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Sample records for ree dar nehesht-e

  1. REE and

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Jihua

    2005-01-01

    elements in the sedimentary cycle: A summary, Chemistry Geology, 1974, 14: 285-304.[13]Piper, D. Z., Rare earth elements in ferromanganese nodules and other marine phase, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 1974, 38: 1007-1023.[14]Fleet, A. J., Aqueous and sedimentary geochemistry of rare earth elements, in Rare Earth Elements Geochemistry (ed. Henderson, P.), Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1984, 343-421.[15]Faure, G., Principles of Isotope Geology, New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1986, 117-248.[16]Tlig, S., Steinberg, M., Distribution of rare earth elements (REE) in size fractions of recent sediments of the Indian Ocean, Chemical Geology, 1982, 37: 317-333.[17]Toyoda, K., Nakamura, Y., Masuda, A., Rare earth elements of Pacific pelagic sediments, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 1990, 54: 1093-1103.[18]Liu Jihua, Liang Hongfeng, Xia Ning et al., REE geochemistry of fractions less than 2 μm in pelagic sediments from the eastern Pacific, Geochimica (in Chinese), 1998, 27(1): 49-58.[19]Goldstein, S., O'Nions, R. K., Nd and Sr isotopic relationships in pelagic clay and ferromanganese deposits, Nature, 1981, 292: 324-327.[20]Jones, C. E., Halliday, A. N., Rea D. K. et al., Neodymium isotopic variations in North Pacific modern silicate sediment and the insignificance of detrital REE contributions to seawater, Earth Planet Sci. Lett., 1994, 127: 55-66.[21]Dean, W. E., Leinen, M., Stow, D. A. V., Classification of deep-sea fine-grained sediments, Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 1985, 55: 250-256.[22]Biscaye, P. E., Mineralogy and sedimentation of recent deep-sea clay in the Atlantic Ocean and adjacent seas and oceans, Geological Society of American Bulletin, 1965, 76: 803-832.[23]Wang Zhonggang, Yu Xueyuan, Zhao Zhenhua et al., Rare Earth Element Geochemistry (in Chinese), Beijing: Science Press, 1989, 88-93.[24]Haskin, L. A., Haskin, M. A., Frey, F. A. et al., Relative and absolute terrestrial abundances of the rare earths, in: Origin and Distribution of

  2. Biological Function of REE in Plants & Microbes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) and their compounds are widely applied in agronomic and medical fields for many years. The bioinorganic chemical research of REE during the past few years indicates that REE play important roles in the promotion of photosynthetic rate as well as root absorption, regulation of hormone and nitrogen metabolism, and suppression of microbes, etc. The metallic or non-metallic targets of key biomolecule in various physiological processes can be chosen by REE for the chelation or replacement, which enables REE to regulate the biological functions or behaviors of those biomolecule and consequently leads to significant embodiment of biological function of REE in plants and microbes.Overdose of REE, however, shows an inhibitory effect on living organisms. Therefore, this paper proposes two suggestions that will be available in the extension of full use of REE's biological function. One is to obey the dose law of REE and control REE concentrations within a safe range. The other is to further test the bioaccumulation and long-period influence of REE on organisms.

  3. REE bound DNA in natural plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉琦; 江平; 郭繁清; 张智勇; 孙景信; 许雷; 曹国印

    1999-01-01

    The binding of rare earth elements (REEs) with nucleic acids in the leaves of fern Dicranopteris dichotoma (DD) has been studied by molecular activation analysis (MAA). The REEs bound DNA (REE-DNA) was obtained from the leaves of DD. The CTAB-based procedure was modified for extraction of total DNA. The purity of DNA was examined by UV spectroscopy. The DNA obtained was separated and determined by agarose gel electrophoresis further. Meanwhile, the contents of eight rare earth elements (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu,Tb, Yb and Lu) in REE-DNA were detected by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The results showed that REE-DNA with higher purity could be extracted from plant using this method. It was also found that REEs were bound firmly with DNA in the leaves of DD. The molecular weight (MW) of REE-DNA band was about 22 kb in agarose gel electrophoresis.

  4. Incorporation of REE into leucophanite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Henrik Friis; Balic Zunic, Tonci; Williams, C.T.;

    2007-01-01

    The crystal structures of nine, and the chemical compositions of ten, natural samples of leucophanite, ideally NaCaBeSi2O6F, were investigated. The analysed samples display a large compositional variation with trace-element abundances >50,000 ppm, primarily due to rare earth elements (REE....... The crystal structure of the nine analysed samples could all be refined in space group P212121. We found no evidence for a reduction of symmetry with increased trace-element concentration. Various twin combinations were observed and these seem related to crystallization conditions rather than structural...

  5. Regulation of sialidase production in Clostridium perfringens by the orphan sensor histidine kinase ReeS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J Hiscox

    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens is ubiquitous in nature and is often found as a commensal of the human and animal gastrointestinal tract. It is the primary etiological agent of clostridial myonecrosis, or gas gangrene, a serious infection that results in extensive tissue necrosis due to the action of one or more potent extracellular toxins. α-toxin and perfringolysin O are the major extracellular toxins involved in the pathogenesis of gas gangrene, but histotoxic strains of C. perfringens, such as strain 13, also produce many degradative enzymes such as collagenases, hyaluronidases, sialidases and the cysteine protease, α-clostripain. The production of many of these toxins is regulated either directly or indirectly by the global VirSR two-component signal transduction system. By isolating a chromosomal mutant and carrying out microarray analysis we have identified an orphan sensor histidine kinase, which we have named ReeS (regulator of extracellular enzymes sensor. Expression of the sialidase genes nanI and nanJ was down-regulated in a reeS mutant. Since complementation with the wild-type reeS gene restored nanI and nanJ expression to wild-type levels, as shown by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and sialidase assays we concluded that ReeS positively regulates the expression of these sialidase genes. However, mutation of the reeS gene had no significant effect on virulence in the mouse myonecrosis model. Sialidase production in C. perfringens has been previously shown to be regulated by both the VirSR system and RevR. In this report, we have analyzed a previously unknown sensor histidine kinase, ReeS, and have shown that it also is involved in controlling the expression of sialidase genes, adding further complexity to the regulatory network that controls sialidase production in C. perfringens.

  6. REE and Trace Element Geochemistry of Yinachang Fe-Cu-REE Deposit, Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨耀民; 涂光炽; 胡瑞忠

    2004-01-01

    REE and other trace elements in ores, wall rocks, alkaline volcanic rocks and diabase dikes have been determined in the Yinachang Fe-Cu-REE deposit. Comparative studies of REE and trace element geochemical characteristics of these geological bodies indicate that the ores and alkaline volcanic rocks contain abundant REE and Y (65.9-4633)×10-6, with higher abundances of As, Mo, Nb, Co and U than those of the crust. Their chondrite-normalized patterns show a strong enrichment of LREE and a positive Eu anomaly, in contrast to those of the dolomites which are characterized by slight LREE enrichment and moderate negative Eu anomaly. The REE patterns of ores are similar to those of hydrothermal sediment cores in the East Pacific Rise, whereas the REE patterns of dolomites are similar to those of PAAS (Post-Archean Average Shale). In combination with the geological setting of the deposit, the primary ore-forming fluids might have higher REE and volatile elements, and might have been derived from mantle degassing, or the alkaline volcanic magmas. The Yinachang Fe-Cu-REE ore deposit is considered to be of volcanic exhalation-hydrothermal sedimentary origin.

  7. Homology and cohomology of Rees semigroup algebras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Niels; Gourdeau, Frédéric; White, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    Let S by a Rees semigroup, and let 1¹(S) be its convolution semigroup algebra. Using Morita equivalence we show that bounded Hochschild homology and cohomology of l¹(S) is isomorphic to those of the underlying discrete group algebra.......Let S by a Rees semigroup, and let 1¹(S) be its convolution semigroup algebra. Using Morita equivalence we show that bounded Hochschild homology and cohomology of l¹(S) is isomorphic to those of the underlying discrete group algebra....

  8. The Rees Algebra for Certain Monomial Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Debasish

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we find the equations defining the Rees algebra for certain Monomial Curves explicitly and use them to prove that the blowup scheme is not smooth. This proves a conjecture of Francia in affirmative, which says that a dimension one prime in a regular local ring is a complete intersection if it has a smooth blowup.

  9. REE Abundaces in Megacrysts and Host Basalts:REE Behavior of Magma at High Pressures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖森宏

    1991-01-01

    Based on REE abundances in megacrysts and host basalts and their equilibrium conditions,it has proved that megacrysts may have been produced from the magma derived from the host rocks or of more basic composition.The REE ratios of megacrysts to host rocks may be taken as partition coefficients when both are equilibrium with each other.The crystal fractionation of megacrysts has caused the evolution of REE in the magma.It is obvious that some host basalts are the product of magma evolution after crystal fractionation.According to REE abundances in the host rocks and the partition coefficients between crystal and liquid,the history of crystal fractionation of magma can be traced.

  10. REE in the Great Whale River estuary, northwest Quebec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Steven J.; Jacobsen, Stein B.

    1988-05-01

    A report on REE concentrations within the estuary of the Great Whale River in northwest Quebec and in Hudson Bay is given, showing concentrations which are less than those predicted by conservative mixing of seawater and river water, indicating removal of REE from solution. REE removal is rapid, occurring primarily at salinities less than 2 percent and ranges from about 70 percent for light REE to no more than 40 percent for heavy REE. At low salinity, Fe removal is essentially complete. The shape of Fe and REE vs. salinity profiles is not consistent with a simple model of destabilization and coagulation of Fe and REE-bearing colloidal material. A linear relationship between the activity of free ion REE(3+) and pH is consistent with a simple ion-exchange model for REE removal. Surface and subsurface samples of Hudson Bay seawater show high REE and La/Yb concentrations relative to average seawater, with the subsurface sample having a Nd concentration of 100 pmol/kg and an epsilon(Nd) of -29.3; characteristics consistent with river inputs of Hudson Bay. This indicates that rivers draining the Canadian Shield are a major source of nonradiogenic Nd and REE to the Atlantic Ocean.

  11. Elimination and nonlinear equations of Rees algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Busé, Laurent; Simis, Aron

    2009-01-01

    A new approach is established to computing the image of a rational map, whereby the use of approximation complexes is complemented with a detailed analysis of the torsion of the symmetric algebra in certain degrees. In the case the map is everywhere defined this analysis provides free resolutions of graded parts of the Rees algebra of the base ideal in degrees where it does not coincide with the corresponding symmetric algebra. A surprising fact is that the torsion in those degrees only contributes to the first free module in the resolution of the symmetric algebra modulo torsion. An additional point is that this contribution -- which of course corresponds to non linear equations of the Rees algebra -- can be described in these degrees in terms of non Koszul syzygies via certain upgrading maps in the vein of the ones introduced earlier by J. Herzog, the third named author and W. Vasconcelos. As a measure of the reach of this torsion analysis we could say that, in the case of a general everywhere defined map, ...

  12. REE Characteristics and Petrogenesis of Amphibolites in the Dabie Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王江海; 游振东; 等

    1994-01-01

    Based on their REE features, stratoid or lenticular amphibolites in the Dabie Complex are di-vided into two types:one is characterized by flat REE distribution patterns and the other by LREE-enrichment. Results of the REE quantitative modeling suggest that the amphibolites were formed from 20% partial melting of garnet lherzolite and 35-56% fractional crystallization of olivine(type TH1) or 14-20% fractional crystallization of olivine and clinopyroxene(type TH2).

  13. Genesis of ion-adsorption type REE ores in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanematsu, K.; Yoshiaki, K.; Watanabe, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Ion-adsorption type REE deposits, which have been economically mined only in southern China, are predominant supply sources for HREE in the world. The ore bodies consist of weathered granites called ion-adsorption ores. The majority of REE (>50 %) are electrostatically adsorbed onto weathering products in the ores and they can be extracted by ion exchange using an electrolyte solution (e.g., ammonium sulfate solution). Recently the occurrences of ion-adsorption ores have been reported in Indochina, SE Asia. In this study, we discuss geochemical and mineralogical characteristics of parent granites and weathered granites in Thailand in order to reveal the genesis of ion-adsorption ores. Permo-Triassic and Cretaceous-Paleogene granite plutons are distributed from northern Thailand to western Indonesia through eastern Myanmar and Peninsular Malaysia. They are mostly ilmenite-series calcalkaline biotite or hornblende-biotite granites. REE contents of the granites range from 60 to 600 ppm and they are relatively high in Peninsula Thailand. REE-bearing minerals consist mainly of apatite, zircon, allanite, titanite, monazite and xenotime. Some I-type granites contain REE fluorocarbonate (probably synchysite-(Ce)) in cavities and cracks in feldspars and it is the dominant source of REE for ion-adsorption ores because the fluorocarbonate is easily soluble during weathering. In contrast, insoluble monazite and xenotime are not preferable for ion-adsorption ores although they are common ore minerals of placer REE deposits. Weathered granites show REE contents ranging from 60 to 1100 ppm in Thailand because REE are relatively immobile compared with mobile elements (e.g., Na, K, Ca). In the weathered granites, REE are contained in residual minerals and secondary minerals and are adsorbed onto the surface of weathering products. A weathering profile of granite with ion-adsorption type mineralization can be divided into upper and lower parts based on REE enrichment and Ce

  14. REE geochemistry of surface sediments in the Chukchi Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志华; 高爱国; 刘焱光; 孙海清; 石学法; 杨作升

    2003-01-01

    Analyses of rare earth elements (REEs) in 26 surface sediment samples obtained from the Chukchi Sea were conducted using ICP-MS. In general, REEs are relatively rich in fine-grained sediments and deplete in coarse-grained sediments in the Chukchi Sea although REEs have large concentration spans in different types of sediments. Except that a few samples have weak enrichments of light or heavy REEs,most samples exhibit flat shale-normalized REE pattern, indicating that surface sediments in the Chukchi Sea are composed dominantly of terrigenous components experiencing weak chemical weathering. In terms of REE concentrations and other characteristic parameters, we inferred that sediments on the eastern and western sides of the Chukchi Sea are derived from landmasses of Alaska and Siberia, respectively; the midsouth sediments are possibly related to northward dispersion of the Yukon River materials. The Herald Shoal in the center of the study area is covered with relict sediment, which has large ratios of light-to-heavy REEs (∑Ce/∑Y ratio) and lacks evident negative Ce anomaly; cerium enrichment is possibly related to manganese transfer under oxidizing conditions in early diagenesis.

  15. On bigraded regularities of Rees algebra

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    RAMAKRISHNA NANDURI

    2017-09-01

    For any homogeneous ideal $I$ in $K[x_{1}, . . . , x_{n}]$ of analytic spread $\\ell$, we show that for the Rees algebra $R(I)$, $\\rm{reg^{syz}_ {(0,1)}}\\sl(R(I)) = \\rm{reg^{T}_{(0,1)}}\\sl(R(I))$. We compute a formula for the (0, 1)-regularity of $R(I)$, which is a bigraded analog of Theorem1.1 of Aramova and Herzog $(\\it{Am. J. Math.} \\bf{122(4)} (2000) 689–719)$ and Theorem 2.2of Römer $(\\it{Ill. J. Math.} \\bf{45(4)} (2001) 1361–1376)$ to $R(I)$. We show that if the defect sequence, $e_{k} := {\\rm reg}(I^k)− k \\rho(I)$, is weakly increasing for $k\\geq\\rm{reg^{syz}_{(0,1)}}\\sl(R(I))$, then $\\rm{reg}\\sl(I^{j}) = j\\rho(I) + e$ for $j\\geq \\rm{reg^{syz}_{(0,1)}}\\sl(R(I)) + \\ell$, where $\\ell = {\\rm min}\\{\\mu(J)\\mid J \\subseteq I$ a graded minimal reduction of $I\\}$. This is an improvement of Corollary 5.9(i) of [16].

  16. REE Geochemistry of Precambrian Metamorphic Rocks in Wutaishan Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴素珍

    1989-01-01

    The metasedimentary-volcanic series of the Wutai and Hutuo groups experienced regional metamorphism and thus turned into moderate-to low-grade metamorphic rocks.REE abundances and REE distribution patterns in the Shizui and Taihuai Subgroup metasedimentary-volcanic rocks are typical of the Archean,whereas the Gaofan Subgroup and the Hutuo Group show post-Archean REE geochemical char-acteristics.Five types of REE distribution pattern are distinguished:(1)rightward inclined smooth curves with little REE anomaly(Eu/Eu*=0.73-0.95) and heavy REE depletion (e.g.the Late Archean metasedimentary rocks);(2)rightward inclined V-shaped curves with sharp Eu anoma-ly (Eu/Eu*=0.48-0.76) and slightly higher ∑REE (e.g.the post-Archean metasedimentary rocks);(3) rightward inclined steep curves with negative Eu anomaly(Eu/Eu*=0.73-0.76) and the lowest ∑REE (e.g.the post-Archean dolomites);(4)rightward inclined,nearly smooth curves with both positive Eu anomaly and unremarkable positive Eu anomaly(Eu/Eu*=0.95-1.25)(e.g.the meta-basic volcanic rocks);and (5) rightward inclined curves with Eu anomaly(Eu/Eu*=1.09-1.19)and heavy REE depletion(e.g.the meta-acid volcanic rocks).Strata of the two groups are considered to have been formed in an island-arc belt-an instable continental petrogenetic environment.

  17. DAR ES SALAAM CITY, TANZANIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Engineering geological mapping of Dar es Salaam city in Tanzania has been carried out using .... faces and road cuts. The studied material ... for regional and city master planning, and these are geomorphological, geological, geo-hazard ...

  18. REE Geochemistry of Euphrates River, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyla Kalender

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study area is located on the Euphrates River at 38°41°32.48′′N–38°14′24.10′′N latitude and 39°56′4.59′′E–39°8°13.41′′E longitude. The Euphrates is the longest river in Western Asia. The lithological units observed from the bottom to the top are Permo-Triassic Keban Metamorphites, Late Cretaceous Kömürhan Ophiolites, Upper Cretaceous Elazığ Magmatic Complex, Middle Eocene Maden Complex and Kırkgeçit Formation, Upper Pliocene and Lower Eocene Seske Formation and Upper Miocene, Pliocene Karabakır and Çaybağı Formations, Palu Formation, and Holocene Euphrates River sediments. The geochemical studies show that 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd isotopic compositions in the Euphrates River bank sediments are 0.7053, 0.7048, and 0.7057 and 0.512654, 0.512836, and 0.512775, respectively. These values indicate mixing of both carbonate-rich shallow marine sediment and felsic-mafic rocks from Elazığ Magmatic Complex into the stream sediments. The positive εNd (0 values (0.35, 3.9, and 2.7 are higher downstream in the studied sediments due to weathering of the mafic volcanic rocks. The chondrite, NAS, and UCC normalized patterns show that the REE compositions of the Euphrates River sediments are higher than chondrite composition but close to NAS and UCC. The river sediments in the tectonic zone and the weathered granodioritic rocks of the Elazığ Magmatic complex affect upstream water compositions.

  19. Mass-spectrometric REE analysis in sulphide minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina R. Elizarova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The standard samples of diorite, granite and anorthosite (National Centre for Petrographic and Geochemical Research (CRPG CNRS, Nancy, France were analyzed to measure rare-earth element (REE concentrations by the ICP MS method (quadrupole ELAN 9000 DRC-e without preliminary dilution and concentration procedures. The certified values of REE concentrations measured on ELEMENT-2 mass-spectrometer by ICP MS method in Nancy are also well reproduced on ELAN 9000. The mass-spectrometer analytical environment and modes of operation were adjusted to detect REE in sulphide minerals by the example of the pyrite from the PGE Penikat layered intrusion (Finland and chalcopyrite from the Talnakh deposit (Kazakhstan. The total REE content in the pyrite is ca. 3.5 ppm, that is enough to establish Sm-Nd age of pyrite. By the example of State Standard Sample 2463 (Apatite, Russia it is shown how to apply the mineral/chondrite spectra to evaluate the accuracy of the REE analytical results.

  20. 2002 Willapa Bay LiDAR Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA contracted with Spencer B. Gross, Inc. (SBG) to obtain airborne LiDAR of Willapa Bay, Washington during low tide conditions. The LiDAR data was processed to...

  1. Geochemistry of Monazite within Carbonatite Related REE Deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Approximately >50% of global rare earth element (REE resources are hosted by carbonatite related deposits, of which monazite is one of the most important REE minerals. Monazite dominates more than 30 carbonatite-related REE deposits around the world, including currently exploited mineralization at Bayan Obo and Mount Weld. These deposits are widely distributed across all continents, except Antarctica. Though rare, monazite occurs as the primary mineral in carbonatite, and mostly presents as a secondary mineral that has a strong association with apatite. It can partially or completely replace thin or thick overgrowth apatite, depending on the availability of REE. Other mineral phases that usually crystallize together with monazite include barite, fluorite, xenotime, sulfide, and quartz in a carbonate matrix (e.g., dolomite, calcite. This review of monazite geochemistry within carbonatite-related REE deposits aims to provide information regarding the use of monazite as a geochemical indicator to track the formation history of the REE deposits and also supply additional information for the beneficiation of monazite. The chemical compositions of monazite are highly variable, and Ce-monazite is the dominant solid solution in carbonatite related deposits. Most monazite displays steep fractionation from La to Lu, absent of either Eu or Ce anomalies in the chondrite normalized REE plot. The other significant components are huttonite and cheratite. Some rare sulfur-bearing monazite is also identified with an SO3 content up to 4 wt %. A 147Sm/144Nd ratio with an average ~0.071 for monazite within carbonatite-related ores is similar to that of their host rocks (~0.065, and is the lowest among all types of REE deposits. Sm/Nd variation of monazite from a single complex reflects the differentiation stage of magma, which decreases from early to late. Based on the differences of Nd and Sr abundances, Nd isotopic composition for monazite can be used to track

  2. Petrologic and REE Geochemical Characters of Burnt Rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Lei; LIU Chiyang; YANG Lei; ZHAO Junfeng; FANG Jianjun

    2008-01-01

    The study of burnt rocks is beneficial to the discussion on the tectonic movement,paleoclimate and paleogeography that coal seams are subjected to after they were formed. In order to obtain the basic data on the features of the burnt rocks, a systematic study of petrology and REE geochemistry on burnt rocks in Shenmu, Northern Shaanxi Province has been done, using the methods of SEM, EDS, susceptibility measurements and ICP-MS. The burnt rocks are divided into two series in the section: the melted rocks and the baked rocks. SEM and EDS analyses reveal that all the minerals show burnt and melted traces, and there are no clay minerals except iliite found in the burnt rocks. Susceptibility measurements reveal that the burnt rocks have abnormally high susceptibility values,whereas a geochemical analysis shows that the REE distribution pattern of burnt rocks is similar to that of sedimentary rocks (initial rocks). In the longitudinal section, with increasing degree of burning (from baked rocks to melted rocks), the ΣREE gradually decreases, and the total REE of melted rocks is obviously lower than that of baked rocks. Besides, the melted rocks show apparent negative Ce anomalies, while the baked rocks show no anomaly of Ce, and sometimes even show positive anomalies.

  3. REE and Strontium Partition Coefficients for Nakhla Pyroxenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oe, K.; McKay, G.; Le, L.

    2001-01-01

    We present new partition coefficients for REE and Sr determined using a synthetic melt that crystallizes pyroxenes very similar in composition to Nakhla pyroxene cores. We believe these are the most appropriate partition coefficients to use in studying Nakhla Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract..

  4. Vapour transport of rare earth elements (REE) in volcanic gas: Evidence from encrustations at Oldoinyo Lengai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, C. D.; Williams-Jones, A. E.

    2008-10-01

    Fumarolic encrustations and natrocarbonatite lava from the active crater of Oldoinyo Lengai volcano, Tanzania, were sampled and analysed. Two types of encrustation were distinguished on the basis of their REE content, enriched (~ 2800-5600 × [REE chondrite]) and depleted (~ 100-200 × [REE chondrite]) relative to natrocarbonatite (1700-1900 × [REE chondrite]. REE-enriched encrustations line the walls of actively degassing fumaroles, whereas REE-depleted encrustations occur mainly along cracks in and as crusts on cooling natrocarbonatite lava flows; one of the low REE encrustation samples was a stalactite from the wall of a possible fumarole. The encrustations are interpreted to have different origins, the former precipitating from volcanic gas and the latter from meteoric/ground water converted to steam by the heat of the overlying lava flow(s). REE-profiles of encrustations and natrocarbonatite are parallel, suggesting that there was no preferential mobilization of specific REE by either volcanic vapour or meteoric water vapour. The elevated REE-content of the first group of encrustations suggests that direct REE-transport from natrocarbonatite to volcanic vapour is possible. The REE trends observed in samples precipitating directly from the volcanic vapour cannot be explained by dry volatility based on the available data as there is no evidence in the encrustation compositions of the greatly enhanced volatility predicted for Yb and Eu. The observed extreme REE-fractionation with steep La/Sm slopes parallel to those of the natrocarbonatite reflects solvation and complexation reactions in the vapour phase that did not discriminate amongst the different REE or similar transport of REE in both the natrocarbonatite magma and its exsolving vapour. The low concentrations of REE in the encrustations produced by meteoric vapour suggest that the temperature was too low or that this vapour did not contain the ligands necessary to permit significant mobilization of the REE.

  5. Rare earth elements in sedimentary phosphate deposits: Solution to the global REE crisis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emsbo, Poul; McLaughlin, Patrick I.; Breit, George N.; du Bray, Edward A.; Koenig, Alan E.

    2015-01-01

    The critical role of rare earth elements (REEs), particularly heavy REEs (HREEs), in high-tech industries has created a surge in demand that is quickly outstripping known global supply and has triggered a worldwide scramble to discover new sources. The chemical analysis of 23 sedimentary phosphate deposits (phosphorites) in the United States demonstrates that they are significantly enriched in REEs. Leaching experiments using dilute H2SO4 and HCl, extracted nearly 100% of their total REE content and show that the extraction of REEs from phosphorites is not subject to the many technological and environmental challenges that vex the exploitation of many identified REE deposits. Our data suggest that phosphate rock currently mined in the United States has the potential to produce a significant proportion of the world's REE demand as a byproduct. Importantly, the size and concentration of HREEs in some unmined phosphorites dwarf the world's richest REE deposits. Secular variation in phosphate REE contents identifies geologic time periods favorable for the formation of currently unrecognized high-REE phosphates. The extraordinary endowment, combined with the ease of REE extraction, indicates that such phosphorites might be considered as a primary source of REEs with the potential to resolve the global REE (particularly for HREE) supply shortage.

  6. Study on REEs as tracers for late permian coal measures in Bijie City, Guizhou Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qiang; YANG Ruidong

    2008-01-01

    Analyses of Rare Earth Elements (REEs) in 13 coal samples collected from Late Permian coal measures of Bijie City in western Guizhon Province were conducted using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass-Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results indicated that REEs patterns were not controlled by materials from the sea, whereas the contribution of land plants was about 1%. The major sources of REEs were from terrigenous material as indicated by negative Eu anomaly. There were similar distribution curves of REEs between Bijie's coal and Emeishan basalt. M12 coal seam, which had the highest ∑REE, appeared near the boundary between Longtan Formation and Changxing Formation, which was closely correlated to the eruption of Emeishan basalt. The Emeishan basalt contributed to REEs enrichment of M12. So the sources of REEs were controlled by terrigenous material, and the Emeishan basalt was the predominant source of terrigenous material, which dominated the enrichment and pattern of REEs in Late Permian coal measure from Bijie.

  7. Effects of rare earth elements and REE-binding proteins on physiological responses in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongwu; Wang, Xue; Chen, Zhiwei

    2012-02-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs), which include 17 elements in the periodic table, share chemical properties related to a similar external electronic configuration. REEs enriched fertilizers have been used in China since the 1980s. REEs could enter the cell and cell organelles, influence plant growth, and mainly be bound with the biological macromolecules. REE-binding proteins have been found in some plants. In addition, the chlorophyll activities and photosynthetic rate can be regulated by REEs. REEs could promote the protective function of cell membrane and enhance the plant resistance capability to stress produced by environmental factors, and affect the plant physiological mechanism by regulating the Ca²⁺ level in the plant cells. The focus of present review is to describe how REEs and REE-binding proteins participate in the physiological responses in plants.

  8. Systematic Investigation of REE Mobility and Fractionation During Continental Shale Weathering Along a Climate Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, L.; Ma, L.; Dere, A. L. D.; White, T.; Brantley, S. L.

    2014-12-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) have been identified as strategic natural resources and their demand in the United States is increasing rapidly. REE are relatively abundant in the Earth's crust, but REE deposits with minable concentrations are uncommon. One recent study has pointed to the deep-sea REE-rich muds in the Pacific Ocean as a new potential resource, related to adsorption and concentration of REE from seawater by hydrothermal iron-oxyhydroxides and phillipsite (Kato et al., 2010). Finding new REE deposits will be facilitated by understanding global REE cycles: during the transformation of bedrock into soils, REEs are leached into natural waters and transported to oceans. At present, the mechanisms and factors controlling release, transport, and deposition of REE - the sources and sinks - at Earth's surface remain unclear. Here, we systematically studied soil profiles and bedrock in seven watersheds developed on shale bedrock along a climate transect in the eastern USA, Puerto Rico and Wales to constrain the mobility and fractionation of REE during chemical weathering processes. In addition, one site on black shale (Marcellus) bedrock was included to compare behaviors of REEs in organic-rich vs. organic-poor shale end members under the same environmental conditions. Our investigation focused on: 1) the concentration of REEs in gray and black shales and the release rates of REE during shale weathering, 2) the biogeochemical and hydrological conditions (such as redox, dissolved organic carbon, and pH) that dictate the mobility and fractionation of REEs in surface and subsurface environments, and 3) the retention of dissolved REEs on soils, especially onto secondary Fe/Al oxyhydroxides and phosphate mineral phases. This systematic study sheds light on the geochemical behaviors and environmental pathways of REEs during shale weathering along a climosequence.

  9. 2006 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Lewis County, WA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data of Western Lewis County for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium. This data set covers...

  10. 2009 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Lewis County, Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WSI) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Lewis County survey area for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium. This data...

  11. 2011 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Quinault River Basin

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WSI) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data on the Quinault River Basin survey area for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium and...

  12. 2015 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) LiDAR: WA DNR Lands (P2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 2014, WSI, a Quantum Spatial Inc. (QSI) company, was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)...

  13. 2015 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) LiDAR: WA DNR Lands (P1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 2014, WSI, a Quantum Spatial Inc. (QSI) company, was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)...

  14. 2013 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Tulalip Partnership

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In October 2012, WSI (Watershed Sciences, Inc.) was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC)to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data on a...

  15. 2013 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Nooksack

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In July 2012, WSI (Watershed Sciences, Inc.) was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data on a...

  16. 2013 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Saddle Mountain

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In October 2013, WSI, a Quantum Spatial Company (QSI), was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data...

  17. 2014 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Willapa Valley (Delivery 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In January, 2014 WSI, a Quantum Spatial (QSI) company, was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data...

  18. Geochemistry of carbonatites in Maoniuping REE deposit, Sichuan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许成; 黄智龙; 刘丛强; 漆亮; 李文博; 管涛

    2003-01-01

    Carbonatites in the Maoniuping REE deposit, Sichuan Province, which are spatially and temporally associated with rare earth mineralization, were emplaced at the time of Himalayan. The rocks are carbonatite-syenite complexes, with the mineral assemblages of calcite-aegirine-acmite- arfvedsonite-mica-orthoclase. The rocks are characterized by the enrichment in incompatible elements, such as Sr, Ba and REE, with C and O isotopic compositions of the "primary igneous carbonatites", relatively high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios and low ??Nd values. All of these suggest that the rocks were derived from the metasomatic enriched mantle. It is demonstrated by geological and geochemical evidence that the mixing of the Himalayan subducting crustal materials with mantle source EM1 is probably the main factor responsible for the formation of carbonatites. The carbonatite-syenite complexes were generated from liquid immiscibility of CO2-rich alkalic silicate magma, which was derived from partial melting of the metasomatic mantle.

  19. REE Biological Metallogeny —A Preliminary Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志澄; 余受均; 等

    1995-01-01

    Five species of bacteria have been found in granite-weathering profiles of Ore District 701.They tend to decrease in varieties and quantities from the upper part down-ward, and no bacterium has been brought up below the depth of 10 m.The simulating experiments done by using humic acid of small molecular weight ,and decanedioic acid extracted from the samples and the bacteria mentioned above have shown that:(1)The dissolving rates of REEs from humic acid+original rock or decanedioic acid +original rock are lower than those from humic acid +bacteria +original rock or decanedioic acid +bacteria+original rock.The presence of bacteria may accelerate the formation of REE-organic complexes and make the complexes increase in quantity.Aminoacids in the bacteria are involved in coordination balance.The concentrations of the complexes tend to increase as a result of the formation of the complexes,i.e., the dissolution, complexation, migration and accumulation of REEs from the original rocks will be accelerated.(2)The metabolism of microorganisms has contributed a lot to keeping a pH environment in the weathering crust.

  20. REE Comparison Between Muncung Granite Samples and their Weathering Products, Lingga Regency, Riau Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Irzon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for Rare Earth Elements (REE is related to the continous development of technology, and these elements are used in modern equipments. REE can occur in igneous and sedimentary rocks in significant amounts as primary deposits, whereas the secondary REE deposit can be produced by intensive lateritic weathering of bedrocks under the tropical or subtropical climate. Lateritic process can increase REE concentration from sub-economic levels in host rocks to be more valuable. Muncung Granite is located in a tropical area of Lingga Regency, Riau Islands Province. REE occurs in the Muncung Granite and in weathered layers (saprolite, laterite, and soil. ICP-MS was applied to measure the REE content in all samples of this study. The average REE content of the Muncung Granite is 265 ppm with Eu anomaly in REE’s spider diagrams. Lateritization process has increased REE content by more than four times compared to that in the Muncung Granite. Ce and Eu anomalies in weathered layers can be associated with weathering process and initial REE contents in the host rock. Ce anomaly in a laterite layer is found to have a negative correlation to REE total enrichment. The REE level in the Muncung Granite is higher than the content in the soil and saprolite layers, but lower than that in the laterite.

  1. Transportation of REE in the Ductile Shear Zone in Hetai Gold Deposit, Guangdong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨凤根; 王鹤年; 华仁民

    2003-01-01

    The REE transportation in two sorts of mylonites of ductile shear zone, in Hetai gold deposit, Guangdong province was studied. The results show that there is REE compositional variation regularly in the ductile shear zone. When mica-quartz schist and migmatite are changing into mylonites or ultramylonites, I.e., along with intensifying deformation, the contents of each rare earth element and the total contents of the LREE, HREE and REE increase or decrease regularly, but the REE patterns of the rock are accordant. The isocon diagram of the tectonic rocks before and after deformation shows that the REE compositional variation of the mylonites or ultramylonites are very small, but there is a few REE moving in or out in the rock deformation. The reason of the REE compositional variation is that there are volume change and fluid flow in the rock deformation, and it leads to the LREE relative enrichment and HREE relative loss.

  2. Concentration, Distribution, and Occurrence of REEs in Coals from Chongqing, Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The concentration, distribution, and occurrence of rare earth elements (REEs) in coals as well as stone coals in different geological periods from Chongqing were studied. The results show that the REE content in coals from Chongqing is much higher than that of the ordinary Chinese coals, the Late Paleozoic coals from North China, US coals, and the world coals. Although the concentration of light rare earth elements (LREE) is higher than that of heavy rare earth elements (HREE), the ratio of LREE to HREE is as low as 5.11. The REE content decreases with the coal-formation periods from old to new. The REE content in the Sinian stone coal is the highest, but it is the lowest in Early Jurassic coals. The similar REE contents in bituminous coals and anthracite show that the metamorphism has a little influence on REE content in coal. In addition, silicate association dominates the occurrence mode of REEs in coals from Chongqing.

  3. Metal loading levels influence on REE distribution on humic acid: Experimental and Modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsac, R.; Davranche, M.; Gruau, G.; Dia, A.

    2009-04-01

    In natural organic-rich waters, rare earth elements (REE) speciation is mainly controlled by organic colloids such as humic acid (HA). Different series of REE-HA complexation experiments performed at several metal loading (REE/C) displayed two pattern shapes (i) at high metal loading, a middle-REE (MREE) downward concavity, and (ii) at low metal loading, a regular increase from La to Lu (e.g. Sonke and Salters, 2006; Pourret et al., 2007). Both REE patterns might be related to REE binding with different surface sites on HA. To understand REE-HA binding, REE-HA complexation experiments at various metals loading were carried out using ultrafiltration combined with ICP-MS measurements, for the 14 REE simultaneously. The patterns of the apparent coefficients of REE partition between HA and the inorganic solution (log Kd) evolved regularly according to the metal loading. The REE patterns presented a MREE downward concavity at low loading and a regular increase from La to Lu at high loading. The dataset was modelled with Model VI by adjusting two specific parameters, log KMA, the apparent complexation constant of HA low affinity sites and DLK2, the parameter increasing high affinity sites binding strength. Experiments and modelling provided evidence that HA high affinity sites controlled the REE binding with HA at low metal loading. The REE-HA complex could be as multidentate complexes with carboxylic or phenolic sites or potentially with sites constituted of N, P or S as donor atoms. Moreover, these high affinity sites could be different for light and heavy REE, because heavy REE have higher affinity for these sites, in low density, and could saturate them. These new Model VI parameter sets allowed the prediction of the REE-HA pattern shape evolution on a large range of pH and metal loading. According to the metal loading, the evolution of the calculated REE patterns was similar to the various REE pattern observed in natural acidic organic-rich waters (pH10 mg L-1). As

  4. Saginaw Bay, MI LiDAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK NAME:(NRCS) Saginaw Bay, MI LiDAR LiDAR Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task USGS Contract No. G10PC00057 Task Order No. G11PD01254 Woolpert Order...

  5. REE incorporation and behaviour in aquatic turtles as a consequence of environmental exposure and biological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Censi, P.; Randazzo, L. A.; D'Angelo, S.; Cuttitta, A.; Saiano, F.

    2012-04-01

    Rare Earth Elements (REE) contents in Emys trinacris have been investigated for the first time in order to recognise effects of the chemistry of the environment on the composition of biological fluids. Representing radionuclides a potential health risk for living organisms in case of incorporation in tissues and being REE geochemical analogues of actinides in hydrosphere, this study was focused on investigation of REE behaviour in whole blood and esoskeleton of selected individuals of Emys trinacris. The choice of this species is related to its amphibian character that allowed us to evidence environmental stress in terms of composition of environmental freshwaters whose REE compositions were investigated and compared with blood samples. Moreover effects induced by different environmental conditions were investigated collecting samples in two sites characterised by absence of an anthropogenic signature (GT site) and subjected to strong anthropogenic pressure in terms of wastewater input (SIC site), respectively. In both sites REE contents in whole blood samples of studied turtles are quite similar even if in GT site the highest REE contents have been recognised. Shale-normalised REE patterns show very similar REE behaviour with light REE (LREE) enrichments with respect to heavier REE (HREE), mainly in samples from anthropized site. If REE concentrations in whole blood are normalised to the composition of environmental waters, calculated REE patterns show upward concave shapes centred on Gd that are more pronounced in samples from GT site because their patterns are more enriched in LREE. The last features observed in blood samples from GT can be related to larger REE contents occurred in environmental water from this site with respect to waters collected in SIC site, suggesting that a relationship occurs between REE contents in environmental and biological fluids. Since MREE depletions were observed in waters experiencing phosphate crystallization, observed REE

  6. REE Geochemical Study of the Permian-Triassic Marine Sedimentary Environment in Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    南君亚; 刘丛强; 周德全; 王筑明

    2002-01-01

    This paper deals with the REE geochemical characteristics of Permian-Triassic marine carbonate rocks in Guizhou Province. It is found that there are two broad categories of stratigraphic units in the region studied in accordance with their ∑ REE contents and REE distribution patterns: one is characterized by LREE enrichment and slight Ce depletion, with the REE distribution patterns similar to those of North American shales, and the other features relative HREE enrichment and relatively remarkable Ce depletion, with the REE distribution patterns close to those of pelagic sediments. In terms of their different ∑ REE contents, five types of stratigraphic units can be distinguished. Incorporation of detrital minerals, REE complexing capability, oxidation-reduction conditions of the media are the main factors affecting the REE composition and REE distribution patterns of marine carbonate rocks in the region studied. In the light of REE geochemical characteristics of carbonate rocks, coupled with sedimentary facies analysis, this paper discusses the characteristics of the Permian-Triassic marine sedimentary environment in Guizhou Province and its evolutional rules.

  7. Aeromagnetic expression of rare earth element (REE) deposits in New Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M.

    2016-12-01

    With the development of high-tech devices and the expanding demands in industrial production, rare earth elements(REE) has been playing an increasingly important role in the global economy in the past several decades. Different types of REE serve irreplaceable functions in high-tech industry, as well as for developing sustainable energy and catalysis of manufacturing. Given that the global supply of REE has become strained since 2009 and no known substitutes for REE have been found, exploration for new REE deposits is imperative for economic sustainability. Ten main regions have REE deposits in New Mexico, some of which have not been exploited, while some sites such as Gallinas mountains vein deposits are in early exploration stage. Exploration for the reserves and quantization of mineral compositions of New Mexico's REE depositional districts can have economic benefits in general. In this study, high-resolution airborne magnetic and gravity data were used for studying the Gallinas mountains REE deposit. The purposes of this study are to: (1) characterize specific aeromagnetic anomaly and gravity features from the REE deposits, and (2) apply the characterized features to suggest other areas among the ten REE depositional regions for further exploration. All REE deposits in the study area are found associated with alkaline to alkali-calcic volcanic rocks. A quantitative modeling based on aeromagnetic and gravity anomaly mapping was constructed with an assumption of three units: carbonatites, alkaline volcanic intrusions and REE-concentrated minerals (barite, bastnaesite, etc.). The results of this study show that alkaline deposit is characterized by negative magnetic anomalies and carbonatite is associated with gravity anomaly and vertical gravity gradient high. The area with significantly high aeromagnetic anomaly area and also gravity anomaly high supposed to reflect REE-concentrated minerals such as bastnaesite. For further research, hyperspectral information and

  8. Double sodium REE niobates with the fersmite structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorov, N.F.; Mel' nikova, O.V.; Pivovarova, A.P.; Starkova, N.V.; Bazhenova, O.A.

    1987-09-01

    The authors study double sodium REE niobates with the fersmite structure. The diffraction-pattern indexing for the compounds CaNb/sub 2/O/sub 6/ and Na/sub 0.5/Ln/sub 0.5/Nb/sub 2/O/sub 6/ is presented, as well as the crystallochemical features of those compounds. For some of the compounds in the series studied, the authors determined the unit-cell parameters on the assumption that they are orthorhombic, by analogy to CaNb/sub 2/O/sub 6/.

  9. REE mobility during the alteration of Carbonatite and their economic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marien, Christian; Dijkstra, Arjan; Wilkins, Colin

    2016-04-01

    The supply risk of Rare Earth Elements is an unpredictable economic factor for the future application and development of modern technology for the EU. Therefore a better understanding of REE mobilisation during hydrothermal alteration of Carbonatites is essential for a safer supply of REE in general. The hydrothermal alteration of Carbonatite within the Fen Complex (Norway) forms a fine grained red hematized rock type, called Rødbergite, which is partially enriched in REE. The variation of REE within the Rødbergite is poorly understood and problematic for any future REE exploitation from Rødbergite. A genetic model of the formation of Rødbergite will provide more information about the economic potential of Rødbergite. The gradual transformation of carbonatite to Rødbergite is not easily observable due to sparse outcrop in the Fen Complex. A fresh road cut near the Bjørndallen farm (Fen Complex) provides a unique insight to the progressive hydrothermal alteration from carbonatite to Rødbergite and is therefore crucial for a genetic model of the formation of Rødbergite. 14 Samples were taken along the profile. The mineralogical, geochemical and textural characterization of the samples using the SEM as well as major-, trace- and isotopic elemental data revealed the breakdown of the primary minerals due to the infiltration of an oxidizing fluid along grain boundaries. The primary REE-minerals in unaltered Carbonatite are REE fluorocarbonates. With the increasing alteration to Rødbergite REE fluorocarbonates are progressively replaced by hematite. In contrast, monazite - a REE-phosphate - is the dominant REE mineral species in the Rødbergite. A transitional Rødbergite sample shows apatite aggregates with a strong preferential concentration of monazite along the rim of the apatite aggregates. This observation provides strong evidence for the solution of REE in the primary rock (carbonatite) by fluids and later precipitation of REE along phosphate bearing

  10. REE Geochemistry of Moderate- and High- Sulfur Coals from North Shanxi, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文峰; 秦勇; 宋党育; 傅雪海

    2003-01-01

    Contents of the rare-earth elements ( REE ) in two coal seams from North Shanxi Province, China, were determined using the instrumental neutron activation method. Based on the REE distribution patterns, and correlation analysis and cluster analysis, the main conclusions were drawn as follows. The REE contents are controlled mainly by the coal-forming environments, but might be affected by acidic solution leaching after peat sedimentation. The REE distribution patterns should be nearly the same in the sublayers of the same coal seam, and the occurrence of abnormal patterns might indicate the geological effect during post-sedimentation.The REE in coals are present mainly in the inorganic phase, and might be derived mainly from terrigenous detrital minerals. Some harmful elements, such as V, P, Mo, Cr, Cu, Mo, Th and Cd, might have cleaning potential during processing and dressing by washing because they are associated with REE.

  11. Rees algebras of square-free monomial ideals

    CERN Document Server

    Fouli, Louiza

    2012-01-01

    We study the defining equations of the Rees algebra of square-free monomial ideals in a polynomial ring over a field. We determine that when an ideal $I$ is generated by $n$ square-free monomials of the same degree then $I$ has relation type at most $n-2$ as long as $n \\leq 5$. In general, we establish the defining equations of the Rees algebra in this case. Furthermore, we give a class of examples with relation type at least $n-2$, where $n=\\mu(I)$. We also provide new classes of ideals of linear type. We propose the construction of a graph, namely the generator graph of an ideal, where the monomial generators serve as vertices for the graph. We show that when $I$ is a square-free monomial ideal generated in the same degree that is at least 2 and the generator graph of $I$ is the graph of a disjoint union of trees and graphs with unique odd cycles then $I$ is an ideal of linear type.

  12. REE Compositions of Lower Ordovician Dolomites in Central and North Tarim Basin, NW China: A Potential REE Proxy for Ancient Seawater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xuefeng; HU Wenxuan; JIN Zhijun; ZHANG Juntao; QIAN Yixiong; ZHU Jingquan; ZHU Dongya; WANG Xiaolin; XIE Xiaomin

    2008-01-01

    Rare earth dement compositions of Lower Ordovician dolomites in the Central and Northern Tarim Basin are studied. Most dolomite samples are more or less contaminated by clay minerals. Their rare earth element compositions have been consequently changed, showing both seawater-like and non-seawater-like features. The clay contamination should be disposed before the REE data are used. Through ICP-MS and ICP-AES analyses, the REE features are well documented. The clay contamination is quantitatively determined by microscopic investigation, trace elements and REE contents. The dolomites, at least in the Tarim Basin, are thought to be pure when their total LREE contents are less than 3x10-6. Through comparison, the pure dolomites show similarities in REE patterns but differences in REE contents with co-existing pure limestone, which indicates that dolomitization may slightly change the REE compositions. Nevertheless, whatever the change is, the pure dolomites may act as a potential REE proxy for Ordovician seawater, which would be significant for ancient massive dolomite strata that lack limestone.

  13. Geochemical Characteristics of REE in Jurassic Coal of Yan'an Formation from Dongsheng Coalfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵峰华; 丛志远; 彭苏萍; 唐跃刚; 任德贻

    2002-01-01

    Concentrations of rare earth elements (REE) in Jurassic coal of YanAn Formation from Dongsheng coalfield located in the northeast of Ordos basin were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Curves of distrib ution pattern of REE were drawn, and many geochemical parameters were calculated . The result shows that 1) The contents of REE in Jurassic coal with low ash an d sulfur are lower than those of Carboniferous and Permian coal from the Basin of North China; 2) Inside the Dongsheng coalfield, coal from the north has high er contents of REE than that form the south because the north is near the area of source rock which is the main supplier of REE, while the south is far away from the area of source rocks; 3) Although Jurassic coal in Dongsheng is the low-ash coal with less than 10%, the contents of REE are still proportional to ash yie ld of ash and SiO2 contents. 4) Although the Jurassic coal in Dongsheng were deposited in oxidative continental environment of river-lake, Eu depletion of RE E I n coal commonly exists, and positive abnormity of Ce dose not exist. This reflec ts the REE distribution pattern of REE in source rock of continental area; and 5) Compared with other rocks, coal shows extremely complexity of distribution pa ttern of REE, which is the result of continuous alteration and redistribution of matter in coal occurred in open basin system.

  14. Iowa LiDAR Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This is collection level metadata for LAS and ASCII data files from the statewide Iowa Lidar Project. The Iowa Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) Project collects...

  15. Hawaii DAR Dealer Reporting System Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2000 January, the Hawaii Division of Aquatic Resources (DAR) implemented a computerized data processing system for fish dealer data collected state-wide. Hawaii...

  16. University of Dar es Salaam Library Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    University of Dar es Salaam Library Journal. ... Secondary Education Development Plan (SEDP) and the provision of library service in Tanzania: a Case ... Sustainability of the Health Management Information System in Kinondoni and Muheza ...

  17. USGS Atchafalaya 2 LiDAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) dataset is a survey of the Atchafalaya Basin project area. The entire survey area for Atchafalaya encompasses approximately...

  18. A Geochemical Study of an REE-rich Carbonatite Dyke at Bayan Obo, Inner Mongolia, Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    An REE-rich carbonatite dyke was found in Dulahala, close to the Bayan Obo superlarge REE-Nb-Fe mineral deposit in Inner Mongolia, northern China. The REE content in the dyke varies greatly, from 1% up to 20% (wt), which might constitute rich REE ores. Light REEs in the carbonatite are enriched and highly fractionated relative to heavy REEs and there is no Eu anomaly. The REE and trace element distribution patterns of the carbonatite are identical to those of fine-grained dolomite marble which is the host rock of the Bayan Obo REE-Nb-Fe superlarge mineral deposit. This indicates a petrogenetic linkage between the REE-rich carbonatite and the mineralizations in this region.

  19. REE Geochemistry of Fluorite from the Maoniuping REE Deposit, Sichuan Province, China: Implications for the Source of Ore-forming Fluids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Fluorite is one of the main gangue minerals in the Maoniuping REE deposit, Sichuan Province, China. Fluorite with different colors occurs not only within various orebodies, but also in wallrocks of the orefield. Based on REE geochemistry, fluorite in the orefieid can be classified as the LREE-rich, LREE-flat and LREE-depleted types. The three types of fluorite formed at different stages from the same hydrothermal fluid source, with the LREE-rich fluorite forming at the relatively early stage, the LREE-flat fluorite in the middle, and the LREE-depleted fluorite at the latest stage. Various lines of evidence demonstrate that the variation of the REE contents of fluorite shows no relation to the color. The mineralization of the Maoniuping REE deposit is associated spatially and temporally with carbonatite-syenite magmatism and the ore-forming fluids are mainly derived from carbonatite and syenite melts.

  20. Existing forms of REE in gold-bearing pyrite of the Jinshan gold deposit,Jiangxi Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛光周; 华仁民; 高剑峰; 李伟强; 赵葵东; 龙光明; 陆慧娟

    2009-01-01

    Rare earth element(REE) is widely used in various fields of geology.Study of the existing forms of REE in geological objects is a necessity for us to solve geological problems related with REE.This paper tried to make it clear the existing forms of REE in gold-bearing pyrite in Jinshan gold deposit by stepwise dissolution test with ICP-MS analysis.Results showed that content of REE in fluid-inclusions of gold-bearing pyrite was very low,which only took about 0.07%-0.70% of the ΣREE,and that of pyrite phase ...

  1. High-Pressure Rare Earth Disilicates REE2Si 2O 7( REE=Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd): Type K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleet, Michael E.; Liu, Xiaoyang

    2001-10-01

    A new structure type (K) is reported for the disilicates of Nd, Sm, Eu, and Gd made at high pressure. Crystals of type K were synthesized at 10 GPa, 1600-1700°C in an MA6/8 superpress and used for single-crystal X-ray structure study by Kappa CCD diffractometry at room temperature. Crystal data are: monoclinic, space group P21/n, Z=4; Nd2Si2O7-a=6.6658(2), b=6.7234(3), c=12.3975(6) Å, β=102.147(3)°, V=543.2 Å3, R=0.029, and Dx=5.584 g/cm3; Sm2Si2O7-a=6.6039(3), b=6.6849(3), c=12.3069(5) Å, β=102.489(3)°, V=530.4 Å3, R=0.038, and Dx=5.871 g/cm3; Eu2Si2O7-a=6.5777(3), b=6.6652(4), c=12.2668(8) Å, β=102.671(4)°, V=524.7 Å3, R=0.030, and Dx=5.976 g/cm3; Gd2Si2O7-a=6.5558(4), b=6.6469(4), c=12.2394(6) Å, β=102.844(3)°, V=520.0 Å3, R=0.026, and Dx=6.166 g/cm3. The type K structure is built from a diorthosilicate group [Si2O7] interconnected by REE3+ cations in eightfold coordination with oxygen. The bridging oxygen (Si-O-Si) bond angle of the diorthosilicate group of rare earth disilicates stable at 1 bar (types A to G) is related to spatial accommodation of the REE3+ cation and ranges from 130 to 135° in the light rare earth disilicates (types A, F, G) to 180° in Lu2Si2O7 (type C). Volume reduction in the high-pressure type K structure is achieved largely by closure of the Si-O-Si bond angle to 122.7-124.4°, through rigid body rotation of the two SiO4 tetrahedra. This also permits a marginal increase in the average coordination of the REE3+ cation.

  2. [Influence of PO4(3-) and citrate on REE accumulation and fractionation in wheat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jun-Cai; Liang, Tao; Zhang, Zi-Li; Ding, Shi-Ming

    2005-09-01

    This paper has studied the influence of phosphate (Pi, one of inorganic ligands) and citrate (Cit, one of organic ligands) on accumulation and fractionation of REEs in wheat based on aqueous culture, added with extraneous mixed REEs (MRE) and ICP-MS analysis technology. The results show that initial phosphate (Pi) solution of different levels followed by exposure to fixed-MRE solution has no significant effects on accumulation of the total concentrations of REEs (sigma REE) in the wheat roots, but it decrease the REE dramatically in the wheat leaves. Simultaneous culture of wheat with mixture of MRE and citrate solution caused obvious decreases of the sigma REE both in wheat roots and leaves. Compared to the control (no Pi or citrate was added), the distribution and fractionation characters of MRE had M-type tetrad effect and MREE enrichment in wheat roots, and W-type tetrad effect and HREE enrichment in wheat leaves. Different levels of Pi had no significant effects on the tetrad effect of MRE, but it notable increased the enrichment of HREE in wheat leaves. Added with citrate of different levels led the fractionation of REE decreasing gradually in wheat roots and leaves, as the concentration of citrate > or = 150 micromol x L(-1), light REE (LREE) enrichment both existed in the roots and leaves.

  3. Maximum Permissible Concentrations and Negligible Concentrations for Rare Earth Elements (REEs)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sneller FEC; Kalf DF; Weltje L; Wezel AP van; CSR

    2000-01-01

    In this report maximum permissible concentrations (MPCs) and negligible concentrations (NCs) are derived for Rare Earth Elements (REEs), which are also known as lanthanides. The REEs selected for derivation of environmental risk limits in this report are Yttrium (Y), Lanthanum (La), Cerium (Ce), Pra

  4. REE/trace element characteristics of sandstone-type uranium deposits in the Ordos Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LING Mingxing; YANG Xiaoyong; SUN Wei; MIAO Jianyu; LIU Chiyang

    2006-01-01

    The major elements, trace elements and REEs were analyzed on the samples collected from the sandstone-type uranium deposits in the Ordos Basin to constrain the mechanism of uranium enrichment. The total REE amount ranges from 36.7 to 701.8 μg/g and the REE distribution patterns of the sandstone-type uranium samples are characterized by LREE enrichment and high REE depletion. The results also indicated a high Y abundance and Eu anomalies between 0.77-1.81. High-precision ICP-MS results showed that U abundances are within the range of 0.73-150 μg/g, showing some strong correlation between U enrichment and related elements such as Ti, V, Zr, Mo, and Au. In addition, Th abundance is correlated with ΣREE.

  5. Experimental mineral/liquid partition coefficients of the rare earth elements /REE/, Sc and Sr for perovskite, spinel and melilite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, H.; Schreiber, H. D.; Morris, R. V.

