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Sample records for reduction affects extent

  1. Aqueous Complexation Reactions Governing the Rate and Extent of Biogeochemical U(VI) Reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott C. Brooks; Wenming Dong; Sue Carroll; James K. Fredrickson; Kenneth M. Kemner; Shelly D. Kelly

    2006-01-01

    The proposed research will elucidate the principal biogeochemical reactions that govern the concentration, chemical speciation, and reactivity of the redox-sensitive contaminant uranium. The results will provide an improved understanding and predictive capability of the mechanisms that govern the biogeochemical reduction of uranium in subsurface environments. In addition, the work plan is designed to: (1) Generate fundamental scientific understanding on the relationship between U(VI) chemical speciation and its susceptibility to biogeochemical reduction reactions. (2) Elucidate the controls on the rate and extent of contaminant reactivity. (3) Provide new insights into the aqueous and solid speciation of U(VI)/U(IV) under representative groundwater conditions

  2. Factors affecting the extent of utilization of physiotherapy services by physicians in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshehri, Mansour Abdullah; Alhasan, Hammad; Alayat, Mohamed; Al-subahi, Moayad; Yaseen, Khalid; Ismail, Ayah; Tobaigy, Abdullah; Almalki, Obaid; Alqahtani, Abdulfattah; Fallata, Basmah

    2018-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate physicians’ attitudes, opinions and experiences towards physiotherapy services as well as to identify the potential factors that may affect the extent of utilization of physiotherapy services (based on physicians’ beliefs) in Saudi Arabia (SA). [Subjects and Methods] A cross-sectional study was conducted. [Results] A total of 108 respondents met the inclusion criteria. The respondents’ attitude towards physiotherapy was slightly low (53.5%), while their opinions and experiences of physiotherapy indicated some important issues. For example, 50% of them believed that physiotherapists did not create a good awareness about physiotherapy services and 55.5% admitted that they did not have enough information about physiotherapy services. The most potential factor reported by physicians that may affect the extent of utilization of physiotherapy services was the lack of physiotherapist’s skills and knowledge to assess and treat patients (55.3%), followed by the limited knowledge of physicians regarding the types of physiotherapy services (44.5%) and the lack of cooperation between physicians and physiotherapists (40.7%). [Conclusion] There were some factors that limited the extent of utilization of physiotherapy services in SA. Physiotherapy academics and clinicians should attempt to change physicians’ negative attitudes, promoting awareness to provide them with a better understanding of physiotherapy services. PMID:29545681

  3. Extent and persistence of secondary water quality impacts after enhanced reductive bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, Robert C.; Jason M. Tillotson,; Ng, Gene-Hua Crystal.; Bekins, Barbara A.; Kent, Douglas B.; Curtis, Gary P.

    2017-01-01

    Electron donor (ED) addition can be very effective in stimulating enhanced reductive bioremediation (ERB) of a wide variety of groundwater contaminants. However, ERB can result in Secondary Water Quality Impacts (SWQIs) including decreased levels of dissolved oxygen (O2), nitrate (NO3- ), and sulfate (SO42- ), and elevated levels of dissolved manganese (Mn2+), dissolved iron (Fe2+), methane (CH4), sulfide (S2- ), organic carbon, and naturally occurring hazardous compounds (e.g., arsenic). Fortunately, this ‘plume’ of impacted groundwater is usually confined within the original contaminant plume and is unlikely to adversely impact potable water supplies. This report summarizes available information on processes controlling the production and natural attenuation of SWQI parameters and can be used as a guide in understanding the magnitude, areal extent, and duration of SWQIs in ERB treatment zones and the natural attenuation of SWQI parameters as the dissolved solutes migrate downgradient with ambient groundwater flow. This information was compiled from a wide variety of sources including a survey and statistical analysis of SWQIs from 47 ERB sites, geochemical model simulations, field studies at sites where organic-rich materials have entered the subsurface (e.g., wastewater, landfill leachate, and hydrocarbon plumes), and basic information on physical, chemical, and biological processes in the subsurface. This information is then integrated to provide a general conceptual model of the major processes controlling SWQI production and attenuation.

  4. To What Extent Does DNA Methylation Affect Phenotypic Variation in Cattle?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie McKAY

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available DNA methylation is an environmentally influenced epigenetic modification that regulates gene transcription and has the potential to influence variation in economically important phenotypes in agricultural species. We have utilized a novel approach to evaluate the relationship between genetic and epigenetic variation and downstream phenotypes. To begin with, we have integrated RNA-Seq and methyl binding domain sequencing (MBD-Seq data in order to determine the extent to which DNA methylation affects phenotypic variation in economically important traits of cattle. MBD-Seq is a technique that involves the sample enrichment of methylated genomic regions followed by their next-generation sequencing. This study utilized Illumina next generation sequencing technology to perform both RNA-Seq and MBD-Seq. NextGENe software (SoftGenetics, State College, PA was employed for quality trimming and aligning the sequence reads to the UMD3.1 bovine reference genome, generating counts of matched reads and methylated peak identification. Subsequently, we identified and quantified genome-wide methylated regions and characterized the extent of differential methylation and differential expression between two groups of animals with extreme phenotypes. The program edgeR from the R software package (version 3.0.1 was employed for identifying differentially methylated regions and regions of differential expression. Finally, Partial Correlation with Information Theory (PCIT was performed to identify transcripts and methylation events that exhibit differential hubbing. A differential hub is defined as a gene network hub that is more highly connected in one treatment group than the other. This analysis produced every possible pair-wise interaction that subsequently enabled us to look at network interactions of how methylation affects expression. (co-expression, co-methylation, methylation x expression. Genomic regions of interest derived from this analysis were then aligned

  5. Determination of the extent of reduction of dense UO{sub 2} cathodes from direct electrochemical reduction studies in molten chloride medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sri Maha Vishnu, D.; Sanil, N. [Fuel Chemistry Division, Chemistry Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Murugesan, N. [Materials Chemistry Division, Chemistry Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Shakila, L. [Fuel Chemistry Division, Chemistry Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Ramesh, C. [Materials Chemistry Division, Chemistry Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Mohandas, K.S., E-mail: ksmd@igcar.gov.in [Fuel Chemistry Division, Chemistry Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Nagarajan, K. [Fuel Chemistry Division, Chemistry Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India)

    2012-08-15

    Electro-reduction of solid UO{sub 2} to U has been studied with molten CaCl{sub 2} or LiCl as the electrolyte medium. Electro-reduction of thick (>3 mm), powder compacted and sintered pellets of UO{sub 2} showed incomplete reduction resulting in a mixture of uranium metal and UO{sub 2}. The extent of reduction of UO{sub 2} to U was determined by employing a novel method called 'metal estimation by hydrogen sensor (MEHS)', in which the hydrogen evolved during the reaction of U metal in the reduced product with con. HBr was measured using an in-house developed polymer electrolyte based amperometric hydrogen sensor. The results of our investigations on incompletely reduced UO{sub 2} pellets in both CaCl{sub 2} and LiCl melts showed that the extent of reduction of different regions of the oxide pellet was different. It varied from 88.3% on the surface of the pellet as against 3.7% towards the centre bulk during electro-reduction in CaCl{sub 2} (at 1173 K). The metallisation was found restricted to the surface of the pellets reduced in LiCl melt (at 923 K). Electro-reduction of small chunks of UO{sub 2} pellet in CaCl{sub 2} melt resulted in products with lower extent of reduction. Based on the measurements, a probable mechanism on the propagation of reduction through the solid UO{sub 2} matrix during the electrochemical reduction process has been proposed.

  6. Aqueous complexation reactions governing the rate and extent of biogeochemical U(VI) reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemner, K.M.; Kelly, S.D.; Brooks, Scott C.; Dong, Wenming; Carroll, Sue; Fredrickson, James K.

    2006-01-01

    The proposed research will elucidate the principal biogeochemical reactions that govern the concentration, chemical speciation, and reactivity of the redox-sensitive contaminant uranium. The results will provide an improved understanding and predictive capability of the mechanisms that govern the biogeochemical reduction of uranium in subsurface environments

  7. Forestry and streamflow reductions in South Africa: a reference system for assessing extent and distribution

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scott, DF

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available on the forestry rotation lengths (DWAF, 1996) to sets of magisterial districts; ? the area of forestry by tree type and growth potential; and ? rainfall, from which virgin runoff was derived, and monthly runoff for each quaternary catchment from which virgin... in the Western Cape which were planted with P. radiata. The curves shown in Figs. 2a and 2b predict the percentage reduction in the virgin total or low flow (i.e. the runoff under the natural grassland or fynbos vegetation) as a function of stand age...

  8. Extent and agenda of emission reduction policies in front of climate risks: lessons learned from integrated models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosi, Ph.

