the speckle-fields with an oscillating alternating-sign transverse correlation function, a significant nonuniformity of the probability density function of the phase difference in the correlation region of the field complex amplitude, with the most probable values 0 and p, is observed. A natural statistical interference experiment using Young diagrams has confirmed the results of numerical experiments. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  10. CEC thermal-hydraulic benchmark exercise on Fiploc verification experiment F2 in Battelle model containment long-term heat-up phase. Results for phase I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, K.; Schall, M.; Wolf, L.

    1991-01-01

    The major objective of the F2 experiment was to investigate the thermal-hydraulic long-term phenomena with special emphasis on natural convection phenomena in a loop-type geometry affected by variations of steam and air injections at different locations as well as dry energy supply into various compartments. The open post-test exercise is being performed in two consecutive phases, with Phase I covering the initial long-term heat-up phase. The exercise received widespread international attention with nine organizations from six European countries participating with seven different computer codes (FUMO, Jericho2, Fiploc, Wavco, Contain, Melcor, Cobra/Fathoms). These codes cover a broad spectrum of presently known European computational tools in severe accident containment analyses. The participants used either the specified mass flow or pressure control boundary conditions. Some exercised their codes for both. In total, 14 different computations were officially provided by the participants indicating strong interests and cooperative efforts by various institutions

  11. A 4-channel 3 Tesla phased array receive coil for awake rhesus monkey fMRI and diffusion MRI experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khachaturian, Mark Haig

    2010-01-01

    Awake monkey fMRI and diffusion MRI combined with conventional neuroscience techniques has the potential to study the structural and functional neural network. The majority of monkey fMRI and diffusion MRI experiments are performed with single coils which suffer from severe EPI distortions which limit resolution. By constructing phased array coils for monkey MRI studies, gains in SNR and anatomical accuracy (i.e., reduction of EPI distortions) can be achieved using parallel imaging. The major challenges associated with constructing phased array coils for monkeys are the variation in head size and space constraints. Here, we apply phased array technology to a 4-channel phased array coil capable of improving the resolution and image quality of full brain awake monkey fMRI and diffusion MRI experiments. The phased array coil is that can adapt to different rhesus monkey head sizes (ages 4-8) and fits in the limited space provided by monkey stereotactic equipment and provides SNR gains in primary visual cortex and anatomical accuracy in conjunction with parallel imaging and improves resolution in fMRI experiments by a factor of 2 (1.25 mm to 1.0 mm isotropic) and diffusion MRI experiments by a factor of 4 (1.5 mm to 0.9 mm isotropic).

  12. Design of a Hardware-Implemented Phase Calculating System for Feedback Control in the LHCD Experiments on EAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qiang; Liang Hao; Zhou Yongzhao

    2009-01-01

    A fully hardware-implemented phase calculating system for the feedback control in the lower-hybrid current drive (LHCD) experiments is presented in this paper. By taking advantages of field programmable gate array (FPGA) chips with embedded digital signal processing (DSP) cores and the Matlab-aided design method, the phase calculating algorithm with a square root operation and parallel process are efficiently implemented in a single FPGA chip to complete the calculation of phase differences fast and accurately in the lower-hybrid wave (LHW) system on EAST. (fusion engineering)

  13. Phase-field simulation of peritectic solidification closely coupled with directional solidification experiments in an Al-36 wt% Ni alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siquieri, R; Emmerich, H; Doernberg, E; Schmid-Fetzer, R

    2009-01-01

    In this work we present experimental and theoretical investigations of the directional solidification of Al-36 wt% Ni alloy. A phase-field approach (Folch and Plapp 2005 Phys. Rev. E 72 011602) is coupled with the CALPHAD (calculation of phase diagrams) method to be able to simulate directional solidification of Al-Ni alloy including the peritectic phase Al 3 Ni. The model approach is calibrated by systematic comparison to microstructures grown under controlled conditions in directional solidification experiments. To illustrate the efficiency of the model it is employed to investigate the effect of temperature gradient on the microstructure evolution of Al-36 wt% Ni during solidification.

  14. Toward Reanalysis of the Tight-Pitch HCLWR-PROTEUS Phase II Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perret, Grégory; Vlassopoulos, Efstathios; Hursin, Mathieu; Pautz, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    The HCLWR-Proteus Phase II experiments were conducted from 1985 to 1990 in the zero-power reactor Proteus at PSI in Switzerland. The experimental program was dedicated to the physics of high conversion light water reactors and in particular to the measurement of reactor parameters such as reaction rate traverses, spectral indices, absorber reactivity worths and void coefficients. The HCLWR experiments are especially interesting because they generated knowledge in the epithermal range of the neutron flux spectrum, for which little integral experimental data is available. In an effort to assess the interest of this experimental data to validate modern nuclear data and improve their uncertainties, a preliminary re-analysis of selected configurations was conducted with Monte-Carlo codes (MCNP6/SERPENT2) and modern nuclear data libraries (ENDF/B-VII.0, JEFF-3.1.1 and JENDL-4.0). The spectral ndices, flux spectra and sensitivity coefficients on k∞ were calculated using cell models representative of the tight-pitch measurement configurations containing 11% PuO2-UO2 fuel rods in different moderation conditions (air, water and dowtherm). Spectral index predictions using the three nuclear data libraries agreed within two standard deviations with the measured values. The only exception is the Pu-242-capture-to-Pu-239-fission ratio, which was overestimated with all libraries by more than four standard deviations, i.e. 13%, in the non-moderated configuration. In this configuration, Pu-242 captures are few since the flux spectrum in the Pu-242 capture resonance region (between 1eV and 1keV) is small making this spectral index hard to measure. Sensitivity coefficient predictions with both MCNP6 and SERPENT2 were in good agreement.

  15. Phase behavior of casein micelles/exocellular polysaccharide mixtures: Experiment and theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuinier, R.; de Kruif, C. G.

    1999-05-01

    Dispersions of casein micelles and an exocellular polysaccharide (EPS), obtained from Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris NIZO B40 EPS, show a phase separation. The phase separation is of the colloidal gas-liquid type. We have determined a phase diagram that describes the separation of skim milk with EPS into a casein-micelle rich phase and an EPS rich phase. We compare the phase diagram with those calculated from theories developed by Vrij, and by Lekkerkerker and co-workers, showing that the experimental phase boundary can be predicted quite well. From dynamic light scattering measurements of the self-diffusion of the casein micelles in the presence of EPS the spinodal could be located and it corresponds with the experimental phase boundary.

  16. From Sound Morphing to the Synthesis of Starlight. Musical experiences with the Phase Vocoder over 25 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor Wishart

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The article reports the author’s experiences with the phase vocoder. Starting from the first attempts during the years 1973-77 – in connection with a speculative project to morph the sounds of a speaking voice into sounds from the natural world, project subsequently developed at Ircam in Paris between 1979 and 1986 – up to the most recent experiences in 2011-12 associated with the realization of Supernova, an 8-channel sound-surround piece, where the phase vocoder data format is used as a synthesis tool.

  17. In-pile observations of fuel and clad relocation during LMFBR initiation phase accident experiments - the STAR experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, S.A.; Schumacher, G.; Henkel, P.R.; Royl, P.

    1987-01-01

    A series of seven in-pile experiments (the STAR experiments) were performed in which clad motion and fuel dispersal were observed in small pin bundles with high-speed cinematography. The experimental heating conditions reproduced a range of Loss of Flow (LOF) accident scenarios for the lead subassemblies in LMFBRs. The experiments show strong tendencies for limited clad motion in multiple pin bundles, early fuel disruption and dispersal (prior to fuel melting) in moderate power transients having simultaneous clad melting and fuel disruption. The more recent experiments indicate a possibility of steel vapor driven fuel dispersal after fuel breakup and intimate fuel/steel mixing. (author)

  18. Phase Change Materials-Assisted Heat Flux Reduction: Experiment and Numerical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein J. Akeiber

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Phase change materials (PCM in the construction industry became attractive because of several interesting attributes, such as thermo-physical parameters, open air atmospheric condition usage, cost and the duty structure requirement. Thermal performance optimization of PCMs in terms of proficient storage of a large amount of heat or cold in a finite volume remains a challenging task. Implementation of PCMs in buildings to achieve thermal comfort for a specific climatic condition in Iraq is our main focus. From this standpoint, the present paper reports the experimental and numerical results on the lowering of heat flux inside a residential building using PCM, which is composed of oil (40% and wax (60%. This PCM (paraffin, being plentiful and cost-effective, is extracted locally from waste petroleum products in Iraq. Experiments are performed with two rooms of identical internal dimensions in the presence and absence of PCM. A two-dimensional numerical transient heat transfer model is developed and solved using the finite difference method. A relatively simple geometry is chosen to initially verify the numerical solution procedure by incorporating in the computer program two-dimensional elliptic flows. It is demonstrated that the heat flux inside the room containing PCM is remarkably lower than the one devoid of PCM.

  19. NMR study of hyper-polarized 129Xe and applications to liquid-phase NMR experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marion, D.

    2008-07-01

    In liquid samples where both nuclear polarization and spin density are strong, the magnetization dynamics, which can be analysed by NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) methods, is deeply influenced by the internal couplings induced by local dipolar fields. The present thesis describes some of the many consequences associated to the presence in the sample of concentrated xenon hyper-polarized by an optical pumping process. First, we deal with the induced modifications in frequency and line width of the proton and xenon spectra, then we present the results of SPIDER, a coherent polarization transfer experiment designed to enhance the polarization of protons, in order to increase their NMR signal level. A third part is dedicated to the description of the apparition of repeated chaotic maser emissions by un unstable xenon magnetization coupled to the detection coil tuned at the xenon Larmor frequency (here 138 MHz). In the last part, we present a new method allowing a better tuning of any NMR detection probe and resulting in sensible gains in terms of sensitivity and signal shaping. Finally, we conclude with a partial questioning of the classical relaxation theory in the specific field of highly polarized and concentrated spin systems in a liquid phase. (author)

  20. Effective Rheology of Two-Phase Flow in Three-Dimensional Porous Media: Experiment and Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Santanu; Bender, Andrew T; Danczyk, Matthew; Keepseagle, Kayla; Prather, Cody A; Bray, Joshua M; Thrane, Linn W; Seymour, Joseph D; Codd, Sarah L; Hansen, Alex

    2017-01-01

    We present an experimental and numerical study of immiscible two-phase flow of Newtonian fluids in three-dimensional (3D) porous media to find the relationship between the volumetric flow rate ( Q ) and the total pressure difference ([Formula: see text]) in the steady state. We show that in the regime where capillary forces compete with the viscous forces, the distribution of capillary barriers at the interfaces effectively creates a yield threshold ([Formula: see text]), making the fluids reminiscent of a Bingham viscoplastic fluid in the porous medium. In this regime, Q depends quadratically on an excess pressure drop ([Formula: see text]). While increasing the flow rate, there is a transition, beyond which the overall flow is Newtonian and the relationship is linear. In our experiments, we build a model porous medium using a column of glass beads transporting two fluids, deionized water and air. For the numerical study, reconstructed 3D pore networks from real core samples are considered and the transport of wetting and non-wetting fluids through the network is modeled by tracking the fluid interfaces with time. We find agreement between our numerical and experimental results. Our results match with the mean-field results reported earlier.

  1. Schlieren, Phase-Contrast, and Spectroscopy Diagnostics for the LBNL HIF Plasma Channel Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, D. M.; Niemann, C.; Fessenden, T. J.; Leemans, W.; Vandersloot, K.; Dahlbacka, G.; Yu, S. S.; Sharp, W. M.; Tauschwitz, A.

    1999-11-01

    The LBNL Plasma Channel experiment has demonstrated stable 42-cm Z-pinch discharge plasma channels with peak currents in excess of 50 kA for a 7 torr nitrogen, 30 kV discharge. These channels offer the possibility of transporting heavy-ion beams for inertial fusion. We postulate that the stability of these channels resides in the existance of a neutral-gas density depresion created by a pre-pulse discharge before the main capacitor bank discharge is created. Here, we present the results and experimental diagnostics setup used for the study of the pre-pulse and main bank channels. Observation of both the plasma and neutral gas dynamics is achieved. Schlieren, Zernike's phase-contrast, and spectroscopic techniques are used. Preliminary Schlieren results show a gas shockwave moving radially at a rate of ≈ 10^6 mm/sec as a result of the fast and localized deposited energy during the evolution of the pre-pulse channel. This data will be used to validate simulation codes (BUCKY and CYCLOPS).

  2. Water vapour tomography using GPS phase observations: Results from the ESCOMPTE experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, T.; Gradinarsky, L.; Elgered, G.

    2007-10-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) tomography is a technique for estimating the 3-D structure of the atmospheric water vapour using data from a dense local network of GPS receivers. Several current methods utilize estimates of slant wet delays between the GPS satellites and the receivers on the ground, which are difficult to obtain with millimetre accuracy from the GPS observations. We present results of applying a new tomographic method to GPS data from the Expériance sur site pour contraindre les modèles de pollution atmosphérique et de transport d'emissions (ESCOMPTE) experiment in southern France. This method does not rely on any slant wet delay estimates, instead it uses the GPS phase observations directly. We show that the estimated wet refractivity profiles estimated by this method is on the same accuracy level or better compared to other tomographic methods. The results are in agreement with earlier simulations, for example the profile information is limited above 4 km.

  3. Quality control in environmental radioactivity measurements: experience of the Central Service for Protection against Ionizing Radiation, acting as International Reference Center Of the World Health Organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remy, M L; Gahinet, M E; Moroni, J P; De Zertucha, J; Pellerin, P [Service Central de Protection contre les Rayonnements Ionisants, 78 - Le Vesinet (France)

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to make known the experiences in the Central Service for Protection against Ionizing Radiation (SCPRI) in two fields: (i)in relation to the survey of, and research on, environmental radiation in France for 15 years, and (ii) as the International Reference Center (IRC), a responsibility which has been assigned to it by the World Health Organisation (WHO) for more than 7 years. The SCPRI has no permanent activity in pure metrology but the control which it exerts on a national scale (more than 30,000 environmental samples analyzed each year) and the periodic intercomparisons which it organizes with a large number of foreign Public Health Laboratories have led to the development of a strict quality control program for the techniques of preparation and verification of standard sources and reference samples which are essential in the use of counters, the application and development of spectrometric and radiochemical analytical methods and in the distribution of samples for intercomparison purposes. A description is given of practical experience of quality control in the preparation of standards and in international inter-comparisons organized under the sponsorship of the World Health Organization.

  4. Are Health State Valuations from the General Public Biased? A Test of Health State Reference Dependency Using Self-assessed Health and an Efficient Discrete Choice Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Marcel F; Attema, Arthur E; Donkers, Bas; Stolk, Elly A; Versteegh, Matthijs M

    2017-12-01

    Health state valuations of patients and non-patients are not the same, whereas health state values obtained from general population samples are a weighted average of both. The latter constitutes an often-overlooked source of bias. This study investigates the resulting bias and tests for the impact of reference dependency on health state valuations using an efficient discrete choice experiment administered to a Dutch nationally representative sample of 788 respondents. A Bayesian discrete choice experiment design consisting of eight sets of 24 (matched pairwise) choice tasks was developed, with each set providing full identification of the included parameters. Mixed logit models were used to estimate health state preferences with respondents' own health included as an additional predictor. Our results indicate that respondents with impaired health worse than or equal to the health state levels under evaluation have approximately 30% smaller health state decrements. This confirms that reference dependency can be observed in general population samples and affirms the relevance of prospect theory in health state valuations. At the same time, the limited number of respondents with severe health impairments does not appear to bias social tariffs as obtained from general population samples. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Growth references

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, S. van

    2007-01-01

    A growth reference describes the variation of an anthropometric measurement within a group of individuals. A reference is a tool for grouping and analyzing data and provides a common basis for comparing populations.1 A well known type of reference is the age-conditional growth diagram. The

  6. First experience with single-source dual-energy computed tomography in six patients with acute arthralgia: a feasibility experiment using joint aspiration as a reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diekhoff, Torsten; Kiefer, Tobias; Hamm, Bernd; Hermann, Kay-Geert A. [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin Campus Mitte, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Ziegeler, Katharina; Feist, Eugen [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin Campus Mitte, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Berlin (Germany); Mews, Juergen [Toshiba Medical Systems Europe, BV, Zoetermeer (Netherlands)

    2015-11-15

    Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) is an emerging imaging technique for examining patients with suspected gout. Single-source dual-energy CT (S-DECT) is a new way of obtaining DECT information on conventional CT scanners rather than using special dual-source CT systems. We tested the feasibility of S-DECT (320-row CT; Aquilion ONE, Toshiba Medical Systems, Otawara, Japan) in 6 patients (5 men, 1 woman; mean age 61.3, range 48 to 69 years) with acute arthralgia and suspected gout, and compared the S-DECT findings with the results of joint aspiration. Three patients had a diagnosis of gouty arthritis with negatively birefringent crystals in synovial fluid, in addition to gouty tophi in S-DECT. Three patients had no detectable crystals by polarization microscopy and no tophi on DECT. Their final diagnoses were rheumatoid arthritis, activated osteoarthritis, and septic arthritis in one case each. This initial experience suggests that S-DECT might be a valuable alternative to dual-source CT. Hence, more patients may benefit from its additional diagnostic abilities in the future. (orig.)

  7. First experience with single-source dual-energy computed tomography in six patients with acute arthralgia: a feasibility experiment using joint aspiration as a reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diekhoff, Torsten; Kiefer, Tobias; Hamm, Bernd; Hermann, Kay-Geert A.; Ziegeler, Katharina; Feist, Eugen; Mews, Juergen

    2015-01-01

    Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) is an emerging imaging technique for examining patients with suspected gout. Single-source dual-energy CT (S-DECT) is a new way of obtaining DECT information on conventional CT scanners rather than using special dual-source CT systems. We tested the feasibility of S-DECT (320-row CT; Aquilion ONE, Toshiba Medical Systems, Otawara, Japan) in 6 patients (5 men, 1 woman; mean age 61.3, range 48 to 69 years) with acute arthralgia and suspected gout, and compared the S-DECT findings with the results of joint aspiration. Three patients had a diagnosis of gouty arthritis with negatively birefringent crystals in synovial fluid, in addition to gouty tophi in S-DECT. Three patients had no detectable crystals by polarization microscopy and no tophi on DECT. Their final diagnoses were rheumatoid arthritis, activated osteoarthritis, and septic arthritis in one case each. This initial experience suggests that S-DECT might be a valuable alternative to dual-source CT. Hence, more patients may benefit from its additional diagnostic abilities in the future. (orig.)

  8. Implementation of a complex multi-phase equation of state for cerium and its correlation with experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherne, Frank J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jensen, Brian J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Elkin, Vyacheslav M [VNIITF

    2009-01-01

    The complexity of cerium combined with its interesting material properties makes it a desirable material to examine dynamically. Characteristics such as the softening of the material before the phase change, low pressure solid-solid phase change, predicted low pressure melt boundary, and the solid-solid critical point add complexity to the construction of its equation of state. Currently, we are incorporating a feedback loop between a theoretical understanding of the material and an experimental understanding. Using a model equation of state for cerium we compare calculated wave profiles with experimental wave profiles for a number of front surface impact (cerium impacting a plated window) experiments. Using the calculated release isentrope we predict the temperature of the observed rarefaction shock. These experiments showed that the release state occurs at different magnitudes, thus allowing us to infer where dynamic {gamma} - {alpha} phase boundary is.

  9. Intercomparison of model simulations of mixed-phase clouds observed during the ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. Part II: Multi-layered cloud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, H; McCoy, R B; Klein, S A; Xie, S; Luo, Y; Avramov, A; Chen, M; Cole, J; Falk, M; Foster, M; Genio, A D; Harrington, J; Hoose, C; Khairoutdinov, M; Larson, V; Liu, X; McFarquhar, G; Poellot, M; Shipway, B; Shupe, M; Sud, Y; Turner, D; Veron, D; Walker, G; Wang, Z; Wolf, A; Xu, K; Yang, F; Zhang, G

    2008-02-27

    Results are presented from an intercomparison of single-column and cloud-resolving model simulations of a deep, multi-layered, mixed-phase cloud system observed during the ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. This cloud system was associated with strong surface turbulent sensible and latent heat fluxes as cold air flowed over the open Arctic Ocean, combined with a low pressure system that supplied moisture at mid-level. The simulations, performed by 13 single-column and 4 cloud-resolving models, generally overestimate the liquid water path and strongly underestimate the ice water path, although there is a large spread among the models. This finding is in contrast with results for the single-layer, low-level mixed-phase stratocumulus case in Part I of this study, as well as previous studies of shallow mixed-phase Arctic clouds, that showed an underprediction of liquid water path. The overestimate of liquid water path and underestimate of ice water path occur primarily when deeper mixed-phase clouds extending into the mid-troposphere were observed. These results suggest important differences in the ability of models to simulate Arctic mixed-phase clouds that are deep and multi-layered versus shallow and single-layered. In general, models with a more sophisticated, two-moment treatment of the cloud microphysics produce a somewhat smaller liquid water path that is closer to observations. The cloud-resolving models tend to produce a larger cloud fraction than the single-column models. The liquid water path and especially the cloud fraction have a large impact on the cloud radiative forcing at the surface, which is dominated by the longwave flux for this case.

  10. Measurement of the reference channel B±→J/ψK± for the rare decay B0s→μ+μ- with the ATLAS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaur, Bakul

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is one of the four major experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of CERN, Geneva. The experiment addresses the open questions of particle physics. The decay of the B 0 s meson to two muons is strongly suppressed in the Standard Model (SM). It is a rare decay with an expected branching fraction of 3.56 x 10 -9 . The B 0 s →μ + μ - branching fraction is measured relative to a reference channel, B ± →J/ψK ± . The subject of this thesis is the measurement of the B ± yield. The analysis uses 4.9 fb -1 of ATLAS data collected in the year 2011 at 7 TeV center-of-mass energy. The B ± candidate selection is performed using a multivariate (MVA) technique. The yield is estimated using a two-dimensional unbinned maximum likelihood fit that accounts for the per-event uncertainties. The result is used for the computation of the upper limit on the B 0 s →μ + μ - branching fraction published by the ATLAS collaboration.

  11. [Reference citation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brkić, Silvija

    2013-01-01

    Scientific and professional papers represent the information basis for scientific research and professional work. References important for the paper should be cited within the text, and listed at the end of the paper. This paper deals with different styles of reference citation. Special emphasis was placed on the Vancouver Style for reference citation in biomedical journals established by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. It includes original samples for citing various types of articles, both printed and electronic, as well as recommendations related to reference citation in accordance with the methodology and ethics of scientific research and guidelines for preparing manuscripts for publication.

  12. Experiences on current national income measures with reference to environmental and natural resources; Esperienze e proposte relative alla correzione in senso ambientale delle misure del reddito nazionale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzese, R; Gaudioso, D [ENEA, Casaccia (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1995-06-01

    The environment provides both a source of goods and services and a `sink` for residues of the production and consumption processes. This is not reflected into conventional estimate of GDP (gross domestic product), the most commonly used measure of aggregate income. The purpose of this paper is to explore whether environmentally-adjusted national income measure can be derived. In the first part, the authors discuss both the shortcomings of the current national income measures, with reference to environmental and natural resources, and the debate on this issues; then they analyse the existing experiences to provide environmentally-adjusted indicators of national accounts. In the second part, the authors present an evaluation of the costs of environmental degradation in Italy in the period 1988-1990, based on the methodologies adopted in a pilot study carried out by UNSO (United Nations Statistical Office) and the World Bank for Mexico.

  13. Dual Phase Change Thermal Diodes for Enhanced Rectification Ratios: Theory and Experiment

    KAUST Repository

    Cottrill, Anton L.; Wang, Song; Liu, Albert Tianxiang; Wang, Wen-Jun; Strano, Michael S.

    2018-01-01

    Thermal diodes are materials that allow for the preferential directional transport of heat and are highly promising devices for energy conservation, energy harvesting, and information processing applications. One form of a thermal diode consists of the junction between a phase change and phase invariant material, with rectification ratios that scale with the square root of the ratio of thermal conductivities of the two phases. In this work, the authors introduce and analyse the concept of a Dual Phase Change Thermal Diode (DPCTD) as the junction of two phase change materials with similar phase boundary temperatures but opposite temperature coefficients of thermal conductivity. Such systems possess a significantly enhanced optimal scaling of the rectification ratio as the square root of the product of the thermal conductivity ratios. Furthermore, the authors experimentally design and fabricate an ambient DPCTD enabled by the junction of an octadecane-impregnated polystyrene foam, polymerized using a high internal phase emulsion template (PFH-O) and a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) aqueous solution. The DPCTD shows a significantly enhanced thermal rectification ratio both experimentally (2.6) and theoretically (2.6) as compared with ideal thermal diodes composed only of the constituent materials.

  14. Dual Phase Change Thermal Diodes for Enhanced Rectification Ratios: Theory and Experiment

    KAUST Repository

    Cottrill, Anton L.

    2018-01-15

    Thermal diodes are materials that allow for the preferential directional transport of heat and are highly promising devices for energy conservation, energy harvesting, and information processing applications. One form of a thermal diode consists of the junction between a phase change and phase invariant material, with rectification ratios that scale with the square root of the ratio of thermal conductivities of the two phases. In this work, the authors introduce and analyse the concept of a Dual Phase Change Thermal Diode (DPCTD) as the junction of two phase change materials with similar phase boundary temperatures but opposite temperature coefficients of thermal conductivity. Such systems possess a significantly enhanced optimal scaling of the rectification ratio as the square root of the product of the thermal conductivity ratios. Furthermore, the authors experimentally design and fabricate an ambient DPCTD enabled by the junction of an octadecane-impregnated polystyrene foam, polymerized using a high internal phase emulsion template (PFH-O) and a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) aqueous solution. The DPCTD shows a significantly enhanced thermal rectification ratio both experimentally (2.6) and theoretically (2.6) as compared with ideal thermal diodes composed only of the constituent materials.

  15. Reference Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bivens-Tatum, Wayne

    2006-01-01

    This article presents interesting articles that explore several different areas of reference assessment, including practical case studies and theoretical articles that address a range of issues such as librarian behavior, patron satisfaction, virtual reference, or evaluation design. They include: (1) "Evaluating the Quality of a Chat Service"…

  16. Intercomparison of model simulations of mixed-phase clouds observed during the ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. Part I: Single layer cloud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, S A; McCoy, R B; Morrison, H; Ackerman, A; Avramov, A; deBoer, G; Chen, M; Cole, J; DelGenio, A; Golaz, J; Hashino, T; Harrington, J; Hoose, C; Khairoutdinov, M; Larson, V; Liu, X; Luo, Y; McFarquhar, G; Menon, S; Neggers, R; Park, S; Poellot, M; von Salzen, K; Schmidt, J; Sednev, I; Shipway, B; Shupe, M; Spangenberg, D; Sud, Y; Turner, D; Veron, D; Falk, M; Foster, M; Fridlind, A; Walker, G; Wang, Z; Wolf, A; Xie, S; Xu, K; Yang, F; Zhang, G

    2008-02-27

    Results are presented from an intercomparison of single-column and cloud-resolving model simulations of a cold-air outbreak mixed-phase stratocumulus cloud observed during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program's Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. The observed cloud occurred in a well-mixed boundary layer with a cloud top temperature of -15 C. The observed liquid water path of around 160 g m{sup -2} was about two-thirds of the adiabatic value and much greater than the mass of ice crystal precipitation which when integrated from the surface to cloud top was around 15 g m{sup -2}. The simulations were performed by seventeen single-column models (SCMs) and nine cloud-resolving models (CRMs). While the simulated ice water path is generally consistent with the observed values, the median SCM and CRM liquid water path is a factor of three smaller than observed. Results from a sensitivity study in which models removed ice microphysics indicate that in many models the interaction between liquid and ice-phase microphysics is responsible for the large model underestimate of liquid water path. Despite this general underestimate, the simulated liquid and ice water paths of several models are consistent with the observed values. Furthermore, there is some evidence that models with more sophisticated microphysics simulate liquid and ice water paths that are in better agreement with the observed values, although considerable scatter is also present. Although no single factor guarantees a good simulation, these results emphasize the need for improvement in the model representation of mixed-phase microphysics. This case study, which has been well observed from both aircraft and ground-based remote sensors, could be a benchmark for model simulations of mixed-phase clouds.

  17. Enhancing signal detection and completely eliminating scattering using quasi-phase-cycling in 2D IR experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloem, Robbert; Garrett-Roe, Sean; Strzalka, Halina; Hamm, Peter; Donaldson, Paul

    2010-12-20

    We demonstrate how quasi-phase-cycling achieved by sub-cycle delay modulation can be used to replace optical chopping in a box-CARS 2D IR experiment in order to enhance the signal size, and, at the same time, completely eliminate any scattering contamination. Two optical devices are described that can be used for this purpose, a wobbling Brewster window and a photoelastic modulator. They are simple to construct, easy to incorporate into any existing 2D IR setup, and have attractive features such as a high optical throughput and a fast modulation frequency needed to phase cycle on a shot-to-shot basis.