    1980-01-01

    Experimental determinations of the mineral/liquid partition coefficients of REE (La, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Yb and Lu), Sc and Sr are reported for the minerals perovskite, spinel and melilite in synthetic systems. Perovskite concentrates light REE with respect to the residual liquid but shows no preference for heavy REE. Spinel greatly discriminates against the incorporation of REE, especially light REE, into its crystal structure. The partition of REE into melilite from a silicate liquid is quite dependent upon both the bulk melt and melilite solid-solution (gehlenite and akermanite components) compositions. As such, melilite can be enriched in REE or will reject REE with corresponding strong negative or strong positive Eu anomalies, respectively.

  6. Chemical Compositions of Calcites in Carbonatites from Panxi Region Implications for Genesis of Carbonatites and Associated REE Deposits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Cheng; HUANG Zhi-long

    2008-01-01

    @@ The Panxi region is important REE mineralization belt in China. Chemical compositions of calcites in carbon-atites from Daluxiang and Maoniuping REE deposits are analyzed by LA-ICPMS. At Maoniuping the reserve of REE2O3 is estimated to be more than 1.45 million tons.

  7. REE Geochemical Evolution and Its Significance of Early Precambrian Metamorphic Terrain,Wuyang,Henan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈衍景; 富士谷; 等

    1992-01-01

    The supracrustal rocks of the Wuyang metamorphic terrain are divided into the Zhao anzhuang,Tieshanmiao and Yangshuwan Formations.These three Formations were dated at 3000-2550Ma,2550-2300Ma and 2300-2200Ma,respectively.∑REE and La/Yb)n of the Zhao anzhuang Formation volcanic rocks are obviously higher than those of the Tiesanmiao Formation equivalents,suggesting a sedimentary gap(2550 Ma boundary)between these two formations,The Zhao'anzhuang Formation is older than the Tieshanmiao Formation.The sediments of these two Formations show no obvious differences in REE and are generally characterized by low ∑REE and positive Eu anomalies.On the contrary,the sediments of the Yangshuwan Formation are characterized by high ∑REE and negative Eu anomalies.Detailed discussions demonstrate that the Yangshuwan Formation was deposited in an oxidizing environment whereas the other two formations were formed in a reducing environment.At the end of the evolution of the Tieshanmiao Formation about 2300 Ma ago,the sedimentary environment was transformed from reducing to oxidizing .On the basis of the SHAB (soft/hard acid and base)theory,an oxidation-reduction model for sedimentary REE evolution has been established .It is proposed that the mantle tends to become gradually depleted in REE.especially in LREE,and the indices ∑REE and La/Yb) n of mantle-dervived volcanic rocks also tend to become lower and lower.

  8. The giant Bayan Obo REE-Nb-Fe deposit, China: Controversy and ore genesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Rui Fan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Bayan Obo ore deposit is the largest rare-earth element (REE resource, and the second largest niobium (Nb resource in the world. Due to the complicated element/mineral compositions and involving several geological events, the REE enrichment mechanism and genesis of this giant deposit still remains intense debated. The deposit is hosted in the massive dolomite, and nearly one hundred carbonatite dykes occur in the vicinity of the deposit. The carbonatite dykes can be divided into three types from early to late: dolomite, co-existing dolomite-calcite and calcite type, corresponding to different evolutionary stages of carbonatite magmatism based on the REE and trace element data. The latter always has higher REE content. The origin of the ore-hosting dolomite at Bayan Obo has been addressed in various models, ranging from a normal sedimentary carbonate rocks to volcano-sedimentary sequence, and a large carbonatitic intrusion. More geochemical evidences show that the coarse-grained dolomite represents a Mesoproterozoic carbonatite pluton and the fine-grained dolomite resulted from the extensive REE mineralization and modification of the coarse-grained variety. The ore bodies, distributed along an E–W striking belt, occur as large lenses and underwent more intense fluoritization and fenitization. The first episode mineralization is characterized by disseminated mineralization in the dolomite. The second or main-episode is banded and/or massive mineralization, cut by the third episode consisting of aegirine-rich veins. Various dating methods gave different mineralization ages at Bayan Obo, resulting in long and hot debates. Compilation of available data suggests that the mineralization is rather variable with two peaks at ∼1400 and 440 Ma. The early mineralization peak closes in time to the intrusion of the carbonatite dykes. A significant thermal event at ca. 440 Ma resulted in the formation of late-stage veins with coarse crystals of REE

  9. REE concentration processes in ion adsorption deposits: Evidence from Madagascar and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martin; Estrade, Guillaume; Marquis, Eva; Goodenough, Kathryn; Nasun, Peter; Cheng, Xu; Kynicky, Jindrich

    2017-04-01

    Lateritic clay deposits, where the rare earth elements (REE) occur adsorbed to clay mineral surfaces, are the world's dominant supply of heavy REE (Gd-Lu). These deposits are currently only mined in China where there is a reported heavy REE enrichment, but other deposits are currently under exploration in Brazil, the Philippines and Madagascar. Concentration of REE within IADs has been proposed to be a dominantly supergene process, where easily degradable REE-minerals (e.g. REE-fluorcarbonates) break down and release REE that are then adsorbed to clay minerals resulting in HREE enrichment. Here we present data from the Ambohimirahavavy Complex, Madagascar, and compare them to data from mineralised profiles in China, with the aim of further constraining the formation and REE enrichment processes in ion adsorption deposits. Bulk rock total REE contents from Madagascar vary from 400-5000ppm, with the HREE varying from 10 to 20% of the TREE. Ammonium Sulphate leaches (designed to remove clay-adsorbed REE) of laterite show leachable TREE from 130-500ppm, with no preferential HREE adsorption. Within the sequential extraction procedure the reducible fraction (hydroxylammonium chloride leach) showed the highest REE, but this is largely attributable to Ce4+ in oxide layers. Analysis of laterite profiles show that the REE distribution is heterogeneous, with control from both bedrock heterogeneity, and the hydrological variation between pedolith and saprolith. Similar patterns are seen in Chinese profiles from Jiangxi province. X-ray diffraction shows the clay fraction in all sites is dominated by kaolinite and halloysite. These data are consistent with experimental data which show that kaolinite is only HREE selective in high ionic strength solutions (Coppin et al., 2002), and suggest that HREE enrichment in lateritic deposits may be a function of exceptional bed rock conditions. Petrographic investigation of the Zhaibei granite, immediately underlying HREE enriched

  10. LiDAR data for the Delta Area of California

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — LiDAR data for the Delta Area of California from the California Department of Water Resources. Bare earth grids from LiDAR.This data is in ESRI Grid format with 2...

  11. LiDAR data for the Delta Area of California

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — LiDAR data for the Delta Area of California from the California Department of Water Resources. Bare earth grids from LiDAR.This data is in ESRI Grid format with 2...

  12. Using in situ REE analysis to study the origin and diagenesis of dolomite of Lower Paleozoic, Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG XiaoLin; JIN ZhiJun; HU WenXuan; ZHANG JunTao; QIAN YiXiong; ZHU JingQuan; LI Qing

    2009-01-01

    In situ REE concentrations of various dolomites from Tarim Basin were obtained by LA-ICP-MS analysis, and the data were normalized to standard seawater (Seawater Normalized=SWN). Most of the samples have a ΣREE range of less than 20 ppm. All samples show similar REE distributions with heavy REE depletion, and positive Ce anomaly, which indicates that they have the same dolomitization fluids (seawater). According to the origin and diagenetic process of dolomite, two types of dolomite are de-termined and described as follows: 1) syndepositional dolomite, with the highest REE concentrations (more than 20 ppm), the cores of which are more enriched in REE compared with their cortexes, indicating that they underwent the dolomitization of calcareous sediments by hypersaline and subsequent diagenesis decreased the REE content of the cortex because of the low REE concentration of the diagenetic fluids; 2) diagenetic dolomite, which can be subdivided into four groups. (1) burial dolomite which has higher REE concentrations than limestone, but lower than syndepositional dolomite. This shows that pore fluids with high salinity dolomitized the pre-existing limestone; (2) void filling dolomite which has the similar REE patterns with the matrix dolomite. In addition, the Eu anomaly is not obvious, suggesting that the dolomitization fluids originated from the diagenetic fluids; (3) recrystallized dolomite, whose REE concentration was obviously decreased, indicating that the REE concentration was decreased during the recrystallization processes; and (4) hydrothermal altered void-filling dolomite, which has the lowest REE concentration, but obvious positive Eu anomaly, reflecting its hydrothermal activity related origin. Thus, the diverse REE signatures, which were recorded in different dolomites, retain the information of their formation conditions and subsequent diagenetic processes. In situ REE analysis of dolomite is an effective probe into the origin and diagenetic process of

  13. Orienteerumiskaart vs. LiDAR / Marek Karm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karm, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Bakalaureusetööst, mille eesmärk oli võrrelda orienteerumiskaardi reljeefi LiDAR-i andmete põhjal saadava reljeefimudeliga ning leida vastus küsimusele, kas o-kaart võib olla kasulik kooste- või kontrollmaterjal mistahes reljeefimudelile

  14. Orienteerumiskaart vs. LiDAR / Marek Karm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karm, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Bakalaureusetööst, mille eesmärk oli võrrelda orienteerumiskaardi reljeefi LiDAR-i andmete põhjal saadava reljeefimudeliga ning leida vastus küsimusele, kas o-kaart võib olla kasulik kooste- või kontrollmaterjal mistahes reljeefimudelile

  15. Green vegetable supply in Dar es Salaam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegerif, M.C.A.

    2015-01-01

    This article constructs a picture of green vegetable growing and supply in Dar es Salaam by looking at the lives and work of a small trader and an urban farmer. It reveals the importance of a range of distribution and trade networks and the integration of a wider city region, alongside urban and per

  16. 2005 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: North Puget Sound Lowlands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Terrapoint collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data contributing to the Puget Sound Lowlands project of 2005. Arlington, City of Snohomish, Snohomish...

  17. 2009 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Snohomish River Estuary

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WS) co-acquired Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data and Truecolor Orthophotographs of the Snohomish River Estuary, WA on July 20 &...

  18. 2009 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Douglas Co.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WS) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data of the Douglas County PUD area of interest (AOI) east of Wenatchee, WA on May 2nd ?...

  19. 2003 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Snohomish County, Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TerraPoint surveyed and created this data for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium under contract. The area surveyed is approximately 167 square miles and covers a...

  20. 2003 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Yakima County, Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TerraPoint surveyed and created this data for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium under contract. The area surveyed is approximately 77 square miles and covers a...

  1. 2012 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Upper Naches River, Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WSI) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data of the Upper Naches River Valley and Nile Slide area of interest on September 30th,...

  2. 2005 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Lewis County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Terrapoint collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Lewis County project of 2005. The project site covered approximately 223 square miles, divided...

  3. 2005 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Bare-Earth Topographic LiDAR: Lynnwood

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Terrapoint collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data contributing to the Puget Sound Lowlands project of 2005. Lynnwood, Snohomish County, Washington. This...

  4. 2007 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Sumpter, OR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WS) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the USDA Forest Service on September 17, 2007. The project covers an 8-mile...

  5. 2011 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Rattlesnake

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WSI) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data on six days between September 15th and November 5th, and from November 6th ? 13th,...

  6. 2000 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Kitsap Peninsula, Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TerraPoint surveyed and created this data for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium under contract. The area surveyed is approximately 1,146 square miles and covers part...

  7. 2003 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Yakima County, Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TerraPoint surveyed and created this data for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium under contract. The area surveyed is approximately 77 square miles and covers a...

  8. 2013 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Entiat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In October 2012, WSI (Watershed Sciences, Inc.) was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDARConsortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the...

  9. 2013 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Nooksack

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In July 2012, WSI (Watershed Sciences, Inc.) was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDARConsortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data on a...

  10. 2005 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Yakima County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Terrapoint collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data to complete the 2005 project for Yakima County. This project has partial coverage of Yakima County,...

  11. 2005 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Olympic Peninsula

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Terrapoint collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Olympic Peninsula project of 2005, totaling approximately 114.59 sq mi: 24.5 for Clallam...

  12. 2005 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: North Puget Sound Lowlands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Terrapoint collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data contributing to the Puget Sound Lowlands project of 2005. Arlington, City of Snohomish, Snohomish...

  13. LiDAR utility for natural resource managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Thomas Hudak; Jeffrey Scott Evans; Alistair Mattthew Stuart. Smith

    2009-01-01

    Applications of LiDAR remote sensing are exploding, while moving from the research to the operational realm. Increasingly, natural resource managers are recognizing the tremendous utility of LiDAR-derived information to make improved decisions. This review provides a cross-section of studies, many recent, that demonstrate the relevance of LiDAR across a suite of...

  14. 2012 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Quinault River Watershed, Washington (Delivery 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WSI) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data on the Quinault watershed survey area for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium. This...

  15. 2014 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Cedar River Watershed (Delivery 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In September 2013, WSI, a Quantum Spatial company (QSI), was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)...

  16. Cancer vaccines: looking to the future. Interview by Jenaid Rees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolopoulos, Vasso

    2013-10-01

    Interview by Jenaid Rees (Commissioning Editor) Vasso Apostolopoulos has been working in the field of cancer vaccines since 1991, and human clinical trials on her work have been conducted since 1994. Her work has been at the forefront of scientific research into the development of a vaccine for cancer and she has received over 90 awards and honours in recognition of her achievements. Some notable awards include, the Premier's Award for medical research, was named Young Australian of the Year (Victoria), recipient of the Channel 10/Herald Sun Young Achiever of the Year Award as well as being awarded the Order of Brigadier General of the Phoenix Battalion by the Greek President. In 1998 Apostolopoulos received the NHMRC CJ Martin Research Fellowship and worked at the Scripps Research Institute in California, USA, for 3.5 years and returned to the Austin Research Institute (VIC, Australia), and headed the Immunology and Vaccine Laboratory receiving the NHMRC RD Wright Fellowship. Upon her return to Australia, Apostolopoulos received the Victorian Tall Poppy Award, the Bodossaki Foundation Academic Prize, was inducted into the Victorian Honour roll of Women, was a torchbearer for the Melbourne leg of the International Athens 2004 Olympic Torch Relay, was named Woman of the Year, and is an Australia Day Ambassador. Her contribution into cancer research, vaccines and immunology has been extensive - publishing over 200 scientific papers and books, an inventor on 14 patents and collaborates with over 50 national and international Research Institutes and Universities. Her current research interests are in the development of new improved cancer vaccines and new modes of antigen delivery for immune stimulation. She is also interested in chronic diseases treatment and prevention through immunotherapy. She serves on the Editorial Board for Expert Review of Vaccines.

  17. Observation results of relativistic electrons detected by Fengyun-1 satellite and analysis of relativistic electron enhancement (REE) events

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The space particle component detector on Fengyun-1 satellite which works at the sun-synchronous orbit of about 870 km altitude has detected relativistic electrons for a long time. In comparison with the SAMPEX satellite observations during 1999 -2004, the relativistic electron data from Fengyun-1 satellite from June 1999 to 2005 are used to analyze the relativistic electron enhancement (REE) events at the low earth orbit, and the possible correlation among REE events at the low earth orbit, high-speed solar wind and geomagnetic storms is discussed. The statistical result presents that 45 REE events are found in total during this time period, and the strong REE events with the maximum daily average flux > 400 cm?2·sr?1·s?1 occur mostly during the transition period from solar maximum to solar minimum. Among these 45 REE events, four strong REE events last a longer time period from 26- to 51-day and correlate closely with high speed solar wind and strong geo- magnetic storms. Meanwhile, several strong geomagnetic storms occur continu- ously before these REE events, and these continuous geomagnetic storms would be an important factor causing these long-lasting strong REE events. The correlation analysis for overall 45 events indicates that the strength of the REE events corre- lates with the solar wind speed and the strength of the geomagnetic storm, and the correlation for strong REE events is much stronger than that for weak REE events.

  18. REE Geochemical Characteristics of Apatite,Sphene and Zircon from Alkaline Rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周玲棣; 王杨传

    1989-01-01

    The accessory minerals apatite and sphene are the main carriers of REE in alkaline rocks.Their chondrite-normalized REE patterns decline sharply to the right as those of the host rocks,In the patterns an obvious negative Eu anomaly and a positive Ce anomaly can be seen in apatite and sphene,respectively.Zircon from alkaline rocks is different in REE pattern,I,e,. a nearly symmetric"V"-shaped pattern with a maximum negative Eu anomaly.Compared with the equivalents from granites,apatite,sphene and zircon from alkaline rocks are all characterized by higher (La/Yb)N ratio and less Eu depletion,As to the relative contents of REE in minerals,apatite,sphene and zircon are enriched in LREE,MREE and HREE respectively,depending on their crystallochemical properties.

  19. A selected thermodynamic database for REE to be used in HLNW performance assessment exercises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spahiu, K.; Bruno, J. [MBT Tecnologia Ambiental, Cerdanyola (Spain)

    1995-01-01

    A selected thermodynamic database for the Rare Earth Elements (REE) to be used in the safety assessment of high-level nuclear waste deposition has been compiled. Thermodynamic data for the aqueous species of the REE with the most important ligands relevant for granitic groundwater conditions have been selected and validated. The dominant soluble species under repository conditions are the carbonate complexes of REE. The solubilities of the oxides, hydroxides, carbonates, hydroxycarbonates, phosphates and other important solids have been selected and validated. Solubilities and solubility limiting solids in repository conditions have been estimated with the selected database. At the initial stages of fuel dissolution, the UO{sub 2} matrix dissolution will determine the concentrations of REE. Later on, solid phosphates, hydroxycarbonates and carbonates may limit their solubility. Recommendations for further studies on important systems in repository conditions have been presented. 136 refs, 13 figs, 16 tabs.

  20. Determining Foundry Area of Bronze Vessel Using REE in Clay Mould Residues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The composition of casting clay core might provide clue to the foundry area of the bronze vessels. REE analysis of the residual clay mould was conducted by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES). Results reveal that characteristic of REE of clay mould from different region is dissimilar. It is feasible to restrict the possible foundry area of the bronze vessels on the basis of analysis of REE of clay mould residues on the bronzes. Meanwhile, this paper attempts to determine the foundry area of the bronze vessels unearthed at Jiuliandun tombs of Chu State, dated back to Warring States Period, in Zaoyang City, Hubei Province, and at Zuozhong cemetery, Spring and Autumn Period, in Jingmen City, Hubei Province. REE of clay core provides information on the foundry area of bronze vessels.

  1. Using REE Tracers to Measure Sheet Erosion Changing to Rill Erosion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋炜; 刘普灵; 杨明义; 薛亚洲

    2003-01-01

    Rare earth element(REE) tracer method was used to study sheet erosion changing to rill erosion on slope land. By placing different REE on different soil depth across a slope in an indoor plot, two simulated rainfalls were applied to study the change of erosion type and the rill erosion process. The results indicate that the main erosion type is sheet erosion at the beginning of the rainfalls, and serious erosion happens after rill erosion appears. Accumulated sheet and rill erosion amount increases with the rainfalls time. The percentage of sheet erosion amount decreases and rill erosion percentage increases with time. At the end of the rainfalls, the total rill erosion amounts are 4.3 and 5 times more than sheet erosion. In this paper, a new REE tracer method was used to quantitatively distinguish sheet and rill erosion amount. The new REE tracer method should be useful to future studying of erosion processes on slope lands.

  2. Using in situ REE analysis to study the origin and diagenesis of dolomite of Lower Paleozoic,Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In situ REE concentrations of various dolomites from Tarim Basin were obtained by LA-ICP-MS analysis,and the data were normalized to standard seawater(Seawater Normalized=SWN).Most of the samples have a ΣREE range of less than 20 ppm.All samples show similar REESWN distributions with heavy REE depletion,and positive Ce anomaly,which indicates that they have the same dolomitization fluids(seawater).According to the origin and diagenetic process of dolomite,two types of dolomite are determined and described as follows:1) syndepositional dolomite,with the highest REE concentrations(more than 20 ppm),the cores of which are more enriched in REE compared with their cortexes,indicating that they underwent the dolomitization of calcareous sediments by hypersaline and subsequent diagenesis decreased the REE content of the cortex because of the low REE concentration of the diagenetic fluids;2) diagenetic dolomite,which can be subdivided into four groups.(1) burial dolomite which has higher REE concentrations than limestone,but lower than syndepositional dolomite.This shows that pore fluids with high salinity dolomitized the pre-existing limestone;(2) void filling dolomite which has the similar REE patterns with the matrix dolomite.In addition,the Eu anomaly is not obvious,suggesting that the dolomitization fluids originated from the diagenetic fluids;(3) recrystallized dolomite,whose REE concentration was obviously decreased,indicating that the REE concentration was decreased during the recrystallization processes;and(4) hydrothermal altered void-filling dolomite,which has the lowest REE concentration,but obvious positive Eu anomaly,reflecting its hydrothermal activity related origin.Thus,the diverse REE signatures,which were recorded in different dolomites,retain the information of their formation conditions and subsequent diagenetic processes.In situ REE analysis of dolomite is an effective probe into the origin and diagenetic process of dolomite.

  3. REE Geochemical Characteristics of Volcanic Rocks in Zhejiang and Jiangxi Provinces and Their Gological Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王剑锋

    1991-01-01

    Based on the data of 64 samples ,the REE geochemical characteristics of volcanic rocks in northern Zhejiang and eastern Jiangxi provinces are discussed in this paper.The REE distribution patterns in acid and intermediate-acid volcanic rocks in these areas display some similarities,as indicated by rightward-inclined V-shaped curves with negative Eu anomalies,which are parallel to earch other.In addi-tion,their REE parameters(ΣREE,ΣLREE/ΣHREE,δEu,Ce/Yb,La/Sm,La/Yb,etc)also va-ry over a narrow range with small deviations.HREE are particularly concentrated in the volcanic rocks as-sociated with uranium mineralization.The initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio in the volcanic rocks is about 0.7056-0.7139.All these features in conjunction with strontium isotopic data indicate that the rock-forming materials come from the sialic crust.The REE distribution patterns and REE geochemical parameters of the volcanic rocks ,as well as La/Sm-La and Ce/Yb-Eu/Yb diagrams may be applied to the sources of rock-forming and ore-forming materials.

  4. In situ ion microprobe U-Pb dating and REE abundances of a carboniferous conodont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Yuji; Terada, Kentaro

    We report here in situ ion microprobe U-Pb dating of a conodont micro-fossil using an ion microprobe method. Thirteen spots on the single fragment of the Carboniferous conodont (size: approximately 800 µm × 100 µm) yield a 238U/206Pb isochron age of 323±36 Ma and a Tera-Wasserburg concordia intercept age of 332±44 Ma in a three-dimensional 238U/206Pb-207Pb/206 Pb-204Pb/206Pb diagram. These ages are consistent with the depositional and early diagenetic ages of the fossil in its host Mississippian sedimentary sequence within experimental error. The success of the method depends on the chemical fractionation of U from Pb within a hundred-µm length scale and the consequent variations in Pb isotopic compositions due to radioactive decay. Shale-normalized rare earth element (REE) abundances of two spots on the same sample show flat patterns from light REE to middle REE and decreases from middle REE to heavy REE with negative anomalies of both Ce and Eu. The REE characteristics are significantly different from those of Devonian conodonts reported by other workers, suggesting discrepant redox states and/or formation environments.

  5. REE Geochemical Characteristics of Tungsten Minerals as a Discriminant Indicator of Genetic Types of Ore Deposits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉学; 刘文茂; 等

    1990-01-01

    Tungsten minerals (scheelite and wolframite)from two genetic types of granitoids show significant dif-ferences in REE distribution,probably due to different material sources and origins.Tungsten miner-als in granite porphyry of the crust-mantle source are relatively high in ∑REE(1884ppm on average).∑ Ce is rich relative to ∑Y and ∑Ce/∑Y is relatively high(>1).The chondrite-normalized REE distribution patterns are characterized by a group of rightward-inclined curves.Tungsten minerals in quartz veins intruding the granites of crust origin have lower ∑REE (335 ppm on average).∑Y is rich relative to ∑Ce and ∑Ce/∑Y is relatively low(<1).The chondrite-normalized REE distribution patterns are characterized by a group of leftward-inclined curves.So the REE distribution patterns can be used to discriminate the sources of rock-and ore-forming materials and the genetic types of W deposits so as to provide clues to ore prospecting.

  6. Contrasting REE Signatures on Manganese Ores of Iron Ore Group in North Orissa, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The distribution pattern of Rare Earth Elements (REE) in three categories of manganese ores viz.stratiform, stratabound-replacement, and detrital of Precambrian Iron Ore Group from north Orissa, India was reported.These categories of Mn-ore differed in their major and trace chemistry and exhibited contrasting REE signature.The stratiform ores were relatively enriched in REE content (697 μg·g-1) and their normalized pattern showed both positive Ce and Eu anomalies, whereas the stratabound-replacement types were comparatively depleted in REE content (211 μg·g-1) and showed negative Ce and flat Eu signatures.The detrital categories showed mixed REE pattern.The data plotted in different discrimination diagrams revealed a mixed volcaniclastic and chemogenic source of material for stratiform categories, and LREE (Light Rare Earth Elements) and HREE (Heavy Rare Earth Elements) are contributed by such sources, respectively.In contrast, the stratabound ore bodies were developed during the remobilization of stratiform ores, and associated Mn-containing rocks under supergene condition followed by the redeposition of circulating mineralized colloidal solutions in structurally favorable zones.During this process, some of the constituents were found only in very low concentration within stratabound ores, and this is attributed to their poor leachability/mobility.The detrital ores did not exhibit any significant characteristic in respect of REE as their development was via a complex combination of processes involving weathering, fragmentation, recementation, and burial under soil cover.

  7. REE characteristics and genesis of alkaline-rich porphyry, Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The Yunnan Himalayan alkaline-rich porphyry occurs as a compound rockbelt and consists of calca-alkalic, alkaline and peralkaline intrusions. Its origin is in debate. The paper deals with its origin by studying rock′s REE and Sr isotope. Although the rocks are different in their REE contents varying from 77.53 μg/g to 1 798.3 μg/g, they have very similar features in REE parameters. On the triangalar diagram of REEs, the sample dots are concentrated on the end area of light REEs, representing a product of low-degree melting of upper mantle or lower crust materials. The initial 87Sr/86Sr values of rocks vary between 0.706 4 and 0.709 8, showing a feature of mantle-crust mixed source. Moreover, REEs show a logarithmic linear positive correlation between them. This type of correlation strongly supports the fractional-partial melting model. The result of geochemistry inversion shows that the source rock of alkaline-rich porphyry is plagioclase-bearing harzburgite and of mantle-crust mixed type. At the early state of melting, some crust components of the source rock were partially melted into intermediate-acidic magma; with the crust components consumed, the magma evolved to basic.

  8. Rare earth elements (REEs) in the tropical South Atlantic and quantitative deconvolution of their non-conservative behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xin-Yuan; Plancherel, Yves; Saito, Mak A.; Scott, Peter M.; Henderson, Gideon M.

    2016-03-01

    This study presents new concentration measurements of dissolved rare earth elements (dREEs) along a full-depth east-west section across the tropical South Atlantic (∼12°S), and uses these data to investigate the oceanic cycling of the REEs. Enrichment of dREEs, associated with the redox cycling of Fe-Mn oxides, is observed in the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) off the African shelf. For deeper-waters, a multi-parameter mixing model was developed to deconvolve the relative importance of physical transport (i.e., water mass mixing) from biogeochemical controls on the dREE distribution in the deep Atlantic. This approach enables chemical processes involved in REE cycling, not apparent from the measurements alone, to be distinguished and quantified. Results show that the measured dREE concentrations below ∼1000 m are dominantly controlled (>75%) by preformed REE concentrations resulting from water mass mixing. This result indicates that the linear correlation between dREEs and dissolved Si observed in Atlantic deep waters results from the dominantly conservative behavior of these tracers, rather than from similar chemical processes influencing both dREEs and Si. Minor addition of dREEs (∼10% of dNd and ∼5% of dYb) is observed in the deep (>∼4000 m) Brazil Basin, resulting from either remineralization of particles in-situ or along the flow path. Greater addition of dREEs (up to 25% for dNd and 20% for dYb) is found at ∼1500 m and below ∼4000 m in the Angola Basin near the African continental margin. Cerium anomalies suggest that different sources are responsible for these dREE addition plumes. The 1500 m excess is most likely attributed to dREE release from Fe oxides, whereas the 4000 m excess may be due to remineralization of calcite. Higher particulate fluxes and a more sluggish ocean circulation in the Angola Basin may explain why the dREE excesses in this basin are significantly higher than that observed in the Brazil Basin. Hydrothermal venting over the

  9. Accumulation of Rare Earth Elements in Spinach and Soil under Condition of Using REE and Acid Rain Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严重玲; 洪业汤; 林鹏; 王世杰; 李心清; 梁洁

    2002-01-01

    The content and distribution characteristics of REE in spinach and soil under using REE and acid rain stress were studied by pot experiments. The results show that the content of REE is 0.527~0.696 (μgg-1) in the above-ground portion of spinach, 2.668~3.003 (μg*g-1) in the under-ground portion of spinach and 229.09~250.30 (μg*g-1) in the soil. With the acidity of acid rain increasing, the leaching of REE in plants and soil is strengthened and the amount of REE reduces with decreasing of pH value. After REE are used, though plants show the selective absorption to Ce group elements (especially spraying on leaves), regardless under acid rain stress or using REE or not, the distribution model of REE in the above-ground and under-ground portion of plants is basically the same with the control. Plants also follow the Oddo-Harkins rule of the REE of distribution abundance, light rare earth elements is enriched, the minus of Eu is abnormal and admeasure of Ce is a rich model. The results show that REE in plants mainly come from soil and are affected by it.

  10. Ion-adsorption REEs in regolith of the Liberty Hill pluton, South Carolina, USA: An effect of hydrothermal alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bern, Carleton R.; Yesavage, Tiffany; Foley, Nora K.

    2017-01-01

    Ion-adsorbed rare earth element (REE) deposits supply the majority of world heavy REE production and substantial light REE production, but relatively little is known of their occurrence outside Southeast Asia. We examined the distribution and forms of REEs on a North American pluton located in the highly weathered and slowly eroding South Carolina Piedmont. The Hercynian Liberty Hill pluton experiences a modern climate that includes ~ 1500 mm annual rainfall and a mean annual temperature of 17 °C. The pluton is medium- to coarse-grained biotite-amphibole granite with minor biotite granite facies. REE-bearing phases are diverse and include monazite, zircon, titanite, allanite, apatite and bastnäsite. Weathered profiles were sampled up to 7 m-deep across the ~ 400 km2 pluton. In one profile, ion-adsorbed REEs plus yttrium (REE + Y) ranged up to 581 mg/kg and accounted for up to 77% of total REE + Y in saprolite. In other profiles, ion-adsorbed REE + Y ranged 12–194 mg/kg and only accounted for 3–37% of totals. The profile most enriched in ion-adsorbed REEs was located along the mapped boundary of two granite facies and contained trioctahedral smectite in the saprolite, evidence suggestive of hydrothermal alteration of biotite at that location. Post-emplacement deuteric alteration can generate easily weathered REE phases, particularly fluorocarbonates. In the case of Liberty Hill, hydrothermal alteration may have converted less soluble to more soluble REE minerals. Additionally, regolith P content was inversely correlated with the fraction ion-adsorbed REEs, and weathering related secondary REE-phosphates were found in some regolith profiles. Both patterns illustrate how low P content aids in the accumulation of ion-adsorbed REEs. The localized occurrence at Liberty Hill sheds light on conditions and processes that generate ion-adsorbed REEs.

  11. Characterizing Lava Flows With LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deligne, N. I.; Cashman, K. V.; Deardorff, N.; Dietterich, H. R.; House, P. K.; Soule, S.

    2009-12-01

    Digital elevation models (DEMs) have been used in volcanology in predictive modeling of lava flow paths, both for assessment of potential hazards and specific predictions of lava flow paths. Topographic analysis of a lava flow is potentially useful for mapping and quantifying flow surface morphologies, which in turn can be used to determine flow emplacement conditions, such as effusion rate, steadiness of flow, and interactions with pre-existing topography and surface water. However, this has been limited in application because of the coarse resolution of most DEMs. In recent years, use of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) airborne laser altimetry, capable of producing high resolution (≤ 1 meter) DEMs, has become increasingly common in the geomorphic and mapping community. However, volcanologists have made little use of airborne LiDAR. Here we compare information obtained using field observations and standard (10 meter) DEMs against LiDAR high resolution DEMs to assess the usefulness, capabilities, and limitations of LiDAR as applicable to lava flows. We compare morphologic characteristics of five lava flows of different compositions, tectonic settings, flow extents, slopes, and eruption duration: (1) 1984 Mauna Loa lava flow, Hawaii; (2) December 1974 Kilauea lava flow, Hawaii; (3) c. 1600 ybp Collier Cone lava flow, central Oregon Cascades; (4) Holocene lava flows from the Sand Mountain volcanic chain, central Oregon Cascades; and (5) Pleistocene lava flows along the Owyhee River, eastern Oregon basin and range. These lava flows range in composition from basalt to andesite, and have eruption durations ranging from 6 hours (observed) to years (inferred). We measure channel width, levee and flow front heights, compression ridge amplitude, wavelength and tumuli dimensions, and surface roughness. For all but the smallest scale features, LiDAR is easily used to quantify these features, which often is impossible or technically challenging to do in the field, while

  12. Temporal variations in the export of REE in boreal catchments of varying character and size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, S.; Lidman, F.; Mörth, M.; Björkvald, L.; Laudon, H.

    2009-04-01

    Organic matter and iron colloids have a large impact on the mobilisation of trivalent elements such as aluminium (Al), rare earth elements (REE) and actinides. Recent results of the relative importance of these colloids are diverging though (POURRET et al., 2007); STEINMANN and STILLE, 2008) and there is a general lack of information of the importance of flow pathways and landscape type on the relative importance of the various colloidal fractions that mobilizes REE from the catchment soils. In this study we present the data of water chemical analysis of a series of catchments with varying size and character but all within the boreal zone. Two speciation techniques and two column separation methods involving ion exchange were used to quantify the causes for the temporal variation of the dissolved amounts of trivalent ions in these water courses. Our study indicates that REE export is controlled mostly by landscape type while changes in the acid-base character of organic matter are of minor importance. Changes in flow pathways in a riparian zone in one of the studied areas in a forested site may be used to decipher the effect of chemical versus physical processes for the mobilisation of REE and aluminium and open up the possibility for a quantitative modelling of the varying sources of REE. Iron and aluminium are mobilized together with organic matter in varying amounts in different landscape types and this affects the REE export from the various landscape elements. While the amount of strongly bound aluminium mobilized from the catchments usually correlate positively with any of the REE this is not the case for strongly bound iron. Fractionation patterns of REE are discussed and the observed binding of REE to organic matter was modelled using the speciation program WHAM VI (TIPPING, 1998). Pourret O., Davranche M., Gruau G., and Dia A. (2007) Organic complexation of rare earth elements in natural waters: Evaluating model calculations from ultrafiltration data

  13. Microbial mobilization of rare earth elements (REE from mineral solids—A mini review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabienne Barmettler

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the light of an expected supply shortage of rare earth elements (REE measures have to be undertaken for an efficient use in all kinds of technical, medical, and agricultural applications as well as—in particular—in REE recycling from post-use goods and waste materials. Biologically- based methods might offer an alternative and supplement to physico-chemical techniques for REE recovery and recycling. A wide variety of physiologically distinct microbial groups have the potential to be applied for REE bioleaching form solid matrices. This source is largely untapped until today. Depending of the type of organism, the technical process (including a series of influencing factors, the solid to be treated, and the target element, leaching efficiencies of 80 to 90% can be achieved. Bioleaching of REEs can help in reducing the supply risk and market dependency. Additionally, the application of bioleaching techniques for the treatment of solid wastes might contribute to the conversion towards a more sustainable and environmental friendly economy.

  14. DAR: A Modern Institutional Repository with a Scalability Twist

    OpenAIRE

    Mikhail, Youssef; Adly, Noha; Nagi, Magdy

    2012-01-01

    The Digital Assets Repository (DAR) is an Institutional Repository developed at the Bibliotheca Alexandrina to manage the full lifecycle of a digital asset: its creation and ingestion, its metadata management, storage and archival in addition to the necessary mechanisms for publishing and dissemination. DAR was designed with a focus on integrating DAR with different sources of digital objects and metadata in addition to integration with applications built on top of the repository. As a modern...

  15. REE Characteristics of the Kalatongke Cu-Ni Deposit, Xinjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yuwang; WANG Jingbin; WANG Lijuan; WANG Yong; TU Caineng

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of the study on the REE geochemistry of the ore minerals and host rocks of the Kalatongke Cu-Ni deposit, Xinjiang, it is indicated that the major ore minerals, sulfides, were sourced from the host mafic-ultramafic magma.Characterized by low REE content of sulfide, such a Cu-Ni sulfide deposit occurring in the orogen is obviously different from that on the margin of the craton. Because the mafic-ultramafic rocks from the Cu-Ni sulfide deposit occurring in the orogen is water-rich and the REEs of some sulfides show a particular "multiple-bending" pattern, which suggests coexistence of multiple liquid phases (fluid and melt), the sulfide melt possibly contains a great deal of hydrothermal fluids and increasingly developed gases and liquid-rich ore-forming fluids after the main metallogenic epoch (magmatic segregation stage).

  16. Th, U, REE Backgrounds and Phytoavailability in Soils of the Padanian Plain (Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Di Giuseppe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution we present ICP-MS analyses carried out on agricultural soils from the eastern-most part of the Padanian plain (Ferrara Province and on the related crop products. The aim is to provide, for the first time, backgrounds for some trace elements such as rare earth elements (REE, thorium (Th, uranium (U and to understand the related phytoavailability. In particular, detailed analyses have been done on Sorghum Vulgare plants, analyzing distinct plant parts in different vegetative periods. Results indicate that a REE concentration in plant tissues is always lower than in the related soils, precluding the occurrence of bioaccumulation and b no preferential elemental uptake and REE fractionation. In this light, the observed soil/plant relationships could be used in the definition of markers of territoriality (provenance fingerprint for agricultural products.

  17. Hydrothermal REE and Zr Ore Forming Processes in Peralkaline Granitic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gysi, A. P.

    2015-12-01

    Anorogenic peralkaline igneous systems display extreme enrichment of REE and Zr with a hydrothermal overprint leading to post-magmatic metal mobilization. Strange Lake in Canada, for example, is a mid-Proterozoic peralkaline granitic intrusion and host to a world-class REE-Zr deposit with >50 Mt ore (>1.5 wt.% REE and >3 wt.% Zr). In contrast to porphyry systems, peralkaline systems are poorly understood and hydrothermal metal mobilization models are only in the early stage of their development. This is partly due to the paucity of thermodynamic data for REE-bearing minerals and aqueous species, and the complexity of the hydrothermal fluids (enrichment of F, P and Cl), which make it difficult to develop thermodynamic models of metal partitioning. This study aims to show the link between alteration stages and metal mobilization using Strange Lake as a natural laboratory and combine these observations with numerical modeling. Four types of alteration were recognized at Strange Lake: i) alkali (i.e. K and Na) metasomatism related to interaction with NaCl-bearing orthomagmatic fluids, ii) acidic alteration by HCl-HF-bearing fluids originating from the pegmatites followed by iii) aegirinization of the border of the pegmatites and surrounding granites and by iv) pervasive Ca-F-metasomatism. The acidic alteration accounts for most of the hydrothermal metal mobilization in and outward from the pegmatites, whereas the Ca-F-metasomatism led to metal deposition and resulted from interaction of an acidic F-rich fluid with a Ca-bearing fluid. Numerical simulations of fluid-rock reactions with saline HCl-HF-bearing fluids at 400 °C to 250 °C indicate that temperature, availability of F/Cl and pH limit the mobility of Zr and REE. Fluids with pH hydrothermal metal mobilization in peralkaline granitic systems is the formation of a fluid-buffered subsystem providing the acids and ligands required for REE and Zr mobilization.

  18. Ion microprobe U-Pb dating and REE abundance of biogenic apatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Y.; Terada, K.; Ueki, S.

    2001-12-01

    If the direct U-Pb dating of a fossil itself is possible, the method could have great impact on stratigraphic studies in establishing the absolute chronology of sedimentary sequences. Micro fossil ?conodont? are candidates for this purpose since they consist of apatite (Ca2(PO5)3 (F,Cl,OH)), which would uptake U, Th and Pb after sedimentation no longer than a few million years and is supposed to remain closed to U and Pb under relatively low effective closure temperature. We report here results of direct ion microprobe U-Th-Pb dating of two conodonts; Trichognathus from Kinderhookian stage of Mississippian sedimentary sequence from Illinois Basin region in North America and Panderodus from a Llandoverian sedimentary sequence on Langkawi Island, northern Malaysia. Secondary purpose of the study is to indicate in situ analysis of all REE on the same spots of U-Pb measurements. Samples were cast into epoxy resin discs with a few grains of standard apatite, PRAP, derived from an alkaline rock of Prairie Lake circular complex in the Canadian Shield and polished until they were exposed through their mid-sections. U, Th and REE abundances, and Pb isotopic compositions were measured by using SHRIMP installed at Hiroshima University. Thirteen spots on Trichognathus yield a 238U/206Pb isochron age of 323+/-36 Ma, which is consistent with the depositional and early diagenetic ages. Fifteen spots on Panderodus give 232Th/208Pb isochron age of 429+/-50 Ma, which is again comparable to an early Silurian. Shale-normalized REE of Trichognathus shows a broadly flat pattern from light to middle REE and a decrease from middle to heavy REE with negative anomalies of Ce and Eu. In contrast Panderodus indicates a concave-shape pattern with middle REE enrichment. These characteristics are probably due to a different formation environment as suggested by other workers.

  19. Rare earth elements (REEs): effects on germination and growth of selected crop and native plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Philippe J; Carpenter, David; Boutin, Céline; Allison, Jane E

    2014-02-01

    The phytotoxicity of rare earth elements (REEs) is still poorly understood. The exposure-response relationships of three native Canadian plant species (common milkweed, Asclepias syriaca L., showy ticktrefoil, Desmodium canadense (L.) DC. and switchgrass, Panicum virgatum L.) and two commonly used crop species (radish, Raphanus sativus L., and tomato, Solanum lycopersicum L.) to the REEs lanthanum (La), yttrium (Y) and cerium (Ce) were tested. In separate experiments, seven to eight doses of each element were added to the soil prior to sowing seeds. Effects of REE dose on germination were established through measures of total percent germination and speed of germination; effects on growth were established through determination of above ground biomass. Ce was also tested at two pH levels and plant tissue analysis was conducted on pooled samples. Effects on germination were mostly observed with Ce at low pH. However, effects on growth were more pronounced, with detectable inhibition concentrations causing 10% and 25% reductions in biomass for the two native forb species (A. syriaca and D. canadense) with all REEs and on all species tested with Ce in both soil pH treatments. Concentration of Ce in aboveground biomass was lower than root Ce content, and followed the dose-response trend. From values measured in natural soils around the world, our results continue to support the notion that REEs are of limited toxicity and not considered extremely hazardous to the environment. However, in areas where REE contamination is likely, the slow accumulation of these elements in the environment could become problematic.

  20. 2004 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Portland, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The all returns ASCII files contain the X,Y,Z values of all the LiDAR returns collected during the survey mission. In addition each return also has a time stamp,...

  1. Ciudad Real i Puertollano. Àrees funcionals urbanes (FUA) i policentrisme a Castellala Manxa (Espanya)

    OpenAIRE

    Cañizares Ruiz, María del Carmen; Martínez Sánchez-Mateos, Héctor Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Les àrees funcionals urbanes (FUA) de Ciudad Real i de Puertollano s’estructuren entorn de totes dues ciutats, funcionalment diferents, però que mantenen relacions cada cop més intenses en el sector sud-oest de la regió de Castella-la Manxa, a la província de Ciudad Real. Aquestes interrelacions es fonamenten en les infraestructures de comunicació, principalment la línia de ferrocarril d’alta velocitat. El present article caracteritza totes dues àrees funcionals i determina les relacions entr...

  2. Observation results of relativistic electrons detected by Fengyun-1 satellite and analysis of relativistic electron enhancement (REE) events

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG XiaoChao; WANG Shidin

    2008-01-01

    The space particle component detector on Fengyun-1 satellite which works at the sun-synchronous orbit of about 870 km altitude has detected relativistic electrons for a long time.In comparison with the SAMPEX satellite observations during 1999--2004,the relativistic electron data from Fengyun-1 satellite from June 1999 to 2005 are used to analyze the relativistic electron enhancement (REE) events at the low earth orbit,and the possible correlation among REE events at the low earth orbit,high-speed solar wind and geomagnetic storms is discussed.The statistical result presents that 45 REE events are found in total during this time period,and the strong REE events with the maximum daily average flux > 400 cm-2.sr-1.s-1 occur mostly during the transition period from solar maximum to solar minimum.Among these 45 REE events,four strong REE events last a longer time period from 26- to 51-day and correlate closely with high speed solar wind and strong geo-magnetic storms.Meanwhile,several strong geomagnetic storms occur continu-ously before these REE events,and these continuous geomagnetic storms would be an important factor causing these long-lasting strong REE events.The correlation analysis for overall 45 events indicates that the strength of the REE events corre-lates with the solar wind speed and the strength of the geomagnetic storm,and the correlation for strong REE events is much stronger than that for weak REE events.

  3. Mineral chemistry of Rare Earth Element (REE) mineralization, Browns Ranges, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Nigel J.; Ciobanu, Cristiana L.; O'Rielly, Daniel; Wilson, Robin; Das, Kevin; Wade, Benjamin

    2013-07-01

    ‘Green energy futures’ are driving unprecedented demand for Rare Earth Elements (REE), underpinning significant exploration activity worldwide. Understanding how economic REE concentrations form is critical for development of exploration models. REE mineralisation in the Browns Ranges, Gordon Downs Region, Western Australia, comprises xenotime-dominant mineralisation hosted within Archaean to Palaeoproterozoic metasedimentary units (Browns Range Metamorphics). Mineralogical, petrographic and mineral-chemical investigation, including trace element analysis by Laser-Ablation Inductively-Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy, gives insights into the mineralogical distribution and partitioning of REE, and also provides evidence for the genetic evolution of the Browns Range REE mineralisation via a succession of hydrothermal processes. Two main REE-bearing minerals are identified: xenotime [(Y,REE)PO4], which is HREE selective; and subordinate florencite [(REEAl3(PO4)2(OH)6] which is LREE selective. Two morphological generations of xenotime are recognised; compositions are however consistent. Xenotime contains Dy (up to 6.5 wt.%), Er (up to 4.35 wt.%), Gd (up to 7.56 wt.%), Yb (up to 4.65 wt.%) and Y (up to 43.3 wt.%). Laser Ablation ICP-MS element mapping revealed a subtle compositional zoning in some xenotime grains. LREE appear concentrated in the grain cores or closest to the initial point of growth whereas HREE, particularly Tm, Yb and Lu, are highest at the outer margins of the grains. The HREE enrichment at the outer margins is mimicked by As, Sc, V, Sr, U, Th and radiogenic Pb. Florencite is commonly zoned and contains Ce (up to 11.54 wt.%), Nd (up to 10.05 wt.%) and La (up to 5.40 wt.%) and is also notably enriched in Sr (up to 11.63 wt.%) and Ca. Zircon (which is not a significant contributor of REEs overall due to its low abundance in the rocks) is also enriched in REE (up to 13 wt.% ΣREE) and is the principal host of Sc (up to 0.8 wt.%). Early, coarse

  4. REE Zonation in Garnet: new insights from combined Thermodynamic and Diffusion Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, C.; Konrad-Schmolke, M.

    2013-12-01

    Compositional variation in garnet provides an excellent record of element transport within their host rocks, as it precisely reflects the interplay between thermodynamically-controlled nutrient demand and kinetically-constrained element availability during growth. Element availability is controlled by (1) the thermodynamically controlled element distribution among co-existing phases and (2) by matrix transport properties. Our task is to distinguish between factors controlling the availability of major- and trace-elements and to quantify their diffusion length scales but this is hindered by the fact that the interplay of different rate-limiting factors on garnet growth and composition are not fully understood. These processes comprise: (1) fractional garnet crystallisation, which continuously changes the effective, i.e. reacting, bulk rock chemistry (EBC), which in turn influences garnet proportion, growth rate and composition; (2) kinetically-controlled element availability, such that grain boundary diffusion in the host rock's interconnecting transport matrix (ITM) or surface processes in reacting phases cannot keep pace with the material required for garnet nucleation and growth in homogeneous thermodynamic equilibrium with the coexisting phase assemblage and (3) reaction-controlled trace element availability in the host rock, which is often reflected in discontinuous trace element zoning patterns in garnet. A 1D diffusion and reaction model was developed to investigate REE distribution patterns in garnet. It combines PERPLEX thermodynamic forward modelling for a bulk rock composition along a P-T-path with control of diffusion rates in the matrix fluid which acts as a transport medium in the intergranular space. Initial REE distribution is controlled by standard distribution coefficients. Reactant phases are the source of REE and product minerals fractionate REE from the transport medium. Thus the uptake of REE in garnet is regulated by: (1) thermodynamically

  5. Determination of REE in urban park soils from Sao Paulo city for fingerprint of traffic emission contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, Ana Maria G.; Camargo, Sonia P., E-mail: anamaria@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Sigolo, Joel B., E-mail: jbsigolo@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias

    2009-07-01

    The study of rare earth elements (REE) distribution in urban environments has become very interesting in the last years, due to the increasing industrial use of these elements. The REE La, Ce and Nd are used in automobile converter catalysts to stabilize the catalyst support and to enhance the oxidation of pollutants. The honeycomb structure has a typical association of a high Ce (and often also La) concentration combined with high concentrations of Platinum Group Elements. Due to thermal and mechanical wear of catalysts, fine particles enriched in REE are released to the environment. These catalyst particles can accumulate in urban soils, mainly in soils located near high density traffic roads. The aim of this paper was to study the REE distribution and ratios in surface soil samples collected in fourteen urban public parks of Sao Paulo city, to assess the influence of vehicular emissions. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was used for the REE analysis. The diagrams normalized to chondrite values showed an enrichment of the light REE (La to Sm), in contrast to the heavy REE (Eu to Lu), with a negative anomaly of Eu. The results obtained indicated that the enrichment in REE is not clearly attributed to vehicular traffic, because of high background values associated to the natural geological composition of the soils. (author)

  6. 2006 OSIP OGRIP: Upland Counties LiDAR Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2006 OSIP digital LiDAR data was collected during the months of March and May (leaf-off conditions). The LiDAR covers the entire land area of the northern tier...

  7. 'Dar' + gerund in Ecuadorian Highland Spanish: contact-induced grammaticalization?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olbertz, H.

    2008-01-01

    The benefactive construction dar + gerund is used in the North Andean region only and is unknown elsewhere in the Spanish-speaking world. Based on the analysis of spontaneous data from Ecuadorian Highland Spanish, this paper provides a linguististic description of dar + gerund and of the social and

  8. 2006 OSIP OGRIP: Upland Counties LiDAR Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2006 OSIP digital LiDAR data was collected during the months of March and May (leaf-off conditions). The LiDAR covers the entire land area of the northern tier...

  9. 2006 OSIP OGRIP Coastal Counties LiDAR Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2006 OSIP digital LiDAR data was collected during the months of March and May (leaf-off conditions). The LiDAR covers the entire land area of the northern tier...

  10. Tinjauan Kemungkinan Sebaran Unsur Tanah Jarang (REE di Lingkungan Panas Bumi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Zulkifli Herman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.17014/ijog.vol4no1.20091Geothermal areas occur mainly in an environment of volcanic/magmatic arc where magma chambers play a role as heat sources. The environment is situated within the convergent plate boundaries. A variety of igneous rocks is associated with this environment ranging from basalt (gabbro to rhyolite (granite but andesite is normally the most abundant igneous rock. The most obvious geothermal indications are exhibited by some surface manifestations comprising hot water seepage, fumaroles, hot spring, geyser, and hydrotermal alteration zones which are being evidences of an active hydrothermal system beneath the surface as a part of volcanism. Despite being a causal factor for alteration of country rocks, most hydrothermal fluids enable to change distribution pattern and content of rare earth elements (REE for instance Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Sm, Nd, and Y particularly during a reaction process. This may have a connection with development of element mobility rates, whilst the characteristics of REE pattern within hydrothermal fluid would have a high variable due to dependency of their original magma source. Considering the important role of hydrothermal fluid in REE mobility development, it is inspired to review the possible relationship of active hydrothermal system and potency of REE distribution pattern in areas of geothermal manifestation.  

  11. Application of REE geochemical signatures for Mesozoic sediment provenance to the Gettysburg Basin, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Johanna M.; Peters, Stephen C.; Johannesson, Karen H.

    2017-03-01

    Rift basins adjacent to accreted terranes provide accommodation space for sediments eroded from these terranes. Despite similar depositional environments and geologic age, rocks of the Triassic Gettysburg Basin have approximately half the arsenic concentrations of the adjacent Newark Basin. Quartz-feldspar-lithics (QFL) diagrams and rare earth element (REE) geochemical signatures can inform sediment provenance. Here we investigate REE geochemical signatures of the sedimentary rocks in the Triassic Gettysburg rift basin, with the goal of distinguishing the main sources of siliciclastic sediment among the Appalachian foreland in the rift footwall from Piedmont arc and Iapetan continental margin rocks exposed in the hanging wall and ultimately understanding the geochemical cycling of arsenic to the Gettysburg Basin. Shale-normalized REE spider diagrams and Mann-Whitney tests on trace element ratios suggest that the Gettysburg Basin samples show patterns that most closely resemble those of the Iapetus Continental Slope Rise Iapetus Rift Volcanic, and Accretionary Complex deposits. Mann-Whitney Rank Sum analysis suggest that the Iapetus Continental Slope Rise terrane is the main source of sediments to the basin, which confirms results from prior QFL analysis and shows the utility of REE fingerprinting in provenance analysis. The main sources of sediment have smaller minimum and maximum arsenic concentrations than other terranes and the Newark Basin sediments, additionally suggesting the source of arsenic to the Gettysburg Basin is based upon specific terranes.

  12. Tinjauan Kemungkinan Sebaran Unsur Tanah Jarang (REE di Lingkungan Panas Bumi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Zulkifli Herman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.17014/ijog.vol4no1.20091Geothermal areas occur mainly in an environment of volcanic/magmatic arc where magma chambers play a role as heat sources. The environment is situated within the convergent plate boundaries. A variety of igneous rocks is associated with this environment ranging from basalt (gabbro to rhyolite (granite but andesite is normally the most abundant igneous rock. The most obvious geothermal indications are exhibited by some surface manifestations comprising hot water seepage, fumaroles, hot spring, geyser, and hydrotermal alteration zones which are being evidences of an active hydrothermal system beneath the surface as a part of volcanism. Despite being a causal factor for alteration of country rocks, most hydrothermal fluids enable to change distribution pattern and content of rare earth elements (REE for instance Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Sm, Nd, and Y particularly during a reaction process. This may have a connection with development of element mobility rates, whilst the characteristics of REE pattern within hydrothermal fluid would have a high variable due to dependency of their original magma source. Considering the important role of hydrothermal fluid in REE mobility development, it is inspired to review the possible relationship of active hydrothermal system and potency of REE distribution pattern in areas of geothermal manifestation.  

  13. Variational approach for the flow of Ree-Eyring and Casson fluids in pipes

    CERN Document Server

    Sochi, Taha

    2014-01-01

    The flow of Ree-Eyring and Casson non-Newtonian fluids is investigated using a variational principle to optimize the total stress. The variationally-obtained solutions are compared to the analytical solutions derived from the Weissenberg-Rabinowitsch-Mooney equation and the results are found to be identical within acceptable numerical errors and modeling approximations.

  14. [Study on the Geochemical Anomalies Identification of REE Based on HJ-1A-HSI].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong-gan; Wang, Mei-juan; Li, Peng

    2015-11-01

    The characteristic spectral bands of REE do not vary with the occurrence state, cannot be used to identify mineral species, but can prove the existence of its own. Here we report the spectrum characteristics of REE and their compounds by remote sensing wave band from visible light-near infrared, with the quantitative relationship between the contents of REE and absorption index of characteristic spectral bands. The experimental study was carried out in Bayan Obo area, Inner Mongolia. Spectrums and Nd contents of typical rock and ore samples were gathered and analyzed. There is positive correlation between the Nd content, the absorption depth and absorption index of different spectrum characteristics (correlation coefficient > 0.778). Moreover, the correlation between absorption index of 726-772 nm band and Nd content is the best, at 0. 937. As mentioned above, the quantitative model and the inversion information remote sensing geochemical anomaly of Nd were built by the band of HJ-1A-HIS hyperspectral remote sensing data. Our results consistent with 1:200,000 stream sediment geochemical anomalies of Nd. The model provides a new means for rapid extract regional geochemical anomalies of REE.