    2004-05-01

    After having highlighted the main difficulties met when trying to take decisions on emission reductions (i.e. disequilibrium between short term action and long term dynamics, series of uncertainties, lack of a clear information on threats), this research aims at studying the extent and the agenda of CO 2 emission reduction efforts at a global scale. First, the author explores under various perspectives the relationship between the extent of climate change and the extent of its impacts and modes of analysis of climate policies. Then, he examines how different attitudes towards the climate risk are translated into recommendations for action which are obtained by always more complex models. In order to compare results, simulations are performed, based on optimal control models belonging to the RESPONSE family. Three different options or attitudes are then studied and assessed with RESPONSE: firstly, the uncertainty on impact and damage assessment is still too important to have confidence in present assessments; secondly, while being sceptical on damage assessment, more confidence is given to climate model results, and thirdly, an explicit representation of climate damages is used to introduce rationality issues in the debate on risks

  9. How Working Time Reduction Affects Employment and Earnings

    OpenAIRE

    Santos Raposo, P.M.; van Ours, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    December 1, 1996 Portugal introduced a new law on working hours which gradually reduced the standard workweek from 44 hours to 40 hours. We study how this mandatory working hours reduction affected employment and earnings of workers involved. We find for workers who were affected by the new law that working hours decreased, while hourly wages increased, keeping monthly earnings approximately constant. We also find that the working hours reduction did not lead to an increased job loss of worke...

  10. How a Reduction of Standard Working Hours Affects Employment Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos Raposo, P.M.; van Ours, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    On December 1, 1996, a new law was implemented in Portugal to gradually reduce the stan- dard working week from 44 to 40 hours. We study how this mandatory reduction affected employment through job creation and job destruction. We find evidence that the working hours reduction had a positive effect

  11. How Working Time Reduction Affects Employment and Earnings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos Raposo, P.M.; van Ours, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    December 1, 1996 Portugal introduced a new law on working hours which gradually reduced the standard workweek from 44 hours to 40 hours. We study how this mandatory working hours reduction affected employment and earnings of workers involved. We find for workers who were affected by the new law that

  12. To Which Extent can Aerosols Affect Alpine Mixed-Phase Clouds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneberg, O.; Lohmann, U.

    2017-12-01

    Aerosol-cloud interactions constitute a high uncertainty in regional climate and changing weather patterns. Such uncertainties are due to the multiple processes that can be triggered by aerosol especially in mixed-phase clouds. Mixed-phase clouds most likely result in precipitation due to the formation of ice crystals, which can grow to precipitation size. Ice nucleating particles (INPs) determine how fast these clouds glaciate and form precipitation. The potential for INP to transfer supercooled liquid clouds to precipitating clouds depends on the available humidity and supercooled liquid. Those conditions are determined by dynamics. Moderately high updraft velocities result in persistent mixed-phase clouds in the Swiss Alps [1], which provide an ideal testbed to investigate the effect of aerosol on precipitation in mixed-phase clouds. To address the effect of aerosols in orographic winter clouds under different dynamic conditions, we run a number of real case ensembles with the regional climate model COSMO on a horizontal resolution of 1.1 km. Simulations with different INP concentrations within the range observed at the GAW research station Jungfraujoch in the Swiss Alps are conducted and repeated within the ensemble. Microphysical processes are described with a two-moment scheme. Enhanced INP concentrations enhance the precipitation rate of a single precipitation event up to 20%. Other precipitation events of similar strength are less affected by the INP concentration. The effect of CCNs is negligible for precipitation from orographic winter clouds in our case study. There is evidence for INP to change precipitation rate and location more effectively in stronger dynamic regimes due to the enhanced potential to transfer supercooled liquid to ice. The classification of the ensemble members according to their dynamics will quantify the interaction of aerosol effects and dynamics. Reference [1] Lohmann et al, 2016: Persistence of orographic mixed-phase clouds, GRL

  13. How spatial variation in areal extent and configuration of labile vegetation states affect the riparian bird community in Arctic tundra.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John-André Henden

    Full Text Available The Arctic tundra is currently experiencing an unprecedented combination of climate change, change in grazing pressure by large herbivores and growing human activity. Thickets of tall shrubs represent a conspicuous vegetation state in northern and temperate ecosystems, where it serves important ecological functions, including habitat for wildlife. Thickets are however labile, as tall shrubs respond rapidly to both abiotic and biotic environmental drivers. Our aim was to assess how large-scale spatial variation in willow thicket areal extent, configuration and habitat structure affected bird abundance, occupancy rates and species richness so as to provide an empirical basis for predicting the outcome of environmental change for riparian tundra bird communities. Based on a 4-year count data series, obtained through a large-scale study design in low arctic tundra in northern Norway, statistical hierarchical community models were deployed to assess relations between habitat configuration and bird species occupancy and community richness. We found that species abundance, occupancy and richness were greatly affected by willow areal extent and configuration, habitat features likely to be affected by intense ungulate browsing as well as climate warming. In sum, total species richness was maximized in large and tall willow patches of small to intermediate degree of fragmentation. These community effects were mainly driven by responses in the occupancy rates of species depending on tall willows for foraging and breeding, while species favouring other vegetation states were not affected. In light of the predicted climate driven willow shrub encroachment in riparian tundra habitats, our study predicts that many bird species would increase in abundance, and that the bird community as a whole could become enriched. Conversely, in tundra regions where overabundance of large herbivores leads to decreased areal extent, reduced height and increased fragmentation

  14. To what extent does wind power deployment affect vested interests? A case study of the Northeast China Grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Xiaoli; Zhang, Sufang; Zou, Yasheng; Yao, Jin

    2013-01-01

    China's wind power is in an embarrassing state. Along with its dramatic development since 2005, its curtailment ratio has been rising. Although this could be attributed to both physical and institutional factors, it is the institutional obstacles, mainly resulting from the adjustment difficulties of interests distribution, that have exercised a greater impact. The stakeholders relating to wind power integration are thermal power companies, grid companies and local governments. The extent to which wind power deployment affects these vested interests determines the core institutional obstacles to be addressed. Mainly based on quantitative and case analyses, we argue that currently wind deployment in China has a little impact on the interests of thermal companies, moderate impact on the interests of grid companies and great impact on local governments. We recommend that it is crucial to elevate the role of environmental protection and renewable energy increase while de-emphasize the role of economic growth in the evaluation of local governments’ performance, as well as provide incentives for grid companies to attend more to their social responsibilities rather than their scale expansion and revenue growth. - highlights: • China's wind deployment has little impact on the interests of thermal plants. • Wind deployment has limited impact on the interests of grid companies. • The taxation per year from a thermal plant is higher than from a wind farm. • Local economic growth is comparatively greatly affected by wind power. • It is crucial to induce local governments to be concerned about renewable energy increase

  15. In Situ UV-Visible Assessment of Iron-Based High-Temperature Water-Gas Shift Catalysts Promoted with Lanthana: An Extent of Reduction Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basseem B. Hallac

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The extent of reduction of unsupported iron-based high-temperature water-gas shift catalysts with small (<5 wt % lanthana contents was studied using UV-visible spectroscopy. Temperature- programmed reduction measurements showed that lanthana content higher than 0.5 wt % increased the extent of reduction to metallic Fe, while 0.5 wt % of lanthana facilitated the reduction to Fe3O4. In situ measurements on the iron oxide catalysts using mass and UV-visible spectroscopies permitted the quantification of the extent of reduction under temperature-programmed reduction and high-temperature water-gas shift conditions. The oxidation states were successfully calibrated against normalized absorbance spectra of visible light using the Kubelka-Munk theory. The normalized absorbance relative to the fully oxidized Fe2O3 increased as the extent of reduction increased. XANES suggested that the average bulk iron oxidation state during the water-gas shift reaction was Fe+2.57 for the catalyst with no lanthana and Fe+2.54 for the catalysts with 1 wt % lanthana. However, the UV-vis spectra suggest that the surface oxidation state of iron would be Fe+2.31 for the catalyst with 1 wt % lanthana if the oxidation state of iron in the catalyst with 0 wt % lanthana were Fe+2.57. The findings of this paper emphasize the importance of surface sensitive UV-visible spectroscopy for determining the extent of catalyst reduction during operation. The paper highlights the potential to use bench-scale UV-visible spectroscopy to study the surface chemistry of catalysts instead of less-available synchrotron X-ray radiation facilities.

  16. Ambient temperature affects postnatal litter size reduction in golden hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohrnberger, Sarah A; Monclús, Raquel; Rödel, Heiko G; Valencak, Teresa G

    2016-01-01

    To better understand how different ambient temperatures during lactation affect survival of young, we studied patterns of losses of pups in golden hamsters ( Mesocricetus auratus ) at different ambient temperatures in the laboratory, mimicking temperature conditions in natural habitats. Golden hamsters produce large litters of more than 10 young but are also known to wean fewer pups at the end of lactation than they give birth to. We wanted to know whether temperature affects litter size reductions and whether the underlying causes of pup loss were related to maternal food (gross energy) intake and reproductive performance, such as litter growth. For that, we exposed lactating females to three different ambient temperatures and investigated associations with losses of offspring between birth and weaning. Overall, around one third of pups per litter disappeared, obviously consumed by the mother. Such litter size reductions were greatest at 30 °C, in particular during the intermediate postnatal period around peak lactation. Furthermore, litter size reductions were generally higher in larger litters. Maternal gross energy intake was highest at 5 °C suggesting that mothers were not limited by milk production and might have been able to raise a higher number of pups until weaning. This was further supported by the fact that the daily increases in litter mass as well as in the individual pup body masses, a proxy of mother's lactational performance, were lower at higher ambient temperatures. We suggest that ambient temperatures around the thermoneutral zone and beyond are preventing golden hamster females from producing milk at sufficient rates. Around two thirds of the pups per litter disappeared at high temperature conditions, and their early growth rates were significantly lower than at lower ambient temperatures. It is possible that these losses are due to an intrinsic physiological limitation (imposed by heat dissipation) compromising maternal energy intake and