  18. Involvement of activated leukocytes in the regulation of plasma levels of acute phase proteins in microgravity simulation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larina, Olga; Bekker, Anna; Turin-Kuzmin, Alexey

    2016-07-01

    Earth-based studies of microgravity effects showed the induction of the mechanisms of acute phase reaction (APR). APR comprises the transition of stress-sensitive protein kinases of macrophages and other responsive cells into the active state and the phosphorylation of transcription factors which in turn stimulate the production of acute-phase reaction cytokines. Leukocyte activation is accompanied by the acceleration of the formation of oxygen radicals which can serve a functional indice of leukocyte cell state. The series of events at acute phase response result in selective changes in the synthesis of a number of secretory blood proteins (acute phase proteins, APPs) in liver cells thus contributing the recovery of homeostasis state in the organism. Earlier experiment with head-down tilt showed the increase in plasma concentrations of two cytokine mediators of acute phase response, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) being the outcome of the activation of producer cells, foremost, leukocytes. In experiment with 4-day dry immersion chemiluminescent (ChL) reply of the whole blood samples to a test stimulus were studied along with the measurements of plasma levels of APPs, namely, alpha1-antitrypsin (alpha1-AT), alpha1-acid glycoprotein (alpha1-AGP), alpha2-macroglobulin (alpha2-M), ceruloplasmin (Cer), haptoglobin (Hp), C3-complement component (C3), C-reactive protein (CRP). Eight individuals aged 21.2 ± 3.2 years were the test subjects in the investigation. Protein studies showed a noticeable increase in the mean plasma levels of all APPs measured in experiment thus producing the evidence of the activation of acute phase response mechanisms while individual patterns revealed variability during the immersion period. The overall trends were similar to these in the previous immersion series. The augment in the strength of signal in stimulated light emission tests was higher after 1- and 2-day of immersion exposure than before the

  19. Experience on sodium removal from FBTR components in its operating phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jambunathan, D.; Rao, M.S.; Krishnamachari, V.S.; Kasiviswanathan, K.V.; Rajan, M.

    1997-01-01

    FBTR is a 40 MWt/13 MWe loop type, sodium cooled mixed carbide fuelled reactor. There are two primary loops, two secondary loops and a common steam-water circuit. Criticality was achieved in 1985 and during the course of the 10 years of operation phase experience has been gained on the decontamination of certain core components, primary sodium pumps, CRDM parts, handling components and cold traps. This paper deals with the decontamination aspects of these components in detail. For core subassemblies a remote sodium cleaning system was provided in the hot cell. The unique feature of this system is that it pumps alcohol into wash chamber using compressed nitrogen. During cleaning, the sub assembly is loaded into the system using master slave manipulator and compressed nitrogen gas is used to pump alcohol into the system for cleaning the outer and inner surfaces of the sub assembly in cycles. Each cycle takes about 15 minutes and around 5 to 6 cycles of cleaning were employed to remove 100 g of sodium. The level of alcohol in the tank is measured by ultrasonic level probes. The used alcohol is pumped to medium active waste storage tank. Primary and secondary sodium pumps are the large components which were cleaned off sodium using steam and water in decontamination pit. Lower part of CRDM with a failed bellow was another component cleaned in decontamination pit. An electro decontamination technique was successfully developed to remove coloration on the lower part of CRDM for reuse. A stainless steel carrier with antimony capsule was the first radio active component to undergo sodium cleaning operation in decontamination pit meant for large primary sodium circuit components after making necessary modifications. Decontamination of other components such as fingers of grippers and scrapper rings of charging and discharging flasks was carried out with alcohol under inert atmosphere. The secondary loop cold trap was successfully cleaned by hydride decomposition and vacuum

  20. Influence of the mode of deformation on recrystallisation behaviour of titanium through experiments, mean field theory and phase field model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athreya, C. N.; Mukilventhan, A.; Suwas, Satyam; Vedantam, Srikanth; Subramanya Sarma, V.

    2018-04-01

    The influence of the mode of deformation on recrystallisation behaviour of Ti was studied by experiments and modelling. Ti samples were deformed through torsion and rolling to the same equivalent strain of 0.5. The deformed samples were annealed at different temperatures for different time durations and the recrystallisation kinetics were compared. Recrystallisation is found to be faster in the rolled samples compared to the torsion deformed samples. This is attributed to the differences in stored energy and number of nuclei per unit area in the two modes of deformation. Considering decay in stored energy during recrystallisation, the grain boundary mobility was estimated through a mean field model. The activation energy for recrystallisation obtained from experiments matched with the activation energy for grain boundary migration obtained from mobility calculation. A multi-phase field model (with mobility estimated from the mean field model as a constitutive input) was used to simulate the kinetics, microstructure and texture evolution. The recrystallisation kinetics and grain size distributions obtained from experiments matched reasonably well with the phase field simulations. The recrystallisation texture predicted through phase field simulations compares well with experiments though few additional texture components are present in simulations. This is attributed to the anisotropy in grain boundary mobility, which is not accounted for in the present study.

  1. Reference values for electrooculography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrientos Castanno, Alberto; Herrera Mora, Maritza; Garcia Baez, Obel

    2012-01-01

    Obtain electrooculographic reference values based on the patterns set by the Standardization Committee of the International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision (ISCEV). the lowest amplitude values of the potential ranged between 388 and 882 μv in the dark phase. The light peak was obtained between 9 and 10 minutes, and during this phase the potential reached an amplitude ranging between 808 and 1 963 μv. This amplitude variability may be related to the fact that the test was conducted without pupillary mydriasis. The reference value obtained for Arden index was 1,55 to 2,87

  2. Establishment of detailed reference values for luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, estradiol, and progesterone during different phases of the menstrual cycle on the Abbott ARCHITECT® analyzer

    OpenAIRE

    Stricker, Reto; Eberhart, Raphael; Chevailler, Marie-Christine; Quinn, Frank A.; Bischof, Paul; Stricker, René

    2017-01-01

    During a normal menstrual cycle, serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol, and progesterone can vary widely between cycles for the same woman, as well as between different woman. Reliable reference values based on the local population are important for correct interpretation of laboratory results. The purpose of our study was to determine detailed reference values for these hormones throughout the menstrual cycle using the Abbott ARCHITECT system...

  3. Lightweight Design of an HTS Coil for the VASIMR Experiment, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Phase II SBIR contract Tai-Yang Research Company of Tennessee proposes to design, fabricate, and test an ultra-lightweight High Temperature Superconducting...

  4. Out-reach in-space technology experiments program: Control of flexible robot manipulators in zero gravity, experiment definition phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Warren F.

    1989-01-01

    The results obtained show that it is possible to control light-weight robots with flexible links in a manner that produces good response time and does not induce unacceptable link vibrations. However, deflections induced by gravity cause large static position errors with such a control system. For this reason, it is not possible to use this control system for controlling motion in the direction of gravity. The control system does, on the other hand, have potential for use in space. However, in-space experiments will be needed to verify its applicability to robots moving in three dimensions.

  5. Liquid crystalline phase behavior of protein fibers in water: experiments versus theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jin-Mi; Mezzenga, Raffaele

    2010-01-05

    We have developed a new method allowing the study of the thermodynamic phase behavior of mesoscopic colloidal systems consisting of amyloid protein fibers in water, obtained by heat denaturation and aggregation of beta-lactoglobulin, a dairy protein. The fibers have a cross section of about 5.2 nm and two groups of polydisperse contour lengths: (i) long fibers of 1-20 microm, showing semiflexible behavior, and (ii) short rods of 100-200 nm long, obtained by cutting the long fibers via high-pressure homogenization. At pH 2 without salt, these fibers are highly charged and stable in water. We have studied the isotropic-nematic phase transition for both systems and compared our results with the theoretical values predicted by Onsager's theory. The experimentally measured isotropic-nematic phase transition was found to occur at 0.4% and at 3% for the long and short fibers, respectively. For both systems, this phase transition occurs at concentrations more than 1 order of magnitude lower than what is expected based on Onsager's theory. Moreover, at low enough pH, no intermediate biphasic region was observed between the isotropic phase and the nematic phase. The phase diagrams of both systems (pH vs concentration) showed similar, yet complex and rich, phase behavior. We discuss the possible physical fundamentals ruling the phase diagram as well as the discrepancy we observe for the isotropic-nematic phase transition between our experimental results and the predicted theoretical results. Our work highlights that systems formed by water-amyloid protein fibers are way too complex to be understood based solely on Onsager's theories. Experimental results are revisited in terms of the Flory's theory (1956) for suspensions of rods, which allows accounting for rod-solvent hydrophobic interactions. This theoretical approach allows explaining, on a semiquantitative basis, most of the discrepancies observed between the experimental results and Onsager's predictions. The sources of

  6. Validation of Friction Models in MARS-MultiD Module with Two-Phase Cross Flow Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Chi-Jin; Yang, Jin-Hwa; Cho, Hyoung-Kyu; Park, Goon-Cher; Euh, Dong-Jin

    2015-01-01

    In the downcomer of Advanced Power Reactor 1400 (APR1400) which has direct vessel injection (DVI) lines as an emergency core cooling system, multidimensional two-phase flow may occur due to the Loss-of-Coolant-Accident (LOCA). The accurate prediction about that is high relevance to evaluation of the integrity of the reactor core. For this reason, Yang performed an experiment that was to investigate the two-dimensional film flow which simulated the two-phase cross flow in the upper downcomer, and obtained the local liquid film velocity and thickness data. From these data, it could be possible to validate the multidimensional modules of system analysis codes. In this study, MARS-MultiD was used to simulate the Yang's experiment, and obtained the local variables. Then, the friction models used in MARS-MultiD were validated by comparing the two-phase flow experimental results with the calculated local variables. In this study, the two-phase cross flow experiment was modeled by the MARS-MultiD. Compared with the experimental results, the calculated results by the code properly presented mass conservation which could be known from the relation between the liquid film velocity and thickness at the same flow rate. The magnitude and direction of the liquid film, however, did not follow well with experimental results. According to the results of Case-2, wall friction should be increased, and interfacial friction should be decreased in MARS-MultiD. These results show that it is needed to modify the friction models in the MARS-MultiD to simulate the two-phase cross flow

  7. Ultrahigh strength martensite-austenite dual-phase steels with ultrafine structure: The response to indentation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, R.D.K., E-mail: dmisra@louisiana.edu [Laboratory for Excellence in Advanced Steel Research, Center for Structural and Functional Materials, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, P.O. Box 44130, Lafayette, LA 70504 (United States); Venkatsurya, P. [Laboratory for Excellence in Advanced Steel Research, Center for Structural and Functional Materials, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, P.O. Box 44130, Lafayette, LA 70504 (United States); Wu, K.M. [International Research Institute for Steel Technolgy, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); Karjalainen, L.P. [Centre for Advanced Steels Research, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4200, 90014 Oulu (Finland)

    2013-01-10

    In medium to high carbon steels, characterized by martensite-austenite microstructure processed by quenching and partitioning process, martensite potentially provides high strength, while austenite provides work hardening [Fu, Wu, and Misra, DOI: 10.1179/1743284712/068]. Given the significant interest in these steels in the steel community, the paper reports for the first time the nanoscale deformation experiments and accompanying microstructural evolution to obtain micromechanical insights into the deformation behavior of ultrahigh strength-high ductility dual-phase steels with significant retained austenite fraction of {approx}0.35. During deformation experiments with nanoindenter, dislocations were distributed on several slip systems, whereas strain-induced twinned martensite and twinning were the deformation mechanisms in carbon-enriched and thermally stabilized retained austenite. Furthermore, ultrafine dual-phase steels exhibited high strain rate sensitivity.

  8. Ultrahigh strength martensite–austenite dual-phase steels with ultrafine structure: The response to indentation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, R.D.K.; Venkatsurya, P.; Wu, K.M.; Karjalainen, L.P.

    2013-01-01

    In medium to high carbon steels, characterized by martensite–austenite microstructure processed by quenching and partitioning process, martensite potentially provides high strength, while austenite provides work hardening [Fu, Wu, and Misra, DOI: 10.1179/1743284712/068]. Given the significant interest in these steels in the steel community, the paper reports for the first time the nanoscale deformation experiments and accompanying microstructural evolution to obtain micromechanical insights into the deformation behavior of ultrahigh strength-high ductility dual-phase steels with significant retained austenite fraction of ∼0.35. During deformation experiments with nanoindenter, dislocations were distributed on several slip systems, whereas strain-induced twinned martensite and twinning were the deformation mechanisms in carbon-enriched and thermally stabilized retained austenite. Furthermore, ultrafine dual-phase steels exhibited high strain rate sensitivity.

  9. Assessment of the MARS Code Using the Two-Phase Natural Circulation Experiments at a Core Catcher Test Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hun Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A core catcher has been developed to maintain the integrity of nuclear reactor containment from molten corium during a severe accident. It uses a two-phase natural circulation for cooling molten corium. Flow in a typical core catcher is unique because (i it has an inclined cooling channel with downwards-facing heating surface, of which flow processes are not fully exploited, (ii it is usually exposed to a low-pressure condition, where phase change causes dramatic changes in the flow, and (iii the effects of a multidimensional flow are very large in the upper part of the core catcher. These features make computational analysis more difficult. In this study, the MARS code is assessed using the two-phase natural circulation experiments that had been conducted at the CE-PECS facility to verify the cooling performance of a core catcher. The code is a system-scale thermal-hydraulic (TH code and has a multidimensional TH component. The facility was modeled by using both one- and three-dimensional components. Six experiments at the facility were selected to investigate the parametric effects of heat flux, pressure, and form loss. The results show that MARS can predict the two-phase flow at the facility reasonably well. However, some limitations are obviously revealed.

  10. Manifestations of geometric phases in a proton electric-dipole-moment experiment in an all-electric storage ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silenko, Alexander J.

    2017-12-01

    We consider a proton electric-dipole-moment experiment in an all-electric storage ring when the spin is frozen and local longitudinal and vertical electric fields alternate. In this experiment, the geometric (Berry) phases are very important. Due to the these phases, the spin rotates about the radial axis. The corresponding systematic error is rather important while it can be canceled with clockwise and counterclockwise beams. The geometric phases also lead to the spin rotation about the radial axis. This effect can be canceled with clockwise and counterclockwise beams as well. The sign of the azimuthal component of the angular velocity of the spin precession depends on the starting point where the spin orientation is perfect. The radial component of this quantity keeps its value and sign for each starting point. When the longitudinal and vertical electric fields are joined in the same sections without any alternation, the systematic error due to the geometric phases does not appear but another systematic effect of the spin rotation about the azimuthal axis takes place. It has opposite signs for clockwise and counterclockwise beams.

  11. Gas-phase fragmentation of peptides to increase the spatial resolution of the Hydrogen Exchange Mass Spectrometry experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Foged; Rand, Kasper Dyrberg

    2016-01-01

    are produced after precursor ion selection and thus do not add complexity to the LC-MS analysis. The key to obtaining optimal spatial resolution in a hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry (HX-MS) experiment is the fragmentation efficiency. This chapter discusses common fragmentation techniques like collision....../D scrambling, thus making them suitable for HX applications. By combining the classic bottom-up HX-MS workflow with gas-phase fragmentation by ETD, detailed information on protein HX can be obtained....

  12. Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the deceleration phase of spherical implosion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smalyuk, V.A.; Delettrez, J.A.; Goncharov, V.N.; Marshall, F.J.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Regan, S.P.; Sangster, T.C.; Town, R.P.J.; Yaakobi, B.

    2002-01-01

    The temporal evolution of inner-shell modulations, unstable during the deceleration phase of a laser-driven spherical implosion, has been measured through K-edge imaging [B. Yaakobi et al., Phys. Plasmas 7, 3727 (2000)] of shells with titanium-doped layers. The main study was based on the implosions of 1 mm diam, 20 μm thick shells filled with either 18 atm or 4 atm of D 3 He gas driven with 23 kJ, 1 ns square laser pulses on OMEGA [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. These targets have similar modulation levels at the beginning of the deceleration phase due to similar modulation growths in the acceleration phase, but different modulation growths throughout the deceleration phase due to different fill pressures (convergence ratios). At peak compression, the measured inner surface, areal-density nonuniformity σ rms levels were 23±5 % for more-stable 18 atm fill targets and 53±11 % for less-stable 4 atm fill targets. The inner-surface modulations grow throughout the deceleration phase due to Rayleigh-Taylor instability and Bell-Plesset convergence effects. The nonuniformity at peak compression is sensitive to the initial perturbation level as measured in implosions with different laser-smoothing conditions

  13. Intercomparison of model simulations of mixed-phase clouds observed during the ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. Part I: Single layer cloud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Stephen A.; McCoy, Renata B.; Morrison, Hugh; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Avramov, Alexander; de Boer, Gijs; Chen, Mingxuan; Cole, Jason N.S.; Del Genio, Anthony D.; Falk, Michael; Foster, Michael J.; Fridlind, Ann; Golaz, Jean-Christophe; Hashino, Tempei; Harrington, Jerry Y.; Hoose, Corinna; Khairoutdinov, Marat F.; Larson, Vincent E.; Liu, Xiaohong; Luo, Yali; McFarquhar, Greg M.; Menon, Surabi; Neggers, Roel A. J.; Park, Sungsu; Poellot, Michael R.; Schmidt, Jerome M.; Sednev, Igor; Shipway, Ben J.; Shupe, Matthew D.; Spangenberg, Douglas A.; Sud, Yogesh C.; Turner, David D.; Veron, Dana E.; von Salzen, Knut; Walker, Gregory K.; Wang, Zhien; Wolf, Audrey B.; Xie, Shaocheng; Xu, Kuan-Man; Yang, Fanglin; Zhang, Gong

    2009-02-02

    Results are presented from an intercomparison of single-column and cloud-resolving model simulations of a cold-air outbreak mixed-phase stratocumulus cloud observed during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program's Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. The observed cloud occurred in a well-mixed boundary layer with a cloud top temperature of -15 C. The observed average liquid water path of around 160 g m{sup -2} was about two-thirds of the adiabatic value and much greater than the average mass of ice crystal precipitation which when integrated from the surface to cloud top was around 15 g m{sup -2}. The simulations were performed by seventeen single-column models (SCMs) and nine cloud-resolving models (CRMs). While the simulated ice water path is generally consistent with the observed values, the median SCM and CRM liquid water path is a factor of three smaller than observed. Results from a sensitivity study in which models removed ice microphysics suggest that in many models the interaction between liquid and ice-phase microphysics is responsible for the large model underestimate of liquid water path. Despite this general underestimate, the simulated liquid and ice water paths of several models are consistent with the observed values. Furthermore, there is evidence that models with more sophisticated microphysics simulate liquid and ice water paths that are in better agreement with the observed values, although considerable scatter is also present. Although no single factor guarantees a good simulation, these results emphasize the need for improvement in the model representation of mixed-phase microphysics.

  14. Matching time and spatial scales of rapid solidification: dynamic TEM experiments coupled to CALPHAD-informed phase-field simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Aurelien; Roehling, John D.; Turchi, Patrice E. A.; Fattebert, Jean-Luc; McKeown, Joseph T.

    2018-01-01

    A combination of dynamic transmission electron microscopy (DTEM) experiments and CALPHAD-informed phase-field simulations was used to study rapid solidification in Cu-Ni thin-film alloys. Experiments—conducted in the DTEM—consisted of in situ laser melting and determination of the solidification kinetics by monitoring the solid-liquid interface and the overall microstructure evolution (time-resolved measurements) during the solidification process. Modelling of the Cu-Ni alloy microstructure evolution was based on a phase-field model that included realistic Gibbs energies and diffusion coefficients from the CALPHAD framework (thermodynamic and mobility databases). DTEM and post mortem experiments highlighted the formation of microsegregation-free columnar grains with interface velocities varying from ˜0.1 to ˜0.6 m s-1. After an ‘incubation’ time, the velocity of the planar solid-liquid interface accelerated until solidification was complete. In addition, a decrease of the temperature gradient induced a decrease in the interface velocity. The modelling strategy permitted the simulation (in 1D and 2D) of the solidification process from the initially diffusion-controlled to the nearly partitionless regimes. Finally, results of DTEM experiments and phase-field simulations (grain morphology, solute distribution, and solid-liquid interface velocity) were consistent at similar time (μs) and spatial scales (μm).

  15. Measurement of Chromatic Dispersion using the Baseband Radio-Frequency Response of a Phase-Modulated Analog Optical Link Employing a Reference Fiber

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McKinney, Jason D; Diehl, John

    2007-01-01

    In this work we demonstrate a new technique for measuring the chromatic dispersion of an optical fiber using the baseband RF response of a phase-modulated analog optical link in concert with a well...

  16. The Two-Phase Flow Separator Experiment Breadboard Model: Reduced Gravity Aircraft Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rame, E; Sharp, L. M.; Chahine, G.; Kamotani, Y.; Gotti, D.; Owens, J.; Gilkey, K.; Pham, N.

    2015-01-01

    Life support systems in space depend on the ability to effectively separate gas from liquid. Passive cyclonic phase separators use the centripetal acceleration of a rotating gas-liquid mixture to carry out phase separation. The gas migrates to the center, while gas-free liquid may be withdrawn from one of the end plates. We have designed, constructed and tested a breadboard that accommodates the test sections of two independent principal investigators and satisfies their respective requirements, including flow rates, pressure and video diagnostics. The breadboard was flown in the NASA low-gravity airplane in order to test the system performance and design under reduced gravity conditions.

  17. Phase equilibria and thermodynamics of the Fe–Al–C system: Critical evaluation, experiment and thermodynamic optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phan, Anh Thu; Paek, Min-Kyu; Kang, Youn-Bae

    2014-01-01

    In order to provide an efficient tool to design alloy chemistry and processing conditions for high-strength, lightweight steel, an investigation of the Fe–Al–C ternary system was carried out by experimental phase diagram measurement and a CALPHAD thermodynamic analysis. Discrepancies between previously available experimental results and thermodynamic calculations were identified. The Fe–Al sub-binary system was re-optimized in order to obtain an accurate description of the liquid phase, while Gibbs energies of solid phases were mainly taken from a previous thermodynamic modeling. Phase equilibria among face-centered cubic (fcc)/body-centered cubic (bcc)/graphite/κ-carbide/liquid phases in the Fe–Al–C system in the temperature range from 1000 to 1400 °C were obtained by chemical equilibration followed by quenching, and subsequent composition analysis using electron probe microanalysis/inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy. By merging the revised Fe–Al binary description with existing Fe–C and Al–C binary descriptions, a complete thermodynamic description of the Fe–Al–C system was obtained in the present study. The modified quasi-chemical model in the pair approximation was used to model the liquid phase, while solid solutions were modeled using compound energy formalism. A2/B2 order/disorder transition in the bcc phase was taken into account. Compared with previously known experiments/thermodynamic modeling, a better agreement was obtained in the present study, regarding the stable region of fcc and the solidification thermal peak of a ternary alloy near the liquidus temperature. The obtained thermodynamic description also reproduced various types of experimental data in the Fe–Al–C system such as isothermal sections, vertical sections, liquidus projection, etc. The solidification of various steel grades was predicted and discussed

  18. Formation of residual NAPL in three-phase systems: Experiments and numerical simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstee, C.; Oostrom, M.

    2002-01-01

    The formation of residual, discontinuous nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) in the vadose zone is a process that is not well understood. The simulators have conveniently implemented the Leverett concept (Leverett and Lewis, 1941) which states that in a water-wet porous media, when fluid wettabilities

  19. Phase-Space Tomography of Giant Pulses in Storage Ring FEL Theory and Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Chalut, K

    2005-01-01

    The use of giant pulses in storage ring FEL provides for high peak power at the fundamental wavelength and for effective generating of high VUV harmonics. This process is accompanied by a complex nonlinear dynamics of electron beam, which cannot be described by simple models. In this paper we compare the results of numerical simulations, performed by self-consistent #uvfel code, with experimental observations of electron beam evolution in the longitudinal phase space. The evolution of the electron beam distribution was obtained from the images recorded by dual-sweep streak-camera. The giant pulse process occurs on a short fast time scale compared with synchrotron oscillation period, which make standard methods of tomography inapplicable. We had developed a novel method of reconstruction, an SVD-Based Phase-Space Tomography, which allows to reconstruct phase space distribution from as few as two e-bunch profiles separated by about 3 degrees of rotation in the phase space. This technique played critical role in...

  20. Flow generated by an aerated rushton impeller: two-phase PIV experiments and numerical simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deen, N.G.; Solberg, Tron; Hjertager, H.

    2002-01-01

    A two-camera PIV technique was used to obtain angle resolved velocity and turbulence data of the flow in a lab-scale stirred tank, equipped with a Rushton turbine. Two cases were investigated: a single-phase flow and a gas-liquid flow. In the former case, the classical radial jet flow pattern

  1. Novel Motion Sensorless Control of Single Phase Brushless D.C. PM Motor Drive, with experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lepure, Liviu Ioan; Boldea, Ion; Andreescu, Gheorghe Daniel

    2010-01-01

    A motion sensorless control for single phase permanent magnet brushless d.c. (PM-BLDC) motor drives, based on flux integration and prior knowledge of the PM flux/position characteristic is proposed here and an adequate correction algorithm is adopted, in order to increase the robustness to noise...

  2. Mutual Phase Locking of Fluxons in Stacked Long Josephson Junctions: Simulations and Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carapella, Giovanni; Costabile, Giovanni; Filatrella, Giovanni

    1997-01-01

    We report on the experimental observation of reciprocal phase-locking in stacked $Nb-AlO_x-Nb$ Josephson junctions having overlap geometry. When the junctions are independently biased in zero external magnetic field, they each exhibit several Zero Field Steps. Biasing both the junctions on the Ze...

  3. Experiment and numerical simulation of bubbly two-phase flow across horizontal and inclined rod bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serizawa, A.; Huda, K.; Yamada, Y.; Kataoka, I.

    1997-01-01

    Experimental and numerical analyses were carried out on vertically upward air-water bubbly two-phase flow behavior in both horizontal and inclined rod bundles with either in-line or staggered array. The inclination angle of the rod bundle varied from 0 to 60 with respect to the horizontal. The measured phase distribution indicated non-uniform characteristics, particularly in the direction of the rod axis when the rods were inclined. The mechanisms for this non-uniform phase distribution is supposed to be due to: (1) Bubble segregation phenomenon which depends on the bubble size and shape: (2) bubble entrainment by the large scale secondary flow induced by the pressure gradient in the horizontal direction which crosses the rod bundle; (3) effects of bubble entrapment by vortices generated in the wake behind the rods which travel upward along the rod axis; and (4) effect of bubble entrainment by local flows sliding up along the front surface of the rods. The liquid velocity and turbulence distributions were also measured and discussed. In these speculations, the mechanisms for bubble bouncing at the curved rod surface and turbulence production induced by a bubble were discussed, based on visual observations. Finally, the bubble behaviors in vertically upward bubbly two-phase flow across horizontal rod bundle were analyzed based on a particle tracking method (one-way coupling). The predicted bubble trajectories clearly indicated the bubble entrapment by vortices in the wake region. (orig.)

  4. Search for solar axions with the X-ray telescope of the CAST experiment (phase II); Suche nach solaren Axionen mit dem Roentgenteleskop des CAST-Experiments (Phase II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordt, Annika

    2009-10-14

    The CAST (CERN Solar Axion Telescope) experiment is searching for solar axions by their conversion into photons inside a transverse magnetic field. So far, no solar axionsignal has been detected, but a new upper limit could be given (CAST Phase I). Since 2005, CAST entered in its second phase where it operates with a buffer gas ({sup 4}He) in the conversion region to extend the sensitivity of the experiment to higher axionmasses. For the first time it is possible to enter the theoretically favored axion massrange and to give an upper limit for this solar axion mass-range (>0.02 eV). This thesis is about the analysis of the X-ray telescope data Phase II with {sup 4}He inside the magnet. The result for the coupling constant of axions to photons is: g{sub {alpha}}{sub {gamma}}{sub {gamma}}<1.6-6.0 x 10{sup -10} GeV{sup -1} (95%C.L.) for m{sub a}=0.02-0.4 eV. (2) This result is better than any result that has been given before in this mass range for solar axions. (orig.)

  5. Study and Experiment on Non-Contact Voltage Sensor Suitable for Three-Phase Transmission Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiang; He, Wei; Xiao, Dongping; Li, Songnong; Zhou, Kongjun

    2015-12-30

    A voltage transformer, as voltage signal detection equipment, plays an important role in a power system. Presently, more and more electric power systems are adopting potential transformer and capacitance voltage transformers. Transformers are often large in volume and heavyweight, their insulation design is difficult, and an iron core or multi-grade capacitance voltage division structure is generally adopted. As a result, the detection accuracy of transformer is reduced, a huge phase difference exists between detection signal and voltage signal to be measured, and the detection signal cannot accurately and timely reflect the change of conductor voltage signal to be measured. By aiming at the current problems of electric transformation, based on electrostatic induction principle, this paper designed a non-contact voltage sensor and gained detection signal of the sensor through electrostatic coupling for the electric field generated by electric charges of the conductor to be measured. The insulation structure design of the sensor is simple and its volume is small; phase difference of sensor measurement is effectively reduced through optimization design of the electrode; and voltage division ratio and measurement accuracy are increased. The voltage sensor was tested on the experimental platform of simulating three-phase transmission line. According to the result, the designed non-contact voltage sensor can realize accurate and real-time measurement for the conductor voltage. It can be applied to online monitoring for the voltage of three-phase transmission line or three-phase distribution network line, which is in accordance with the development direction of the smart grid.