  15. LiDAR - An emerging tool for geological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, Jason M.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past five to ten years the use and applicability of light detection and ranging (LiDAR) technology has increased dramatically. As a result, more and more LiDAR data now are being collected across the country for a wide range of applications, and LiDAR currently is the technology of choice for high resolution terrain model creation, 3-D city and infrastructure modeling, forestry, and a wide range of scientific applications. LiDAR is a key technology for geological applications both within and outside the U.S. Geological Survey, and efforts are underway to try to collect high resolution LiDAR data for the entire United States (https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2012/3089/pdf/fs2012-3089.pdf).

  16. Major, trace and REE geochemistry of recent sediments from lower Catumbela River (Angola)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinha, Manuela; Silva, M. G.; Cabral Pinto, Marina M. S.; Carvalho, Paula Cristina S.

    2016-03-01

    The mineralogy, texture, major, trace and rare earth elements, from recent sediment samples collected in the lower Catumbela River, were analysed in this study to characterize and discuss the factors controlling its geochemistry and provide data that can be used as tracers of Catumbela River inputs to the Angolan continental shelf. The sediments are mainly sands and silty-sands, but sandy-silt also occurs and the mineralogy is composed of quartz, feldspar, phyllosilicates, magnetite, ilmenite and also carbonates when the river crosses limestones and marls in the downstream sector. The hydraulic sorting originates magnetite-ilmenite and REE-enriched minerals placers. The mineralogy of the sediments is controlled by the source rocks and the degree of chemical weathering is lower than erosion. The texture is mainly controlled by location. There is enrichment in all the analysed trace elements in the fine grained, clay minerals and Fe-oxy-hydroxides rich sediments, compared to the coarse grained and quartz plus feldspar rich ones. The coarse grained sediments (without the placers) are impoverished in ΣREE when compared with UCC and NASC compositions, while the fine grained sediments have ΣREE contents similar to UCC and NASC. The placers have ΣREE contents up to 959.59 mg/kg. The source composition is the dominant factor controlling the REE geochemistry of the analysed sediments as there is no difference in the (La/Yb)N, (La/Sm)N and (Gd/Yb)N ratios in coarse and fine grained sediments. The sorting of magnetite, ilmenite, zircon, throrite, thorianite, rutile and titanite explain the HREE/LREE enriched patterns of the coarse grained sediments.

  17. 2011 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Kittitas-Colockum Study Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WSI) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data on 6 days between September 15th and November 5th, 2010 for the Puget Sound LiDAR...

  18. Microbially mediated formation of a new REE enriched Mn-oxide, Ytterby mine, Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöberg, Susanne; Allard, Bert; Rattray, Jayne E.; Callac, Nolwenn; Skelton, Alasdair; Ivarsson, Magnus; Karlsson, Stefan; Sjöberg, Viktor; Dupraz, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    Characterization of a black substance seeping from fractured bedrock in a subterranean tunnel revealed a new, microbially mediated, secondary manganese oxide mineralisation, highly enriched in rare earth elements (REEs). This tunnel is dry and at shallow depth and was built to convert the former Ytterby mine, known for the discovery of yttrium (Y), scandium (Sc) and five rare earth elements, into a fuel deposit for the Swedish Armed Forces. As the type locality of these rare earth elements, the Ytterby mine gave its name to yttrium, ytterbium, erbium and terbium. Geochemical analysis shows that the substance is enriched in REEs with concentrations one to two orders of magnitude higher than the surrounding rocks. Elemental analysis and X-ray diffraction establish that the main component is a manganese oxide of the birnessite type (general formula: [Na,Ca]0.5[Mn(III),Mn(IV)]2O4xAq). There are also minor fractions of calcite, some other manganese oxides, feldspars, quartz and about 1% organic matter, but no iron oxides. Leaching studies (sequential and selective) were performed in order to establish how the minor components are associated with the matrix (in the lattice or merely adsorbed on the outer surface). It shows that the Ytterby birnessite contains about 1% REEs in the lattice, as well as calcium but no sodium. Formation of birnessite by manganese oxidizing bacteria is well-known (e.g. Tebo et al, 2004). Quantitative PCR shows that the total number of bacteria in the Ytterby substance is in the order 1010 cells per g substance while the water feeding the fracture has in the order of 106 cells per ml groundwater. qPCR data further confirm that manganese oxidizing microorganisms are present and that the abundance varies with the seasons. Analysis of the precipitated manganese using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy shows that the substance is composed of two or more components, with one part having a biogenic signature. The occurrence of C31 to C35

  19. REE Mineralization in Kiruna-type Magnetite-Apatite Ore Deposits: Magmatism and Metasomatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlov, D. E.

    2015-12-01

    Magnetite-apatite ore bodies of the Kiruna type occur worldwide and are generally associated with volcanic rocks or volcanism. They also show strong evidence of extensive metasomatism over a wide P-T range. Notable examples include the Kiirunavaara ore body, northern Sweden (Harlov et al., 2002, Chem. Geol., 191, 47-72); the Grängesberg ore body, central Sweden (Jonsson et al., 2010, NGF abstracts, vol 1, 88-89); the Mineville ore body, Adirondacks, New York, USA (McKeown and Klemc, 1956, U.S. Geol Sur Bull (1956), pp. 9-23); the Pea Ridge ore body, SE Missouri, USA (Kerr, 1998, MS Thesis, Univ. Windsor, Windsor, Ontario, Canada 113 pp); the Jurassic Marcona ore body in south-central Peru (Chen et al., 2010, Econ Geol, 105, 1441-1456); and a collection of ore bodies from the Bafq Region, central Iran (Daliran et al., 2010, Geol. Assoc. Canada, Short Course Notes, v. 20, p.147-159). In these ore bodies, low Th and U monazite, xenotime, allanite, REE carbonates, and/or REE fluorides are commonly associated with the apatite as inclusions, rim grains, or as independent grains in the surrounding mineral matrix. High contrast BSE imaging, coupled with EMPA and LA-ICPMS, indicates that the apatite has experienced fluid-induced alteration in the form of (Y+REE) + Na + Si + Cl depletion implying that it served as the source for the (Y+REE) (e.g. Kiirunavaara, northern Sweden; Harlov et al., 2002). Formation of monazite and xenotime associated with fluorapatite, as inclusions or rim grains, has experimentally been demonstrated to originate from the fluorapatite as the result of fluid-aided, coupled dissolution-reprecipitation processes (Harlov et al., 2005, Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 150, 268-286). This is explains the low Th and U content of the monazite and xenotime. Fluid sources could range from 700-900 °C, residual, acidic (HCl, H2HSO4) grain boundary fluids, remaining after the last stages of ore body crystallization, to later stage, cooler (< 600 °C) (H2O-CO2-(Na

  20. REE behavior and effect factors in AMD-type acidic groundwater at sulfide tailings pond, BS nickel mine, W.A.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI Liang-qi; SONG Ci-an; XIE Xiang-li; LI Yan-hong

    2008-01-01

    AMD(Acid Mine Drainage)-type acidic groundwater (pH<4) from oxidizing sulfide tailings in BS nickel mine (Western Australia) is of higher total rare earth element(REE) contents and Ce enrichment (PAAS normalization), different from setting groundwater (pH>6.5, with lower total REE contents, Ce depletion). While the AMD contaminated groundwater (pH=4.0-6.5) around tailings pond is characterized by transition from acidic to setting groundwater in total REE content, and associated with Ce depletion (like setting groundwater). The light REE in all type groundwater shows up depletion, but its depleted extent in acidic groundwater is more remarkable. This work indicates that REE behavior in AMD-type acidic groundwater is controlled mainly by pH value and metal (Al, Mn and Fe) contents. And the critical pH value that affects REE behavior in ground acidic water would be 4, lower than the previous value (pH=5) that has been believed prevalently in surface acidic waters. The pH could affect REE behavior in groundwater by controlling the solubility of metal (Al, Mn and Fe) hydroxides and the valence of cerium. Finally, light REE depletion in acidic groundwater may due to element affinity. High content Al (affinity with heavy REE) and low content Fe (affinity with light REE) may lead to heavy REE enrichment while light REE relative depletion in water.

  1. Tensor Modeling Based for Airborne LiDAR Data Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, N.; Liu, C.; Pfeifer, N.; Yin, J. F.; Liao, Z. Y.; Zhou, Y.

    2016-06-01

    Feature selection and description is a key factor in classification of Earth observation data. In this paper a classification method based on tensor decomposition is proposed. First, multiple features are extracted from raw LiDAR point cloud, and raster LiDAR images are derived by accumulating features or the "raw" data attributes. Then, the feature rasters of LiDAR data are stored as a tensor, and tensor decomposition is used to select component features. This tensor representation could keep the initial spatial structure and insure the consideration of the neighborhood. Based on a small number of component features a k nearest neighborhood classification is applied.

  2. TENSOR MODELING BASED FOR AIRBORNE LiDAR DATA CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Feature selection and description is a key factor in classification of Earth observation data. In this paper a classification method based on tensor decomposition is proposed. First, multiple features are extracted from raw LiDAR point cloud, and raster LiDAR images are derived by accumulating features or the “raw” data attributes. Then, the feature rasters of LiDAR data are stored as a tensor, and tensor decomposition is used to select component features. This tensor representation could keep the initial spatial structure and insure the consideration of the neighborhood. Based on a small number of component features a k nearest neighborhood classification is applied.

  3. Georeferenced LiDAR 3D Vine Plantation Map Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Meritxell Queraltó; Jordi Llop; Emilio Gil; Jordi Llorens

    2011-01-01

    The use of electronic devices for canopy characterization has recently been widely discussed. Among such devices, LiDAR sensors appear to be the most accurate and precise. Information obtained with LiDAR sensors during reading while driving a tractor along a crop row can be managed and transformed into canopy density maps by evaluating the frequency of LiDAR returns. This paper describes a proposed methodology to obtain a georeferenced canopy map by combining the information obtained with LiD...

  4. DAR Assisted Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Aromatic Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜思光; 陈晓东; 张莉; 刘鸣华

    2003-01-01

    A facile DAR (diphenylamine-4-diazonium-formaldehyde resin)assisted layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of uitrathin organic film of aromatic compounds has been investigated. The muitilayer of pyrene or anthracene was fabricated through simple dipping of the glass slide into the mixed solution of DAR with the target compounds. In this method, DAR acted as an assistant compound to help the assembling of the aromatic compounds. Such a convenient deposition method not only reserves the advantages of the traditional LbL technique but also simplifies the technique and extends the effectiveness of LbL technique to small molecules without any charge.

  5. LiDAR error estimation with WAsP engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingöl, Ferhat; Mann, Jakob; Foussekis, D.

    2008-01-01

    The LiDAR measurements, vertical wind profile in any height between 10 to 150m, are based on assumption that the measured wind is a product of a homogenous wind. In reality there are many factors affecting the wind on each measurement point which the terrain plays the main role. To model LiDAR...... measurements and predict possible error in different wind directions for a certain terrain we have analyzed two experiment data sets from Greece. In both sites LiDAR and met. mast data have been collected and the same conditions are simulated with Riso/DTU software, WAsP Engineering 2.0. Finally measurement...

  6. Uptake and Effects of Six Rare Earth Elements (REEs) on Selected Native and Crop Species Growing in Contaminated Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, David; Boutin, Céline; Allison, Jane E.; Parsons, Jessica L.; Ellis, Deanna M.

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) have become increasingly important metals used in modern technology. Processes including mining, oil refining, discarding of obsolete equipment containing REEs, and the use of REE-containing phosphate fertilizers may increase the likelihood of environmental contamination. However, there is a scarcity of information on the toxicity and accumulation of these metals to terrestrial primary producers in contaminated soils. The objective of this work was to assess the phytotoxicity and uptake from contaminated soil of six REEs (chloride forms of praseodymium, neodymium, samarium, terbium, dysprosium, and erbium) on three native plants (Asclepias syriaca L., Desmodium canadense (L.) DC., Panicum virgatum L.) and two crop species (Raphanus sativus L., Solanum lycopersicum L.) in separate dose-response experiments under growth chamber conditions. Limited effects of REEs were found on seed germination and speed of germination. Effects on aboveground and belowground biomass were more pronounced, especially for the three native species, which were always more sensitive than the crop species tested. Inhibition concentrations (IC25 and IC50) causing 25 or 50% reductions in plant biomass respectively, were measured. For the native species, the majority of aboveground biomass IC25s (11 out of 18) fell within 100 to 300 mg REE/kg dry soil. In comparison to the native species, IC25s for the crops were always greater than 400 mg REE/kg, with the majority of results (seven out of 12) falling above 700 mg REE/kg. IC50s were often not detected for the crops. Root biomass of native species was also affected at lower doses than in crops. REE uptake by plants was higher in the belowground parts than in the above-ground plant tissues. Results also revealed that chloride may have contributed to the sensitivity of the native species, Desmodium canadense, one of the most sensitive species studied. Nevertheless, these results demonstrated that phytotoxicity may be a

  7. Uptake and Effects of Six Rare Earth Elements (REEs on Selected Native and Crop Species Growing in Contaminated Soils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Carpenter

    Full Text Available Rare earth elements (REEs have become increasingly important metals used in modern technology. Processes including mining, oil refining, discarding of obsolete equipment containing REEs, and the use of REE-containing phosphate fertilizers may increase the likelihood of environmental contamination. However, there is a scarcity of information on the toxicity and accumulation of these metals to terrestrial primary producers in contaminated soils. The objective of this work was to assess the phytotoxicity and uptake from contaminated soil of six REEs (chloride forms of praseodymium, neodymium, samarium, terbium, dysprosium, and erbium on three native plants (Asclepias syriaca L., Desmodium canadense (L. DC., Panicum virgatum L. and two crop species (Raphanus sativus L., Solanum lycopersicum L. in separate dose-response experiments under growth chamber conditions. Limited effects of REEs were found on seed germination and speed of germination. Effects on aboveground and belowground biomass were more pronounced, especially for the three native species, which were always more sensitive than the crop species tested. Inhibition concentrations (IC25 and IC50 causing 25 or 50% reductions in plant biomass respectively, were measured. For the native species, the majority of aboveground biomass IC25s (11 out of 18 fell within 100 to 300 mg REE/kg dry soil. In comparison to the native species, IC25s for the crops were always greater than 400 mg REE/kg, with the majority of results (seven out of 12 falling above 700 mg REE/kg. IC50s were often not detected for the crops. Root biomass of native species was also affected at lower doses than in crops. REE uptake by plants was higher in the belowground parts than in the above-ground plant tissues. Results also revealed that chloride may have contributed to the sensitivity of the native species, Desmodium canadense, one of the most sensitive species studied. Nevertheless, these results demonstrated that

  8. Investigation of Kpong carbonatite as a potential source for rare earth elements (REEs) using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayford, M.S.; Akiti, T.T.; Serfor-Armah, Y.; Dampare, S.B. [Ghana Univ., Accra (Ghana). School of Nuclear and Allied Sciences; Ghana Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC), Legon-Accra (Ghana). Nuclear Chemistry and Environmental Research Centre

    2013-07-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to investigate REEs in carbonatite from Kpong southeastern, Ghana. Total rare earth element (TREEs) obtain were in the range of 540 mg/kg to 705 mg/kg. The total number of rare earth elements (REEs) determined by INAA in the carbonatite rocks from Kpong were 11, namely; La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Tm, Yb, Lu. The INAA results from the carbonatite show a high enrichment of light rare earth elements (LREEs) deposits, marking the Kpong carbonatite as a potential REE source. (orig.)

  9. REE Enrichment in Early Cambrian Gezhongwu Formation Phosphorous Rock Series in Sanjia, Zhijin County, Guizhou Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Phosphate concretions from the Gezhongwu Formation at Sanjia, Zhijin County, China, were studied systematically in this work. In terms of the rules of variation of REE, trace elements, major elements and oxides, in combination with the concentration characteristics of small shelly fossils, it is considered that small shelly fossils occurring at the bottom of the Cambrian System contribute a lot to the phosphate concretions and that there are two stages of REE and phosphorus minerogenesis. The phosphate concretions have a good correlation with the contents of REE and phosphorus rather than the abundance of small shelly fossils.

  10. REE Characteristics of Microfine Disseminated Gold Ores in Danzai,Guizhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈庆年; 周丕康; 等

    1998-01-01

    Described in this paper are the fundamental characteristics of mineralization of gold ores in the Sandu-Danzhai Hg-Sb-Au ore belt of Guizhou Province,Through systematic sampling of the industrial orebody and alteration zone,the total amount of the rare-earth elements,that of the light rare-earth elements,Eu depletion and other parameters are clarified.There have been distinguished two types of REE distribution patterns:the"Clay type"and the "quartz type" .High-grade orebodies are closely related with silicification,illitization and pyritization.The seven-component diagram of the REEs of even numbers in the periodic table(Bal-asov,1966)is capable of distinguishing ore-bearing from ore-barren deposits.

  11. Pomozdino - An anomalous, high-MgO/FeO, yet REE-rich eucrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, P. H.; Jerde, E. A.; Migdisova, L. F.; Iaroshevskii, A. A.

    1990-01-01

    A new chemical analysis and petrographic data for the Pomozdino basaltic achondrite are presented. Earlier indications that Pomozdino is a eucrite and that it is a monomict breccia with an anomalous, REE-rich, yet high-MgO/FeO bulk composition, are confirmed. Characteristics such as texture, composition, and REE concentration are examined and compared to those in other publications. A model for the origin of this meteorite, as a partial cumulate with an uncommonly high content of trapped liquid, is found to be preferable. Two alternatives of the origin are suggested, one of which implies that the parent melt is roughly similar in composition to Stannern. The other considers Pomozdino as a possible primary partial melt, derived from a source region far more magnesian than generally envisaged for the sources of primary eucritic partial melts. It is concluded that at least some Stannern-like eucrites were involved in fractional crystallization, and thus do not represent primary partial melts.

  12. Neutron Activation Analysis of the Rare Earth Elements (REE) - With Emphasis on Geological Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stosch, Heinz-Günter

    2016-08-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) has been the analytical method of choice for rare earth element (REE) analysis from the early 1960s through the 1980s. At that time, irradiation facilitieswere widely available and fairly easily accessible. The development of high-resolution gamma-ray detectors in the mid-1960s eliminated, formany applications, the need for chemical separation of the REE from the matrix material, making NAA a reliable and effective analytical tool. While not as precise as isotopedilution mass spectrometry, NAA was competitive by being sensitive for the analysis of about half of the rare earths (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, Lu). The development of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry since the 1980s, together with decommissioning of research reactors and the lack of installation of new ones in Europe and North America has led to the rapid decline of NAA.

  13. Re-Os dating of pyrite from Giant Bayan Obo REE-Nb-Fe deposit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yulong; YANG Gang; CHEN Jiangfeng; DU Andao; XIE Zhi

    2004-01-01

    Six pyrite samples from the giant Bayan Obo REE-Nb-Fe deposit are dated by Re-Os technique. Pyrite studied is associated with barite and separated from a vein cutting REE mineralization. Pyrites analyzed contain 16-30 ng Re and 0.10-0.16 ng Os, and yield a Caledonian isochron age of 439 ± 86 Ma. High Re/Os ratio, low Os concentration and highly radiogenic Os isotopic ratios of these samples suggest that they are of crustal origin. The northern margin of the North China Block was a passive continental margin, but not a subduction zone with enormous volcanic activities in the Early Paleozoic Era. Our Re-Os result provides new evidences, showing that Bayan Obo deposit experienced a thermal disturbance of crustal origin in the Caledonian time and some isotopic systems recorded only the time of the disturbance, not the mineralization age.

  14. SD-REE: A Cryptographic Method to Exclude Repetition from a Message

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Somdip

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the author presents a new cryptographic technique, SD-REE, to exclude the repetitive terms in a message, when it is to be encrypted, so that it becomes almost impossible for a person to retrieve or predict the original message from the encrypted message. In modern world, cryptography hackers try to break a code or cryptographic algorithm [1,2] or retrieve the key, used for encryption, by inserting repetitive bytes / characters in the message and encrypt the message or by analyzing repetitions in the encrypted message, to find out the encryption algorithm or retrieve the key used for the encryption. But in SD-REE method the repetitive bytes / characters are removed and there is no trace of any repetition in the message, which was encrypted.

  15. Cathodoluminescence emission of REE (Dy, Pr and Eu) doped LaAlO3 phosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boronat, C.; Rivera, T.; Garcia-Guinea, J.; Correcher, V.

    2017-01-01

    Luminescence emission from rare earth (REE) ions doped materials are being of interest since can be employed as scintillators, catalysts, battery and magnetic materials, etc. We herein report on the preliminary results obtained from the cathodoluminescence (CL) properties of undoped LaAlO3 (LAO) and LaAlO3: REE3+ (REE=Dy3+, Pr3+ and Eu3+) samples synthesized by a sol-gel process based on the Pechini's method with a spray-drying technique. The samples, previously characterized by means of Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis Spectrometry, display CL spectra with well-defined peaks that could specifically be associated with the LAO structure (in the range of 300-450 nm) and point defects (from 450 to 800 nm) spectral regions. The observed wavebands are as follows: (i) 480 and 570 from the Dy-doped LAO correspond respectively to 4F9/2→6H15/2 and 4F9/2→6H13/2 transitions, (ii) 490-638 from the Pr-doped LAO is linked to 3P0→3H4, 1D2→3H4 transitions and (iii) 590 and 620 where the dopant Eu3+ gives rise to 5D0→7F1 and 5D0→7F2 transitions and (iv) a UV-blue broad band is associated with NBHOC in undoped LAO. Such emissions are due to the presence of the 4f electrons of rare earth ions that are shielded by the outer 5s and 5p electrons, the intra-4f emission spectra of REE that induce sharp and narrow wavebands.

  16. Mineralogy, geochemistry and origin of Zafarabad iron deposit based on REE and trace elements of magnetite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Barati

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Zafarabad iron deposit is located northwest of Divandareh, in the northern margin of Sanandaj-Sirjan plutonic-metamorphic zone. The deposit is in lentoid to tubular shape, within a shear zone and occrrued in host rocks of calc-schist and limestone. Magnetite with massive, cataclastic and replacement textures are the main phases, while pyrite and other sulfide minerals are found. Major and trace elements are measured by ICP-MS and ICP-AES methods. Based on some ratios of trace elements in the ore samples and (Ti+V vs. Cal+Al+Mn and Ti+V vs. Ni/(Cr+Mn diagrams which are used for classification of iron deposit types, Zafarabad iron deposit fall in the range of skarn deposits. Spider diagrams show a steady decline from LREE to HREE elements with Eu (mean value of 0.06 ppm and Ce (mean value of 0.94 ppm negative anomalies. Comparing the distribution patterns of REE for the Zafarabad magnetites with those of various types of iron deposits shows that the REE pattern for Zafarabad is similar to these deposits. Analysis of calculated parameters for REE shows that the hydrothermal fluids responsible for mineralization are mainly of magmatic origin through fractionation and crystallization processes of a deep iron rich fluid phase and its emplacement within the carbonate rocks, forming iron skarn.

  17. REE geochemical characteristics of the No. 302 uranium deposit in northern Guangdong, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The No. 302 uranium deposit, located in Guangdong Province, is a typical granite-type uranium ore deposit. REE geochemical characteristics of the wall rocks, pitchblende, altered rocks, calcite and fluorite from this deposit have been systematically studied in this paper. The result showed that the alkali-metasomatic granites and other altered rocks have the same REE distribution patterns as Indosinian granites. It is indicated that the hydrothermal ore-forming solution had altered the Indosinian granites, and ore-forming materials may directly originate from the Indosinian granites. Calcite and fluorite of different stages are the products derived from the same source but different stages. The evolution and degassing of the mineralizing solution might induce LREE enrichment to varying degree. Mantle fluid and a large volume of mineralizer may be the crucial factors controlling uranium mineralization, and the hydrothermal solution with mineralizer played an important role in U transport and concentration. Meanwhile, the degassing of CO2 might promote U and REE precipitation.

  18. An Overview on the Possibility of Scandium and REE Occurrence in Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Maulana

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The development in modern-high technology application is growing rapidly, resulting in the constant supply of critical metal and rare earth elements (REE. Currently, resources of these elements are restricted and new source of these elements need to be discovered accordingly. Scandium (Sc as one of critical metals is an important metal for electrolyte of solid oxide fuel cells and other advance technology. In addition, REE are the important elements in the use of permanent magnets and rechargeable batteries. This manuscript reports an overview on the possibility of scandium and rare earth element occurrences in Sulawesi. Sc is concentrated in limonite layers in Soroako ultramafic rocks as a result of Fe3+ site substitution of mafic minerals (pyroxene, amphibole, etc. during a laterization process. REE are enriched in association with clay minerals in B horizon from heavily weathered granitic rocks in Palu and Masamba, suggesting the possibility of ion-adsorption style mineralization. The lateritic soil of the ultramafic rocks and the weathered crusts of the granitic rocks in Sulawesi could be the potential sources of scandium and rare earth elements, respectively.

  19. Chemical speciation and bioavailability of rare earth elements (REEs) in the ecosystem: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Aysha Masood; Bakar, Nor Kartini Abu; Bakar, Ahmad Farid Abu; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel

    2016-10-10

    Rare earths (RE), chemically uniform group of elements due to similar physicochemical behavior, are termed as lanthanides. Natural occurrence depends on the geological circumstances and has been of long interest for geologist as tools for further scientific research into the region of ores, rocks, and oceanic water. The review paper mainly focuses to provide scientific literature about rare earth elements (REEs) with potential environmental and health effects in understanding the research. This is the initial review of RE speciation and bioavailability with current initiative toward development needs and research perceptive. In this paper, we have also discussed mineralogy, extraction, geochemistry, analytical methods of rare earth elements. In this study, REEs with their transformation and vertical distribution in different environments such as fresh and seawater, sediments, soil, weathering, transport, and solubility have been reported with most recent literature along key methods of findings. Speciation and bioavailability have been discussed in detail with special emphasis on soil, plant, and aquatic ecosystems and their impacts on the environment. This review shows that REE gained more importance in last few years due to their detrimental effects on living organisms, so their speciation, bioavailability, and composition are much more important to evaluate their health risks and are discussed thoroughly as well.

  20. Elevation - LiDAR Survey Minnehaha Creek, MN Watershed

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — LiDAR Bare-Earth Grid - Minnehaha Creek Watershed District. The Minnehaha Creek watershed is located primarily in Hennepin County, Minnesota. The watershed covers...

  1. 2009 PSLC-USGS Topographic LiDAR: Wenatchee

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WS) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data of the Wenatchee USGS area of interest (AOI) east of Wenatchee, WA on May 1nd - May...

  2. Coastal Marine Pollution in Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) relative to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the coastal marine environment of Dar es Salaam and the remote Ras Dege. Creek. ... Creek and the Ocean Road sewer outfall was unfit for human consumption. ... has an estimated population of about ... annual growth rate of about 8%.

  3. LiDAR (Terrain), THURSTON COUNTY, WASHINGTON, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Fugro EarthData Company furnished the collection, processing, and development of LiDAR for 825 square miles in Washington (805 square miles of Thurston County and 20...

  4. Automatic registration method for mobile LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruisheng; Ferrie, Frank P.

    2015-01-01

    We present an automatic mutual information (MI) registration method for mobile LiDAR and panoramas collected from a driving vehicle. The suitability of MI for registration of aerial LiDAR and aerial oblique images has been demonstrated under an assumption that minimization of joint entropy (JE) is a sufficient approximation of maximization of MI. We show that this assumption is invalid for the ground-level data. The entropy of a LiDAR image cannot be regarded as approximately constant for small perturbations. Instead of minimizing the JE, we directly maximize MI to estimate corrections of camera poses. Our method automatically registers mobile LiDAR with spherical panoramas over an approximate 4-km drive, and is the first example we are aware of that tests MI registration in a large-scale context.

  5. Assessment on Vulnerable Youths Integration to Dar es Salaam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The present study assessed the possibility of integrating vulnerable youths to ... crisis facing Dar es Salaam City using a case study of Kinondoni Municipality. ... Research methodology involved the use of quantitative method to collect ...

  6. 2009 PSLC-USGS Topographic LiDAR: Wenatchee

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WS) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data of the Wenatchee USGS area of interest (AOI) east of Wenatchee, WA on May 1nd ? May...

  7. Rare earth element geochemistry of Late Devonian reefal carbonates, Canning Basin, Western Australia: confirmation of a seawater REE proxy in ancient limestones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nothdurft, Luke D.; Webb, Gregory E.; Kamber, Balz S.

    2004-01-01

    Rare earth element and yttrium (REE+Y) concentrations were determined in 49 Late Devonian reefal carbonates from the Lennard Shelf, Canning Basin, Western Australia. Shale-normalized (SN) REE+Y patterns of the Late Devonian samples display features consistent with the geochemistry of well-oxygenated, shallow seawater. A variety of different ancient limestone components, including microbialites, some skeletal carbonates (stromatoporoids), and cements, record seawater-like REE+Y signatures. Contamination associated with phosphate, Fe-oxides and shale was tested quantitatively, and can be discounted as the source of the REE+Y patterns. Co-occurring carbonate components that presumably precipitated from the same seawater have different relative REE concentrations, but consistent REE+Y patterns. Clean Devonian early marine cements ( n = 3) display REE+Y signatures most like that of modern open ocean seawater and the highest Y/Ho ratios (e.g., 59) and greatest light REE (LREE) depletion (average Nd SN/Yb SN = 0.413, SD = 0.076). However, synsedimentary cements have the lowest REE concentrations (e.g., 405 ppb). Non-contaminated Devonian microbialite samples containing a mixture of the calcimicrobe Renalcis and micritic thrombolite aggregates in early marine cement ( n = 11) have the highest relative REE concentrations of tested carbonates (average total REE = 11.3 ppm). Stromatoporoid skeletons, unlike modern corals, algae and molluscs, also contain well-developed, seawater-like REE patterns. Samples from an estuarine fringing reef have very different REE+Y patterns with LREE enrichment (Nd SN/Yb SN > 1), possibly reflecting inclusion of estuarine colloidal material that contained preferentially scavenged LREE from a nearby riverine input source. Hence, Devonian limestones provide a proxy for marine REE geochemistry and allow the differentiation of co-occurring water masses on the ancient Lennard Shelf. Although appropriate partition coefficients for quantification of

  8. Shipborne LiDAR system for coastal change monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, chang hwan; Park, chang hong; Kim, hyun wook; hyuck Kim, won; Lee, myoung hoon; Park, hyeon yeong

    2016-04-01

    Coastal areas, used as human utilization areas like leisure space, medical care, ports and power plants, etc., are regions that are continuously changing and interconnected with oceans and land and the sea level has risen by about 8cm (1.9mm / yr) due to global warming from 1964 year to 2006 year in Korea. Coastal erosion due to sea-level rise has caused the problem of marine ecosystems and loss of tourism resources, etc. Regular monitoring of coastal erosion is essential at key locations with such volatility. But the survey method of land mobile LiDAR (light detection and ranging) system has much time consuming and many restrictions. For effective monitoring beach erosion, KIOST (Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology) has constructed a shipborne mobile LiDAR system. The shipborne mobile LiDAR system comprised a land mobile LiDAR (RIEGL LMS-420i), an INS (inertial navigation system, MAGUS Inertial+), a RTKGPS (LEICA GS15 GS25), and a fixed platform. The shipborne mobile LiDAR system is much more effective than a land mobile LiDAR system in the measuring of fore shore areas without shadow zone. Because the vessel with the shipborne mobile LiDAR system is continuously moved along the shoreline, it is possible to efficiently survey a large area in a relatively short time. Effective monitoring of the changes using the constructed shipborne mobile LiDAR system for seriously eroded coastal areas will be able to contribute to coastal erosion management and response.

  9. Georeferenced LiDAR 3D vine plantation map generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorens, Jordi; Gil, Emilio; Llop, Jordi; Queraltó, Meritxell

    2011-01-01

    The use of electronic devices for canopy characterization has recently been widely discussed. Among such devices, LiDAR sensors appear to be the most accurate and precise. Information obtained with LiDAR sensors during reading while driving a tractor along a crop row can be managed and transformed into canopy density maps by evaluating the frequency of LiDAR returns. This paper describes a proposed methodology to obtain a georeferenced canopy map by combining the information obtained with LiDAR with that generated using a GPS receiver installed on top of a tractor. Data regarding the velocity of LiDAR measurements and UTM coordinates of each measured point on the canopy were obtained by applying the proposed transformation process. The process allows overlap of the canopy density map generated with the image of the intended measured area using Google Earth(®), providing accurate information about the canopy distribution and/or location of damage along the rows. This methodology was applied and tested on different vine varieties and crop stages in two important vine production areas in Spain. The results indicate that the georeferenced information obtained with LiDAR sensors appears to be an interesting tool with the potential to improve crop management processes.

  10. Georeferenced LiDAR 3D Vine Plantation Map Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meritxell Queraltó

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of electronic devices for canopy characterization has recently been widely discussed. Among such devices, LiDAR sensors appear to be the most accurate and precise. Information obtained with LiDAR sensors during reading while driving a tractor along a crop row can be managed and transformed into canopy density maps by evaluating the frequency of LiDAR returns. This paper describes a proposed methodology to obtain a georeferenced canopy map by combining the information obtained with LiDAR with that generated using a GPS receiver installed on top of a tractor. Data regarding the velocity of LiDAR measurements and UTM coordinates of each measured point on the canopy were obtained by applying the proposed transformation process. The process allows overlap of the canopy density map generated with the image of the intended measured area using Google Earth®, providing accurate information about the canopy distribution and/or location of damage along the rows. This methodology was applied and tested on different vine varieties and crop stages in two important vine production areas in Spain. The results indicate that the georeferenced information obtained with LiDAR sensors appears to be an interesting tool with the potential to improve crop management processes.

  11. Assessing anthropogenic levels, speciation, and potential mobility of rare earth elements (REEs) in ex-tin mining area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Aysha Masood; Yusoff, Ismail; Bakar, Nor Kartini Abu; Bakar, Ahmad Farid Abu; Alias, Yatimah

    2016-12-01

    A study was carried out to determine the level of rare earth elements (REEs) in water and sediment samples from ex-mining lakes and River in Kinta Valley, Perak, Malaysia. Surface water and sediments from an ex-mining lake and Kinta River water samples were analyzed for REEs by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The total concentration of REEs in the ex-mining lake water samples and sediments were found to be 3685 mg/l and 14159 mg/kg, respectively, while the total concentration of REEs in Kinta River water sample was found to be 1224 mg/l. REEs in mining lake water were found to be within 2.42 mg/l (Tb) to 46.50 mg/l (Ce), while for the Kinta River, it was 1.33 mg/l (Ho) to 29.95 mg/l (Ce). Sediment samples were also found with REEs from 9.81 mg/kg (Ho) to 765.84 mg/kg (Ce). Ce showed the highest average concentrations for mining lake (3.88 to 49.08 mg/l) and Kinta River (4.44 to 33.15 mg/l) water samples, while the concentration of La was the highest (11.59 to 771.61 mg/kg) in the mining lake sediment. Lu was shown to have the highest enrichment of REEs in ex-mining lake sediments (107.3). Multivariate statistical analyses such as factor analysis and principal component analysis indicated that REEs were associated and controlled by mixed origin, with similar contributions from anthropogenic and geogenic sources. The speciation study of REEs in ex-tin mining sediments using a modified five-stage sequential extraction procedure indicated that yttrium (Y), gadolinium (Gd), and lanthanum (La) were obtained at higher percentages from the adsorbed/exchanged/carbonate fraction. The average potential mobility of the REEs was arranged in a descending order: Yb > Gd > Y = Dy > Pr > Er > Tm > Eu > Nd > Tb > Sc > Lu > Ce > La, implying that under favorable conditions, these REEs could be released and subsequently pollute the environment.

  12. 2001-2002 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Clallam County, Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TerraPoint surveyed and created this data for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium under contract with Clallam County. The data covers an area of approximately 524...

  13. 2012 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Chehalis River Watershed Area, Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WSI) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Chehalis River Watershed study area on January 28th, February 2nd-7th,...

  14. 2006 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Eastern Washington and River Corridors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WS) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data in eastern Washington, eastern Oregon, and southern Canada in October and November,...

  15. 2002 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Unclassified Topographic LiDAR: Puget Sound Lowlands Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TerraPoint surveyed and created this data for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium under contract. The area surveyed is approximately 730 square miles and covers the...

  16. 2007 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Eastern Washington and River Corridors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WS) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data in eastern Washington, eastern Oregon, and southern Canada in October and November,...

  17. 2007 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Eastern Washington and River Corridors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WS) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data in eastern Washington, eastern Oregon, and southern Canada in October and November,...

  18. Quantitatively distinguishing sediments from the Yangtze River and the Yellow River using δEu_N-ΣREEs plot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Sediment samples were collected from the lower channel of the Yangtze River and the Yellow River and the contents of rare earth elements (REEs) were measured. In addition, some historical REEs data were collected from published literatures. Based on the δEuN-ΣREEs plot, a clear boundary was found be-tween the sediments from the two rivers. The boundary can be described as an orthogonal polynomial equation by ordinary linear regression with sediments from the Yangtze River located above the curve and sediments from the Yellow River located below the curve. To validate this method, the REEs con-tents of sediments collected from the estuaries of the Yangtze River and the Yellow River were meas-ured. In addition, the REEs data of sediment Core 255 from the Yangtze River and Core YA01 from the Yellow River were collected. Results show that the samples from the Yangtze River estuary and Core 255 almost are above the curve and most samples from the Yellow River estuary and Core YA01 are below the curve in the δEuN-ΣREEs plot. The plot and the regression equation can be used to distin-guish sediments from the Yangtze River and the Yellow River intuitively and quantitatively, and to trace the sediment provenance of the eastern seas of China. The difference between the sediments from two rivers in the δEuN-ΣREEs plot is caused by different mineral compositions and regional climate patterns of the source areas. The relationship between δEuN and ΣREEs is changed little during the transport from the source area to the river, and from river to the sea. Thus the original information on mineral compositions and climate of the source area was preserved.

  19. Quantitatively distinguishing sediments from the Yangtze River and the Yellow River using δEuN-ΣREEs plot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG FuQing; ZHOU XiaoJing; LI AnChun; LI TieGang

    2009-01-01

    Sediment samples were collected from the lower channel of the Yangtze River and the Yellow River and the contents of rare earth elements (REEs) were measured. In addition, some historical REEs data were collected from published literatures. Based on the δEuN-ΣREEs plot, a clear boundary was found be-tween the sediments from the two rivers. The boundary can be described as an orthogonal polynomial equation by ordinary linear regression with sediments from the Yangtze River located above the curve and sediments from the Yellow River located below the curve. To validate this method, the REEs con-tents of sediments collected from the estuaries of the Yangtze River and the Yellow River were meas-ured. In addition, the REEs data of sediment Core 255 from the Yangtze River and Core YA01 from the Yellow River were collected. Results show that the samples from the Yangtze River estuary and Core 255 almost are above the curve and most samples from the Yellow River estuary and Core YA01 are below the curve in the δEuN-ΣREEs plot. The plot and the regression equation can be used to distin-guish sediments from the Yangtze River and the Yellow River intuitively and quantitatively, and to trace the sediment provenance of the eastern seas of China. The difference between the sediments from two rivers in the δEuN-ΣREEs plot is caused by different mineral compositions and regional climate patterns of the source areas. The relationship between δEuN and ΣREEs is changed little during the transport from the source area to the river, and from river to the sea. Thus the original information on mineral compositions and climate of the source area was preserved.

  20. 2012-2013 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Hoh River Watershed, Washington (Deliveries 1 and 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WSI) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data on the Hoh River watershed survey area for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium and...

  1. Experimental Study on the Effects of Organic Acids on the Dissolution of REE in the Weathering Crust of Granite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈炳辉; 毋福海; 刘琥琥

    2001-01-01

    The results of REE leached by some organic acids with various concentrations and water/rock ratios for different durations from a mixed sample of the weathering crust of a granite in Gonghe, Guangdong, China, showed that: 1 ) the contents of REE leached increase with increasing concentrations of the organic acids; 2) the contents of REE leached by 0.01 mol/L organic acids increase with increasing water/rock ratio; 3) the interaction between the organic acids and the samples enhances the pH value of the medium and the contents of REE leached tend to increase with decreasing pH value; and 4) compared with those leached by ammonia sulfate, the REE leached by the organic acids are characterized by a weaker negative Ce anomaly, a stronger negative Eu anomaly, and lower (La/Sm)N and (Gd/Yb)N ratios, indicating that the organic acids have made contributions to the fractionation of REE in the weathering crust.

  2. Experimental Study on the Effects of Organic Acids on the Dissolution of REE in the Weathering Crust of Granite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈炳辉; 毋福海; 等

    2001-01-01

    The results of REE leached by some organic acids with various concentrations and water/rock ratios for different durations from a mixed samples of the weathering crust of a granite in Gonghe,Guangdong,China,showed that:1)the contents of REE leached increase with increasing concentrations of the organic acids;2) the contents of REE leached by 0.01mol/L organic acids increase with increasing water/rock ration;3) the interaction between the organic acids and the samples enhances the pH value of the medium and the contents of REE leached tend to increase with decreasing pH value;and 4) compared with those leached by ammonia sulfate,the REE leached by the organic acids are characterized by a weaker negative C e anomaly,a stronger negative Eu anomaly,and lower(La/Sm)N and (Gd/Yb)N ratios,indicating that the organic acids have made contributions to the fractionation of REE in the weathering crust.

  3. Agrotóxico: que nome dar?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Gomide

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Os trabalhadores, de um modo geral, estão sempre expostos a maiores ou menores intensidades de risco. Os agricultores, em particular, também estão expostos e de forma bastante estabelecida. Contudo, trabalhos têm mostrado que existe um código coletivo de proteção para lhes permitir dar continuidade às suas atividades, uma vez que, em sua maioria, os próprios donos do cultivo fazem parte do processo produtivo e, portanto, precisam garantir a sua safra aplicando os agrotóxicos. Este trabalho apresenta uma pesquisa desenvolvida com agricultores de dois municípios do sudeste do Piauí, utilizando uma abordagem qualitativa, com o intuito de compreender os mecanismos de proteção destes agricultores com a sua atividade. Os resultados apontaram para práticas defensivas tais como consumo de bebida alcoólica, a sublocação do serviço aos mais jovens e a existência de um certo grau de compreensão do risco à saúde com a utilização dos agrotóxicos. A partir daí, se discute a importância da denominação dada ao agrotóxico, como um fator de proteção que deveria ser mais valorizado para maximizar a proteção do agricultor, em vez de se manter a estratégia de aumento de informação e controle de EPI (Equipamento de Proteção Individual.

  4. Uas Topographic Mapping with Velodyne LiDAR Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozkow, G.; Toth, C.; Grejner-Brzezinska, D.

    2016-06-01

    Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) technology is nowadays willingly used in small area topographic mapping due to low costs and good quality of derived products. Since cameras typically used with UAS have some limitations, e.g. cannot penetrate the vegetation, LiDAR sensors are increasingly getting attention in UAS mapping. Sensor developments reached the point when their costs and size suit the UAS platform, though, LiDAR UAS is still an emerging technology. One issue related to using LiDAR sensors on UAS is the limited performance of the navigation sensors used on UAS platforms. Therefore, various hardware and software solutions are investigated to increase the quality of UAS LiDAR point clouds. This work analyses several aspects of the UAS LiDAR point cloud generation performance based on UAS flights conducted with the Velodyne laser scanner and cameras. The attention was primarily paid to the trajectory reconstruction performance that is essential for accurate point cloud georeferencing. Since the navigation sensors, especially Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs), may not be of sufficient performance, the estimated camera poses could allow to increase the robustness of the estimated trajectory, and subsequently, the accuracy of the point cloud. The accuracy of the final UAS LiDAR point cloud was evaluated on the basis of the generated DSM, including comparison with point clouds obtained from dense image matching. The results showed the need for more investigation on MEMS IMU sensors used for UAS trajectory reconstruction. The accuracy of the UAS LiDAR point cloud, though lower than for point cloud obtained from images, may be still sufficient for certain mapping applications where the optical imagery is not useful.

  5. Visual-LiDAR Odometry Aided by Reduced IMU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashar Balazadegan Sarvrood

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method for combining stereo visual odometry, Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR odometry and reduced Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU including two horizontal accelerometers and one vertical gyro. The proposed method starts with stereo visual odometry to estimate six Degree of Freedom (DoF ego motion to register the point clouds from previous epoch to the current epoch. Then, Generalized Iterative Closest Point (GICP algorithm refines the motion estimation. Afterwards, forward velocity and Azimuth obtained by visual-LiDAR odometer are integrated with reduced IMU outputs in an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF to provide final navigation solution. In this paper, datasets from KITTI (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology and Toyota technological Institute were used to compare stereo visual odometry, integrated stereo visual odometry and reduced IMU, stereo visual-LiDAR odometry and integrated stereo visual-LiDAR odometry and reduced IMU. Integrated stereo visual-LiDAR odometry and reduced IMU outperforms other methods in urban areas with buildings around. Moreover, this method outperforms simulated Reduced Inertial Sensor System (RISS, which uses simulated wheel odometer and reduced IMU. KITTI datasets do not include wheel odometry data. Integrated RTK (Real Time Kinematic GPS (Global Positioning System and IMU was replaced by wheel odometer to simulate the response of RISS method. Visual Odometry (VO-LiDAR is not only more accurate than wheel odometer, but it also provides azimuth aiding to vertical gyro resulting in a more reliable and accurate system. To develop low-cost systems, it would be a good option to use two cameras plus reduced IMU. The cost of such a system will be reduced than using full tactical MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Sensor based IMUs because two cameras are cheaper than full tactical MEMS based IMUs. The results indicate that integrated stereo visual-LiDAR odometry and reduced IMU can achieve accuracy at the

  6. UAS TOPOGRAPHIC MAPPING WITH VELODYNE LiDAR SENSOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Jozkow

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned Aerial System (UAS technology is nowadays willingly used in small area topographic mapping due to low costs and good quality of derived products. Since cameras typically used with UAS have some limitations, e.g. cannot penetrate the vegetation, LiDAR sensors are increasingly getting attention in UAS mapping. Sensor developments reached the point when their costs and size suit the UAS platform, though, LiDAR UAS is still an emerging technology. One issue related to using LiDAR sensors on UAS is the limited performance of the navigation sensors used on UAS platforms. Therefore, various hardware and software solutions are investigated to increase the quality of UAS LiDAR point clouds. This work analyses several aspects of the UAS LiDAR point cloud generation performance based on UAS flights conducted with the Velodyne laser scanner and cameras. The attention was primarily paid to the trajectory reconstruction performance that is essential for accurate point cloud georeferencing. Since the navigation sensors, especially Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs, may not be of sufficient performance, the estimated camera poses could allow to increase the robustness of the estimated trajectory, and subsequently, the accuracy of the point cloud. The accuracy of the final UAS LiDAR point cloud was evaluated on the basis of the generated DSM, including comparison with point clouds obtained from dense image matching. The results showed the need for more investigation on MEMS IMU sensors used for UAS trajectory reconstruction. The accuracy of the UAS LiDAR point cloud, though lower than for point cloud obtained from images, may be still sufficient for certain mapping applications where the optical imagery is not useful.

  7. 87Sr/ 86Sr, 143Nd/ 144Nd and REEs in Silurian phosphatic fossils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, C. J.; Elderfield, H.; Aldridge, R. J.; Conway Morris, S.

    1992-09-01

    The feasibility of using the chemistry of phosphatic fossil material to trace palaeo-seawater composition for the Silurian has been evaluated. Contrary to Recent material, fossil fish are shown to be unreliable for Sr isotope stratigraphy. Conodonts, however, may be used by employing 0.2M HNO 3 dissolution, except for samples showing degrees of thermal maturation greater than colour alteration index (CAI) values of 2.5. Samples from the same stratigraphic levels from the U.K., Czechoslovakia, Gotland and the U.S.A. gave similar 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios, suggesting that they have recorded the original seawater value. Significant inter-specific differences occur in REE concentrations and Nd isotopic compositions of conodont elements, and Ce and Eu anomalies vary with REE content. This suggests that artefacts are introduced at the same time that large amounts of REEs are incorporated into the apatite. Preliminary results for the Sr isotopic composition of Silurian seawater are presented. Values are generally lower than previously suggested, showing an increase in 87Sr/ 86Sr from ˜ 0.70825 at 435 Ma rising to ˜ 0.70875 at 418 Ma and levelling off in the Late Silurian. The overall rate of increase in seawater ratio is about2-3 × 10 -5 Ma -1 and can be accounted for by the widespread decrease in volcanism compared with the Ordovician; a proportionally greater flux of Sr to the oceans from continental erosion of only ˜ 10% would account for the long-term increase in seawater 87Sr/ 86Sr ratio throughout the Silurian.

  8. Mathematical modelling applied to LiDAR data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Estornell

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to explain the application of several mathematic calculations to LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging data to estimate vegetation parameters and modelling the relief of a forest area in the town of Chiva (Valencia. To represent the surface that describes the topography of the area, firstly, morphological filters were applied iteratively to select LiDAR ground points. From these data, the Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN structure was applied to model the relief of the area. From LiDAR data the canopy height model (CHM was also calculated. This model allowed obtaining bare soil, shrub and tree vegetation mapping in the study area. In addition, biomass was estimated from measurements taken in the field in 39 circular plots of radius 0.5 m and the 95th percentile of the LiDAR height datanincluded in each plot. The results indicated a high relationship between the two variables (measurednbiomass and 95th percentile with a coeficient of determination (R2 of 0:73. These results reveal the importance of using mathematical modelling to obtain information of the vegetation and land relief from LiDAR data.

  9. Extraction of building by airborne LiDAR point cloud with support of ENVI LiDAR%ENVI LiDAR 支持下利用机载 LiDAR 点云提取建筑物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杰; 贺清清; 王飞

    2016-01-01

    对机载激光雷达测量技术、ENVI LiDAR 软件、建筑物提取流程进行了介绍,以 ISPRS 第三委员会提供的机载激光雷达点云数据为基础,基于 ENVI LiDAR 5.1对实验区的建筑物进行了提取,并通过 ArcGIS 结合同地区影像对其质量进行评价,实验流程及结果有一定的参考意义。%Technology of Airborne LiDAR(Light Detection And Ranging),the ENVI LiDAR and the process of building extraction are intro-duced briefly in this paper. Then,based on the International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing(ISPRS)commission Ⅲ and ENVI LiDAR 5. 1,the buildings in testing area were extracted. The evaluation results of quality was learned by overlaying the buildings onto the image in same place through ArcGIS,and the process and results thereof have certain reference significance.

  10. Biomass Estimation for Individual Trees using Waveform LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K.; Kumar, P.; Dutta, D.

    2015-12-01

    Vegetation biomass information is important for many ecological models that include terrestrial vegetation in their simulations. Biomass has strong influences on carbon, water, and nutrient cycles. Traditionally biomass estimation requires intensive, and often destructive, field measurements. However, with advances in technology, airborne LiDAR has become a convenient tool for acquiring such information on a large scale. In this study, we use infrared full waveform LiDAR to estimate biomass information for individual trees in the Sangamon River basin in Illinois, USA. During this process, we also develop automated geolocation calibration algorithms for raw waveform LiDAR data. In the summer of 2014, discrete and waveform LiDAR data were collected over the Sangamon River basin. Field measurements commonly used in biomass equations such as diameter at breast height and total tree height were also taken for four sites across the basin. Using discrete LiDAR data, individual trees are delineated. For each tree, a voxelization methods is applied to all waveforms associated with the tree to result in a pseudo-waveform. By relating biomass extrapolated using field measurements from a training set of trees to waveform metrics for each corresponding tree, we are able to estimate biomass on an individual tree basis. The results can be especially useful as current models increase in resolution.

  11. Forest Road Detection Using LiDAR Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zahra Azizi; Akbar Najafi; Saeed Sadeghian

    2014-01-01

    We developed a three-step classification approach for forest road extraction utilizing LiDAR data. The first step employed the IDW method to interpolate LiDAR point data (first and last pulses) to achieve DSM, DTM and DNTM layers (at 1 m resolution). For this interpolation RMSE was 0.19 m. In the second step, the Support Vector Machine (SVM) was employed to classify the LiDAR data into two classes, road and non-road. For this classification, SVM indicated the merged distance layer with intensity data and yielded better identification of the road position. Assessments of the obtained results showed 63% correctness, 75% completeness and 52% quality of classification. In the next step, road edges were defined in the LiDAR-extracted layers, enabling accu-rate digitizing of the centerline location. More than 95% of the Li-DAR-derived road was digitized within 1.3 m to the field surveyed nor-mal. The proposed approach can provide thorough and accurate road inventory data to support forest management.

  12. A Study on Factors Affecting Airborne LiDAR Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chen Hsu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study uses data from different periods, areas and parameters of airborne LiDAR (light detection and ranging surveys to understand the factors that influence airborne LiDAR penetration rate. A discussion is presented on the relationships between these factors and LiDAR penetration rate. The results show that the flight height above ground level (AGL does not have any relationship with the penetration rate. There are some factors that should have larger influence. For example, the laser is affected by a wet ground surface by reducing the number of return echoes. The field of view (FOV has a slightly negative correlation with the penetration rate, which indicates that the laser incidence angle close to zero should achieve the best penetration. The vegetation cover rate also shows a negative correlation with the penetration rate, thus bare ground and reduced vegetation in the aftermath of a typhoon also cause high penetration rate. More return echoes could be extracted from the full-waveform system, thereby effectively improving the penetration rate. This study shows that full-waveform LiDAR is an effective method for increasing the number of surface reflected echoes. This study suggests avoiding LiDAR survey employment directly following precipitation to prevent laser echo reduction.

  13. Examination of Sarikaya(Yozgat-Turkey) iron mineralization with rare earth element(REE) method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nursel; OKSUZ; Sukru; KOC

    2010-01-01

    Iron mineralizations in the study area are found in amphibolites in the localities of Buyukoren,Uzunkuyu-Atkayasi,and Karabacak and they display a predominantly banded texture.Their paragenesis is dominated by magnetite and hematite.In this study,iron mineralizations in Sarikaya were examined in terms of rare earth element(REE) contents and attempts were made to determine some physicochemical conditions that had an impact upon their formation.For this purpose,42 ore samples and 17 enriched magnetite samples...

  14. Laterites-bearing REEs,Wadi Natash,Southeastern Desert,Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed; El-Ahmady; Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    The present paper recorded the occurrence of laterites-bearing REEs in Natash area.Natash laterite deposits occur as horizons(5-15 m in thickness) at the boundary between the Cretaceous sandstones,and Natash flows.Laterite was recorded in more than twenty six occurrence distributed over an area of about 500 km2 along and around Wadi Natash.It ranges in color from light-grey,dark-grey to reddish-brown.The distribution of laterite deposits is structural controlled.Mineralogical results of laterites proved the...

  15. REE and (э)Nd of clay fractions in sediments from the eastern Pacific Ocean: Evidence for clay sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jihua; SHI Xuefa; CHEN Lirong; HUANG Yongyang; WANG Yinxi; CUI Yingchun; BU Wenrui

    2005-01-01

    Clay fractions in the non-calcareous surface sediments from the eastern Pacific were analyzed for clay minerals, REE and 143Nd/144Nd. Montmorillonite/illite ratio (M/I ratio), total REE contents ((REE), LREE/HREE ratio and cerium anomaly (бCe) may effectively indicate the genesis of clay minerals. Clay fractions with M/I ratio >1, бCe (0.85, (REE (400 μg/g, LREE/HREE ratio (4, and REE patterns similar to those of pelagic sediments are terrigenous and autogenetic mixed clay fractions and contain more autogenetic montmorillonite. Clay fractions with M/I ratio <1, бCe=0.86 to 1.5, ΣREE=200 to 350 μg/g, LREE/HREE ratio (6 and REE distribution patterns similar to that of China loess are identified as terrigenous clay fraction. The 143Nd/144Nd ratios or (э)Nd values of clay fractions inherit the features of terrigenous sources of clay minerals. Clay fractions are divided into 4 types according to (э)Nd values. Terrigenous clay minerals of type I with the (э)Nd values of -8 to -6 originate mainly from North American fluvial deposits. Those of type II with the (э)Nd values of -9 to -7 are mainly from the East Asia and North American fluvial deposits. Those of type III with (э)Nd values of -6 to -3 could come from the central and eastern Pacific volcanic islands. Those of type IV with (э)Nd values of -13 to -12 may be from East Asia eolian. The terrigenous and autogenetic mixed clay fractions show patchy distributions, indicating that there are volcanic or hot-spot activities in the eastern Pacific plate, while the terrigenous clay fractions cover a large part of the study area, proving that the terrigenous clay minerals are dominant in the eastern Pacific.