  17. Does the reduction of inferior turbinate affect lower airway functions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsal, Ozlem; Ozkahraman, Mehtap; Ozkarafakili, Mufide Arzu; Akpinar, Meltem; Korkut, Arzu Yasemin; Kurt Dizdar, Senem; Uslu Coskun, Berna

    2017-11-06

    Although the nose and lungs are separate organs, numerous studies have reported that the entire respiratory system can be considered as a single anatomical and functional unit. The upper and lower airways affect each other either directly or through reflex mechanisms. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of the radiofrequency ablation of persistent inferior turbinate hypertrophy on nasal and pulmonary function. Twenty-seven patients with bilateral persistent inferior turbinate hypertrophy without septal deviation were included in this study. All of the patients were evaluated using anterior rhinoscopy, nasal endoscopy, acoustic rhinometry, a visual analogue scale, and flow-sensitive spirometry on the day before and 4 months after the radiofrequency ablation procedure. The post-ablation measurements revealed that the inferior turbinate ablation caused an increase in the mean cross-sectional area and volume of the nose, as well as in the forced expiratory volume in 1s, forced vital capacity, and peak expiratory flow of the patients. These differences between the pre- and post-ablation results were statistically significant. The post-ablation visual analogue scale scores were lower when compared with the pre-ablation scores, and this difference was also statistically significant. This study demonstrated that the widening of the nasal passage after the reduction of the inferior turbinate size had a favorable effect on the pulmonary function tests. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Drugs potentially affecting the extent of airways reversibility on pulmonary function testing are frequently consumed despite guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Southcott A

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Terry E Jones,1 AnneMarie Southcott,2 Sean Homan3 1Pharmacy Department, The Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Woodville South, SA, 2Respiratory and Sleep Medicine, Western Health, Footscray, VIC, 3Respiratory Unit, The Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Woodville South, SA, Australia Background: The increase in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 effected by a bronchodilator is routinely assessed when patients undertake pulmonary function testing (PFT. Several drug classes can theoretically affect the magnitude of the increase in FEV1. Withholding periods are advised for many but not all such drugs. Anecdotally, many subjects presenting for PFT are found to have taken drugs that might affect the test. We did an audit of patients presenting for PFT to assess the frequency with which FEV1 reversibility might be affected by drugs. Methods: One hundred subjects presenting to the laboratory for PFT were questioned about recent drug consumption by an independent pharmacy intern. Reversibility of FEV1 was assumed to have been affected if drugs of interest were consumed within defined withholding periods or two half-lives for drugs without such data. Results: Sixty-three subjects were prescribed drugs likely to affect FEV1 reversibility. Thirty-six subjects consumed at least one such drug within the withholding period. Half (18 of these patients consumed β-blockers with or without β-agonists. Sixty-five subjects did not recall receiving any advice about withholding drugs prior to the test and only 10 recalled receiving advice from their clinician or pulmonary function technician. Conclusion: Subjects presenting for PFT are infrequently advised to withhold drugs that may affect FEV1 reversibility, and consequently, often take such drugs close to the time of the test. Therefore, it is likely that the increase in FEV1 is frequently affected by interference from drugs and this might impact on diagnosis and/or treatment options. Keywords: lung function tests, beta

  19. To what extent does not wearing shoes affect the local dynamic stability of walking?: effect size and intrasession repeatability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrier, Philippe; Reynard, Fabienne

    2014-04-01

    Local dynamic stability (stability) quantifies how a system responds to small perturbations. Several experimental and clinical findings have highlighted the association between gait stability and fall risk. Walking without shoes is known to slightly modify gait parameters. Barefoot walking may cause unusual sensory feedback to individuals accustomed to shod walking, and this may affect stability. The objective was therefore to compare the stability of shod and barefoot walking in healthy individuals and to analyze the intrasession repeatability. Forty participants traversed a 70 m indoor corridor wearing normal shoes in one trial and walking barefoot in a second trial. Trunk accelerations were recorded with a 3D-accelerometer attached to the lower back. The stability was computed using the finite-time maximal Lyapunov exponent method. Absolute agreement between the forward and backward paths was estimated with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Barefoot walking did not significantly modify the stability as compared with shod walking (average standardized effect size: +0.11). The intrasession repeatability was high (ICC: 0.73-0.81) and slightly higher in barefoot walking condition (ICC: 0.81-0.87). Therefore, it seems that barefoot walking can be used to evaluate stability without introducing a bias as compared with shod walking, and with a sufficient reliability.

  20. Application of RVA and Time-Lapse Photography to Explore Effects of Extent of Chlorination, Milling Extraction Rate, and Particle-Size Reduction of Flour on Cake-Baking Functionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three factors (extent of chlorination, milling extraction rate and particle-size reduction) in the cake-bakeing functionality of Croplan 594W flour were explored by Rapid Visco-Analyzer (RVA) and time-lapse photography. The extent of chlorination and milling extraction rate showed dramatic effects,...

  1. Do parent–child acculturation gaps affect early adolescent Latino alcohol use? A study of the probability and extent of use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The literature has been mixed regarding how parent–child relationships are affected by the acculturation process and how this process relates to alcohol use among Latino youth. The mixed results may be due to, at least, two factors: First, staggered migration in which one or both parents arrive to the new country and then send for the children may lead to faster acculturation in parents than in children for some families. Second, acculturation may have different effects depending on which aspects of alcohol use are being examined. This study addresses the first factor by testing for a curvilinear trend in the acculturation-alcohol use relationship and the second by modeling past year alcohol use as a zero inflated negative binomial distribution. Additionally, this study examined the unique and mediation effects of parent–child acculturation discrepancies (gap), mother involvement in children’s schooling, father involvement in children’s schooling, and effective parenting on youth alcohol use during the last 12 months, measured as the probability of using and the extent of use. Direct paths from parent–child acculturation discrepancy to alcohol use, and mediated paths through mother involvement, father involvement, and effective parenting were also tested. Only father involvement fully mediated the path from parent–child acculturation discrepancies to the probability of alcohol use. None of the variables examined mediated the path from parent–child acculturation discrepancies to the extent of alcohol use. Effective parenting was unrelated to acculturation discrepancies; however, it maintained a significant direct effect on the probability of youth alcohol use and the extent of use after controlling for mother and father involvement. Implications for prevention strategies are discussed. PMID:23347822

  2. A natural saline soil as a model for understanding to what extent the concentration of salt affects the distribution of microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfora, Loredana; Pinzari, Flavia; Lo Papa, Giuseppe; Vittori Antisari, Livia; Vendramin, Elisa; Salvati, Luca; Dazzi, Carmelo; Benedetti, Anna

    2017-04-01

    Soils preserve and sustain life. Their health and functioning are crucial for crop production and for the maintenance of major ecosystem services. Human induced salinity is one of the main soil threats that reduces soil fertility and affect crop yields. In recent times, great attention has been paid to the general shortage of arable land and to the increasing demand for ecological restoration of areas affected by salinization processes. Despite the diffuse interest on the effects of salinization on plants' growth, and all the derived socioeconomic issues, very few studies analyzed the ecology of the microbial species in naturally saline soils and the resilience of biological fertility in these extreme habitats. Microorganisms inhabiting such environments may share a strategy, may have developed multiple adaptations for maintaining their populations, and cope eventually to extreme conditions by altruistic or cooperative behaviors for maintaining their metabolism active. The understanding and the knowledge of the composition and distribution of microbial communities in natural hypersaline soils can be interesting for ecological reasons but also to develop new restoration strategy where soil fertility was compromised by natural accidents or human mismanagement. The aim of this research was to provide specific information on saline soils in Italy, stressing mainly their distribution, the socioeconomic issues and the understanding of the characterizing ecological processes. Moreover, natural saline soils were used as a model for understanding to what extent the concentration of salt can affect some basic microbial processes. In the present study, physical, chemical and microbiological soil properties were investigated in the shallower horizons of natural salt affected soils in Sicily (Italy), where some ecological contrasting variables acted as strong drivers in fungal and bacterial spatial distribution. Furthermore, the interface between biological and geochemical

  3. Application of multiple-isotope and groundwater-age data to identify factors affecting the extent of denitrification in a shallow aquifer near a river in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaown, Dugin; Koh, Eun-Hee; Mayer, Bernhard; Kim, Heejung; Park, Dong Kyu; Park, Byeong-Hak; Lee, Kang-Kun

    2018-01-01

    The extent of denitrification in a small agricultural area near a river in Yangpyeong, South Korea, was determined using multiple isotopes, groundwater age, and physicochemical data for groundwater. The shallow groundwater at one monitoring site had high concentrations of NO3-N (74-83 mg L-1). The δ15N-NO3 values for groundwater in the study area ranged between +9.1 and +24.6‰ in June 2014 and +12.2 to +21.6‰ in October 2014. High δ15N-NO3 values (+10.7 to +12.5‰) in both sampling periods indicated that the high concentrations of nitrate in the groundwater originated from application of organic fertilizers and manure. In the northern part of the study area, some groundwater samples showed elevated δ15N-NO3 and δ18O-NO3 values, which suggest that nitrate was removed from the groundwater via denitrification, with N isotope enrichment factors ranging between -4.8 and -7.9‰ and O isotope enrichment factors varying between -3.8 and -4.9‰. Similar δD and δ18O values of the surface water and groundwater in the south appear to indicate that groundwater in that area was affected by surface-water infiltration. The mean residence times (MRTs) of groundwater showed younger ages in the south (10-20 years) than in the north (20-30 years). Hence, it was concluded that denitrification processes under anaerobic conditions with longer groundwater MRT in the northern part of the study area removed considerable amounts of nitrate. This study demonstrates that multi-isotope data combined with physicochemical data and age-dating information can be effectively applied to characterize nitrate contaminant sources and attenuation processes.