  6. A qualitative study examining the experience of primary care dentists in the detection and management of potentially malignant lesions. 1. Factors influencing detection and the decision to refer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocklehurst, P R; Baker, S R; Speight, P M

    2010-01-23

    Many oral squamous cell carcinomas present as late stage disease and so the detection of early and pre-malignancy is considered to be of paramount importance. The majority of research examining primary care dentists' experience of the detection and management of early disease has been undertaken using questionnaires, with the inherent bias this introduces. The aim of this study was to use qualitative methods to develop a richer account of practitioners' views about screening and what factors influence the decision to refer a patient. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with eighteen dentists in Sheffield, transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis. Ten codes were identified according to the aims of the study and organized into four overarching themes. Although many dentists were screening regularly, some did not appear to be adopting a rigorous and systematic approach. A number of participants also placed more reliance on 'classical' presentations rather than the more varied presentation of potentially malignant lesions and were more influenced by the clinical history of the lesion rather than risk factors. Overall, the present research suggests that for some dentists, more rigour is required when examining for early disease.

  7. Observation Platform for Dynamic Biomedical and Biotechnology Experiments using the ISS Light Microscopy Module, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed "Observation platform for dynamic biomedical and biotechnology experiments using the ISS Light Microscopy Module" consists of a platen sized to fit the...

  8. Designing cylindrical implosion experiments on NIF to study deceleration phase of Rayleigh-Taylor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazirani, N.; Kline, J. L.; Loomis, E.; Sauppe, J. P.; Palaniyappan, S.; Flippo, K.; Srinivasan, B.; Malka, E.; Bose, A.; Shvarts, D.

    2017-10-01

    The Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) hydrodynamic instability occurs when a lower density fluid pushes on a higher density fluid. This occurs in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions at each of the capsule interfaces during the initial acceleration and the deceleration as it stagnates. The RT instabilities mix capsule material into the fusion fuel degrading the Deuterium-Tritium reactivity and ultimately play a key role in limiting target performance. While significant effort has focused on understanding RT at the outer capsule surface, little work has gone into understanding the inner surface RT instability growth during the deceleration phase. Direct measurements of the RT instability are difficult to make at high convergence in a spherical implosion. Here we present the design of a cylindrical implosion system for the National Ignition Facility for studying deceleration phase RT. We will discuss the experimental design, the estimated instability growth, and our outstanding concerns.

  9. Instrumentation for two-phase flow measurements in code verification experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fincke, J.R.; Anderson, J.L.; Arave, A.E.; Deason, V.A.; Lassahn, G.D.; Goodrich, L.D.; Colson, J.B.; Fickas, E.T.

    1981-01-01

    The development of instrumentation and techniques for the measurement of mass flow rate in two-phase flows conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory during the past year is briefly described. Instruments discussed are the modular drag-disc turbine transducer, the gamma densitometers, the ultrasonic densitometer, Pitot tubes, and full-flow drag screens. Steady state air-water and transient steam-water data are presented

  10. Photothermal experiments on condensed phase samples of agricultural interest : optical and thermal characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Favier, J.P.

    1997-01-01


    A rapidly increasing number of photothermal (PT) techniques has had a considerable impact on agriculture and environmental sciences in the last decade. It was the purpose of the work described here to develop and apply new PT techniques in this specific field of research.

    Chapter I is a general introduction with an overview of PT techniques used in this research. Two different photoacoustic (PA) techniques used for optical characterization of a variety of condensed phase sa...

  11. Phase IIA and IIB experiments of JAERI/U.S.DOE collaborative program on fusion blanket neutronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyama, Yukio

    1989-12-01

    Phase IIA and IIB experiments on fusion blanket neutronics has been performed on a basis of JAERI/USDOE collaborative program. In the Phase II experimental series, a D-T neutron source and a test blanket were contained by a lithium-carbonate enclosure to adjust the incident neutron spectrum to the test blanket so as to simulate that of a fusion reactor. First two series of the Phase II, IIA and IIB, focused especially on influences of beryllium configurations for neutron multiplying zone to neutronic parameters. Measured parameters were tritium production rate using Li-glass and NE213 scintillators, and Li-metal foil and Lithium-oxide block with liquid scintillation technique; neutron spectrum using NE213 scintillator and proton recoil proportional counter; reaction rate using foil activation technique. These parameters were compared among six different beryllium configurations of the experimental system. Consistency between different techniques for each measured parameter was also tested among different experimental systems and confirmed to be within experimental errors. This report describes, in detail, experimental conditions, assemblies, equipments and neutron source in Part I. The part II compiles all information required for a calculational analysis of this experiment, e.g., dimensions of the target room, target assembly, experimental assembly, their material densities and numerical data of experimental results. This compilation provides benchmark data to test calculation models and computing code systems used for a nuclear design of a fusion reactor. (author)

  12. Immuno-histochemical localization of LH-RH during different phases of estrus cycle of rat, with reference to the preoptic and arcuate neurons, and the ependymal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, D V

    1976-10-06

    Immunohistochemical localization of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH), during different phases of the estrus cycle, in the preoptic, suprachiasmatic and arcuate nuclei, and in the OVLT of rats, with special emphasis on the ependymal cells, was studied by light, fluorescent and electron microscopy, by using rabbit anti serum to synthetic LH-RH. The LH-RH neurons in the above mentioned areas, were very active during late diestrus and early proestrus phases. Specialized ependymal cells bordering the 3rd ventricle also showed varied LH-RH positive reaction during different phases of the estrus cycle. Immunofluorescent studies showed cyclic variations in the LH-RH material in the CSF of the preoptic and infundibular recesses, as well as in the 3rd ventricle near OVLT, in that, it was maximum during late diestrus and early proestrus phases. Immediately after this, the LH-RH late proestrus was reached. We have also observed that during the proestrus phase, as the LH-RH material started declining in the CSF, it had started building up in the specialized ependyma. Estrus, metaestrus and early diestrus phases showed very weak immunofluorescent LH-RH material in the lumen of the infundibular recess and in the specialized ependyma. Our immuno-electron microscopic observations showed pleomorphic LH-RH granules in the specialized ependyma during late kiestrus and proestrus phases. All these observations lead us to believe that LH-RH is not synthesized in the ependymal cells,but is phagocytosed from the CSF of the 3rd ventricle by the specialized ependyma, which transports it to the ME portal system. In males, the fluorescent LH-RH material did not show any noticeable changes. With the present and previous work,it is concluded that the neurons in differentnuclei synthesize LH-RH and transport it to the ME portal system,primarily through the nerve fibers and secondarily by the ventricular route. It is also suggested that the ependymal transport of LH-RH to the ME

  13. Analysis of OECD/CSNI ISP-42 phase A PANDA experiment using coupled code R5G (RELAP5-GOTHIC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bencik, V.; Debrecin, N.; Grgic, D.; Bajs, T.

    2010-01-01

    In the paper, the results of the analysis of OECD/CSNI ISP-42 Phase A experiment at PANDA facility using stand-alone codes RELAP5/mod3.3 and GOTHIC 7.2b as well as coupled code R5G (RELAP5/mod3.3-GOTHIC 7.2b) are presented. PANDA is a large-scale thermal-hydraulic test facility installed at PSI (Paul Scherrer Institute) in Switzerland. The OECD/CSNI ISP-42 test consists of six sequential phases (Phase A through F). The present work deals with the post-test calculation of the Phase A, including the break of the main steam line and the Passive Containment Cooling (PCC) System Start-Up. The objective of the test is to investigate the start-up phenomenology of passive cooling system when steam is injected into cold vessel filled with air. The calculation was performed using stand-alone RELAP5/mod3.3 and GOTHIC 7.2b models, and then the same calculation was performed using coupled code with RELAP5 being responsible for reactor part of the model and GOTHIC being responsible for containment part of the model. The prediction capability, running time and modeling aspects were discussed for all three cases. (authors)

  14. Analysis of sodium-void experiments in ZPPR-3 modified Phase 3 core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, T.

    1978-08-01

    An analysis is presented of a series of sodium-void reactivity measurements performed in assembly 3 of Zero Power Plutonium Reactor (ZPPR-3), a mockup of the US Demoplant. In this series, large-zone sodium-void effects were studied in detail in the presence of many singularities, namely, control rods (CRs) and control rod positions (CRPs). The Karlsruhe data-and-method have been applied to an analysis of these experiments, and the results are presented. The work is aimed at complementing the sodium-void reactivity analysis based on the SNEAK experiments, where it was difficult to simulate a large plutonium-core of a prototype fast breeder reactor.

  15. Numerical Predictions of Wind Turbine Power and Aerodynamic Loads for the NREL Phase II and IV Combined Experiment Rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Earl P. N.; Johnson, Wayne; vanDam, C. P.; Chao, David D.; Cortes, Regina; Yee, Karen

    1999-01-01

    Accurate, reliable and robust numerical predictions of wind turbine rotor power remain a challenge to the wind energy industry. The literature reports various methods that compare predictions to experiments. The methods vary from Blade Element Momentum Theory (BEM), Vortex Lattice (VL), to variants of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RaNS). The BEM and VL methods consistently show discrepancies in predicting rotor power at higher wind speeds mainly due to inadequacies with inboard stall and stall delay models. The RaNS methodologies show promise in predicting blade stall. However, inaccurate rotor vortex wake convection, boundary layer turbulence modeling and grid resolution has limited their accuracy. In addition, the inherently unsteady stalled flow conditions become computationally expensive for even the best endowed research labs. Although numerical power predictions have been compared to experiment. The availability of good wind turbine data sufficient for code validation experimental data that has been extracted from the IEA Annex XIV download site for the NREL Combined Experiment phase II and phase IV rotor. In addition, the comparisons will show data that has been further reduced into steady wind and zero yaw conditions suitable for comparisons to "steady wind" rotor power predictions. In summary, the paper will present and discuss the capabilities and limitations of the three numerical methods and make available a database of experimental data suitable to help other numerical methods practitioners validate their own work.

  16. Violent flows in aqueous foams III: physical multi-phase model comparison with aqueous foam shock tube experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redford, J. A.; Ghidaglia, J.-M.; Faure, S.

    2018-06-01

    Mitigation of blast waves in aqueous foams is a problem that has a strong dependence on multi-phase effects. Here, a simplified model is developed from the previous articles treating violent flows (D'Alesio et al. in Eur J Mech B Fluids 54:105-124, 2015; Faure and Ghidaglia in Eur J Mech B Fluids 30:341-359, 2011) to capture the essential phenomena. The key is to have two fluids with separate velocities to represent the liquid and gas phases. This allows for the interaction between the two phases, which may include terms for drag, heat transfer, mass transfer due to phase change, added mass effects, to be included explicitly in the model. A good test for the proposed model is provided by two experimental data sets that use a specially designed shock tube. The first experiment has a test section filled with spray droplets, and the second has a range of aqueous foams in the test section. A substantial attenuation of the shock wave is seen in both cases, but a large difference is observed in the sound speeds. The droplets cause no observable change from the air sound speed, while the foams have a reduced sound speed of approximately 50-75 m/s . In the model given here, an added mass term is introduced in the governing equations to capture the low sound speed. The match between simulation and experiment is found to be satisfactory for both droplets and the foam. This is especially good when considering the complexity of the physics and the effects that are unaccounted for, such as three-dimensionality and droplet atomisation. The resulting statistics illuminate the processes occurring in such flows.

  17. Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment Phase VI: Wind Tunnel Test Configurations and Available Data Campaigns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hand, M. M.; Simms, D. A.; Fingersh, L. J.; Jager, D. W.; Cotrell, J. R.; Schreck, S.; Larwood, S. M.

    2001-12-01

    The primary objective of the insteady aerodynamics experiment was to provide information needed to quantify the full-scale, three-dimensional aerodynamic behavior of horizontal-axis wind turbines. This report is intended to familiarize the user with the entire scope of the wind tunnel test and to support the use of the resulting data.

  18. The Influence of Trust in Principals' Mentoring Experiences across Different Career Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakioglu, Aysen; Hacifazlioglu, Ozge; Ozcan, Kenan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the perceptions of primary school principals about the influence of "trust" in their mentoring experiences. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used in the study. The Primary School Principals' Mentoring Questionnaire previously developed by the researchers was applied to 1462 primary…

  19. Early Phases of Business Model Innovation: An Ideation Experience Workshop in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoveskog, M.; Halila, F.; Danilovic, M.

    2015-01-01

    As the mantra "innovate your business model or die" increases in popularity among practitioners and academics, so does the need for novel and feasible business models. In this article, we describe an ideation experience workshop, conducted in an undergraduate business course, in which students, guided by their lecturers and two industry…

  20. Utility of bolus dynamic CT for the detection of hypervascular malignant hepatic tumors. Mainly referring to the comparison with delayed phase contrast-enhanced CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Hiromichi; Abe, Kimihiko; Freeny, P.C.

    1996-01-01

    In order to analyze the usefulness of dynamic contrast-enhanced CT, 84 patients who had hepatocellular carcinoma or suspected hypervascular metastases were studied with conventional incremental dynamic CT (CID-CT) or double helical CT (DH-CT). Delayed phase contrast-enhanced CT studies were consecutively performed in all patients. Thirty-six of 84 patients had malignant hepatic neoplasms; six had hepatocellular carcinoma and 30 had metastatic tumors. At first, the detectability of hepatic lesions was evaluated with bolus dynamic CT and delayed phase CT. Dynamic CT has detected more lesions than delayed CT. Some hepatic lesions described as isodensity were missed on CID-CT. Therefore, delayed phase CT cannot be eliminated when CID-CT is performed. Secondly, hepatic lesion detectability with CID-CT was compared with that of DH-CT. DH-CT did not miss the hepatic lesions picked up by delayed phase CT and was expected to provide excellent detectability of hypervascular hepatic neoplasms. In addition, first helical CT showed most hepatic lesions as areas of obvious hyperdensity, while CID-CT did not show their correct vascularities. So-called hypervascular hepatic tumors, however, were not always hypervascular and were demonstrated as areas of iso-hypodensity even on initial helical scanning. Second helical CT was useful to detect these so-called hypervascular, but actually hypovascular lesions. In conclusion, dynamic CT was helpful in detecting hypervascular hepatic malignant neoplasms, and DH-CT was more accurate than-CID-CT for the detection of hepatic lesions and the evaluation of vascular lesion. (author)

  1. Co-current descending two-phase flows in inclined packed beds : experiments versus simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atta, A.; Nigam, K.D.P.; Roy, S. [Inst. of Technology, New Delhi (India). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Schubert, M.; Larachi, F. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2010-10-15

    This paper presented a numerical simulation for an inclined packed bed configuration for two-phase co-current downward flow. A two-phase Eulerian computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was used to predict the hydrodynamic behaviour. Two different modelling strategies were compared, notably a straight tube with an artificially inclined gravity, and an inclined geometry with straight gravity. The effect of inclination angle of a packed bed on its gas-liquid flow segregation and liquid saturation spatial distribution was measured for varying inclinations and fluid velocities. The CFD model was adapted from a trickle-bed vertical configuration and based on the porous media concept. The predicted pressure drops for the inclined gravity were found to be insensitive to inclination. Therefore, simulations to study the parameters that influence the reduced liquid saturation were performed only with the inclined geometry case. Experimental data obtained using electrical capacitance tomography was used to validate the model predictions. The study showed that a trickle bed CFD model for vertically straight reactors can be effectively implemented in inclined reactor geometries. However, additional research is needed to formulate appropriate drag force closures which should be incorporated in the CFD model for improved quantitative estimation of inclined bed hydrodynamics. 22 refs., 10 figs.

  2. Effect of fO2 on phase relationship in basaltic andesites during magmatic differentiation: Control of fO2 and sulphur speciation in piston cylinder experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matjuschkin, Vladimir; Tattitch, Brian; Blundy, Jonathan D.; Skora, Susanne

    2014-05-01

    onset of orthopyroxene precipitation at much lower temperatures. The change in temperature from 1150 to 950° C resulted in a drop in S content from ~2500ppm to ~1000ppm in the melt for oxidized experiments, whereas S slightly increased from ~3000 to ~3500ppm in the reduced experiments. Quantitative control over fO2 will allow for more precise determination of phase relations and control of sulphur specification, offering a possibility of detailed reconstruction of metals enrichment in silicate melts. Cited references: [1] Botcharnikov et al. (2011) Nature 4:217-230, [2] Foley (2011) J Petrol 52:1363-1391, [3] Frey et al. (1984) CMP 88:133-149, [4] Jenner et al. (2010) J Petrol 51:2445-2464, [5] Jugo et al. (2010) GCA 74:5926-5938, [6] Rohrbach et al. (2007) Nature 449:456-458, [7] Taylor and Green (1988) Nature 332:349-352

  3. Evaluation of gas-phase technetium decontamination and safety related experiments during FY 1994. A report of work in progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, D.W.; Munday, E.B.

    1995-05-01

    Laboratory activities for FY94 included: evaluation of decontamination of Tc by gas-phase techniques, evaluation of diluted ClF{sub 3} for removing U deposits, evaluation of potential hazard of wet air inlekage into a vessel containing ClF{sub 3}, planning and preparation for experiments to assess hazard of rapid reaction of ClF{sub 3} and hydrated UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} or powdered Al, and preliminary evaluation of compatibility of Tenic valve seat material.

  4. Feedforward and feedback control of locked mode phase and rotation in DIII-D with application to modulated ECCD experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, W.; La Haye, R. J.; Lanctot, M. J.; Olofsson, K. E. J.; Strait, E. J.; Sweeney, R.; Volpe, F. A.; The DIII-D Team

    2018-03-01

    The toroidal phase and rotation of otherwise locked magnetic islands of toroidal mode number n  =  1 are controlled in the DIII-D tokamak by means of applied magnetic perturbations of n  =  1. Pre-emptive perturbations were applied in feedforward to ‘catch’ the mode as it slowed down and entrain it to the rotating field before complete locking, thus avoiding the associated major confinement degradation. Additionally, for the first time, the phase of the perturbation was optimized in real-time, in feedback with magnetic measurements, in order for the mode’s phase to closely match a prescribed phase, as a function of time. Experimental results confirm the capability to hold the mode in a given fixed-phase or to rotate it at up to 20 Hz with good uniformity. The control-coil currents utilized in the experiments agree with the requirements estimated by an electromechanical model. Moreover, controlled rotation at 20 Hz was combined with electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) modulated at the same frequency. This is simpler than regulating the ECCD modulation in feedback with spontaneous mode rotation, and enables repetitive, reproducible ECCD deposition at or near the island O-point, X-point and locations in between, for careful studies of how this affects the island stability. Current drive was found to be radially misaligned relative to the island, and resulting growth and shrinkage of islands matched expectations of the modified Rutherford equation for some discharges presented here. Finally, simulations predict the as designed ITER 3D coils can entrain a small island at sub-10 Hz frequencies.

  5. Optimized slice-selective 1H NMR experiments combined with highly accurate quantitative 13C NMR using an internal reference method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jézéquel, Tangi; Silvestre, Virginie; Dinis, Katy; Giraudeau, Patrick; Akoka, Serge

    2018-04-01

    Isotope ratio monitoring by 13C NMR spectrometry (irm-13C NMR) provides the complete 13C intramolecular position-specific composition at natural abundance. It represents a powerful tool to track the (bio)chemical pathway which has led to the synthesis of targeted molecules, since it allows Position-specific Isotope Analysis (PSIA). Due to the very small composition range (which represents the range of variation of the isotopic composition of a given nuclei) of 13C natural abundance values (50‰), irm-13C NMR requires a 1‰ accuracy and thus highly quantitative analysis by 13C NMR. Until now, the conventional strategy to determine the position-specific abundance xi relies on the combination of irm-MS (isotopic ratio monitoring Mass Spectrometry) and 13C quantitative NMR. However this approach presents a serious drawback since it relies on two different techniques and requires to measure separately the signal of all the carbons of the analyzed compound, which is not always possible. To circumvent this constraint, we recently proposed a new methodology to perform 13C isotopic analysis using an internal reference method and relying on NMR only. The method combines a highly quantitative 1H NMR pulse sequence (named DWET) with a 13C isotopic NMR measurement. However, the recently published DWET sequence is unsuited for samples with short T1, which forms a serious limitation for irm-13C NMR experiments where a relaxing agent is added. In this context, we suggest two variants of the DWET called Multi-WET and Profiled-WET, developed and optimized to reach the same accuracy of 1‰ with a better immunity towards T1 variations. Their performance is evaluated on the determination of the 13C isotopic profile of vanillin. Both pulse sequences show a 1‰ accuracy with an increased robustness to pulse miscalibrations compared to the initial DWET method. This constitutes a major advance in the context of irm-13C NMR since it is now possible to perform isotopic analysis with high

  6. FEBEX: Full-Scale engineered barriers experiment in crystalline host-rock: preoperational phase. Synthesized report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The FEBEX project is being cofinanced by the EC under contract F 14WCT950006. In addition to the EC, seven partners from three countries of the EU. (France, Germany, and Spain) as well as one from EFTA (Switzerland) are participating in the project. ENRESA is the coordinating partner with NAGRA assisting in coordinating some aspects. The project consists of two large-scale tests and a series of complimentary laboratory tests. The work is being executed by the following organizations: CIEMAT, AITEMIN, UP-DIT (CIMNE), ULC, CSIC-Zaidin, and UPM (SPAIN) ANDRA and G.3S (FRANCE) GRS (GERMANY). This report includes a synthesized description of the experiment from its conception through the installation of the two large-scale tests (from the middle of 1994 to the beginning of 1997, preoperation stage). The experiment is described in detail in a series of specific reports. (Author)

  7. A Level 1 Tracking Trigger for the CMS Experiment at the LHC Phase 2 Luminosity Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Pozzobon, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    The second decade of Large Hadron Collider operations, from about 2020 onwards, envisages a remarkable increase in collider instantaneous luminosity, one order of magnitude above the project one. This luminosity increase presents several challenges to the LHC experiments. The present tracker of the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment must be replaced with a system providing excellent tracking quality at higher luminosities, as well as Tracking Trigger inputs to the existing “Level 0” CMS trigger system at the full 40 MHz bunch-crossing rate. The minimal requirements for a Tracking Trigger would be the capability to confirm the presence of high-pT tracks associated with Calorimeter and/or Muon Level 0 triggers. The ability to provide eective isolation criteria may also be required, and would in any case substantially improve the Trigger performance. Maintaining the data rates generated by Tracking Trigger inputs within a manageable bandwidth requires sensor modules able to locally sparsify the data. Measuring...

  8. Aging of nuclear station diesel generators: Evaluation of operating and expert experience: Phase 1, Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoopingarner, K.R.; Vause, J.W.; Dingee, D.A.; Nesbitt, J.F.

    1987-08-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory evaluated operational and expert experience pertaining to the aging degradation of diesel generators in nuclear service. The research, sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), identified and characterized the contribution of aging to emergency diesel generator failures. This report, Volume I, reviews diesel-generator experience to identify the systems and components most subject to aging degradation and isolates the major causes of failure that may affect future operational readiness. Evaluations show that as plants age, the percent of aging-related failures increases and failure modes change. A compilation is presented of recommended corrective actions for the failures identified. This study also includes a review of current, relevant industry programs, research, and standards. Volume II reports the results of an industry-wide workshop held on May 28 and 29, 1986 to discuss the technical issues associated with aging of nuclear service emergency diesel generators

  9. Operational Experience with Radioactive Source Calibration of the CMS Hadron Endcap Calorimeter Wedges with Phase I Upgrade Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Bilki, Burak

    2017-01-01

    The Phase I Upgrade of the CMS Hadron Endcap Calorimeters consists of new photodetectors and front-end electronics. The upgrade will allow the elimination of the high amplitude noise and drifting response of the Hybrid Photo-Diodes, at the same time enabling the mitigation of the radiation damage of the scintillators and the wavelength shifting fibers with a larger spectral acceptance of the Silicon Photomultipliers. The upgrade will also allow increasing the longitudinal segmentation of the readout to be beneficial for pile-up mitigation and recalibration due to depth-dependent radiation damage. As a realistic operational exercise, the responses of the Hadron Endcap Calorimeter wedges were calibrated with a 60Co radioactive source both with current and upgrade electronics. The exercise provided significant experience towards the full upgrade during the Year End Technical Stop 2017-2018. Here we describe the instrumentation details and the operational experiences related to the sourcing exercise.

  10. Analysis of PROTEUS phase II experiments performed using the AARE modular system and JEF-based libraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelloni, S.; Stepanek, J.; Vontobel, P.

    1989-01-01

    The capability of the advanced analysis of reactor engineering (AARE) modular code system and JEF-1-based nuclear data libraries to analyze light water high converter reactor (LWHCR) lattices is investigated by calculating the wet and dry cells of the PROTEUS-LWHCR phase II experiment. The results are compared to those obtained using several cell codes. Main features of the AARE code system, such as the self-shielding of resonance cross sections in the whole energy range, the generation of adequate fission source spectra, and the efficiency of the elastic removal correction,are investigated. In particular, it is shown that AARE results for the k ∞ void coefficient agree very well with the experiment, whereas other codes give larger deviations

  11. Phase III clinical evaluation of gadoteridol injection: Experience in pediatric neuro-oncologic MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debatin, J.F.; Nadel, S.N.; Gray, L.; Trotter, P.; Friedman, H.S.; Hockenberger, B.; Oakes, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-two pediatric patients with known CNS neoplasms underwent magnetic resonance (MR) imaging before and after intravenous injection of 0.1 mmol/kg gadoteridol injection as part of a Phase IIIB open label multicenter clinical trial. Intravenous adminstration of this neutral, nonionic contrast agent was found to be safe in children. No clinically relevant changes in vital signs or laboratory values were attributed to the administration of gadoteridol injection. There were no systemic complaints. The imaging characteristics of gadoteridol in pediatric CNS disease appeared similar to those of gadopentetate dimeglumine. The very low toxicity, inherent to this nonionic low osmolal paramagnetic contrast formulation may allow administration of increased doses at increased infusion rates for an increased number of indications with improved sensitivity. (orig.)

  12. Tourism and Cultural Heritage: Higher Education and Entrepreneurship Development in Transition Phase. The Tunisian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faysal Mansouri

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This is to lay down an approach to develop tourism and cultural heritage through higher education and entrepreneurship development for economies in transition: The case of Tunisia. There is a need to provide incentives to people to have favorable preferences toward a tourism based in part on cultural heritage in a phase where everything is being under construction institutions, legislations, and relationships alike. Cultural heritage and tourism development may be enhanced by a diversification strategy to enrich the image of local touristic destinations (diversification of site visits, purchases of new products, new circuits, and discovery of monumental heritage, museum, park and gardens, natural sites. Moreover, it is of great importance to invest in youth entrepreneurship development to orient toward business creation and development in the domain of tourism and cultural heritage.

  13. Siemens experience on linear and nonlinear analyses of out-of-phase BWR instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreuter, D.; Wehle, F.

    1995-01-01

    The Siemens design code STAIF has been applied extensively for linear analysis of BWR instabilities. The comparison between measurements and STAIF calculations for different plants under various conditions has shown good agreement for core-wide and regional instabilities. Based on the high quality of STAIF, the North German TUeV has decided to replace the licensing requirement of extensive stability measurements by predictive analyses with the code STAIF. Nonlinear stability analysis for beyond design boundary conditions with RAMONA has shown dryout during temporarily reversed flow at core inlet in case of core-wide oscillations. For large out-of-phase oscillations, dryout occurs already for small, still positive channel inlet flow. (orig.)

  14. WEC-SIM Phase 1 Validation Testing -- Numerical Modeling of Experiments: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruehl, Kelley; Michelen, Carlos; Bosma, Bret; Yu, Yi-Hsiang

    2016-08-01

    The Wave Energy Converter Simulator (WEC-Sim) is an open-source code jointly developed by Sandia National Laboratories and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. It is used to model wave energy converters subjected to operational and extreme waves. In order for the WEC-Sim code to be beneficial to the wave energy community, code verification and physical model validation is necessary. This paper describes numerical modeling of the wave tank testing for the 1:33-scale experimental testing of the floating oscillating surge wave energy converter. The comparison between WEC-Sim and the Phase 1 experimental data set serves as code validation. This paper is a follow-up to the WEC-Sim paper on experimental testing, and describes the WEC-Sim numerical simulations for the floating oscillating surge wave energy converter.