  16. Genesis of iron-apatite ores in Posht-e-Badam Block (Central Iran) using REE geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Mir Ali Asghar; Zadeh, Ghader Hossein; Emami, Mohamad Hashem

    2013-06-01

    Rare earth elements in apatites of different ore types show characteristic patterns which are related to different modes of formation of the ores. Most of the apatite-bearing iron ores are associated with alkaline magmas with LREE/HREE fractionation varying from moderate to steep. Iron-apatite deposits in Posht-e-Badam Block (Central Iran) have a high concentration of REE (more than 1000 ppm up to 2.5%), and show a strong LREE/HREE ratio with a pronounced negative Eu anomaly. This REE pattern is typical of magmatic apatite and quiet distinct from sedimentary apatites (phosphorites) which have a low REE contents and Ce negative anomalies. On the other hand, they are comparable to the REE patterns of apatites in Kiruna-type iron ores in different parts of the world. The REE patterns of apatites, iron-apatite ores and iron ores are similar and only have different REE contents. This similarity indicates a genetic relation for these rocks. Most of the iron-apatite deposits in Central Iran have similar REE patterns too, which in turn show a genetic relation for all of these deposits. This similarity indicates a similar origin and processes in their genesis. There are some small intrusions around some of the iron-apatite deposits that are petrographically identified as syenite and gabbro. These intrusions also have REE patterns similar to that of iron-apatite ores. This demonstrates a genetic relation between these intrusions and iron-apatite ores. The REE patterns of apatites in different deposits of Posht-e-Badam Block iron-apatite ores show an affinity to alkaline to sub-alkaline magmas and rifting environment. The alkaline host rocks of Central Iran iron-apatite ores are clearly related to an extensional setting where rifting was important (SSE-NNW fault lines). A probable source for this large scale ore forming processes is relatively low partial melting of mantle rocks. The ores have originated by magmatic differentiation as a late phase in the volcanic cycle

  17. Genesis of iron-apatite ores in Posht-e-Badam Block (central Iran) using REE geochemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mir Ali Asghar Mokhtari; Ghader Hossein Zadeh; Mohamad Hashem Emami

    2013-06-01

    Rare earth elements in apatites of different ore types show characteristic patterns which are related to different modes of formation of the ores. Most of the apatite-bearing iron ores are associated with alkaline magmas with LREE/HREE fractionation varying from moderate to steep. Iron-apatite deposits in Posht-e-Badam Block (Central Iran) have a high concentration of REE (more than 1000 ppm up to 2.5%), and show a strong LREE/HREE ratio with a pronounced negative Eu anomaly. This REE pattern is typical of magmatic apatite and quiet distinct from sedimentary apatites (phosphorites) which have a low REE contents and Ce negative anomalies. On the other hand, they are comparable to the REE patterns of apatites in Kiruna-type iron ores in different parts of the world. The REE patterns of apatites, iron-apatite ores and iron ores are similar and only have different REE contents. This similarity indicates a genetic relation for these rocks. Most of the iron-apatite deposits in Central Iran have similar REE patterns too, which in turn show a genetic relation for all of these deposits. This similarity indicates a similar origin and processes in their genesis. There are some small intrusions around some of the iron-apatite deposits that are petrographically identified as syenite and gabbro. These intrusions also have REE patterns similar to that of iron-apatite ores. This demonstrates a genetic relation between these intrusions and iron-apatite ores. The REE patterns of apatites in different deposits of Posht-e-Badam Block iron-apatite ores show an affinity to alkaline to sub-alkaline magmas and rifting environment. The alkaline host rocks of Central Iran iron-apatite ores are clearly related to an extensional setting where rifting was important (SSE–NNW fault lines). A probable source for this large scale ore forming processes is relatively low partial melting of mantle rocks. The ores have originated by magmatic differentiation as a late phase in the volcanic cycle

  18. Geochemistry of Rare Earth Elements (REE) in the Weathered Crusts from the Granitic Rocks in Sulawesi Island, Indonesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adi Maulana; Kotaro Yonezu; Koichiro Watanabe

    2014-01-01

    We report for the first time the geochemistry of rare earth elements (REE) in the weath-ered crusts of I-type and calc-alkaline to high-K (shoshonitic) granitic rocks at Mamasa and Palu re-gion, Sulawesi Island, Indonesia. The weathered crusts can be divided into horizon A (lateritic profile) and B (weathered horizon). Quartz, albite, kaolinite, halloysite and montmorrilonite prevail in the weathered crust. Both weathered profiles show that the total REE increased from the parent rocks to the horizon B but significantly decrease toward the upper part (horizon A). LREE are enriched toward the upper part of the profile as shown by La/YbN value. However, HREE concentrations are high in horizon B1 in Palu profile. The total REE content of the weathered crust are relatively elevated com-pared to the parent rocks, particularly in the lower part of horizon B in Mamasa profile and in horizon B2 in Palu profile. This suggests that REE-bearing accessory minerals may be resistant against weath-ering and may remain as residual phase in the weathered crusts. The normalized isocon diagram shows that the mass balance of major and REE components between each horizon in Mamasa and Palu weathering profile are different. The positive Ce anomaly in the horizon A of Mamasa profile indicated that Ce is rapidly precipitated during weathering and retain at the upper soil horizon.

  19. Behaviour of REEs in a tropical estuary and adjacent continental shelf of southwest coast of India: Evidence from anomalies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P M Deepulal; T R Gireesh Kumar; C H Sujatha

    2012-10-01

    The distribution and accumulation of the rare earth elements (REE) in the sediments of the Cochin Estuary and adjacent continental shelf were investigated. The rare earth elements like La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu and the heavy metals like Mg, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, U, Th were analysed by using standard analytical methods. The Post-Archean Australian Shale composition was used to normalise the rare earth elements. It was found that the sediments were more enriched with the lighter rare earth elements than the heavier ones. The positive correlation between the concentrations of REE, Fe and Mn could explain the precipitation of oxyhydroxides in the study area. The factor analysis and correlation analysis suggest common sources of origin for the REEs. From the Ce-anomalies calculated, it was found that an oxic environment predominates in all stations except the station No. 2. The Eu-anomaly gave an idea that the origin of REEs may be from the feldspar. The parameters like total organic carbon, U/Th ratio, authigenic U, Cu/Zn, V/Cr ratios revealed the oxic environment and thus the depositional behaviour of REEs in the region.

  20. Development of a wind turbine LiDAR simulator

    OpenAIRE

    Schlipf, David; Trujillo , Juan José; Basterra, Valeria; Kühn, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques like LiDAR offer many novel applications to the wind energy community, e.g. fast and accurate measurements of inflow and wake wind fields from the turbine nacelle. The prospects of such a new technique are evaluated with a software tool simulating a nacelle-based LiDAR system. The paper presents the implementation and application of a simulator that has been conceived to support the design of wind field scanning procedures. The tool helps to optimize the hardware set...

  1. Raster Vs. Point Cloud LiDAR Data Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ashmawy, N.; Shaker, A.

    2014-09-01

    Airborne Laser Scanning systems with light detection and ranging (LiDAR) technology is one of the fast and accurate 3D point data acquisition techniques. Generating accurate digital terrain and/or surface models (DTM/DSM) is the main application of collecting LiDAR range data. Recently, LiDAR range and intensity data have been used for land cover classification applications. Data range and Intensity, (strength of the backscattered signals measured by the LiDAR systems), are affected by the flying height, the ground elevation, scanning angle and the physical characteristics of the objects surface. These effects may lead to uneven distribution of point cloud or some gaps that may affect the classification process. Researchers have investigated the conversion of LiDAR range point data to raster image for terrain modelling. Interpolation techniques have been used to achieve the best representation of surfaces, and to fill the gaps between the LiDAR footprints. Interpolation methods are also investigated to generate LiDAR range and intensity image data for land cover classification applications. In this paper, different approach has been followed to classifying the LiDAR data (range and intensity) for land cover mapping. The methodology relies on the classification of the point cloud data based on their range and intensity and then converted the classified points into raster image. The gaps in the data are filled based on the classes of the nearest neighbour. Land cover maps are produced using two approaches using: (a) the conventional raster image data based on point interpolation; and (b) the proposed point data classification. A study area covering an urban district in Burnaby, British Colombia, Canada, is selected to compare the results of the two approaches. Five different land cover classes can be distinguished in that area: buildings, roads and parking areas, trees, low vegetation (grass), and bare soil. The results show that an improvement of around 10 % in the

  2. DEMNUni: ISW, Rees-Sciama, and weak-lensing in the presence of massive neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Carbone, Carmelita; Dolag, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    We present, for the first time in the literature, a full reconstruction of the total (linear and non-linear) ISW/Rees-Sciama effect in the presence of massive neutrinos, together with its cross-correlations with CMB-lensing and weak-lensing signals. The present analyses make use of all-sky maps extracted via ray-tracing across the gravitational potential distribution provided by the "Dark Energy and Massive Neutrino Universe" (DEMNUni) project, a set of large-volume, high-resolution cosmological N-body simulations, where neutrinos are treated as separate collisionless particles. We correctly recover, at $1-2\\%$ accuracy, the linear predictions from CAMB. Concerning the CMB-lensing and weak-lensing signals, we also recover, with similar accuracy, the signal predicted by Boltzmann codes, once non-linear neutrino corrections to Halofit are accounted for. Interestingly, in the ISW/Rees-Sciama signal, and its cross correlation with lensing, we find an excess of power with respect to the massless case, due to free ...

  3. Mineralogical evolution and REE mobility during crystallisation of ancylite-bearing ferrocarbonatite, Haast River, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Alan F.; Collins, Alice K.; Palin, J. Michael; Spratt, John

    2015-02-01

    Ferrocarbonatites from the lamprophyric Alpine Dyke Swarm, south Westland, New Zealand are composed of dolomite-calcite-albite-hematite and contain interstitial patches dominated by calcite-ancylite-barite-monazite-thorite-albite-aeschynite-analcime, interpreted as modified late-stage segregations. The dominant carbonate in the ferrocarbonatite is a ferroan dolomite that contains vermicular and blocky patches of calcite and a more Fe-rich ankerite. The calcite is interpreted as the product of exsolution or the by-product, with dolomite and hematite, of the oxidation of primary ankerite during interaction with hydrothermal fluids. Late stage ancylite-rich segregations have elevated 87Sr/86Sr compositions relative to host carbonatite suggesting they have crystallised from fluids that have equilibrated with host schist, but with the REE derived from fractionation of ferrocarbonatite. Mineral veining indicates this stage of crystallisation post-dated the ankerite to dolomite replacement. The carbonatites, as inferred from mineral associations, textures and carbonate geothermometry, have a complex history of recrystallisation from late stage, low temperature carbo-hydrothermal fluids. All carbonatitic phases have convex-upward chondrite normalised REE patterns enriched in Nd, and are relatively depleted in lighter LREE and in HREE. Depletion in La and Ce is attributed to either complementary enrichment in felsic magmas during initial separation of carbonatite, or more likely, to subsequent preferentially enhanced mobility of La- and Ce-Cl- complexes in low-temperature aqueous fluids.

  4. New Methodological Approach to Investigation of Kinetics of REE Extraction in Nonstationary Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kopyrin A A; Fomichev A A; Afonin M A; Todd T A

    2007-01-01

    The influence of periodical oscillations of the temperature on extraction and stripping processes in the extraction systems was studied. Two extraction systems were investigated: (1) 6 mol·L-1 NaNO3-Nd(NO3)3-Pr(NO3)3-TBP-kerosene and (2) [Nd(NO3)3·3TBP]-[Pr(NO3)3·3TBP]-kerosene -0.1 mol·L-1 HNO3. Mathematical modeling of the nonstationary membrane extraction has been enhanced by including the dependence of the extraction rate constants on temperature. The values of activation energy for direct and reverse extraction and stripping reactions of Pr and Nd were calculated from experimental temporal dependencies of metal concentration and temperature by solving the reverse kinetics problem using the proposed mathematical model. A series of experiments with periodical oscillations of the temperature on the extraction system for the separation of rare earth elements (REE) using bulk liquid membrane between two extractors were performed. The mathematical model adequately describes the experimental data. The optimization of the extraction process for separation of REE by liquid membrane, under the influence of periodical oscillation of the temperature, was made based on the extraction rate constants and activation energies. The optimal conditions of separation by liquid membrane were found: frequency and amplitude of thermal oscillations, liquid membrane flow rate, and optimal ratio between organic and aqueous phase in extractors.

  5. Discrimination of sediment provenance in the Yellow Sea: Secondary grain-size effect and REE proxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hoi-Soo; Lim, Dhongil; Jeong, Do-Hyun; Xu, Zhaokai; Li, Tiegang

    2016-06-01

    This study analyzed grain size and elemental concentrations (Al, Mg, Fe, and rare earth elements (REEs)) in 91 surface sediments to elucidate sediment provenance in the Yellow Sea. Elemental concentrations were normalized by Al concentration (Celement/CAl) to minimize the sediment grain-size effect (GSE). However, noticeable linear relationships between Al concentration (or mean grain size) and the ratio (e.g., Mg/Al or Fe/Al) appeared unexpectedly in pair diagrams. The spatial distribution patterns of Fe/Al and Mg/Al ratios were also similar to the pattern of mean grain size. This implies that the GSE was not removed completely, even after the normalization process. Thus, great care must be taken when applying the ratios of Celement/CAl as a proxy of sediment provenance. To improve provenance discrimination of the sediments in the Yellow Sea, the difference between the REE distribution patterns of Chinese and Korean river sediments, expressed as δ (δ = REE∗(La) - REE∗(Lu)), was calculated, and the spatial distribution patterns of the δ values were mapped. The δ values gradually increased from the western to the eastern part of the Yellow Sea, except for low δ values in the southeastern part of the Yellow Sea. This result indicates that the majority of Chinese and Korean river sediments are accumulating near to their respective coasts, except for a deposit along the southwestern coast of Korea in which a considerable amount of sediment from Chinese rivers has been accumulating.

  6. Hf, Zr, and REE partition coefficients between ilmenite and liquid - Implications for lunar petrogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Y.; Fujimaki, H.; Nakamura, N.; Tatsumoto, M.; Mckay, G. A.

    1986-01-01

    Partition coefficients (D) between ilmenite and coexisting liquid were determined under near-lunar conditions for Hf, Zr, and REE. Through isotope dilution analysis, ilmenite D values of 0.41 and 0.33 were obtained for Hf and Zr respectively, values significantly lower than those of ilmenite from a kimberlite megacryst. Partition coefficients of REE for the synthesized ilmenite are slightly smaller than those of ilmenite from the kimberlite megacryst, and the lunar (Lu) partition coefficient is 0.056. These results suggest that ilmenite was significant in the lunar-Hf evolution of lunar mare basalts. Using lunar and Hf D values for ilmenite, the Lu-Hf evolution of lunar cumulates and the coexisting magma was examined for various crystallization sequences. The Lu-Hf variation trend of most high-Ti mare basalts is explained by a small degree of partial cumulate melting, though a higher degree is required to explain the variation of very low-Ti basalts, green glass, and Apollo 12 low-Ti basalts. Apollo 15 low-Ti basalts may require chromite crystallization as well.

  7. Rare earth elements (REEs in vertebrate microremains from the upper Pridoli Ohesaare beds of Saaremaa Island, Estonia: geochemical clues to palaeoenvironment c

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živilė Žigaitė

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Rare earth element (REE compositions of Nostolepis sp. scales, spines, plates and tesserae from Ohesaare bone beds were measured by in situ microsampling using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS. The obtained REE concentrations, normalized to Post-Archean Australian Shale concentrations, were evaluated using basic geochemical calculations and quantifications. The REE compositions were nearly identical across all the morphotypes and histologies of Nostolepis microremains, showing flat REE patterns with slight depletion in heavy REEs. There was no visible enrichment in middle REEs, indicating good geochemical preservation of bioapatite and absence of any pronounced fractionated REE incorporation during later stages of diagenesis. The shale-normalized (La/YbSN and (La/SmSN REE ratio compilations indicated adsorption as the dominating REE uptake mechanism across all datapoints. The absence of well-defined Ce anomaly suggested oxic palaeoseawater conditions, which agrees with the existing interpretations of the Ohesaare sequence as high-energy shoal and regressive open ocean sedimentary environments.

  8. 2007 US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Jacksonville District US Virgin Islands LiDAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) bare-earth classified LAS dataset is a topographic survey conducted for the USACE USVI LiDAR Project. These data were...

  9. 2011 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Topographic LiDAR: Louisiana Region 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK NAME: Louisiana Region 1 LiDAR ARRA Task Order LiDAR Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task- Vermillion, Iberia, St. Mary, Terrebonne, and Lafourche...

  10. 2011 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Topographic LiDAR: Louisiana Region 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK NAME: Louisiana Region 2 LiDAR ARRA Task Order LiDAR Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task- Orleans, Plaquemines, St. Bernard, St. Tammany Parishes,...

  11. 2004 Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Bare Earth Topographic LiDAR: Connecticut River

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — LiDAR data is remotely sensed high-resolution elevation data collected by an airborne collection platform. The LiDAR files were converted from .PTS format to LAS...

  12. Rare earth element (REE) geochemistry of phosphorites of the Sonrai area of Paleoproterozoic Bijawar basin, Uttar Pradesh, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. F. Khan; Shamim A. Dar; Saif A. Khan

    2012-01-01

    The rare earth element (REE) data from the Paleoproterozoic Bijawar basin,Sonrai phosphorites were used to interpret the depositional conditions of the phosphorites.The post archean Australian shales (PAAS) normalized REE patterns of the Sonrai phosphorites were characterized by negative Ce and positive Eu anomalies.Middle rare earth elements (MREE)-ennchment was a characteristic feature.Phosphorites showing the diagenetic effects on the REE patterns were limited.The observed Eu anomaly was indicative of an anoxic (or sulphate reducing) diagenetic environment of phosphate formation.Mixing of sea water and upwelling during the Paleoproterozoic was responsible for the recording of positive Eu and negative Ce anomalies in the Sonrai phosphorites.

  13. Al-26, Pu-244, Ti-50, REE, and trace element abundances in hibonite grains from CM and CV meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, A. J.; Mckeegan, K. D.; Zinner, E.; Goswami, J. N.

    1987-01-01

    Hibonites from the CM meteorites Murchison, Murray, and Cold Bokkeveld, and hibonites and Ti-rich pyroxene from the CV chondrite Allende are studied. Electron microprobe measurements of major element concentrations and track and ion probe measurements of Mg and Ti isotopic ratios, rare earth elements (REEs), and trace element abundances are analyzed. Correlations between isotopic anomalies in Ti, Al-26, Pu-244, and Mg-26(asterisk) are examined. Ti isotopic anomalies are compared with REE and trace element abundance patterns. Reasons for the lack of Al-26 in the hibonites are investigated and discussed. It is observed that there is no correlation between the Ti isotopic compositions, and the presence of Mg-26(asterisk), Pu-244, and REE and trace element patterns in individual hibonite samples. The data reveal that hibonites are not interstellar dust grains but formed on a short time scale and in localized regions of the early solar system.

  14. Carbonate-silicate melt immiscibility, REE mineralising fluids, and the evolution of the Lofdal Intrusive Suite, Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodeving, Sarah; Williams-Jones, Anthony E.; Swinden, Scott

    2017-01-01

    The Lofdal Intrusive Suite, Namibia, consists of calcio-carbonatite and silica-undersaturated alkaline intrusive rocks ranging in composition from phono-tephrite to phonolite (and nepheline syenite). The most primitive of these rocks is the phono-tephrite, which, on the basis of its Y/Ho and Nb/Ta ratios, is interpreted to have formed by partial melting of the mantle. Roughly linear trends in major and trace element contents from phono-tephrite to phonolite and nepheline syenite indicate that the latter two rock types evolved from the phono-tephrite by fractional crystallisation. The nepheline syenite, however, has a lower rare earth element (REE) content than the phonolite. The carbonatite has a primitive mantle-normalised REE profile roughly parallel to that of the silica-undersaturated alkaline igneous rocks, although the absolute REE concentrations are higher. Like the phono-tephrite, it also has a mantle Y/Ho ratio. However, the Nb/Ta and Zr/Hf ratios are significantly higher. Moreover, the carbonatite displays strong negative Ta, Zr and Hf anomalies on spidergrams, whereas the silicate rocks display positive anomalies for these elements. Significantly, this behaviour is predicted by the corresponding carbonatite-silicate melt partition coefficients, as is the behaviour of the REE. Based on these observations, we interpret the carbonatite to represent an immiscible liquid that exsolved from the phono-tephrite or possibly the phonolite melt. The result was a calcio-carbonatite that is enriched in the heavy REE (HREE) relative to most other carbonatites. Fluids released from the corresponding magma are interpreted to have been the source of the REE mineralisation that is currently the target of exploration.

  15. Effective LiDAR Damage Detection: Comparing Two Detection Algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BIAN Haitao; BAI Libin; WANG Xiaoyu; LIU Wangiu; CHEN Shenen; WANG Shengguo

    2011-01-01

    The health conditions of highway bridges is critical for sustained transportation operations. US federal government mandates that all bridges built with public funds are to be inspected visually every two years.There is a growing consensus that additional rapid and non-intrusive methods for bridge damage evaluation are needed. This paper explores the potential of applying ground-based laser scanners for bridge damage evaluation. LiDAR has the potential of providing high-density, full-field surface static imaging. Hence, it can generate volumetric quantification of concrete corrosion or steel erosion. By recording object surface topology, LiDAR can detect different damages on the bridge structure and differentiate damage types according to the surface flatness and smoothness. To determine the effectiveness of LiDAR damage detection, two damage detection algorithms are presented and compared using scans on actual bridge damages. The results demonstrate and validate LiDAR damage quantification, which can be a powerful tool for bridge condition evaluation.

  16. Modeling low-height vegetation with airborne LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low-height vegetation, common in semiarid regions, is difficult to characterize with LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) due to similarities, in time and space, of the point returns of vegetation and ground. Other complications may occur due to the low-height vegetation structural characteristics a...

  17. Tree filtering for high density airborne LiDAR data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abd Rahman, M.Z.; Gorte, B.G.H.

    2008-01-01

    A high resolution Airborne LiDAR data creates better opportunity for an individual tree measurement and provides valuable results for more precise forest inventory. This paper presents tree filtering approach that able to separate dominant tree and undergrowth vegetation. The results can be used for

  18. Quantifying Ladder Fuels: A New Approach Using LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather Kramer; Brandon Collins; Maggi Kelly; Scott Stephens

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between LiDAR and ladder fuels in the northern Sierra Nevada, California USA. Ladder fuels are often targeted in hazardous fuel reduction treatments due to their role in propagating fire from the forest floor to tree crowns. Despite their importance, ladder fuels are difficult to quantify. One common approach is to calculate canopy base...

  19. 2011 USGS Topographic LiDAR: Suwannee River Expansion

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — USGS Task Order No. G10PD00236 USGS Contract No. G10PC00093 The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) dataset is a survey of the Suwannee River Expansion in...

  20. Tree filtering for high density airborne LiDAR data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abd Rahman, M.Z.; Gorte, B.G.H.

    2008-01-01

    A high resolution Airborne LiDAR data creates better opportunity for an individual tree measurement and provides valuable results for more precise forest inventory. This paper presents tree filtering approach that able to separate dominant tree and undergrowth vegetation. The results can be used for

  1. International Journal of Science and Technology(STECH) Bahir Dar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    International Journal of Science and Technology(STECH). Bahir Dar- ... E-mail: andy4everyoung@gmail.com, aadega @bsum.edu.ng. Mobile Phone No: ..... The rain maker may also use a proto type (night) gun and a mirror enhanced with ...

  2. Accessibility, Congestion and Travel Delays in Dar es Salaam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melbye, Dea Christine; Møller-Jensen, Lasse; Andreasen, Manja Hoppe

    2015-01-01

    on to present a review of research into travel speed levels and congestion in Dar es Salaam. A set of city-wide maps of accessibility and delay levels are constructed based on available speed data and road network data obtained from the OpenStreetMap project and the findings are discussed with respect...

  3. REE geochemistry of auriferous quartz carbonate veins of Neoarchean Ajjanahalli gold deposit, Chitradurga schist belt, Dharwar Craton, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sarangi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available REE composition of the carbonates of the auriferous quartz carbonate veins (QCVs of the Neoarchean Ajjanahalli gold deposit, Chitradurga schist belt, Dharwar Craton, is characterized by U-shaped chondrite normalized REE patterns with both LREE and HREE enrichment and a distinct positive Eu anomaly. As positive Eu anomaly is associated with low oxygen fugacity, we propose that the auriferous fluids responsible for gold mineralization at Ajjanahalli could be from an oxygen depleted fluid. The observed positive Eu anomaly is interpreted to suggest the derivation of the auriferous fluids from a mantle reservoir. The location of Ajjanahalli gold deposit in a crustal scale shear zone is consistent with this interpretation.

  4. REE systematics in modern bottom sediments of the Caspian Sea and river deltas worldwide: Experience of comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslov, A. V.; Kozina, N. V.; Shevchenko, V. P.; Klyuvitkin, A. A.; Sapozhnikov, Ph. V.; Zavialov, P. O.

    2017-07-01

    The results of comparison of a number of main parameters of the chondrite-normalized REE distribution spectra in modern bottom, mainly pelitic, sediments of various sedimentary subsystems of the Caspian Sea and marginal filters of the Volga and Ural rivers with those characteristic of the pelitic fraction of modern bottom sediments of different river deltas worldwide are discussed. According to the features of the REE distribution spectra, as well as the ɛNd(0) values, it has been established that most samples of the Caspian bottom sediments are similar to those of large rivers and rivers, draining watersheds composed of sedimentary formations.

  5. Spectral response of REE{sup 3+} doped LaAlO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boronat, C.; Correcher, V. [CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Garcia G, J. [Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales - Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Morales, A.; Zarate, J. [Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidaldo, Instituto de Investigacion en Metalurgia y Materiales, Ciudad Universitaria, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Rivera, T., E-mail: Cecilia.Boronat@ciemat.es [IPN, Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)

    2016-10-15

    This paper reports on the preliminary results obtained from the cathodoluminescence (Cl) and thermoluminescence (Tl) properties of undoped LaAlO{sub 3} (LAO) and LaAlO{sub 3}: REE (REE=Dy{sup 3+}, Pr{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+}) to be potentially employed for dosimetric purposes. The samples were synthesized by a sol-gel process based on the Pechini 's method with a spray-drying technique and, subsequently, characterized by environmental scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis spectrometry. Cl spectra display sharp and narrow wavebands that could specifically be associated with structural (in the range of 300-450 nm) and point defects (from 450 to 800 nm). The observed wavebands could be assigned as follows: (i) 480 and 570 from the Dy-doped LAO should corresponding respectively to {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}→{sup 6}H{sub 15/2} and {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}→{sup 6}H{sub 13/2} transitions, (II) 490-638 from the Pr-doped LAO is linked to {sup 3}P{sub 0}→{sup 3}H{sub 4}, {sup 1}D{sub 2}→{sup 3}H{sub 4} transitions and (III) 590 and 620 where the dopant Eu{sup 3+} gives rise to {sup 5}D{sub 0}→{sup 7}F{sub 1} and {sup 5}D{sub 0}→{sup 7}F{sub 2} transitions and (IV) a UV-blue broad band is associated with NBOHC in undoped LAO. Such emissions are due to the presence of the 4f electrons of rare earth ions that are shielded by the outer 5s and 5p electrons, the intra-4f emission spectra of REE. Furthermore, the study performed on the Tl emission of LaAlO{sub 3}:Dy{sup 3+} displays (i) two maxima centred at 150 and 240 degrees Celsius (ratio 1:2) similarly to the Pr{sup 3+} doped sample but with 7:5 of ratio. And (II) the highest radiation sensitivity, allowing us to think on the potential use of this material for dosimetric purposes, however further works are necessary to confirm such assertion. (Author)

  6. Grow your own REE deposits: Novel observations from the soils of Southern Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Liam; Smith, Martin; Boyce, Adrian; McDonald, Alison; Heller, Shaun; Bamberger, Axel; Blum, Astrid; Hood, Leo

    2017-04-01

    Industrialised eucalyptus farming in Serra de Monchique has been well documented for its regional impacts on water flow, for its destructive centralisation of local economics (Jenkins, 1979) and for its derogatory impacts on local ecology (Brito, 1999) (Matias & Lamberts, 2011), it is another story of cash cropping for short term gain in an area of sensitive environmental balance which had previously been suitably subsistence farmed for some 700 years with no outside influence until the early 1950s (Jenkins, 1979). The farming has irreversibly changed local customs, soil and water systems, but formed new and intricate relationships between the troposol, oxisol and latosol formations and plants which have not previously been studied in this region in terms of soil geochemistry. During research in the region (as part of the SoS Rare/NERC-UK program) into metal and clay interactions in the troposol formations of Monchique, it was noted that rare earth elements (REEs) and other soluble ions were being mobilised in the upper half of the profiles by some seasonal cycle other than the natural meteoric input/leaching expected during classical lateritisation (Tardy, 1997). It was observed that some 40% of Fe and some 30% of Y were leaving the profile during wet season and concentrating at specific depths during dry seasons to a grade of some 160ppm Y and were thus, potentially viable as an economic resource of Heavy REEs. This PICO presentation discusses the proposed anthropogenic/biogenic mechanism for this concentration and how you too could potentially grow an economically viable REE enriched garden. References: Brito, J. G. (1999). Management strategies for conservation of the lizard Lacerta schreiberi in Portugal. Biological conservation, 311-319. Jenkins, R. (1979). The Road to Alto: An account of peasants, capitalists and their soil in the mountains of Southern Portugal. London: Pluto, ISBN: 0861040767. Matias, M., & Lamberts, P. (2011, May 26). Parliamentary

  7. The Obtaining of Nano Oxide Systems SiO2-REE with Alkoxide Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelina, Anna; Grinberg, Evgenii

    A lot of oxides systems with REE as dopants are used in catalytic processes in organic synthesis. They are very perspectives as thermostable coating in aerospace technics. These systems are usually based on silicon or aluminium oxides and doped with rare-earth elements. This systems can be produced by different methods. One of the most perspective of them is “sol-gel”-method with silicium, aluminium and rare-earth alkoxides as a precursor of doped silica and alumina, or their derivatives. Thus the obtaining of composite SiO _{2} - REE oxide materials by the hydrolysis doped with rare-earth elements was suggested. Some of alcoholate derivatives such as El(OR)n were used in this processes. The SiO _{2}- REE oxides were precipitated during the sol-gel process, where tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as used as SiO _{2} sources. Also it is known that alkoxides of alkali metals, including lithium alkoxides, are widely used in industry and synthetic chemistry, as well as a source of lithium in various mixed oxide compositions, such as lithium niobate, lithium tantalate or lithium silicate. Therefore, we attempted to obtain the lithium silicate, which is also doped with rare-earth elements. Lithium silicate was obtained by alkaline hydrolysis of tetraethoxysilane with lithium alkoxide. Lithium alkoxide were synthesized by dissolving at metal in the corresponding alcohol are examined. The dependence of the rate of dissolving of the metal on the method of mixing of the reaction mixture and the degree of metal dispersion was investigated. The mathematical model of the process was composed and also optimization of process was carried out. Some oxide SiO _{2}, Al _{2}O _{3} and rare-earth nanostructured systems were obtained by sol-gel-method. The size of particle was determined by electron and X-ray spectroscopy and was in the range of 5 - 15 nm. Purity of this oxide examples for contaminating of heavy metals consists n.(1E-4...1E-5) wt%. Sols obtained by this method may be used

  8. 47 CFR 25.401 - Satellite DARS applications subject to competitive bidding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Satellite DARS applications subject to...) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Competitive Bidding Procedures for DARS § 25.401 Satellite DARS applications subject to competitive bidding. Mutually exclusive initial applications for...

  9. Demystifying LiDAR technologies for temperate rainforest in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda Mazza; Demetrios Gatziolis

    2013-01-01

    Light detection and ranging (LiDAR), also known as airborne laser scanning, is a rapidly emerging technology for remote sensing. Used to help map, monitor, and assess natural resources, LiDAR data were first embraced by forestry professionals in Scandinavia as a tool for conducting forest inventories in the mid to late 1990s. Thus early LiDAR theory and applications...

  10. Development and assessment of DArT markers in triticale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badea, A; Eudes, F; Salmon, D; Tuvesson, S; Vrolijk, A; Larsson, C-T; Caig, V; Huttner, E; Kilian, A; Laroche, André

    2011-05-01

    Triticale (X Triticosecale Wittm.) is a hybrid derived by crossing wheat (Triticum sp.) and rye (Secale sp.). Till date, only a limited number of simple sequence repeat (SSRs) markers have been used in triticale molecular analyses and there is a need to identify dedicated high-throughput molecular markers to better exploit this crop. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate diversity arrays technology (DArT) markers in triticale. DArT marker technology offers a high level of multiplexing. Development of new markers from triticale accessions was combined with mining the large collection of previously developed markers in rye and wheat. Three genotyping arrays were used to analyze a collection of 144 triticale accessions. The polymorphism level ranged from 8.6 to 23.8% for wheat and rye DArT markers, respectively. Among the polymorphic markers, rye markers were the most abundant (3,109) followed by wheat (2,214) and triticale (719). The mean polymorphism information content values were 0.34 for rye DArT markers and 0.37 for those from triticale and wheat. High correlation was observed between similarity matrices derived from rye, triticale, wheat and combined marker sets, as well as for the cophenetic values matrices. Cluster analysis revealed genetic relationships among the accessions consistent with the agronomic and pedigree information available. The newly developed triticale DArT markers as well as those originated from rye and wheat provide high quality markers that can be used for diversity analyses and might be exploited in a range of molecular breeding and genomics applications in triticale.

  11. 2011 U.S. Geological Survey Topographic LiDAR: LiDAR for the North East

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — USGS Contract: G10PC00026, Task Order Number: G10PD02143 Task Order Numbers: G10PD01027 (ARRA) and G10PD02143 (non-ARRA) The LiDAR for the North East Project, funded...

  12. 2012 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Jefferson and Clallam Counties, Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WSI) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Jefferson/Clallam study area on March 23rd-25th, April 13th-15th, and May...

  13. New Method for Probing Dark Energy using the Rees-Sciama Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Seokcheon

    2015-01-01

    The integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect provides us the information of the time evolution of gravitational potential. The cross-correlation between the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and the large scale structure (LSS) is known as a promising way to extract the ISW effect. Compared to CMB, the matter fluctuation can grow non-linearly and this is represented in the gravitational potential. Compared to the linear ISW effect, this non-linear ISW effect known as the Rees-Sciama (RS) effect shows the unique behavior by changing the anti-correlated cross correlation between the CMB and the mass tracer into the positively correlated cross correlation. We show that the dependence of this flipping scale on dark energy models and it might be used as a new method to investigate dark energy models.

  14. Structural systematic and crystal chemistry of novel borates with REE, Pb, Sr, and alkali metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belokoneva, E.L. [Moscow State Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation). Dept. of Crystallography and Crystal Chemistry

    2013-11-01

    Crystal structures of novel borates with REE, Pb, Sr and alkali metals were analyzed using classical fundamental buildings blocks approach. It is demonstrated that hexa-, penta-, tetra-, tri- and diborates subdivisions in systematic are real families of structures with the common peculiarities. According to the symmetrical way and the degree of FBB condensation structural-generic rows exist in every of subdivisions. Mega- or polyborates subdivision is valid for the structures with the different types of simplest FBB. In all new complex borates it is possible to separate FBB of equal or different types which are presented in isolated form or are connected into chains, layers or frameworks, and to find unexpected correlation between structures. The possibility to recognize and to visualize in this approach the polarity or non-polarity of the structural units and correspondingly the polarity or nonpolarity of the structures in the whole is very important for the conclusion on structure-properties relation. (orig.)

  15. A Study on sediment sources in a small watershed by using REE tracer method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石辉; 田均良; 刘普灵; 周佩华

    1997-01-01

    In simulation experiments, rare earth element (REE) tracer method was first used to sludy the sources of sediment yield in a small watershed. The experimental results have shown that the chief parts of sediment sources are constantly changing with the development of gullies. The cutting erosion plays a major role in the primary stage of watershed development. Slope erosion intensity increased gradually with gully development of the watershed, while gully erosion intensity decreased. Similar process was also observed in an individual rainfall. The simulation experiments have shown that the method can satisfactorily interpret the origins of sediment yield of a small watershed on an effective way. The simulation experiments have also provided basic information for field researches.

  16. Carbonatites of the World, Explored Deposits of Nb and REE - Database and Grade and Tonnage Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Vladimir I.; Singer, Donald A.; Orris, Greta J.

    2009-01-01

    This report is based on published tonnage and grade data on 58 Nb- and rare-earth-element (REE)-bearing carbonatite deposits that are mostly well explored and are partially mined or contain resources of these elements. The deposits represent only a part of the known 527 carbonatites around the world, but they are characterized by reliable quantitative data on ore tonnages and grades of niobium and REE. Grade and tonnage models are an important component of mineral resource assessments. Carbonatites present one of the main natural sources of niobium and rare-earth elements, the economic importance of which grows consistently. A purpose of this report is to update earlier publications. New information about known deposits, as well as data on new deposits published during the last decade, are incorporated in the present paper. The compiled database (appendix 1; linked to right) contains 60 explored Nb- and REE-bearing carbonatite deposits - resources of 55 of these deposits are taken from publications. In the present updated grade-tonnage model we have added 24 deposits comparing with the previous model of Singer (1998). Resources of most deposits are residuum ores in the upper part of carbonatite bodies. Mineral-deposit models are important in exploration planning and quantitative resource assessments for two reasons: (1) grades and tonnages among deposit types vary significantly, and (2) deposits of different types are present in distinct geologic settings that can be identified from geologic maps. Mineral-deposit models combine the diverse geoscience information on geology, mineral occurrences, geophysics, and geochemistry used in resource assessments and mineral exploration. Globally based deposit models allow recognition of important features and demonstrate how common different features are. Well-designed deposit models allow geologists to deduce possible mineral-deposit types in a given geologic environment, and the grade and tonnage models allow economists to

  17. A synthesis of mineralization styles with an integrated genetic model of carbonatite-syenite-hosted REE deposits in the Cenozoic Mianning-Dechang REE metallogenic belt, the eastern Tibetan Plateau, southwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Hou, Zengqian

    2017-04-01

    The Cenozoic Mianning-Dechang (MD) rare earth element (REE) belt in eastern Tibet is an important source of light REE in southwest China. The belt is 270 km long and 15 km wide. The total REE resources are >3 Mt of light rare earth oxides (REO), including 3.17 Mt of REO at Maoniuping (average grade = 2.95 wt.%), 81,556 t at Dalucao (average grade = 5.21 wt.%), 0.1 Mt at Muluozhai (average grade = 3.97 wt.%), and 5764 t of REO at Lizhuang (average grade = 2.38 wt.%). Recent results from detailed geological surveys, and studies of petrographic features, ore-forming ages, ore forming conditions, and wallrock alteration are synthesized in this paper. REE mineralization within this belt is associated with carbonatite-syenite complexes, with syenites occurring as stocks intruded by carbonatitic sills or dikes. The mineralization is present as complex vein systems that contain veinlet, stringer, stockwork, and brecciated pipe type mineralization. Carbonatites in these carbonatite-related REE deposits (CARDs) are extremely rich in light REEs, Sr (>5000 ppm), and Ba (>1000 ppm), and have low Sr/Ba and high Ba/Th ratios, and radiogenic Sr-Nd isotopic compositions. These fertile magmas, which may lead to the formation of REE deposits, were generated by the partial melting of sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) that was metasomatized by REE- and CO2-rich fluids derived from subducted marine sediments. We suggest that this refertilization occurred along cratonic margins and, in particular, at a convergent margin where small-volume carbonatitic melts ascended along trans-lithospheric faults and transported REEs into the overlying crust, leading to the formation of the CARDs. The formation of fertile carbonatites requires a thick lithosphere and/or high pressures (>25 kbar), a metasomatized and enriched mantle source, and favorable pathways for magma to ascend into the overlying crust where REE-rich fluids exsolve from cooling magma. The optimal combination of these three

  18. Preservation of REE and Fe isotopes in altered stromatolites and the paleo-environmental record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nies, S. M.; Shapiro, R. S.; Lalonde, S.

    2015-12-01

    Geochemical proxies are increasingly being used to unravel ancient ecosystems and environmental perturbations back to the earliest rock record on Earth. Along with more traditional fossils (stromatolites) and other biosignatures (e.g., lipids), the geochemical record is used specifically to evaluate biogenecity and to understand oxygenation of the atmosphere and ocean in the Archean and Paleoproterozoic. However, the effects of diagenesis, metamorphism, and other modes of secondary alteration are still poorly constrained, particularly as technological advances allow us to expand farther across the periodic table. Our study focused on the robustness and preservation of rare earth element (REE) and Fe isotope compositions of two stromatolitic units that have undergone contact and regional metamorphism. 18 samples were collected from cores, open pit mines, and field locations in Minnesota and Ontario from silicified iron formation (Biwabik-Gunflint formations). The samples were carefully constrained to one of two meter-scale stromatolitic units. Metamorphic grade ranged from essentially unmetamorphosed through prehnite-pumpellyite up to amphibolite (fayalite+hypersthene). Samples were also collected that represented deep secondary weathering, likely related to Cretaceous climatic extremes. Polished samples were first analyzed by electron microprobe and selected samples were further analyzed via laser ablation HR-ICP-MS to constrain trace element (n=13) and Fe isotopic variations (n=8). Preliminary results indicate that transition metal concentrations are surprisingly resilient to high-temperature metamorphic recrystallization. REE concentrations were analyzed in individual iron oxide grains, with full resolution (La to Lu) achieved for some samples and partial resolution (La to Nd) achieved for all samples. Core samples exhibited a relatively stable positive Ce anomaly occurring from low to extremely high alteration. Outcrop and mine samples indicate a shift from a

  19. REE characteristics and Pb, Sr and Nd isotopic compositions of steel plant emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geagea, M Lahd; Stille, P; Millet, M; Perrone, Th

    2007-02-01

    A comprehensive Pb-Sr-Nd isotope and REE tracer study of atmospheric trace metal pollution by a steel plant situated to the north of the urban communities of Strasbourg (France) and Kehl (Germany) has been performed using tree barks as biomonitors. The 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb isotopic ratios of the steel plant's filter dust are similar to values found in dust of waste incinerators. The 87Sr/86Sr ratio is similar to present-day ratios of Phanerozoic or Precambrian granitic rocks. The 143Nd/144Nd isotopic composition is very low and corresponds to an (Nd) value of -17.5. Such a low value is characteristic of old Precambrian granitic rocks and banded iron formations. Thus, this low (Nd) value might point to the origin of the iron necessary for the steel production. The fact, that this isotopic composition does not occur in crustal rocks of Western Central Europe makes the Nd isotope ratio a powerful tool to trace steel plants atmospheric emissions. The rare earth element (REE) distribution pattern of the steel plant's filter dust shows very specific fractionations like La and Nd enrichments which are traceable in tree barks over a distance of 4 km. The Pb, Sr and Nd isotope ratios not only enable the steel plant's emissions to be traced in a north-easterly direction, along the principal wind pathway but also enables the interference of this emission at 4 km NE from the steel plant with another atmospheric component originating from the Strasbourg Rhine harbour to be identified.

  20. Controls of interactions between iron hydroxide colloid and water on REE fractionations in surface waters: Experimen-tal study on pH-controlling mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丛强; 吴佳红; 于文辉

    2002-01-01

    The influence of pH on the partitioning behavior of REE at the water/particulate interface has been studied experimentally. At the beginning of colloid formation the adsorption of REE on iron hydroxide colloids is dominant, followed by REE desorption. Finally adsorption and desorption tend to reach equilibration. The capability of iron hydroxide colloids to adsorb the HREE is greater than that to adsorb the LREE. With increasing pH, LREE/HREE fractionations will take place between iron hydroxide colloids and water, leading to the reduction of their partition coefficient ratio (DLREE/DHREE). The DREE distribution patterns show Y anomalies (DY/DHo <1), with obvious REE tetrad effects appearing under low pH conditions. Experimental results have shown that there do exist REE tetrad effects in nature. In addition to pH, the chemical type of surface water and ion intensity are also the important factors controlling REE tetrad effects and leading to fractionations between particulate-adsorbed REE and dissolved REE.

  1. 2005 Mississippi Merged LiDAR Data (2005 LiDAR data merged with 2005 Post-Katrina LiDAR data to create a bare-earth product for flood plain mapping in coastal Mississippi).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pre- and post-hurricane Katrina LiDAR datasets of Hancock, Harrison, and Jackson Counties, MS, were merged into a seamless coverage by URS. The pre-Katrina LiDAR...

  2. Natural Metasomatism of Monazite and Xenotime: a Guide to Define Optimal Orthophosphate Leaching Approaches during REE Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Y.; Gamage McEvoy, J.

    2016-12-01

    Numerous studies have documented the redistribution of the LREE, the HREE (+Y) and the actinides within the REE-orthophosphates (monazite, xenotime) through natural metamorphic processes. Supporting experimental investigations on the role of alkali-bearing fluids during metasomatism of monazite have demonstrated that partial replacement by an isostructural huttonite (ThSiO4)-enriched phase, as well as preferential partitioning of the HREE (+Y) in solution can be significant for specific fluid compositions.1-3 In the context of economic REE extraction, the refractory nature of the orthophosphates usually prescribes an initial decomposition in alkali hydroxide solution with the production of crystalline REE(OH)3 and water-soluble Na3PO4. The lack of selectivity of such dissolution processes leads to downstream hydrometallurgical challenges associated with efficient separation of the different REE and safe removal of the radioactive contaminants (e.g. Th, U). Consequently, the goal of this study is to investigate experimentally if, in light of the fluid-induced elemental redistribution resulting from natural metasomatism, the alkali-bearing solution properties during monazite and xenotime leaching can be modified to promote early separation of the actinides, the LREE and the HREE. Controlled dissolution experiments are performed using natural single crystals of REE-orthophosphates as well as synthetic analogues produced along relevant single and coupled substitutions (LREE3+↔HREE3+, Th4+Ca2+↔2REE3+, Th4+Si4+↔REE3+P5+). The chemical and structural properties of the experimental products are characterized by micro-X-ray diffraction, electron probe X-ray microanalysis, electron backscatter diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The results will be presented and discussed with an emphasis on the potential of identifying a selective fractional dissolution process with preferential sequestration of Th in a residual refractory orthophosphate

  3. Sm-Nd dating and REE Composition of scheelite for the Honghuaerji scheelite deposit, Inner Mongolia, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhijun; Li, Jinwen; Xu, Xinying; Song, Zeyou; Dong, Xuzhou; Tian, Jing; Yang, Yuncheng; She, Hongquan; Xiang, Anping; Kang, Yongjian

    2016-09-01

    Sm-Nd analyses of seven scheelite samples from scheelite-quartz veins in the Honghuaerji scheelite deposit produce a well-defined linear array on an isochron diagram with a mean square weighted deviation (MSWD) of 0.87 corresponding to an age of 178.4 ± 2.9 Ma with εNd(t) = + 1.50. This age is interpreted to represent the age of scheelite mineralization. The scheelite Sm-Nd age is in good agreement with U-Pb ages obtained from a mineralization-related granite (179.4 ~ 178.6 Ma), indicating that there is no apparent age gap between granite crystallization and ore formation. Rare earth element (REE) abundances in the scheelite were determined by in situ laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), and the scheelite samples contain elevated REE concentrations with total ΣREE + Y contents in the range of 3339 to 6321 ppm. The chondrite-normalized REE distribution patterns of all scheelites are middle REE (MREE)-enriched, with strong negative Eu-anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.09 ~ 0.23). The REE characteristics of the Honghuaerji scheelite suggest that REE3 + substituted into the Ca site along with Na and Nb (dominated by Na), whereas Eu is predominantly present as Eu2 + in the scheelite and may have crystallized from relatively reduced fluids. All sulfur isotope data (δ34S) for sulfide separates range from + 2.0 to + 3.8‰, with an average of 3.2‰. Measured 206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb ratios vary from 18.243 to 18.451, 15.494 to 15.574, and 37.933 to 38.340, respectively. On the basis of common Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic characteristics between the scheelite and the host granite and the positive initial Nd isotope ratios (+ 1.46 - + 1.52), low 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.704983-0.705297) in the scheelites, it is inferred that the hydrothermal fluids responsible for tungsten mineralization at Honghuaerji were of magmatic origin with a mantle-derived signature. Based on the regional geology, tectonic evolution, and geochemical evidence, the

  4. Palaeoenvironmental signatures revealed from rare earth element (REE compositions of vertebrate microremains of the Vesiku Bone Bed (Homerian, Wenlock, Saaremaa Island, Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Fadel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Rare earth elements (REEs have been analysed from fossil vertebrate microremains (thelodont scales from the Vesiku Bone Bed, Saaremaa, Estonia, using in situ microsampling by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS. Well-preserved scales of three species of the genus Thelodus (T. carinatus, T. laevis and Thelodus sp. show very uniform REE patterns with slightly lower overall REE concentrations in enameloid than in dentine, with enrichment in middle REEs, depletion in heavy REEs and pronounced negative europium anomaly, but no cerium anomaly. The results of this study suggest a similar diagenetic history and possibly contemporaneous habitats for all three Thelodus species, as well as possible suboxic to anoxic conditions of the bottom and pore waters during the formation of the Vesiku Bone Bed.

  5. Source of ore-forming substances and theoretical problems of metallogeny relevant to the Bayan Obo Fe-REE ore deposits in Inner Mongolia,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹荣龙; 朱寿华; 王俊文

    1995-01-01

    The source of rare earth elements (REE) ore-forming substances is identified to be extremelydistinct from that of iron ores.The Bayan Obo Fe-REE ore deposits were generated by a composite processof both crustal and mantle source mineralization.The original iron bodies are of a sedimentary deposit fromsupergenesis,while the REE ores have been formed by mantle fluid metasomatism superimposed upon thepre-existing iron bodies.It is believed that the REE ore deposit would be controlled by intracontinental hotspot.The H8 dolomite in mine regions belongs to normal sedimentary carbonate rock,its C and O isotopiccomposition rules out the possibility comparable with magrnatic carbonatite.The Sm-Nd isochrons of separatedREE minerals have shown two REE peak mineralization periods:early-middle Proterozoic (1 700 Ma±480 Ma) andCaledonia (424-402 Ma).

  6. Closure Temperature in Cooling Bi-Mineralic Systems With Application to REE-in-Two-Pyroxene Thermometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, L.; Liang, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Closure temperature is an important concept to many diffusion related problems involving cooling. The basic idea and formulation were outlined in the seminal work of Dodson for cooling mono-mineralic systems [1, 2]. The Dodson's equation has been widely used to calculate closure temperatures for igneous and metamorphic rocks that usually contain more than one mineral. The purpose of this study is to systematically examine closure temperatures in cooling bi-mineralic systems. This study is also motivated by our quest for the physical meaning of temperatures derived from the REE-in-two-pyroxene thermometer that is based on temperature-dependent REE partitioning between coexisting orthopyroxene (opx) and clinopyroxene (cpx) in mafic and ultramafic rocks [3]. To better understand closure temperatures and their relations to the REE-in-two-pyroxene thermometer, we conduct numerical simulations of diffusive re-equilibration of trace elements between two coexisting minerals under prescribed cooling using temperature-dependent diffusion coefficient and partition coefficient. Following Dodson's approach for mono-mineralic systems, we define the closure temperature of a trace element in cooling bi-mineralic systems using two methods: (1) by following the evolution of average concentration of the trace element in each mineral; (2) by tracing the variation of an effective partition coefficient (ratio of the average concentrations between the two minerals). Closure temperatures calculated using the two definitions are identical for a wide range of grain sizes and cooling rates. Additional simulations for a range of temperature-dependent partition coefficients and diffusion coefficients reveal that in addition to parameters introduced in Dodson's equation (pre-exponential factor D0, activation energy E, mineral grain size, and cooling rate), temperature-dependent partition coefficients are also important in determining the closure temperature for the bi-mineralic systems. Our

  7. Reaction of seawater with fresh mid-ocean ridge gabbro creates ';atypical' REE pattern and high REE fluid fluxes: Experiments at 425 and 475 °C, 400 and 1000 bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beermann, O.; Garbe-Schönberg, D.; Holzheid, A. D.

    2013-12-01

    High-temperature MOR hydrothermalism significantly affects ocean chemistry. The Sisters Peak (SP) hydrothermal field at 5°S on the slow-spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) emanates fluids >400°C [1] that have high concentrations of H2, transition metals, and rare earth elements (REE) exhibiting ';atypical' REE pattern characterized by depletions of LREE and HREE relative to MREE and no Eu anomaly [2]. This is in contrast to the ';typical' LREE enrichment and strong positive Eu anomaly known from many MOR vent fluids observed world-wide [e.g., 3]. Besides temperature, the seawater-to-rock ratio (w/r ratio) has significant control on the fluid chemistry [e.g., 4, 5]. To understand how vent fluid REE-signatures are generated during water-rock interaction processes we reacted unaltered gabbro with natural bottom seawater at 425 °C and 400 bar and at 425 and 475 °C at 1000 bar at variable w/r (mass) ratios ranging from 0.5-10 by using cold seal pressure vessels (CSPV). The run durations varied from 3-72 h. Reacted fluids were analysed for major and trace elements by ICP-OES and ICP-MS. In our experiments, ';atypical' REE fluid pattern similar to those of SP fluids were obtained at high w/r ratio (5 and 10) that might be characteristic for focused fluid-flow along e.g., detachment faults at slow-spreading MOR [6]. In contrast, more ';typical'-like REE pattern with elevated LREE and slightly positive Eu anomalies have been reproduced at low w/r ratio (0.5-1). Results of numerical simulations imply that strong positive Eu anomalies of fluids and altered gabbro from high temperature MOR hydrothermal systems can be created by intense rock leaching processes at high w/r ratio (5-10). This suggests that hydrothermal circulation through the ocean crust creates ';typical' REE fluid pattern with strong positive Eu anomalies if seawater reacts with gabbroic host rock that has been already leached in REE at high fluid fluxes. Simulations of the temporal chemical evolution of

  8. San Clemente Island Baseline LiDAR Mapping Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    bands, wavelength and spectral width of each band, and Global Positioning System (GPS) start/stop times. • IGM folder - scene_radiance_IGM.txt IGM...indicating tile edge effects were eliminated during processing. 3.1.2.2 Quality Control of the DEMs Quality control of the initial DEMs showed... negative changes) and accretion (positive changes) were found. Sources of error in elevation change maps include the basic LiDAR observations, spatial

  9. Rockfall hazard analysis using LiDAR and spatial modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Hengxing; Martin, C. Derek; Zhou, Chenghu; Lim, Chang Ho

    2010-05-01

    Rockfalls have been significant geohazards along the Canadian Class 1 Railways (CN Rail and CP Rail) since their construction in the late 1800s. These rockfalls cause damage to infrastructure, interruption of business, and environmental impacts, and their occurrence varies both spatially and temporally. The proactive management of these rockfall hazards requires enabling technologies. This paper discusses a hazard assessment strategy for rockfalls along a section of a Canadian railway using LiDAR and spatial modeling. LiDAR provides accurate topographical information of the source area of rockfalls and along their paths. Spatial modeling was conducted using Rockfall Analyst, a three dimensional extension to GIS, to determine the characteristics of the rockfalls in terms of travel distance, velocity and energy. Historical rockfall records were used to calibrate the physical characteristics of the rockfall processes. The results based on a high-resolution digital elevation model from a LiDAR dataset were compared with those based on a coarse digital elevation model. A comprehensive methodology for rockfall hazard assessment is proposed which takes into account the characteristics of source areas, the physical processes of rockfalls and the spatial attribution of their frequency and energy.

  10. Road Curb Extraction From Mobile LiDAR Point Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sheng; Wang, Ruisheng; Zheng, Han

    2017-02-01

    Automatic extraction of road curbs from uneven, unorganized, noisy and massive 3D point clouds is a challenging task. Existing methods often project 3D point clouds onto 2D planes to extract curbs. However, the projection causes loss of 3D information which degrades the performance of the detection. This paper presents a robust, accurate and efficient method to extract road curbs from 3D mobile LiDAR point clouds. Our method consists of two steps: 1) extracting the candidate points of curbs based on the proposed novel energy function and 2) refining the candidate points using the proposed least cost path model. We evaluated our method on a large-scale of residential area (16.7GB, 300 million points) and an urban area (1.07GB, 20 million points) mobile LiDAR point clouds. Results indicate that the proposed method is superior to the state-of-the-art methods in terms of robustness, accuracy and efficiency. The proposed curb extraction method achieved a completeness of 78.62% and a correctness of 83.29%. These experiments demonstrate that the proposed method is a promising solution to extract road curbs from mobile LiDAR point clouds.