  4. Frontal alpha asymmetry neurofeedback for the reduction of negative affect and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennella, Rocco; Patron, Elisabetta; Palomba, Daniela

    2017-05-01

    Frontal alpha asymmetry has been proposed to underlie the balance between approach and withdrawal motivation associated to each individual's affective style. Neurofeedback of EEG frontal alpha asymmetry represents a promising tool to reduce negative affect, although its specific effects on left/right frontal activity and approach/withdrawal motivation are still unclear. The present study employed a neurofeedback training to increase frontal alpha asymmetry (right - left), in order to evaluate discrete changes in alpha power at left and right sites, as well as in positive and negative affect, anxiety and depression. Thirty-two right-handed females were randomly assigned to receive either the neurofeedback on frontal alpha asymmetry, or an active control training (N = 16 in each group). The asymmetry group showed an increase in alpha asymmetry driven by higher alpha at the right site (p neurofeedback for the reduction of negative affect and anxiety in clinical settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Reduction of exposure to particulate matter in classrooms by improved cleaning: extent of exposure and results of a pilot study in Bavaria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twardella, D; Fromme, H; Dietrich, S; Dietrich, W C

    2009-02-01

    The aims of the research project were (I) to describe the exposure to particulate matter in Bavarian schools and identify predictors of increased exposure and (II) to evaluate whether exposure can be reduced by improving the ventilation and/or cleaning routine. Air quality was measured in 46 schools, two classrooms each, in the City of Munich and Dachau county. Each classroom was measured on one school day in both winter 2004/2005 and summer 2005. The continuously generated data on particulate matter during the teaching hours were summarised to daily medians and the possible association of the median concentration with classroom characteristics was tested using non-parametric methods. In winter, the median PM (2.5) concentration was 18.8 microg/m (3), in summer 12.7 microg/m (3). The median PM (10) concentration was 91.5 microg/m (3) in winter and 64.9 microg/m (3) in summer. Determinants of a high particulate matter concentration were the winter period, an increased number of pupils or decreased room size, a high CO(2) concentration, and a low class level. Following this survey, a pilot study on the effects of improved cleaning and ventilation routines was conducted in autumn 2005. Three conditions were tested in two classrooms of one school: (a) standard, (b) improved airing (3 min during short and 20 min during long breaks), and (c) improved airing and improved cleaning (thorough cleaning once and vacuuming before wet wiping). Each condition was implemented for 2 weeks and particulate matter concentrations measured concurrently. In both rooms a reduction of both PM (2.5) and PM (10) concentration was found following improved airing and a further reduction occurred when improved cleaning was introduced in addition. However, in a linear regression accounting for other factors (room, physical activity of the pupils, outdoor concentration of particulate matter) the effect of improved airing was no longer significant, while the effect of improved cleaning remained at

  6. Medicare's Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program in Surgery May Disproportionately Affect Minority-serving Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Terry; Ryan, Andrew M; Gonzalez, Andrew A; Dimick, Justin B

    2015-06-01

    To project readmission penalties for hospitals performing cardiac surgery and examine how these penalties will affect minority-serving hospitals. The Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program will potentially expand penalties for higher-than-predicted readmission rates to cardiac procedures in the near future. The impact of these penalties on minority-serving hospitals is unknown. We examined national Medicare beneficiaries undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting in 2008 to 2010 (N = 255,250 patients, 1186 hospitals). Using hierarchical logistic regression, we calculated hospital observed-to-expected readmission ratios. Hospital penalties were projected according to the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program formula using only coronary artery bypass grafting readmissions with a 3% maximum penalty of total Medicare revenue. Hospitals were classified into quintiles according to proportion of black patients treated. Minority-serving hospitals were defined as hospitals in the top quintile whereas non-minority-serving hospitals were those in the bottom quintile. Projected readmission penalties were compared across quintiles. Forty-seven percent of hospitals (559 of 1186) were projected to be assessed a penalty. Twenty-eight percent of hospitals (330 of 1186) would be penalized less than 1% of total Medicare revenue whereas 5% of hospitals (55 of 1186) would receive the maximum 3% penalty. Minority-serving hospitals were almost twice as likely to be penalized than non-minority-serving hospitals (61% vs 32%) and were projected almost triple the reductions in reimbursement ($112 million vs $41 million). Minority-serving hospitals would disproportionately bear the burden of readmission penalties if expanded to include cardiac surgery. Given these hospitals' narrow profit margins, readmission penalties may have a profound impact on these hospitals' ability to care for disadvantaged patients.

  7. To what extent does immigration affect inequality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Yonatan; Aste, Tomaso

    2016-11-01

    The current surge in income and wealth inequality in most western countries, along with the continuous immigration to those countries demand a quantitative analysis of the effect immigration has on economic inequality. This paper presents a quantitative analysis framework providing a way to calculate this effect. It shows that in most cases, the effect of immigration on wealth and income inequality is limited, mainly due to the relative small scale of immigration waves. For a large scale flow of immigrants, such as the immigration to the US, the UK and Australia in the past few decades, we estimate that 10 % ÷ 15 % of the wealth and income inequality increase can be attributed to immigration. The results demonstrate that immigration could possibly decrease inequality substantially, if the characteristics of the immigrants resemble the characteristics of the destination middle class population in terms of wealth or income. We empirically found that the simple linear relation ΔS = 0.18 ρ roughly describes the increase in the wealth share of the top 10 % due to immigration of a fraction ρ of the population.

  8. [An easy, safe and affective method for the treatment of intussusception: ultrasound-guided hydrostatic reduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ülger, Fatma Esra Bahadır; Ülger, Aykut; Karakaya, Ali Erdal; Tüten, Fatih; Katı, Ömer; Çolak, Mustafa

    2014-03-01

    Intussusception is one of the important causes of intestinal obstruction in children. Hydrostatic reduction under ultrasound guidance is a popular treatment method for intussusception. In the present study, we aimed to explain the demographic characteristics of and treatment approaches in patients diagnosed with intussusception by ultrasound. Forty-one patients diagnosed with intussusception by ultrasound between August 2011 and May 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. Twenty-four of these patients who had no contraindications had been treated with ultrasound-guided hydrostatic reduction. Twenty-four of the patients were male and 17 were female, a 1.4/1 male-to-female ratio. The majority of the patients were between the ages of 6-24 months and 2-5 years. The mean age was 31.12±26.32 months (range 3-125). Patients were more frequently diagnosed in April and May. Seventeen patients who had clinical contraindications enrolled directly for surgery. In 20 of the 24 patients who underwent ultrasound-guided hydrostatic reduction, reduction was achieved. Three experienced recurrence. In two of these patients, successful reduction was achieved with the second attempt. The remaining patient was enrolled for surgery. Hydrostatic reduction was performed 26 times on these 24 patients, and in 22, success was achieved (84.6%). No procedure-related complications occurred in the patients. Ultrasound-guided hydrostatic reduction, with its high success rates and lack of radiation risk, should be the first choice therapeutic approach for children diagnosed with intussusception.

  9. Narratives around concealment and agency for stigma-reduction: a study of women affected by leprosy in Cirebon District, Indonesia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, R.M.H.; Hofker, M.E.; Zweekhorst, M.B.M.; van Brakel, W.H.; Bunders-Aelen, J.G.F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study analyses the experiences of women affected by leprosy, taking into consideration whether they concealed or disclosed their status, and looks specifically at their ‘agency’. The aim is to provide recommendations for stigma-reduction interventions. Methods: The study population

  10. The shape of change in perceived stress, negative affect, and stress sensitivity during mindfulness based stress reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snippe, E.; Dziak, J.J.; Lanza, S.T.; Nyklicek, I.; Wichers, M.

    2017-01-01

    Both daily stress and the tendency to react to stress with heightened levels of negative affect (i.e., stress sensitivity) are important vulnerability factors for adverse mental health outcomes. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) may help to reduce perceived daily stress and stress

  11. The Shape of Change in Perceived Stress, Negative Affect, and Stress Sensitivity During Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snippe, Evelien; Dziak, John J.; Lanza, Stephanie T.; Nykliek, Ivan; Wichers, Marieke

    Both daily stress and the tendency to react to stress with heightened levels of negative affect (i.e., stress sensitivity) are important vulnerability factors for adverse mental health outcomes. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) may help to reduce perceived daily stress and stress

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS AFFECTING REDUCTIVE TRANSFORMATION OF ORGANIC POLLUTANTS IN ANOXIC SEDIMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reductive transformations are important processes for determining the fate of organic pollutants in anoxic environments. These processes are most often microbially mediated by both direct and indirect means. For example, specific bacteria transform organic pollutants directly as ...