  15. Phase equilibria for mixtures containing nonionic surfactant systems: Modeling and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Moon Sam; Kim, Hwayong

    2008-01-01

    Surfactants are important materials with numerous applications in the cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and food industries due to inter-associating and intra-associating bond. We present a lattice fluid equation-of-state that combines the quasi-chemical nonrandom lattice fluid model with Veytsman statistics for (intra + inter) molecular association to calculate phase behavior for mixtures containing nonionic surfactants. We also measured binary (vapor + liquid) equilibrium data for {2-butoxyethanol (C 4 E 1 ) + n-hexane} and {2-butoxyethanol (C 4 E 1 ) + n-heptane} systems at temperatures ranging from (303.15 to 323.15) K. A static apparatus was used in this study. The presented equation-of-state correlated well with the measured and published data for mixtures containing nonionic surfactant systems

  16. Design of a two-phase loop thermosyphon for telecommunications system(I): experiments and visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Won Tae [Kongju National Univ., Kongju (Korea, Republic of); Song, Kyu Sub [Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young [Univ. of Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    1998-10-01

    A two-phase loop thermosyphon system is developed for the B-ISDN telecommunications system and its performance is evaluated both experimentally and by visualization techniques. The design of the thermosyphon system proposed is aimed to cool MultiChip Modules (MCM) upto heat flux of 8 W/cm{sup 2}. The results indicate that in the loop thermosyphon system cooling heat flux is capable of 12 W/cm{sup 2} with two condensers under the forced convection cooling of the condenser section with acetone or FC-87 as the working fluid. The instability of the working fluid flow within the loop is observed using the visualization techniques and temperature fluctuation is stabilized with orifice insertion.

  17. Design of a two-phase loop thermosyphon for telecommunications system(I): experiments and visualization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Won Tae; Song, Kyu Sub; Lee, Young

    1998-01-01

    A two-phase loop thermosyphon system is developed for the B-ISDN telecommunications system and its performance is evaluated both experimentally and by visualization techniques. The design of the thermosyphon system proposed is aimed to cool MultiChip Modules (MCM) upto heat flux of 8 W/cm 2 . The results indicate that in the loop thermosyphon system cooling heat flux is capable of 12 W/cm 2 with two condensers under the forced convection cooling of the condenser section with acetone or FC-87 as the working fluid. The instability of the working fluid flow within the loop is observed using the visualization techniques and temperature fluctuation is stabilized with orifice insertion

  18. Letter of Intent for the Phase-I Upgrade of the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2011-01-01

    After the first successful years of running at the LHC, the ATLAS Collaboration is preparing to fully exploit the unprecedented physics opportunities offered by exploration of a completely new energy domain. This program builds on the excellent LHC accelerator complex performance demonstrated to date. A plan to consolidate and improve the physics capabilities of the current detector over the next decade, targeting the 2018 LHC shutdown as installation milestone, is presented in this Letter of Intent. The document primarily addresses the proposed enhancements to the ATLAS trigger system to cope with luminosities beyond the LHC nominal design value, while retaining the same physics performance. The Phase-I upgrades will allow ATLAS to maintain low pT trigger thresholds for isolated leptons by increasing the granularity of the calorimeters involved in the Level-1 trigger and by introducing new muon trigger and tracking detectors in the forward direction. Precision measurements of the couplings of the Higgs boson...

  19. Enterprise Reference Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickham, Grandin; Saile, Lynn; Havelka, Jacque; Fitts, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Johnson Space Center (JSC) offers two extensive libraries that contain journals, research literature and electronic resources. Searching capabilities are available to those individuals residing onsite or through a librarian s search. Many individuals have rich collections of references, but no mechanisms to share reference libraries across researchers, projects, or directorates exist. Likewise, information regarding which references are provided to which individuals is not available, resulting in duplicate requests, redundant labor costs and associated copying fees. In addition, this tends to limit collaboration between colleagues and promotes the establishment of individual, unshared silos of information The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) team has utilized a centralized reference management tool during the development, test, and operational phases of this project. The Enterprise Reference Library project expands the capabilities developed for IMM to address the above issues and enhance collaboration across JSC. Method: After significant market analysis for a multi-user reference management tool, no available commercial tool was found to meet this need, so a software program was built around a commercial tool, Reference Manager 12 by The Thomson Corporation. A use case approach guided the requirements development phase. The premise of the design is that individuals use their own reference management software and export to SharePoint when their library is incorporated into the Enterprise Reference Library. This results in a searchable user-specific library application. An accompanying share folder will warehouse the electronic full-text articles, which allows the global user community to access full -text articles. Discussion: An enterprise reference library solution can provide a multidisciplinary collection of full text articles. This approach improves efficiency in obtaining and storing reference material while greatly reducing labor, purchasing and

  20. Co-ordinated research project: Ingestion and organ content of trace elements of importance in radiological protection (CRP: E4.30.08). Reference Asian man project, phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The Second Research Coordination Meeting for the Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'Ingestion and Organ Content of Trace Elements of Importance in Radiological Protection: Reference Asian Man Project, Phase 2' was held at the China Institute for Radiation Protection (CIRP) in Taiyuan, People's Republic of China. During the first technical Session, an overview of the current status of the CRP was presented by the IAEA technical officer, Dr. Parr, and the responsible officer of the Central Reference Laboratory (NIRS, Japan), Dr. Kawamura. They drew attention to the agreed programme of work, as described in the project documentation, and the timetable foreseen for the CRP as summarized in table 1. In general, they concluded that the achievements of the CRP to-date appear to be good, particularly in relation to sample collection (in most countries) and quality control (the development of appropriate reference materials). However, some aspects of the work appear to be a little behind schedule, particularly (1) the final stages of preparation of total diet samples (because of delays in providing a suitable food blender), (2) the analysis of some of the elements of first priority (because of the non-availability, until now, of suitable analytical reference materials), and (3) in some countries, the collection of autopsy specimens. One country (Malaysia) has experienced considerable difficulties in implementing the project due to the retirement of the former Chief Scientific Investigator. For this reason it was unfortunately not possible for the Malaysian representative to be present at the RCM

  1. Two-phase CFD PTS validation in an extended range of thermohydraulics conditions covered by the COSI experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coste, P.; Ortolan, A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Models for large interfaces in two-phase CFD were developed for PTS. • The COSI experiment is used for NEPTUNE C FD integral validation. • COSI is a PWR cold leg scaled 1/100 for volume. • Fifty runs are calculated, covering a large range of flow configurations. • The CFD predicting capability is analysed using global and local measurements. - Abstract: In the context of the Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) life duration safety studies, some models were developed to address the Pressurized Thermal Shock (PTS) from the two-phase CFD angle, dealing with interfaces much larger than cells size and with direct contact condensation. Such models were implemented in NEPTUNE C FD, a 3D transient Eulerian two-fluid model. The COSI experiment is used for its integral validation. It represents a cold leg scaled 1/100 for volume and power from a 900 MW PWR under a large range of LOCA PTS conditions. In this study, the CFD is evaluated in the whole range of parameters and flow configurations covered by the experiment. In a first step, a single choice of mesh and CFD models parameters is fixed and justified. In a second step, fifty runs are calculated. The CFD predicting capability is analysed, comparing the liquid temperature and the total condensation rate with the experiment, discussing their dependency on the inlet cold liquid rate, on the liquid level in the cold leg and on the difference between co-current and counter-current runs. It is shown that NEPTUNE C FD 1.0.8 calculates with a fair agreement a large range of flow configurations related to ECCS injection and steam condensation

  2. Novel corrosion experiments using the wire beam electrode: (III) Measuring electrochemical corrosion parameters from both the metallic and electrolytic phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Yong-Jun; Liu, Tie; Aung, Naing Naing

    2006-01-01

    The wire beam electrode (WBE) and the scanning reference electrode technique (SRET) have been applied in a novel combination to measure, for the first time, electrochemical parameters simultaneously from both the metallic and electrolytic phases of a corroding metal surface. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the application of this combined WBE-SRET method in obtaining unique information on localised corrosion mechanism, by investigating typical corrosion processes occurring over a mild steel WBE surface exposed to the classic Evans solution. The WBE method was used to map current and potential distributions in the metallic phase, and the SRET was used to map current or potential distribution in the electrolytic phase. It has been found that the combined WBE-SRET method is able to gain useful information on macro-cell electrochemical corrosion processes that involve macro-scale separation of anodes and cathodes. In such macro-cell corrosion systems, maps measured using WBE and SRET were found to correlate with each other and both methods were able to detect the locations of anodic sites. However the movement of the scanning probe during SRET measurements was found to affect the SRET detection of cathodic sites. In micro-cell corrosion systems where the separation of anodic and cathodic sites were less distinct, SRET measurement was found to be insensitive in detecting anodic and cathodic sites, while the WBE method was still able to produce results that correlated well with observed corrosion behaviour. Results obtained from this work suggest that the WBE-SRET method is applicable for understanding the initiation, propagation and electrochemical behaviour of localised corrosion anodes and cathodes, and also their dependence on externally controllable variables, such as solution pH changes and the existence of surface coatings

  3. Two-phase flow experiments in a model of the hot leg of a pressurised water reactor. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, Tobias; Vallee, Christophe; Lucas, Dirk; Beyer, Matthias; Deendarlianto

    2011-09-15

    In order to investigate the two-phase flow behaviour in a complex reactor-typical geometry and to supply suitable data for CFD code validation, a model of the hot leg of a pressurised water reactor was built at FZD. The hot leg model is operated in the pressure chamber of the TOPFLOW test facility, which is used to perform high-pressure experiments under pressure equilibrium with the inside atmosphere of the chamber. This technique makes it possible to visualise the two-phase flow through large windows, also at reactor-typical pressure levels. In order to optimise the optical observation possibilities, the test section was designed with a rectangular cross-section. Experiments were performed with air and water at 1.5 and 3.0 bar at room temperature as well as with steam and water at 15, 30 and 50 bar and the corresponding saturation temperature (i.e. up to 264 C). The total of 194 runs are divided into 4 types of experiments covering stationary co-current flow, counter-current flow, flow without water circulation and transient counter-current flow limitation (CCFL) experiments. This report provides a detailed documentation of the experiments including information on the experimental setup, experimental procedure, test matrix and on the calibration of the measuring devices. The available data is described and data sheets were arranged for each experiment in order to give an overview of the most important parameters. For the cocurrent flow experiments, water level histograms were arranged and used to characterise the flow in the hot leg. In fact, the form of the probability distribution was found to be sensitive to the boundary conditions and, therefore, is useful for the CFD comparison. Furthermore, the flooding characteristics of the hot leg model plotted in terms of the classical Wallis parameter or Kutateladze number were found to fail to properly correlate the data of the air/water and steam/water series. Therefore, a modified Wallis parameter is proposed, which

  4. Two-phase flow experiments in a model of the hot leg of a pressurised water reactor. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, Tobias; Vallee, Christophe; Lucas, Dirk; Beyer, Matthias; Deendarlianto

    2011-09-01

    In order to investigate the two-phase flow behaviour in a complex reactor-typical geometry and to supply suitable data for CFD code validation, a model of the hot leg of a pressurised water reactor was built at FZD. The hot leg model is operated in the pressure chamber of the TOPFLOW test facility, which is used to perform high-pressure experiments under pressure equilibrium with the inside atmosphere of the chamber. This technique makes it possible to visualise the two-phase flow through large windows, also at reactor-typical pressure levels. In order to optimise the optical observation possibilities, the test section was designed with a rectangular cross-section. Experiments were performed with air and water at 1.5 and 3.0 bar at room temperature as well as with steam and water at 15, 30 and 50 bar and the corresponding saturation temperature (i.e. up to 264 C). The total of 194 runs are divided into 4 types of experiments covering stationary co-current flow, counter-current flow, flow without water circulation and transient counter-current flow limitation (CCFL) experiments. This report provides a detailed documentation of the experiments including information on the experimental setup, experimental procedure, test matrix and on the calibration of the measuring devices. The available data is described and data sheets were arranged for each experiment in order to give an overview of the most important parameters. For the cocurrent flow experiments, water level histograms were arranged and used to characterise the flow in the hot leg. In fact, the form of the probability distribution was found to be sensitive to the boundary conditions and, therefore, is useful for the CFD comparison. Furthermore, the flooding characteristics of the hot leg model plotted in terms of the classical Wallis parameter or Kutateladze number were found to fail to properly correlate the data of the air/water and steam/water series. Therefore, a modified Wallis parameter is proposed, which

  5. A widely tunable 10-μm quantum cascade laser phase-locked to a state-of-the-art mid-infrared reference for precision molecular spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sow, P. L. T.; Mejri, S.; Tokunaga, S. K.; Lopez, O.; Argence, B.; Chardonnet, C.; Darquié, B., E-mail: benoit.darquie@univ-paris13.fr [CNRS, UMR 7538, LPL, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Laboratoire de Physique des Lasers, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Goncharov, A.; Amy-Klein, A.; Daussy, C. [Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Laboratoire de Physique des Lasers, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); CNRS, UMR 7538, LPL, 93430 Villetaneuse (France)

    2014-06-30

    We report the coherent phase-locking of a quantum cascade laser (QCL) at 10-μm to the secondary frequency standard of this spectral region, a CO{sub 2} laser stabilized on a saturated absorption line of OsO{sub 4}. The stability and accuracy of the standard are transferred to the QCL resulting in a line width of the order of 10 Hz, and leading to the narrowest QCL to date. The locked QCL is then used to perform absorption spectroscopy spanning 6 GHz of NH{sub 3} and methyltrioxorhenium, two species of interest for applications in precision measurements.

  6. Multiple low frequency dual reference PWM control of a grid connected photovoltaic three phase NPC inverter with DC/DC boost converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mechouma Rabiaa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, power demand of industrial applications has increased significantly reaching some megawatts. The use of multilevel converters for applications of medium and high powers is proposed as a solution to drawback semiconductor technology. A multilevel converter not only achieves high power ratings, but also enables the use of renewable energy sources. Renewable energy sources such as photovoltaic can be easily interfaced to a multilevel converter system for a high power application. This paper presents the simulation study in Matlab/Simulink of a grid connected photovoltaic three phase Neutral Point Clamped (NPC inverter with DC/DC boost converter for constant and variable solar radiation.

  7. Flow characteristics of centrifugal gas-liquid separator. Investigation with air-water two-phase flow experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneda, Kimitoshi; Inada, Fumio

    2004-01-01

    Air-water two-phase flow experiment was conducted to examine the basic flow characteristics of a centrifugal gas-liquid separator. Vertical transparent test section, which is 4 m in height, was used to imitate the scale of a BWR separator. Flow rate conditions of gas and liquid were fixed at 0.1 m 3 /s and 0.033 m 3 /s, respectively. Radial distributions of two-phase flow characteristics, such as void fraction, gas velocity and bubble chord length, were measured by traversing dual optical void probes in the test section, horizontally. The flow in the standpipe reached to quasi-developed state within the height-to-diameter aspect ratio H/D=10, which in turn can mean the maximum value for an ideal height design of a standpipe. The liquid film in the barrel showed a maximum thickness at 0.5 to 1 m in height from the swirler exit, which was a common result for three different standpipe length conditions, qualitatively and quantitatively. The empirical database obtained in this study would contribute practically to the validation of numerical analyses for an actual separator in a plant, and would also be academically useful for further investigations of two-phase flow in large-diameter pipes. (author)

  8. Thermodynamic calculation of Al-Gd and Al-Gd-Mg phase equilibria checked by key experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groebner, J.; Kevorkov, D.; Schmid-Fetzer, R.

    2001-01-01

    The binary Al-Gd and the ternary Al-Gd-Mg systems were calculated using the Calphad method. It is demonstrated that previous interpretation of ternary liquidus temperatures below 700 C must be related to other phase equilibria. The actual ternary liquidus temperatures are much higher, up to some 600 C above the previous interpretation in literature. They are widely governed by the high-melting compounds Al 2 Gd and Al 3 Gd with liquidus surfaces stretching far into the ternary system. A small number of key experiments in this work confirmed the calculated liquidus temperature and the phase relations. The available experimental data in literature fit excellently with the calculation in the binary Al-Gd system. In the ternary Al-Gd-Mg system, which is shown in several sections of the phase diagram, a good agreement can be observed too, considering the necessary reinterpretation of the liquidus temperatures suggested by Rokhlin et al. Ternary solubilities were not found experimentally. The ternary compound Al 4 GdMg (τ) forms in a ternary peritectic reaction at 761 C. (orig.)

  9. Symmetry control using beam phasing in ∼0.2 NIF scale high temperature Hohlraum experiment on OMEGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delamater, Norman D.; Wilson, Goug C.; Kyrala, George A.; Seifter, Achim; Hoffman, N.M.; Dodd, E.; Glebov, V.

    2009-01-01

    Results are shown from recent experiments at the Omega laser facility, using 40 Omega beams driving the hohlraum with 3 cones from each side and up to 19.5 kJ of laser energy. Beam phasing is achieved by decreasing the energy separately in each of the three cones, by 3 kJ, for a total drive energy of 16.5kJ. This results in a more asymmetric drive, which will vary the shape of the imploded symmetry capsule core from round to oblate or prolate in a systematic and controlled manner. These results would be the first demonstration of beam phasing for implosions in such 'high temperature' (275 eV) hohlraums at Omega. Dante measurements confirmed the predicted peak drive temperatures of 275 eV. Implosion core time dependent x-ray images were obtained from framing camera data which show the expected change in symmetry due to beam phasing and which also agree well with post processed hydro code calculations. Time resolved hard x-ray data has been obtained and it was found that the hard x-rays are correlated mainly with the low angle 21 o degree cone.

  10. A novel deep reactive ion etched (DRIE) glass micro-model for two-phase flow experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadimitriou, N K; Joekar-Niasar, V; Hassanizadeh, S M; Kleingeld, P J; Pyrak-Nolte, L J

    2012-09-21

    In the last few decades, micro-models have become popular experimental tools for two-phase flow studies. In this work, the design and fabrication of an innovative, elongated, glass-etched micro-model with dimensions of 5 × 35 mm(2) and constant depth of 43 microns is described. This is the first time that a micro-model with such depth and dimensions has been etched in glass by using a dry etching technique. The micro-model was visualized by a novel setup that allowed us to monitor and record the distribution of fluids throughout the length of the micro-model continuously. Quasi-static drainage experiments were conducted in order to obtain equilibrium data points that relate capillary pressure to phase saturation. By measuring the flow rate of water through the flow network for known pressure gradients, the intrinsic permeability of the micro-model's flow network was also calculated. The experimental results were used to calibrate a pore-network model and test its validity. Finally, we show that glass-etched micro-models can be valuable tools in single and/or multi-phase flow studies and their applications.

  11. Leaders' and followers' individual experiences during the early phase of simulation-based team training: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurling, Lisbet; Hedman, Leif; Felländer-Tsai, Li; Wallin, Carl-Johan

    2013-06-01

    A growing body of evidence shows that team training can develop essential team skills and contribute to better patient outcomes. Current simulation-based team training (SBTT) programmes most often include targets and feedback focused on the whole team and/or leader, ignoring the follower as a unique entity. By considering followers' individual experiences, and tailoring behavioural targets for training and feedback, SBTT could be improved. Our aim was to explore the individual experiences and behaviours of leaders and followers during the early phase of SBTT, and we hypothesised that leaders and followers would show different responses. Medical students (n=54) participated in half-day SBTT including three video-recorded scenarios. Self-efficacy was assessed pretraining and post-training. For each scenario (n=36), the individual teamwork behaviours, concentration, mental strain and the team's clinical performance were recorded. Data were analysed using a mixed model allowing for participants to be their own control in their roles as leader or follower. Self-efficacy improved. In the role of leader, participants communicated to a greater extent and experienced higher mental strain and concentration than they did in the role of follower. The increased self-efficacy enables a positive learning outcome after only three scenarios. Individual experiences and behaviours differed between the role of leader and that of follower. By shedding further light on leaders' and followers' individual experiences and behaviours, targets for training and feedback could be specified in order to improve SBTT.

  12. Dynamics of excited nitrogen molecular states in glow- and afterglow phases of discharge: experiment and modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napartovich, A.P.; Akishev, Yu.S.; Dyatko, N.A.; Grushin, M.E.; Filippov, A.V.; Trushkin, N.I.

    2001-01-01

    Population dynamics for a number of levels from N2 ( A 3 Σ + u ), N 2 (B 3 Π g ) and N 2 (C 3 Π u ) manifolds was studied spectroscopically in a long pulse glow discharge in pure nitrogen and in afterglow at pressure 50 Torr. Overshot in time behaviour of N 2 (A 3Σ + u ), N 2 (B 3 Π g ) and N 2 (C 3 Π u ) levels populations was revealed. A rather complete kinetic model is developed for conditions of the experiments. Results of comparison are analyzed

  13. Formation of multiple stoichiometric phases in binary systems by combined bulk and grain boundary diffusion: Experiments and model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svoboda, J.; Fischer, F.D.; Schillinger, W.

    2013-01-01

    The thermodynamic extremal principle has been used by the authors to treat the evolution of binary and multicomponent systems under the assumption that all phases are nearly stoichiometric. Up to now only bulk diffusion has been taken into account. The concept is now extended to combined bulk and grain boundary diffusion possible in each newly formed phase. The grains are approximated by cylinders allowing interface diffusion along the top and bottom of the grains and grain boundary diffusion along the mantle with different interface/grain boundary diffusion coefficients. A consistent analysis yields an effective diffusion coefficient taking into account the combined interface/grain boundary and bulk diffusion of each individual component. The current concept is applied to the Cu–Sn couple which has been studied by a number of researchers. The results of simulations are compared with experiments at 200 °C on solid systems reported in the literature as well as with our experiments at 250 °C with liquid Sn.

  14. Operational limits on WEST inertial divertor sector during the early phase experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdaouss, M.; Corre, Y.; Languille, P.; Greuner, H.; Autissier, E.; Desgranges, C.; Guilhem, D.; Gunn, J. P.; Lipa, M.; Missirlian, M.; Pascal, J.-Y.; Pocheau, C.; Richou, M.; Tsitrone, E.

    2016-02-01

    The primary goal of the WEST project is to be a test bed to characterize the fatigue and lifetime of ITER-like W divertor components subjected to relevant thermal loads. During the first phase of exploitation (S2 2016), these components (W monoblock plasma facing unit—W-PFU) will be installed in conjunction with graphite components (G-PFU). Since the G-PFU will not be actively cooled, it is necessary to ensure the expected pulse duration allows the W-PFU to reach its steady state without overheating the G-PFU assembly structure or the embedded stainless-steel diagnostics. High heat flux tests were performed at the GLADIS facility to assess the thermal behavior of the G-PFU. Some operational limits based on plasma parameters were determined. It was found that it is possible to operate at an injected power such that the maximal incident heat flux on the lower divertor is 10 MW m-2 for the required pulse length.

  15. MDCT urography: experience with a bi-phasic excretory phase examination protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meindl, Thomas; Coppenrath, Eva; Degenhart, Christoph; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Mueller-Lisse, Ullrich G.; Mueller-Lisse, Ulrike L.

    2007-01-01

    The benefit of multidetector computed tomographic urography (MDCTU) for visualising early and late excretory phase (EP) upper urinary tract (UUT) opacification has been studied. UUT opacification was retrospectively evaluated in 45 bi-phasic four-row MDCTU examinations. The UUT was divided into intrarenal collecting system (IRCS), proximal, middle and distal ureter. Two independent readers rated opacification: 1, none; 2, partial; 3, complete. Numbers of segments and percentages of UUTs at each score were calculated for each EP and two EPs combined. Results of a single EP and of combined EPs were compared by Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks. IRCS and proximal ureter were at least partially opacified in each EP in >95%. The middle ureter was at least partially opacified in the early and late EP in 85% and 93%, respectively. The distal ureter was opacified in 65% (49/75) in the early EP and in 78% (59/75) in the late EP. Combining two EPs, non-opacified distal segments decreased to 9% (7/75). Significant improvement between a single EP and combining two EPs were found for the middle and distal ureter (P < 0.03). Bi-phasic MDCTU substantially improved opacification of the middle and distal ureter. IRCS and proximal ureter are reliably opacified with one EP. (orig.)

  16. Solar neutrino detection in a large volume double-phase liquid argon experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, D.; Agnes, P. [APC, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris 75205 (France); Giganti, C.; Agostino, L.; De Cecco, S., E-mail: dfranco@in2p3.fr, E-mail: cgiganti@lpnhe.in2p3.fr, E-mail: pagnes@in2p3.fr, E-mail: lagostin@lpnhe.in2p3.fr, E-mail: sandro.dececco@lpnhe.in2p3.fr [LPNHE Paris, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, Paris 75252 (France); and others

    2016-08-01

    Precision measurements of solar neutrinos emitted by specific nuclear reaction chains in the Sun are of great interest for developing an improved understanding of star formation and evolution. Given the expected neutrino fluxes and known detection reactions, such measurements require detectors capable of collecting neutrino-electron scattering data in exposures on the order of 1 ktonne-yr, with good energy resolution and extremely low background. Two-phase liquid argon time projection chambers (LAr TPCs) are under development for direct Dark Matter WIMP searches, which possess very large sensitive mass, high scintillation light yield, good energy resolution, and good spatial resolution in all three cartesian directions. While enabling Dark Matter searches with sensitivity extending to the ''neutrino floor'' (given by the rate of nuclear recoil events from solar neutrino coherent scattering), such detectors could also enable precision measurements of solar neutrino fluxes using the neutrino-electron elastic scattering events. Modeling results are presented for the cosmogenic and radiogenic backgrounds affecting solar neutrino detection in a 300 tonne (100 tonne fiducial) LAr TPC operating at LNGS depth (3,800 meters of water equivalent). The results show that such a detector could measure the CNO neutrino rate with ∼15% precision, and significantly improve the precision of the {sup 7}Be and pep neutrino rates compared to the currently available results from the Borexino organic liquid scintillator detector.

  17. Operational limits on WEST inertial divertor sector during the early phase experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firdaouss, M; Corre, Y; Languille, P; Autissier, E; Desgranges, C; Guilhem, D; Gunn, J P; Lipa, M; Missirlian, M; Pascal, J-Y; Pocheau, C; Richou, M; Tsitrone, E; Greuner, H

    2016-01-01

    The primary goal of the WEST project is to be a test bed to characterize the fatigue and lifetime of ITER-like W divertor components subjected to relevant thermal loads. During the first phase of exploitation (S2 2016), these components (W monoblock plasma facing unit—W-PFU) will be installed in conjunction with graphite components (G-PFU). Since the G-PFU will not be actively cooled, it is necessary to ensure the expected pulse duration allows the W-PFU to reach its steady state without overheating the G-PFU assembly structure or the embedded stainless-steel diagnostics. High heat flux tests were performed at the GLADIS facility to assess the thermal behavior of the G-PFU. Some operational limits based on plasma parameters were determined. It was found that it is possible to operate at an injected power such that the maximal incident heat flux on the lower divertor is 10 MW m −2 for the required pulse length. (paper)

  18. Late-phase MSCT in the different stages of myocardial infarction: animal experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahnken, Andreas H.; Bruners, Philipp; Kinzel, Sylvia; Katoh, Marcus; Muehlenbruch, Georg; Guenther, Rolf W.; Wildberger, Joachim E.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to intraindividually evaluate myocardial late enhancement on multislice spiral computed tomography (MSCT) for the assessment of the different stages of myocardial infarction (MI) in comparison with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Reperfused MI was successfully induced in seven pigs. Delayed enhancement MR imaging and late-phase MSCT were performed on day 0 as well as 7, 28 and 90 days after the procedure. The pigs were sacrificed, and 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolin-chloride (TTC) staining was acquired. MI size was compared between the different imaging techniques and over time applying Bland-Altman plots and multivariate analysis with repeated measures. On day 0 the mean MI size was 23.7 ± 11.8% of the left ventricular area on MSCT and 24.5 ± 10.6% on MR imaging. On day 90 infarct sizes decreased significantly to 16.9 ± 8.4% and 18.9 ± 8.0%, respectively (P 0.0019). On TTC staining the size of MI was 16.8 ± 8.2%. Bland-Altman plots showed a good agreement between MSCT and MR imaging with mean deviations ranging from -3.4% to -1.9%. No significant difference between MSCT and MR imaging was found. Myocardial late enhancement on MSCT correlates well with delayed enhancement MR imaging during the different stages of MI and allows for reliable assessment of reperfused MI during acute, subacute and chronic stages. (orig.)

  19. Optical measurements for the gaseous phase speciation of HIx mixtures: experiments and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denis Doizi; Vincent Dauvois; Vincent Delanne; Jean Luc Roujou; Bruno Larousse; Olivier Hercher; Christophe Moulin; Pierre Fauvet; P Carles; Jean Michel Hartmann

    2006-01-01

    To design and optimize the efficiency of the reactive distillation column of HI we have proposed for the HI section of the I-S cycle, analytical optical 'online' techniques have been proposed to measure the partial and total pressures of the liquid vapour equilibrium of the ternary HI/I 2 /H 2 O mixtures: - FTIR spectrometry for the measurement of hydrogen iodide and water vapours, - Visible spectrometry for the measurement of iodine vapour. The use of these optical techniques has been validated in an experimental device around 130 C and 2 bars. This device is composed of a glass cell equipped with two optical path lengths and placed in a thermo-regulated oven to allow the optical measurements of the concentrations of the three species in the vapour phase. Using an experimental design analysis, the infrared spectra of hydrogen iodide and water have been measured in a selected wavelength range versus temperature and for different HI x compositions. The spectra are then analyzed in particular using a model especially developed for this objective. This model relies on the fitting of the experimental infrared data using a root mean square method and an appropriate spectroscopic database. The visible spectrum of iodine has also been measured. (authors)

  20. Boosted object hardware trigger development and testing for the Phase I upgrade of the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Stark, Giordon Holtsberg; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Global Feature Extraction (gFEX) module is a Level 1 jet trigger system planned for installation in ATLAS during the Phase 1 upgrade in 2018. The gFEX selects large-radius jets for capturing Lorentz-boosted objects by means of wide-area jet algorithms refined by subjet information. The architecture of the gFEX permits event-by-event local pile-up suppression for these jets using the same subtraction techniques developed for offline analyses. The gFEX architecture is also suitable for other global event algorithms such as missing transverse energy (MET), centrality for heavy ion collisions, and "jets without jets". The gFEX will use 4 processor FPGAs to perform calculations on the incoming data and a Hybrid APU-FPGA for slow control of the module. The gFEX is unique in both design and implementation and substantially enhance the selectivity of the L1 trigger and increases sensitivity to key physics channels.