  11. Characterizing Canopy Structure Using Waveform LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K.; Kumar, P.

    2016-12-01

    The structure of light penetration through the canopy plays an important role in water, carbon, and energy fluxes between the biosphere and the atmosphere. Canopy clumping, a description of foliage distribution, is one of the major aspects of canopy structure that significantly influence light and vegetation interaction. Airborne full-waveform LiDAR data contains large amounts of vegetation structural information, and is a powerful tool for providing detailed foliage distribution information for large areas of vegetation. In this study, we present a method for describing physical canopy clumping structure for individual trees that can resolve fine scale variations in foliage distribution. We first utilize the K-means clustering algorithm to extract structure from the large amounts of vegetation data provided by full-waveform LiDAR. Then we find representative traits for data clusters and use them to classify the clusters into three groups. Based on these traits, we draw conclusions about physical representations of each group, and identify two groups to contain structurally significant clusters. This study demonstrates that large amounts of canopy structural information can be extracted from waveform LiDAR data. The fine resolution canopy clumping structure found by the method described in this work can be used as valuable input for ecological models.

  12. Detecting and connecting agricultural ditches using LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelens, Jennifer; Dondeyne, Stefaan; Van Orshoven, Jos; Diels, Jan

    2017-04-01

    High-resolution hydrological data are essential for spatially-targeted water resource management decisions and future modelling efforts. For Flanders, small water courses like agricultural ditches and their connection to the river network are incomplete in the official digital atlas. High-resolution LiDAR data offer the prospect for automated detection of ditches, but there is no established method or software to do so nor to predict how these are connected to each other and the wider hydrographic network. An aerial LiDAR database encompassing at least 16 points per square meter linked with simultaneously collected digital RGB aerial images, is available for Flanders. The potential of detecting agricultural ditches and their connectivity based on point LiDAR data was investigated in a 1.9 km2 study area located in the alluvial valley of the river Demer. The area consists of agricultural parcels and woodland with a ditch network of approximately 17 km. The entire network of open ditches, and the location of culverts were mapped during a field survey to test the effectiveness of the proposed method. In the first step of the proposed method, the LiDAR point data were transformed into a raster DEM with a 1-m resolution to reduce the amount of data to be analyzed. This was done by interpolating the bare earth points using the nearest neighborhood method. In a next step, a morphological approach was used for detecting a preliminary network as traditional flow algorithms are not suitable for detecting small water courses in low-lying areas. This resulted in a preliminary classified raster image with ditch and non-ditch cells. After eliminating small details that are the result of background noise, the resulting classified raster image was vectorized to match the format of the digital watercourse network. As the vectorisation does not always adequately represent the shape of linear features, the results did not meet the high-quality cartographic needs. The spatial accuracy

  13. The distribution and composition of REE-bearing minerals in placers of the Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bern, Carleton; Shah, Anjana K.; Benzel, William M.; Lowers, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Rare earth element (REE) resources are currently of great interest because of their importance as raw materials for high-technology manufacturing. The REE-phosphates monazite (light REE enriched) and xenotime (heavy REE enriched) resist weathering and can accumulate in placer deposits as part of the heavy mineral assemblage. The Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains of the southeastern United States are known to host heavy mineral deposits with economic concentrations of zircon, ilmenite and rutile. This study provides a perspective on the distribution and composition of REE phosphate minerals in the region. The elemental chemistry and mineralogy of sands and associated heavy-mineral assemblages from new and archived sediment samples across the coastal plains are examined, along with phase-specific compositions of monazite, xenotime and zircon. Both monazite and xenotime are present across the coastal plains. The phase-specific compositions allow monazite content to be estimated using La as a geochemical proxy. Similarly, both Y and Yb are geochemical proxies for xenotime, but their additional presence in zircon and monazite require a correction to prevent overestimation of xenotime content. Applying this correction, maps of monazite and xenotime content across the coastal plains were generated using sample coverage from the National Geochemical Database (NGS) and National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE). The NGS and NURE approach of sampling stream sediments in small watersheds links samples to nearby lithologies. The results show an approximately 40 km-wide band of primarily Cretaceous, marine sediments bordering the Piedmont province from North Carolina to Alabama in which monazite and xenotime content are relatively high (up to 4.4 wt. % in < 150 μm bulk sediment). Strong correlations between concentrations of the two phases were found, with estimated monazite:xenotime ratios ranging approximately 6:1 to 12:1 depending upon the dataset analyzed. From a resource

  14. Rare earth elements (REE) as natural and applied tracers in the catchment area of Gessental valley, former uranium mining area of Eastern Thuringia, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buechel, G.; Merten, D.; Geletneky, J. W.; Kothe, E.

    2003-04-01

    Between 1947 and 1990 about 113.000 t of uranium were excavated at the former uranium mining site of Ronneburg (Eastern Thuringia, Germany). The legacy consists of more than 200 million m^3 of metasedimentary rocks rich in organic matter, sulfides and heavy metals originally deposited in mining heaps at the surface. The metasedimentary rocks formed under anoxic conditions about a 400 Mio. years ago are now exposed to oxic conditions. The oxidation of markasite and pyrite results in the formation of H_2SO_4. The formation of acid mine drainage (AMD) leads to high concentrations of uranium, rare earth elements (REE) and other heavy metals in surface water, seepage water and groundwater. This mobilization is due to alteration enhanced by high microbial activity and low pH. The tolerance mechanisms towards heavy metal pollution of soil substrate and surface/groundwater has allowed the selection of microbes which have, e.g. specific transporter genes and which are associated to plants in symbiotic interactions like mycorrhiza. In order to follow the processes linking alteration of metasedimentary rocks to biological systems the use of tracers is needed. One group of such tracers occuring in high concentrations in the water phase at the Ronneburg mining site are the REE (La-Lu) which are featured by very similar chemical behaviour. They show smooth but continuous variations of their chemical behaviour as a function of atomic number. For seepage water of the waste rock dump Nordhalde - sampled over a period of two years - the shale normalized REE patterns show enrichment of heavy REE and only minor variations, although the concentration differs. At sampling points in the surface water and in groundwater rather similar REE patterns were observed. Thus, REE can be used as tracers to identify diffuse inflow of REE-rich acid mine drainage of the dumps into the creek and the sediments. The absolute concentrations of REE in the creek and in ground water are up to 1000 times

  15. An Experimental Study on the Effects of Microbes on the Migration and Accumulation of REE in the Weathering Crust of Granite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈炳辉; 王智美; 等

    2000-01-01

    Microbes were cultured and identified from the saples collected at various depths in 4 weathering profiles of REE-bearing granites in Gonghe,Guangdong,The microbes were found existing at the depth of 0-5m in all the profiles.The main microbes include coccus (Staphylococcus,Streptococcus),bacillus(Bacillus,Clostridium and Escherichia Coli),actinmyces and fungi(Saccharomycete,Penicillium,Fusarium,Aspergillus Aiger and Mucor),The number of colonies decreases downwards in the profiles.Experimental studies show that all the microbes used in the experiment can accelerate downward migation of REE in the experimental tubes.,The ability to accelerate the migration of REE decreases in a sequence of fungi→actinomyces→acillus→coccus.The microbes can change the modes of occurrence of REE in the weathering crust.The coccus,bacillus and actinomyces can increase the amounts of REE in ion state,whereas the fungi have a stronger ability to from organic compounding REE and accumulate REE than the bacteria do.

  16. Recombinant cancer vaccines and new vaccine targets. Interview by Jenaid Rees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlom, Jeffrey

    2013-10-01

    Interview by Jenaid Rees, Commissioning Editor Jeffrey Schlom obtained his PhD from Rutgers University (NJ, USA). After obtaining his PhD, he worked at Columbia University (NY, USA) before moving in 1973 to the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health (MD, USA). Since then he has served as the Chief of several sections, including his present position as the Chief of the Laboratory of Tumor Immunology and Biology in the Center for Cancer Research which he has held for the past 30 years. During this period, he has worked as an Adjunct Professor at George Washington University (Washington, DC, USA), served on the Editorial Board of several journals and holds membership in a number of committees. He holds over 30 patents and patent applications in the areas of vaccines, tumor antigens and monoclonal antibodies and has received honors and awards throughout his career. Jeffrey Schlom has been involved in translational research involving the immunotherapy of a range of carcinomas and predominantly works in the areas of tumor immunology, mechanisms of tumor cell-immune cell interactions and immune mechanisms. He has recently been working on the design and characterization of recombinant vaccines for cancer therapy.

  17. Synthetic and natural Nakhla pyroxenes: Parent melt composition and REE partition coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckay, G.; Le, L.; Wagstaff, J.

    1994-01-01

    Nakhla is one of the SNC meteorites, generally believed to be of martian origin. It is composed mainly of cumulus augite, in which primary igneous zoning is apparently preserved, and which serves as a recorder of the composition of Nakhla's parent melt and the conditions under which it crystallized. Knowledge of the composition and petrogenesis of this parent melt may help unravel Nakhla's relationship to the other SNC's, and provide clues to martian petrogenesis in general. This abstract reports new results of an ongoing study in which we are (1) comparing the major and minor element compositions of synthetic pyroxenes crystallized from various proposed parent melt compositions with those in Nakhla pyroxene to constrain the composition of the parent melt, and (2) measuring minor and trace element partition coefficients, particularly those of the REE, in order to obtain the most applicable D values with which to invert the natural pyroxene compositions to obtain the trace element composition of the parent melt. Results suggest that recent estimates of Nakhla's parent melt composition are too aluminous, and that mafic or ultramafic melts are more likely candidates.

  18. Partition coefficients of Hf, Zr, and REE between phenocrysts and groundmasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimaki, H.; Tatsumoto, M.; Aoki, K.-I.

    1984-01-01

    Partition coefficients of Hf, Zr, and REE between olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, plagioclase, garnet, amphibole, ilmenite, phlogopite, and liquid are presented. Samples consist of megacrysts in kimberlite, phenocrysts in alkaline basalts, tholeiitic basalts and andesitic to dacitic rocks, and synthetic garnet and clinopyroxene in Hawaiian tholeiites. The Hf-Lu and Zr-Lu elemental fractionations are as large as the Lu-Sm or Lu-Nd fractionation. The Hf and Zr partition coefficients between mafic phenocrysts and liquids are smaller than the Lu partition coefficients, but are similar to the Nd or Sm partition coefficients. The Hf and Zr partition coefficients between ilmenite, phlogopite, and liquid are larger than the Lu partition coefficients for these minerals and their corresponding liquids. The Hf-Zr elemental fractionation does not occur except for extreme fractionation involving Zr-minerals and extremely low fO2. These data have an important bearing on chronological and petrogenetic tracer studies involving the Lu-Hf isotopic system.

  19. Modification of REE distribution of ordinary chondrites from Atacama (Chile) and Lut (Iran) hot deserts: Insights into the chemical weathering of meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourkhorsandi, Hamed; D'Orazio, Massimo; Rochette, Pierre; Valenzuela, Millarca; Gattacceca, Jérôme; Mirnejad, Hassan; Sutter, Brad; Hutzler, Aurore; Aboulahris, Maria

    2017-09-01

    The behavior of rare earth elements (REEs) during hot desert weathering of meteorites is investigated. Ordinary chondrites (OCs) from Atacama (Chile) and Lut (Iran) deserts show different variations in REE composition during this process. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) data reveal that hot desert OCs tend to show elevated light REE concentrations, relative to OC falls. Chondrites from Atacama are by far the most enriched in REEs and this enrichment is not necessarily related to their degree of weathering. Positive Ce anomaly of fresh chondrites from Atacama and the successive formation of a negative Ce anomaly with the addition of trivalent REEs are similar to the process reported from Antarctic eucrites. In addition to REEs, Sr and Ba also show different concentrations when comparing OCs from different hot deserts. The stability of Atacama surfaces and the associated old terrestrial ages of meteorites from this region give the samples the necessary time to interact with the terrestrial environment and to be chemically modified. Higher REE contents and LREE-enriched composition are evidence of contamination by terrestrial soil. Despite their low degrees of weathering, special care must be taken into account while working on the REE composition of Atacama meteorites for cosmochemistry applications. In contrast, chondrites from the Lut desert show lower degrees of REE modification, despite significant weathering signed by Sr content. This is explained by the relatively rapid weathering rate of the meteorites occurring in the Lut desert, which hampers the penetration of terrestrial material by forming voluminous Fe oxide/oxyhydroxides shortly after the meteorite fall.

  20. Age-Dependent Changes in Resting Energy Expenditure (REE: Insights from Detailed Body Composition Analysis in Normal and Overweight Healthy Caucasians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna Geisler

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Age-related changes in organ and tissue masses may add to changes in the relationship between resting energy expenditure (REE and fat free mass (FFM in normal and overweight healthy Caucasians. Secondary analysis using cross-sectional data of 714 healthy normal and overweight Caucasian subjects (age 18–83 years with comprehensive information on FFM, organ and tissue masses (as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, body density (as assessed by Air Displacement Plethysmography (ADP and hydration (as assessed by deuterium dilution (D2O and REE (as assessed by indirect calorimetry. High metabolic rate organs (HMR summarized brain, heart, liver and kidney masses. Ratios of HMR organs and muscle mass (MM in relation to FFM were considered. REE was calculated (REEc using organ and tissue masses times their specific metabolic rates. REE, FFM, specific metabolic rates, the REE-FFM relationship, HOMA, CRP, and thyroid hormone levels change with age. The age-related decrease in FFM explained 59.7% of decreases in REE. Mean residuals of the REE-FFM association were positive in young adults but became negative in older subjects. When compared to young adults, proportions of MM to FFM decreased with age, whereas contributions of liver and heart did not differ between age groups. HOMA, TSH and inflammation (plasma CRP-levels explained 4.2%, 2.0% and 1.4% of the variance in the REE-FFM residuals, but age and plasma T3-levels had no effects. HMR to FFM and MM to FFM ratios together added 11.8% on to the variance of REE-FFM residuals. Differences between REE and REEc increased with age, suggesting age-related changes in specific metabolic rates of organs and tissues. This bias was partly explained by plasmaT3-levels. Age-related changes in REE are explained by (i decreases in fat free mass; (ii a decrease in the contributions of organ and muscle masses to FFM; and (iii decreases in specific organ and tissue metabolic rates. Age-dependent changes in the

  1. Audre's daughter: Black lesbian steganography in Dee Rees' Pariah and Audre Lorde's Zami: A New Spelling of My Name.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    This article argues that African-American director Dee Rees' critically acclaimed debut Pariah (2011) is a rewriting of lesbian poet-activist Audre Lorde's iconic "bio-mythography" Zami: A New Spelling of My Name (1982). The article examines how Rees' work creatively and subtly re-envisions Lorde's Zami by way of deeply rooted and often cleverly camouflaged patterns, resonances, and contrasts. Shared topics include naming, mother-daughter bonds, the role of clothing in identity formation, domestic abuse, queer time, and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender legacy discourse construction. What emerges between the visual and written texts is a hidden language of connection--what may be termed Black lesbian steganography--which proves thought-provoking to viewers and readers alike.

  2. Origin of REE-rich ferrocarbonatites in southern Siberia (Russia): implications based on melt and fluid inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopyev, Ilya R.; Borisenko, Alexander S.; Borovikov, Andrey A.; Pavlova, Galina G.

    2016-12-01

    Fe-rich carbonatites with a mineral assemblage of ankerite-calcite or siderite are widespread in southern Siberia, Russia. The siderite carbonatites are associated with F-Ba-Sr-REE mineralization and have a 40Ar/39Ar age of 117.2 ± 1.3 Ma. Melt and fluid inclusions suggest that the carbonatites formed from volatile-rich alkali- and chloride-bearing carbonate melts. Ankerite-calcite carbonatites formed from carbonatite melt at a temperature of more than 790 °C. The ferrocarbonatites (the second phase of carbonatite intrusion) formed from a sulfate-carbonate-chloride fluid phase (brine-melt) at >650 °C and ≥360 MPa. The brine-melt fluid phase had high concentrations of Fe and LREEs. A subsequent hydrothermal overprint contributed to the formation of economically important barite-Sr-fluorite-REE mineralization in polymict siderite breccia.

  3. Multipath Estimation in Urban Environments from Joint GNSS Receivers and LiDAR Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, Antonio J.; Fabio Dovis; David De Castro; Xin Chen; Khurram Ali

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, multipath error on Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals in urban environments is characterized with the help of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) measurements. For this purpose, LiDAR equipment and Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver implementing a multipath estimating architecture were used to collect data in an urban environment. This paper demonstrates how GPS and LiDAR measurements can be jointly used to model the environment and obtain robust receivers....

  4. Development of a regional LiDAR field plot strategy for Oregon and Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvind Bhuta; Leah. Rathbun

    2015-01-01

    The National Forest System (NFS) Pacific Northwest Region (R6) has been flying LiDAR on a per project basis. Additional field data was also collected in situ to many of these LiDAR projects to aid in the development of predictive models and estimate values which are unattainable through LiDAR data alone (e.g. species composition, tree volume, and downed woody material...

  5. Mineralogy and REE geochemistry at Gomish-Tappeh Zn-Pb-Cu (Ag deposit, southwest of Zanjan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tooba Salehi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Gomish-Tappeh Zn-Pb-Cu (Ag deposit is located 90 km southwest of Zanjan, in northwestern part of Urumieh-Dokhtar volcano-plutonic zone. Exposed rocks at the area include Oligo-Miocene volcano-sedimentary and sedimentary sequences as well as Pliocene volcano-plutonic sequence (andesite porphyry dykes, dacitic subvolcanic dome and rhyodacitic volcanics. Alteration in the deposit developed as silicic, silicic-sulfidic, sericitic, carbonate, argillic and propylitic. Main mineralization at the Gomish-Tappeh deposit is observed as veins occurring in a steeply-deeping normal fault defined by an NE-SW trend in host rocks such as dacitic crystal litic tuff, dacitic subvolcanic dome, specifically the rhyolitic tuff. Paragenetic minerals in the ore veins consist of pyrite, arsenopyrite, chalcopyrite, bornite, low-Fe sphalerite, galena, tetrahedrite and specularite. Gangue minerals accompanying the ores include quartz, calcite, chlorite, sericite and clay minerals. Based on geochemical data, average grades for samples from the ore veins at the Gomish-Tappeh deposit are: 4% Pb, 6% Zn, 2% Cu and 88 ppm Ag. Moreover, REE distribution patterns for altered samples of the dacitic subvolcanic dome and acidic tuff when compared with fresh samples, show enrichment in LREE, while HREE demonstrate various bahaviours. The negative Eu anomaly in chondrite-normalized REE patterns for these rocks is related to the increase in fluid/rock ratio and destruction of those grains of plagioclase enriched in Eu. REE distribution patterns for the silty tuff (footwall to the ore compared with acidic tuff represent enrichment in all REE as well as positive Eu anomalies. However, the ore samples indicate more enrichment in LREE/HREE ratios and higher Eu contents when compared with wallrock of the ore veins (silty tuff. This is due to the influence of chloric magmatic-hydrothermal fluids that caused alteration along the ore zone, releasing LREE and Eu from the host rocks and finally

  6. Mineralogy and crystallization history of a highly differentiated REE-enriched hypabyssal rhyolite: Round Top laccolith, Trans-Pecos, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, L. Christine; Elliott, Brent A.; Kyle, J. Richard

    2017-09-01

    The Round Top hypabyssal rhyolite laccolith is a highly evolved magmatic system, enriched in incompatible elements including REE [Rare Earth Element(s)], U, Be, and F. The Round Top intrusion is part of a series of Paleogene intrusions emplaced as the Sierra Blanca Complex. These intrusions are situated within long-lived, complex tectonic regimes that have been subjected to regional compression and subduction, punctuated by extensional bimodal volcanism. The enrichment in the rhyolite that comprises Round Top is the result of the prolonged removal of compatible elements from the source magma chamber through the emplacement of earlier magmatic events. With the emplacement of each sequential laccolith, the F-rich source magma became more enriched in incompatible elements, with increasing HREE [Heavy Rare Earth Elements(s)] concentrations. The emplacement of Round Top as a laccolith (versus that of an extrusive rhyolitic flow) facilitated the retention of the volatile-rich vapor phase within the magma, forming ubiquitous REE-bearing minerals, mainly yttrofluorite and yttrocerite. The high temperature mineral-vapor phase alteration of the feldspar groundmass was essential to the formation of REE minerals, where the pervasive open pore space was occupied by the late-crystallizing minerals. These late-forming REE-bearing minerals also occur as crystals associated with other accessory and trace phases, as inclusions within other phases, along grain boundaries, and along fractures and within voids. The rhyolite at Round Top and other laccolith intrusions in the Sierra Blanca Complex represent a new sub-type of magmatic rare earth element hosting system.

  7. On L^1-Convergence Of Rees-Stanojević's Sums With Coefficients From The Class K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xhevat Z. Krasniqi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are considered the modified cosine sums introduced by Rees and Stanojević  with coefficients from the class K. In addition, it is proved that the condition $\\lim_{n\\to \\infty}|a_{n+1}|\\log n= 0$ is a necessary and sufficient condition for the $L^{1}$-convergence of the cosine series. Also, an open problem about $L^{1}$-convergence for the $r-th$ derivative  of the cosine series is presented.

  8. REE composition in scheelite and scheelite Sm-Nd dating for the Xuebaoding W-Sn-Be deposit in Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yan; DENG Jun; LI ChaoFeng; SHI GuangHai; ZHENG AiLi

    2007-01-01

    The scheelite with large size and euhedral shape from Xuebaoding, Sichuan Province is an ideal mineral to study REE patterns and Sm-Nd dating of non-gold deposits. The scheelite has diameters of 1―10 cm and colors of pale beige to deep orange. Most of these scheelites occur in association with beryl, cassiterite and muscovite. The rare earth elements indicate that scheelite samples from Xuebaoding W-Sn-Be deposits contain high concentrations of rare earth elements with total ΣREE+Y contents in the range of 369―1725 μg·g(-)1 and nearly all of these scheelite samples are enriched in LREE and depleted in HREE and have negative Eu anomalies. The REE patterns of the scheelites are similar to those of A-type granite with obvious tetrad effect, similar to that of type II scheelites. Based on reported fluid inclusion studies, the mineralizing-fluid of the Xuebaoding W-Sn-Be deposit indicates low Na activity. The REE patterns of the scheelite are probably controlled by partition coefficient in hydrothermal fluid. In the 147Sm/144Nd-143Nd/144Nd diagram, the scheelites show a linear array corresponding to an isochron age of 182.0±9.2 Ma (MSWD = 0.52). The Sm-Nd age represents the formation age of the scheelite and can indicate that the W, Sn and Be mineralization at Xuebaoding took place in the Early Yanshanian. The Sm-Nd dating result is important for the study of the multi-metal resources in western Sichuan Province.

  9. A study of REE and Pb, Sr and Nd isotopes in garnet-lherzolite xenoliths from Mingxi, Fujian Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wankang, H.; Junwen, W.; Basu, A.R.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1993-01-01

    The REE and Pb, Sr, Nd isotopes in three xenoliths from limburgite and scoria-breccias, including spinel-lherzolite, spinel-garnet-lherzolite and phlogopite-gamet-lherzolite, were analysed. The REE contents of the xenoliths are 1.3 to 3.3 times those of the chondrites with their REE patterns characterized by weak LREE depletion. The143Nd/144Nd values of whole rocks and minerals range from 0.51306 to 0.51345 with ??Nd=+ 8.2- +15.8,206Pb/204 Pb < 18.673, and207Pb/204Pb < 15.574. All this goes to show that the upper mantle in Mingxi at the depth of 67-82 km is a depleted mantle of MORB type, with87Sr/86 Sr ratios 0.70237-0.70390. In Nd-Sr diagram the data points of whole rocks are all out of the mantle array, implying that the xenoliths from Mingxi have more radiogenic Sr isotopes than those of the mantle array. ?? 1993 Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  10. Weibull approximation of LiDAR waveforms for estimating the beam attenuation coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes-Hugo, Martin A; Vuorenkoski, Anni K; Dalgleish, Fraser R; Ouyang, Bing

    2016-10-03

    Tank experiments were performed at different water turbidities to examine relationships between the beam attenuation coefficient (c) and Weibull shape parameters derived from LiDAR waveforms measured with the Fine Structure Underwater LiDAR (FSUIL). Optical inversions were made at 532 nm, within a c range of 0.045-1.52 m-1, and based on a LiDAR system having two field-of-view (15 and 75.7 mrad) and two linear polarizations. Consistently, the Weibull scale parameter or P2 showed the strongest covariation with c and was a more accurate proxy with respect to the LiDAR attenuation coefficient.

  11. Data management based on geocoding index and adaptive visualization for airborne LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Xiaodong

    2008-10-01

    With more surveying practice and deeper application, data post-process for airborne LiDAR system has been extracted lots of attention in data accuracy, post-process, fusion, modeling, automation and visualization. However, post-process and flexible visualization were found to be the bottle-neck which limits the LiDAR data usage for industrial applications. The cause of above bottle-neck problems is great capacity for LiDAR system. Thus in article a geocoding index based multivariate data management and adaptive visualization will be studied for based on the feature of airborne LiDAR's data to improve automatization of post-process and surveying efficiency.

  12. Disposal frequencies of selected recyclable wastes in Dar es Salaam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mgaya, Prosper; Nondek, Lubomir

    2004-01-01

    A statistical survey of households based upon questionnaires distributed via primary schools has been carried out in five wards of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, to estimate disposal frequencies (number of items disposed per week) for newsprint, metal cans, glass and plastic containers and plastic shopping bags. Plastic shopping bags are disposed most frequently while glass containers are disposed least frequently. The statistical distribution of disposal frequencies, which seems to be influenced by household income, is well described by Poisson distribution. Disposal frequencies are mutually correlated at 95% level of probability despite the differences in disposal patterns of individual households.

  13. GEOBIA methods for LiDAR obtained point clouds

    OpenAIRE

    Tomljenović, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    This paper critically analyses the state of the art provided in today’s scientific »market of knowledge« concerning the subject of object delineation from LiDAR obtained 3D point clouds. Such approach became a very popular subject in many scientific fields (forestry, geography, archaeology, etc.). The author will give multiple examples on how other authors deal with object extraction and delineation from 3D point clouds. He will also give a brief introduction and explanation of terms such as ...

  14. LiDAR remote sensing applied to forest resources assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Landa, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Disponer de información precisa y actualizada de inventario forestal es una pieza clave para mejorar la gestión forestal sostenible y para proponer y evaluar políticas de conservación de bosques que permitan la reducción de emisiones de carbono debidas a la deforestación y degradación forestal (REDD). En este sentido, la tecnología LiDAR ha demostrado ser una herramienta perfecta para caracterizar y estimar de forma continua y en áreas extensas la estructura del bosque y las principales vari...

  15. Koulujen sanitaatiotilanne Tansaniassa : Dar es Salaamin ja Moshin alueilla

    OpenAIRE

    Partanen, Lotta

    2013-01-01

    Tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli tehdä selvitys Tansanian koulujen sanitaatiotilanteesta sekä miettiä mahdollisia ratkaisuja sanitaatio-olojen parantamiseksi. Lisäksi tavoitteena oli tutkia kuivakäymälän toimivuutta paikallisissa olosuhteissa sekä pohtia, voisiko menetelmä toimia ratkaisuna koulujen sanitaatio-ongelmiin. Työ suoritettiin syksyllä 2012 Tansaniassa Dar es Salaamin ja Moshin kaupungeissa. Noin 47 miljoonan asukkaan Tansania sijaitsee Itä-Afrikassa Intian valtameren rannalla. Se o...

  16. Acerca de las "ilustraciones" de darío villegas

    OpenAIRE

    SANTIAGO MUTIS

    2004-01-01

    Más de cien dibujos inéditos de Darío Villegas, tomados de sus libretas de apuntes, ilustran todo este número de Desde el Jardín de Freud. Estos dibujos fueron realizados durante los últimos cuatro años, en forma totalmente independiente a la revista, pero que, de alguna manera, la "ilustran" o complementan, por el sólo hecho de haber sido realizados en el país, sacudido a todo lo largo y ancho de su territorio por la violencia, la destruccción, la muerte y sus t...

  17. On the estimation and detection of the Rees-Sciama effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullana, M. J.; Arnau, J. V.; Thacker, R. J.; Couchman, H. M. P.; Sáez, D.

    2017-02-01

    Maps of the Rees-Sciama (RS) effect are simulated using the parallel N-body code, HYDRA, and a run-time ray-tracing procedure. A method designed for the analysis of small, square cosmic microwave background (CMB) maps is applied to our RS maps. Each of these techniques has been tested and successfully applied in previous papers. Within a range of angular scales, our estimate of the RS angular power spectrum due to variations in the peculiar gravitational potential on scales smaller than 42/h megaparsecs is shown to be robust. An exhaustive study of the redshifts and spatial scales relevant for the production of RS anisotropy is developed for the first time. Results from this study demonstrate that (i) to estimate the full integrated RS effect, the initial redshift for the calculations (integration) must be greater than 25, (ii) the effect produced by strongly non-linear structures is very small and peaks at angular scales close to 4.3 arcmin, and (iii) the RS anisotropy cannot be detected either directly-in temperature CMB maps-or by looking for cross-correlations between these maps and tracers of the dark matter distribution. To estimate the RS effect produced by scales larger than 42/h megaparsecs, where the density contrast is not strongly non-linear, high accuracy N-body simulations appear unnecessary. Simulations based on approximations such as the Zel'dovich approximation and adhesion prescriptions, for example, may be adequate. These results can be used to guide the design of future RS simulations.

  18. Distribution of REEs and yttrium among major geochemical phases of marine Fe–Mn-oxides: Comparative study between hydrogenous and hydrothermal deposits

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SuryaPrakash, L.; Ray, D.; Paropkari, A.L.; Mudholkar, A.V.; Satyanarayanan, M.; Sreenivas, B.; Chandrasekharam, D.; Kota, D.; KameshRaju, K.A.; Kaisary, S.; Balaram, V.; Gurav, T.

    in hydrothermal oxides is described in terms of co-precipitation and adsorption of their halide complexes and available free ions in hydrothermal solutions. Instead, adsorption of major carbonate species from seawater primarily regulates the partitioning of REEs...

  19. Partition coefficients for REE between garnets and liquids - Implications of non-Henry's Law behaviour for models of basalt origin and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, W. J.

    1981-01-01

    An experimental investigation of Ce, Sm and Tm rare earth element (REE) partition coefficients between coexisting garnets (both natural and synthetic) and hydrous liquids shows that Henry's Law may not be obeyed over a range of REE concentrations of geological relevance. Systematic differences between the three REE and the two garnet compositions may be explained in terms of the differences between REE ionic radii and those of the dodecahedral site into which they substitute, substantiating the Harrison and Wood (1980) model of altervalent substitution. Model calculations demonstrate that significant variation can occur in the rare earth contents of melts produced from a garnet lherzolite, if Henry's Law partition coefficients do not apply for the garnet phase.

  20. Partition coefficients for REE between garnets and liquids - Implications of non-Henry's Law behaviour for models of basalt origin and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, W. J.

    1981-01-01

    An experimental investigation of Ce, Sm and Tm rare earth element (REE) partition coefficients between coexisting garnets (both natural and synthetic) and hydrous liquids shows that Henry's Law may not be obeyed over a range of REE concentrations of geological relevance. Systematic differences between the three REE and the two garnet compositions may be explained in terms of the differences between REE ionic radii and those of the dodecahedral site into which they substitute, substantiating the Harrison and Wood (1980) model of altervalent substitution. Model calculations demonstrate that significant variation can occur in the rare earth contents of melts produced from a garnet lherzolite, if Henry's Law partition coefficients do not apply for the garnet phase.

  1. The effect of the water-to-rock ratio on REE distribution in hydrothermal fluids: An experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beermann, Oliver; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter; Holzheid, Astrid

    2013-04-01

    High-temperature submarine MOR hydrothermalism creates high elemental fluxes into, and out of, oceanic lithosphere significantly affecting ocean chemistry. The Turtle Pits hydrothermal system discovered at 5° S on the slow-spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) in water depths of ~3000 m (~300 bar) emanates 'ultrahot' fluids > 400 ° C [1] with high concentrations of dissolved gases (e.g., H2), transition metals, and rare earth elements (REE). The normalised REE patterns of these 'ultrahot' fluids are uncommon as they exhibit depletions of LREE and no Eu-anomaly ('special' REE-signature in [2]), which is in contrast to the "typical" LREE enrichment and pronounced positive Eu-anomaly known from many MOR vent fluids observed world-wide [e.g., 3]. Although hydrothermal fluid REE-signatures may play a key role in understanding processes during water-rock interaction, only few experimental data have been published on REE distribution in seawater-like fluids reacted with rocks from the ocean crust [e.g., 4, 5]. Besides temperature, the seawater-to-rock ratio (w/r ratio) strongly affects water-rock reaction processes and, thus, has significant control on the fluid chemistry [e.g., 6, 7]. To understand how vent fluid REE-signatures are generated during water-rock interaction processes we designed a series of experiments reacting different fluid types with mineral assemblages from fresh, unaltered gabbro at 425 ° C and 400 bar using cold seal pressure vessels (CSPV). Mixtures of 125-500 μm-sized hand-picked plagioclase and clinopyroxene grains separated from unaltered gabbro reacted in gold capsules with 3.2 wt.% NaCl(aq) fluid (similar to seawater salinity), or with natural seawater. The w/r (mass) ratio ranged from 1 to 100 and the run durations were varied from 3 to 30 d in the NaCl(aq) experiments, and was 3 d in the seawater experiments. The reacted fluids were extracted after quenching and analysed by ICP-OES and ICP-MS. Only in the seawater experiments, the gabbro

  2. Performance testing of LiDAR exploitation software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela-González, M.; González-Jorge, H.; Riveiro, B.; Arias, P.

    2013-04-01

    Mobile LiDAR systems are being used widely in recent years for many applications in the field of geoscience. One of most important limitations of this technology is the large computational requirements involved in data processing. Several software solutions for data processing are available in the market, but users are often unknown about the methodologies to verify their performance accurately. In this work a methodology for LiDAR software performance testing is presented and six different suites are studied: QT Modeler, AutoCAD Civil 3D, Mars 7, Fledermaus, Carlson and TopoDOT (all of them in x64). Results depict as QTModeler, TopoDOT and AutoCAD Civil 3D allow the loading of large datasets, while Fledermaus, Mars7 and Carlson do not achieve these powerful performance. AutoCAD Civil 3D needs large loading time in comparison with the most powerful softwares such as QTModeler and TopoDOT. Carlson suite depicts the poorest results among all the softwares under study, where point clouds larger than 5 million points cannot be loaded and loading time is very large in comparison with the other suites even for the smaller datasets. AutoCAD Civil 3D, Carlson and TopoDOT show more threads than other softwares like QTModeler, Mars7 and Fledermaus.

  3. Applying the Moment Distance Framework to LiDAR Waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, E. L.; Aguilar-Amuchastegui, N.; Henebry, G. M.

    2010-12-01

    In the past decade or so, there have only been limited approaches formulated for the analysis of waveform LiDAR data. We illustrate how the Moment Distance (MD) framework can characterize the shape of the LiDAR waveforms using simple, computationally fast, geometric operations. We assess the relationship of the MD metrics to some key waveform landmarks - such as locations of peaks, power of returns, and pseudo-heights - using LVIS datasets acquired over a tropical forest in La Selva, Costa Rica in 1998 and 2005. We also apply the MD framework to 2003 LVIS data from Howland Forest, Maine. We also explore the effects of noise on the MD Index (MDI). Our results reveal that the MDI can capture important dynamics in canopy structure. Movement in the location of the peaks is detected by shifts in the MDI. Because this new approach responds to waveform shape, it is more sensitive to changes of location of peak returns than to the power of the return. Results also suggest a positive relationship between the MDI and the canopy pseudo-height.

  4. IsoDAR - A Definitive Search for Sterile Neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barletta, William

    2013-04-01

    The steady development of high power cyclotrons, mostly in industry, is making possible a definitive, highly cost effective approach to the search for sterile neutrinos. In the proposed IsoDAR experiment a 600 kW beam of protons from a 60 MeV, H2+ cyclotron will impinge on a lithium target to generate copious Li-8. The Li-8 then decays at rest to yield a powerful source of anti-neutrinos that can be located ˜20 m from a hydrogenous detector. In particular our collaboration has been designing the accelerator / target system to be consistent with installation in the Kamioka mine to use the Kamland detector to record inverse beta decay events. We show that this source / detector combination can reveal or exclude the global-fit allowed region at 5 sigma in four months and differentiate between 1 and 2 sterile neutrinos with a few years of continued running. Our studies also show that high power cyclotrons will provide the most cost effective source for such an experiment. In addition, the 60 MeV IsoDAR cyclotron would be an ideal injector for DAEdALUS, our approach to measuring CP violation in the neutrino sector with decay-at-rest experiment.

  5. Zr and REE mineralization in sodic lujavrite from the Saima alkaline complex, northeastern China: A mineralogical study and comparison with potassic rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; Wang, Ru-Cheng; Yang, Jin-Hui; Wu, Fu-Yuan; Zhang, Wen-Lan; Gu, Xiang-Ping; Zhang, Ai-Cheng

    2016-10-01

    The Triassic Saima alkaline complex on the Liaodong Peninsula, northeastern China, consists mainly of potassic phonolite, nepheline syenite, and sodic lujavrite. The lujavrite shows significant Zr-REE mineralization, which is present in the form of early magmatic, Zr-REE-enriched clinopyroxene (30%-40%), titanite (5%), and loparite-(Ce), and late magmatic to hydrothermal wadeite, widespread eudialyte group minerals (5%-10%), and catapleiite. Ultimately, the fractionation of the alkaline magma leads to the crystallization of mosandrite and hezuolinite. Textural relations and compositional variation among the characteristic Zr-REE-bearing minerals record that both Zr and REEs were strongly incompatible in the sodic melt, but that Zr mineralization preceded REE mineralization. The main Zr-REE mineralization in the Saima lujavrite resulted from the high peralkalinity, Na/K ratio and HFSE content, low oxygen fugacity, and the intensive activity of water and volatiles of its evolving magma. The discontinuous and abrupt changes in melt composition and mineral assemblage from the potassic nepheline syenite of the complex to the sodic lujavrite suggest that their magma was derived from different episodes of magmatic activity with different physico-chemical characteristics, rather than from the continuous evolution of a single magmatic event.

  6. 2001-2002 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Island County and Northeast Jefferson County, Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TerraPoint surveyed and created this data for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium under contract. The area surveyed is approximately 525 square miles and covers all of...

  7. Comparisons between field- and LiDAR-based measures of stand structrual complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van R. Kane; Robert J. McGaughey; Jonathan D. Bakker; Rolf F. Gersonde; James A. Lutz; Jerry F. Franklin

    2010-01-01

    Forest structure, as measured by the physical arrangement of trees and their crowns, is a fundamental attribute of forest ecosystems that changes as forests progress through successional stages. We examined whether LiDAR data could be used to directly assess the successional stage of forests by determining the degree to which the LiDAR data would show the same relative...

  8. Mapping of landslides under dense vegetation cover using object - oriented analysis and LiDAR derivatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Eeckhout, Miet; Kerle, Norman; Hervas, Javier; Supper, Robert; Margottini, C.; Canuti, P.; Sassa, K.

    2013-01-01

    Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) and its wide range of derivative products have become a powerful tool in landslide research, particularly for landslide identification and landslide inventory mapping. In contrast to the many studies that use expert-based analysis of LiDAR derivatives to identify

  9. Object-oriented identification of forested landslides with derivatives of single pulse LiDAR data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eeckhaut, van den M.; Kerle, N.; Poesen, J.; Hervas, J.

    2012-01-01

    In contrast to the many studies that use expert-based analysis of LiDAR derivatives for landslide mapping in forested terrain, only few studies have attempted to develop (semi-)automatic methods for extracting landslides from LiDAR derivatives. While all these studies are pixel-based, it has not yet

  10. Jean Lafitte 2013, 1.0 Meter LiDAR, Classified point cloud

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) dataset is a survey of the Jean Lafitte,G13PD00214, 1.0 Meter LiDAR Survey Area in south of New Orleans and encompasses 77...

  11. FY12 St Johns River Water Management LiDAR Survey: Putnam (FL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) dataset is a survey of the FY12 St Johns River Water Management LiDAR Survey, project area in north-central Florida and...

  12. Investigating assumptions of crown archetypes for modelling LiDAR returns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calders, K.; Lewis, P.; Disney, M.; Verbesselt, J.; Herold, M.

    2013-01-01

    LiDAR has the potential to derive canopy structural information such as tree height and leaf area index (LAI), via models of the LiDAR signal. Such models often make assumptions regarding crown shape to simplify parameter retrieval and crown archetypes are typically assumed to contain a turbid

  13. Epidemiological Studies on Bovine Mastitis in Smallholder Dairy Herds in the Dar es Salaam Region, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kivaria, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    Recently the number of milking cows has increased substantially in the Dar es Salaam region due to an increasing demand for fresh milk in this densely populated urban centre. It is estimated that there are 1,765 smallholder dairy herds with 8,233 improved dairy animals in and around the Dar es Sala

  14. Nacelle LiDAR online wind field reconstruction applied to feedforward pitch control

    Science.gov (United States)

    GUILLEMIN, F.; DOMENICO, D. DI; NGUYEN, N.; SABIRON, G.; BOQUET, M.; GIRARD, N.; COUPIAC, O.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents innovative filtering and reconstruction techniques of nacelle LiDAR data, and exploitation of obtained wind anticipation capabilities for wind turbine control strategy. The implemented algorithms are applied under industrial constraints, on a MAIA EOLIS wind turbine, equipped with a LEOSPHERE 5-beams pulsed LiDAR, during experimental campaigns of SMARTEOLE collaborative project.

  15. Have I Been Here Before? A Method for Detecting Loop Closure With LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Have I Been Here Before? A Method for Detecting Loop Closure With LiDAR by John G Rogers III and Jason M Gregory ARL-TR-7165 January...TR-7165 January 2015 Have I Been Here Before? A Method for Detecting Loop Closure With LiDAR John G Rogers III and Jason M Gregory...

  16. Wetland inundation mapping and change monitoring using landsat and airborne LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper presents a new approach for mapping wetland inundation change using Landsat and LiDAR intensity data. In this approach, LiDAR data were used to derive highly accurate reference subpixel inundation percentage (SIP) maps at the 30-m resolution. The reference SIP maps were then used to est...

  17. Classification of Spruce and Pine Trees Using Active Hyperspectral LiDAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vauhkonen, J.; Hakala, T.; Suomalainen, J.M.; Kaasalainen, S.; Nevalainen, O.; Vastaranta, M.; Holopainen, M.; Hyyppa, J.

    2013-01-01

    Most forest inventories based on the use of remote-sensing data produce the required species-specific information by fusing data from different sources (e.g., Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) and spectral data). We tested an active hyperspectral LiDAR instrument in a laboratory measurement of spr

  18. Investigating assumptions of crown archetypes for modelling LiDAR returns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calders, K.; Lewis, P.; Disney, M.; Verbesselt, J.; Herold, M.

    2013-01-01

    LiDAR has the potential to derive canopy structural information such as tree height and leaf area index (LAI), via models of the LiDAR signal. Such models often make assumptions regarding crown shape to simplify parameter retrieval and crown archetypes are typically assumed to contain a turbid mediu

  19. Epidemiological Studies on Bovine Mastitis in Smallholder Dairy Herds in the Dar es Salaam Region, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kivaria, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    Recently the number of milking cows has increased substantially in the Dar es Salaam region due to an increasing demand for fresh milk in this densely populated urban centre. It is estimated that there are 1,765 smallholder dairy herds with 8,233 improved dairy animals in and around the Dar es

  20. Wayne and Washtenaw Counties 1.0 PPSM LiDAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK NAME: Wayne and Washtenaw Counties 1.0 PPSM LiDAR LiDAR Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task USGS CONTRACT: 07CRCN0006 TASK ORDER NUMBER: G09PD00300...

  1. Utility of LiDAR for large area forest inventory applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas S. Skowronski; Andrew J. Lister

    2012-01-01

    Multi-resource inventory data are used in conjunction with Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data from the Pennsylvania Department of Natural Resource's PAMAP Program to assess the utility of extensive LiDAR acquisitions for large area forest assessments. Background, justification, and initial study designs are presented. The proposed study will involve three...

  2. Effect of slope on treetop detection using a LiDAR Canopy Height Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khosravipour, A.; Skidmore, A.K.; Wang, Tiejun; Isenburg, M.; Khoshelham, K.

    2015-01-01

    Canopy Height Models (CHMs) or normalized Digital Surface Models (nDSM) derived from LiDAR data have been applied to extract relevant forest inventory information. However, generating a CHM by height normalizing the raw LiDAR points is challenging if trees are located on complex terrain. On steep

  3. 2011-2013 Indiana Statewide Imagery and LiDAR Program: Lake Michigan Watershed Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Indiana's Statewide LiDAR data is produced at 1.5-meter average post spacing for all 92 Indiana Counties covering more than 36,420 square miles. New LiDAR data was...

  4. Tree crown delineation from high resolution airborne LiDAR based on densities of high points

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahman, M.Z.A.; Gorte, B.G.H.

    2009-01-01

    Tree detection and tree crown delineation from Airborne LiDAR has been focusing mostly on utilizing the canopy height model (CHM). This paper presents a method for individual tree crown delineation based on densities of high points (DHP) from the high resolution Airborne LiDAR. The DHP method relies

  5. Mapping of landslides under dense vegetation cover using object - oriented analysis and LiDAR derivatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Eeckhout, Miet; Kerle, N.; Hervas, Javier; Supper, Robert; Margottini, C.; Canuti, P.; Sassa, K.

    2013-01-01

    Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) and its wide range of derivative products have become a powerful tool in landslide research, particularly for landslide identification and landslide inventory mapping. In contrast to the many studies that use expert-based analysis of LiDAR derivatives to identify

  6. Genetic linkage mapping in an F2 perennial ryegrass population using DArT markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomaszewski, Céline; Byrne, Stephen; Foito, Alexandra;

    2012-01-01

    T markers, and a DArT array has recently been developed for the Lolium-Festuca complex. In this study, we report the first use of the DArTFest array to generate a genetic linkage map based on 326 markers in a Lolium perenne F2 population, consisting of 325 genotypes. For proof of concept, the map was used...

  7. Using LiDAR surveys to document floods: A case study of the 2008 Iowa flood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo; Krajewski, Witold F.; Goska, Radek; Young, Nathan

    2017-10-01

    Can we use Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), an emergent remote sensing technology with wide applications, to document floods with high accuracy? To explore the feasibility of this application, we propose a method to extract distributed inundation depths from a LiDAR survey conducted during flooding. This method consists of three steps: (1) collecting LiDAR data during flooding; (2) classifying the LiDAR observational points as flooded water surface points and non-flooded points, and generating a floodwater surface elevation model; and (3) subtracting the bare earth Digital Terrain Model (DTM) from the flood surface elevation model to obtain a flood depth map. We applied this method to the 2008 Iowa flood in the United States and evaluated the results using the high-water mark measurements, flood extent extracted from SPOT (Small Programmable Object Technology) imagery, and the near-simultaneously acquired aerial photography. The root mean squared error of the LiDAR-derived floodwater surface profile to high-water marks was 30 cm, the consistency between the two flooded areas derived from LiDAR and SPOT imagery was 72% (81% if suspicious isolated ponds in the SPOT-derived extent were removed), and LiDAR-derived flood extent had a horizontal resolution of ∼3 m. This work demonstrates that LiDAR technology has the potential to provide calibration and validation reference data with appreciable accuracy for improved flood inundation modeling.

  8. 2007 South Carolina LiDAR: Charleston (partial), Jasper, and Colleton Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — LiDAR data collection was performed utilizing a Leica ALS-50 sensor, collecting multiple return x, y, and z data as well as intensity data. LiDAR data was processed...

  9. Acetazolamide-responsive exercise-induced episodic ataxia associated with a novel homozygous DARS2 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synofzik, Matthis; Schicks, Julia; Lindig, Tobias; Biskup, Saskia; Schmidt, Thorsten; Hansel, Jochen; Lehmann-Horn, Frank; Schöls, Ludger

    2011-10-01

    Leukoencephalopathy with brain stem and spinal cord involvement and brain lactate elevation (LBSL) was recently shown to be caused by mutations in the DARS2 gene, encoding a mitochondrial aspartyl-tRNA synthetase. So far, affected individuals were invariably compound heterozygous for two mutations in DARS2, and drug treatments have remained elusive. Prospective 2-year follow-up of the natural history of the main presenting symptoms in a homozygous DARS2 mutation carrier, followed by a 60 day treatment with acetazolamide in two different doses and with two random treatment interruptions. The patient presented with exercise-induced paroxysmal gait ataxia and areflexia as an atypical phenotype associated with a novel homozygous DARS2 mutation. These features showed an excellent dose-dependent, sustained treatment response to a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. Pathogenic mutations in episodic ataxia genes were excluded, thus making it highly unlikely that this phenotype was because of episodic ataxia as a second disorder besides LBSL. This case demonstrates that DARS2 mutation homozygosity is not lethal, as suggested earlier, but compatible with a rather benign disease course. More importantly, it extends the phenotypic spectrum of LBSL and reveals that at least some DARS2-associated phenotypic features might be readily treatable. However, future observations of paroxsymal ataxia and, possibly, areflexia in other DARS2-mutated patients are warranted to further corroborate our finding that DARS2 mutations can lead to a paroxsymal ataxia phenotype.

  10. Flood Modeling Using a Synthesis of Multi-Platform LiDAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan M. Csontos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the utility of a high resolution ground-based (mobile and terrestrial Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR dataset (0.2 m point-spacing supplemented with a coarser resolution airborne LiDAR dataset (5 m point-spacing for use in a flood inundation analysis. The techniques for combining multi-platform LiDAR data into a composite dataset in the form of a triangulated irregular network (TIN are described, and quantitative comparisons were made to a TIN generated solely from the airborne LiDAR dataset. For example, a maximum land surface elevation difference of 1.677 m and a mean difference of 0.178 m were calculated between the datasets based on sample points. Utilizing the composite and airborne LiDAR-derived TINs, a flood inundation comparison was completed using a one-dimensional steady flow hydraulic modeling analysis. Quantitative comparisons of the water surface profiles and depth grids indicated an underestimation of flooding extent, volume, and maximum flood height using the airborne LiDAR data alone. A 35% increase in maximum flood height was observed using the composite LiDAR dataset. In addition, the extents of the water surface profiles generated from the two datasets were found to be statistically significantly different. The urban and mountainous characteristics of the study area as well as the density (file size of the high resolution ground based LiDAR data presented both opportunities and challenges for flood modeling analyses.

  11. Remote sensing of Sonoran Desert vegetation structure and phenology with ground-based LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankey, Joel B.; Munson, Seth M.; Webb, Robert H.; Wallace, Cynthia S.A.; Duran, Cesar M.

    2015-01-01

    Long-term vegetation monitoring efforts have become increasingly important for understanding ecosystem response to global change. Many traditional methods for monitoring can be infrequent and limited in scope. Ground-based LiDAR is one remote sensing method that offers a clear advancement to monitor vegetation dynamics at high spatial and temporal resolution. We determined the effectiveness of LiDAR to detect intra-annual variability in vegetation structure at a long-term Sonoran Desert monitoring plot dominated by cacti, deciduous and evergreen shrubs. Monthly repeat LiDAR scans of perennial plant canopies over the course of one year had high precision. LiDAR measurements of canopy height and area were accurate with respect to total station survey measurements of individual plants. We found an increase in the number of LiDAR vegetation returns following the wet North American Monsoon season. This intra-annual variability in vegetation structure detected by LiDAR was attributable to a drought deciduous shrub Ambrosia deltoidea, whereas the evergreen shrub Larrea tridentata and cactus Opuntia engelmannii had low variability. Benefits of using LiDAR over traditional methods to census desert plants are more rapid, consistent, and cost-effective data acquisition in a high-resolution, 3-dimensional context. We conclude that repeat LiDAR measurements can be an effective method for documenting ecosystem response to desert climatology and drought over short time intervals and at detailed-local spatial scale.

  12. Applicability of Aerial Green LiDAR to a Large River in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, J. T.; Welcker, C. W.; Cooper, C.; Faux, R.; Butler, M.; Nayegandhi, A.

    2013-12-01

    In October 2012, aerial green LiDAR data were collected in the Snake River (within Idaho and Oregon) to test this emerging technology in a large river with poor water clarity. Six study areas (total of 30 river miles spread out over 250 river miles) were chosen to represent a variety of depths, channel types, and surface conditions to test the accuracy, depth penetration, data density of aerial green LiDAR. These characteristics along with cost and speed of acquisition were compared to other bathymetric survey techniques including rod surveys (total station and RTK-GPS), single-beam sonar, and multibeam echosounder (MBES). The green LiDAR system typically measured returns from the riverbed through 1-2 meters of water, which was less than one Secchi depth. However, in areas with steep banks or aquatic macrophytes, LiDAR returns from the riverbed were less frequent or non-existent. In areas of good return density, depths measured from green LiDAR data corresponded well with previously collected data sets from traditional bathymetric survey techniques. In such areas, the green LiDAR point density was much higher than both rod and single beam sonar surveys, yet lower than MBES. The green LiDAR survey was also collected more efficiently than all other methods. In the Snake River, green LiDAR does not provide a method to map the entire riverbed as it only receives bottom returns in shallow water, typically at the channel margins. However, green LiDAR does provide survey data that is an excellent complement to MBES, which is more effective at surveying the deeper portions of the channel. In some cases, the green LiDAR was able to provide data in areas that the MBES could not, often due to issues with navigating the survey boat in shallow water. Even where both MBES and green LiDAR mapped the river bottom, green LiDAR often provides more accurate data through a better angle of incidence and less shadowing than the MBES survey. For one MBES survey in 2013, the green LiDAR

  13. Multipath estimation in urban environments from joint GNSS receivers and LiDAR sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Khurram; Chen, Xin; Dovis, Fabio; De Castro, David; Fernández, Antonio J

    2012-10-30

    In this paper, multipath error on Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals in urban environments is characterized with the help of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) measurements. For this purpose, LiDAR equipment and Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver implementing a multipath estimating architecture were used to collect data in an urban environment. This paper demonstrates how GPS and LiDAR measurements can be jointly used to model the environment and obtain robust receivers. Multipath amplitude and delay are estimated by means of LiDAR feature extraction and multipath mitigation architecture. The results show the feasibility of integrating the information provided by LiDAR sensors and GNSS receivers for multipath mitigation.

  14. Modelling Sensor and Target effects on LiDAR Waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosette, J.; North, P. R.; Rubio, J.; Cook, B. D.; Suárez, J.

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this research is to explore the influence of sensor characteristics and interactions with vegetation and terrain properties on the estimation of vegetation parameters from LiDAR waveforms. This is carried out using waveform simulations produced by the FLIGHT radiative transfer model which is based on Monte Carlo simulation of photon transport (North, 1996; North et al., 2010). The opportunities for vegetation analysis that are offered by LiDAR modelling are also demonstrated by other authors e.g. Sun and Ranson, 2000; Ni-Meister et al., 2001. Simulations from the FLIGHT model were driven using reflectance and transmittance properties collected from the Howland Research Forest, Maine, USA in 2003 together with a tree list for a 200m x 150m area. This was generated using field measurements of location, species and diameter at breast height. Tree height and crown dimensions of individual trees were calculated using relationships established with a competition index determined for this site. Waveforms obtained by the Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) were used as validation of simulations. This provided a base from which factors such as slope, laser incidence angle and pulse width could be varied. This has enabled the effect of instrument design and laser interactions with different surface characteristics to be tested. As such, waveform simulation is relevant for the development of future satellite LiDAR sensors, such as NASA’s forthcoming DESDynI mission (NASA, 2010), which aim to improve capabilities of vegetation parameter estimation. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We would like to thank scientists at the Biospheric Sciences Branch of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, in particular to Jon Ranson and Bryan Blair. This work forms part of research funded by the NASA DESDynI project and the UK Natural Environment Research Council (NE/F021437/1). REFERENCES NASA, 2010, DESDynI: Deformation, Ecosystem Structure and Dynamics of Ice. http

  15. LiDAR Analysis of Hector Mine Fault Scarp Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Hudnut, K. W.; Glennie, C. L.; Sousa, F.; Stock, J. M.; Akciz, S. O.