  13. The effects of mind-body training on stress reduction, positive affect, and plasma catecholamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ye-Ha; Kang, Do-Hyung; Jang, Joon Hwan; Park, Hye Yoon; Byun, Min Soo; Kwon, Soo Jin; Jang, Go-Eun; Lee, Ul Soon; An, Seung Chan; Kwon, Jun Soo

    2010-07-26

    This study was designed to assess the association between stress, positive affect and catecholamine levels in meditation and control groups. The meditation group consisted of 67 subjects who regularly engaged in mind-body training of "Brain-Wave Vibration" and the control group consisted of 57 healthy subjects. Plasma catecholamine (norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E), and dopamine (DA)) levels were measured, and a modified form of the Stress Response Inventory (SRI-MF) and the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS) were administered. The meditation group showed higher scores on positive affect (p=.019) and lower scores on stress (pmind-body training is associated with lower stress, higher positive affect and higher plasma DA levels when comparing the meditation group with the control group. Thus, mind-body training may influence stress, positive affect and the sympathetic nervous system including DA activity. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Interactive uncertainty reduction strategies and verbal affection in computer-mediated communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antheunis, M.L.; Schouten, A.P.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Peter, J.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the language-based strategies that computer-mediated communication (CMC) users employ to reduce uncertainty in the absence of nonverbal cues. Specifically, this study investigated the prevalence of three interactive uncertainty reduction strategies (i.e.,

  15. Autoantibodies Affect Brain Density Reduction in Nonneuropsychiatric Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the relationship between autoantibodies and brain density reduction in SLE patients without major neuropsychiatric manifestation (NPSLE. Ninety-five NPSLE patients without obvious cerebral deficits, as determined by conventional MRI, as well as 89 control subjects, underwent high-resolution structural MRI. Whole-brain density of grey matter (GMD and white matter (WMD were calculated for each individual, and correlations between the brain density, symptom severity, immunosuppressive agent (ISA, and autoantibody levels were assessed. The GMD and WMD of the SLE group decreased compared to controls. GMD was negatively associated with SLE activity. The WMD of patients who received ISA treatment were higher than that in the patients who did not. The WMD of patients with anticardiolipin (ACL or anti-SSB/La antibodies was lower than in patients without these antibodies, while the GMD was lower in patients with anti-SM or anti-U1RNP antibodies. Thus, obvious brain atrophy can occur very early even before the development of significant symptoms and specific autoantibodies might contribute to the reduction of GMD or WMD in NPSLE patients. However, ISAs showed protective effects in minimizing GMD and WMD reduction. The presence of these specific autoantibodies might help identify early brain damage in NPSLE patients.

  16. Heating and reduction affect the reaction with tannins of wine protein fractions differing in hydrophobicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangon, Matteo; Vincenzi, Simone; Lucchetta, Marco; Curioni, Andrea

    2010-02-15

    During the storage, bottled white wines can manifest haziness due to the insolubilisation of the grape proteins that may 'survive' in the fermentation process. Although the exact mechanism of this occurrence is not fully understood, proteins and tannins are considered two of the key factors involved in wine hazing, since their aggregation leads to the formation of insoluble particles. To better understand this complex interaction, proteins and tannins from the same unfined Pinot grigio wine were separated. Wine proteins were then fractionated by hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC). A significant correlation between hydrophobicity of the wine protein fractions and the haze formed after reacting with wine tannins was found, with the most reactive fractions revealing (by SDS-PAGE and RP-HPLC analyses) the predominant presence of thaumatin-like proteins. Moreover, the effects of both protein heating and disulfide bonds reduction (with dithiotreithol) on haze formation in the presence of tannins were assessed. These treatments generally resulted in an improved reactivity with tannins, and this phenomenon was related to both the surface hydrophobicity and composition of the protein fractions. Therefore, haze formation in wines seems to be related to hydrophobic interactions occurring among proteins and tannins. These interactions should occur on hydrophobic tannin-binding sites, whose exposition on the proteins can depend on both protein heating and reduction. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Reduction of common motoneuronal drive on the affected side during walking in hemiplegic stroke patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bo; Brittain, John-Stuart; Halliday, David M.

    2008-01-01

    walking in eight subjects with unilateral stroke. RESULTS: On the unaffected side, short-term synchronization was evident from the presence of a narrow central peak in cumulant densities and from the presence of significant coherence between these signals in the 10-25 Hz band. Such indicators of short...... on the affected side in hemiplegic patients during walking. SIGNIFICANCE: This is of importance for understanding the mechanisms responsible for reduced gait ability and development of new strategies for gait restoration....

  18. Reduction and return of infectious trachoma in severely affected communities in Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takele Lakew

    Full Text Available Antibiotics are a major tool in the WHO's trachoma control program. Even a single mass distribution reduces the prevalence of the ocular chlamydia that causes trachoma. Unfortunately, infection returns after a single treatment, at least in severely affected areas. Here, we test whether additional scheduled treatments further reduce infection, and whether infection returns after distributions are discontinued.Sixteen communities in Ethiopia were randomly selected. Ocular chlamydial infection in 1- to 5-year-old children was monitored over four biannual azithromycin distributions and for 24 months after the last treatment.The average prevalence of infection in 1- to 5-year-old children was reduced from 63.5% pre-treatment to 11.5% six months after the first distribution (P<0.0001. It further decreased to 2.6% six months after the fourth and final treatment (P = 0.0004. In the next 18 months, infection returned to 25.2%, a significant increase from six months after the last treatment (P = 0.008, but still far lower than baseline (P<0.0001. Although the prevalence of infection in any particular village fluctuated, the mean prevalence of the 16 villages steadily decreased with each treatment and steadily returned after treatments were discontinued.In some of the most severely affected communities ever studied, we demonstrate that repeated mass oral azithromycin distributions progressively reduce ocular chlamydial infection in a community, as long as these distributions are given frequently enough and at a high enough coverage. However, infection returns into the communities after the last treatment. Sustainable changes or complete local elimination of infection will be necessary.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00221364.

  19. The Effect of Explicit Affective Strategy Training on Iranian EFL learners’ Oral Language Proficiency and Anxiety Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Mostafavi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The current study aimed at investigating the possible effects of explicit teaching of affective strategies on Iranian EFL learners’ oral language proficiency and the extent of their anxiety in EFL classroom.  First, PET test was administered to a total number of 120 female third grade high school EFL students.  Then, 60 participants whose score fell within the range of + 1 SD from the mean score were selected for the main study.  Next, they were randomly assigned into two groups (one control and one experimental.  The design of the study was Experimental comparison-group plan.  Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale adopted from Horwitz (1986 was used to examine the EFL learners’ anxiety level in English class.  Moreover, two equivalent oral tests adopted from Heaton (1975 were administered to the participants of the two groups both at the beginning and at the end of the study served as pre and post-tests.  The treatment for the experimental group included Oxford's (1990 taxonomy of affective strategies, which included explicit affective strategy instruction (in relaxation, music, visualization, humor, positive self-talk, risk-taking, and monitoring emotions.  The control group did not receive any special instruction in terms of affective strategies.  To investigate the possible effects of explicit affective strategy use instruction on the participants’ oral language proficiency and their anxiety level, the pre and posttests of oral tests and the participants’ self-reports of anxiety control in both groups were analyzed and compared.  The results of independent samples T- test indicated that while the two groups were homogeneous in terms of oral proficiency and level of anxiety control before introducing the treatment, the experimental group performed better than the control group in the oral post-test.  Moreover, the level of anxiety control for the experimental group was significantly different and higher than that of the

  20. Affect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cetinic, M.; Diamanti, J.; Szeman, I.; Blacker, S.; Sully, J.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter historicizes four divergent but historically contemporaneous genres of affect theory – romantic, realist, speculative, and materialist. While critics credited with the turn to affect in the 1990s wrote largely in the wake of poststructuralism from the perspective of gender and queer

  1. Psychosocial and Pedagogical Means of Reduction of Hyper Dynamic Manifestations Syndrome Within the Affective Personality Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Novitska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of correction of affective personality disorders (for example, reducing the manifestations of hyper dynamic syndrome, analyzes the main approaches to its solution. We determined the causes and forms of attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity. To characterize the basic correction means reducing the manifestations of hyper dynamic behavior, which includes two areas with different content and psycho social and recreational components. The first direction is connected with the conduct of an individual or group psycho-correction work; the second – social and recreational include tasks aimed at providing social and psychological support to the individual. It is shown that the problem of hyperactive behavior is determined by the individual variability and natural features caused by human development. Psychological studies suggest the importance of external, social factors, primarily adequate forms of organization and communication, the influence of family relations on the manifestations of hyperactivity. It is shown that the implementation of psycho-pedagogical bases of overcoming hyperactivity leads to increased self-esteem, developing the ability to plan and predict their own behavior and, as a consequence – the disclosure of the individual adaptation possibilities.