  1. Study on the stability of a single-phase natural circulation flow in a closed loop. Demonstrative experiments on the higher-mode density wave oscillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishihara, Takashi

    1997-01-01

    Single-phase natural circulation loops are very important systems driven by the density variation generated thermally and have various applications in energy systems. Many theoretical and experimental works have been carried out on them and it has been known that the oscillatory instability can occur under some conditions. Most of the works on the oscillatory instability have been limited to specific geometry of the loops and they have paid attention only to the instability of fundamental mode, which has the period approximately equal to the item that the fluid goes round the loop, hereinafter referred to as the typical period. The author had applied the linear stability analysis to the simplified rectangular loop to investigate the basic stability characteristics of a natural circulation flow in a closed loop. The results indicate that various higher-mode oscillatory instabilities can be caused with a period approximately equal to one nth of the typical period according to parameters such as the pressure loss coefficient, the locations of a heat source and a heat sink, and so on. In this report, experimental tests were carried out and it was demonstrated that the higher-mode oscillatory instability can be caused with features as predicted in the analysis. The stability analysis was applied to the geometry of the experimental apparatus. The analytical results and those of experiments were compared with regard to the mode and the region of the parameters to be unstable and they have a good agreement qualitatively. (author)

  2. Analysis of sodium-void experiments in ZPPR-3 modified phase 3 core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, T.

    1978-08-01

    In this work, large-zone sodium-void effects are studied in detail in the presence of many singularities, namely, control rods (CRs) and control rod positions (CRPs). The results of measurements and calculations are compared by CIE (calculation/experiment) values, which are 1.07 when the voided core region is free of singularities. When the void region includes CPRs, which are concurrently voided, the CIE value deteriorates and varies from 0.35 to 1.58. The agreement can be improved considerably by correcting the reactivity worth of the sodium contained in the CRPs with the aid of experimental data (CIE = 1.00 +- 0.15). The heterogeneity correction for the fuel elements was performed by the plate-cell vollision probability code KAPPER. (GL) [de

  3. Bereaved relatives' experiences during the incurable phase of cancer: a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnhoven, Marleen N; Terpstra, Wim E; van Rossem, Ronald; Haazer, Carolien; Gunnink-Boonstra, Nicolette; Sonke, Gabe S; Buiting, Hilde M

    2015-11-25

    To examine bereaved relatives' experiences from time of diagnosis of incurable cancer until death with specific emphasis on their role in the (end-of-life) decision-making concerning chemotherapy. Qualitative interview study. Hospital-based. In-depth interviews with 15 close relatives of patients who died from non-small cell lung cancer or pancreatic cancer, using a thematic content analysis. All relatives reported that patients' main reason to request chemotherapy was the possibility to prolong life. Relatives reported that patients receiving chemotherapy had more difficulty to accept the incurable nature of their disease than patients who did not. They mostly followed the patients' treatment wish and only infrequently suggested ceasing chemotherapy (because of side effects) despite sometimes believing that this would be a better option. Relatives continuously tried to support the patient in either approaching the death or in attaining hope to continue life satisfactorily. Most relatives considered the chemotherapy period meaningful, since it sparked patients' hope and was what patients wanted. Cessation of chemotherapy caused a relief but coincided with physical deterioration and an increased caregivers' role; many relatives recalled this latter period as more burdensome. Relatives tend to follow patients' wish to continue or cease chemotherapy, without expressing their own feelings, although they were more inclined to opt cessation. They experience a greater caregiver role after cessation and their feelings of responsibility associated with the disease can be exhausting. More attention is needed to reduce relatives' distress at the end of life, also to fully profit from this crucial form of (informal) healthcare. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. Phase formation during corrosion experiments with two simulated borosilicate nuclear waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaker, R.F.

    1985-10-01

    Corrosion products resulting from the reaction of simulated high-level radioactive waste glasses with various solutions have been identified. At 200degC, in saturated NaCl, a degree of reaction of 10 g C31-3 glass or 2.6 g SON 68 glass per liter of solution was obtained. Analcime, vermiculite (a phyllosilicate) and a 2:1 zinc silicate are the major silica containing alteration products for the C31-3 glass. Analcime was the only silicate alteration product which could be identified for SON 68 glass. C31-3 glass appeared to be less reactive with a quinary brine containing Mg ++ than with NaCl. With the quinary brine, montmorillonite (a phyllosilicate) was the predominant silica containing alteration product. Hydrotalcite (a Mg-Al hydroxysulfate) and montmorillonite were the major Al-containing phases. A phyllosilicate, probably montmorillonite, was observed to form during the reaction of SON 68 glass with quinary brine. With either glass, modified NaCl brines which contained small amounts of MgCl 2 seem to have the effect of decreasing the amount of analcime and increasing the amount of phyllosilicate which is formed. In the case of C31-3 glass, there is approximately enough Mg, Al and Zn to precipitate most of the leached Si; measured Si concentrations remain well below that expected for amorphous silica. SON 68 glass has less Zn, Al and Mg than C31-3 glass and much higher Si concentrations of the leachates. (orig./RB)

  5. Investigation of global particulate nitrate from the AeroCom phase III experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bian

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available An assessment of global particulate nitrate and ammonium aerosol based on simulations from nine models participating in the Aerosol Comparisons between Observations and Models (AeroCom phase III study is presented. A budget analysis was conducted to understand the typical magnitude, distribution, and diversity of the aerosols and their precursors among the models. To gain confidence regarding model performance, the model results were evaluated with various observations globally, including ground station measurements over North America, Europe, and east Asia for tracer concentrations and dry and wet depositions, as well as with aircraft measurements in the Northern Hemisphere mid-to-high latitudes for tracer vertical distributions. Given the unique chemical and physical features of the nitrate occurrence, we further investigated the similarity and differentiation among the models by examining (1 the pH-dependent NH3 wet deposition; (2 the nitrate formation via heterogeneous chemistry on the surface of dust and sea salt particles or thermodynamic equilibrium calculation including dust and sea salt ions; and (3 the nitrate coarse-mode fraction (i.e., coarse/total. It is found that HNO3, which is simulated explicitly based on full O3-HOx-NOx-aerosol chemistry by all models, differs by up to a factor of 9 among the models in its global tropospheric burden. This partially contributes to a large difference in NO3−, whose atmospheric burden differs by up to a factor of 13. The atmospheric burdens of NH3 and NH4+ differ by 17 and 4, respectively. Analyses at the process level show that the large diversity in atmospheric burdens of NO3−, NH3, and NH4+ is also related to deposition processes. Wet deposition seems to be the dominant process in determining the diversity in NH3 and NH4+ lifetimes. It is critical to correctly account for contributions of heterogeneous chemical production of nitrate on dust and sea salt, because this process

  6. Development of a Level-1 Track and Vertex Finder for the Phase II CMS experiment upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00414391; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire

    The High Luminosity (HL-LHC) upgrade to the Large Hadron Collider will operate at an increased instantaneous luminosity, up to seven times the design value, in order to collect an integrated luminosity of $3,000$\\,fb$^{-1}$ in the decade following 2025. Proton bunches at the HL-LHC will cross every $25$\\,ns, producing an average of 140-200 pile-up proton-proton collisions per crossing. A new tracking detector is under development for use by the CMS experiment at the HL-LHC. A crucial requirement of this upgrade is to provide the ability to reconstruct charged particle tracks with transverse momentum above $2$--$3$\\,GeV within $4\\,\\upmu$s to be used in the Level-1 (L1) trigger decision. This thesis presents one of the main proposals for the final L1 Track Finding system, which exploits a fully time-multiplexed architecture based on high-speed FPGA electronics. The developed track finding algorithm makes use of the Hough Transform technique to identify track candidates, followed by a track fitting stage. Sever...

  7. Microwave Tokamak Experiment: An overview of the construction and checkout phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, L.L.; Bell, H.H.

    1989-01-01

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) we constructed and presently operate the Microwave Tokamak Experiment (MTX) to demonstrate the feasibility of using microwave pulses produced from a free electron laser (FEL) to provide electron cyclotron heating (ECH) for use in tokamaks, particularly high-field machines. The MTX consists primarily of the ALCATOR C tokamak and power supplies that were documented and disassembled at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and shipped to LLNL in April 1987. We made many additions, including a new primary power system from the magnetic Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) substation, a new commutation system, substantially upgraded seismic support system for earthquake loading, a fast controls system for use with the FEL, a new data-acquisition system, and a new vault facility. We checked out these systems and put them into operation in October 1988; we achieved the first plasma in November 1988. We have also constructed and installed the microwave transmission system and the local microwave system to be used with the FEL. These systems transmit the microwaves to MTX quasi-optically through an evacuated tube. The ongoing plasma operations, both with and without FEL heating, are described in a companion paper. 12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  8. The phase-space structure of a dark-matter halo: Implications for dark-matter direct detection experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helmi, Amina; White, Simon D.M.; Springel, Volker

    2002-01-01

    We study the phase-space structure of a dark-matter halo formed in a high resolution simulation of a ΛCDM cosmology. Our goal is to quantify how much substructure is left over from the inhomogeneous growth of the halo, and how it may affect the signal in experiments aimed at detecting the dark matter particles directly. If we focus on the equivalent of 'solar vicinity', we find that the dark matter is smoothly distributed in space. The probability of detecting particles bound within dense lumps of individual mass less than 10 7 M · h -1 is small, less than 10 -2 . The velocity ellipsoid in the solar neighborhood deviates only slightly from a multivariate Gaussian, and can be thought of as a superposition of thousands of kinematically cold streams. The motions of the most energetic particles are, however, strongly clumped and highly anisotropic. We conclude that experiments may safely assume a smooth multivariate Gaussian distribution to represent the kinematics of dark-matter particles in the solar neighborhood. Experiments sensitive to the direction of motion of the incident particles could exploit the expected anisotropy to learn about the recent merging history of our Galaxy

  9. Interstellar silicate analogs for grain-surface reaction experiments: Gas-phase condensation and characterization of the silicate dust grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabri, T.; Jäger, C. [Laboratory Astrophysics Group of the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy at the Friedrich Schiller University Jena Institute of Solid State Physics, Helmholtzweg 3, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Gavilan, L.; Lemaire, J. L.; Vidali, G. [Observatoire de Paris/Université de Cergy-Pontoise, 5 mail Gay Lussac, F-95000 Cergy-Pontoise (France); Mutschke, H. [Laboratory Astrophysics Group of the Astrophysical Institute and University Observatory, Friedrich Schiller University Jena Schillergässchen 3, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Henning, T., E-mail: tolou.sabri@uni-jena.de [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-01-10

    Amorphous, astrophysically relevant silicates were prepared by laser ablation of siliceous targets and subsequent quenching of the evaporated atoms and clusters in a helium/oxygen gas atmosphere. The described gas-phase condensation method can be used to synthesize homogeneous and astrophysically relevant silicates with different compositions ranging from nonstoichiometric magnesium iron silicates to pyroxene- and olivine-type stoichiometry. Analytical tools have been used to characterize the morphology, composition, and spectral properties of the condensates. The nanometer-sized silicate condensates represent a new family of cosmic dust analogs that can generally be used for laboratory studies of cosmic processes related to condensation, processing, and destruction of cosmic dust in different astrophysical environments. The well-characterized silicates comprising amorphous Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} and Fe{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}, as well as the corresponding crystalline silicates forsterite and fayalite, produced by thermal annealing of the amorphous condensates, have been used as real grain surfaces for H{sub 2} formation experiments. A specifically developed ultra-high vacuum apparatus has been used for the investigation of molecule formation experiments. The results of these molecular formation experiments on differently structured Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} and Fe{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} described in this paper will be the topic of the next paper of this series.

  10. Isotopic exchange on solid-phase micro extraction fiber in sediment under stagnant conditions: Implications for field application of performance reference compound calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Lian-Jun; Wu, Xiaoqin; Jia, Fang; Zeng, Eddy Y; Gan, Jay

    2016-08-01

    An overlooked issue for field application of in situ performance reference compound (PRC) calibration methods is the validity of the assumption that both the sorption of a target compound and desorption of its corresponding PRC follow the first-order kinetics with the same rate constants under stagnant conditions. In the present study, disposable polydimethylsiloxane fibers of 2 sizes (7 and 35 µm) impregnated with 8 (13) C-labeled or deuterated PRCs were statically deployed into different marine sediments, from which the kinetics for sorption of the target compounds and desorption of the PRCs were characterized. Nonsymmetrical profiles were observed for exchange of the target analytes and their corresponding PRCs in sediment under stagnant conditions. The hysteretic desorption of PRCs in the kinetic regime may be ascribed to the low chemical potential between the fiber and sediment porewater, which reflects the inability of water molecules to rapidly diffuse through sediment to solvate the PRCs in the aqueous layer around the fiber surface. A moderate correlation (r = 0.77 and r = 0.57, p < 0.05 for both regressions) between the PRC-calibrated equilibrium concentrations of 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis-(chlorophenyl) ethylene (p,p'-DDE) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-153 and the lipid normalized levels in worms (Neanthes arenaceodentata) was obtained in co-exposure tests under simulating field conditions, probably resulting from slightly overestimated bioavailability because of the hysteretic desorption of PRCs and toxic effects. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1978-1985. © 2015 SETAC. © 2015 SETAC.

  11. The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) during MRO's Primary Science Phase (PSP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, A.S.; Banks, M.E.; Baugh, N.; Becker, K.; Boyd, A.; Bergstrom, J.W.; Beyer, R.A.; Bortolini, E.; Bridges, N.T.; Byrne, S.; Castalia, B.; Chuang, F.C.; Crumpler, L.S.; Daubar, I.; Davatzes, A.K.; Deardorff, D.G.; DeJong, A.; Alan, Delamere W.; Dobrea, E.N.; Dundas, C.M.; Eliason, E.M.; Espinoza, Y.; Fennema, A.; Fishbaugh, K.E.; Forrester, T.; Geissler, P.E.; Grant, J. A.; Griffes, J.L.; Grotzinger, J.P.; Gulick, V.C.; Hansen, C.J.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Heyd, R.; Jaeger, W.L.; Jones, D.; Kanefsky, B.; Keszthelyi, L.; King, R.; Kirk, R.L.; Kolb, K.J.; Lasco, J.; Lefort, A.; Leis, R.; Lewis, K.W.; Martinez-Alonso, S.; Mattson, S.; McArthur, G.; Mellon, M.T.; Metz, J.M.; Milazzo, M.P.; Milliken, R.E.; Motazedian, T.; Okubo, C.H.; Ortiz, A.; Philippoff, A.J.; Plassmann, J.; Polit, A.; Russell, P.S.; Schaller, C.; Searls, M.L.; Spriggs, T.; Squyres, S. W.; Tarr, S.; Thomas, N.; Thomson, B.J.; Tornabene, L.L.; Van Houten, C.; Verba, C.; Weitz, C.M.; Wray, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) acquired 8 terapixels of data in 9137 images of Mars between October 2006 and December 2008, covering ???0.55% of the surface. Images are typically 5-6 km wide with 3-color coverage over the central 20% of the swath, and their scales usually range from 25 to 60 cm/pixel. Nine hundred and sixty stereo pairs were acquired and more than 50 digital terrain models (DTMs) completed; these data have led to some of the most significant science results. New methods to measure and correct distortions due to pointing jitter facilitate topographic and change-detection studies at sub-meter scales. Recent results address Noachian bedrock stratigraphy, fluvially deposited fans in craters and in or near Valles Marineris, groundwater flow in fractures and porous media, quasi-periodic layering in polar and non-polar deposits, tectonic history of west Candor Chasma, geometry of clay-rich deposits near and within Mawrth Vallis, dynamics of flood lavas in the Cerberus Palus region, evidence for pyroclastic deposits, columnar jointing in lava flows, recent collapse pits, evidence for water in well-preserved impact craters, newly discovered large rayed craters, and glacial and periglacial processes. Of particular interest are ongoing processes such as those driven by the wind, impact cratering, avalanches of dust and/or frost, relatively bright deposits on steep gullied slopes, and the dynamic seasonal processes over polar regions. HiRISE has acquired hundreds of large images of past, present and potential future landing sites and has contributed to scientific and engineering studies of those sites. Warming the focal-plane electronics prior to imaging has mitigated an instrument anomaly that produces bad data under cold operating conditions. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc.

  12. The Spallation Neutron Source RF Reference System

    CERN Document Server

    Piller, Maurice; Crofford, Mark; Doolittle, Lawrence; Ma, Hengjie

    2005-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) RF Reference System includes the master oscillator (MO), local oscillator(LO) distribution, and Reference RF distribution systems. Coherent low noise Reference RF signals provide the ability to control the phase relationships between the fields in the front-end and linear accelerator (linac) RF cavity structures. The SNS RF Reference System requirements, implementation details, and performance are discussed.

  13. The Layout and Performance of the Phase-II upgrade of the tracking detector of the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ai, Xiaocong; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    HL-LHC will deliver about 3000 fb-1 of integrated luminosity in over 10 year. This will present an extremely challenging environment to the ATLAS experiment, well beyond that for which it was designed. In ATLAS Phase II upgrade, the Inner Detector will be replace by a new all-silicon Inner Tracker to maintain tracking performance in this high-occupancy environment and to cope with the increase of approximately a factor of ten in the integrated radiation dose. The ITk Detector layout is designed to meet the requirement for identifying charged particles with high efficiency and measuring their properties with high precision in the denser environment. The Layout and performance of the ITk is presented.

  14. Operational Experience with Radioactive Source Calibration of the CMS Hadron Endcap Calorimeter Wedges with Phase I Upgrade Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Bilki, Burak

    2017-01-01

    The Phase I Upgrade of the CMS Hadron Endcap Calorimeters consist of new photodetectors (Silicon Photomultipliers in place of Hybrid Photo-Diodes) and front-end electronics (QIE11). The upgrade will allow the elimination of the high amplitude noise and drifting response of the Hybrid Photo-Diodes, at the same time enabling the mitigation of the radiation damage of the scintillators and the wavelength shifting fibers with a larger spectral acceptance of the Silicon Photomultipliers. The upgrade will also allow to increase the longitudinal segmentation of the readout to be beneficial for pile-up mitigation and recalibration due to depth-dependent radiation damage.As a realistic operational exercise, the responses of the Hadron Endcap Calorimeter wedges are being calibrated with a $^{60}$Co radioactive source both with current and upgrade electronics. The exercise will provide a manifestation of the benefits of the upgrade. Here we describe the instrumentation details and the operational experiences related to t...

  15. Exploring Three-Phase Systems and Synchronous Motors: A Low-Voltage and Low-Cost Experiment at the Sophomore Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, T. F., Jr.; Jacobitz, F. G.; Kim, E. M.

    2011-01-01

    In order to meet changing curricular and societal needs, a three-phase system and synchronous motor laboratory experience for sophomore-level students in a wide variety of engineering majors was designed, implemented, and assessed. The experiment is unusual in its early placement in the curriculum, and in that it focuses primarily on basic…

  16. HANFORD WASTE MINEROLOGY REFERENCE REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DISSELKAMP RS

    2010-06-18

    This report lists the observed mineral phase phases present in the Hanford tanks. This task was accomplished by performing a review of numerous reports using experimental techniques including, but not limited to: x-ray diffraction, polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and particle size distribution analyses. This report contains tables that can be used as a quick reference to identify the crystal phases present observed in Hanford waste.

  17. Flashing liquid jets and two-phase droplet dispersion I. Experiments for derivation of droplet atomisation correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Vincent; Bowen, Phil; Witlox, Henk

    2007-04-11

    The large-scale release of a liquid contained at upstream conditions above its local atmospheric boiling point is a scenario often given consideration in process industry risk analysis. Current-hazard quantification software often employs simplistic equilibrium two-phase approaches. Scaled water experiments have been carried out measuring droplet velocity and droplet size distributions for a range of exit orifice aspect ratios (L/d) and conditions representing low to high superheat. 2D Phase-Doppler Anemometry has been utilised to characterise droplet kinematics and spray quality. Droplet size correlations have been developed for non-flashing, the transition between non-flashing and flashing, and fully flashing jets. Using high-speed shadowography, transition between regimes is defined in terms of criteria identified in the external flow structure. An overview companion paper provides a wider overview of the problem and reports implementation of these correlations into consequence models and subsequent validation. The fluid utilised throughout is water, hence droplet correlations are developed in non-dimensional form to allow extrapolation to other fluids through similarity scaling, although verification of model performance for other fluids is required in future studies. Data is reduced via non-dimensionalisation in terms of the Weber number and Jakob number, essentially representing the fluid mechanics and thermodynamics of the system, respectively. A droplet-size distribution correlation has also been developed, conveniently presented as a volume undersize distribution based on the Rosin-Rammler distribution. Separate correlations are provided for sub-cooled mechanical break-up and fully flashing jets. This form of correlation facilitates rapid estimates of likely mass rainout quantities, as well as full distribution information for more rigorous two-phase thermodynamic modelling in the future.

  18. rf reference line for PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, H.D.; Weaver, J.N.

    1979-03-01

    A rf phase reference line in 6 segments around the 2200 meter circumference PEP storage ring is described. Each segment of the reference line is phase stabilized by its own independent feedback system, which uses an amplitude modulated reflection from the end of each line. The modulation is kept small and decoupled from the next segment to avoid crosstalk and significant modulation of the rf drive signal. An error evaluation of the system is made. The technical implementation and prototype performance are described. Prototype tests indicate that the phase error around the ring can be held below 1 degree with this relatively simple system

  19. rf reference line for PEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, H.D.; Weaver, J.N.

    1979-03-01

    A rf phase reference line in 6 segments around the 2200 meter circumference PEP storage ring is described. Each segment of the reference line is phase stabilized by its own independent feedback system, which uses an amplitude modulated reflection from the end of each line. The modulation is kept small and decoupled from the next segment to avoid crosstalk and significant modulation of the rf drive signal. An error evaluation of the system is made. The technical implementation and prototype performance are described. Prototype tests indicate that the phase error around the ring can be held below 1 degree with this relatively simple system.

  20. FCS diffusion laws in two-phase lipid membranes: determination of domain mean size by experiments and Monte Carlo simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favard, Cyril; Wenger, Jérôme; Lenne, Pierre-François; Rigneault, Hervé

    2011-03-02

    Many efforts have been undertaken over the last few decades to characterize the diffusion process in model and cellular lipid membranes. One of the techniques developed for this purpose, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), has proved to be a very efficient approach, especially if the analysis is extended to measurements on different spatial scales (referred to as FCS diffusion laws). In this work, we examine the relevance of FCS diffusion laws for probing the behavior of a pure lipid and a lipid mixture at temperatures below, within and above the phase transitions, both experimentally and numerically. The accuracy of the microscopic description of the lipid mixtures found here extends previous work to a more complex model in which the geometry is unknown and the molecular motion is driven only by the thermodynamic parameters of the system itself. For multilamellar vesicles of both pure lipid and lipid mixtures, the FCS diffusion laws recorded at different temperatures exhibit large deviations from pure Brownian motion and reveal the existence of nanodomains. The variation of the mean size of these domains with temperature is in perfect correlation with the enthalpy fluctuation. This study highlights the advantages of using FCS diffusion laws in complex lipid systems to describe their temporal and spatial structure. Copyright © 2011 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Batch experiments of Cs, Co and Eu sorption onto cement with dissolved fibre mass UP2 in the liquid phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holgersson, Stellan; Dubois, Isabelle; Boerstell, Lisa

    2011-05-01

    The potential effects of alkaline degradation products of the fibre mass UP2 on metal sorption onto fresh and degraded cement have been investigated. For this purpose, crushed cement have been leached to support material for the subsequent batch sorption experiments. Alkaline leaching of UP2 were also made, which gave leaching solutions of 30 ppm DOC after 300 days. These solutions were used in the batch experiments. Continued leaching shows that even higher concentrations can be expected: 45 ppm DOC in the leaching with a low-alkaline (pH 12.5) artificial cement pore-water and 150 ppm DOC with a high alkaline (pH 13.3) artificial pore-water. Batch sorption experiments with 134 Cs and 60 Co show no effects on metal sorption onto leached or fresh cement when the 30 ppm DOC leaching solutions of UP2 were used as liquid phase. The measured R d values were 10 -3 m 3 /kg for Cs and in the range of 0.03-0.1 m 3 /kg for Co. Separate experiments with other organics ligands were also made: EDTA, ISA and citric acid with maximum concentrations of 500, 300 and 300 ppm DOC, respectively. Also here no effects on Cs and Co sorption onto leached and fresh cement were established. Batch experiments of 152 Eu were not successful since results were above detection level of about 2-3 m 3 /kg. The addition of the aforementioned 30 ppm UP2 leaching solution or the other organic ligands did not affect the detection level. Measurements of background concentrations of total Eu show a peculiar result of Eu apparently increasing in batch experiments with cement to final values of about 5-10 nM. The underlying reason for this effect, whether real or artificial, could not be established. Background concentrations of Th were about 1 nM in both cement and blank samples. Background concentrations of Zr were about 100-700 nM in both cement and blank samples, the high values were measured acidic blanks, which suggests either acidic leaching from tube walls or contamination from the acid itself. No

  2. Batch experiments of Cs, Co and Eu sorption onto cement with dissolved fibre mass UP2 in the liquid phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holgersson, Stellan; Dubois, Isabelle; Boerstell, Lisa (Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Nuclear Chemistry, Chalmers University of Technology (Sweden))

    2011-05-15

    The potential effects of alkaline degradation products of the fibre mass UP2 on metal sorption onto fresh and degraded cement have been investigated. For this purpose, crushed cement have been leached to support material for the subsequent batch sorption experiments. Alkaline leaching of UP2 were also made, which gave leaching solutions of 30 ppm DOC after 300 days. These solutions were used in the batch experiments. Continued leaching shows that even higher concentrations can be expected: 45 ppm DOC in the leaching with a low-alkaline (pH 12.5) artificial cement pore-water and 150 ppm DOC with a high alkaline (pH 13.3) artificial pore-water. Batch sorption experiments with 134Cs and 60Co show no effects on metal sorption onto leached or fresh cement when the 30 ppm DOC leaching solutions of UP2 were used as liquid phase. The measured R{sub d} values were 10-3 m3/kg for Cs and in the range of 0.03-0.1 m3/kg for Co. Separate experiments with other organics ligands were also made: EDTA, ISA and citric acid with maximum concentrations of 500, 300 and 300 ppm DOC, respectively. Also here no effects on Cs and Co sorption onto leached and fresh cement were established. Batch experiments of 152Eu were not successful since results were above detection level of about 2-3 m3/kg. The addition of the aforementioned 30 ppm UP2 leaching solution or the other organic ligands did not affect the detection level. Measurements of background concentrations of total Eu show a peculiar result of Eu apparently increasing in batch experiments with cement to final values of about 5-10 nM. The underlying reason for this effect, whether real or artificial, could not be established. Background concentrations of Th were about 1 nM in both cement and blank samples. Background concentrations of Zr were about 100-700 nM in both cement and blank samples, the high values were measured acidic blanks, which suggests either acidic leaching from tube walls or contamination from the acid itself. No

  3. Results on neutrinoless double-β decay of 76Ge from phase I of the GERDA experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, M; Allardt, M; Andreotti, E; Bakalyarov, A M; Balata, M; Barabanov, I; Barnabé Heider, M; Barros, N; Baudis, L; Bauer, C; Becerici-Schmidt, N; Bellotti, E; Belogurov, S; Belyaev, S T; Benato, G; Bettini, A; Bezrukov, L; Bode, T; Brudanin, V; Brugnera, R; Budjáš, D; Caldwell, A; Cattadori, C; Chernogorov, A; Cossavella, F; Demidova, E V; Domula, A; Egorov, V; Falkenstein, R; Ferella, A; Freund, K; Frodyma, N; Gangapshev, A; Garfagnini, A; Gotti, C; Grabmayr, P; Gurentsov, V; Gusev, K; Guthikonda, K K; Hampel, W; Hegai, A; Heisel, M; Hemmer, S; Heusser, G; Hofmann, W; Hult, M; Inzhechik, L V; Ioannucci, L; Janicskó Csáthy, J; Jochum, J; Junker, M; Kihm, T; Kirpichnikov, I V; Kirsch, A; Klimenko, A; Knöpfle, K T; Kochetov, O; Kornoukhov, V N; Kuzminov, V V; Laubenstein, M; Lazzaro, A; Lebedev, V I; Lehnert, B; Liao, H Y; Lindner, M; Lippi, I; Liu, X; Lubashevskiy, A; Lubsandorzhiev, B; Lutter, G; Macolino, C; Machado, A A; Majorovits, B; Maneschg, W; Misiaszek, M; Nemchenok, I; Nisi, S; O'Shaughnessy, C; Pandola, L; Pelczar, K; Pessina, G; Pullia, A; Riboldi, S; Rumyantseva, N; Sada, C; Salathe, M; Schmitt, C; Schreiner, J; Schulz, O; Schwingenheuer, B; Schönert, S; Shevchik, E; Shirchenko, M; Simgen, H; Smolnikov, A; Stanco, L; Strecker, H; Tarka, M; Ur, C A; Vasenko, A A; Volynets, O; von Sturm, K; Wagner, V; Walter, M; Wegmann, A; Wester, T; Wojcik, M; Yanovich, E; Zavarise, P; Zhitnikov, I; Zhukov, S V; Zinatulina, D; Zuber, K; Zuzel, G

    2013-09-20

    Neutrinoless double beta decay is a process that violates lepton number conservation. It is predicted to occur in extensions of the standard model of particle physics. This Letter reports the results from phase I of the Germanium Detector Array (GERDA) experiment at the Gran Sasso Laboratory (Italy) searching for neutrinoless double beta decay of the isotope (76)Ge. Data considered in the present analysis have been collected between November 2011 and May 2013 with a total exposure of 21.6 kg yr. A blind analysis is performed. The background index is about 1 × 10(-2) counts/(keV kg yr) after pulse shape discrimination. No signal is observed and a lower limit is derived for the half-life of neutrinoless double beta decay of (76)Ge, T(1/2)(0ν) >2.1 × 10(25) yr (90% C.L.). The combination with the results from the previous experiments with (76)Ge yields T(1/2)(0ν)>3.0 × 10(25) yr (90% C.L.).