    2014-12-01

    The Mw 7.1 right-lateral strike-slip Hector Mine earthquake occurred on 10/16/1999 and generated an approximately 48 km long surface rupture. The Lavic Lake fault and the central section of the Bullion fault and several lesser faults ruptured, characterized by maximum strike slip of 5.25 ±0.85 m [Treiman, 2002]. As a very remote and un-populated area of the Mojave Desert, southern California, the study area is highly favorable for fault degradation studies with essentially no influence from vegetation or human activity. Airborne LiDAR (light detection and ranging) data and terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) are used to evaluate the form and rate of degradation of scarps along the Hector Mine fault rupture, California, USA. Airborne LiDAR data were acquired in 2000 and 2012 and these data were differenced using a newly developed algorithm for point cloud matching, which is improved over prior methods by accounting for scan geometry error sources. Using the bi-temporal data (scrutinizing profiles from 2000 & 2012), parameters for a fault scarp diffusion model are estimated and then a simulation result is generated to predict the evolved landform shape at the time of the 2014 TLS data set. Results are checked against TLS 2014 data collected at five key sites within the maximum slip field study area. In the past, scarp degradation has been mostly investigated using traditional survey methods (e.g., measuring elevations of points in a line perpendicular to the scarp) that require time-consuming field work and tend to introduce bias and variance due to data limitations. Airborne, mobile and terrestrial LiDAR data offer great potential to precisely document and rigorously determine morphologic degradation of fault scarps [Hilley et al., 2010]. In the present study, a unique set of data have been acquired at three points in time across several classic types of fault scarps and offset fault zone features. This allows progress in assessing the fitting of functions and

  16. A General-purpose Framework for Parallel Processing of Large-scale LiDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z.; Hodgson, M.; Li, W.

    2016-12-01

    Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) technologies have proven efficiency to quickly obtain very detailed Earth surface data for a large spatial extent. Such data is important for scientific discoveries such as Earth and ecological sciences and natural disasters and environmental applications. However, handling LiDAR data poses grand geoprocessing challenges due to data intensity and computational intensity. Previous studies received notable success on parallel processing of LiDAR data to these challenges. However, these studies either relied on high performance computers and specialized hardware (GPUs) or focused mostly on finding customized solutions for some specific algorithms. We developed a general-purpose scalable framework coupled with sophisticated data decomposition and parallelization strategy to efficiently handle big LiDAR data. Specifically, 1) a tile-based spatial index is proposed to manage big LiDAR data in the scalable and fault-tolerable Hadoop distributed file system, 2) two spatial decomposition techniques are developed to enable efficient parallelization of different types of LiDAR processing tasks, and 3) by coupling existing LiDAR processing tools with Hadoop, this framework is able to conduct a variety of LiDAR data processing tasks in parallel in a highly scalable distributed computing environment. The performance and scalability of the framework is evaluated with a series of experiments conducted on a real LiDAR dataset using a proof-of-concept prototype system. The results show that the proposed framework 1) is able to handle massive LiDAR data more efficiently than standalone tools; and 2) provides almost linear scalability in terms of either increased workload (data volume) or increased computing nodes with both spatial decomposition strategies. We believe that the proposed framework provides valuable references on developing a collaborative cyberinfrastructure for processing big earth science data in a highly scalable environment.

  17. The amphiboles of the REE-rich A-type peralkaline Strange Lake pluton - fingerprints of magma evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Karin; Williams-Jones, Anthony E.; van Hinsberg, Vincent J.

    2017-09-01

    Major and trace element compositions of amphibole in igneous environments commonly reflect evolving magma compositions. In this study, we use the amphibole-group minerals from the Strange Lake, REE-enriched peralkaline granitic pluton to gain insights into the evolution of the magma. This 1240 Ma old pluton consists of two main intrusive facies, an early hypersolvus granite, which occurs as separate northern and southern intrusions, and a more evolved transsolvus granite. In the hypersolvus granite the amphibole is a late interstitial phase, whereas in the transsolvus granite, it is present as phenocrysts. The amphibole compositions vary from calcic-sodic (ferro-ferri-katophorite) in the southern hypersolvus granite to sodic (arfvedsonite, ferro-ferri-leakeite) in the other, more evolved granitic units. High Na, Si, Li, and low Al and Ca concentrations in the amphibole phenocrysts of the transsolvus granite indicate formation from a more evolved magma compared to the hypersolvus granite, despite the fact that these crystals formed early. We interpret the increasing Fe3+/Fe2+ ratios in the amphibole of the hypersolvus granite to reflect crystal chemical effects (Na/Ca-ratio) and increasingly oxidizing conditions in the magma, whereas in the phenocrysts of the transsolvus granite, the increasing ratio was the product of increasing proportions of F- and OH- in the melt. The amphiboles of all the granite units have elevated Nb, Zr, Hf and REE concentrations compared to the bulk rock, suggesting that these elements are compatible in amphibole. By contrast the much lower Ti concentration was due to saturation of the magma in sodium-titanosilicates. The amphibole REE concentrations vary greatly among the granite units. Amphibole of the southern and northern hypersolvus granite contains 0.16 and 0.07 wt.% ∑ REE + Y, on average, respectively, and in the transsolvus granite, the average ∑ REE content is only 0.01 wt.%, despite the more evolved nature of its host

  18. REE geochemistry of 3.2 Ga BIF from the Mapepe Formation, Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahagi, T. R.; Yamaguchi, K. E.; Haraguchi, S.; Sano, R.; Teraji, S.; Kiyokawa, S.; Ikehara, M.; Ito, T.

    2012-12-01

    Banded iron formations (BIFs) are chemical sediments interbedded with Fe- and Si-rich layers, characteristically present in the early history of the Earth. A popular hypothesis for the formation of BIFs postulates that dissolved oxygen produced by photosynthesizers such as cyanobacteria oxidized dissolved ferrous Fe supplied by submarine hydrothermal activities. During precipitation of Fe-oxide minerals, phosphorus and rare earth elements (REEs) were most likely adsorbed on their surface. Therefore, chemical compositions of REEs that adsorbed onto Fe-oxide have useful information on the seawater chemistry at the time of deposition. Especially, information on the redox state of seawater and the extent of the contribution of hydrothermal activity during BIF deposition are expected to have been recorded. Occurrence of BIF has been traditionally tied to the chemical evolution of the atmosphere. Rise of atmospheric oxygen, or as known as GOE (Great Oxidation Event: e.g., Holland, 1994), has been widely believed to have occurred at around 2.4 Ga ago. Contrary, however, some studies have suggested that such oxygenation could have occurred much earlier (e.g., Hoashi et al., 2009). In this study, we used 3.2 Ga old BIF from the Mapepe Formation at the bottom of the Fig Tree Group of the Swaziland Supergroup in the northeastern part of the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa. We aimed to constrain the marine environment, and by inference atmospheric environment, at the time of BIF deposition from REE geochemistry. Major elements and REE compositions of 37 samples were measured using XRF and ICP-MS, respectively. Samples with less than 1.0 wt% Al2O3 are considered to be "pure" BIFs with minimal amount of continental contamination, and are expected to have inherited marine REE signatures. Abundance of REE normalized by C1 chondrite for the analyzed samples commonly exhibits positive Eu anomaly and LREE

  19. Getting the Most Neutrinos out of IsoDAR

    CERN Document Server

    Ciuffoli, Emilio; Mohammed, Hosam; Zhao, Fengyi; Deliyergiyev, Maksym

    2016-01-01

    Several experimental collaborations worldwide intend to test sterile neutrino models by measuring the disappearance of antineutrinos produced via isotope decay at rest (IsoDAR). The most advanced of these proposals have very similar setups, in which a proton beam strikes a target yielding neutrons which are absorbed by a high isotopic purity 7Li converter, yielding 8Li whose resulting decay yields the antineutrinos. In this note, we use FLUKA and GEANT4 simulations to investigate three proposed modifications of this standard proposal. In the first, the 7Li is replaced with 7Li compounds including a deuterium moderator. In the second, a gap is placed between the target and the converter to reduce the neutron bounce-back. Finally, we consider cooling the converter with liquid nitrogen. We find that these modifications can increase the antineutrino yield by as much as 50 percent. The first also substantially reduces the quantity of high purity 7Li which is needed.

  20. Full waveform hyperspectral LiDAR for terrestrial laser scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakala, Teemu; Suomalainen, Juha; Kaasalainen, Sanna; Chen, Yuwei

    2012-03-26

    We present the design of a full waveform hyperspectral light detection and ranging (LiDAR) and the first demonstrations of its applications in remote sensing. The novel instrument produces a 3D point cloud with spectral backscattered reflectance data. This concept has a significant impact on remote sensing and other fields where target 3D detection and identification is crucial, such as civil engineering, cultural heritage, material processing, or geomorphological studies. As both the geometry and spectral information on the target are available from a single measurement, this technology will extend the scope of imaging spectroscopy into spectral 3D sensing. To demonstrate the potential of the instrument in the remote sensing of vegetation, 3D point clouds with backscattered reflectance and spectral indices are presented for a specimen of Norway spruce.

  1. REE geochemistry of lamprophyres in Baimazhai nickel deposit, Yunnan Province, China: implication for the mantle source region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Tao; HUANG Zhilong; XU Cheng; ZHANG Zhenliang; YAN Zaifei; SHEN Baojian

    2005-01-01

    Based on the REE geochemistry data from the Baimazhai nickel deposit, Yunnan Province, the authors modeled the composition of the mantle source region by way of petrological mixing calculation, and further discussed the genesis of this type of rocks. Both element geochemistry data and mixing calculation showed that lamprophyres in the Baimazhai nickel deposit were derived from a metasomatism-enrichment mantle and the fluids resulted from dehydration of a subducted slab which is comprised of ALK-, LREE- and incompatible element-rich sediments.

  2. Discovery of Sr-bearing and LREE daughter minerals in fluid inclusions of Maoniuping REE deposit, Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Maoniuping rare earth element (REE) deposit, located in Mianning area of Sichuan Province, is of unique geological characteristics and is large in scale. Some studies have shown that there are large amounts of multi phase fluid inclusions in fluorite, quartz and calcite. Besides the daughter minerals of halite, barite and gypsum, Sr bearing minerals (celestite, strontianite), apatite and eight light rare earth element (LREE) minerals have been found by scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive spectrometer techniques. The abundant occurrence of these daughter minerals shows that the ore-forming fluid is rich in Sr, Ba and LREE contents, and is related to nordmarkite in genesis.

  3. Applying a new understanding of supergene REE deposit formation to global exploration initiatives for environmentally sustainable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Liam; Smith, Martin; Hood, Leo; Heller, Shaun; Faltyn, Rowan; Blum, Astrid; Bamberger, Axel

    2017-04-01

    Two new models have recently been proposed for the formation of REE ion-adsorption deposits and it is likely that they are both active in their related study profiles described in the Ambohimirahavavy Complex in Madagascar (Marquis et al, 2016) and the Serra de Monchique (SDM) complex in Portugal (Hardy et al, 2016). These are two separate environments presenting two different soil systems in terms of flora, protolith and structure. In the latosol profiles of SDM the natural sweating cycle of eucalyptus trees is proposed as the main geochemical cycling control for some 40% of Fe and 30% of Y, which have been observed migrating up and down profile seasonally between upper horizons and the rooting depths of these intensively farmed trees. If, through their natural cycle, eucalyptus trees in SDM are capable of concentrating depleted protolithic Y contents of 4-10ppm to some 140-160ppm in their enriched 150-200cm deep E horizons in only the 40 years since they were introduced to the region (Jenkins, 1979), then what potential deposits and concentrations may lay underneath older plantations across Brazil, Chile, China and most importantly, Australia, where these trees naturally cover some 16% of the entire continent. Eucalyptus is mostly farmed as pulp for paper mills and has lost its market value with the demand for paper decreasing, as the demand for REEs increases, ironically driven by the demand for the accessible technology to replace paper (EPA, 2012). Not only might there be great resources below these forests, but the removal of the aggressive intrusive species would be welcomed across Southern Europe and South America where they have limited market value and have destroyed local ecosystems and water supplies (Brito, 1999), where local people are actively seeking an alternative use of their lands. References: Brito, J. G. (1999). Management strategies for conservation of the lizard Lacerta schreiberi in Portugal. Biological conservation, 311-319. EPA. (2012

  4. Urban agriculture and Anopheles habitats in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Dongus

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional survey of agricultural areas, combined with routinely monitored mosquito larval information, was conducted in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, to investigate how agricultural and geographical features may influence the presence of Anopheles larvae. Data were integrated into a geographical information systems framework, and predictors of the presence of Anopheles larvae in farming areas were assessed using multivariate logistic regression with independent random effects. It was found that more than 5% of the study area (total size 16.8 km2 was used for farming in backyard gardens and larger open spaces. The proportion of habitats containing Anopheles larvae was 1.7 times higher in agricultural areas compared to other areas (95% confidence interval = 1.56-1.92. Significant geographic predictors of the presence of Anopheles larvae in gardens included location in lowland areas, proximity to river, and relatively impermeable soils. Agriculture-related predictors comprised specific seedbed types, mid-sized gardens, irrigation by wells, as well as cultivation of sugar cane or leafy vegetables. Negative predictors included small garden size, irrigation by tap water, rainfed production and cultivation of leguminous crops or fruit trees. Although there was an increased chance of finding Anopheles larvae in agricultural sites, it was found that breeding sites originated by urban agriculture account for less than a fifth of all breeding sites of malaria vectors in Dar es Salaam. It is suggested that strategies comprising an integrated malaria control effort in malaria-endemic African cities include participatory involvement of farmers by planting shade trees near larval habitats.

  5. Dynamic LiDAR-NDVI classification of fluvial landscape units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Núñez, Carolina; Parrot, Jean-François

    2015-04-01

    The lower basin of the Coatzacoalcos River is a wide floodplain in which, during the wet season, local and major flooding are distinguished. Both types of floods, intermittent and regional, are important in terms of resources; the regional flood sediments enrich the soils of the plains and intermittent floods allow obtaining aquatic resources for subsistence during the heatwave. In the floodplain different abandoned meanders and intermittent streams are quickly colonized by aquatic vegetation. However, from the 1990s, the Coatzacoalcos River floodplain has important topographic changes due to mining, road and bridges construction; erosion and sedimentation requires continuous parcel boundaries along with the increasing demand of channel reparation, embankments, levees and bridges associated to tributaries. NDVI data, LiDAR point cloud and various types of flood simulations taking into account the DTM are used to classify the dynamic landscape units. These units are associated to floods in relation with water resources, agriculture and livestock. In the study area, the first returns of the point cloud allow extracting vegetation strata. The last returns correspond to the bare earth surface, especially in this area with few human settlements. The surface that is not covered by trees or by aquatic vegetation, correspond to crops, pastures and bare soils. The classification is obtained by using the NDVI index coupled with vegetation strata and water bodies. The result shows that 47.96% of the area does not present active vegetation and it includes 31.53% of bare soils. Concerning the active vegetation, pastures, bushes and trees represent respectively 25.59%, 11.14% and 13.25%. The remaining 1.25% is distributed between water bodies with aquatic vegetation, trees and shrubs. Dynamic landscape units' classification represents a tool for monitoring water resources in a fluvial plain. This approach can be also applied to forest management, environmental services and

  6. Urban agriculture and Anopheles habitats in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongus, Stefan; Nyika, Dickson; Kannady, Khadija; Mtasiwa, Deo; Mshinda, Hassan; Gosoniu, Laura; Drescher, Axel W; Fillinger, Ulrike; Tanner, Marcel; Killeen, Gerry F; Castro, Marcia C

    2009-05-01

    A cross-sectional survey of agricultural areas, combined with routinely monitored mosquito larval information, was conducted in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, to investigate how agricultural and geographical features may influence the presence of Anopheles larvae. Data were integrated into a geographical information systems framework, and predictors of the presence of Anopheles larvae in farming areas were assessed using multivariate logistic regression with independent random effects. It was found that more than 5% of the study area (total size 16.8 km2) was used for farming in backyard gardens and larger open spaces. The proportion of habitats containing Anopheles larvae was 1.7 times higher in agricultural areas compared to other areas (95% confidence interval = 1.56-1.92). Significant geographic predictors of the presence of Anopheles larvae in gardens included location in lowland areas, proximity to river, and relatively impermeable soils. Agriculture-related predictors comprised specific seedbed types, mid-sized gardens, irrigation by wells, as well as cultivation of sugar cane or leafy vegetables. Negative predictors included small garden size, irrigation by tap water, rainfed production and cultivation of leguminous crops or fruit trees. Although there was an increased chance of finding Anopheles larvae in agricultural sites, it was found that breeding sites originated by urban agriculture account for less than a fifth of all breeding sites of malaria vectors in Dar es Salaam. It is suggested that strategies comprising an integrated malaria control effort in malaria-endemic African cities include participatory involvement of farmers by planting shade trees near larval habitats.

  7. S-DARS broadcast from inclined, elliptical orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briskman, Robert D.; Prevaux, Robert J.

    2004-04-01

    The first Sirius spacecraft was launched on July 1, 2000. Exactly 5 months later, on December 1, the third spacecraft was launched, completing the three satellite S-DARS (Satellite Digital Audio Radio Service) constellation. The three satellites are deployed in inclined, elliptical, geosynchronous orbits, which allow seamless broadcast coverage to mobile users in the contiguous US. Terrestrial broadcast repeaters provide service in urban cores. The system is in operation, providing the first ever S-DARS service. The constellation design results in satellite ground tracks over North America with two satellites always above the equator. High elevation look angles from the mobile ground terminals to the satellites minimize performance degradation due to blockage, foliage attenuation and multi-path. The spacecraft were built by Space Systems/Loral using the 1300 bus modified for operation in high inclination orbits. Each spacecraft was launched using a dedicated Russian Proton booster. The satellite payload is a bent pipe repeater using 7.1 GHz for the uplink and 2.3 GHz for the broadcast transmission. The repeater high-power amplification stage consists of 32 Traveling Wave Tube Amplifiers phase combined to yield a total radio frequency output power of nearly 4 kW at saturated operation. The satellite antennas are mechanically steered to maintain the transmit beam centered on the Contiguous United States and the receive beam centered on the uplink earth station located in Vernon Valley, New Jersey. The satellite payload design and performance are described. The principal spacecraft bus systems are described with emphasis on improvements made for operation in the inclined, elliptical geosynchronous orbits.

  8. Estimating FPAR of maize canopy using airborne discrete-return LiDAR data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shezhou; Wang, Cheng; Xi, Xiaohuan; Pan, Feifei

    2014-03-10

    The fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR) is a key parameter for ecosystem modeling, crop growth monitoring and yield prediction. Ground-based FPAR measurements are time consuming and labor intensive. Remote sensing provides an alternative method to obtain repeated, rapid and inexpensive estimates of FPAR over large areas. LiDAR is an active remote sensing technology and can be used to extract accurate canopy structure parameters. A method to estimating FPAR of maize from airborne discrete-return LiDAR data was developed and tested in this study. The raw LiDAR point clouds were processed to separate ground returns from vegetation returns using a filter method over a maize field in the Heihe River Basin, northwest China. The fractional cover (fCover) of maize canopy was computed using the ratio of canopy return counts or intensity sums to the total of returns or intensities. FPAR estimation models were established based on linear regression analysis between the LiDAR-derived fCover and the field-measured FPAR (R(2) = 0.90, RMSE = 0.032, p LiDAR-predicted FPARs and results show that the LiDAR-predicted FPAR has a high accuracy (R(2) = 0.89, RMSE = 0.034). In summary, this study suggests that the airborne discrete-return LiDAR data could be adopted to accurately estimate FPAR of maize.

  9. REE Geochemistry of Sulfides from the Huize Zn-Pb Ore Field, Yunnan Province: Implication for the Sources of Ore-forming Metals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wenbo; HUANG Zhilong; QI Liang

    2007-01-01

    REE abundances in sulfides from the Huize Zn-Pb ore field were determined with the ICPMS after preconcentration. The REE abundances in 26 sulfide samples (including pyrite, galena and sphalerite) are very low, with the ΣREE ranging from 1.6×10-9 to 166.8×10-9. Their LREE/HREE ratios range from 7.6 to 98, showing LREE enrichment relatively. The δEu values are below 1, indicating that they were deposited from an Eu-depleted and reducing fluid-system. Similar to the ore-hosting carbonate strata, calcite separates from carbonate veinlets filling in the fractures or faults crosscutting the carbonate strata also show clear Eu-depletion. This indicates that the carbonate veinlets and their parent fluid was possibly sourced from the strata and inherited the REE geochemical features of the strata. Therefore, REE-geochemical characteristics of both the sulfides and calcites, which were deposited from an ore-forming hydrothermal system, are similar to those of carbonate strata, and strongly suggest that the ore metals were mainly sourced from carbonate strata.

  10. Trace elements and REE geochemistry of Middle Devonian carbonate mounds (Maïder Basin, Eastern Anti-Atlas, Morocco): Implications for early diagenetic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, Fulvio; Turetta, Clara; Cavalazzi, Barbara; Corami, Fabiana; Barbieri, Roberto

    2016-08-01

    Trace and rare earth elements (REEs) have proven their utility as tools for assessing the genesis and early diagenesis of widespread geological bodies such as carbonate mounds, whose genetic processes are not yet fully understood. Carbonates from the Middle Devonian conical mud mounds of the Maïder Basin (eastern Anti-Atlas, Morocco) have been analysed for their REE and trace element distribution. Collectively, the carbonates from the Maïder Basin mud mounds appear to display coherent REE patterns. Three different geochemical patterns, possibly related with three different diagenetic events, include: i) dyke fills with a normal marine REE pattern probably precipitated in equilibrium with seawater, ii) mound micrite with a particular enrichment of overall REE contents and variable Ce anomaly probably related to variation of pH, increase of alkalinity or dissolution/remineralization of organic matter during early diagenesis, and iii) haematite-rich vein fills precipitated from venting fluids of probable hydrothermal origin. Our results reinforce the hypothesis that these mounds were probably affected by an early diagenesis induced by microbial activity and triggered by abundance of dispersed organic matter, whilst venting may have affected the mounds during a later diagenetic phase.

  11. Donnan membrane speciation of Al, Fe, trace metals and REEs in coastal lowland acid sulfate soil-impacted drainage waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Adele M; Xue, Youjia; Kinsela, Andrew S; Wilcken, Klaus M; Collins, Richard N

    2016-03-15

    Donnan dialysis has been applied to forty filtered drainage waters collected from five coastal lowland acid sulfate soil (CLASS) catchments across north-eastern NSW, Australia. Despite having average pH values70%) as negatively-charged complexes. In contrast, the speciation of the divalent trace metals Co, Mn, Ni and Zn was dominated by positively-charged complexes and was strongly correlated with the alkaline earth metals Ca and Mg. Thermodynamic equilibrium speciation calculations indicated that natural organic matter (NOM) complexes dominated Fe(III) speciation in agreement with that obtained by Donnan dialysis. In the case of Fe(II), however, the free cation was predicted to dominate under thermodynamic equilibrium, whilst our results indicated that Fe(II) was mainly present as neutral or negatively-charged complexes (most likely with sulfate). For all other divalent metals thermodynamic equilibrium speciation calculations agreed well with the Donnan dialysis results. The proportion of Al and REEs predicted to be negatively-charged was also grossly underestimated, relative to the experimental results, highlighting possible inaccuracies in the stability constants developed for these trivalent Me(SO4)2(-) and/or Me-NOM complexes and difficulties in modeling complex environmental samples. These results will help improve metal mobility and toxicity models developed for CLASS-affected environments, and also demonstrate that Australian CLASS environments can discharge REEs at concentrations an order of magnitude greater than previously reported.

  12. Using Rare Earth Element (REE) tracers to identify preferential micro-sites of post-fire aeolian erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Pelt, R.; Zobeck, T. M.; Barnes, M. A.; Baddock, M.; D'Odorico, P.

    2011-12-01

    Plant communities in desert environments are spatially anisotropic. Nutrient islands develop below shrub canopies and in the bases of bunch grasses that enhance plant growth and reinforce the spatial anisotropy. Catastrophic disturbance that removes the vegetation such as fire or drought can result in the release of the trapped sediment which becomes redistributed over the landscape by wind and water. We applied Rare Earth Element (REE) tracers to different landscape positions of an anisotropic Northern Chihuahua Desert ecosystem at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge in central New Mexico in an effort to study this process. We delineated three 0.5 m by 6 m plots of desert grassland and three plots of desert grassland-shrubland ecotone. Nitric acid was used to dissolve the REE oxides (Eu2O3, Dy2O3, and Pr6O11) which were then diluted in distilled water to a target concentration of 1 g REE l-1 and applied to the surface at a rate of 4 l m-2. From laboratory column studies using soil collected at the site, we estimated that this would penetrate the surface to a depth of 2.5 cm resulting in a sediment REE concentration of approximately 100 mg kg-1. Eu was applied to bare surfaces between vegetation characterized as sand with a surface covering of gravel, Pr was applied under grass clumps, and Dy was applied under Creosote Bush (Larrea tridentata (DC.). Two replicate 0.25 m2 areas of each surface type were also tagged to obtain a sample of tagged surface sediment for analysis. The area containing the plots was burned by U.S. Fish and Wildlife personnel on April 14, 2010. During the next two days, two grassland plots and two grassland-shrubland ecotone plots were tested by placing a portable boundary layer field wind tunnel over the plots and blowing them with 12 m s-1 wind for 10 minutes during which time a paired set of entrained sediment samples were captured at the outlet of the wind tunnel. This period was followed by a 30 minute test in which clean quartz sand

  13. Determinants of acceptance of cervical cancer screening in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahesa, Crispin; Kjaer, Susanne; Mwaiselage, Julius;

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To describe how demographic characteristics and knowledge of cervical cancer influence screening acceptance among women living in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. METHODS: Multistage cluster sampling was carried out in 45 randomly selected streets in Dar es Salaam. Women between...... cervical cancer screening can be increased in Dar es Salaam. Special attention should be paid to women of low education and women of high parity. In addition, knowledge and awareness raising campaigns that goes hand in hand with culturally acceptable screening services will likely lead to an increased...

  14. Green infrastructure for flood risk management in Dar es Salaam and Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mguni, Patience; Herslund, Lise Byskov; Jensen, Marina Bergen

    2015-01-01

    The risk of flooding in urban areas could be better approached by complementing conventional sewer systems with sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDS) for storm-water management. This may be the case for developing world cities like Dar es Salaam with incomplete sewer services, as well as cities......, a comparison of the opportunities and barriers to the implementation of SUDS in Dar es Salaam and Copenhagen is presented. The results indicate that a bottom-up approach in Dar es Salaam is important, with the community level taking the lead, while in Copenhagen the top-down approach currently employed...

  15. 4D Near Real-Time Environmental Monitoring Using Highly Temporal LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfle, Bernhard; Canli, Ekrem; Schmitz, Evelyn; Crommelinck, Sophie; Hoffmeister, Dirk; Glade, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The last decade has witnessed extensive applications of 3D environmental monitoring with the LiDAR technology, also referred to as laser scanning. Although several automatic methods were developed to extract environmental parameters from LiDAR point clouds, only little research has focused on highly multitemporal near real-time LiDAR (4D-LiDAR) for environmental monitoring. Large potential of applying 4D-LiDAR is given for landscape objects with high and varying rates of change (e.g. plant growth) and also for phenomena with sudden unpredictable changes (e.g. geomorphological processes). In this presentation we will report on the most recent findings of the research projects 4DEMON (http://uni-heidelberg.de/4demon) and NoeSLIDE (https://geomorph.univie.ac.at/forschung/projekte/aktuell/noeslide/). The method development in both projects is based on two real-world use cases: i) Surface parameter derivation of agricultural crops (e.g. crop height) and ii) change detection of landslides. Both projects exploit the "full history" contained in the LiDAR point cloud time series. One crucial initial step of 4D-LiDAR analysis is the co-registration over time, 3D-georeferencing and time-dependent quality assessment of the LiDAR point cloud time series. Due to the high amount of datasets (e.g. one full LiDAR scan per day), the procedure needs to be performed fully automatically. Furthermore, the online near real-time 4D monitoring system requires to set triggers that can detect removal or moving of tie reflectors (used for co-registration) or the scanner itself. This guarantees long-term data acquisition with high quality. We will present results from a georeferencing experiment for 4D-LiDAR monitoring, which performs benchmarking of co-registration, 3D-georeferencing and also fully automatic detection of events (e.g. removal/moving of reflectors or scanner). Secondly, we will show our empirical findings of an ongoing permanent LiDAR observation of a landslide (Gresten

  16. An Algorithm to Identify and Localize Suitable Dock Locations from 3-D LiDAR Scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    Survey. Map data ©2013 Google 9 Data Collecting Process 5.3.2 In order to collect data, the LiDAR would be placed on a cart and a MATLAB ...program was used to collect data of one scan, or one 360 degree rotation, of the LiDAR . These scans were saved as MATLAB figures for visual reference...Locations from 3-D LiDAR Scans 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Graves, Mitchell Robert 5d. PROJECT NUMBER

  17. Individual Tree Segmentation from LiDAR Point Clouds for Urban Forest Inventory

    OpenAIRE

    Caiyun Zhang; Yuhong Zhou; Fang Qiu

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop new algorithms for automated urban forest inventory at the individual tree level using LiDAR point cloud data. LiDAR data contain three-dimensional structure information that can be used to estimate tree height, base height, crown depth, and crown diameter. This allows precision urban forest inventory down to individual trees. Unlike most of the published algorithms that detect individual trees from a LiDAR-derived raster surface, we worked directly w...

  18. LiDAR-derived snowpack data sets from mixed conifer forests across the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpold, A. A.; Guo, Q.; Molotch, N.; Brooks, P. D.; Bales, R.; Fernandez-Diaz, J. C.; Musselman, K. N.; Swetnam, T. L.; Kirchner, P.; Meadows, M. W.; Flanagan, J.; Lucas, R.

    2014-03-01

    Airborne-based Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) offers the potential to measure snow depth and vegetation structure at high spatial resolution over large extents and thereby increase our ability to quantify snow water resources. Here we present airborne LiDAR data products at four Critical Zone Observatories (CZO) in the Western United States: Jemez River Basin, NM, Boulder Creek Watershed, CO, Kings River Experimental Watershed, CA, and Wolverton Basin, CA. We make publicly available snow depth data products (1 m2 resolution) derived from LiDAR with an estimated accuracy of <30 cm compared to limited in situ snow depth observations.

  19. ASTER GDEM validation using LiDAR data over coastal regions of Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidegaard, Sine Munk; Sørensen, Louise Sandberg; Forsberg, René

    2011-01-01

    Elevation data from airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) campaigns are used in an attempt to evaluate the accuracy of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) global digital elevation model (GDEM) in Greenland. The LiDAR elevation data set is characterized...... by a high spatial resolution of about 1 m and elevation accuracy of 20–30 cm root mean square error (RMSE). The LiDAR data sets used were acquired during ice-monitoring campaigns carried out from 2003 to 2008. The study areas include ice-free regions, local ice caps and the ice sheet margin. A linear error...

  20. Frontiers in Using LiDAR to Analyze Urban Landscape Heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kunwar Krishna Veer

    Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) technology has facilitated extraordinary advances in our ability to remotely sense precise details of both built and natural environments. The inherent complexity of urban landscapes and the massive data volumes produced by LiDAR require unique methodological considerations for big data remote sensing over large metropolitan regions. The heterogeneous landscapes of the rapidly urbanizing Charlotte Metropolitan Region of North Carolina provided an ideal testing ground for developing methods of analysis for urban ecosystems over large regional extents, including: (1) fusion of LiDAR digital surface models (DSMs) with Landsat TM imagery to balance spatial resolution, data volume, and mapping accuracy of urban land covers, (2) comparison of LiDAR-derived metrics to fine grain optical imagery -- and their integration -- for detecting forest understory plant invaders, and (3) data reduction techniques for computationally efficient estimation of aboveground woody biomass in urban forests. In Chapter 1, I examined tradeoffs between potential gains in mapping accuracy and computational costs by integrating DSMs (structural and intensity) extracted from LiDAR with TM imagery and evaluating the degree to which TM, LiDAR, and LiDAR-TM fusion data discriminated land covers. I used Maximum Likelihood and Classification Tree algorithms to classify TM data, LiDAR data, and LiDAR-TM fusions. I assessed the relative contributions of LiDAR DSMs to map classification accuracy and identified an optimal spatial resolution of LiDAR DSMs for large area assessments of urban land cover. In Chapter 2, I analyzed combinations of datasets developed from categorized LiDAR-derived variables (Overstory, Understory, Topography, and Overall Vegetation Characteristics) and IKONOS imagery ( Optical) to detect and map the understory plant invader, Ligustrum sinense, using Random Forest (RF) and logistic regression (LR) algorithms, and I assessed the relative

  1. Discovery of Cu-Zn, Cu-Sn intermetallic minerals and its significance for genesis of the Mianning-Dechang REE Metallogenic Belt, Sichuan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Yuling; HOU Zengqian; XU Jiuhua; YUAN Zhongxin; BAI Ge; LI Xiaoyu

    2006-01-01

    Mianning-Dechang Himalayan REE Metallogenetic Belt in Sichuan Province lies along the western margin of the Yangtze Craton. We have conducted detailed mineralogical studies on ore minerals collected from Maoniuping and Dalucao, the two largest deposits in the belt. With optical microscope, SEM/EDS, and EPMA, three rare intermetallic minerals, i.e., zinccopperite (Cu2Zn), Sn- bearing native copper, and Cu-bearing jupiter were found to occur in the main ore along with barite, fluorite, apatite, sulfide and bastnaesite. Since the conditions under which zinccopperite and Sn- bearing native copper formed are quite unique, finding of these minerals, for the first time in domestic REE deposits, has significant implications for the genesis of the ore deposits in which they occur. In comparison with Cu-Zn intermetallic minerals in other occurrences, we propose that the formation of this REE metallogenetic belt is associated with fast upwelling of the Himalayan magma from deep source.

  2. Trace elements and REE fractionation in subsoils developed on sedimentary and volcanic rocks: case study of the Mt. Vulture area, southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongelli, Giovanni; Paternoster, Michele; Rizzo, Giovanna; Sinisi, Rosa

    2014-06-01

    There is an increasing interest in the distribution of rare earth elements (REEs) within soils, primarily as these elements can be used to identify pedogenetic processes and because soils may be future sources for REE extraction, despite much attention should be paid to the protection and preservation of present soils. Here, we evaluate the processes that control the distribution of REEs in subsoil horizons developed over differing lithologies in an area of low anthropogenic contamination, allowing estimates of the importance of source rocks and weathering. Specifically, this study presents new data on the distribution of REEs and other trace elements, including transition and high-field-strength elements, in subsoils developed on both Quaternary silica-undersaturated volcanic rocks and Pliocene siliciclastic sedimentary rocks within the Mt. Vulture area of the southern Apennines in Italy. The subsoils in the Mt. Vulture area formed during moderate weathering (as classified using the chemical index of alteration) and contain an assemblage of secondary minerals that is dominated by trioctahedral illite with minor vermiculite. The REEs, high-field-strength elements, and transition metals have higher abundances in subsoils that developed from volcanic rocks, and pedogenesis caused the Mt. Vulture subsoils to have REE concentrations that are an order of magnitude higher than typical values for the upper continental crust. This result indicates that the distribution of REEs in soils is a valuable tool for mineral exploration. A statistical analysis of inter-elemental relationships indicates that REEs are concentrated in clay-rich fractions that also contain significant amounts of low-solubility elements such as Zr and Th, regardless of the parent rock. This suggests that low-solubility refractory minerals, such as zircon, play a significant role in controlling the distribution of REEs in soils. The values of (La/Yb)N and (Gd/Yb)N fractionation indices are dependent on

  3. Geochemical and Geochronologic Investigations of Zircon-hosted Melt Inclusions in Rhyolites from the Mesoproterozoic Pea Ridge IOA-REE Deposit, St. Francois Mountains, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, K. E.; Mercer, C. N.; Vazquez, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Silicic volcanic and plutonic rocks of an eroded Mesoproterozoic caldera complex were intruded and replaced by iron ore, and cross-cut by REE-enriched breccia pipes (~12% total REO) to form the Pea Ridge iron-oxide-apatite-REE (IOA-REE) deposit. Igneous activity, iron ore formation, and REE mineralization overlapped in space and time, however the source of REEs and other metals (Fe, Cu, Au) integral to these economically important deposits remains unclear. Melt inclusions (MI) hosted in refractory zircon phenocrysts are used to constrain magmatic components and processes in the formation of the Pea Ridge deposit. Homogenized (1.4 kbar, 1000°C, 1 hr) MI in zircons from rhyolites ~600 ft (PR-91) and ~1200 ft (PR-12) laterally from the ore body were analyzed for major elements by EPMA and volatiles and trace elements (H2O, S, F, Cl, REEs, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, U, Th) by SHRIMP-RG. Metals (including Cu, Au) will be measured in an upcoming SHRIMP-RG session. U-Pb ages, Ti and REE were determined by SHRIMP-RG for a subset of zircon spots adjacent to MI (1458 ± 18 Ma (PR-12); 1480 ± 45 Ma (PR-91)). MI glasses range from fresh and homogeneous dacite-rhyolite (65-75 wt% SiO2) to heterogeneous, patchy mixtures of K-spar and quartz (PR-12, 91), and more rarely mica, albite and/or anorthoclase (PR-91). MI are commonly attached to monazite and xenotime, particularly along re-entrants and zircon rims (PR-91). Fresh dacite-rhyolite glasses (PR-12) have moderate H2O (~2-2.5 wt%), Rb/Sr ratios (~8) and U (~5-7 ppm), and negative (chondrite-normalized) Eu anomalies (Eu ~0.4-0.7 ppm) (typical of rhyolites), whereas HREEs (Tb, Ho, Tm) are elevated (~2-3 ppm). Patchy K-spar and quartz inclusions (PR-12, 91) have flat LREE patterns, and positive anomalies in Tb, Ho, and Tm. One K-spar inclusion (PR-91) has a ~5-50 fold increase in HREEs (Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm) and U (35 ppm) relative to other MI. U-Pb and REE analyses of its zircon host are not unusual (1484 ± 21 Ma); its irregular shape

  4. 2006-2008 PAMAP LiDAR Data of Pennsylvania (Southern Counties)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of classified LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) elevation points produced by the PAMAP Program. Additional information is available at the...

  5. 2006 U.S. Geological Survey Topographic LiDAR: Alameda County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data set is a survey of Alameda County in Northern California. The entire survey covers approximately 868.382 square miles....

  6. 2006-2008 PAMAP LiDAR Data of Pennsylvania (Northern Counties)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of classified LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) elevation points produced by the PAMAP Program. PAMAP data are organized into blocks, which...

  7. 2006-2008 PAMAP LiDAR Data of Pennsylvania (Southern Counties)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of classified LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) elevation points produced by the PAMAP Program. Additional information is available at the...

  8. 2009 Puget Sound Lidar Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Nooksack River

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WS) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data of the Nooksack River in Washington on February 20th - 22nd, 2009. The total area of...

  9. 2007 Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) LiDAR: Hillsborough/Little Manatee Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — EarthData International collected ADS-50 derived LiDAR over a portion of Hillsborough and Manatee Counties with a one meter post spacing. The period of collection...

  10. Canopy Height Estimation by Characterizing Waveform LiDAR Geometry Based on Shape-Distance Metric

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ariel L. Salas, Eric; M. Henebry, Geoffrey

    2016-01-01

    .... Unlike any existing methods, we illustrate how the new Moment Distance (MD) framework can characterize the canopy height based on the geometry and return power of the LiDAR waveform without having to go through curve modeling processes...

  11. 2009 Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Topographic LiDAR: Fort Kent, Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Camp Dresser McKee Inc. contracted with Sanborn Map Company to provide LiDAR mapping services for Fort Kent, Maine. Utilizing multi-return systems, Light Detection...

  12. 2012 USACE Post Sandy Topographic LiDAR: Rhode Island and Massachusetts Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This topographic elevation point data derived from multiple return light detection and ranging (LiDAR) represents 354.272 square miles of coastline for Rhode Island...

  13. LiDAR Relative Reflectivity Surface (2011) for the St. Thomas East End Reserve, St. Thomas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a LiDAR (Light Detection & Ranging) 0.3x0.3 meter resolution relative seafloor reflectivity surface for the St. Thomas East End Reserve...

  14. 2010 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Topographic LiDAR: San Francisco Bay, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The primary purpose of this project was to develop a consistent and accurate surface elevation dataset derived from high-accuracy Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)...

  15. Forest Roads Mapped Using LiDAR in Steep Forested Terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell A. White

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available LiDAR-derived digital elevation models can reveal road networks located beneath dense forest canopy. This study tests the accuracy of forest road characteristics mapped using LiDAR in the Santa Cruz Mountains, CA. The position, gradient, and total length of a forest haul road were accurately extracted using a 1 m DEM. In comparison to a field-surveyed centerline, the LiDAR-derived road exhibited a positional accuracy of 1.5 m, road grade measurements within 0.53% mean absolute difference, and total road length within 0.2% of the field-surveyed length. Airborne LiDAR can provide thorough and accurate road inventory data to support forest management and watershed assessment activities.

  16. 2008 - 2009 Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI) South Coast LiDAR Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Oregon Department of Geology & Mineral Industries (DOGAMI) contracted with Watershed Sciences, Inc. to collect high resolution topographic LiDAR data for...

  17. LiDAR Elevation Data Collection - Putnam County, NY, 2008 (NYSDEC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Summary of the surface elevation data collection project in Putnam County, NY (NYSDEC) 2008. Products generated include LiDAR point data in LAS Binary format v1.1....

  18. 2008 - 2009 Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI) South Coast LiDAR Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI) contracted with Watershed Sciences, Inc. to collect high resolution topographic LiDAR data for...

  19. 2008 NWFWMD (Northwest Florida Water Management District) Florida LiDAR: Inland Okaloosa County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) LAS dataset is a survey of inland Okaloosa County, Florida not covered in the 2008 Florida Department of Emergency...

  20. International Journal of Arts and Humanities(IJAH) Bahir Dar- Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrNneka

    International Journal of Arts and Humanities(IJAH). Bahir Dar- Ethiopia ..... Fourthly, relief materials became a business for political elites to amass wealth. Arising from ... Unpublished PhD Thesis, Department of History,. University of Abuja ...

  1. 2010 U.S. Geological Survey Topographic LiDAR: Atchafalaya Basin, Louisiana

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) dataset is a survey of the Atchafalaya Basin in south-central Louisiana. The entire survey area encompasses 981 square miles....

  2. Development and mapping of DArT markers within the Festuca - Lolium complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kopecký, David; Bartos, Jan; Lukaszewski, Adam J

    2009-01-01

    Background Grasses are among the most important and widely cultivated plants on Earth. They provide high quality fodder for livestock, are used for turf and amenity purposes, and play a fundamental role in environment protection. Among cultivated grasses, species within the Festuca-Lolium complex...... predominate, especially in temperate regions. To facilitate high-throughput genome profiling and genetic mapping within the complex, we have developed a Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) array for five grass species: F. pratensis, F. arundinacea, F. glaucescens, L. perenne and L. multiflorum. Results The DAr......T markers identified in every single genotype varied from 821 to 1852. To test the usefulness of DArTFest array for physical mapping, DArT markers were assigned to each of the seven chromosomes of F. pratensis using single chromosome substitution lines while recombinants of F. pratensis chromosome 3 were...

  3. Case of rhesus antigen weak D type 4.2. (DAR category detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Golovkina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Serological methods of Rhesus antigens identification in humans cannot identify D-antigen variants. In this article the serological characteristics of Rhesus antigen D weak type 4.2. (Category DAR are described.

  4. Iron deficiency in sickle cell anaemia patients in Dar es Salaam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iron deficiency in sickle cell anaemia patients in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. ... Five milliliter of venous blood was taken from all children for serum Ferritin, serum ... of haemoglobin concentration did not significantly influence the body Iron status ...

  5. 2007 Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) LiDAR: Hernando County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is one component of a digital terrain model (DTM) for the Southwest Florida Water Management Districts FY2006 Digital Orthophoto (B089) and LiDAR...

  6. 2006 Florida LiDAR: Escambia, Santa Rosa, and Walton Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — ESCAMBIA: The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) LAS dataset is a survey of select areas within Escambia County, Florida. These data were produced for Dewberry and...

  7. 2009 National Renewable Energy Laboratory/Boston Redevelopment Authority Topographic LiDAR: Boston, Massachusetts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC contracted with Sanborn to provide LiDAR mapping services for the Boston area. Utilizing multi-return systems, Light...

  8. 2009 National Renewable Energy Labratory/Boston Redevelopment Authority Topographic LiDAR: Boston, Massachusetts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC contracted with Sanborn to provide LiDAR mapping services for the Boston area. Utilizing multi-return systems, Light...

  9. 2011 Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Topographic LiDAR: Quinnipiac River Watershed, Connecticut

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Quinnipiac AOI consists of one 443 square mile area. Ground Control is collected throughout the AOI for use in the processing of LiDAR data to ensure data...

  10. 2010 U.S. Geological Survey Topographic LiDAR: Atchafalaya Basin, Louisiana

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) dataset is a survey of the Atchafalaya Basin in south-central Louisiana. The entire survey area encompasses 981 square...

  11. 2012 USACE Post Hurricane Sandy Topographic LiDAR: Rhode Island and Massachusetts Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This topographic elevation point data derived from multiple return light detection and ranging (LiDAR) represents 354.272 square miles of coastline for Rhode Island...

  12. 2009 Puget Sound Lidar Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Nooksack River

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WS) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data of the Nooksack River in Washington on February 20th - 22nd, 2009. The total area...

  13. 2008 Northwest Florida Water Management District (NWFWMD) LiDAR: Inland Okaloosa County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) LAS dataset is a survey of inland Okaloosa County, Florida not covered in the 2008 Florida Department of Emergency...

  14. Aplicació de models font-receptor per a determinar àrees font de components biològics (pol·len i papallones)

    OpenAIRE

    Alarcón Jordán, Marta

    2010-01-01

    Els models font-receptor permeten establir relacions entre un punt receptor (punt de mostreig) i les àrees font probables (regions emissores) mitjançant l’associació de valors de concentració en el punt receptor amb les corresponents retrotrajectòries atmosfèriques, i, juntament amb altres tècniques, permeten interpretar fenòmens de transport a escala sinòptica. No obstant això, fins a l'actualitat, pocs treballs han aplicat aquests tipus de models per descriure les àrees font d'organismes bi...

  15. The behaviour of REE and Zr-Hf fractionation in the volcanic waters of Nevado del Ruiz system (Colombia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inguaggiato, Claudio; Censi, Paolo; Zuddas, Pierpaolo; Makario Londoño, John; Chacón, Zoraida; Alzate, Diego; Brusca, Lorenzo; D'Alessandro, Walter

    2015-04-01

    The geochemical behaviour of Rare Earth Element (REE), Zr and Hf have been investigated in the thermal waters of Nevado del Ruiz volcanic system. These fluids are characterised by a wide range of pH ranging between 1.0 and 8.8. The acidic waters are sulphate dominated with different Cl/SO4 ratios. The Nevado del Ruiz waters allowed to investigate the behaviour of investigated elements in a wide spectrum of pH and chemical composition of water. The important role of the pH and the ionic complexes have been evidenced in the distribution of REE, Zr and Hf in the aqueous phase. The pH rules the precipitation of authigenic oxyhydroxides of Fe, Al producing changes in REE, Zr, Hf amount and strong anomalies of Cerium and Europium. Y-Ho and Zr-Hf (twin pairs) have different behaviour in strong acidic waters with respect to the water with higher pH. Yttrium and Ho have the same behaviour of Zr and Hf in waters with pH near neutral-to-neutral, showing super-chondritic ratios. The twin pairs showed to be sensitive to the co-precipitation and/or adsorption onto the surface of authigenic particulate suggesting an enhanced scavenging of Ho and Hf respect to Y and Zr, leading to super-chondritic ratios. In acidic waters a different behaviour of twin pairs occurs with chondritic Y/Ho ratios (reflecting the Y/Ho ratio of average local rock) and sub-chondritic Zr/Hf ratios. For the first time, Zr and Hf have been investigated in natural acidic fluids to understand the behaviour of these elements in extreme acidic conditions and different major anions chemistry. Zr/Hf molar ratio changes from 4.75 to 49.29 in water with pH<3.6. In strong acidic waters, a different fractionation of Zr and Hf have been recognised as function of major anion contents (Cl and SO4), suggesting the formation of complexes leading to sub-chondritic Zr/Hf molar ratios.

  16. Landslide-induced iron mobilisation shapes benthic accumulation of nutrients, trace metals and REE fractionation in an oligotrophic alpine stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Scott G.; Rose, Andrew L.; Burton, Edward D.; Webster-Brown, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Large alpine landslides that entrain substantial organic material below the water table and create suspended floodplains may have long-term consequences for the mobilisation of redox sensitive elements, such as Fe, into streamwaters. In turn, the cycling of iron in aquatic systems can influence the fate of nutrients, alter primary productivity, enhance accumulation of trace metals and induce fractionation of rare earth elements (REE). In this study we examine a reach of a pristine oligotrophic alpine stream bracketing a 30 year-old landslide and explore the consequences of landslide-induced Fe mobilisation for aqueous geochemistry and the composition of benthic stream cobble biofilm. Elevated Fe2+ and Mn in landslide zone stream waters reflect inputs of circumneutral groundwater from the landslide debris-zone floodplain. Geochemical characteristics are consistent with reductive dissolution being a primary mechanism of Fe2+ and Mn mobilisation. Stream cobble biofilm in the landslide zone is significantly (P extractable; Fe(III)Ab). While the landslide zone accounts for less than ∼9% of the total stream length, we estimate it is responsible for approximately 60-80% of the stream's benthic biofilm load of poorly crystalline Fe(III) and Mn. Biofilm Fe(III) precipitates are comprised mainly of ferrihydrite, lepidocrocite and an organic-Fe species, while precipitate samples collected proximal to hyporheic seeps contain abundant sheath structures characteristic of the neutrophilic Fe(II)-oxidising bacteria Leptothrix spp. Stream-cobble Fe(III)-rich biofilm is accumulating PO43- (∼3-30 times background) and behaving as a preferential substrate for photosynthetic periphyton, with benthic PO43-, chlorophyll a, organic carbonHCl and total N all significantly positively correlated with Fe(III)Ab and significantly elevated within the landslide zone (P transformed basis. Stream cobble biofilm also exhibits distinct REE fractionation along the flow path, with light REE (La

  17. Donnan membrane speciation of Al, Fe, trace metals and REEs in coastal lowland acid sulfate soil-impacted drainage waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Adele M.; Xue, Youjia [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Kinsela, Andrew S. [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Institute for Environmental Research (IER), Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Lucas Heights, NSW 2234 (Australia); Wilcken, Klaus M. [Institute for Environmental Research (IER), Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Lucas Heights, NSW 2234 (Australia); Collins, Richard N., E-mail: richard.collins@unsw.edu.au [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2016-03-15

    Donnan dialysis has been applied to forty filtered drainage waters collected from five coastal lowland acid sulfate soil (CLASS) catchments across north-eastern NSW, Australia. Despite having average pH values < 3.9, 78 and 58% of Al and total Fe, respectively, were present as neutral or negatively-charged species. Complementary isotope dilution experiments with {sup 55}Fe and {sup 26}Al demonstrated that only soluble (i.e. no colloidal) species were present. Trivalent rare earth elements (REEs) were also mainly present (> 70%) as negatively-charged complexes. In contrast, the speciation of the divalent trace metals Co, Mn, Ni and Zn was dominated by positively-charged complexes and was strongly correlated with the alkaline earth metals Ca and Mg. Thermodynamic equilibrium speciation calculations indicated that natural organic matter (NOM) complexes dominated Fe(III) speciation in agreement with that obtained by Donnan dialysis. In the case of Fe(II), however, the free cation was predicted to dominate under thermodynamic equilibrium, whilst our results indicated that Fe(II) was mainly present as neutral or negatively-charged complexes (most likely with sulfate). For all other divalent metals thermodynamic equilibrium speciation calculations agreed well with the Donnan dialysis results. The proportion of Al and REEs predicted to be negatively-charged was also grossly underestimated, relative to the experimental results, highlighting possible inaccuracies in the stability constants developed for these trivalent Me(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}{sup −} and/or Me–NOM complexes and difficulties in modeling complex environmental samples. These results will help improve metal mobility and toxicity models developed for CLASS-affected environments, and also demonstrate that Australian CLASS environments can discharge REEs at concentrations an order of magnitude greater than previously reported. - Highlights: • CLASS discharge large amounts of metals and their speciation is poorly

  18. LiDAR DTM: artifacts, and correction for river altitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Parrot

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Los datos LiDAR permiten generar Modelos Digitales de Elevación (MDE de alta resolución, sin embargo, algunos artefactos resultantes del método de interpolación utilizado afectan su exactitud y precisión. Esta observación concierne, entre otros, a los MDE generados por el Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía (INEGI, especialmente los Modelos Digitales de Terreno (MDT, que se relacionan con la superficie terrestre. Estos artefactos corresponden a facetas triangulares en elevaciones, meandros, y superficies de los ríos. Los tratamientos desarrollados en esta investigación disminuyen y/o eliminan dichos artefactos mejorando los MDT. Cálculos basados en el Error Cuadrá- tico Medio de la Rugosidad y el Error Cuadrático Medio de la elevación muestran que el método presentado en este trabajo mejora la precisión de los productos digitales, lo que permite realizar simulaciones eficaces y mediciones precisas.

  19. Change Detection from differential airborne LiDAR using a weighted Anisotropic Iterative Closest Point Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Kusari, A.; Glennie, C. L.; Oskin, M. E.; Hinojosa-Corona, A.; Borsa, A. A.; Arrowsmith, R.

    2013-12-01

    Differential LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) from repeated surveys has recently emerged as an effective tool to measure three-dimensional (3D) change for applications such as quantifying slip and spatially distributed warping associated with earthquake ruptures, and examining the spatial distribution of beach erosion after hurricane impact. Currently, the primary method for determining 3D change is through the use of the iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm and its variants. However, all current studies using ICP have assumed that all LiDAR points in the compared point clouds have uniform accuracy. This assumption is simplistic given that the error for each LiDAR point is variable, and dependent upon highly variable factors such as target range, angle of incidence, and aircraft trajectory accuracy. Therefore, to rigorously determine spatial change, it would be ideal to model the random error for every LiDAR observation in the differential point cloud, and use these error estimates as apriori weights in the ICP algorithm. To test this approach, we implemented a rigorous LiDAR observation error propagation method to generate estimated random error for each point in a LiDAR point cloud, and then determine 3D displacements between two point clouds using an anistropic weighted ICP algorithm. The algorithm was evaluated by qualitatively and quantitatively comparing post earthquake slip estimates from the 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah Earthquake between a uniform weight and anistropically weighted ICP algorithm, using pre-event LiDAR collected in 2006 by Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía (INEGI), and post-event LiDAR collected by The National Center for Airborne Laser Mapping (NCALM).

  20. Use of LiDAR to Assist in Delineating Waters of the United States, Including Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    wetlands and uplands ( Hogg and Hol- land 2008) and better able to model relationships between vegetation and elevation (Moeslund et al. 2011) than DEMs...rugosa) (speckled alder) could not be distinguished from surrounding upland forest by using topographic LiDAR data alone ( Hogg and Holland 2008...gradual transition from upland to wetland ( Hogg and Holland 2008). Therefore, topographic patterns discerned using LiDAR data should be verified in the

  1. Knowledge and attitudes towards obesity among primary school children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Njelekela, Marina A.; Alfa Muhihi; Mpembeni, Rose N. M.; Amani Anaeli; Omary Chillo; Sulende Kubhoja; Benjamin Lujani; Davis Ngarashi; Mwanamkuu Maghembe

    2015-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity has increased over the past two decades. Child obesity is likely to persist through adulthood and increases the risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) later in life. This study assessed knowledge and attitudes towards obesity among primary school children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in randomly selected primary schools in Dar es Salaam. A structured questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge and a...

  2. Joint hierarchical models for sparsely sampled high-dimensional LiDAR and forest variables

    OpenAIRE

    Finley, Andrew O.; Banerjee, Sudipto; Zhou, Yuzhen; Cook, Bruce D; Babcock, Chad

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancements in remote sensing technology, specifically Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) sensors, provide the data needed to quantify forest characteristics at a fine spatial resolution over large geographic domains. From an inferential standpoint, there is interest in prediction and interpolation of the often sparsely sampled and spatially misaligned LiDAR signals and forest variables. We propose a fully process-based Bayesian hierarchical model for above ground biomass (AGB) and L...

  3. Aboveground Biomass Modeling from Field and LiDAR Data in Brazilian Amazon Tropical Rain Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, C. A.; Hudak, A. T.; Vierling, L. A.; Keller, M. M.; Klauberg Silva, C. K.