  2. Potential for waste reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    The author focuses on wastes considered hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. This chapter discusses wastes that are of interest as well as the factors affecting the quantity of waste considered available for waste reduction. Estimates are provided of the quantities of wastes generated. Estimates of the potential for waste reduction are meaningful only to the extent that one can understand the amount of waste actually being generated. Estimates of waste reduction potential are summarized from a variety of government and nongovernment sources

  3. How understanding and application of drug-related legal instruments affects harm reduction interventions in Cambodia: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuot, Sovannary; Ngin, Chanrith; Pal, Khuondyla; Sou, Sochenda; Sawez, Ghazal; Morgan, Phylicia; Srey, Mony; Chan, Tola; Chhoun, Pheak; Golichenko, Olga; Choub, Sok Chamreun; Yi, Siyan

    2017-06-19

    Harm reduction interventions in Cambodia face numerous obstacles because of conflicting understanding and interests and inconsistencies in the implementation by law enforcement officials. This study aims to examine how understanding and application of Drug Control Law (DCL) and Village/Commune Safety Policy (VCSP) affects harm reduction interventions in Cambodia from the standpoints of law enforcement officials, people who inject drugs and people who use drugs (PWID/PWUD), as well as other key stakeholders. This qualitative study was conducted in the capital city of Phnom Penh in 2015. We held five focus group discussions (FGDs) with groups of PWID/PWUD, police officers, Sangkat/commune officers, and local non-governmental organization (NGO) field staff. We also conducted ten key informant interviews (KIIs) with representatives from government agencies, donor agencies, and NGOs. FGDs and KIIs with Cambodian participants were transcribed in Khmer and translated into English. KIIs with foreign participants were transcribed in English. Transcripts were read and re-read to identify emerging themes, which were reviewed and refined to develop common and divergent patterns. There was a huge gap between what the DCL and VCSP say and how law enforcement officers and PWID/PWUD understood them. The gap was also evident in how law enforcement officers implemented the DCL and VCSP. Harm reduction services, including health- and non-health-related interventions, were limited and challenged by unsupportive attitudes, misinterpretation of the DCL and VCSP, and the lack of full engagement with NGOs in the development of these instruments. The needs of PWID/PWUD in accessing health care services were not met due to misconduct of authorities while practicing the DCL and VCSP. Further, the misconduct and enforcement of the law and policy lead to increased social discrimination and physical abuses against PWID/PWUD. There is a lack of common understanding of the drug-related law and

  4. Capacity of US Forests to Maintain Existing Carbon Sequestration will be affected by Changes in Forest Disturbances and to a greater extent, the Economic and Societal Influences on Forest Management and Land Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, L. A.; Running, S. W.; Breshears, D. D.; Dale, V.; Malmsheimer, R. W.; Sampson, N.; Sohngen, B.; Woodall, C. W.

    2012-12-01

    Increasingly the value of US forest carbon dynamics and carbon sequestration is being recognized in discussions of adaptation and mitigation to climate change. Past exploitation of forestlands in the United States for timber, fuelwood, and conversion to agriculture resulted in large swings in forestland area and terrestrial carbon dynamics. The National Climate Assessment explored the implications of current and future stressors, including climate change, to the future of forest carbon dynamics in the United States. While U.S forests and associated harvested wood products sequestered roughly 13 percent of all carbon dioxide emitted in the United States in 2010, the capacity of forests to maintain this amount of carbon sequestration will be affected by the effects of climate change on forest disturbances, tree growth and mortality, changes in species composition, and to a greater extent, the economic and societal influences on forest management and forestland use. Carbon mitigation through forest management includes three strategies: 1) land management to increase forest area (afforestation) and/or avoid deforestation; 2) carbon management in existing forests; and 3) use of wood in place of materials that require more carbon emissions to produce, in place of fossil fuels to produce energy or in wood products for carbon storage. A significant financial incentive facing many private forest owners is the value of their forest lands for conversion to urban or developed uses. In addition, consequences of large scale die-off and wildfire disturbance events from climate change pose major challenges to forestland area and forest management with potential impacts occurring up to regional scales for timber, flooding and erosion risks, other changes in water budgets, and biogeochemical changes including carbon storage. Options for carbon management on existing forests include practices that increase forest growth such as fertilization, irrigation, switch to fast

  5. The sequential pathway between trauma-related symptom severity and cognitive-based smoking processes through perceived stress and negative affect reduction expectancies among trauma exposed smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garey, Lorra; Cheema, Mina K; Otal, Tanveer K; Schmidt, Norman B; Neighbors, Clayton; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2016-10-01

    Smoking rates are markedly higher among trauma-exposed individuals relative to non-trauma-exposed individuals. Extant work suggests that both perceived stress and negative affect reduction smoking expectancies are independent mechanisms that link trauma-related symptoms and smoking. Yet, no work has examined perceived stress and negative affect reduction smoking expectancies as potential explanatory variables for the relation between trauma-related symptom severity and smoking in a sequential pathway model. Methods The present study utilized a sample of treatment-seeking, trauma-exposed smokers (n = 363; 49.0% female) to examine perceived stress and negative affect reduction expectancies for smoking as potential sequential explanatory variables linking trauma-related symptom severity and nicotine dependence, perceived barriers to smoking cessation, and severity of withdrawal-related problems and symptoms during past quit attempts. As hypothesized, perceived stress and negative affect reduction expectancies had a significant sequential indirect effect on trauma-related symptom severity and criterion variables. Findings further elucidate the complex pathways through which trauma-related symptoms contribute to smoking behavior and cognitions, and highlight the importance of addressing perceived stress and negative affect reduction expectancies in smoking cessation programs among trauma-exposed individuals. (Am J Addict 2016;25:565-572). © 2016 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  6. Real-time flood extent maps based on social media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilander, Dirk; van Loenen, Arnejan; Roskam, Ruud; Wagemaker, Jurjen

    2015-04-01

    During a flood event it is often difficult to get accurate information about the flood extent and the people affected. This information is very important for disaster risk reduction management and crisis relief organizations. In the post flood phase, information about the flood extent is needed for damage estimation and calibrating hydrodynamic models. Currently, flood extent maps are derived from a few sources such as satellite images, areal images and post-flooding flood marks. However, getting accurate real-time or maximum flood extent maps remains difficult. With the rise of social media, we now have a new source of information with large numbers of observations. In the city of Jakarta, Indonesia, the intensity of unique flood related tweets during a flood event, peaked at 8 tweets per second during floods in early 2014. A fair amount of these tweets also contains observations of water depth and location. Our hypothesis is that based on the large numbers of tweets it is possible to generate real-time flood extent maps. In this study we use tweets from the city of Jakarta, Indonesia, to generate these flood extent maps. The data-mining procedure looks for tweets with a mention of 'banjir', the Bahasa Indonesia word for flood. It then removes modified and retweeted messages in order to keep unique tweets only. Since tweets are not always sent directly from the location of observation, the geotag in the tweets is unreliable. We therefore extract location information using mentions of names of neighborhoods and points of interest. Finally, where encountered, a mention of a length measure is extracted as water depth. These tweets containing a location reference and a water level are considered to be flood observations. The strength of this method is that it can easily be extended to other regions and languages. Based on the intensity of tweets in Jakarta during a flood event we can provide a rough estimate of the flood extent. To provide more accurate flood extend

  7. Reduction of nocturnal slow-wave activity affects daytime vigilance lapses and memory encoding but not reaction time or implicit learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Werf, Ysbrand D; Altena, Ellemarije; Vis, José C; Koene, Teddy; Van Someren, Eus J W

    2011-01-01

    Total sleep deprivation in healthy subjects has a profound effect on the performance on tasks measuring sustained attention or vigilance. We here report how a selective disruption of deep sleep only, that is, selective slow-wave activity (SWA) reduction, affects the performance of healthy well-sleeping subjects on several tasks: a "simple" and a "complex" vigilance task, a declarative learning task, and an implicit learning task despite unchanged duration of sleep. We used automated electroencephalogram (EEG) dependent acoustic feedback aimed at selective interference with-and reduction of-SWA. In a within-subject repeated measures crossover design, performance on the tasks was assessed in 13 elderly adults without sleep complaints after either SWA-reduction or after normal sleep. The number of vigilance lapses increased as a result of SWA reduction, irrespective of the type of vigilance task. Recognition on the declarative memory task was also affected by SWA reduction, associated with a decreased activation of the right hippocampus on encoding (measured with fMRI) suggesting a weaker memory trace. SWA reduction, however, did not affect reaction time on either of the vigilance tasks or implicit memory task performance. These findings suggest a specific role of slow oscillations in the subsequent daytime ability to maintain sustained attention and to encode novel declarative information but not to maintain response speed or to build implicit memories. Of particular interest is that selective SWA reduction can mimic some of the effects of total sleep deprivation, while not affecting sleep duration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Reduction of nocturnal slow-wave activity affects daytime vigilance lapses and memory encoding but not reaction time or implicit learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werf, Y.D.; Altena, E.; Vis, J.C.; Koene, T.; van Someren, E.J.W.

    2011-01-01

    Total sleep deprivation in healthy subjects has a profound effect on the performance on tasks measuring sustained attention or vigilance. We here report how a selective disruption of deep sleep only, that is, selective slow-wave activity (SWA) reduction, affects the performance of healthy

  9. Posttraumatic stress symptoms and tobacco abstinence effects in a non-clinical sample: evaluating the mediating role of negative affect reduction smoking expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, Kirsten J; Leventhal, Adam M

    2014-11-01

    The relation between posttraumatic stress symptoms and smoking is well documented but poorly understood. The present investigation sought to evaluate the impact of posttraumatic stress symptoms on subjective and behavioral tobacco abstinence effects both directly and indirectly through negative affect reduction smoking outcome expectancies. Participants included 275 (68.7% male; Mage =43.9, 10+ cig/day) adult non-treatment seeking smokers, who attended two counterbalanced laboratory sessions (16 h of smoking deprivation vs ad libitum smoking), during which they completed self-report measures of withdrawal symptoms and mood followed by a smoking lapse task in which they could earn money for delaying smoking and purchase cigarettes to smoke. Results supported a mediational pathway whereby higher baseline symptoms of posttraumatic stress predicted greater endorsement of expectancies that smoking will effectively reduce negative affect, which in turn predicted greater abstinence-provoked exacerbations in nicotine withdrawal symptoms and negative affect. Posttraumatic stress symptoms also predicted number of cigarettes purchased independent of negative affect reduction expectancies, but did not predict delaying smoking for money. Findings highlight tobacco abstinence effects as a putative mechanism underlying posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-smoking comorbidity, indicate an important mediating role of beliefs for smoking-induced negative affect reduction, and shed light on integrated treatment approaches for these two conditions. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Moderating role of brand attachment in brand crisis. To what extent does brand attachment affect purchase intention in brand crisis: a study based on Apple’s crisis in China.