  4. Results on Neutrinoless Double-β Decay of Ge76 from Phase I of the GERDA Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, M.; Allardt, M.; Andreotti, E.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Barnabé Heider, M.; Barros, N.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Becerici-Schmidt, N.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Belyaev, S. T.; Benato, G.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode, T.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Budjáš, D.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; Cossavella, F.; Demidova, E. V.; Domula, A.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Ferella, A.; Freund, K.; Frodyma, N.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Gotti, C.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Guthikonda, K. K.; Hampel, W.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Heusser, G.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Ioannucci, L.; Janicskó Csáthy, J.; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Klimenko, A.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Lehnert, B.; Liao, H. Y.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Liu, X.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Macolino, C.; Machado, A. A.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Misiaszek, M.; Nemchenok, I.; Nisi, S.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pessina, G.; Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S.; Rumyantseva, N.; Sada, C.; Salathe, M.; Schmitt, C.; Schreiner, J.; Schulz, O.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Schönert, S.; Shevchik, E.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Strecker, H.; Tarka, M.; Ur, C. A.; Vasenko, A. A.; Volynets, O.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Walter, M.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zavarise, P.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2013-09-01

    Neutrinoless double beta decay is a process that violates lepton number conservation. It is predicted to occur in extensions of the standard model of particle physics. This Letter reports the results from phase I of the Germanium Detector Array (GERDA) experiment at the Gran Sasso Laboratory (Italy) searching for neutrinoless double beta decay of the isotope Ge76. Data considered in the present analysis have been collected between November 2011 and May 2013 with a total exposure of 21.6 kg yr. A blind analysis is performed. The background index is about 1×10-2counts/(keVkgyr) after pulse shape discrimination. No signal is observed and a lower limit is derived for the half-life of neutrinoless double beta decay of Ge76, T1/20ν>2.1×1025yr (90% C.L.). The combination with the results from the previous experiments with Ge76 yields T1/20ν>3.0×1025yr (90% C.L.).

  5. Construction of the Al-Ni-Si phase diagram over the whole composition and temperature ranges: thermodynamic modeling supported by key experiments and first-principles calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong Wei; Du Yong; Wang Jiong; Zhang Wei-Wei [State Key Lab. of Powder Metallurgy, Central South Univ., Changsha (China); Hu Rong-Xiang; Nash, P. [Thermal Processing Technology Center, Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago (United States); Lu Xiao-Gang [Thermo-Calc AB, Stockholm Technology Park, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2008-06-15

    An extensive thermodynamic investigation of the Al-Ni-Si system is carried out via an integrated approach of calculation of phase diagrams, first-principles calculations, and key experiments. Eighteen decisive alloys are prepared in order to verify the existence of the previously reported ternary compounds and to provide new phase equilibrium data. Phase compositions, microstructure, and phase transition temperatures are determined using the combined techniques of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersion X-ray analysis, and differential thermal analysis. The order/disorder transition between disordered bccA2 and ordered bccB2 phases as well as that between disordered fccA1 and ordered L1{sub 2} phase are described using a two-sublattice model. A self-consistent parameter set is finally obtained by considering the huge amount of experimental data including 13 vertical sections and 5 isothermal sections from both the literature and the present experiments. Almost all of the reliable phase diagram data can be well described by the present modeling. The reliability of the calculated thermodynamic properties for ternary phases is verified through enthalpy measurement employing drop calorimetry and first-principles calculations. The thermodynamic parameters obtained can also successfully predict most of the thermodynamic properties and describe the solidification path for the selected as-cast alloy Al{sub 6}Ni{sub 55}Si{sub 39}. (orig.)

  6. Quantum frames of reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufherr, T.

    1981-01-01

    The idea that only relative variables have physical meaning came to be known as Mach's principle. Carrying over this idea to quantum theory, has led to the consideration of finite mass, macroscopic reference frames, relative to which all physical quantities are measured. During the process of measurement, a finite mass observer receives a kickback, and this reaction of the measuring device is not negligible in quantum theory because of the quantization of the action. Hence, the observer himself has to be included in the system that is being considered. Using this as the starting point, a number of thought experiments involving finite mass observers is discussed which have quantum uncertainties in their time or in their position. These thought experiments serve to elucidate in a qualitative way some of the difficulties involved, as well as pointing out a direction to take in seeking solutions to them. When the discussion is extended to include more than one observer, the question of the covariance of the theory immediately arises. Because none of the frames of reference should be preferred, the theory should be covariant. This demand expresses an equivalence principle which here is extended to include reference frames which are in quantum uncertainties relative to each other. Formulating the problem in terms of canonical variables, the ensueing free Hamiltonian contains vector and scalar potentials which represent the kick that the reference frame receives during measurement. These are essentially gravitational type potentials, resulting, as it were, from the extension of the equivalence principle into the quantum domain

  7. The family’s experience and perception of phases and roles in the progression of dementia: An explorative, interview-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søborg, Jane; Clemmensen, Trine Holt; Busted, Laila Mohrsen

    2016-01-01

    : the protective relative and the decisive relative. The study found that the two types of relatives experience different challenges during the three phases. It is important for health professionals to be familiar with these changes, when they evaluate whether the relatives of a person with dementia require help.......This paper examines how the relatives of a person with dementia experience challenges in everyday life. A model of phases is developed on the basis of interviews with 14 relatives from eight families. Data were subjected to a thematic content analysis, which found that the progression of dementia...... – from the perspective of the family – had three phases. These phases involved small changes in everyday life, adaptations to everyday life, and the loss of everyday life. The analysis further identified the following two archetypes of relatives that develop throughout the progression of dementia...

  8. Quantum Optics in Phase Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleich, Wolfgang P.

    2001-04-01

    Quantum Optics in Phase Space provides a concise introduction to the rapidly moving field of quantum optics from the point of view of phase space. Modern in style and didactically skillful, Quantum Optics in Phase Space prepares students for their own research by presenting detailed derivations, many illustrations and a large set of workable problems at the end of each chapter. Often, the theoretical treatments are accompanied by the corresponding experiments. An exhaustive list of references provides a guide to the literature. Quantum Optics in Phase Space also serves advanced researchers as a comprehensive reference book. Starting with an extensive review of the experiments that define quantum optics and a brief summary of the foundations of quantum mechanics the author Wolfgang P. Schleich illustrates the properties of quantum states with the help of the Wigner phase space distribution function. His description of waves ala WKB connects semi-classical phase space with the Berry phase. These semi-classical techniques provide deeper insight into the timely topics of wave packet dynamics, fractional revivals and the Talbot effect. Whereas the first half of the book deals with mechanical oscillators such as ions in a trap or atoms in a standing wave the second half addresses problems where the quantization of the radiation field is of importance. Such topics extensively discussed include optical interferometry, the atom-field interaction, quantum state preparation and measurement, entanglement, decoherence, the one-atom maser and atom optics in quantized light fields. Quantum Optics in Phase Space presents the subject of quantum optics as transparently as possible. Giving wide-ranging references, it enables students to study and solve problems with modern scientific literature. The result is a remarkably concise yet comprehensive and accessible text- and reference book - an inspiring source of information and insight for students, teachers and researchers alike.

  9. Modelling the effects of phase change materials on the energy use in buildings. Results of Experiments and System Dynamics Modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prins, J.

    2012-02-15

    The current era is in need for more and more sustainable energy solutions. Phase Change Materials (PCM's) are a solution for a more sustainable build environment because they can help to reduce the energy use of buildings during heating and cooling of the indoor air. This paper presents the results of recent experiments that have been executed with test boxes. In addition a System Dynamics model has been developed to find out how PCM's can be used efficiently without testing in reality. The first experiment, in which PCM's were applied in a concrete floor, shows a reduction of peak temperatures with 4C {+-} 0.7C on maximum temperatures and over 1.5C {+-} 0.7C on minimum temperatures during warm periods. The model confirmed these findings, although the predicted reductions were slightly. During the second experiment more PCM's were applied by mounting them into the walls using gypsum plasterboard to increase the latent heat capacity. Remarkably, both the experimental set-up as the model showed that the increase of PCM's (of almost 98%) causes hardly any difference compared to the first situation. Adapting the exterior in a way to absorb more solar energy, increases the average indoor temperature but decreases the reduction of peak temperatures. Again the model confirmed these findings of the experiment. These results show that the effect of PCM's varies on different climatological contexts and with different construction components physics. This means no straight forward advice on the use of PCM's for a building design can be given. The solution for this problem is provided by the model, showing that the effects of PCM's can be modelled in order to use PCM's in an effective way in different climatological contexts and with different characteristics of construction components. The research shows that a simple model is already capable of predicting PCM performance in test boxes with reasonable accuracy. Therefore it can be

  10. Experience from design, prototyping and production of a DC–DC conversion powering scheme for the CMS Phase-1 Pixel Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feld, Lutz, E-mail: Lutz.Feld@cern.ch; Karpinski, Waclaw; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Preuten, Marius; Rauch, Max; Schmitz, Stefan; Wlochal, Michael

    2017-02-11

    The CMS pixel detector will be replaced during the technical stop 2016/2017. To allow the new pixel detector to be powered with the legacy cable plant and power supplies, a novel powering scheme based on DC–DC conversion will be employed. After the successful conclusion of an extensive development and prototyping phase, mass production of 1800 DC–DC converters as well as motherboards and other power PCBs has now been completed. This contribution reviews the lessons learned from the development of the power system for the Phase-1 pixel detector, and summarizes the experience gained from the production phase.

  11. Molecular Identification of Unusual Pathogenic Yeast Isolates by Large Ribosomal Subunit Gene Sequencing: 2 Years of Experience at the United Kingdom Mycology Reference Laboratory▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, Christopher J.; Borman, Andrew M.; Cheung, Grace; Holmes, Ann D.; Szekely, Adrien; Palmer, Michael D.; Bridge, Paul D.; Campbell, Colin K.; Johnson, Elizabeth M.

    2007-01-01

    Rapid identification of yeast isolates from clinical samples is particularly important given their innately variable antifungal susceptibility profiles. We present here an analysis of the utility of PCR amplification and sequence analysis of the hypervariable D1/D2 region of the 26S rRNA gene for the identification of yeast species submitted to the United Kingdom Mycology Reference Laboratory over a 2-year period. A total of 3,033 clinical isolates were received from 2004 to 2006 encompassing 50 different yeast species. While more than 90% of the isolates, corresponding to the most common Candida species, could be identified by using the AUXACOLOR2 yeast identification kit, 153 isolates (5%), comprised of 47 species, could not be identified by using this system and were subjected to molecular identification via 26S rRNA gene sequencing. These isolates included some common species that exhibited atypical biochemical and phenotypic profiles and also many rarer yeast species that are infrequently encountered in the clinical setting. All 47 species requiring molecular identification were unambiguously identified on the basis of D1/D2 sequences, and the molecular identities correlated well with the observed biochemical profiles of the various organisms. Together, our data underscore the utility of molecular techniques as a reference adjunct to conventional methods of yeast identification. Further, we show that PCR amplification and sequencing of the D1/D2 region reliably identifies more than 45 species of clinically significant yeasts and can also potentially identify new pathogenic yeast species. PMID:17251397

  12. Reference range of fetal nasal bone length between 18 and 24 weeks of pregnancy in an unselected Brazilian population: experience from a single service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo Júnior, Edward; Martins, Wellington P; Pires, Claudio Rodrigues; Moron, Antonio Fernandes; Zanforlin Filho, Sebastião Marques

    2014-08-01

    To determine reference range of fetal nasal bone length (NBL) during the second trimester of pregnancy in a Brazilian population. This was a retrospective cross-sectional study with 2681 normal singleton pregnancies between 18 and 24 weeks of gestation. The NBL was obtained in the mid-sagittal plane of the fetal face profile using the following landmarks: nasal bone, overlying skin and the tip of the nose. The NBL was measured by placing the calipers in the out-to-out position. To assess the correlation between NBL and gestational age (GA), polynomial equations were calculated, with adjustments by coefficient of determination (R(2)). The mean of NBL ranged from 5.72 ± 0.87 mm at 18-18 + 6 weeks to 7.45 ± 1.23 mm at 24-24+6 weeks of pregnancy. We observed a good correlation between NBL and GA, best represented by a linear equation: NBL = 0.080+0.276*GA (R(2 )= 0.16). We established a reference range of fetal NBL in the second trimester of pregnancy in a Brazilian population.

  13. Solid phase evolution in the Biosphere 2 hillslope experiment as predicted by modeling of hydrologic and geochemical fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Dontsova

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A reactive transport geochemical modeling study was conducted to help predict the mineral transformations occurring over a ten year time-scale that are expected to impact soil hydraulic properties in the Biosphere 2 (B2 synthetic hillslope experiment. The modeling sought to predict the rate and extent of weathering of a granular basalt (selected for hillslope construction as a function of climatic drivers, and to assess the feedback effects of such weathering processes on the hydraulic properties of the hillslope. Flow vectors were imported from HYDRUS into a reactive transport code, CrunchFlow2007, which was then used to model mineral weathering coupled to reactive solute transport. Associated particle size evolution was translated into changes in saturated hydraulic conductivity using Rosetta software. We found that flow characteristics, including velocity and saturation, strongly influenced the predicted extent of incongruent mineral weathering and neo-phase precipitation on the hillslope. Results were also highly sensitive to specific surface areas of the soil media, consistent with surface reaction controls on dissolution. Effects of fluid flow on weathering resulted in significant differences in the prediction of soil particle size distributions, which should feedback to alter hillslope hydraulic conductivities.

  14. [Implementation of the EndoCert system for certification of arthroplasty centers. Experiences from the pilot phase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, H; Mittelmeier, W

    2014-06-01

    EndoCert is an initiative of the Deutschen Gesellschaft für Orthopädie und Orthopädische Chirurgie (DGOOC, German Society for Orthopedics and Orthopedic Surgery) which has been available since October 2012 and is the first system worldwide for certification of specialized arthroplasty centers. Before implementation of this certification concept two sequential pilot phases were carried out with representative treatment institutions. The results from these pilot clinics are presented with respect to quality improvement effects. Early effects on the quality of treatment have been achieved by rectification of nonconformities determined in the audit with respect to structural and process quality. A total of 172 nonconformities found in the 23 participating pilot clinics could be rectified. Long-term effects on the quality of results will in future be analyzed in cooperation with the German endoprosthesis register (EPRD) and by accompanying evaluations. A close feedback of the collated experiences and results to the certification committee, which is responsible for the procedure together with the DGOOC, allows continuous further development of the system EndoCert represents a substantial step towards a nationwide safety and improvement of the quality in arthroplasty treatment within the preoperative, perioperative and postoperative framework and can in future represent a decisive tool together with the EPRD in quality management.

  15. Gulf of Mexico offshore operations monitoring experiment (GOOMEX), phase I : sublethal responses to contaminant exposure - introduction and overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennicutt, M.C.; Green, R.H.; Montagna, P.

    1996-01-01

    The Gulf of Mexico Offshore Operations Monitoring Experiment (GOOMEX) is a three-phase study to test and evaluate a range of biological, biochemical, and chemical methodologies to detect and assess chronic sublethal biological impacts in the vicinity of long-duration activities associated with oil and gas exploration and production. A chronic impact is defined as an effect on the biota caused by exposure to the long-term accumulation of chemicals in the environment. The basic program, comprising four field activities over a 2-yr period, was designed to detect nearfield impacts and contaminant gradients extending out from each site. Five test sites were evaluated and three selected as most appropriate for long-term study: MU-A85, MAI-686, and HI-A389. The sampling design included a radial pattern with stations at 30-50, 100, 200, 500, and 3000 m distance and employed a dose-response model to test the hypotheses that biological, chemical, and biochemical variations are due to platform-derived contaminants. Study components included contaminant (trace metals and hydrocarbons) analysis in sediments, pore waters, and biological tissues; assemblage analysis of benthic meiofauna, infauna, and epifauna, assessment of community health based on life history and reproduction studies; and the induction of detoxification responses. (author). 57 refs., 9 tabs., 5 figs

  16. MELCOR 1.8.2 assessment: The MP-1 and MP-2 late phase melt progression experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tautges, T.J.

    1994-05-01

    MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the USNRC, that models the entire spectrum of severe accident phenomena in a unified framework for both BWRs and PWRs. As a part of an ongoing assessment program, MELCOR has been used to model the MP-1 and MP-2 experiments, which provided data for late-phase melt progression in PWR geometries. Core temperature predicted by MELCOR were within 250--500 K of measured data in both MP-1 and MP-2. Relocation in the debris bed and metallic crust regions of MP-2 was predicted accurately compared to PIE data. Temperature gradients in lower portions of the test bundle were not predicted well in both MP-1 and MP-2, due to the lack of modeling of the heat transfer path to the cooling jacket in those portions of the test bundles. Fifteen sensitivity studies were run on various core (COR), control volume hydrodynamics (CVH) and heat structures (HS) package parameters. No unexpected sensitivities were found, and in particular there were no sensitivities to reduced time step, finer nodalization or to computer platform. Calculations performed by the DEBRIS and TAC2D codes for MP-1 and MP-2 showed better agreement with measured data than those performed by MELCOR. This was expected, through, due to the fully 2-dimensional modeling used in the other codes

  17. Quality assurance plan for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Remediation Project at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Phase 1 -- Interim corrective measures and Phase 2 -- Purge and trap reactive gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This Quality Assurance Plan (QAP) identifies and describes the systems utilized by the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Remediation Project (MSRERP) personnel to implement the requirements and associated applicable guidance contained in the Quality Program Description Y/QD-15 Rev. 2 (Energy Systems 1995f). This QAP defines the quality assurance (QA) requirements applicable to all activities and operations in and directly pertinent to the MSRERP Phase 1--Interim Corrective Measures and Phase 2--Purge and Trap objectives. This QAP will be reviewed, revised, and approved as necessary for Phase 3 and Phase 4 activities. This QAP identifies and describes the QA activities and procedures implemented by the various Oak Ridge National Laboratory support organizations and personnel to provide confidence that these activities meet the requirements of this project. Specific support organization (Division) quality requirements, including the degree of implementation of each, are contained in the appendixes of this plan

  18. HANFORD WASTE MINEROLOGY REFERENCE REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disselkamp, R.S.

    2010-01-01

    This report lists the observed mineral phases present in the Hanford tanks. This task was accomplished by performing a review of numerous reports using experimental techniques including, but not limited to: x-ray diffraction, polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and particle size distribution analyses. This report contains tables that can be used as a quick reference to identify the crystal phases present observed in Hanford waste.

  19. HANFORD WASTE MINERALOGY REFERENCE REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DISSELKAMP RS

    2010-06-29

    This report lists the observed mineral phases present in the Hanford tanks. This task was accomplished by performing a review of numerous reports that used experimental techniques including, but not limited to: x-ray diffraction, polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and particle size distribution analyses. This report contains tables that can be used as a quick reference to identify the crystal phases observed in Hanford waste.

  20. Hanford Waste Mineralogy Reference Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disselkamp, R.S.

    2010-01-01

    This report lists the observed mineral phases present in the Hanford tanks. This task was accomplished by performing a review of numerous reports that used experimental techniques including, but not limited to: x-ray diffraction, polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and particle size distribution analyses. This report contains tables that can be used as a quick reference to identify the crystal phases observed in Hanford waste.

  1. Discrimination of Arabic-named applicants in the Netherlands: An internet-based field experiment examining different phases in online recruitment procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blommaert, E.C.C.A.; Coenders, M.T.A.; Tubergen, F.A. van

    2014-01-01

    This study examines discrimination of Arabic-named applicants in online recruitment procedures in the Netherlands. We develop and implement a new field experiment approach, posting fictitious resumes (n = 636) on two online resume databases. Two phases of recruitment procedures are examined:

  2. OSH technical reference manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    In an evaluation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Occupational Safety and Health programs for government-owned contractor-operated (GOCO) activities, the Department of Labor`s Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) recommended a technical information exchange program. The intent was to share written safety and health programs, plans, training manuals, and materials within the entire DOE community. The OSH Technical Reference (OTR) helps support the secretary`s response to the OSHA finding by providing a one-stop resource and referral for technical information that relates to safe operations and practice. It also serves as a technical information exchange tool to reference DOE-wide materials pertinent to specific safety topics and, with some modification, as a training aid. The OTR bridges the gap between general safety documents and very specific requirements documents. It is tailored to the DOE community and incorporates DOE field experience.

  3. Cross polarization with phase and amplitude modulation of radio frequency fields in NMR-experiments with sample rotation at magic angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvinskij, S.V.; Chizhik, V.I.

    2006-01-01

    One analyzes cross polarization of nuclei within a rotating system of coordinates as applied to the NMR-experiments with a specimen rotation under the magic angle. One worded a concept of simultaneous phase and amplitude modulation according to which the Hamiltonian form of the restored dipole interaction persisted if inversion of difference of radiofrequency field amplitudes occurred simultaneously with phase inversion. One presents a theoretical substantiation in terms of the average Hamiltonian theory. The concept is demonstrated both experimentally and by means of numerical analysis for a number of special cases. Phase periodic inversion in cross polarized experiments is shown to result into practically important advantage of suppression of interactions of chemical shift and influence of effects of coarse adjustment of radiofrequency field parameters [ru

  4. Structural steady states and relaxation oscillations in a two-phase fluid under shear flow: Experiments and phenomenological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courbin, L.; Benayad, A.; Panizza, P.

    2006-01-01

    By means of several rheophysics techniques, we report on an extensive study of the couplings between flow and microstructures in a two-phase fluid made of lamellar (Lα) and sponge (L3) phases. Depending on the nature of the imposed dynamical parameter (stress or shear rate) and on the experimental conditions (brine salinity or temperature), we observe several different structural steady states consisting of either multilamellar droplets (with or without a long range order) or elongated (L3) phase domains. Two different astonishing phenomena, shear-induced phase inversion and relaxation oscillations, are observed. We show that (i) phase inversion is related to a shear-induced topological change between monodisperse multilamellar droplets and elongated structures and (ii) droplet size relaxation oscillations result from a shear-induced change of the surface tension between both coexisting (Lα) and (L3) phases. To explain these relaxation oscillations, we present a phenomenological model and compare its numerical predictions to our experimental results.

  5. Virtual Reference, Real Money: Modeling Costs in Virtual Reference Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakin, Lori; Pomerantz, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Libraries nationwide are in yet another phase of belt tightening. Without an understanding of the economic factors that influence library operations, however, controlling costs and performing cost-benefit analyses on services is difficult. This paper describes a project to develop a cost model for collaborative virtual reference services. This…

  6. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory - feasibility and usefulness of site investigation methods. Experiences from the pre-investigation phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almen, K E [ed.; KEA GEO-Konsult (Sweden); Olsson, Paer [SKANSKA, (Sweden); Rhen, I [VBB VIAK AB, Malmoe (Sweden); Stanfors, R [RS Consulting, (Sweden); Wikberg, P [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1994-08-01

    One of the main goals set up by SKB for the Aespoe HRL project is to `test the quality and appropriateness of different methods for characterizing the bedrock with respect to conditions of importance for a final repository`. An extensive investigation programme was carried out during the projects pre-investigation phase that in part was based in experience from SKBs previous site investigations and in part entailed the testing of new or other unestablished methods. Previous technical reports have described the methods that have been used and the results, models and predictions that have been produced. All the methods used are discussed in the present report in terms of how they have contributed in different analysis stages to the total geoscientific characterization of the rock at Aespoe. The usefulness of each method for modelling and prediction in different scales is evaluated, and aspects of the practical execution of the methods under different conditions are discussed. The report sheds light on the importance of dividing large investigation programmes such as this one into suitable stages to get an opportunity to evaluate the results obtained and plan in detail the investigations in the next stage. Furthermore, the way in which the characterization/modelling work in different geometric scales has been done for the different investigation stages is discussed, along with whether this has been found to be a suitable approach. The importance of pursuing an interdisciplinary strategy throughout the pre-investigation process cannot be overemphasized. For the planning, execution, analysis and reporting of the results of the pre-investigations, this has been guaranteed by an organization in which an interdisciplinary group has been in charge of the investigations, together with the project manager. 52 refs, numerous tabs and figs.

  7. APOGEE-2: The Second Phase of the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment in SDSS-IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobeck, Jennifer; Majewski, S.; Hearty, F.; Schiavon, R. P.; Holtzman, J. A.; Johnson, J.; Frinchaboy, P. M.; Skrutskie, M. F.; Munoz, R.; Pinsonneault, M. H.; Nidever, D. L.; Zasowski, G.; Garcia Perez, A.; Fabbian, D.; Meza Cofre, A.; Cunha, K. M.; Smith, V. V.; Chiappini, C.; Beers, T. C.; Steinmetz, M.; Anders, F.; Bizyaev, D.; Roman, A.; Fleming, S. W.; Crane, J. D.; SDSS-IV/APOGEE-2 Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The second phase of the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE-2), a part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV (SDSS-IV), will commence operations in 2014. APOGEE-2 represents a significant expansion over APOGEE-1, not only in the size of the stellar sample, but also in the coverage of the sky through observations in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Observations on the 2.5m Sloan Foundation Telescope of the Apache Point Observatory (APOGEE-2N) will continue immediately after the conclusion of APOGEE-1, to be followed by observations with the 2.5m du Pont Telescope of the Las Campanas Observatory (APOGEE-2S) within three years. Over the six-year lifetime of the project, high resolution (R˜22,500), high signal-to-noise (≥100) spectroscopic data in the H-band wavelength regime (1.51-1.69 μm) will be obtained for several hundred thousand stars, more than tripling the total APOGEE-1 sample. Accurate radial velocities and detailed chemical compositions will be generated for target stars in the main Galactic components (bulge, disk, and halo), open/globular clusters, and satellite dwarf galaxies. The spectroscopic follow-up program of Kepler targets with the APOGEE-2N instrument will be continued and expanded. APOGEE-2 will significantly extend and enhance the APOGEE-1 legacy of scientific contributions to understanding the origin and evolution of the elements, the assembly and formation history of galaxies like the Milky Way, and fundamental stellar astrophysics.

  8. CCN activation experiments with adipic acid: effect of particle phase and adipic acid coatings on soluble and insoluble particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Hings

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Slightly soluble atmospherically relevant organic compounds may influence particle CCN activity and therefore cloud formation. Adipic acid is a frequently employed surrogate for such slightly soluble organic materials. The 11 published experimental studies on the CCN activity of adipic acid particles are not consistent with each other nor do they, in most cases, agree with the Köhler theory. The CCN activity of adipic acid aerosol particles was studied over a significantly wider range of conditions than in any previous single study. The work spans the conditions of the previous studies and also provides alternate methods for producing "wet" (deliquesced solution droplets and dry adipic acid particles without the need to produce them by atomization of aqueous solutions. The experiments suggest that the scatter in the previously published CCN measurements is most likely due to the difficulty of producing uncontaminated adipic acid particles by atomization of solutions and possibly also due to uncertainties in the calibration of the instruments. The CCN activation of the small (dm<150 nm initially dry particles is subject to a deliquescence barrier, while for the larger particles the activation follows the Köhler curve. Wet adipic acid particles follow the Köhler curve over the full range of particle diameters studied. In addition, the effect of adipic acid coatings on the CCN activity of both soluble and insoluble particles has also been studied. When a water-soluble core is coated by adipic acid, the CCN-hindering effect of particle phase is eliminated. An adipic acid coating on hydrophobic soot yields a CCN active particle. If the soot particle is relatively small (dcore≤102 nm, the CCN activity of the coated particles approaches the deliquescence line of adipic acid, suggesting that the total size of the particle determines CCN activation and the soot core acts as a scaffold.