    2015-12-01

    Tropical forests are an important component of global carbon stocks, but tropical forest responses to climate change are not sufficiently studied or understood. Among remote sensing technologies, airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) may be best suited for quantifying tropical forest carbon stocks. Our objective was to estimate aboveground biomass (AGB) using airborne LiDAR and field plot data in Brazilian tropical rain forest. Forest attributes such as tree density, diameter at breast height, and heights were measured at a combination of square plots and linear transects (n=82) distributed across six different geographic zones in the Amazon. Using previously published allometric equations, tree AGB was computed and then summed to calculate total AGB at each sample plot. LiDAR-derived canopy structure metrics were also computed at each sample plot, and random forest regression modelling was applied to predict AGB from selected LiDAR metrics. The LiDAR-derived AGB model was assessed using the random forest explained variation, adjusted coefficient of determination (Adj. R²), root mean square error (RMSE, both absolute and relative) and BIAS (both absolute and relative). Our findings showed that the 99th percentile of height and height skewness were the best LiDAR metrics for AGB prediction. The AGB model using these two best predictors explained 59.59% of AGB variation, with an Adj. R² of 0.92, RMSE of 33.37 Mg/ha (20.28%), and bias of -0.69 (-0.42%). This study showed that LiDAR canopy structure metrics can be used to predict AGC stocks in Tropical Forest with acceptable precision and accuracy. Therefore, we conclude that there is good potential to monitor carbon sequestration in Brazilian Tropical Rain Forest using airborne LiDAR data, large field plots, and the random forest algorithm.

  4. Contraceptive Method Choice Among Women Attending at Amtullabhai Family Planning Clinic in Dar es salaam

    OpenAIRE

    Mbando, Apaisaria Humphrey

    2011-01-01

    Contraceptive prevalence in Tanzania is low despite high knowledge of contraception. In order to understand the existing barriers, it is important to find out reasons affecting contraceptive method choices. The objective of this study was to assess contraceptive method choice among women attending at Amtullabhai family planning clinic in Dar es Salaam. A cross- sectional study was conducted between October and November, 2010 at Amtullabhai family planning clinic, Ilala District in Dar es Sala...

  5. Adaptive Covariance Estimation Method for LiDAR-Aided Multi-Sensor Integrated Navigation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shifei Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The accurate estimation of measurements covariance is a fundamental problem in sensors fusion algorithms and is crucial for the proper operation of filtering algorithms. This paper provides an innovative solution for this problem and realizes the proposed solution on a 2D indoor navigation system for unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs that fuses measurements from a MEMS-grade gyroscope, speed measurements and a light detection and ranging (LiDAR sensor. A computationally efficient weighted line extraction method is introduced, where the LiDAR intensity measurements are used, such that the random range errors and systematic errors due to surface reflectivity in LiDAR measurements are considered. The vehicle pose change is obtained from LiDAR line feature matching, and the corresponding pose change covariance is also estimated by a weighted least squares-based technique. The estimated LiDAR-based pose changes are applied as periodic updates to the Inertial Navigation System (INS in an innovative extended Kalman filter (EKF design. Besides, the influences of the environment geometry layout and line estimation error are discussed. Real experiments in indoor environment are performed to evaluate the proposed algorithm. The results showed the great consistency between the LiDAR-estimated pose change covariance and the true accuracy. Therefore, this leads to a significant improvement in the vehicle’s integrated navigation accuracy.

  6. Airborne Dual-Wavelength LiDAR Data for Classifying Land Cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Kai Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrated the potential of using dual-wavelength airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR data to classify land cover. Dual-wavelength LiDAR data were acquired from two airborne LiDAR systems that emitted pulses of light in near-infrared (NIR and middle-infrared (MIR lasers. The major features of the LiDAR data, such as surface height, echo width, and dual-wavelength amplitude, were used to represent the characteristics of land cover. Based on the major features of land cover, a support vector machine was used to classify six types of suburban land cover: road and gravel, bare soil, low vegetation, high vegetation, roofs, and water bodies. Results show that using dual-wavelength LiDAR-derived information (e.g., amplitudes at NIR and MIR wavelengths could compensate for the limitations of using single-wavelength LiDAR information (i.e., poor discrimination of low vegetation when classifying land cover.

  7. On the impact of a refined stochastic model for airborne LiDAR measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolkas, Dimitrios; Fotopoulos, Georgia; Glennie, Craig

    2016-09-01

    Accurate topographic information is critical for a number of applications in science and engineering. In recent years, airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) has become a standard tool for acquiring high quality topographic information. The assessment of airborne LiDAR derived DEMs is typically based on (i) independent ground control points and (ii) forward error propagation utilizing the LiDAR geo-referencing equation. The latter approach is dependent on the stochastic model information of the LiDAR observation components. In this paper, the well-known statistical tool of variance component estimation (VCE) is implemented for a dataset in Houston, Texas, in order to refine the initial stochastic information. Simulations demonstrate the impact of stochastic-model refinement for two practical applications, namely coastal inundation mapping and surface displacement estimation. Results highlight scenarios where erroneous stochastic information is detrimental. Furthermore, the refined stochastic information provides insights on the effect of each LiDAR measurement in the airborne LiDAR error budget. The latter is important for targeting future advancements in order to improve point cloud accuracy.

  8. The first genetic map of pigeon pea based on diversity arrays technology (DArT) markers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shi Ying Yang; Rachit A. Saxena; Pawan L. Kulwal; Gavin J. Ash; Anuja Dubey; John D. I. Harper; Hari D. Upadhyaya; Ragini Gothalwal; Andrzej Kilian; Rajeev K. Varshney

    2011-04-01

    With an objective to develop a genetic map in pigeon pea (Cajanus spp.), a total of 554 diversity arrays technology (DArT) markers showed polymorphism in a pigeon pea F2 mapping population of 72 progenies derived from an interspecific cross of ICP 28 (Cajanus cajan) and ICPW 94 (Cajanus scarabaeoides). Approximately 13% of markers did not conform to expected segregation ratio. The total number of DArT marker loci segregating in Mendelian manner was 405 with 73.1% ($P \\gt 0.001$) of DArT markers having unique segregation patterns. Two groups of genetic maps were generated using DArT markers. While the maternal genetic linkage map had 122 unique DArT maternal marker loci, the paternal genetic linkage map has a total of 172 unique DArT paternal marker loci. The length of these two maps covered 270.0 cM and 451.6 cM, respectively. These are the first genetic linkage maps developed for pigeon pea, and this is the first report of genetic mapping in any grain legume using diversity arrays technology.

  9. Area-Based Mapping of Defoliation of Scots Pine Stands Using Airborne Scanning LiDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannu Hyyppä

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The mapping of changes in the distribution of insect-caused forest damage remains an important forest monitoring application and challenge. Efficient and accurate methods are required for mapping and monitoring changes in insect defoliation to inform forest management and reporting activities. In this research, we develop and evaluate a LiDAR-driven (Light Detection And Ranging approach for mapping defoliation caused by the Common pine sawfly (Diprion pini L.. Our method requires plot-level training data and airborne scanning LiDAR data. The approach is predicated on a forest canopy mask created by detecting forest canopy cover using LiDAR. The LiDAR returns that are reflected from the canopy (that is, returns > half of maximum plot tree height are used in the prediction of the defoliation. Predictions of defoliation are made at plot-level, which enables a direct integration of the method to operational forest management planning while also providing additional value-added from inventory-focused LiDAR datasets. In addition to the method development, we evaluated the prediction accuracy and investigated the required pulse density for operational LiDAR-based mapping of defoliation. Our method proved to be suitable for the mapping of defoliated stands, resulting in an overall mapping accuracy of 84.3% and a Cohen’s kappa coefficient of 0.68.

  10. Nd isotopic composition and REE pattern in the surface waters of the eastern Indian Ocean and its adjacent seas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amakawa, Hiroshi; Alibo, D.S.; Nozaki, Yoshiyuki

    2000-05-01

    The Nd isotopic composition and dissolved rare earth elements (REEs) have been measured in the surface waters along the 1996/97 R.V. Hakuho-Maru Expedition route from Tokyo to the Southern Ocean, southwest of Australia, through the Philippine and Indonesian Archipelago, the eastern Indian Ocean, the Bay of Bengal and the South China Sea. The radiogenic {epsilon}{sub Nd} values of {minus}1.3 and {minus}1.4 were found in the Sulu Sea and near the Lombok Strait, indicating the strong influence of surrounding volcanic islands, whereas non-radiogenic {epsilon}{sub Nd} values of less than {minus}10 were found in the Southern Ocean and the Bay of Bengal suggesting Nd of continental origin. The dissolved Nd concentrations also showed a wide range of variation from 2.8 to 19.6 pmol/kg and the trivalent REE patterns exhibited characteristic features that can be grouped into each different oceanic province. The geographical distribution of dissolved Nd is different from that of atmospherically derived {sup 210}Pb, but generally resembles that of coastally derived {sup 228}Ra. This strongly suggests that fluvial and coastal input predominates over eolian input for dissolved Nd in the surface ocean. However, the riverine dissolved Nd flux appears to be relatively minor, and remobilization of Nd from coastal and shelf sediments may play an important role in the total Nd input to the ocean. By modeling the distributions of the isotopic composition and concentration of Nd together with the activity ratio of {sup 228}Ra/{sup 226}Ra in the southeastern Indian Ocean, the authors estimate a mean residence time of Nd in the surface mixed layer to be 1.5--2.6 years. The short mean residence time is comparable with, or slightly longer than that of {sup 210}Pb suggesting similar chemical reactivity.

  11. Classification of LiDAR Data with Point Based Classification Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yastikli, N.; Cetin, Z.

    2016-06-01

    LiDAR is one of the most effective systems for 3 dimensional (3D) data collection in wide areas. Nowadays, airborne LiDAR data is used frequently in various applications such as object extraction, 3D modelling, change detection and revision of maps with increasing point density and accuracy. The classification of the LiDAR points is the first step of LiDAR data processing chain and should be handled in proper way since the 3D city modelling, building extraction, DEM generation, etc. applications directly use the classified point clouds. The different classification methods can be seen in recent researches and most of researches work with the gridded LiDAR point cloud. In grid based data processing of the LiDAR data, the characteristic point loss in the LiDAR point cloud especially vegetation and buildings or losing height accuracy during the interpolation stage are inevitable. In this case, the possible solution is the use of the raw point cloud data for classification to avoid data and accuracy loss in gridding process. In this study, the point based classification possibilities of the LiDAR point cloud is investigated to obtain more accurate classes. The automatic point based approaches, which are based on hierarchical rules, have been proposed to achieve ground, building and vegetation classes using the raw LiDAR point cloud data. In proposed approaches, every single LiDAR point is analyzed according to their features such as height, multi-return, etc. then automatically assigned to the class which they belong to. The use of un-gridded point cloud in proposed point based classification process helped the determination of more realistic rule sets. The detailed parameter analyses have been performed to obtain the most appropriate parameters in the rule sets to achieve accurate classes. The hierarchical rule sets were created for proposed Approach 1 (using selected spatial-based and echo-based features) and Approach 2 (using only selected spatial-based features

  12. Origins of Al-rich chondrules: Clues from a compound Al-rich chondrule in the Dar al Gani 978 carbonaceous chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ai-Cheng; Itoh, Shoichi; Sakamoto, Naoya; Wang, Ru-Cheng; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi

    2014-04-01

    Aluminum-rich chondrules are one of the most interesting components of primitive chondrites, because they have characteristics that are similar to both Ca, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) and ferromagnesian chondrules. However, their precursor and formation history remain poorly constrained, especially with respect to their oxygen isotopic distributions. In this study, we report on the petrography, mineralogy, oxygen isotope ratios, and rare-earth-element compositions of a sapphirine-bearing Al-rich chondrule (SARC) in the ungrouped chondrite Dar al Gani (DaG) 978. The SARC has a complex core-mantle-rim texture; while both the core and the mantle are mainly composed of Al-rich enstatite and anorthite with minor amounts of mesostasis, these regions are distinguished by the presence of Fe-rich spinel and sapphirine in the core and their absence in the mantle. The rim of the SARC consists mainly of Fe-rich olivine, enstatite, and Fe-Ni metal. Spinel and some olivine grains in the SARC are 16O-rich, with Δ17O values down to -20‰ and -23‰, respectively. Enstatite, sapphirine, and most olivine grains have similar Δ17O values (∼ -7‰), which are lower than those of anorthite and the mesostasis (including augite therein) (Δ17O: ∼ -3‰). Mesostasis from both the core and mantle have Group II rare-earth-element (REE) patterns; however, the core mesostasis has higher REE concentrations than the mantle mesostasis. These observations provide a strong indication that the SARC formed by the melting and crystallization of a mixture of materials from Group II CAIs and ferromagnesian chondrules. Both spinel and olivine with 16O-rich features could be of relict origin. The 16O-poor isotopic compositions of most components in Al-rich chondrules can be explained by oxygen isotopic exchange between the melt and 16O-poor nebular gas (Δ17O: ∼ -7‰) during melting in chondrule-forming regions; whereas the anorthite and mesostasis could have experienced further oxygen isotopic

  13. Mineralogy and geochemistry of REE-Zr-Nb mineralised nepheline syenites in the peralkaline Ilímaussaq complex, South Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borst, Anouk Margaretha

    for these elements. This thesis focusses on the Mesoproterozoic Ilímaussaq complex (c. 1160 ± 5 Ma) in Southern Greenland, a well-known alkaline intrusion that hosts significant resources of REE, as well as zirconium, niobium, tantalum, uranium, lithium and zinc. The Ilímaussaq complex is part of the rift...

  14. REE in suspended particulate matter and sediment of the Zuari estuary and adjacent shelf, western India: Influence of mining and estuarine turbidity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shynu, R.; Rao, V.P.; Parthiban, G.; Balakrishnan, S.; Narvekar, T.; Kessarkar, P.M.

    and estuarine processes. Concentrations of SPM were low in the upper estuary, increased seaward with high values in the lower estuary and then decreased at stations in the bay in all seasons. The distributions of mean Sigma REE, Al and Fe along transect imitate...

  15. Dust dispersal and Pb enrichment at the rare-metal Orlovka-Spokoinoe mining and ore processing site: insights from REE patterns and elemental ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolgopolova, Alla; Weiss, Dominik J; Seltmann, Reimar; Dulski, Peter

    2006-04-30

    Different geological, technogenic and environmental samples from the Orlovka-Spokoinoe Ta-Nb-Sn-W mining site and ore processing complex in Eastern Transbaikalia (Russia), were analysed for Pb, Y, Zr, Hf and rare earth elements (REE) to assess the effect of dust and metal dispersal on the environment within the Orlovka-Spokoinoe mining site. Potential source material analysed included ore-bearing and barren granites, host rocks, tailing pond sediments, and ore concentrates. Lichens and birch leaves were used as receptor samples. The REE enrichment relative to chondrite, the extent of the Eu anomalies, the enrichments of heavy REE (HREE), and Zr/Hf and Yb/Y ratios suggest that tailings, barren granites, and metasedimentary host rocks are the main sources of dust in the studied mining environment. In addition, calculated lead enrichment (relative to host rocks) suggests that the environment is polluted with Pb. Our results clearly demonstrate the potential of REE patterns and elemental ratios as a reliable technique to trace dust and metals sources and dispersal within a confined mining area offering a new tool for environmental assessment studies.

  16. Dust dispersal and Pb enrichment at the rare-metal Orlovka-Spokoinoe mining and ore processing site: Insights from REE patterns and elemental ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolgopolova, Alla [Centre for Russian and Central EurAsian Mineral Studies (CERCAMS), Department of Mineralogy, Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: allad@nhm.ac.uk; Weiss, Dominik J. [Centre for Russian and Central EurAsian Mineral Studies (CERCAMS), Department of Mineralogy, Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom); Department of Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Seltmann, Reimar [Centre for Russian and Central EurAsian Mineral Studies (CERCAMS), Department of Mineralogy, Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom); Dulski, Peter [GFZ Potsdam, Telegrafenberg, D-14473 Potsdam (Germany)

    2006-04-30

    Different geological, technogenic and environmental samples from the Orlovka-Spokoinoe Ta-Nb-Sn-W mining site and ore processing complex in Eastern Transbaikalia (Russia), were analysed for Pb, Y, Zr, Hf and rare earth elements (REE) to assess the effect of dust and metal dispersal on the environment within the Orlovka-Spokoinoe mining site. Potential source material analysed included ore-bearing and barren granites, host rocks, tailing pond sediments, and ore concentrates. Lichens and birch leaves were used as receptor samples. The REE enrichment relative to chondrite, the extent of the Eu anomalies, the enrichments of heavy REE (HREE), and Zr/Hf and Yb/Y ratios suggest that tailings, barren granites, and metasedimentary host rocks are the main sources of dust in the studied mining environment. In addition, calculated lead enrichment (relative to host rocks) suggests that the environment is polluted with Pb. Our results clearly demonstrate the potential of REE patterns and elemental ratios as a reliable technique to trace dust and metals sources and dispersal within a confined mining area offering a new tool for environmental assessment studies.

  17. REE and Other Trace Element Chemistry of Oldhamite(CaS) in the Qingzhen Chondrite(EH3) and Their Genetic Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈永享; ERNSTPERNICKA; 等

    1993-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis(INAA) of 14 single oldhamite grains separated from the Qingzhen chondrite (EH3) for refractory(La,Ce,Sm ,Eu,Yb,Lu,Ca,Sc,Hf, and Th),volatile (Na,Cr,Zn,Se,Br,etc.)and siderophile elements (Fe,Ni,Co,Ir,Au ,and As) revealed that oldhamite is highly rich in refractory elements.The mineral serves as the principal carrier of REE and contains about 80% of the REEs in the Qingzhen enstatite chondrite .Furthermore, the large enrichment of LREE relative to HREE is noticed in oldhamite from the Qingzhen .In general, the oldhamite from metal-sulfide assemblages is richer in REE than that from the matrix,i.e.,the earlier the oldhamite grains condensed, the richer they are in REE. Meanwhile.oldhamite is also rich in vol-atile elements such as Se,Br, etc.In terms of the distribution of trace elements in oldhamitc from the Qingzhen ,the chondrite is srggested to have resulted from high-temperature condensation of solar nebula.

  18. REE geochemical characteristics and depositional environment of the black shale-hosted Baiguoyuan Ag-V deposit in Xingshan, Hubei Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Boyong; HU Bin; BAO Zhengyu; ZHANG Zhaogan

    2011-01-01

    By means of techniques such as inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), REE geochemical characteristics and depositional environment of the black shales in Baiguoyuan Ag-V deposit, Xingshan, Hubei Province, were studied in this work. The black shales in a typical TC5 profile of Doushantuo Formation of upper Sinian period were obviously enriched in REE, especially in LREE. The REE patterns of the investigated samples normalized by Post Archean Australian Shale (PAAS) showed a flat or slight rightward inclination. The characteristic elements, their ratio and correlation diagrams showed that it should be hot-water deposit and the black shale in the study area was of a sedimentary origin. Redox sensitive metal elements pattern, trace elements index measurement in anoxic environment, Ce anomaly and δEu negative anomaly showed that the deposit environment of the black shales was a reducing and anoxic one and a slight change of the sea level could be identified. The samples relatively focused on the superimposed area of sedimentary rock and basalt in the diagram of La/Yb-ΣREE and La/Yb-Ce/La. So there might be accession of hot-water sedimentation during the period of the formation of the black rock series, mostly in normal terrigenous sedimentation with the participation of deep hot-water deposit.

  19. Biogeochemistry of REE elements and tetrad effect in the soil-plant system: a study on volcanic rock covers in southernmost Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Lima e Cunha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the distribution of REE in rock, soil and plant in an area of monzonitic rocks from southernmost Brazil. The REE patterns in Schinus lensticifolius show a negative-Ce anomaly and a prominent tetrad effect, characterized as W-type that are not present in rock and soil samples. The REE patterns in the soils and rocks sampled are very similar and there is no fractionation of REE during the processes of soil formation. The W-type patterns are interpreted as indicating that REE were absorved by S. lentiscifolius as simple ions rather than as complex ions, or, alternatively, that the transport of REE in the plant metabolic processes was as free ions. The recognition of tetrads, either, M- or W-type patterns, is an additional tool for understanding the biogeochemistry of REE and can contribute to the study of monitoring processes of contaminated environment or to mineral prospecting.Este trabalho trata da distribuição dos ETR na rocha, solo e planta em área de ocorrência de rochas monzoníticas do extremo sul do Brasil. O padrão dos ETR em Schinus lentiscifolius apresenta anomalia negativa de Ce e significativo efeito tétrade, do tipo W, ausente no padrão da rocha e do solo. A configuração das curvas da rocha e do solo é similar e sem fracionamento das ETR durante a pedogênese. O padrão em W é interpretado como decorrente da absorção dos ETR pela planta na forma de íons livres e não complexados, ou, alternativamente, que o transporte das ETR nos processos metabólicos foi na forma de íons livres. O reconhecimento de tétrades, seja do tipo W ou M, é uma ferramenta adicional na compreensão da biogeoquímica dos ETR e pode contribuir para o estudo de processos de monitoramento de ambientes contaminados ou para pesquisas em prospecção mineral.

  20. Estimation of effective plant area index for South Korean forests using LiDAR system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KWAK; Doo-Ahn; LEE; Woo-Kyun; KAFATOS; Menas; SON; Yowhan; CHO; Hyun-Kook; LEE; Seung-Ho

    2010-01-01

    Light Detection and Ranging(LiDAR) systems can be used to estimate both vertical and horizontal forest structure.Woody components,the leaves of trees and the understory can be described with high precision,using geo-registered 3D-points.Based on this concept,the Effective Plant Area Indices(PAIe) for areas of Korean Pine(Pinus koraiensis),Japanese Larch(Larix leptolepis) and Oak(Quercus spp.) were estimated by calculating the ratio of intercepted and incident LIDAR laser rays for the canopies of the three forest types.Initially,the canopy gap fraction(GLiDAR) was generated by extracting the LiDAR data reflected from the canopy surface,or inner canopy area,using k-means statistics.The LiDAR-derived PAIe was then estimated by using GLIDAR with the Beer-Lambert law.A comparison of the LiDAR-derived and field-derived PAIe revealed the coefficients of determination for Korean Pine,Japanese Larch and Oak to be 0.82,0.64 and 0.59,respectively.These differences between field-based and LIDAR-based PAIe for the different forest types were attributed to the amount of leaves and branches in the forest stands.The absence of leaves,in the case of both Larch and Oak,meant that the LiDAR pulses were only reflected from branches.The probability that the LiDAR pulses are reflected from bare branches is low as compared to the reflection from branches with a high leaf density.This is because the size of the branch is smaller than the resolution across and along the 1 meter LIDAR laser track.Therefore,a better predictive accuracy would be expected for the model if the study would be repeated in late spring when the shoots and leaves of the deciduous trees begin to appear.

  1. Estimation of effective plant area index for South Korean forests using LiDAR system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Doo-Ahn; Lee, Woo-Kyun; Kafatos, Menas; Son, Yowhan; Cho, Hyun-Kook; Lee, Seung-Ho

    2010-07-01

    Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) systems can be used to estimate both vertical and horizontal forest structure. Woody components, the leaves of trees and the understory can be described with high precision, using geo-registered 3D-points. Based on this concept, the Effective Plant Area Indices (PAI(e)) for areas of Korean Pine (Pinus koraiensis), Japanese Larch (Larix leptolepis) and Oak (Quercus spp.) were estimated by calculating the ratio of intercepted and incident LIDAR laser rays for the canopies of the three forest types. Initially, the canopy gap fraction (G ( LiDAR )) was generated by extracting the LiDAR data reflected from the canopy surface, or inner canopy area, using k-means statistics. The LiDAR-derived PAI(e) was then estimated by using G ( LIDAR ) with the Beer-Lambert law. A comparison of the LiDAR-derived and field-derived PAI(e) revealed the coefficients of determination for Korean Pine, Japanese Larch and Oak to be 0.82, 0.64 and 0.59, respectively. These differences between field-based and LIDAR-based PAI(e) for the different forest types were attributed to the amount of leaves and branches in the forest stands. The absence of leaves, in the case of both Larch and Oak, meant that the LiDAR pulses were only reflected from branches. The probability that the LiDAR pulses are reflected from bare branches is low as compared to the reflection from branches with a high leaf density. This is because the size of the branch is smaller than the resolution across and along the 1 meter LIDAR laser track. Therefore, a better predictive accuracy would be expected for the model if the study would be repeated in late spring when the shoots and leaves of the deciduous trees begin to appear.

  2. Parallel Landscape Driven Data Reduction & Spatial Interpolation Algorithm for Big LiDAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahil Sharma

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR topographic data provide highly accurate digital terrain information, which is used widely in applications like creating flood insurance rate maps, forest and tree studies, coastal change mapping, soil and landscape classification, 3D urban modeling, river bank management, agricultural crop studies, etc. In this paper, we focus mainly on the use of LiDAR data in terrain modeling/Digital Elevation Model (DEM generation. Technological advancements in building LiDAR sensors have enabled highly accurate and highly dense LiDAR point clouds, which have made possible high resolution modeling of terrain surfaces. However, high density data result in massive data volumes, which pose computing issues. Computational time required for dissemination, processing and storage of these data is directly proportional to the volume of the data. We describe a novel technique based on the slope map of the terrain, which addresses the challenging problem in the area of spatial data analysis, of reducing this dense LiDAR data without sacrificing its accuracy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first ever landscape-driven data reduction algorithm. We also perform an empirical study, which shows that there is no significant loss in accuracy for the DEM generated from a 52% reduced LiDAR dataset generated by our algorithm, compared to the DEM generated from an original, complete LiDAR dataset. For the accuracy of our statistical analysis, we perform Root Mean Square Error (RMSE comparing all of the grid points of the original DEM to the DEM generated by reduced data, instead of comparing a few random control points. Besides, our multi-core data reduction algorithm is highly scalable. We also describe a modified parallel Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW spatial interpolation method and show that the DEMs it generates are time-efficient and have better accuracy than the one’s generated by the traditional IDW method.

  3. Late Archaean mantle metasomatism below eastern Indian craton: Evidence from trace elements, REE geochemistry and Sr-Nd-O isotope systematics of ultramafic dykes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abhijit Roy; A Sarkar; S Jeyakumar; S K Aggrawal; M Ebihara; H Satoh

    2004-12-01

    Trace, rare earth elements (REE), Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd and O isotope studies have been carried out on ultramafic (harzburgite and lherzolite) dykes belonging to the newer dolerite dyke swarms of eastern Indian craton. The dyke swarms were earlier considered to be the youngest mafic magmatic activity in this region having ages not older than middle to late Proterozoic. The study indicates that the ultramafic members of these swarms are in fact of late Archaean age (Rb-Sr isochron age 2613 ± 177 Ma, Sri ∼0.702 ± 0.004) which attests that out of all the cratonic blocks of India, eastern Indian craton experienced earliest stabilization event. Primitive mantle normalized trace element plots of these dykes display enrichment in large ion lithophile elements (LILE), pronounced Ba, Nb and Sr depletions but very high concentrations of Cr and Ni. Chondrite normalised REE plots exhibit light REE (LREE) enrichment with nearly flat heavy REE (HREE; ( HREE)N ∼ 2-3 times chondrite, (Gd/Yb)N∼1). The Nd(t) values vary from +1.23 to −3.27 whereas 18O values vary from +3.16‰ to +5.29‰ (average +3.97‰ ± 0.75‰) which is lighter than the average mantle value. Isotopic, trace and REE data together indicate that during 2.6 Ga the nearly primitive mantle below the eastern Indian Craton was metasomatised by the fluid (±silicate melt) coming out from the subducting early crust resulting in LILE and LREE enriched, Nb depleted, variable Nd, low Sri(0.702) and low 18O bearing EMI type mantle. Magmatic blobs of this metasomatised mantle were subsequently emplaced in deeper levels of the granitic crust which possibly originated due to the same thermal pulse.

  4. Registration of Aerial Image with Airborne LiDAR Data Based on Plücker Line

    OpenAIRE

    SHENG Qinghong; Chen, Shuwen; FEI Lijia; Liu, Jianfeng; Wang, Huinan

    2015-01-01

    Registration of aerial image with airborne LiDAR data is a key to feature extraction. A registration model based on Plücker line is proposed. The relative position and attitude relationship between the conjugate lines in LiDAR and image is determined based on Plücker linear equation, which describes line transformation in space, then coplanarity condition equation is established. Finally, coordinate transformation between image point and corresponding LiDAR point is achieved by the ...

  5. Geochemical Behaviors of REE and Other Trace Elements during the Formation of Strata-bound Skarns and Related Deposits:A Case Study of the Dongguashan Cu(Au) Deposit,Anhui Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LING Qicong; LIU Congqiang

    2003-01-01

    REE and other trace elements in the altered marbles, massive skarns and ores, as well as garnet and quartz were determined in order to examine the behaviors of trace elements during hydrothermal alteration. It is demonstrated that the high-field-strength (HFS) elements Zr, Hf, Th and Nb were immobile while other trace elements were mobile during the formation of skarns and related deposits. REE and ore-forming elements such as Cu and Ag in hydrothermally-altered marbles and skarns were provided primarily by hydrothermal fluids. In the direction transverse of the strata, the more deeply the marbles were altered, the higher the total REE abundance and the larger the negative Eu anomalies would be. The chondrite-normalized REE patterns of skarns are similar to those of the marbles, but the former are distinguished by much higher REE contents and more remarkable negative Eu anomalies. Those patterns were apparently not inherited from the marble protolith, but were controlled by garnets, which were determined by the hydrothermal solutions involved in the infiltration metasomatism. The hydrothermal fluids are characterized by having slightly right-hand dipping REE patterns, being enriched in LREE and having strongly negative Eu anomalies. The uptake of REE from hydrothermal fluids during the growth of garnet crystals resulted in the garnets having similar REE patterns to the hydrothermal fluids. Based on the spatial variation of REE in skarns and the structures of the hosting strata, we can get a better understanding of the transport path and pattern of the fluids involved in the formation of skarns and their related deposits. REE geochemistry investigation can help elucidate the genesis of skarns and skarn-related deposits.

  6. Comprehensive Utilization of Temporal and Spatial Domain Outlier Detection Methods for Mobile Terrestrial LiDAR Data

    OpenAIRE

    Baoxin Hu; Jian-guo Wang; Michael Leslar

    2011-01-01

    Terrestrial LiDAR provides many disciplines with an effective and efficient means of producing realistic three-dimensional models of real world objects. With the advent of mobile terrestrial LiDAR, this ability has been expanded to include the rapid collection of three-dimensional models of large urban scenes. For all its usefulness, it does have drawbacks. One of the major problems faced by the LiDAR industry today is the automatic removal of outlying data points from LiDAR point clouds. Thi...

  7. Spinning a laser web: predicting spider distributions using LiDAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierling, K T; Bässler, C; Brandl, R; Vierling, L A; Weiss, I; Müller, J

    2011-03-01

    LiDAR remote sensing has been used to examine relationships between vertebrate diversity and environmental characteristics, but its application to invertebrates has been limited. Our objectives were to determine whether LiDAR-derived variables could be used to accurately describe single-species distributions and community characteristics of spiders in remote forested and mountainous terrain. We collected over 5300 spiders across multiple transects in the Bavarian National Park (Germany) using pitfall traps. We examined spider community characteristics (species richness, the Shannon index, the Simpson index, community composition, mean body size, and abundance) and single-species distribution and abundance with LiDAR variables and ground-based measurements. We used the R2 and partial R2 provided by variance partitioning to evaluate the predictive power of LiDAR-derived variables compared to ground measurements for each of the community characteristics. The total adjusted R2 for species richness, the Shannon index, community species composition, and body size had a range of 25-57%. LiDAR variables and ground measurements both contributed >80% to the total predictive power. For species composition, the explained variance was approximately 32%, which was significantly greater than expected by chance. The predictive power of LiDAR-derived variables was comparable or superior to that of the ground-based variables for examinations of single-species distributions, and it explained up to 55% of the variance. The predictability of species distributions was higher for species that had strong associations with shade in open-forest habitats, and this niche position has been well documented across the European continent for spider species. The similar statistical performance between LiDAR and ground-based measures at our field sites indicated that deriving spider community and species distribution information using LiDAR data can provide not only high predictive power at

  8. Extraction of Mangrove Biophysical Parameters Using Airborne LiDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonsak Miphokasap

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Tree parameter determinations using airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR have been conducted in many forest types, including coniferous, boreal, and deciduous. However, there are only a few scientific articles discussing the application of LiDAR to mangrove biophysical parameter extraction at an individual tree level. The main objective of this study was to investigate the potential of using LiDAR data to estimate the biophysical parameters of mangrove trees at an individual tree scale. The Variable Window Filtering (VWF and Inverse Watershed Segmentation (IWS methods were investigated by comparing their performance in individual tree detection and in deriving tree position, crown diameter, and tree height using the LiDAR-derived Canopy Height Model (CHM. The results demonstrated that each method performed well in mangrove forests with a low percentage of crown overlap conditions. The VWF method yielded a slightly higher accuracy for mangrove parameter extractions from LiDAR data compared with the IWS method. This is because the VWF method uses an adaptive circular filtering window size based on an allometric relationship. As a result of the VWF method, the position measurements of individual tree indicated a mean distance error value of 1.10 m. The individual tree detection showed a kappa coefficient of agreement (K value of 0.78. The estimation of crown diameter produced a coefficient of determination (R2 value of 0.75, a Root Mean Square Error of the Estimate (RMSE value of 1.65 m, and a Relative Error (RE value of 19.7%. Tree height determination from LiDAR yielded an R2 value of 0.80, an RMSE value of 1.42 m, and an RE value of 19.2%. However, there are some limitations in the mangrove parameters derived from LiDAR. The results indicated that an increase in the percentage of crown overlap (COL results in an accuracy decrease of the mangrove parameters extracted from the LiDAR-derived CHM, particularly for crown measurements. In this

  9. In-Field High-Throughput Phenotyping of Cotton Plant Height Using LiDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shangpeng Sun

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A LiDAR-based high-throughput phenotyping (HTP system was developed for cotton plant phenotyping in the field. The HTP system consists of a 2D LiDAR and an RTK-GPS mounted on a high clearance tractor. The LiDAR scanned three rows of cotton plots simultaneously from the top and the RTK-GPS was used to provide the spatial coordinates of the point cloud during data collection. Configuration parameters of the system were optimized to ensure the best data quality. A height profile for each plot was extracted from the dense three dimensional point clouds; then the maximum height and height distribution of each plot were derived. In lab tests, single plants were scanned by LiDAR using 0.5° angular resolution and results showed an R2 value of 1.00 (RMSE = 3.46 mm in comparison to manual measurements. In field tests using the same angular resolution; the LiDAR-based HTP system achieved average R2 values of 0.98 (RMSE = 65 mm for cotton plot height estimation; compared to manual measurements. This HTP system is particularly useful for large field application because it provides highly accurate measurements; and the efficiency is greatly improved compared to similar studies using the side view scan.

  10. Development of LiDAR measurements for the German offshore test site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettenmeier, A.; Kühn, M.; Wächter, M.; Rahm, S.; Mellinghoff, H.; Siegmeier, B.; Reeder, L.

    2008-05-01

    The paper introduces the content of the recently started joint research project 'Development of LiDAR measurements for the German Offshore Test Site' which has the objective to support other research projects at the German offshore test site 'alpha ventus'. The project has started before the erection of the offshore wind farm and one aim is to give recommendations concerning LiDAR technology useable for offshore measurement campaigns and data analysis. The work is organized in four work packages. The work package LiDAR technology deals with the specification, acquisition and calibration of a commercial LiDAR system for the measurement campaigns. Power curve measurements are dedicated to power curve assessment with ground-based LiDAR using standard statistical methods. Additionally, it deals with the development of new methods for the measurement of non-steady short-term power curves. Wind field research aims at the development of wake loading simulation methods of wind turbines and the exploration of loading control strategies and nacelle-based wind field measurement techniques. Finally, dissemination of results to the industry takes place in work package Technology transfer.

  11. Localized Segment Based Processing for Automatic Building Extraction from LiDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parida, G.; Rajan, K. S.

    2017-05-01

    The current methods of object segmentation and extraction and classification of aerial LiDAR data is manual and tedious task. This work proposes a technique for object segmentation out of LiDAR data. A bottom-up geometric rule based approach was used initially to devise a way to segment buildings out of the LiDAR datasets. For curved wall surfaces, comparison of localized surface normals was done to segment buildings. The algorithm has been applied to both synthetic datasets as well as real world dataset of Vaihingen, Germany. Preliminary results show successful segmentation of the buildings objects from a given scene in case of synthetic datasets and promissory results in case of real world data. The advantages of the proposed work is non-dependence on any other form of data required except LiDAR. It is an unsupervised method of building segmentation, thus requires no model training as seen in supervised techniques. It focuses on extracting the walls of the buildings to construct the footprint, rather than focussing on roof. The focus on extracting the wall to reconstruct the buildings from a LiDAR scene is crux of the method proposed. The current segmentation approach can be used to get 2D footprints of the buildings, with further scope to generate 3D models. Thus, the proposed method can be used as a tool to get footprints of buildings in urban landscapes, helping in urban planning and the smart cities endeavour.

  12. LiDAR, UAV or compass-clinometer? Accuracy, coverage and the effects on structural models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawood, Adam J.; Bond, Clare E.; Howell, John A.; Butler, Robert W. H.; Totake, Yukitsugu

    2017-05-01

    Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) and Structure from Motion (SfM) provide large amounts of digital data from which virtual outcrops can be created. The accuracy of these surface reconstructions is critical for quantitative structural analysis. Assessment of LiDAR and SfM methodologies suggest that SfM results are comparable to high data-density LiDAR on individual surfaces. The effect of chosen acquisition technique on the full outcrop and the efficacy on its virtual form for quantitative structural analysis and prediction beyond single bedding surfaces, however, is less certain. Here, we compare the accuracy of digital virtual outcrop analysis with traditional field data, for structural measurements and along-strike prediction of fold geometry from Stackpole syncline. In this case, the SfM virtual outcrop, derived from UAV imagery, yields better along-strike predictions and a more reliable geological model, in spite of lower accuracy surface reconstructions than LiDAR. This outcome is attributed to greater coverage by UAV and reliable reconstruction of a greater number of bedding planes than terrestrial LiDAR, which suffers from the effects of occlusion. Irrespective of the chosen acquisition technique, we find that workflows must incorporate careful survey planning, data processing and quality checking of derived data if virtual outcrops are to be used for robust structural analysis and along-strike prediction.

  13. Flow Characteristics of Tidewater Glaciers in Greenland and Alaska using Ground-Based LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnegan, D. C.; Stearns, L. A.; Hamilton, G. S.; O'Neel, S.

    2010-12-01

    LiDAR scanning systems have been employed to characterize and quantify multi-temporal glacier and ice sheet changes for nearly three decades. Until recently, LiDAR scanning systems were limited to airborne and space-based platforms which come at a significant cost to deploy and are limited in spatial and temporal sampling capabilities necessary to compare with in-situ field measurements. Portable ground-based LiDAR scanning systems are now being used as a glaciological tool. We discuss research efforts to employ ground-based near-infrared LiDAR systems at two differing tidewater glacier systems in the spring of 2009; Helheim Glacier in southeast Greenland and Columbia Glacier in southeast Alaska. Preliminary results allow us to characterize short term displacement rates and detailed observations of calving processes. These results highlight the operational limitations and capabilities of commercially available LiDAR systems, and allow us to identify optimal operating characteristics for monitoring small to large-scale tidewater glaciers in near real-time. Furthermore, by identifying the operational limitations of these sensors it allows for optimal design characteristics of new sensors necessary to meet ground-based calibration and validation requirements of ongoing scientific missions.

  14. The Extraction of Vegetation Points from LiDAR Using 3D Fractal Dimension Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiquan Yang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR, a high-precision technique used for acquiring three-dimensional (3D surface information, is widely used to study surface vegetation information. Moreover, the extraction of a vegetation point set from the LiDAR point cloud is a basic starting-point for vegetation information analysis, and an important part of its further processing. To extract the vegetation point set completely and to describe the different spatial morphological characteristics of various features in a LiDAR point cloud, we have used 3D fractal dimensions. We discovered that every feature has its own distinctive 3D fractal dimension interval. Based on the 3D fractal dimensions of tall trees, we propose a new method for the extraction of vegetation using airborne LiDAR. According to this method, target features can be distinguished based on their morphological characteristics. The non-ground points acquired by filtering are processed by region growing segmentation and the morphological characteristics are evaluated by 3D fractal dimensions to determine the features required for the determination of the point set for tall trees. Avon, New York, USA was selected as the study area to test the method and the result proves the method’s efficiency. Thus, this approach is feasible. Additionally, the method uses the 3D coordinate properties of the LiDAR point cloud and does not require additional information, such as return intensity, giving it a larger scope of application.

  15. Origin of heavy REE mineralisation in carbonatites: Constraints form the Huanglongpu Mo-HREE deposit, Qinling, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martin; Cheng, Xu; Kynicky, Jindrich; Cangelosi, Delia; Wenlei, Song

    2017-04-01

    The carbonatite dykes of the Huanglongpu area, Lesser Qinling, China, are unusual in that they are quartz-bearing, Mo-mineralised and enriched in the heavy rare earth elements (HREE) relative to typical carbonatites. Carbonatite monazite (208.9±4.6 Ma to 213.6±4.0; Song et al., 2016) gives a comparable U-Pb radiometric age to molybdenite (220Ma; Stein et al., 1997), confirming interpretations that Mo is derived from the carbonatite, and not a subsequent overprint from regional porphyry-style mineralisation ( 141Ma). The sulphides in the carbonatites have mantle-like 34S ( 1‰) and low δ26Mg values (-1.89 to -1.07‰), similar to sedimentary carbonates, suggesting a recycled sediment contribution in their mantle sources that may be responsible for the Mo and HREE enrichment (Song et al., 2016). The textures of REE minerals indicate crystallisation of monazite-(Ce), bastnäsite-(Ce), parisite-(Ce) and aeschynite-(Ce) as magmatic phases. Monazite-(Ce) was subsequently altered to produce apatite, which was in turn replaced by britholite-(Ce), accompanied by the formation of allanite-(Ce). The REE-fluorcarbonates where replaced by synchysite-(Ce) and röntgenite-(Ce). Aeschynite-(Ce) was altered initially to uranopyrochlore and then pyrochlore with uraninite inclusions. The mineralogical evolution reflects the evolution from magmatic carbonatite, through to more silica-rich conditions during the magmatic-hydrothermal transition, to fully hydrothermal conditions accompanied by the formation of sulphate minerals. Each alteration stage resulted in the preferential leaching of the LREE and enrichment in the HREE. Mass balance considerations indicate that the HREE enrichment could not be a passive process, and that hydrothermal fluids must have contributed HREE to the system. The evolution of the fluorcarbonate mineral assemblage requires an increase in aCa2+ and aCO32- in the metasomatic fluid, and so breakdown of HREE-enriched calcite may have been the HREE source

  16. Elemental Contents in Hair of Children from Two Regions in Dar Es Salaam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najat K. Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The work presented in this paper is part of the study which aims at determining the levels of elements in hair of children in Tanzania as a bioindicator of their nutrition and health. In this paper, the levels of trace elements in hair from children living in Dar es Salaam have been analysed. The analysis was carried out by long and short irradiation INAA at the reactor centre of the Institute of Nuclear Physics, Rez Czech Republic. 22 samples were collected from children living at Kiwalani about 12 km from Dar es Salaam city and 16 samples from children living at Mlimani, the main campus of University of Dar es Salaam. A total of 34 elements were found in the hair of the children. There were no big differences between the concentration levels of the essential elements in hair samples collected from the children which might indicate the same food consumption habits.

  17. Validation of sentinel-1A SAR coastal wind speeds against scanning LiDAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahsbahs, Tobias Torben; Badger, Merete; Karagali, Ioanna

    2017-01-01

    High-accuracy wind data for coastal regions is needed today, e.g., for the assessment of wind resources. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is the only satellite borne sensor that has enough resolution to resolve wind speeds closer than 10 km to shore but the Geophysical Model Functions (GMF) used...... for SAR wind retrieval are not fully validated here. Ground based scanning light detection and ranging (LiDAR) offer high horizontal resolution wind velocity measurements with high accuracy, also in the coastal zone. This study, for the first time, examines accuracies of SAR wind retrievals at 10 m height...... with respect to the distance to shore by validation against scanning LiDARs. Comparison of 15 Sentinel-1A wind retrievals using the GMF called C-band model 5.N (CMOD5.N) versus LiDARs show good agreement. It is found, when nondimenionalising with a reference point, that wind speed reductions are between 4...

  18. Identification of four Drosophila allatostatins as the cognate ligands for the Drosophila orphan receptor DAR-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenz, C; Williamson, M; Hansen, G N

    2001-01-01

    -Thr-Arg-Pro-Gln-Pro-Phe-Asn-Phe-Gly-Leu-NH(2)) is the most effective in causing a second messenger cascade (measured as bioluminescence; threshold, 10(-9) M; EC(50), 10(-8) M), whereas the others are less effective and about equally potent (EC(50), 8 x 10(-8) M). Northern blots showed that the DAR-2 gene is expressed in embryos, larvae......, pupae, and adult flies. In adult flies, the receptor is more strongly expressed in the thorax/abdomen than in the head parts, suggesting that DAR-2 is a gut receptor. This is confirmed by Northern blots from 3rd instar larvae, showing that the DAR-2 gene is mainly expressed in the gut and only very...

  19. The IsoDAR High Intensity H$_2^+$ Transport and Injection Tests

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso, Jose; Calabretta, Luciano; Campo, Daniela; Celona, Luigi; Conrad, Janet M; Day, Alexandra; Castro, Giuseppe; Labrecque, Francis; Winklehner, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This technical report reviews the tests performed at the Best Cyclotron Systems, Inc. facility in regards to developing a cost effective ion source, beam line transport system, and acceleration system capable of high H$_2^+$ current output for the IsoDAR (Isotope Decay At Rest) experiment. We begin by outlining the requirements for the IsoDAR experiment then provide overview of the Versatile Ion Source, Low Energy Beam Transport system, spiral inflector, and cyclotron. The experimental measurements are then discussed and the results are compared with a thorough set of simulation studies. Of particular importance we note that the Versatile Ion Source (VIS) proved to be a reliable ion source capable of generating a large amount of H$_2^+$ current. The results suggest that with further upgrades, the VIS could potentially be a suitable candidate for IsoDAR. The conclusion outlines the key results from our tests and introduces the forthcoming work this technical report has motivated.

  20. Detection of large above ground biomass variability in lowland forest ecosystems by airborne LiDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jubanski

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Quantification of tropical forest Above Ground Biomass (AGB over large areas as input for Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+ projects and climate change models is challenging. This is the first study which attempts to estimate AGB and its variability across large areas of tropical lowland forests in Central Kalimantan (Indonesia through correlating airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR to forest inventory data. Two LiDAR height metrics were analysed and regression models could be improved through the use of LiDAR point densities as input (R2 = 0.88; n = 52. Surveying with a LiDAR point density per square meter of 2–4 resulted in the best cost-benefit ratio. We estimated AGB for 600 km of LiDAR tracks and showed that there exists a considerable variability of up to 140% within the same forest type due to varying environmental conditions. Impact from logging operations and the associated AGB losses dating back more than 10 yr could be assessed by LiDAR but not by multispectral satellite imagery. Comparison with a Landsat classification for a 1 million ha study area where AGB values were based on site specific field inventory data, regional literature estimates, and default values by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC showed an overestimation of 46%, 102%, and 137%, respectively. The results show that AGB overestimation may lead to wrong GHG emission estimates due to deforestation in climate models. For REDD+ projects this leads to inaccurate carbon stock estimates and consequently to significantly wrong REDD+ based compensation payments.

  1. LiDAR data and SAR imagery acquired by an unmanned helicopter for rapid landslide investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, M.; Tanaka, Y.; Yamazaki, T.

    2012-12-01

    When earthquakes or heavy rainfall hits a landslide prone area, initial actions require estimation of the size of damage to people and infrastructure. This includes identifying the number and size of newly collapsed or expanded landslides, and appraising subsequent risks from remobilization of landslides and debris materials. In inapproachable areas, the UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) is likely to be of greatest use. In addition, repeat monitoring of sites after the event is a way of utilizing UAVs, particularly in terms of cost and convenience. In this study, LiDAR (SkEyesBox MP-1) data and SAR (Nano SAR) imagery, acquired over 0.5 km2 landslide prone area, are presented to assess the practicability of using unmanned helicopters (in this case a 10 year old YAMAHA RMAX G1) in these situations. LiDAR data was taken in July 2012, when tree foliage covered the ground surface. However, imagery was of sufficient quality to identify and measure landslide features. Nevertheless, LiDAR data obtained by a manned helicopter in the same area in August 2008 was more detailed, reflecting the function of the LiDAR scanner. On the other hand, 2 m resolution Nano SAR imagery produced reasonable results to elucidate hillslope condition. A quick method for data processing without loss of image quality was also investigated. In conclusion, the LiDAR scanner and UAV employed here could be used to plan immediate remedial activity of the area, before LiDAR measurement with a manned helicopter can be organized. SAR imagery from UAV is also available for this initial activity, and can be further applied to long term monitoring.

  2. Detailed Hydrographic Feature Extraction from High-Resolution LiDAR Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danny L. Anderson

    2012-05-01

    Detailed hydrographic feature extraction from high-resolution light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data is investigated. Methods for quantitatively evaluating and comparing such extractions are presented, including the use of sinuosity and longitudinal root-mean-square-error (LRMSE). These metrics are then used to quantitatively compare stream networks in two studies. The first study examines the effect of raster cell size on watershed boundaries and stream networks delineated from LiDAR-derived digital elevation models (DEMs). The study confirmed that, with the greatly increased resolution of LiDAR data, smaller cell sizes generally yielded better stream network delineations, based on sinuosity and LRMSE. The second study demonstrates a new method of delineating a stream directly from LiDAR point clouds, without the intermediate step of deriving a DEM. Direct use of LiDAR point clouds could improve efficiency and accuracy of hydrographic feature extractions. The direct delineation method developed herein and termed “mDn”, is an extension of the D8 method that has been used for several decades with gridded raster data. The method divides the region around a starting point into sectors, using the LiDAR data points within each sector to determine an average slope, and selecting the sector with the greatest downward slope to determine the direction of flow. An mDn delineation was compared with a traditional grid-based delineation, using TauDEM, and other readily available, common stream data sets. Although, the TauDEM delineation yielded a sinuosity that more closely matches the reference, the mDn delineation yielded a sinuosity that was higher than either the TauDEM method or the existing published stream delineations. Furthermore, stream delineation using the mDn method yielded the smallest LRMSE.

  3. Optimisation of LiDAR derived terrain models for river flow modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mandlburger

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Airborne LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging combines cost efficiency, high degree of automation, high point density of typically 1–10 points per m2 and height accuracy of better than ±15 cm. For all these reasons LiDAR is particularly suitable for deriving precise Digital Terrain Models (DTM as geometric basis for hydrodynamic-numerical (HN simulations. The application of LiDAR for river flow modelling requires a series of preprocessing steps. Terrain points have to be filtered and merged with river bed data, e.g. from echo sounding. Then, a smooth Digital Terrain Model of the Watercourse (DTM-W needs to be derived, preferably considering the random measurement error during surface interpolation. In a subsequent step, a hydraulic computation mesh has to be constructed. Hydraulic simulation software is often restricted to a limited number of nodes and elements, thus, data reduction and data conditioning of the high resolution LiDAR DTM-W becomes necessary. We will present a DTM thinning approach based on adaptive TIN refinement which allows a very effective compression of the point data (more than 95% in flood plains and up to 90% in steep areas while preserving the most relevant topographic features (height tolerance ±20 cm. Traditional hydraulic mesh generators focus primarily on physical aspects of the computation grid like aspect ratio, expansion ratio and angle criterion. They often neglect the detailed shape of the topography as provided by LiDAR data. In contrast, our approach considers both the high geometric resolution of the LiDAR data and additional mesh quality parameters. It will be shown that the modelling results (flood extents, flow velocities, etc. can vary remarkably by the availability of surface details. Thus, the inclusion of such geometric details in the hydraulic computation meshes will gain importance for river flow modelling in the future.

  4. The Introduction of a Domestic Airborne LiDAR System SW-LiDAR%国产SW-LiDAR系统的简介

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志杰; 施昆; 关艳玲; 蒋凤保

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduced the structure, characteristics of a domestic airborne LiDAR systems SW-LiDAR and USES. This paper also provided highlights of inertial navigation principle, the principle of differential GPS and conformation equation, which is integrate theory. The workflow was introduced. Finally, the development trend of the system were prospected.%本文介绍国产机载SW-LiDAR系统的构成、特点和用途。重点阐述了该系统的三个集成原理:惯性导航原理、差分GPS原理和构象方程。介绍了该系统的工作流程。最后展望了该系统的应用前景。

  5. Isotopic evidence for trapped fissiogenic REE and nucleogenic Pu in apatite and Pb evolution at the Oklo natural reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, Kenji; Hidaka, Hiroshi; Gauthier-Lafaye, François

    2004-01-01

    A part of the boundary layer of reactor zone 10 at the Oklo natural reactor shows a unique petrologic texture, which contains high-grade uraninite and massive apatite concretions. In order to study distribution behavior of fission products around the boundary between the reactor zone and the wall rock and to clarify the relation of migration mechanisms of fission products with geochemical factors, in-situ isotopic analyses of Nd, Sm, Gd, Pb and U in uraninite and apatite from the sample were performed by Sensitive High Resolution Ion Microprobe (SHRIMP). Sm and Gd isotopic ratios of uraninite and apatite show evidence of neutron irradiation with fluence between 4.4-6.8×10 19 n/cm 2. Judging from the isotopic anomalies of Nd and U, the apatite coexisting with the uraninite plays an important role in trapping fissiogenic LREE and nucleogenic 239Pu into the structure. Systematic Pb isotopic data from apatite, uraninite, galena and minium suggest the following chronological interpretations. The apatite formed 1.92±0.01 Ga ago and trapped fissiogenic light REE and nucleogenic 239Pu that migrated from the reactor during the criticality. The uraninite around the boundary between reactor and sandstone dissolved once 1.1˜1.2 Ga ago. Galena grains were formed by U-Pb mobilization in association with the intrusion of dolerite dyke 0.45˜0.83 Ga ago. Minium was derived from recent dissolution of galena under locally oxidizing conditions.

  6. Morphological and molecular characterisation of Ditrachybothridium macrocephalum Rees, 1959 (Cestoda: Diphyllidea) from Galeus melastomus Rafinesque in the Western Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallarés, Sara; Pérez-Del-Olmo, Ana; Carrassón, Maite; Kuchta, Roman

    2015-09-01

    New morphological, molecular and ecological data for Ditrachybothridium macrocephalum Rees, 1959 (Cestoda: Diphyllidea) are presented and discussed based on specimens recovered from the blackmouth catshark Galeus melastomus Rafinesque (Scyliorhinidae) in the Western Mediterranean. A redescription of the plerocercus of this parasite is provided and new data on immature and mature worms including the first description of the eggs are reported, based on light and scanning electron microscopy observations. Analysis of 28S rDNA (domains D1-D3) sequences from plerocerci, immature and adult specimens revealed that they are conspecific with specimens from the North East Atlantic. Although previous authors considered that museum specimens identified as D. macrocephalum may represent more than one species, examination of type- and voucher material revealed no relevant morphological differences between museum specimens and the present material. Information on infection levels of D. macrocephalum is provided from a large number of host specimens (n = 170). This species was more abundant in juvenile than in adult hosts and on the middle slope than on the upper slope; this may be related to ontogenetic and bathymetric diet shifts of G. melastomus.

  7. Determination of weathering rate of the Morro do Ferro Th-REEs deposit, Brazil using U-isotope method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonotto, D.M. [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Campus de Rio Claro, Avnue 24-A No.1515, C.P. 178, CEP 13506-900, Rio Claro, Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. E-mail: dbonotto@rc.unesp.br; Fujimori, K. [In Memoriam, Departamento de Geofisica, Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas (IAG-USP), Rua do Matao No. 1226, CEP 05508-900, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Moreira-Nordemann, L.M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE-MCT-CNPq), Av. dos Astronautas No. 1758, CEP 12227-010, Sao Jose dos Campos, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2007-05-15

    The weathering rate was estimated by changes in {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratio (AR) and U content of rocks, borehole spoil and surface water samples at the Morro do Ferro Th-REEs deposit. The deposit is situated in the Pocos de Caldas alkaline massif, Brazil. The south stream basin investigated in this paper has not been significantly affected by anthropogenic inputs of pollutants as compared to the Corumbatai River basin in Sao Paulo State, where the method was previously applied. The weathering rate derived utilizing the U-isotopes modeling corresponded to 0.015 mm/yr (67,000 years to weather 1 m of rock under the actual climatic conditions). The estimated rate is very reasonable in comparison with the range of 0.015-0.05 mm/yr of land surface lowering within the entire caldera. It is also compatible with a rate of 0.013 mm/yr determined for the Salgado River basin in a semi-arid region in Bahia State, Brazil. The value generated is reliable and increases the potential use of the method for other different areas in Brazil and elsewhere, because it may be used in regions with different climatic conditions and (un)polluted basins.