    OpenAIRE

    Shestakov, Anton Alexandrovich

    2012-01-01

    Brand crisis can often lead to negative publicity which substantially affects purchase intention. Brand attachment, on the other hand, possesses marketing value since it helps the consumer choose a brand from a set of available brands in a certain market, has a positive effect on repeat purchase, and provokes the willingness to recommend a brand. This study attempts to examine purchase intention after Apple’s employee management crisis in China. It will do so by testing the blame attribution ...

  11. Salt reduction in vegetable soup does not affect saltiness intensity and liking in the elderly and children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Gonçalves

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Study background: Reduction of added salt levels in soups is recommended. We evaluated the impact of a 30% reduction of usual added salt in vegetable soups on elderly and children's saltiness and liking evaluation. Methods: Subjects were elderly and recruited from two public nursing homes (29 older adults, 79.7±8.9 years, and preschool children recruited from a public preschool (49 children, 4.5±1.3 years. This study took place in institutional lunchrooms. Through randomization and crossover, the subjects participated in two sensory evaluation sessions, on consecutive days, to assess perceived saltiness intensity (elderly sample and liking (elderly and children samples of a vegetable soup with baseline salt content and with a 30% salt reduction. Elderly rated perceived liking through a 10 cm visual analogue scale [‘like extremely’ (1 to ‘dislike extremely’ (10] and children through a five-point facial scale [‘dislike very much’ (1 to ‘like very much’ (5]. Results: After 30% added salt reduction in vegetable soup, there were no significant differences in saltiness noted by the elderly (p=0.150, and in perceived liking by children (p=0.160 and elderly (p=0.860. Conclusions: A 30% salt reduction in vegetable soup may be achieved without compromising perceived saltiness and liking in children and the elderly.

  12. Salt reduction in vegetable soup does not affect saltiness intensity and liking in the elderly and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Carla; Monteiro, Sérgio; Padrão, Patrícia; Rocha, Ada; Abreu, Sandra; Pinho, Olívia; Moreira, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Reduction of added salt levels in soups is recommended. We evaluated the impact of a 30% reduction of usual added salt in vegetable soups on elderly and children's saltiness and liking evaluation. Subjects were elderly and recruited from two public nursing homes (29 older adults, 79.7±8.9 years), and preschool children recruited from a public preschool (49 children, 4.5±1.3 years). This study took place in institutional lunchrooms. Through randomization and crossover, the subjects participated in two sensory evaluation sessions, on consecutive days, to assess perceived saltiness intensity (elderly sample) and liking (elderly and children samples) of a vegetable soup with baseline salt content and with a 30% salt reduction. Elderly rated perceived liking through a 10 cm visual analogue scale ['like extremely' (1) to 'dislike extremely' (10)] and children through a five-point facial scale ['dislike very much' (1) to 'like very much' (5)]. After 30% added salt reduction in vegetable soup, there were no significant differences in saltiness noted by the elderly (p=0.150), and in perceived liking by children (p=0.160) and elderly (p=0.860). A 30% salt reduction in vegetable soup may be achieved without compromising perceived saltiness and liking in children and the elderly.

  13. Does Density of Cationic Sites Affect Catalytic Activity of Co Zeolites in Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO with Methane?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dědeček, Jiří; Kaucký, Dalibor; Wichterlová, Blanka

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 18, 3/4 (2002), s. 283-290 ISSN 1022-5528 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS4040016 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : Co zeolites * ZSM-5 * NO reduction Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.648, year: 2002

  14. Cr(Vi) reduction capacity of activated sludge as affected by nitrogen and carbon sources, microbial acclimation and cell multiplication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferro Orozco, A.M.; Contreras, E.M.; Zaritzky, N.E.

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of the present work were: (i) to analyze the capacity of activated sludge to reduce hexavalent chromium using different carbon sources as electron donors in batch reactors, (ii) to determine the relationship between biomass growth and the amount of Cr(VI) reduced considering the effect of the nitrogen to carbon source ratio, and (iii) to determine the effect of the Cr(VI) acclimation stage on the performance of the biological chromium reduction assessing the stability of the Cr(VI) reduction capacity of the activated sludge. The highest specific Cr(VI) removal rate (q Cr ) was attained with cheese whey or lactose as electron donors decreasing in the following order: cheese whey ∼ lactose > glucose > citrate > acetate. Batch assays with different nitrogen to carbon source ratio demonstrated that biological Cr(VI) reduction is associated to the cell multiplication phase; as a result, maximum Cr(VI) removal rates occur when there is no substrate limitation. The biomass can be acclimated to the presence of Cr(VI) and generate new cells that maintain the ability to reduce chromate. Therefore, the activated sludge process could be applied to a continuous Cr(VI) removal process.

  15. Measuring emotion socialization in families affected by pediatric cancer: Refinement and reduction of the Parents' Beliefs about Children's Emotions questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beitra, Danette; El-Behadli, Ana F; Faith, Melissa A

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to conduct a multimethod psychometric reduction in the Parents' Beliefs about Children's Emotions (PBCE) questionnaire using an item response theory framework with a pediatric oncology sample. Participants were 216 pediatric oncology caregivers who completed the PBCE. The PBCE contains 105 items (11 subscales) rated on a 6-point Likert-type scale. We evaluated the PBCE subscale performance by applying a partial credit model in WINSTEPS. Sixty-six statistically weak items were removed, creating a 44-item PBCE questionnaire with 10 subscales and 3 response options per item. The refined scale displayed good psychometric properties and correlated .910 with the original PBCE. Additional analyses examined dimensionality, item-level (e.g. difficulty), and person-level (e.g. ethnicity) characteristics. The refined PBCE questionnaire provides better test information, improves instrument reliability, and reduces burden on families, providers, and researchers. With this improved measure, providers can more easily identify families who may benefit from psychosocial interventions targeting emotion socialization. The results of the multistep approach presented should be considered preliminary, given the limited sample size.

  16. Subchronic administration of atomoxetine causes an enduring reduction in context-induced relapse to cocaine seeking without affecting impulsive decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broos, Nienke; Loonstra, Rhianne; van Mourik, Yvar; Schetters, Dustin; Schoffelmeer, Anton N M; Pattij, Tommy; De Vries, Taco J

    2015-07-01

    Previous work has established a robust relationship between impulsivity and addiction, and revealed that impulsive decision making predisposes the vulnerability to cocaine-seeking behavior in rats. An important next step is to assess whether elevated relapse vulnerability can be treated via the reduction of impulsive decision making. Therefore, this study explored whether subchronic atomoxetine treatment can reduce relapse vulnerability by reducing impulsive decision making. Rats were trained in the delayed reward task and were subjected to 3 weeks of cocaine self-administration. Following drug self-administration, animals were divided to different experimental groups and received the noradrenaline transporter inhibitor and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder drug atomoxetine or vehicle subchronically for 20 days. On days 1 and 10 after treatment cessation, a context-induced reinstatement test was performed. Throughout the entire experiment, changes in impulsive decision making were continuously monitored. Subchronic treatment with atomoxetine reduced context-induced reinstatement both 1 and 10 days after treatment cessation, only in animals receiving no extinction training. Interestingly, neither subchronic nor acute atomoxetine treatments affected impulsive decision making. Our data indicate that the enduring reduction in relapse sensitivity by atomoxetine occurred independent of a reduction in impulsive decision making. Nonetheless, repeated atomoxetine administration seems a promising pharmacotherapeutical strategy to prevent relapse to cocaine seeking in abstinent drug-dependent subjects. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  17. TO WHAT EXTENT DOES THE DEGREE OF MEANINGFUL MODEL COMPLEXITY DEPEND ON OBSERVATION DATA?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunner, Philip; Doherty, John; Christensen, Steen

    reduction of predictive uncertainty. This gives raise to interesting questions concerning the level of complexity required. The capacity of a recharge model to reduce the uncertainty of future groundwater level predictions does not rely on accurate estimation of all hydraulic properties affecting......We systematically quantify to what extent vadose zone parameters can be constrained by including different types of observation data in the calibration process. Observation data considered are hydraulic heads, soil saturation, evaporation and transpiration. Besides assessing parameter uncertainty....... The results show that observations of the hydraulic head allow a significant reduction of predictive uncertainty. However, this it is not because any parameter is well estimated. Rather, this reduction is acquired knowledge that is applicable to combinations of parameters that contribute to a significant...

  18. A method for predicting the extent of petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation in contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huesemann, M.H.