  9. Is Early Experience Destiny? Review of Research on Long-Term Outcomes following International Adoption with Special Reference to the British Chinese Adoption Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Margaret; Rushton, Alan; Simmonds, John

    2016-01-01

    The pathway from adverse early experience to adulthood for internationally adopted children is complex in identifying key influences, impacts, and outcomes. This review arose from the authors' involvement in the British Chinese Adoption Study, a recent outcomes study that explored the links between early orphanage care, adoptive experiences, and midadulthood. It differs from previous reviews in focusing on a greater length of time since adoption. Both quantitative and qualitative studies were included to allow for examination of a fuller range of adult-related outcomes rather than mental health scores alone. The sampling, methods, and results of reviewed articles are summarised and a critical commentary is provided. Despite methodological differences and identified strengths and weaknesses, conclusions are drawn on the basis of the evidence available. Special attention is paid to the interpretation of negative outcomes. Findings identify areas that should be explored further in order to gain a fuller understanding of midlife outcomes of people who experienced a poor start in life followed by international adoption. Such studies help in refining lifespan developmental theories.

  10. Kinetic parameters of the GUINEVERE reference configuration in VENUS-F reactor obtained from a pile noise experiment using Rossi and Feynman methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geslot, Benoit; Pepino, Alexandra; Blaise, Patrick; Mellier, Frederic [CEA, DEN, DER/SPEx, Cadarache, F-13108 St Paul Lez Durance (France); Lecouey, Jean-Luc [LPC Caen, ENSICAEN, Universite de Caen, CNRS/IN2P3, 6 Bd. Marechal Juin 14050 Caen cedex (France); Carta, Mario [ENEA, UTFISST-REANUC, C.R. Casaccia, S.P.040 via Anguillarese 301, 00123 S. Maria Di Galeria, Roma (Italy); Kochetkov, Anatoly; Vittiglio, Guido [SCK.CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, BE-2400, Mol (Belgium); Billebaud, Annick [LPSC, CNRS, IN2P3/UJF/INPG, 53 Avenue des Martyrs, 38026 Grenoble cedex (France)

    2015-07-01

    A pile noise measurement campaign has been conducted by the CEA in the VENUS-F reactor (SCK-CEN, Mol Belgium) in April 2011 in the reference critical configuration of the GUINEVERE experimental program. The experimental setup made it possible to estimate the core kinetic parameters: the prompt neutron decay constant, the delayed neutron fraction and the generation time. A precise assessment of these constants is of prime importance. In particular, the effective delayed neutron fraction is used to normalize and compare calculated reactivities of different subcritical configurations, obtained by modifying either the core layout or the control rods position, with experimental ones deduced from the analysis of measurements. This paper presents results obtained with a CEA-developed time stamping acquisition system. Data were analyzed using Rossi-α and Feynman-α methods. Results were normalized to reactor power using a calibrated fission chamber with a deposit of Np-237. Calculated factors were necessary to the analysis: the Diven factor was computed by the ENEA (Italy) and the power calibration factor by the CNRS/IN2P3/LPC Caen. Results deduced with both methods are consistent with respect to calculated quantities. Recommended values are given by the Rossi-α estimator, that was found to be the most robust. The neutron generation time was found equal to 0.438 ± 0.009 μs and the effective delayed neutron fraction is 765 ± 8 pcm. Discrepancies with the calculated value (722 pcm, calculation from ENEA) are satisfactory: -5.6% for the Rossi-α estimate and -2.7% for the Feynman-α estimate. (authors)

  11. Mineralogical investigations of the interaction between iron corrosion products and bentonite from the NF-PRO Experiments (Phase 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milodowski, A.E.; Cave, M.R.; Kemp, S.J.; Taylor, B.H.; Vickers, B.P.; Green, K.A.; Williams, C.L.; Shaw, R.A. (British Geological Survey (United Kingdom))

    2009-01-15

    This report summarises the findings of a programme of work under taken by the British Geological Survey (BGS) on behalf of SKB, to characterise the mineralogical alteration of compacted bentonite from experiments designed to study the interaction between iron corrosion and bentonite. The experiments were undertaken by Serco Assurance (Culham Laboratory, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom), and were co-funded by SKB within the EU Framework 6 NF-PRO Project. Reacted bentonite residues from three NF-PRO Experiments - NFC12, NFC16 and NFC17 were examined by BGS using; X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD); petrographical analysis with backscattered scanning electron microscopy (BSEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDXA) techniques, cation exchange capacity (CEC) and exchangeable cation analysis; and sequential chemical extraction. Bentonite immediately adjacent to corroding steel was found to have interacted with Fe released from the corroding metal. This resulted in the formation of narrow haloes of altered bentonite around the corroding steel wires, in which the clay matrix was significantly enriched in Fe. Detailed petrographical observation found no evidence for the formation of discrete iron oxide or iron oxyhydroxide phases within the clay matrix but appeared to show that the clay particles themselves had become enriched in Fe. XRD observations indicated a slight increase in d002/d003 peak ratio, which could possibly be accounted for by a small amount of substitution of Fe into the octahedral layers of the montmorillonite. If correct, then this alteration might represent the early stages of conversion of the dioctahedral montmorillonite to an iron-rich dioctahedral smectite such as nontronite. Alternatively, the same effect may have been produced as a result of the displacement of exchangeable interlayer cations by Fe and subsequent conversion to form additional Fe-rich octahedral layers. In either case, the XRD results are consistent with the petrographical

  12. Phase composition of Al-Ti-Nb-Mo γ alloys in the heat-treatment temperature range: Calculation and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, N. A.; Dashkevich, N. I.; Bel'tyukova, S. O.

    2015-07-01

    The phase composition of TNM-type Al-Ti-Nb-Mo γ alloys at heat-treatment temperatures is quantitatively studied using the Thermo-Calc program package and experimental methods. Isothermal cross sections are calculated and the joint influence of two alloying elements on the phase composition of the alloy is determined at the mean concentration of a third component. Based on the calculations of vertical cross sections, the boundaries of the four-phase eutectoid reaction α → α2 + β + γ are found. The temperature is shown to significantly influence the phase compositions of the γ alloys, among them the mass fractions of various phases (α, β, γ,α2) and the element concentration in them.

  13. Experience of Approbation and Target Reference Points of Introduction of the Professional Standard "Pedagogue-Psychologist (Educational psychologist" in Sverdlovsk Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasyagina N.N.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The experience of application of the professional standard "Pedagogue-psychologist (educational psychologist" in the Sverdlovsk region is described. A regional model for the application of the professional standard developed on the basis of the principles of unity of centralization and decentralization, interdepartmental and network interaction developed by the authors is presented. The main forms and methods of work on the application of a professional standard in the region are disclosed; the results of the Sverdlovsk region internship site are described, including mechanisms for identifying personnel shortages and development of personalized trajectories of the professional development of psychology teachers in the region. The following are highlighted as priority areas: the development of regional normative legal acts regulating the professional activity of pedagogue-psychologists, the application of the professional standard of the pedagogue-psychologist in the formation of the personnel policy in the field of education, and the modernization of the system of vocational training and additional vocational education of psychologists.

  14. $\\pi \\pi$ phase-shift analysis from an experiment $\\pi^{-}p \\rightarrow \\pi^{-} \\pi^{+} n$ at 17.2 GeV/c

    CERN Document Server

    Grayer, G; Dietl, H; Hyams, Bernard David; Jones, C; Koch, W; Lorenz, E; Lütjens, G; Männer, W; Meissburger, J; Ochs, W; Schlein, P E; Stierlin, U; Weilhammer, P

    1972-01-01

    The pi pi phase-shifts have been determined by a Chew-Low extrapolation in the pi pi mass region from 500 to 1500 MeV using data of a spark chamber experiment on pi /sup -/p to pi /sup -/ pi /sup +/n at 17.2 GeV/c, which yielded 318000 events. The authors find an I=0 s- wave phase shift which increases slowly, passing through 90 degrees near 900 MeV, and then rises very rapidly. The old 'up' solution is eliminated on the basis of fits in the mass region from 900-1000 MeV. (13 refs).

  15. submitter Phase transition observations and discrimination of small cloud particles by light polarization in expansion chamber experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Nichman, Leonid; Järvinen, Emma; Ignatius, Karoliina; Höppel, Niko Florian; Dias, Antonio; Heinritzi, Martin; Simon, Mario; Tröstl, Jasmin; Wagner, Andrea Christine; Wagner, Robert; Williamson, Christina; Yan, Chao; Connolly, Paul James; Dorsey, James Robert; Duplissy, Jonathan; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Frege, Carla; Gordon, Hamish; Hoyle, Christopher Robert; Kristensen, Thomas Bjerring; Steiner, Gerhard; McPherson Donahue, Neil; Flagan, Richard; Gallagher, Martin William; Kirkby, Jasper; Möhler, Ottmar; Saathoff, Harald; Schnaiter, Martin; Stratmann, Frank; Tomé, António

    2016-01-01

    Cloud microphysical processes involving the ice phase in tropospheric clouds are among the major uncertainties in cloud formation, weather, and general circulation models. The detection of aerosol particles, liquid droplets, and ice crystals, especially in the small cloud particle-size range below 50 μm, remains challenging in mixed phase, often unstable environments. The Cloud Aerosol Spectrometer with Polarization (CASPOL) is an airborne instrument that has the ability to detect such small cloud particles and measure the variability in polarization state of their backscattered light. Here we operate the versatile Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets (CLOUD) chamber facility at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) to produce controlled mixed phase and other clouds by adiabatic expansions in an ultraclean environment, and use the CASPOL to discriminate between different aerosols, water, and ice particles. In this paper, optical property measurements of mixed-phase clouds and viscous secondary ...

  16. Evaluation of statistical designs in phase I expansion cohorts: the Dana-Farber/Harvard Cancer Center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlberg, Suzanne E; Shapiro, Geoffrey I; Clark, Jeffrey W; Johnson, Bruce E

    2014-07-01

    Phase I trials have traditionally been designed to assess toxicity and establish phase II doses with dose-finding studies and expansion cohorts but are frequently exceeding the traditional sample size to further assess endpoints in specific patient subsets. The scientific objectives of phase I expansion cohorts and their evolving role in the current era of targeted therapies have yet to be systematically examined. Adult therapeutic phase I trials opened within Dana-Farber/Harvard Cancer Center (DF/HCC) from 1988 to 2012 were identified for sample size details. Statistical designs and study objectives of those submitted in 2011 were reviewed for expansion cohort details. Five hundred twenty-two adult therapeutic phase I trials were identified during the 25 years. The average sample size of a phase I study has increased from 33.8 patients to 73.1 patients over that time. The proportion of trials with planned enrollment of 50 or fewer patients dropped from 93.0% during the time period 1988 to 1992 to 46.0% between 2008 and 2012; at the same time, the proportion of trials enrolling 51 to 100 patients and more than 100 patients increased from 5.3% and 1.8%, respectively, to 40.5% and 13.5% (χ(2) test, two-sided P < .001). Sixteen of the 60 trials (26.7%) in 2011 enrolled patients to three or more sub-cohorts in the expansion phase. Sixty percent of studies provided no statistical justification of the sample size, although 91.7% of trials stated response as an objective. Our data suggest that phase I studies have dramatically changed in size and scientific scope within the last decade. Additional studies addressing the implications of this trend on research processes, ethical concerns, and resource burden are needed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  17. Angular quasi-phase-matching experiments and determination of accurate Sellmeier equations for 5%MgO:PPLN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Pierre; Boulanger, Benoît; Segonds, Patricia; Petit, Yannick; Félix, Corinne; Ménaert, Bertrand; Taira, Takunori; Ishizuki, Hideki

    2009-09-01

    We validated the theory of angular quasi-phase-matching (AQPM) by performing measurements of second-harmonic generation and difference-frequency generation. A nonlinear least-squares fitting of these experimental data led to refine the Sellmeier equations of 5%MgO:PPLN that are now valid over the complete transparency range of the crystal. We also showed that AQPM exhibits complementary spectral ranges and acceptances compared with birefringence phase matching.

  18. Pressure-induced phase transformation in zircon-type orthovanadate SmVO4 from experiment and theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, C; Garg, Alka B; Errandonea, D; Sans, J A; Rodriguez-Hernández, P; Radescu, S; Muñoz, A; Achary, S N; Tyagi, A K

    2016-01-01

    The compression behavior of zircon-type samarium orthovanadate, SmVO 4 , has been investigated using synchrotron-based powder x-ray diffraction and ab initio calculations of up to 21 GPa. The results indicate the instability of ambient zircon phase at around 6 GPa, which transforms to a high-density scheelite-type phase. The high-pressure phase remains stable up to 21 GPa, the highest pressure reached in the present investigations. On pressure release, the scheelite phase is recovered. The crystal structure of the high-pressure phase and the equations of state for the zircon- and scheelite-type phases have been determined. Various compressibilities, such as the bulk, axial and bond compressibilities, estimated from the experimental data are found to be in good agreement with the results obtained from theoretical calculations. The calculated elastic constants show that the zircon structure becomes mechanically unstable beyond the transition pressure. Overall there is good agreement between the experimental and theoretical findings. (paper)

  19. TOPFLOW-experiments, model development and validation for the qualification of CFD-odes for two-phase flows. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, D.; Beyer, M.; Banowski, M.; Seidel, T.; Krepper, E.; Liao, Y.; Apanasevich, P.; Gauss, F.; Ma, T.

    2016-12-01

    This report summarizes the main results obtained in frame of the project. The aim of the project was the qualification of CFD-methods for two-phase flows with phase transfer relevant for nuclear safety research. To reach this aim CFD-grade experimental data are required. Such data can be obtained at the TOPFLOW facility because of the combination of experiments in scales and at parameters which are relevant for nuclear safety research with innovative measuring techniques. The experimental part of this project comprises investigations on flows in vertical pipes using the ultrafast X-ray tomography, on flows with and without phase transfer in a special test basin and on counter-current flow limitation in a model of a PWR hot leg. These experiments are only briefly presented in this report since detailed documentations are given in separated reports for all of these 3 experimental series. One important results of the activities devoted on CFD qualification is the establishment of the baseline model concept and the definition of the baseline model for poly-disperse bubbly flows. This is an important contribution to improve the predictive capabilities of CFD-models basing on the two- or multi-fluid approach. On the other hand, the innovative Generalized Two-Phase Flow concept (GENTOP) aims on an extension of the range of applicability of CFD-methods. In many relevant flow situations different morphologies of the phases or different flow pattern occur simultaneously in one flow domain. In addition transitions between these morphologies may occur. The GENTOP-concept for the first time a framework was established which allows the simulation of such flow situations in a consistent manner. Other activities of the project aim on special model developments to improve the simulation capabilities for flows with phase transfer.

  20. Experiment study about phase transition characteristics of CO{sub 2} in low-permeable porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, P.; Wang, J.; Luo, Y. [State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Chengdu (China); Southwest Petroleum Univ., Chengdu (China); Fan, J.M. [PetroChina, Xian (China). Ultra-low Permeability Reservoir Research Inst.

    2009-07-01

    This paper described an experimental study conducted to characterize phase changes in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) that occur during CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes. An ultrasonic testing method was used to determine the influence of pressure and temperature on core fluids. Phase transitions were characterized by collecting time series of ultrasonic signals in a data acquisition system and calculating the correlation dimension of the phase space. A correlation dimension analysis method was used with a fractal theory to develop correlation curves for the phase transition characteristics of CO{sub 2} in porous media. The study demonstrated that below a critical temperature, the existence of porous media can increase the phase transition point of CO{sub 2}. Above the critical temperature, the existence of porous media decreased the inflection point in the pressure-volume relationship curve for CO{sub 2}. Time difference changes were also more apparent above the critical temperature. 11 refs., 2 tabs., 11 figs.

  1. Developmental assessment of RELAP5/MOD3 code against ROSA-IV/TPTF horizontal two-phase flow experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukita, Yutaka; Asaka, Hideaki; Anoda, Yoshinari; Ishiguro, Misako; Tasaka, Kanji; Mimura, Yuichi; Nemoto, Toshiyuki.

    1990-03-01

    A developmental version of the RELAP5/Mod3 code (as of June 1989) was assessed for accuracy using experimental data taken for high-pressure (7MPa) steam-water two-phase flow in a large-diameter (0.18 m) horizontal-pipe test section of the ROSA-IV Two-Phase Flow Test Facility (TPTF). The agreement between the measured and calculated test section void fractions was much better than that for the previous generation of RELAP5 (MOD2). The improvement was achieved primarily due to the code changes with respect to the flow stratification criterion and interfacial-drag calculation scheme. (author)

  2. Multi-phase simulation of fast ion profile flattening due to Alfvén eigenmodes in a DIII-D experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todo, Y.; Van Zeeland, M.A.; Bierwage, A.; Heidbrink, W.W.

    2014-01-01

    A multi-phase simulation that is a combination of classical simulation and hybrid simulation for energetic particles interacting with a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fluid is developed to simulate the nonlinear dynamics on the slowing down time scale of the energetic particles. The hybrid simulation code is extended with realistic beam deposition profile, collisions and losses, and is used for both the classical and hybrid phases. The code is run without MHD perturbations in the classical phase, while the interaction between the energetic particles and the MHD fluid is simulated in the hybrid phase. In a multi-phase simulation of DIII-D discharge #142111, the stored beam ion energy is saturated due to Alfvén eigenmodes (AE modes) at a level lower than in the classical simulation. After the stored fast ion energy is saturated, the hybrid simulation is run continuously. It is demonstrated that the fast ion spatial profile is significantly flattened due to the interaction with the multiple AE modes with amplitude v/v A  ∼ δB/B ∼ O(10 −4 ). The dominant AE modes are toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes (TAE modes), which is consistent with the experimental observation at the simulated moment. The amplitude of the temperature fluctuations brought about by the TAE modes is of the order of 1% of the equilibrium temperature. This is also comparable with electron cyclotron emission measurements in the experiment. (paper)

  3. Standard Reference Tables -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Standard Reference Tables (SRT) provide consistent reference data for the various applications that support Flight Standards Service (AFS) business processes and...

  4. Field experiments on the use of phase changing materials, insulation materials and passive solar radiation in the built environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Entrop, Alexis Gerardus; Brouwers, Jos; Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.; McCarthy, J.; Foliente, G.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an experimental research facility to assess the effectiveness of Phase Change Materials (PCM), that can be used for passive solar heating. Four test boxes are constructed representing the conventional and future Dutch building practices regarding insulation

  5. Principal Experiences with Crisis Management Professional Development, Collaboration, and Implementation of the National Incident Management System Phases of Emergency Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naradko, Anthony M.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative single-subject case study was to identify the elements critical to crisis management professional development for school principals; the factors influencing the implementation of the National Incident Management System Phases of Emergency Management (2010) for principals; and the necessary elements for fostering…

  6. The evolution of interfacial morphology during coarsening: A comparison between 4D experiments and phase-field simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagesen, L.K.; Fife, J.L.; Lauridsen, Erik Mejdal

    2011-01-01

    The evolution of the solid–liquid interface in an Al–Cu dendritic microstructure is predicted using a phase-field model and compared to experimental data. The interfacial velocities are measured during isothermal coarsening using in situ X-ray tomographic microscopy. Good qualitative agreement...

  7. A novel Deep Reactive Ion Etched (DRIE) glass micro-model for two-phase flow experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karadimitriou, N.K.; Joekar-Niasar, V.; Hassanizadeh, S.M.; Kleingeld, P.J.; Pyrak-Nolte, L.J.

    2012-01-01

    In the last few decades, micro-models have become popular experimental tools for two-phase flow studies. In this work, the design and fabrication of an innovative, elongated, glass-etched micromodel with dimensions of 5 6 35 mm2 and constant depth of 43 microns is described. This is the

  8. Microbicide trials for preventing HIV/AIDS in South Africa: phase II trial partricipants' experiences and psychological needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pistorius, A. G.; van de Wijgert, J. H. H. M.; Sebola, M.; Friedland, B.; Nagel, E.; Bokaba, C.; Hoosen, A. A.

    2004-01-01

    The Microbicide Division of the Department of Medical Microbiology at MEDUNSA, South Africa, recently completed a phase II expanded safety trial of the candidate microbicide Carraguard. A microbicide is a vaginal product that women might use, if proven safe and effective, to protect themselves from

  9. Can I solve my structure by SAD phasing? Planning an experiment, scaling data and evaluating the useful anomalous correlation and anomalous signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terwilliger, Thomas C; Bunkóczi, Gábor; Hung, Li Wei; Zwart, Peter H; Smith, Janet L; Akey, David L; Adams, Paul D

    2016-03-01

    A key challenge in the SAD phasing method is solving a structure when the anomalous signal-to-noise ratio is low. Here, algorithms and tools for evaluating and optimizing the useful anomalous correlation and the anomalous signal in a SAD experiment are described. A simple theoretical framework [Terwilliger et al. (2016), Acta Cryst. D72, 346-358] is used to develop methods for planning a SAD experiment, scaling SAD data sets and estimating the useful anomalous correlation and anomalous signal in a SAD data set. The phenix.plan_sad_experiment tool uses a database of solved and unsolved SAD data sets and the expected characteristics of a SAD data set to estimate the probability that the anomalous substructure will be found in the SAD experiment and the expected map quality that would be obtained if the substructure were found. The phenix.scale_and_merge tool scales unmerged SAD data from one or more crystals using local scaling and optimizes the anomalous signal by identifying the systematic differences among data sets, and the phenix.anomalous_signal tool estimates the useful anomalous correlation and anomalous signal after collecting SAD data and estimates the probability that the data set can be solved and the likely figure of merit of phasing.

  10. The Fourteenth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey: First Spectroscopic Data from the Extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey and from the Second Phase of the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolfathi, Bela; Aguado, D. S.; Aguilar, Gabriela; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Almeida, Andres; Tasnim Ananna, Tonima; Anders, Friedrich; Anderson, Scott F.; Andrews, Brett H.; Anguiano, Borja; Aragón-Salamanca, Alfonso; Argudo-Fernández, Maria; Armengaud, Eric; Ata, Metin; Aubourg, Eric; Avila-Reese, Vladimir; Badenes, Carles; Bailey, Stephen; Balland, Christophe; Barger, Kathleen A.; Barrera-Ballesteros, Jorge; Bartosz, Curtis; Bastien, Fabienne; Bates, Dominic; Baumgarten, Falk; Bautista, Julian; Beaton, Rachael; Beers, Timothy C.; Belfiore, Francesco; Bender, Chad F.; Bernardi, Mariangela; Bershady, Matthew A.; Beutler, Florian; Bird, Jonathan C.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Blanc, Guillermo A.; Blanton, Michael R.; Blomqvist, Michael; Bolton, Adam S.; Boquien, Médéric; Borissova, Jura; Bovy, Jo; Andres Bradna Diaz, Christian; Nielsen Brandt, William; Brinkmann, Jonathan; Brownstein, Joel R.; Bundy, Kevin; Burgasser, Adam J.; Burtin, Etienne; Busca, Nicolás G.; Cañas, Caleb I.; Cano-Díaz, Mariana; Cappellari, Michele; Carrera, Ricardo; Casey, Andrew R.; Cervantes Sodi, Bernardo; Chen, Yanping; Cherinka, Brian; Chiappini, Cristina; Doohyun Choi, Peter; Chojnowski, Drew; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Chung, Haeun; Clerc, Nicolas; Cohen, Roger E.; Comerford, Julia M.; Comparat, Johan; Correa do Nascimento, Janaina; da Costa, Luiz; Cousinou, Marie-Claude; Covey, Kevin; Crane, Jeffrey D.; Cruz-Gonzalez, Irene; Cunha, Katia; da Silva Ilha, Gabriele; Damke, Guillermo J.; Darling, Jeremy; Davidson, James W., Jr.; Dawson, Kyle; de Icaza Lizaola, Miguel Angel C.; de la Macorra, Axel; de la Torre, Sylvain; De Lee, Nathan; de Sainte Agathe, Victoria; Deconto Machado, Alice; Dell’Agli, Flavia; Delubac, Timothée; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Donor, John; José Downes, Juan; Drory, Niv; du Mas des Bourboux, Hélion; Duckworth, Christopher J.; Dwelly, Tom; Dyer, Jamie; Ebelke, Garrett; Davis Eigenbrot, Arthur; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Elsworth, Yvonne P.; Emsellem, Eric; Eracleous, Michael; Erfanianfar, Ghazaleh; Escoffier, Stephanie; Fan, Xiaohui; Fernández Alvar, Emma; Fernandez-Trincado, J. G.; Cirolini, Rafael Fernando; Feuillet, Diane; Finoguenov, Alexis; Fleming, Scott W.; Font-Ribera, Andreu; Freischlad, Gordon; Frinchaboy, Peter; Fu, Hai; Gómez Maqueo Chew, Yilen; Galbany, Lluís; García Pérez, Ana E.; Garcia-Dias, R.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Garma Oehmichen, Luis Alberto; Gaulme, Patrick; Gelfand, Joseph; Gil-Marín, Héctor; Gillespie, Bruce A.; Goddard, Daniel; González Hernández, Jonay I.; Gonzalez-Perez, Violeta; Grabowski, Kathleen; Green, Paul J.; Grier, Catherine J.; Gueguen, Alain; Guo, Hong; Guy, Julien; Hagen, Alex; Hall, Patrick; Harding, Paul; Hasselquist, Sten; Hawley, Suzanne; Hayes, Christian R.; Hearty, Fred; Hekker, Saskia; Hernandez, Jesus; Hernandez Toledo, Hector; Hogg, David W.; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Holtzman, Jon A.; Hou, Jiamin; Hsieh, Bau-Ching; Hunt, Jason A. S.; Hutchinson, Timothy A.; Hwang, Ho Seong; Jimenez Angel, Camilo Eduardo; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Jones, Amy; Jönsson, Henrik; Jullo, Eric; Sakil Khan, Fahim; Kinemuchi, Karen; Kirkby, David; Kirkpatrick, Charles C., IV; Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Knapp, Gillian R.; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Kollmeier, Juna A.; Lacerna, Ivan; Lane, Richard R.; Lang, Dustin; Law, David R.; Le Goff, Jean-Marc; Lee, Young-Bae; Li, Hongyu; Li, Cheng; Lian, Jianhui; Liang, Yu; Lima, Marcos; Lin, Lihwai; Long, Dan; Lucatello, Sara; Lundgren, Britt; Mackereth, J. Ted; MacLeod, Chelsea L.; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Geimba Maia, Marcio Antonio; Majewski, Steven; Manchado, Arturo; Maraston, Claudia; Mariappan, Vivek; Marques-Chaves, Rui; Masseron, Thomas; Masters, Karen L.; McDermid, Richard M.; McGreer, Ian D.; Melendez, Matthew; Meneses-Goytia, Sofia; Merloni, Andrea; Merrifield, Michael R.; Meszaros, Szabolcs; Meza, Andres; Minchev, Ivan; Minniti, Dante; Mueller, Eva-Maria; Muller-Sanchez, Francisco; Muna, Demitri; Muñoz, Ricardo R.; Myers, Adam D.; Nair, Preethi; Nandra, Kirpal; Ness, Melissa; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Nichol, Robert C.; Nidever, David L.; Nitschelm, Christian; Noterdaeme, Pasquier; O’Connell, Julia; Oelkers, Ryan James; Oravetz, Audrey; Oravetz, Daniel; Aquino Ortíz, Erik; Osorio, Yeisson; Pace, Zach; Padilla, Nelson; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Alonso Palicio, Pedro; Pan, Hsi-An; Pan, Kaike; Parikh, Taniya; Pâris, Isabelle; Park, Changbom; Peirani, Sebastien; Pellejero-Ibanez, Marcos; Penny, Samantha; Percival, Will J.; Perez-Fournon, Ismael; Petitjean, Patrick; Pieri, Matthew M.; Pinsonneault, Marc; Pisani, Alice; Prada, Francisco; Prakash, Abhishek; Queiroz, Anna Bárbara de Andrade; Raddick, M. Jordan; Raichoor, Anand; Barboza Rembold, Sandro; Richstein, Hannah; Riffel, Rogemar A.; Riffel, Rogério; Rix, Hans-Walter; Robin, Annie C.; Rodríguez Torres, Sergio; Román-Zúñiga, Carlos; Ross, Ashley J.; Rossi, Graziano; Ruan, John; Ruggeri, Rossana; Ruiz, Jose; Salvato, Mara; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Sánchez, Sebastián F.; Sanchez Almeida, Jorge; Sánchez-Gallego, José R.; Santana Rojas, Felipe Antonio; Santiago, Basílio Xavier; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Schimoia, Jaderson S.; Schlafly, Edward; Schlegel, David; Schneider, Donald P.; Schuster, William J.; Schwope, Axel; Seo, Hee-Jong; Serenelli, Aldo; Shen, Shiyin; Shen, Yue; Shetrone, Matthew; Shull, Michael; Silva Aguirre, Víctor; Simon, Joshua D.; Skrutskie, Mike; Slosar, Anže; Smethurst, Rebecca; Smith, Verne; Sobeck, Jennifer; Somers, Garrett; Souter, Barbara J.; Souto, Diogo; Spindler, Ashley; Stark, David V.; Stassun, Keivan; Steinmetz, Matthias; Stello, Dennis; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Streblyanska, Alina; Stringfellow, Guy S.; Suárez, Genaro; Sun, Jing; Szigeti, Laszlo; Taghizadeh-Popp, Manuchehr; Talbot, Michael S.; Tang, Baitian; Tao, Charling; Tayar, Jamie; Tembe, Mita; Teske, Johanna; Thakar, Aniruddha R.; Thomas, Daniel; Tissera, Patricia; Tojeiro, Rita; Tremonti, Christy; Troup, Nicholas W.; Urry, Meg; Valenzuela, O.; van den Bosch, Remco; Vargas-González, Jaime; Vargas-Magaña, Mariana; Vazquez, Jose Alberto; Villanova, Sandro; Vogt, Nicole; Wake, David; Wang, Yuting; Weaver, Benjamin Alan; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Weinberg, David H.; Westfall, Kyle B.; Whelan, David G.; Wilcots, Eric; Wild, Vivienne; Williams, Rob A.; Wilson, John; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Wylezalek, Dominika; Xiao, Ting; Yan, Renbin; Yang, Meng; Ybarra, Jason E.; Yèche, Christophe; Zakamska, Nadia; Zamora, Olga; Zarrouk, Pauline; Zasowski, Gail; Zhang, Kai; Zhao, Cheng; Zhao, Gong-Bo; Zheng, Zheng; Zheng, Zheng; Zhou, Zhi-Min; Zhu, Guangtun; Zinn, Joel C.; Zou, Hu

    2018-04-01

    The fourth generation of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-IV) has been in operation since 2014 July. This paper describes the second data release from this phase, and the 14th from SDSS overall (making this Data Release Fourteen or DR14). This release makes the data taken by SDSS-IV in its first two years of operation (2014–2016 July) public. Like all previous SDSS releases, DR14 is cumulative, including the most recent reductions and calibrations of all data taken by SDSS since the first phase began operations in 2000. New in DR14 is the first public release of data from the extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey; the first data from the second phase of the Apache Point Observatory (APO) Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE-2), including stellar parameter estimates from an innovative data-driven machine-learning algorithm known as “The Cannon” and almost twice as many data cubes from the Mapping Nearby Galaxies at APO (MaNGA) survey as were in the previous release (N = 2812 in total). This paper describes the location and format of the publicly available data from the SDSS-IV surveys. We provide references to the important technical papers describing how these data have been taken (both targeting and observation details) and processed for scientific use. The SDSS web site (www.sdss.org) has been updated for this release and provides links to data downloads, as well as tutorials and examples of data use. SDSS-IV is planning to continue to collect astronomical data until 2020 and will be followed by SDSS-V.