  8. The Content of Placer Heavy Mineral and Characteristics of REE at Toboali Coast and Its Surrounding Area, Bangka Belitung Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor CD Aryanto

    2017-02-01

    At Toboali coast, South Bangka the presence of REE in sediments are above the Earth's crust generally. They’re concentrations, such as La (5.07 to 199 ppm, Ce (106-394 ppm, Pr (5.11-59.7 ppm, Nd (16.5-201 ppm, Sm (9.97-52.3 ppm, Eu (0.18-1.55 ppm, Gd (9.11-39.3 ppm, Tb (1.35-8.14 ppm, Dy (9.01-56.3 ppm, Ho (1.89-12.3 ppm, Er (5.19-33.9 ppm, Tm (0.77-5.62 ppm, Yb (3.3-37.5 ppm and Lu (0.71-5.41 ppm. LREE (La-Eu highest content is generally found in the location of the tailings sludge (TBL-13C, not so in HREE (Gd-Lu, the highest content is widely available on the sandy beach sediments (TBL-13B. Tectonic environment of Toboali granitoid rocks by plotting a spider diagram refers to the chondrite normalization is continental magmatic arc.

  9. 'Dar Kenn Ghal Sahhtek'--an eating disorder and obesity service in Malta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilina, Francesca Falzon; Grech, Anton; Zerafa, Darleen; Agius, Mark; Voon, Valerie

    2015-09-01

    This paper will describe the incidence of eating disorders, with particular focus on obesity and binge eating, within the Island of Malta. The development of and 'Dar Kenn Ghal Sahhtek', the first centre for eating disorders in Malta will then be recounted, and the effective therapeutic interventions provided in it will be described. One important function of this unit is the treatment of excessive obesity. Some epidemiological data on the Obese Patients in DKS, relating to the incidence of Binge Eating Disorder in the DKS patient group will be given. This data was collected during a collaboritive research project between the Psychiatry Department of Cambridge University and 'Dar Kenn Ghal Sahhtek'.

  10. Direct injection into the IsoDAR Cyclotron using a RFQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axani, Spencer; IsoDAR Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    Beginning in the 1970s, the use of Radio Frequency Quadrupoles (RFQs) has been pervasive in linear accelerators in order to accelerate, bunch, and separate ion species. Current research suggests this may be an ideal way to inject a low energy H2+ beam axially into a cyclotron. The IsoDAR (Isotope Decay At Rest) experiment aims to implement this injection system in order to achieve higher Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) efficiencies and ultimately construct a novel compact neutrino factory to test the hypothesis of sterile neutrinos. This talk will focus on the research and development needed to implement a RFQ into the IsoDAR experiment.

  11. Diagnóstico Territorial Integral del municipio de Ciudad Darío

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    EN ESTE ARTÍCULO SE PRESENTA EL “DIAGNÓSTICO TERRITORIAL INTEGRAL de Ciudad Darío” realizado como trabajo de fin de curso de la Maestría en Desarrollo Rural de la Universidad Centroamericana. Este estudio ha buscado contribuir a la formulación de propuestas de intervención de los actores sociales del municipio de Ciudad Darío sobre los procesos estratégicos de desarrollo del territorio. Se realizó unazonificación integral del municipio, identificándose cuatro zonas: una zona alta, campesina d...

  12. Modeling rating curves using remotely-sensed LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathanson, M.; Lyon, S. W.; Kean, J. W.; Grabs, T. J.; Seibert, J.; Laudon, H.

    2010-12-01

    Discharge is important since it integrates water from across the landscape. In remote locations, however, it is often difficult to obtain accurate streamflow information because of the difficulty of obtaining the discharge measurements necessary to define stage-discharge relationships (rating curves). The aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility of defining rating curves indirectly using a fluid-mechanically based model constrained with topographic data from airborne LiDAR scanning. The study is carried out for a small 8-m wide channel in the boreal landscape of northern Sweden. Helicopter-mounted LiDAR data with an approximately 30-cm average point spacing was used to define the channel geometry above a low flow water surface along a 90-m long reach. The channel topography below the surface was estimated using the simple assumption of a flat bed. The roughness for the modeled reach was back-calculated from a single direct measurement of discharge. This topographic and roughness information was then used to calculate a rating curve using the method of Kean and Smith (JGR-Earth Surface, 2010). The rating curve from the LiDAR scan was compared with direct measurements of discharge, as well as with a calculated rating curve developed using more detailed topographic data from a ground survey. In general, there was good agreement between all three methods. The calculated rating curve based on the detailed ground survey was in the best agreement with the direct measurements. The LiDAR-based rating curve was in good agreement with the medium and high flow measurements, but deviated from the direct measurements at low flows. The discrepancy between the LiDAR-based rating curve and the low flow measurements is due to unresolved bed topography, which could not be detected by the scan because of the cover of water. This deficiency can be minimized by scanning during periods of extremely low flow. The results so far suggest that further studies using combined site

  13. Not seeing the forest for the points: Novel LiDAR metrics elucidate forest structure and increase LiDAR usability by managers

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer, Heather Anuhea

    2016-01-01

    Forest and fire ecology have long utilized remote sensing datasets to learn more about landscapes. Advances in gps spatial accuracy, GIS software capabilities, computing power, and remote sensing technology and software, as well as increases in the spatial and temporal resolution of remote sensing products, have made remote sensing a critical component of forest and fire ecology. Aerial light detection and ranging (LiDAR) is a fast-growing active remote-sensing technology that can be mined fo...

  14. Developments for the IsoDAR@KamLAND and DAE{\\delta}ALUS Decay-At-Rest Neutrino Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2016-01-01

    Configurations of the IsoDAR and DAE{\\delta}ALUS decay-at-rest neutrino experiments are described. Injector and cyclotron developments aimed at substantial increases in beam current are discussed. The IsoDAR layout and target are described, and this experiment is compared to other programs searching for sterile neutrinos.

  15. Comparison of LiDAR-derived data and high resolution true color imagery for extracting urban forest cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron E. Maxwell; Adam C. Riley; Paul. Kinder

    2013-01-01

    Remote sensing has many applications in forestry. Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) and high resolution aerial photography have been investigated as means to extract forest data, such as biomass, timber volume, stand dynamics, and gap characteristics. LiDAR return intensity data are often overlooked as a source of input raster data for thematic map creation. We...

  16. Comparing LiDAR-Generated to ground- surveyed channel cross-sectional profiles in a forested mountain stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian C. Dietterick; Russell White; Ryan. Hilburn

    2012-01-01

    Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) holds promise to provide an alternative to traditional ground-based survey methods for stream channel characterization and some change detection purposes, even under challenging landscape conditions. This study compared channel characteristics measured at 53 ground-surveyed and LiDAR-derived crosssectional profiles located...

  17. Computer-based synthetic data to assess the tree delineation algorithm from airborne LiDAR survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei Wang; Andrew G. Birt; Charles W. Lafon; David M. Cairns; Robert N. Coulson; Maria D. Tchakerian; Weimin Xi; Sorin C. Popescu; James M. Guldin

    2013-01-01

    Small Footprint LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) has been proposed as an effective tool for measuring detailed biophysical characteristics of forests over broad spatial scales. However, by itself LiDAR yields only a sample of the true 3D structure of a forest. In order to extract useful forestry relevant information, this data must be interpreted using mathematical...

  18. Carbazole-based copolymers via direct arylation polymerization (DArP) for Suzuki-convergent polymer solar cell performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gobalasingham, Nemal S.; Ekiz, Seyma; Pankow, Robert M.

    2017-01-01

    Although direct arylation polymerization (DArP) has recently emerged as an alternative to traditional cross-coupling methods like Suzuki polymerization, the evaluation of DArP polymers in practical applications like polymer solar cells (PSCs) is limited. Because even the presence of minute quanti...

  19. Investigating the influence of LiDAR ground surface errors on the utility of derived forest inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade T. Tinkham; Alistair M. S. Smith; Chad Hoffman; Andrew T. Hudak; Michael J. Falkowski; Mark E. Swanson; Paul E. Gessler

    2012-01-01

    Light detection and ranging, or LiDAR, effectively produces products spatially characterizing both terrain and vegetation structure; however, development and use of those products has outpaced our understanding of the errors within them. LiDAR's ability to capture three-dimensional structure has led to interest in conducting or augmenting forest inventories with...

  20. Remote Sensing of Sonoran Desert Vegetation Structure and Phenology with Ground-Based LiDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel B. Sankey

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Long-term vegetation monitoring efforts have become increasingly important for understanding ecosystem response to global change. Many traditional methods for monitoring can be infrequent and limited in scope. Ground-based LiDAR is one remote sensing method that offers a clear advancement to monitor vegetation dynamics at high spatial and temporal resolution. We determined the effectiveness of LiDAR to detect intra-annual variability in vegetation structure at a long-term Sonoran Desert monitoring plot dominated by cacti, deciduous and evergreen shrubs. Monthly repeat LiDAR scans of perennial plant canopies over the course of one year had high precision. LiDAR measurements of canopy height and area were accurate with respect to total station survey measurements of individual plants. We found an increase in the number of LiDAR vegetation returns following the wet North American Monsoon season. This intra-annual variability in vegetation structure detected by LiDAR was attributable to a drought deciduous shrub Ambrosia deltoidea, whereas the evergreen shrub Larrea tridentata and cactus Opuntia engelmannii had low variability. Benefits of using LiDAR over traditional methods to census desert plants are more rapid, consistent, and cost-effective data acquisition in a high-resolution, 3-dimensional context. We conclude that repeat LiDAR measurements can be an effective method for documenting ecosystem response to desert climatology and drought over short time intervals and at detailed-local spatial scale.

  1. REE: Alkaline intensive and carbonates complexes at Fuerteventura (Canary Islands). Mineralizaciones de tierras raras: los complejos de rocas plutonicas alcalinas y carbonatitas del complejo basal de Fuerteventura (Islas Canarias)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangas Viuela, J.; Perez Torrado, F.J.

    1993-01-01

    Alkaline intrusive complexes at Fuerteventura have been explored as potential source of REE. Two main complexes constituted by ultramafic to salic rocks and carbonatitas are present in the island: the Puerto de la Pea-Cueva de Lobos (= 60 Ma) in the western centerpoint and the Esquinzo (=30 Ma) in the northern zone. The calciocarbonatites (sovites and alwikites), formed in the last crystallization phases of these complexes, show the highest values of REE (511-7,372 ppm) and these elements mainly are associated with carbonates (synchysite), phosphates (REE apatite), silicates (allanite). (Author) 17 refs.

  2. Visualization of High-Resolution LiDAR Topography in Google Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, C. J.; Nandigam, V.; Arrowsmith, R.; Blair, J. L.

    2009-12-01

    The growing availability of high-resolution LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) topographic data has proven to be revolutionary for Earth science research. These data allow scientists to study the processes acting on the Earth’s surfaces at resolutions not previously possible yet essential for their appropriate representation. In addition to their utility for research, the data have also been recognized as powerful tools for communicating earth science concepts for education and outreach purposes. Unfortunately, the massive volume of data produced by LiDAR mapping technology can be a barrier to their use. To facilitate access to these powerful data for research and educational purposes, we have been exploring the use of Keyhole Markup Language (KML) and Google Earth to deliver LiDAR-derived visualizations. The OpenTopography Portal (http://www.opentopography.org/) is a National Science Foundation-funded facility designed to provide access to Earth science-oriented LiDAR data. OpenTopography hosts a growing collection of LiDAR data for a variety of geologic domains, including many of the active faults in the western United States. We have found that the wide spectrum of LiDAR users have variable scientific applications, computing resources, and technical experience and thus require a data distribution system that provides various levels of access to the data. For users seeking a synoptic view of the data, and for education and outreach purposes, delivering full-resolution images derived from LiDAR topography into the Google Earth virtual globe is powerful. The virtual globe environment provides a freely available and easily navigated viewer and enables quick integration of the LiDAR visualizations with imagery, geographic layers, and other relevant data available in KML format. Through region-dependant network linked KML, OpenTopography currently delivers over 20 GB of LiDAR-derived imagery to users via simple, easily downloaded KMZ files hosted at the Portal

  3. Structural controls and evolution of gold-, silver-, and REE-bearing copper-cobalt ore deposits, Blackbird district, east-central Idaho: Epigenetic origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, K.; Tysdal, R.G.; Evans, K.V.; Kunk, M.J.; Pillers, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    The Cu-Co ± Au (± Ag ± Ni ± REE) ore deposits of the Blackbird district, east-central Idaho, have previously been classified as Besshi-type VMS, sedex, and IOCG deposits within an intact stratigraphic section. New studies indicate that, across the district, mineralization was introduced into the country rocks as a series of structurally controlled vein and alteration systems. Quartz-rich and biotite-rich veins (and alteration zones) and minor albite and siderite veinlets maintain consistent order and sulfide mineral associations across the district. Both early and late quartz veins contain chalcopyrite and pyrite, whereas intermediate-stage tourmaline-biotite veins host the cobaltite. Barren early and late albite and late carbonate (generally siderite) form veins or are included in the quartz veins. REE minerals, principally monazite, allanite, and xenotime, are associated with both tourmaline-biotite and late quartz veins. The veins are in mineralized intervals along axial planar cleavage, intrafolial foliation, and shears.

  4. Mineralogy and geochemistry of REE-Zr-Nb mineralised nepheline syenites in the peralkaline Ilímaussaq complex, South Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borst, Anouk Margaretha

    -related Gardar province and comprises a series of highly unusual magmatic rocks described as agpaitic nepheline syenites. Agpaitic rocks are characterised by the presence of complex Na-Zr-Ti-silicates such as eudialyte and rinkite instead of common accessory Zr and Ti minerals like zircon and titanite....... The present study focusses on the lower part of the magmatic sequence in the southern part of the complex (Kringlerne), comprising a c. 250 m thick sequence of spectacularly layered syenites called kakortokites. The kakortokites are of particular interest for their enrichment in Zr, Nb, Ta and REE, largely...... potential of these rocks. It is shown that widespread hydrothermal alteration of primary magmatic eudialyte has led to the formation of fine-grained intergrowths of secondary Zr, Nb and REE phases. The alteration was not associated with significant loss or gain of the valuable metals, although the increased...

  5. REE, Uranium (U) and Thorium (Th) contents in Betula pendula leaf growing around Komsomolsk gold concentration plant tailing (Kemerovo region, Western Siberia, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusupov, D. V.; Karpenko, Yu A.

    2016-09-01

    The article deals with the research findings of peculiarities of REE, Uranium and Thorium distribution in the territory surrounding the tailing of former Komsomolsk gold concentration plant according to the data from Betula pendula leaf testing. In the leaf element composition the slight deficiency of MREE and substantial excess of HREE are presented. In the nearest impacted area around the tailing, La, Yb, U and Th content, and Th/U ratio are lower than in the distant buffer area. It is shown, that value of Th/U ratio and REE can be an indicator for geochemical transformations of technogenic landscapes in mining districts. The results of the research can be used for biomonitoring of the territory around the tailing.

  6. The use of airborne LiDAR data for the analysis of debris flow events in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Scheidl

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A methodology of magnitude estimates for debris flow events is described using airborne LiDAR data. Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR is a widely used technology to generate digital elevation information. LiDAR data in alpine regions can be obtained by several commercial companies where the automated filtering process is proprietary and varies from companies to companies. This study describes the analysis of geomorphologic changes using digital terrain models derived from commercial LiDAR data. The estimation of the deposition volumes is based on two digital terrain models covering the same area but differing in their time of survey. In this study two surveyed deposition areas of debris flows, located in the canton of Berne, Switzerland, were chosen as test cases. We discuss different grid interpolating techniques, other preliminary work and the accuracy of the used LiDAR data and volume estimates.

  7. Strong Input and Removal of Rare Earth Elements (REEs) Affect Dissolved Nd Isotope Composition of Seawater in the Panama Basin and the Eastern Equatorial Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, M.; Bosse, L. M.; Grasse, P.; Pahnke, K.; Hathorne, E. C.

    2014-12-01

    The distributions of dissolved REEs and Nd isotopes are controlled by inputs from land and water mass mixing. We present new data from the Panama Basin in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific (EEP) extending previous studies in the frame of the German SFB 754 project. The samples were taken following GEOTRACES protocols along a section from close to the Panamanian coast into the deep Panama Basin during FS Meteor cruise M90 in October/November 2012. Elevated Nd concentrations near 13 pmol/kg are found at the surface, which rapidly decrease to a subsurface minimum of 8 pmol/kg near 100m depth and then increase with water depth reaching maximum values of 18 pmol/kg at 3000 m water depth. However, these deep water concentrations are more than a factor of 2 lower than observed for North Pacific Deep Water (NPDW), which is the prevailing Pacific deep water mass at the sampling locations. All the REEs are depleted compared to NPDW suggesting that efficient uptake and scavenging dominate compared to release from remineralized particles. The surface waters show the most radiogenic Nd isotope values (ɛNd = +4.3) so far obtained globally. In combination with the Nd concentration maxima at the surface this suggests riverine dissolved and fine grained particulate inputs from southern Panama and Colombia where highly radiogenic volcanic rocks are exposed. Elevated ɛNd values above -1 in the entire water column are more radiogenic than in NPDW in the Central Pacific and in waters further south in the EEP, which confirms that release of REEs from the sinking volcanogenic material affects the entire water column. These data clearly document that significant inputs from land combined with efficient scavenging and removal in surface and deep waters control the distribution of REEs and Nd isotopes in the Panama Basin and the adjacent EEP (Grasse et al., 2012), which also has important implications for the distribution of other trace metals.

  8. Redistribution of REE, Pb and U by supergene weathering studied from in-situ isotopic analyses of the Bangombé natural reactor, Gabon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, M.; Hidaka, H.; Horie, K.; Gauthier-Lafaye, F.

    2007-10-01

    The isotopic analyses of rare earth elements (REE), Pb and U in several kinds of minerals from the clay and black shale layers above the Bangombé natural reactor, Gabon, were performed using a sensitive high-resolution microprobe (SHRIMP) to investigate the migration and retardation processes of fission products released from the reactor. REE isotopic data of the secondary minerals found in clays and black shales show that most of fission products were effectively trapped in the clays and not distributed into the black shales over the clays, which reveals that the clays play an important role in preventing fission products from spreading. Zircon crystals in the clays heterogeneously contain high-U regions (up to 28.3 wt%) with normal 235U/ 238U ratios (=0.00725) and significant amounts of fissiogenic REE, which suggest the occurrence of significant chemical fractionation between REE and U during the dissolution of reactor uraninite and the recrystallization of secondary U minerals. The Pb data suggest that galena grains in the clays were also formed by the mixing of the two components during a recent alteration event, and that a significant amount of Pb was derived from 2.05-Ga-old original uraninite rather than reactor uraninite. The U-Pb systematics of zircon provide chronological information on the old igneous activity associated with the basement rock formation at 2.8 Ga and geochemical evidence of the incomplete mixing of independent Pb and U sources. This result is consistent with previous chronological results in this area.

  9. Removal of high-salinity matrices through polymer-complexation-ultrafiltration for the detection of trace levels of REEs using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Hualing; Lin, Jijun; Gong, Zhenbin; Huang, Jiahua; Yang, Shifeng

    2015-10-01

    The polymer-complexation-ultrafiltration (PCUF) technique was applied to separate trace levels of rare earth elements (REEs), including scandium, yttrium and the lanthanides, from high-salinity matrices prior to their determination by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The REEs were converted into REE-polymer complexes using the water-soluble polymer polyacrylic acid (PAA) at a specified pH, retained on the ultrafiltration membrane of centrifugal filter units, and finally eluted using diluted nitric acid to achieve separation from matrices with relatively high levels of various inorganic ions, such as sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and chlorine ions. Numerous factors affecting the PCUF efficiency were optimized. The optimal conditions included the addition of 30 mg L(-1) of PAA, a pH of 7.5, a reaction time of 40 min at room temperature, and 5.0 mL of 3% nitric acid (v/v) eluent. Under these conditions, the analytes were quantitatively separated and recovered, with a resulting relative standard deviation (RSD) of less than 4.0% (0.05 µg L(-1), n=5) and standard addition recoveries between 89.2% (La) and 95.8% (Sm) for matrices of various salinities. The blank samples for the method ranged from 0.0003 µg L(-1) (Dy) to 0.0031 µg L(-1) (Sc), and the limits of quantification (LOQs, 10σ) were between 0.0006 µg L(-1) (Dy) and 0.0026 µg L(-1) (Sc). Furthermore, the salinity of the sample exhibited no effect on the REE-polymer complex formation process. Finally, the method was successfully applied for the determination of trace levels of dissolved Sc, Y, and lanthanides in coastal and estuarine seawater samples.

  10. A Study of REE and Pb,Sr and Nd Isotopes in Garnet—Lherzolite Xenoliths from Mingxi,Fujian Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄婉康; BASU,A.R.; 等

    1993-01-01

    The REE and Pb ,Sr,Nd isotopes in three xenoliths from limburgite and scoria-breccias,including spinel-lherzolite,spinel-gamet-1herzolite and phlogopite-gamet-1herzolite,were analysed.The REE contentso of the xenoliths are 1.3 to 3.3 times those of the chondrites with their REE pattems characterized by weak LREE depletion.The 143Nd/144Nd values of whole rocks and minerals range from 0.51306 to 0.51345 with εNd=+8.2-+15.8,206Pb/204Pb<18.673,and 207Pb/204Pb<15.574,All this goes to show that the upper mantle in Mingxi at the depth of 67-82km is a depleted mantle of MORB type,with 87Sr/86Sr ratios 0.70237-0.70390.In Nd-Sr diagram the data points of whole rocks are all out of the mantle array,implying that the xenoliths from Mingxi have more radiogenic Sr isotopes than those of the mantle array.

  11. Petrography and Geochemistry (Trace, Ree and Pge of Pedda Cherlo Palle Gabbro-Diorite Pluton, Prakasam Igneous Province, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanyam K.S.V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Prakasam Igneous Province (PIP is an important geological domain in the Eastern Dharwar Craton (EDC, found in the junction zone between the EDC and Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt (EGMB. The Pedda Cherlo Palle (PCP gabbros are massive, leucocratic-mesocractic, and show cumulus textures with minerals plagioclase, cpx, and amphiboles. Compositionally, plagioclase is a labradorite-bytownite, cpx is diopside to augite, olivines are hyalosiderites and amphiboles are magnesiohornblendes. PCP gabbros have normal SiO2, high Al2O3, moderate to high TiO2, Na2O and medium Fe2O3, so, classified as subalkaline tholeiitic gabbros. Fractionated rare earth element (REE patterns, high abundance of large ion lithofile elements (LILE and transitional metals coupled with light REE (LREE relative enrichment over heavy REE (HREE and Nb are characteristics of partial melting of depleted mantle and melts that have undergone fractional crystalisation. These partial melts are enriched in LREE and LILE, due to the addition of slab derived sediment and fluids. PCP gabbros contain low abundance (5.1 to 24.6 ng/g of platinum group elements (PGE, and show an increase in the order Ir>Os>Pt>Ru»Pd>Rh. We propose that the subduction related intraoceanic island arc might have accreted to the southeastern margin of India to the east of Cuddapah basin in a collisional regime that took place during Ur to Rodinia amalgamations.

  12. Dynamics of REE accumulation and fractionation in the subcolloidal fraction of bottom sediments in the Razdol'naya River-Amur Bay section, Sea of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakov, D. M.

    2016-05-01

    The REE contents (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu) are determined by atomic emission spectroscopy in the subcolloidal fraction of bottom sediments in the Razdol'naya River-Amur Bay section. The mean contents of lanthanides in soils and river bottom sediments (before the mixing zone) are calculated. The increase in REE content and the fractioning in the series from light to middle and heavy REE in sediments of different estuary zones (river, water mixing, and marine), with the latter related to flocculation, sorption on iron and manganese hydroxides, clay minerals (hydromica, smectites), and lifetime accumulation of marine plankton, are dtermined. Via extraction of 0.5 N sodium hydroxide solution, the content of lanthanides associated with humic substances of subcolloidal fraction from the Amur Bay sediments are determined: 1.3 to 8.2% of La; 1.1 to 11% of Ce; and 0.3 to 1.5 of Gd.

  13. Fluid-mediated alteration of (Y,REE,U,Th)-(Nb,Ta,Ti) oxide minerals in granitic pegmatite from the Evje-Iveland district, southern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Charley J.; Seydoux-Guillaume, Anne-Magali; Bingen, Bernard; Gouy, Sophie; de Parseval, Philippe; Ingrin, Jannick; Guillaume, Damien

    2016-10-01

    We document the textural relations and chemical composition of (Y,REE,U,Th)-(Nb,Ta,Ti) oxide minerals in a granitic pegmatite from the Evje-Iveland district, southern Norway, using a combination of scanning and transmission electron microscopy, electron probe micro-analysis and infrared absorption spectroscopy. The (Y,REE,U,Th)-(Nb,Ta,Ti) oxide mineral is euxenite, which is strongly radiation damaged and surrounded by radial fractures. Within euxenite grains, three domains of distinct composition comprising unaltered, intermediate and altered euxenite, have been identified. In most cases pyrochlore occurs as corroded grain boundaries around euxenite and within relict fractures. Intermediate and altered euxenite are depleted in U, Pb, Ti, Nb, and Y, but enriched in Si and Ca relative to unaltered euxenite. Pyrochlore is also enriched in Fe, Pb, Zr and LREE relative to all euxenite phases. Altered domains of euxenite have deficient analytical totals and contain O-H. These domains are metamict and contain nanopores and nanodomains enriched in U and Ca. We suggest that as radiation damage accumulated in euxenite, radial fractures developed around the euxenite grains, thus allowing fluid infiltration. In the presence of fluid, euxenite was replaced by secondary euxenite then pyrochlore, owing to dissolution-precipitation and diffusion reactions. During alteration, U and the strategic metals Nb, Ti, and REE were mobilized at both the nanoscale and the scale of the pegmatite.

  14. Biology and management of fish stocks in Bahir Dar Gulf, Lake Tana, Ethiopia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wudneh, T.

    1998-01-01

    The biology of the fish stocks of the major species in the Bahir Dar Gulf of Lake Tana, the largest lake in Ethiopia, has been studied based on data collected during August 1990 to September 1993. The distribution, reproduction patterns, growth and mortality dynamics and gillnet selectivity of these

  15. 2014 U.S. Geological Survey CMGP LiDAR: Post Sandy (Pennsylvania)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fugro EarthData, Inc. (Fugro) was tasked by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to plan, acquire, process, and produce derivative products of LiDAR data at a nominal...

  16. How Children Living in Poor Areas of Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania Perceive Their Own Multiple Intelligences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Pauline; Humble, Steve; Chan, David W.

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out with 1,857 poor children from 17 schools, living in low-income areas of Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania. All children took the "Student Multiple Intelligences Profile" (SMIP) questionnaire as part of a bigger project that gathered data around concepts and beliefs of talent. This paper sets out two aims, first to…

  17. Automatic extraction of pavement markings on streets from point cloud data of mobile LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Zhong, Ruofei; Tang, Tao; Wang, Liuzhao; Liu, Xianlin

    2017-08-01

    Pavement markings provide an important foundation as they help to keep roads users safe. Accurate and comprehensive information about pavement markings assists the road regulators and is useful in developing driverless technology. Mobile light detection and ranging (LiDAR) systems offer new opportunities to collect and process accurate pavement markings’ information. Mobile LiDAR systems can directly obtain the three-dimensional (3D) coordinates of an object, thus defining spatial data and the intensity of (3D) objects in a fast and efficient way. The RGB attribute information of data points can be obtained based on the panoramic camera in the system. In this paper, we present a novel method process to automatically extract pavement markings using multiple attribute information of the laser scanning point cloud from the mobile LiDAR data. This method process utilizes a differential grayscale of RGB color, laser pulse reflection intensity, and the differential intensity to identify and extract pavement markings. We utilized point cloud density to remove the noise and used morphological operations to eliminate the errors. In the application, we tested our method process on different sections of roads in Beijing, China, and Buffalo, NY, USA. The results indicated that both correctness (p) and completeness (r) were higher than 90%. The method process of this research can be applied to extract pavement markings from huge point cloud data produced by mobile LiDAR.

  18. Line-Based Registration of Panoramic Images and LiDAR Point Clouds for Mobile Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Cui

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available For multi-sensor integrated systems, such as the mobile mapping system (MMS, data fusion at sensor-level, i.e., the 2D-3D registration between an optical camera and LiDAR, is a prerequisite for higher level fusion and further applications. This paper proposes a line-based registration method for panoramic images and a LiDAR point cloud collected by a MMS. We first introduce the system configuration and specification, including the coordinate systems of the MMS, the 3D LiDAR scanners, and the two panoramic camera models. We then establish the line-based transformation model for the panoramic camera. Finally, the proposed registration method is evaluated for two types of camera models by visual inspection and quantitative comparison. The results demonstrate that the line-based registration method can significantly improve the alignment of the panoramic image and the LiDAR datasets under either the ideal spherical or the rigorous panoramic camera model, with the latter being more reliable.

  19. Comparison of LiDAR- and photointerpretation-based estimates of canopy cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetrios Gatziolis

    2012-01-01

    An evaluation of the agreement between photointerpretation- and LiDARbased estimates of canopy cover was performed using 397 90 x 90 m reference areas in Oregon. It was determined that at low canopy cover levels LiDAR estimates tend to exceed those from photointerpretation and that this tendency reverses at high canopy cover levels. Characteristics of the airborne...

  20. Multispectral LiDAR Data for Land Cover Classification of Urban Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, Salem; Shaker, Ahmed; El-Rabbany, Ahmed

    2017-04-26

    Airborne Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) systems usually operate at a monochromatic wavelength measuring the range and the strength of the reflected energy (intensity) from objects. Recently, multispectral LiDAR sensors, which acquire data at different wavelengths, have emerged. This allows for recording of a diversity of spectral reflectance from objects. In this context, we aim to investigate the use of multispectral LiDAR data in land cover classification using two different techniques. The first is image-based classification, where intensity and height images are created from LiDAR points and then a maximum likelihood classifier is applied. The second is point-based classification, where ground filtering and Normalized Difference Vegetation Indices (NDVIs) computation are conducted. A dataset of an urban area located in Oshawa, Ontario, Canada, is classified into four classes: buildings, trees, roads and grass. An overall accuracy of up to 89.9% and 92.7% is achieved from image classification and 3D point classification, respectively. A radiometric correction model is also applied to the intensity data in order to remove the attenuation due to the system distortion and terrain height variation. The classification process is then repeated, and the results demonstrate that there are no significant improvements achieved in the overall accuracy.

  1. Multispectral LiDAR Data for Land Cover Classification of Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem Morsy

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Airborne Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR systems usually operate at a monochromatic wavelength measuring the range and the strength of the reflected energy (intensity from objects. Recently, multispectral LiDAR sensors, which acquire data at different wavelengths, have emerged. This allows for recording of a diversity of spectral reflectance from objects. In this context, we aim to investigate the use of multispectral LiDAR data in land cover classification using two different techniques. The first is image-based classification, where intensity and height images are created from LiDAR points and then a maximum likelihood classifier is applied. The second is point-based classification, where ground filtering and Normalized Difference Vegetation Indices (NDVIs computation are conducted. A dataset of an urban area located in Oshawa, Ontario, Canada, is classified into four classes: buildings, trees, roads and grass. An overall accuracy of up to 89.9% and 92.7% is achieved from image classification and 3D point classification, respectively. A radiometric correction model is also applied to the intensity data in order to remove the attenuation due to the system distortion and terrain height variation. The classification process is then repeated, and the results demonstrate that there are no significant improvements achieved in the overall accuracy.

  2. Integrating ICT into Teaching and Learning at the University of Dar es Salaam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtebe, Joel S.; Dachi, Hilary; Raphael, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Since 1985, Tanzania has been undergoing significant political and economic changes from a centralized to a more market-oriented and globally connected economy. The University of Dar es Salaam (UDSM) has responded to these changes by reviewing its legal status, vision, and functions, particularly those related to research, teaching, and public…

  3. 2010 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Topographic LiDAR: Mobile Bay, AL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — USGS Contract: G10PC00026 Task Order Number: G10PD00578 LiDAR was collected at a nominal pulse spacing of 2.0 meters for a 700 square mile area to the east of...

  4. Hyperspectral and LiDAR remote sensing of fire fuels in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Timothy A; Asner, Gregory P

    2008-04-01

    Alien invasive grasses threaten to transform Hawaiian ecosystems through the alteration of ecosystem dynamics, especially the creation or intensification of a fire cycle. Across sub-montane ecosystems of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park on Hawaii Island, we quantified fine fuels and fire spread potential of invasive grasses using a combination of airborne hyperspectral and light detection and ranging (LiDAR) measurements. Across a gradient from forest to savanna to shrubland, automated mixture analysis of hyperspectral data provided spatially explicit fractional cover estimates of photosynthetic vegetation, non-photosynthetic vegetation, and bare substrate and shade. Small-footprint LiDAR provided measurements of vegetation height along this gradient of ecosystems. Through the fusion of hyperspectral and LiDAR data, a new fire fuel index (FFI) was developed to model the three-dimensional volume of grass fuels. Regionally, savanna ecosystems had the highest volumes of fire fuels, averaging 20% across the ecosystem and frequently filling all of the three-dimensional space represented by each image pixel. The forest and shrubland ecosystems had lower FFI values, averaging 4.4% and 8.4%, respectively. The results indicate that the fusion of hyperspectral and LiDAR remote sensing can provide unique information on the three-dimensional properties of ecosystems, their flammability, and the potential for fire spread.

  5. Pit Latrine Emptying Behavior and Demand for Sanitation Services in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion W. Jenkins

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pit latrines are the main form of sanitation in unplanned areas in many rapidly growing developing cities. Understanding demand for pit latrine fecal sludge management (FSM services in these communities is important for designing demand-responsive sanitation services and policies to improve public health. We examine latrine emptying knowledge, attitudes, behavior, trends and rates of safe/unsafe emptying, and measure demand for a new hygienic latrine emptying service in unplanned communities in Dar Es Salaam (Dar, Tanzania, using data from a cross-sectional survey at 662 residential properties in 35 unplanned sub-wards across Dar, where 97% had pit latrines. A picture emerges of expensive and poor FSM service options for latrine owners, resulting in widespread fecal sludge exposure that is likely to increase unless addressed. Households delay emptying as long as possible, use full pits beyond what is safe, face high costs even for unhygienic emptying, and resort to unsafe practices like ‘flooding out’. We measured strong interest in and willingness to pay (WTP for the new pit emptying service at 96% of residences; 57% were WTP ≥U.S. $17 to remove ≥200 L of sludge. Emerging policy recommendations for safe FSM in unplanned urban communities in Dar and elsewhere are discussed.

  6. Genetics and Human Agency: Comment on Dar-Nimrod and Heine (2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkheimer, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Dar-Nimrod and Heine (2011) decried genetic essentialism without denying the importance of genetics in the genesis of human behavior, and although I agree on both counts, a deeper issue remains unaddressed: how should we adjust our cognitions about our own behavior in light of genetic influence, or is it perhaps not necessary to take genetics into…

  7. LiDAR Relative Reflectivity Surface (2011) for Fish Bay, St. John

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a LiDAR (Light Detection & Ranging) 0.3x0.3 meter resolution relative seafloor reflectivity surface for Fish Bay, St. John in the U.S....

  8. Spatial Patterns of Trees from Airborne LiDAR Using a Simple Tree Segmentation Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeronimo, S.; Kane, V. R.; McGaughey, R. J.; Franklin, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Objectives for management of forest ecosystems on public land incorporate a focus on maintenance and restoration of ecological functions through silvicultural manipulation of forest structure. The spatial pattern of residual trees - the horizontal element of structure - is a key component of ecological restoration prescriptions. We tested the ability of a simple LiDAR individual tree segmentation method - the watershed transform - to generate spatial pattern metrics similar to those obtained by the traditional method - ground-based stem mapping - on forested plots representing the structural diversity of a large wilderness area (Yosemite NP) and a large managed area (Sierra NF) in the Sierra Nevada, Calif. Most understory and intermediate-canopy trees were not detected by the LiDAR segmentation; however, LiDAR- and field-based assessments of spatial pattern in terms of tree clump size distributions largely agreed. This suggests that (1) even when individual tree segmentation is not effective for tree density estimates, it can provide a good measurement of tree spatial pattern, and (2) a simple segmentation method is adequate to measure spatial pattern of large areas with a diversity of structural characteristics. These results lay the groundwork for a LiDAR tool to assess clumping patterns across forest landscapes in support of restoration silviculture. This tool could describe spatial patterns of functionally intact reference ecosystems, measure departure from reference targets in treatment areas, and, with successive acquisitions, monitor treatment efficacy.

  9. Dynamic displacement estimation by fusing LDV and LiDAR measurements via smoothing based Kalman filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kiyoung; Sohn, Hoon

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a smoothing based Kalman filter to estimate dynamic displacement in real-time by fusing the velocity measured from a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) and the displacement from a light detection and ranging (LiDAR). LiDAR can measure displacement based on the time-of-flight information or the phase-shift of the laser beam reflected off form a target surface, but it typically has a high noise level and a low sampling rate. On the other hand, LDV primarily measures out-of-plane velocity of a moving target, and displacement is estimated by numerical integration of the measured velocity. Here, the displacement estimated by LDV suffers from integration error although LDV can achieve a lower noise level and a much higher sampling rate than LiDAR. The proposed data fusion technique estimates high-precision and high-sampling rate displacement by taking advantage of both LiDAR and LDV measurements and overcomes their limitations by adopting a real-time smoothing based Kalman filter. To verify the performance of the proposed dynamic displacement estimation technique, a series of lab-scale tests are conducted under various loading conditions.

  10. Fast and nondestructive method for leaf level chlorophyll estimation using hyperspectral LiDAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nevalainen, O.; Hakala, T.; Suomalainen, J.M.; Mäkipää, R.; Peltoniemi, M.; Krooks, A.; Kaasalainen, S.

    2014-01-01

    We propose an empirical method for nondestructive estimation of chlorophyll in tree canopies. The first prototype of a full waveform hyperspectral LiDAR instrument has been developed by the Finnish Geodetic Institute (FGI). The instrument efficiently combines the benefits of passive and active remot

  11. 2010 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Topographic LiDAR: Mobile Bay, AL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — USGS Contract: G10PC00026 Task Order Number: G10PD00578 LiDAR was collected at a nominal pulse spacing of 2.0 meters for a 700 square mile area to the east of Mobile...

  12. Line-Based Registration of Panoramic Images and LiDAR Point Clouds for Mobile Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Tingting; Ji, Shunping; Shan, Jie; Gong, Jianya; Liu, Kejian

    2016-12-31

    For multi-sensor integrated systems, such as the mobile mapping system (MMS), data fusion at sensor-level, i.e., the 2D-3D registration between an optical camera and LiDAR, is a prerequisite for higher level fusion and further applications. This paper proposes a line-based registration method for panoramic images and a LiDAR point cloud collected by a MMS. We first introduce the system configuration and specification, including the coordinate systems of the MMS, the 3D LiDAR scanners, and the two panoramic camera models. We then establish the line-based transformation model for the panoramic camera. Finally, the proposed registration method is evaluated for two types of camera models by visual inspection and quantitative comparison. The results demonstrate that the line-based registration method can significantly improve the alignment of the panoramic image and the LiDAR datasets under either the ideal spherical or the rigorous panoramic camera model, with the latter being more reliable.

  13. Shape Detection from Raw LiDAR Data with Subspace Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Xu, Kevin Kai

    2016-08-31

    LiDAR scanning has become a prevalent technique for digitalizing large-scale outdoor scenes. However, the raw LiDAR data often contain imperfections, e.g., missing large regions, anisotropy of sampling density, and contamination of noise and outliers, which are the major obstacles that hinder its more ambitious and higher level applications in digital city modeling. Observing that 3D urban scenes can be locally described with several low dimensional subspaces, we propose to locally classify the neighborhoods of the scans to model the substructures of the scenes. The key enabler is the adaptive kernel-scale scoring, filtering and clustering of substructures, making it possible to recover the local structures at all points simultaneously, even in the presence of severe data imperfections. Integrating the local analyses leads to robust shape detection from raw LiDAR data. On this basis, we develop several urban scene applications and verify them on a number of LiDAR scans with various complexities and styles, which demonstrates the effectiveness and robustness of our methods.

  14. Errors in LiDAR-derived shrub height and crown area on sloped terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study developed and tested four methodologies for determining shrub height measurements with LiDAR data in a semiarid shrub-steppe in southwestern Idaho, USA. Unique to this study was the focus of sagebrush height measurements on sloped terrain. The study also developed one of the first metho...

  15. 2002 Maryland Department of Natural Resources LiDAR: Worcester County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) is a method of locating objects on the ground using aerial-borne equipment. It is similar to RADAR or SONAR in that the two-way...

  16. Implications of sensor configuration and topography on vertical plant profiles derived from terrestrial LiDAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calders, K.; Armston, J.; Newnham, G.; Herold, M.; Goodwin, N.

    2014-01-01

    The vertical distribution of plant constituents is a key parameter to describe vegetation structure and influences several processes, such as radiation interception, growth and habitat. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), also referred to as terrestrial LiDAR, has the potential to measure the canopy s

  17. Skeleton-based botanic tree diameter estimation from dense LiDAR data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bucksch, A.; Lindenbergh, R.; Mementi, M.; Raman, M.Z.

    2009-01-01

    New airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) measurement systems, like the FLI-MAP 400 System, make it possible to obtain high density data containing far more information about single objects, like trees, than traditional airborne laser systems. Therefore, it becomes feasible to analyze geometr

  18. Object-Based Classification of Abandoned Logging Roads under Heavy Canopy Using LiDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Sherba

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available LiDAR-derived slope models may be used to detect abandoned logging roads in steep forested terrain. An object-based classification approach of abandoned logging road detection was employed in this study. First, a slope model of the study site in Marin County, California was created from a LiDAR derived DEM. Multiresolution segmentation was applied to the slope model and road seed objects were iteratively grown into candidate objects. A road classification accuracy of 86% was achieved using this fully automated procedure and post processing increased this accuracy to 90%. In order to assess the sensitivity of the road classification to LiDAR ground point spacing, the LiDAR ground point cloud was repeatedly thinned by a fraction of 0.5 and the classification procedure was reapplied. The producer’s accuracy of the road classification declined from 79% with a ground point spacing of 0.91 to below 50% with a ground point spacing of 2, indicating the importance of high point density for accurate classification of abandoned logging roads.

  19. A comparison of two open source LiDAR surface classification algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the progression of LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) towards a mainstream resource management tool, it has become necessary to understand how best to process and analyze the data. While most ground surface identification algorithms remain proprietary and have high purchase costs; a few are op...

  20. A LiDAR method of canopy structure retrieval for wind modeling of heterogeneous forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boudreault, Louis-Etienne; Bechmann, Andreas; Taryainen, Lasse

    2015-01-01

    and this information is required for each grid point in the three-dimensional computational domain. By using raw data from aerial LiDAR scans together with the Beer-Lambert law, we propose and test a method to calculate and grid highly variable and realistic frontal area density input. An extensive comparison...

  1. Registration of optical imagery and LiDAR data using an inherent geometrical constraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wuming; Zhao, Jing; Chen, Mei; Chen, Yiming; Yan, Kai; Li, Linyuan; Qi, Jianbo; Wang, Xiaoyan; Luo, Jinghui; Chu, Qing

    2015-03-23

    A novel method for registering imagery with Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) data is proposed. It is based on the phenomenon that the back-projection of LiDAR point cloud of an object should be located within the object boundary in the image. Using this inherent geometrical constraint, the registration parameters computation of both data sets only requires LiDAR point clouds of several objects and their corresponding boundaries in the image. The proposed registration method comprises of four steps: point clouds extraction, boundary extraction, back-projection computation and registration parameters computation. There are not any limitations on the geometrical and spectral properties of the object. So it is suitable not only for structured scenes with man-made objects but also for natural scenes. Moreover, the proposed method based on the inherent geometrical constraint can register two data sets derived from different parts of an object. It can be used to co-register TLS (Terrestrial Laser Scanning) LiDAR point cloud and UAV (Unmanned aerial vehicle) image, which are obtaining more attention in the forest survey application. Using initial registration parameters comparable to POS (position and orientation system) accuracy, the performed experiments validated the feasibility of the proposed registration method.

  2. 2012-2013 U.S. Geological Survey LiDAR: Territory of Guam

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Territory of Guam, LiDAR Task G11PD01189 This task order is for production of surface model products of The Territory of Guam. The models are produced from data...

  3. Habitat Classification of Temperate Marine Macroalgal Communities Using Bathymetric LiDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Zavalas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Here, we evaluated the potential of using bathymetric Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR to characterise shallow water (<30 m benthic habitats of high energy subtidal coastal environments. Habitat classification, quantifying benthic substrata and macroalgal communities, was achieved in this study with the application of LiDAR and underwater video groundtruth data using automated classification techniques. Bathymetry and reflectance datasets were used to produce secondary terrain derivative surfaces (e.g., rugosity, aspect that were assumed to influence benthic patterns observed. An automated decision tree classification approach using the Quick Unbiased Efficient Statistical Tree (QUEST was applied to produce substrata, biological and canopy structure habitat maps of the study area. Error assessment indicated that habitat maps produced were primarily accurate (>70%, with varying results for the classification of individual habitat classes; for instance, producer accuracy for mixed brown algae and sediment substrata, was 74% and 93%, respectively. LiDAR was also successful for differentiating canopy structure of macroalgae communities (i.e., canopy structure classification, such as canopy forming kelp versus erect fine branching algae. In conclusion, habitat characterisation using bathymetric LiDAR provides a unique potential to collect baseline information about biological assemblages and, hence, potential reef connectivity over large areas beyond the range of direct observation. This research contributes a new perspective for assessing the structure of subtidal coastal ecosystems, providing a novel tool for the research and management of such highly dynamic marine environments.

  4. Making the African city : Dakar, Dar es Salaam, Kinshasa, 1920-1980

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beeckmans, Luce Manu R.

    2013-01-01

    In her PhD thesis Making the African City, Luce Beeckmans analyses the African city from a comparative perspective. By means of three case studies, the historical development between 1920 and 1980 of three cities in sub-Saharan Africa, Dakar (Senegal), Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) and Kinshasa (Congo),

  5. Making the African city : Dakar, Dar es Salaam, Kinshasa, 1920-1980

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beeckmans, Luce Manu R.

    2012-01-01

    In her PhD thesis Making the African City, Luce Beeckmans analyses the African city from a comparative perspective. By means of three case studies, the historical development between 1920 and 1980 of three cities in sub-Saharan Africa, Dakar (Senegal), Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) and Kinshasa (Congo),

  6. 2009 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Topographic LiDAR: Androscoggin County, Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — USGS Contract Number: G10PC00026 USGS Task Order: G10PD01737 LiDAR was collected at a 1.0 points per square meter (1.0m GSD) for the county of Androscoggin, Maine...

  7. GROUND FILTERING LiDAR DATA BASED ON MULTI-SCALE ANALYSIS OF HEIGHT DIFFERENCE THRESHOLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Rashidi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Separating point clouds into ground and non-ground points is a necessary step to generate digital terrain model (DTM from LiDAR dataset. In this research, a new method based on multi-scale analysis of height difference threshold is proposed for ground filtering of LiDAR data. The proposed method utilizes three windows with different sizes in small, average and large to cover the entire LiDAR point clouds, then with a height difference threshold, point clouds can be separated to ground and non-ground in each local window. Meanwhile, the best threshold values for size of windows are considered based on physical characteristics of the ground surface and size of objects. Also, the minimum of height of object in each window selected as height difference threshold. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm, two datasets in rural and urban area were applied. The overall accuracy in rural and urban area was 96.06% and 94.88% respectively. These results of the filtering showed that the proposed method can successfully filters non-ground points from LiDAR point clouds despite of the data area.

  8. Geospatial revolution and remote sensing LiDAR in Mesoamerican archaeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Arlen F; Chase, Diane Z; Fisher, Christopher T; Leisz, Stephen J; Weishampel, John F

    2012-08-07

    The application of light detection and ranging (LiDAR), a laser-based remote-sensing technology that is capable of penetrating overlying vegetation and forest canopies, is generating a fundamental shift in Mesoamerican archaeology and has the potential to transform research in forested areas world-wide. Much as radiocarbon dating that half a century ago moved archaeology forward by grounding archaeological remains in time, LiDAR is proving to be a catalyst for an improved spatial understanding of the past. With LiDAR, ancient societies can be contextualized within a fully defined landscape. Interpretations about the scale and organization of densely forested sites no longer are constrained by sample size, as they were when mapping required laborious on-ground survey. The ability to articulate ancient landscapes fully permits a better understanding of the complexity of ancient Mesoamerican urbanism and also aids in modern conservation efforts. The importance of this geospatial innovation is demonstrated with newly acquired LiDAR data from the archaeological sites of Caracol, Cayo, Belize and Angamuco, Michoacán, Mexico. These data illustrate the potential of technology to act as a catalytic enabler of rapid transformational change in archaeological research and interpretation and also underscore the value of on-the-ground archaeological investigation in validating and contextualizing results.

  9. Child Labour in Urban Agriculture: The Case of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlozi, Malongo R. S.

    1995-01-01

    Urban agriculture in Dar es Salaam was found to use child labor of both children with parents of higher and lower socioeconomic status (SES). Discusses policy implications and calls for the education of parents of lower SES not to expect an economic contribution from their children's labor, and the education of children about their rights. (LZ)

  10. Engineering monitoring of rockfall hazards along transportation corridors: using mobile terrestrial LiDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lato

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Geotechnical hazards along linear transportation corridors are challenging to identify and often require constant monitoring. Inspecting corridors using traditional, manual methods requires the engineer to be unnecessarily exposed to the hazard. It also requires closure of the corridor to ensure safety of the worker from passing vehicles. This paper identifies the use of mobile terrestrial LiDAR data as a compliment to traditional field methods. Mobile terrestrial LiDAR is an emerging remote data collection technique capable of generating accurate fully three-dimensional virtual models while driving at speeds up to 100 km/h. Data is collected from a truck that causes no delays to active traffic nor does it impede corridor use. These resultant georeferenced data can be used for geomechanical structural feature identification and kinematic analysis, rockfall path identification and differential monitoring of rock movement or failure over time. Comparisons between mobile terrestrial and static LiDAR data collection and analysis are presented. As well, detailed discussions on workflow procedures for possible implementation are discussed. Future use of mobile terrestrial LiDAR data for corridor analysis will focus on repeated surveys and developing dynamic four-dimensional models, higher resolution data collection. As well, computationally advanced, spatially accurate, geomechanically controlled three-dimensional rockfall simulations should be investigated.

  11. Airborne hyperspectral and LiDAR data integration for weed detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamás, János; Lehoczky, Éva; Fehér, János; Fórián, Tünde; Nagy, Attila; Bozsik, Éva; Gálya, Bernadett; Riczu, Péter

    2014-05-01

    Agriculture uses 70% of global available fresh water. However, ca. 50-70% of water used by cultivated plants, the rest of water transpirated by the weeds. Thus, to define the distribution of weeds is very important in precision agriculture and horticulture as well. To survey weeds on larger fields by traditional methods is often time consuming. Remote sensing instruments are useful to detect weeds in larger area. In our investigation a 3D airborne laser scanner (RIEGL LMS-Q680i) was used in agricultural field near Sopron to scouting weeds. Beside the airborne LiDAR, hyperspectral imaging system (AISA DUAL) and air photos helped to investigate weed coverage. The LiDAR survey was carried out at early April, 2012, before sprouting of cultivated plants. Thus, there could be detected emerging of weeds and direction of cultivation. However airborne LiDAR system was ideal to detect weeds, identification of weeds at species level was infeasible. Higher point density LiDAR - Terrestrial laser scanning - systems are appropriate to distinguish weed species. Based on the results, laser scanner is an effective tool to scouting of weeds. Appropriate weed detection and mapping systems could contribute to elaborate water and herbicide saving management technique. This publication was supported by the OTKA project K 105789.

  12. Biology and management of fish stocks in Bahir Dar Gulf, Lake Tana, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wudneh, T.

    1998-01-01

    The biology of the fish stocks of the major species in the Bahir Dar Gulf of Lake Tana, the largest lake in Ethiopia, has been studied based on data collected during August 1990 to September 1993. The distribution, reproduction patterns, growth and mortality dynamics and gillnet selectivity

  13. Modeling and mapping basal area of Pinus taeda L. plantation using airborne LiDAR data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carlos A; Klauberg, Carine; Hudak, Andrew T; Vierling, Lee A; Fennema, Scott J; Corte, Ana Paula D

    2017-08-14

    Basal area (BA) is a good predictor of timber stand volume and forest growth. This study developed predictive models using field and airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data for estimation of basal area in Pinus taeda plantation in south Brazil. In the field, BA was collected from conventional forest inventory plots. Multiple linear regression models for predicting BA from LiDAR-derived metrics were developed and evaluated for predictive power and parsimony. The best model to predict BA from a family of six models was selected based on corrected Akaike Information Criterion (AICc) and assessed by the adjusted coefficient of determination (adj. R²) and root mean square error (RMSE). The best model revealed an adj. R²=0.93 and RMSE=7.74%. Leave one out cross-validation of the best regression model was also computed, and revealed an adj. R² and RMSE of 0.92 and 8.31%, respectively. This study showed that LiDAR-derived metrics can be used to predict BA in Pinus taeda plantations in south Brazil with high precision. We conclude that there is good potential to monitor growth in this type of plantations using airborne LiDAR. We hope that the promising results for BA modeling presented herein will stimulate to operate this technology in Brazil.

  14. Genetics and Human Agency: Comment on Dar-Nimrod and Heine (2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkheimer, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Dar-Nimrod and Heine (2011) decried genetic essentialism without denying the importance of genetics in the genesis of human behavior, and although I agree on both counts, a deeper issue remains unaddressed: how should we adjust our cognitions about our own behavior in light of genetic influence, or is it perhaps not necessary to take genetics into…

  15. Urban Classification Techniques Using the Fusion of LiDAR and Spectral Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    probably be made to improve final results. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Fusion, Multi-Source, Hyperspectral , Multispectral, LiDAR, Urban Classification ...Landsat Thematic Mapper for 1986, 1991, 1998, and 2002. A hybrid supervised- unsupervised classification technique was developed that clustered the...The multispectral spectral resolution is not as high as that of a hyperspectral sensor. Using hyperspectral data, finer classifications could

  16. Patterns and correlates of solid waste disposal practices in Dar es ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the patterns and correlations of solid waste disposal practices among households in urbanized and populated Dar es Salaam city in Tanzania. ... MNL estimation suggest that distance, home ownership, household expenditure ... Key words: Solid waste, garbage, waste disposal, waste management, ...

  17. 2002 Maryland Department of Natural Resources LiDAR: Worcester County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) is a method of locating objects on the ground using aerial-borne equipment. It is similar to RADAR or SONAR in that the two-way...

  18. Point Density Effects on Digital Elevation Models Generated from LiDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Weighted ( IDW ) and spline-based and geostatistic such as Kriging. Inverse Distance Weighted ( IDW ) assumes that each point has a local influence...the IDW method performs well if sampling data density is high, even for complex terrain (Liu, 2008). D. PREVIOUS DATA ANALYSIS RESULTS LiDAR data

  19. Interpersonal Conflicts and Styles of Managing Conflicts among Students at Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazezew, Arega; Neka, Mulugeta

    2017-01-01

    Interpersonal conflict happens everywhere and at any time and is inherent in all societies. However, the methods of managing such conflict are quite different from one organisation to the other. The general objective of the study was to assess interpersonal conflicts and styles of managing conflicts among students at Bahir Dar University.…

  20. A DATA DRIVEN METHOD FOR BUILDING RECONSTRUCTION FROM LiDAR POINT CLOUDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sajadian

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Airborne laser scanning, commonly referred to as LiDAR, is a superior technology for three-dimensional data acquisition from Earth's surface with high speed and density. Building reconstruction is one of the main applications of LiDAR system which is considered in this study. For a 3D reconstruction of the buildings, the buildings points should be first separated from the other points such as; ground and vegetation. In this paper, a multi-agent strategy has been proposed for simultaneous extraction and segmentation of buildings from LiDAR point clouds. Height values, number of returned pulse, length of triangles, direction of normal vectors, and area are five criteria which have been utilized in this step. Next, the building edge points are detected using a new method named "Grid Erosion". A RANSAC based technique has been employed for edge line extraction. Regularization constraints are performed to achieve the final lines. Finally, by modelling of the roofs and walls, 3D building model is reconstructed. The results indicate that the proposed method could successfully extract the building from LiDAR data and generate the building models automatically. A qualitative and quantitative assessment of the proposed method is then provided.