  11. Phase constitution and interface structure of nano-sized Ag-Cu/AlN multilayers: Experiment and ab initio modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigozzi, Giancarlo; Janczak-Rusch, Jolanta; Passerone, Daniele; Antonio Pignedoli, Carlo; Patscheider, Joerg; Jeurgens, Lars P. H. [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Antusek, Andrej [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Faculty of Materials Science and Technology, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Paulinska 16, 917 24 Trnava (Slovakia); Parlinska-Wojtan, Magdalena [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); University of Rzeszow, Institute of Physics, ul. Rejtana 16a, 35-959 Rzeszow (Poland); Bissig, Vinzenz [Kirsten Soldering AG, Hinterbergstrasse 32, CH-6330 Cham (Switzerland)

    2012-10-29

    Nano-sized Ag-Cu{sub 8nm}/AlN{sub 10nm} multilayers were deposited by reactive DC sputtering on {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) substrates. Investigation of the phase constitution and interface structure of the multilayers evidences a phase separation of the alloy sublayers into nanosized grains of Ag and Cu. The interfaces between the Ag grains and the quasi-single-crystalline AlN sublayers are semi-coherent, whereas the corresponding Cu/AlN interfaces are incoherent. The orientation relationship between Ag and AlN is constant throughout the entire multilayer stack. These observations are consistent with atomistic models of the interfaces as obtained by ab initio calculations.

  12. Association of psychopathology with quality of life in acute phase of schizophrenia; an experience from east India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suravi Patra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To find the association of patient characteristic and psychopathology with quality of life in acute phase of schizophrenia. Materials and Methods: Socio-demographic variables of patient, psychopathology and quality of life were assessed. Spearman′s Correlation coefficients were measured using SPSS version 15.0. Results: Quality of life of the patients varied in different domains. Male gender, unmarried status and higher educational status predicted a poorer quality of life. The domains of physical and psychological well-being of WHO-QOL were correlated with PANSS general and total scores whereas environmental and social health showed no correlation with PANSS scores. Conclusion: Domains of subjective quality of life in acute phase of schizophrenia are associated variedly with socio-demographic variables and symptomatology.

  13. Deep Recycling of Sedimentary Lithologies in Subduction Zones: Geochemical and Physical Constraints from Phase Equilibria and Synchrotron-Based Multi-Anvil Experiments at 15-25 GPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, R. P.; Nishiyama, N.; Irifune, T.; Inoue, T.; Yamasaki, D.

    2003-12-01

    Ocean island basalts (OIBs) provide geochemical evidence for the presence of crustally-derived sedimentary material in the deep mantle plume source region for EM-type OIBs, and global seismic tomography provides us with dramatic images of subducted slabs, presumably carrying a sediment component, penetrating through the transition zone and into the lower mantle, in some cases to the core-mantle boundary. In an effort to better constrain the geochemical effects of deeply recycled sedimentary material in subduction zones, and their role in the petrogenesis of EM-type OIBs, we have undertaken a series of phase equlibria experiments in the multi-anvil apparatus at 10-25 GPa, using natural sediment lithologies as starting materials. The goal of these experiments is to identify the dominant phases in deeply subducted sediments, constrain their P-T stability limits, and to assess their role in crustal recycling and element redistribution in the deep mantle during subduction. The phase equilibria experiments were performed in a 2000-ton Kawai-type apparatus, using tungsten carbide cubes with 3 mm TEL and Cr-doped MgO and zirconia pressure media. A cylindrical lanthanum chromite heater was used, along with short (gold capsules to minimize thermal gradients and to retain the small amounts of water (< 1 wt%) present in the starting material, and long run-durations (12-48 hours) in order to facilitate future analyses of the dominant phases for key trace elements using the ion microprobe. Our preliminary results at 10-25 GPa indicate that K-hollandite (KalSi3O3) and stishovite are the primary high-pressure phases in the sediment composition, with subordinate garnet and an as-yet-unidentified (possibly hydrous) Al-silicate phase present as well. These results suggest that K-hollandite is the primary repository for incompatible elements (e.g., La, Ce, Sr, Ba, Rb, etc., and the heat-producing elements K, U and Th) in sedimentary material recycled into the deep mantle via

  14. Collective Management of Reference Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Cynthia H.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes a one-year experiment with collective management--i.e., management in which decision-making rests with the department as a whole--in the Oberlin College Library reference department. The planning process, problems, and advantages and disadvantages of this style of management are discussed. Several questions are raised about the…

  15. In-depth study of the H - T phase diagram of Sr4Ru3O10 by magnetization experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weickert, F.; Civale, L.; Maiorov, B.; Jaime, M.; Salamon, M. B.; Carleschi, E.; Strydom, A. M.; Fittipaldi, R.; Granata, V.; Vecchione, A.

    2018-05-01

    We present magnetization measurements on Sr4Ru3O10 as a function of temperature and magnetic field applied perpendicular to the magnetic easy c-axis inside the ferromagnetic phase. Peculiar metamagnetism evolves in Sr4Ru3O10 below the ferromagnetic transition TC as a double step in the magnetization at two critical fields Hc1 and Hc2. We map the H - T phase diagram with special focus on the temperature range 50 K ≤ T ≤TC . We find that the critical field Hc1 (T) connects the field and temperature axes of the phase diagram, whereas the Hc2 boundary starts at 2.8 T for the lowest temperatures and ends in a critical endpoint at (1 T; 80 K). We conclude from the temperature dependence of the ratio Hc 1/Hc 2 (T) that the double metamagnetic transition is an intrinsic effect of the material and it is not caused by sample stacking faults such as twinning or partial in-plane rotation between layers.

  16. Recent experiences with ultrasonic inservice inspection systems with phased array probes on spherical bottoms of boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wustenberg, H.; Brekow, G.; Erhard, A.; Hein, E.

    1988-01-01

    The special geometry of the spherical bottom of boiling water reactors with control rods and measuring nozzles requires a very special surveillance technique during the in-service inspection. Reside visual inspection an ultrasonic inspection has been established due to the requirements of German authorities. A first application of a new phased array system took place August 1987. The 100% inspection of a spherical bottom had been enabled by the application of phased array probes with electronically controlled skewing angles. The data acquisition had been based on the storage of whole A-scans, which had been pixellized into 256 points. This A-scan storage procedure makes possible the application of a simple and fast algorithm to present the data as TD-(time displacement)-scans. Defect reconstruction by echotomographique approaches are under development. This paper presents the ultrasonic technique applied including the phased array probes, the electronic system, as well as the software package used for the control of the inspection parameters depending on the probe position

  17. Simulation and experiment of thermal energy management with phase change material for ageing LiFePO4 power battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao Zhonghao; Wang Shuangfeng; Zhang Guoqing

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We study the thermal energy management performance of ageing LiFePO 4 power battery. → 3-D modules of single cell and battery pack are formulated according to the experimental results. → Thermal resistance in the battery cell leaded to an inevitable temperature difference. → It is necessary to improve the thermal conductivity and lower the melting point of phase change material. → Thermal conductivity of phase change material and battery exist an effective proportion. - Abstract: Thermal energy management performance of ageing commercial rectangular LiFePO 4 power batteries using phase change material (PCM) and thermal behavior related to thermal conductivity between the PCM and the cell are discussed in this paper. The heat sources are simplified according to the experimental results of the cells discharged at 35 A (∼5 C). 3-D modules of a single cell and battery pack are formulated, respectively. The results show that the thermal resistance in the cell leads to an inevitable temperature difference. It is necessary to improve the thermal conductivity and to lower the melting point of the PCM for heat transfer enhancement. The PCM with a melting point lower than 45 deg. C will be more effective for heat dissipation, with a desired maximum temperature below 50 deg. C. The temperature difference in the whole unit before PCM melting will be decreased significantly. In addition, a proper k PCM :k c is necessary for a well designed battery thermal energy management system.

  18. Numerical simulations of counter-current two-phase flow experiments in a PWR hot leg model using an interfacial area density model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehne, Thomas, E-mail: t.hoehne@hzdr.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Institute of Safety Research, P.O. Box 510 119, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Deendarlianto,; Lucas, Dirk [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Institute of Safety Research, P.O. Box 510 119, D-01314 Dresden (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    In order to improve the understanding of counter-current two-phase flows and to validate new physical models, CFD simulations of 1/3rd scale model of the hot leg of a German Konvoi PWR with rectangular cross section was performed. Selected counter-current flow limitation (CCFL) experiments at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) were calculated with ANSYS CFX 12.1 using the multi-fluid Euler-Euler modeling approach. The transient calculations were carried out using a gas/liquid inhomogeneous multiphase flow model coupled with a k-{omega} turbulence model for each phase. In the simulation, the surface drag was approached by a new correlation inside the Algebraic Interfacial Area Density (AIAD) model. The AIAD model allows the detection of the morphological form of the two phase flow and the corresponding switching via a blending function of each correlation from one object pair to another. As a result this model can distinguish between bubbles, droplets and the free surface using the local liquid phase volume fraction value. A comparison with the high-speed video observations shows a good qualitative agreement. The results indicated that quantitative agreement of the CCFL characteristics between calculation and experimental data was obtained. The goal is to provide an easy usable AIAD framework for all Code users, with the possibility of the implementation of their own correlations.

  19. Numerical simulations of counter-current two-phase flow experiments in a PWR hot leg model using an interfacial area density model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohne, T.; Deendarlianto; Vallee, C.; Lucas, D.; Beyer, M., E-mail: t.hoehne@hzdr.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Inst. of Safety Research, Dresden (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    In order to improve the understanding of counter-current two-phase flows and to validate new physical models, CFD simulations of 1/3rd scale model of the hot leg of a German Konvoi PWR with rectangular cross section was performed. Selected counter-current flow limitation (CCFL) experiments at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden- Rossendorf (HZDR) were calculated with ANSYS CFX 12.1 using the multi-fluid Euler-Euler modeling approach. The transient calculations were carried out using a gas/liquid inhomogeneous multiphase flow model coupled with a SST turbulence model for each phase. In the simulation, the surface drag was approached by a new correlation inside the Algebraic Interfacial Area Density (AIAD) model. The AIAD model allows the detection of the morphological form of the two phase flow and the corresponding switching via a blending function of each correlation from one object pair to another. As a result this model can distinguish between bubbles, droplets and the free surface using the local liquid phase volume fraction value. A comparison with the high-speed video observations shows a good qualitative agreement. The results indicated that quantitative agreement of the CCFL characteristics between calculation and experimental data was obtained. The goal is to provide an easy usable AIAD framework for all ANSYS CFX users, with the possibility of the implementation of their own correlations. (author)

  20. Measurements in the Forward Phase-Space with the CMS Experiment and their Impact on Physics of Extensive Air Showers

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2083313; Quast, Günter; Ulrich, Ralf

    2015-11-18

    The astrophysical interpretation of ultra-high energy cosmic rays is based on detection of extensive air showers in indirect measurements. Hadronic interaction models that are needed for such analyses require parameters to be adjusted to collider data since soft particle production cannot be calculated from first principles. Within this work, the program CRMC was developed that unifies all air shower hadronic interaction models and supports the output formats used by collider experiments. Almost all LHC experiments have adopted the use these hadronic interaction models thanks to CRMC. The program can even be used in detector simulations to make direct comparison to reconstructed quantities from which the cosmic ray and the particle physics communities benefit immensely. Furthermore, nuclear effects were studied with the CMS experiments at the LHC. The production cross section was derived in recent proton-lead collision data at sqrt(s(NN)) = 5.02 TeV in order to study nuclear effects. The measurement constrain...

  1. Neutron-proton scattering experiments and phase analyses for the n-p system in the energy range from 17 to 50 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupp, H.

    1986-01-01

    In the framework of the study of the nucleon-nucleon interaction neutron-proton scattering experiments were performed at the neutron collimator POLKA of the Karlsruhe cyclotron. Neutrons were produced by the source reaction D(d,n)X in the energy range between 17 and 50 MeV. Measured were the differential cross section, the analyzing power, and the spin correlation coefficient of the elastic n-p scattering. By means of the new data the knowledge of the isospin T=0 scattering phases could be improved. It is for the first time possible to determine the scattering phases for T=1 independently from n-p and p-p data with comparable accuracy. (orig./HSI) [de

  2. Kütüphaneciler Nerede?: DLSÜ Kütüphanelerinin Gezici Danışma Deneyimleri=Where are the Librarians?: The Roving Reference Experience of DLSU Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Marmol Yap

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The roving reference concept is relatively new in the Philippines. In 2012, the De La Salle University (DLSU Libraries shared in its OCLC report entitled “Reference and Information Services in Selected Philippine Academic Libraries: Trends and Future Prospects” that DLSU will be introducing roving reference as part of the services of the DLSU Libraries. RIA or the Roving Information Assistant was finally launched in November 2013 and was pilot tested in July 2014. RIA allows the library staff to engage further with patrons, to expand information assistance, and to create a higher level of customer service in reference transactions. The presence of the librarians is more visible as they roam throughout the spheres of the library. This evaluative research seeks to determine if the objectives of RIA was fulfilled. Online evaluation forms were used to solicit feedback from both the users and the librarians. This paper shares the reference transaction experiences and results of the roving reference service of the De La Salle University Libraries./ Gezici danışma kavramı Filipinler’de oldukça yenidir. 2012 yılında, De La Salle Üniversitesi (DLSÜ Kütüphaneleri, “Seçilmiş Filipin Akademik Kütüphanelerinde Danışma ve Bilgi Hizmetleri: Eğilimler ve Geleceğe Bakış” başlıklı OCLC raporunda, gezici danışma hizmetini DLSÜ Kütüphanelerinin hizmetlerinin bir bölümü olarak başlatacaklarını paylaşmıştır. GBD ya da diğer adıyla Gezici Bilgi Danışma 2013 yılında başlatılmış ve 2014 Temmuz ayında pilot olarak denenmiştir. GBD hizmeti kütüphane personeline kullanıcılarla daha yakından ilgilenme, bilgi hizmetini genişletme ve bilgi alışverişinde daha yüksek seviyede müşteri hizmeti oluşturma imkânı sağlamaktadır. Kütüphanecilerin varlığı kütüphanenin bölümlerinde gezinirken daha da görülebilir olmaktadır. Bu değerlendirme araştırması GBD hizmetinin amacına ulaşıp ula

  3. 2002 reference document; Document de reference 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This 2002 reference document of the group Areva, provides information on the society. Organized in seven chapters, it presents the persons responsible for the reference document and for auditing the financial statements, information pertaining to the transaction, general information on the company and share capital, information on company operation, changes and future prospects, assets, financial position, financial performance, information on company management and executive board and supervisory board, recent developments and future prospects. (A.L.B.)

  4. CEC thermal-hydraulic benchmark exercise on Fiploc verification experiment F2 in Battelle model containment. Experimental phases 2, 3 and 4. Results of comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, K.; Schall, M.; Wolf, L.

    1993-01-01

    The present final report comprises the major results of Phase II of the CEC thermal-hydraulic benchmark exercise on Fiploc verification experiment F2 in the Battelle model containment, experimental phases 2, 3 and 4, which was organized and sponsored by the Commission of the European Communities for the purpose of furthering the understanding and analysis of long-term thermal-hydraulic phenomena inside containments during and after severe core accidents. This benchmark exercise received high European attention with eight organizations from six countries participating with eight computer codes during phase 2. Altogether 18 results from computer code runs were supplied by the participants and constitute the basis for comparisons with the experimental data contained in this publication. This reflects both the high technical interest in, as well as the complexity of, this CEC exercise. Major comparison results between computations and data are reported on all important quantities relevant for containment analyses during long-term transients. These comparisons comprise pressure, steam and air content, velocities and their directions, heat transfer coefficients and saturation ratios. Agreements and disagreements are discussed for each participating code/institution, conclusions drawn and recommendations provided. The phase 2 CEC benchmark exercise provided an up-to-date state-of-the-art status review of the thermal-hydraulic capabilities of present computer codes for containment analyses. This exercise has shown that all of the participating codes can simulate the important global features of the experiment correctly, like: temperature stratification, pressure and leakage, heat transfer to structures, relative humidity, collection of sump water. Several weaknesses of individual codes were identified, and this may help to promote their development. As a general conclusion it may be said that while there is still a wide area of necessary extensions and improvements, the

  5. Analysis of reciprocal-transfer experiments to estimate the length of phases having different responses to temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, X.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims: The responsiveness of plant ontogeny to temperature may change with plant age. These changes may best be identified by experiments in which individual plants are transferred in a time series from low temperature (LT) to high temperature (HT), and vice versa. Any change in the

  6. A Human-Centered Design Methodology to Enhance the Usability, Human Factors, and User Experience of Connected Health Systems: A Three-Phase Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, Richard; Glynn, Liam; Rodríguez-Molinero, Alejandro; Baker, Paul Ma; Scharf, Thomas; Quinlan, Leo R; ÓLaighin, Gearóid

    2017-03-16

    Design processes such as human-centered design, which involve the end user throughout the product development and testing process, can be crucial in ensuring that the product meets the needs and capabilities of the user, particularly in terms of safety and user experience. The structured and iterative nature of human-centered design can often present a challenge when design teams are faced with the necessary, rapid, product development life cycles associated with the competitive connected health industry. We wanted to derive a structured methodology that followed the principles of human-centered design that would allow designers and developers to ensure that the needs of the user are taken into account throughout the design process, while maintaining a rapid pace of development. In this paper, we present the methodology and its rationale before outlining how it was applied to assess and enhance the usability, human factors, and user experience of a connected health system known as the Wireless Insole for Independent and Safe Elderly Living (WIISEL) system, a system designed to continuously assess fall risk by measuring gait and balance parameters associated with fall risk. We derived a three-phase methodology. In Phase 1 we emphasized the construction of a use case document. This document can be used to detail the context of use of the system by utilizing storyboarding, paper prototypes, and mock-ups in conjunction with user interviews to gather insightful user feedback on different proposed concepts. In Phase 2 we emphasized the use of expert usability inspections such as heuristic evaluations and cognitive walkthroughs with small multidisciplinary groups to review the prototypes born out of the Phase 1 feedback. Finally, in Phase 3 we emphasized classical user testing with target end users, using various metrics to measure the user experience and improve the final prototypes. We report a successful implementation of the methodology for the design and development

  7. A Human-Centered Design Methodology to Enhance the Usability, Human Factors, and User Experience of Connected Health Systems: A Three-Phase Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, Richard; Glynn, Liam; Rodríguez-Molinero, Alejandro; Baker, Paul MA; Scharf, Thomas; ÓLaighin, Gearóid

    2017-01-01

    Background Design processes such as human-centered design, which involve the end user throughout the product development and testing process, can be crucial in ensuring that the product meets the needs and capabilities of the user, particularly in terms of safety and user experience. The structured and iterative nature of human-centered design can often present a challenge when design teams are faced with the necessary, rapid, product development life cycles associated with the competitive connected health industry. Objective We wanted to derive a structured methodology that followed the principles of human-centered design that would allow designers and developers to ensure that the needs of the user are taken into account throughout the design process, while maintaining a rapid pace of development. In this paper, we present the methodology and its rationale before outlining how it was applied to assess and enhance the usability, human factors, and user experience of a connected health system known as the Wireless Insole for Independent and Safe Elderly Living (WIISEL) system, a system designed to continuously assess fall risk by measuring gait and balance parameters associated with fall risk. Methods We derived a three-phase methodology. In Phase 1 we emphasized the construction of a use case document. This document can be used to detail the context of use of the system by utilizing storyboarding, paper prototypes, and mock-ups in conjunction with user interviews to gather insightful user feedback on different proposed concepts. In Phase 2 we emphasized the use of expert usability inspections such as heuristic evaluations and cognitive walkthroughs with small multidisciplinary groups to review the prototypes born out of the Phase 1 feedback. Finally, in Phase 3 we emphasized classical user testing with target end users, using various metrics to measure the user experience and improve the final prototypes. Results We report a successful implementation of the

  8. First experiments on visualisation of two-phase high pressure and temperature flows using an ultrasonic mesh sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melnikov, V.I.; Khokhlov, V.N.; Ivanov, V.V.; Kontelev, V.V.; Zoi, V.R.; Zavinov, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    A novel device for fast visualisation of gas-liquid two-phase flows was developed and tested during loss-off-coolant accident simulations at the thermal hydraulic test facility PSB-VVER, a 1:300 integral model of the VVER-1000. The device is an ultrasonic mesh sensor. It consists of a metallic frame where transmitter and receiver wave-guides are fixed, that form two grids inside the measurement cross section. Ultrasonic pulses are transmitted into the fluid by the 8 wave-guides of the first plane. A second plane of another 8 wave-guides, that cross the ones of the first plane under an angle of 90 deg, serves as receives. The measurement is based on the acoustic conductivity of the two-phase mixture at the locations where the wave-guides cross. The sampling frequency is 250 frames per second. This allows both void fraction measurements and a fast flow visualisation. The sensor is applicable to high pressures and temperatures. All parts and surfaces that are in contact with the fluid are manufactured from stainless steel. During the tests at PSB-VVER the flow pattern in the hot leg of the primary circuit model was visualised for the first time. (orig.)

  9. Assessing phase stability and element distribution in Co-base superalloys at elevated temperatures by in situ TEM heating experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggeler, Yolita; Mueller, Julian; Spiecker, Erdmann [Lehrstuhl fuer Mikro- und Nanostrukturforschung and Center for Nanoanalysis and Electron Microscopy (CENEM), Department Werkstoffwissenschaften, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Co-based alloys, of a composition of Co-12Al-9W, form a stable two phase γ/γ{sup '} microstructure at 900 C. γ{sup '} cubes, consisting of the L12 crystal structure are coherently embedded in a solid solution fcc (A1) γ matrix. To ensure precipitate hardening at temperatures, which are relevant to practical applications, 700-1100 C, as experienced in gas turbine applications, the stability of the γ/γ{sup '} phases is of fundamental importance. In this analysis in situ TEM studies with chip-based heating systems (by DENS solution) are applied on new Co-based superalloys. After in situ heating at apr. 900 C and controlled quenching with different quenching rates the elemental distribution at the γ/γ{sup '} interface is measured using ChemiSTEM EDX. Exploiting the driving force for interface movement resulting from temperature-dependent volume fraction of γ and γ{sup '} insight into the diffusion of individual alloying elements and the relationship between local chemistry and ordering can be gained from transient phenomena. The experimental results will be compared with theoretical calculations. This work has been carried out within the framework of the SFB-TR 103 ''Single Crystal Superalloys''.

  10. Experience with Wolsong-1 Phase-B pre-simulations using WIMS/DRAGON/RFSP-IST code suite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, D-H.; Kim, B-G.; Kim, S-M.; Suh, H-B.; Kim, H-S.; Kim, H-J.

    2010-01-01

    The Wolsong-1 Phase-B pre-simulations have been carried out with the exclusive use of the code suite WIMS/DRAGON/RFSP-IST in replacement of the previous PPV/MULTICELL/RFSP code system in preparation of tests to be conducted as scheduled in December 2010 after the refurbishment. A comprehensive simulation package has been undertaken starting from the approach to first criticality to the flux measurements and scan. In order to secure the validity of the results, the simulations are performed using both the Uniform and SCM fuel tables. An elaborating contribution has been invested into the work in view of the inexperience of using WIMS/SCM fuel tables as well as incremental cross sections generated by using DRAGON-IST. The overall assessment of simulation results indicates that the newly adopted WIMS/DRAGON/RFSP-IST code suite could be used in replacement of PPV/MULTICELL/RFSP for the verification against the Phase-B test results. (author)

  11. Testing the causal theory of reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domaneschi, Filippo; Vignolo, Massimiliano; Di Paola, Simona

    2017-04-01

    Theories of reference are a crucial research topic in analytic philosophy. Since the publication of Kripke's Naming and Necessity, most philosophers have endorsed the causal/historical theory of reference. The goal of this paper is twofold: (i) to discuss a method for testing experimentally the causal theory of reference for proper names by investigating linguistic usage and (ii) to present the results from two experiments conducted with that method. Data collected in our experiments confirm the causal theory of reference for people proper names and for geographical proper names. A secondary but interesting result is that the semantic domain affects reference assignment: while with people proper names speakers tend to assign the semantic reference, with geographical proper names they are prompted to assign the speaker's reference. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Design and performance of a mechanically pumped two-phase loop to support the evaporation-condensation experiments on the TZ1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.R. Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The mechanically pumped two-phase loop (MPTL has the advantages of long distance heat transport, high heat density and good temperature control. On TZ1, the MPTL technology is adopted to support a series experiments of evaporation and condensation. The main objective is to provide accurate (±0.5 ℃ temperature control from −5 ℃ to 40 ℃ and remove 80 W heat from the experimental setup. In this paper, the requirements, system design, hardware and performance of the MPTL are introduced.

  13. Choosing conditions of liquid-phase epitaxy of Insub(1-x)Gasub(x)P solid solutions by statistical methods of experiment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batyrev, N.I.; Vigdorovich, V.N.; Selin, A.A.

    1978-01-01

    Insub(1-x)Gasub(x)P(x approximately 0.7) solid solution layers obtained with the help of the phase diagram of the In-InP-GaP system have been studied using statistical methods of experiment planning. The liquidus, baric and solidus surfaces have been plotted for the In-InP-GaP ternary system (In content from 85 to 100 mol.%). Analysis of the results obtained makes it possible to determine the optimum compositions of the melt (x=0.67-0.74) and building-up temperatures (800-850 deg) to obtain epitaxyal Insub(1-x)Gasub(x)P layers

  14. Large-scale Experiment for Water and Gas Transport in Cementitious Backfill Materials (Phase 1 ): COLEX I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, G.; Wittmann, F.H.; Moetsch, H.A.

    1998-05-01

    In the planned Swiss repository for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste, the voids between the waste containers will be backfilled with a highly permeable mortar (NAGRA designation: mortar M1 ). As well as providing mechanical stability through filling of voids and sorbing radionuclides, the mortar must divert gases formed in the repository as a result of corrosion into the neighbouring host rock. This will prevent damage which could be caused by excess pressure on the repository structures. Water transport, which is coupled to gas transport, is also of interest. The former is responsible for the migration of radionuclides. Up till now, numerical simulations for a repository situation were carried out using transport parameters determined for small samples in the laboratory. However, the numerical simulations still had to be validated by a large-scale experiment. The investigations presented here should close this gap. Investigations into gas and water transport were carried out using a column (up to 5.4 m high) filled with backfill mortar. The column has a