    1994-01-01

    A series of solid- and slurry-phase soil bioremediation experiments involving different crude oils and refined petroleum products were performed to investigate the factors which affect the maximum extent of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) biodegradation. The authors used a comprehensive petroleum hydrocarbon characterization procedure involving group-type separation analyses, boiling-point distributions, and hydrocarbon typing by field ionization mass spectroscopy. Initial and final concentrations of specified hydrocarbon classes were determined in each of seven different bioremediation treatments. Generally, they found that the degree of TPH biodegradation was affected mainly by the type of hydrocarbons in the contaminant matrix. In contrast, the influence of experimental variables such as soil type, fertilizer concentrations, microbial plate counts, and treatment type (slurry versus landfarming) on the overall extent of TPH biodegradation was insignificant. Based on these findings, a predictive algorithm was developed to estimate the extent of TPH biodegradation from the average reduction of 86 individual hydrocarbon classes and their respective initial concentrations. Model predictions for gravimetric TPH removals were in close agreement with analytical results from two independent laboratories

  19. To what extent does banks' credit stimulate economic growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the extent to which banks' credit affects economic growth in Nigeria. The data used was collected from the Central Bank of Nigeria statistical bulletin for a period of 24 years from 1990 to 2013. We used credit to the private sector, credit to the public sector and inflation to proxy commercial bank credit ...

  20. Affect Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Signe Holm; Poulsen, Stig Bernt; Lunn, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Gergely and colleagues’ state that their Social Biofeedback Theory of Parental Affect Mirroring” can be seen as a kind of operationalization of the classical psychoanalytic concepts of holding, containing and mirroring. This article examines to what extent the social biofeedback theory of parenta...

  1. 27 CFR 4.2 - Territorial extent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Territorial extent. 4.2 Section 4.2 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Scope § 4.2 Territorial extent. This part...

  2. Arthroscopically Assisted Coracoclavicular Fixation Using a Single Flip Button Device Technique: What Are the Main Factors Affecting the Maintenance of Reduction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Beom Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Among coracoclavicular (CC fixation techniques, the use of flip button device was demonstrated to have successful outcomes with the advantage of being able to accommodate an arthroscopic procedure. Purpose. This study was conducted to investigate the factors associated with loss of fixation after arthroscopically assisted CC fixation using a single flip button device for acromioclavicular (AC joint dislocations. Materials and Methods. We enrolled a total of 47 patients (35 men and 12 women. Plain radiography was performed at a mean of 24 months postoperatively to evaluate the final radiological outcome. The primary outcome measure was a long-term reduction of the AC joint for at least 24 months. Results. We found that 29 patients had a high quality reduction (61.7% and 18 patients had a low quality reduction (38.3% in initial postoperative CT findings. Our study showed that the duration (5 days from injury to treatment and the quality of initial postoperative reduction were significantly associated with the maintenance of reduction at final follow-up. Conclusion. Our study showed that maintaining stable reduction after arthroscopically assisted CC fixation using a single flip button device technique is difficult especially in patients who received delayed treatment or whose initial reduction quality was poor.

  3. The efficacy of chemical sanitizers on the reduction of Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli affected by bacterial cell history and water quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banach, J.L.; Bokhorst-van de Veen, van H.; Overbeek, van L.S.; Zouwen, van der P.S.; Fels, van der Ine; Nierop Groot, M.N.

    2017-01-01

    Washing fresh produce with potable water helps to remove microorganisms, providing about a 1- to 2-log reduction, but this process can also pose an opportunity for cross-contamination of bacteria in the washing tank. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of three chemical

  4. Updated Vertical Extent of Collision Damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tagg, R.; Bartzis, P.; Papanikolaou, P.

    2002-01-01

    The probabilistic distribution of the vertical extent of collision damage is an important and somewhat controversial component of the proposed IMO harmonized damage stability regulations for cargo and passenger ships. The only pre-existing vertical distribution, currently used in the international...

  5. The Geographic Extent of Global Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machikita, Tomohiro; Ueki, Yasushi

    2012-01-01

    We study the extent to which inter-firm relationships are locally concentrated and what determines firm differences in geographic proximity to domestic or foreign suppliers and customers. From micro-data on selfreported customer and supplier data of firms in Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, ...

  6. Spatial extent in demographic research - approach and problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the starting methodological problems in demographic research is the definition of spatial extent, which mostly doesn’t correspond to spatial extent already defined by different levels of administrative-territorial unitsthat are used for distribution of usable statistical data. That’s why determining the spatial extent of a demographic research is closely tied with administrative-territorial division of the territory that is being researched, wherein the fact that differentiation of demographic phenomena and processes cannot be the only basis of setting the principles of regionalization must be strictly acknowledged. This problem is particularly common in historical demographic analyses of geographically determined wholes, which are in administratively-territorial sense represented by one or more smaller territorial units, with their borders changing through the history, which directly affects comparability of the statistical data, and makes it considerably more difficult to track demographic change through longer time intervals. The result of these efforts is usually a solution based on a compromise which enables us to examine the dynamics of population change with little deviation from already defined borders of regional geographic wholes. For that reason in this paper the problem of defining spatial extent in demographic research is examined trough several different approaches in case of Eastern Serbia, as a geographically determined region, a historic area, a spatially functioning whole and as a statistical unit for demographic research, with no judgment calls in regard to any of the regionalization principles. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 47006

  7. Is Eurasian October snow cover extent increasing?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R D; Derksen, C

    2013-01-01

    A number of recent studies present evidence of an increasing trend in Eurasian snow cover extent (SCE) in the October snow onset period based on analysis of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) historical satellite record. These increases are inconsistent with fall season surface temperature warming trends across the region. Using four independent snow cover data sources (surface observations, two reanalyses, satellite passive microwave retrievals) we show that the increasing SCE is attributable to an internal trend in the NOAA CDR dataset to chart relatively more October snow cover extent over the dataset overlap period (1982–2005). Adjusting the series for this shift results in closer agreement with other independent datasets, stronger correlation with continentally-averaged air temperature anomalies, and a decrease in SCE over 1982–2011 consistent with surface air temperature warming trends over the same period. (letter)

  8. The extent of forest in dryland biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Francois Bastin; Nora Berrahmouni; Alan Grainger; Danae Maniatis; Danilo Mollicone; Rebecca Moore; Chiara Patriarca; Nicolas Picard; Ben Sparrow; Elena Maria Abraham; Kamel Aloui; Ayhan Atesoglu; Fabio Attore; Caglar Bassullu; Adia Bey; Monica Garzuglia; Luis G. GarcÌa-Montero; Nikee Groot; Greg Guerin; Lars Laestadius; Andrew J. Lowe; Bako Mamane; Giulio Marchi; Paul Patterson; Marcelo Rezende; Stefano Ricci; Ignacio Salcedo; Alfonso Sanchez-Paus Diaz; Fred Stolle; Venera Surappaeva; Rene Castro

    2017-01-01

    Dryland biomes cover two-fifths of Earth’s land surface, but their forest area is poorly known. Here, we report an estimate of global forest extent in dryland biomes, based on analyzing more than 210,000 0.5-hectare sample plots through a photo-interpretation approach using large databases of satellite imagery at (i) very high spatial resolution and (ii) very high...

  9. The reduction of population of cabbage pests plutela maculipennis curtis and crocidolomia binotalis zell as affected by the release of radiosterilized moths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoedaya, M.S.; Sutrisno, S.; Nasroh, A.; Sastradihardja, S.I.

    1983-01-01

    Moths of plutella maculipennis curtis and crocidolimia binotalis zell radiosterilized with 30 Krad and 40 Krad of gamma radiation respectively were released into a laboratory-cage of 90 cm x 60 cm x 60 cm, a field-cage of 2 m x 2 m x 2 m and an experimental plot of 10 m x 15 m to study their effect on the reduction of F1-population. The release of 450 irradiated moths in the laboratory-cage containing 50 unirradiated moths can reduce the F1-population of plutella maculipennis and crocidolomia binotalis by 61.1% and 65.3% respectively. While in the field-cage the F1-population of plutella maculipennis and crocidolomia binotalis decreased by 55.6% and 50.55% respectively. The release of about 4.500 irradiated crocidolomia binotalis into an experimental plot containing 500 normal moths can reduce the F1-population by 41.02% in the dry season and 50.55% in the rainy season. The release of about 5.000 irradiated moths of plutella maculipennis into an experimental plot containing about 350 moths of natural population, resulted in a reduction of egg hatch from 85.9% in the unreleased plot to 17.0% in the released plot. (author)

  10. Reduction of population of cabbage pests plutela maculipennis curtis and crocidolomia binotalis zell as affected by the release of radiosterilized moths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoedaya, M.S.; Sutrisno, S.; Nasroh, A.; Sastradihardja, S.I. (National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia). Pasar Djumat Research Centre)

    1983-10-01

    Moths of plutella maculipennis curtis and crocidolimia binotalis zell radiosterilized with 30 Krad and 40 Krad of gamma radiation respectively were released into a laboratory-cage of 90 cm x 60 cm x 60 cm, a field-cage of 2 m x 2 m x 2 m and an experimental plot of 10 m x 15 m to study their effect on the reduction of F1-population. The release of 450 irradiated moths in the laboratory-cage containing 50 unirradiated moths can reduce the F1-population of plutella maculipennis and crocidolomia binotalis by 61.1% and 65.3% respectively, while in the field-cage the F1-population of plutella maculipennis and crocidolomia binotalis decreased by 55.6% and 50.55% respectively. The release of about 4,500 irradiated crocidolomia binotalis into an experimental plot containing 500 normal moths can reduce the F1-population by 41.02% in the dry season and 50.55% in the rainy season. The release of about 5,000 irradiated moths of plutella maculipennis into an experimental plot containing about 350 moths of natural population resulted in a reduction of egg hatch from 85.9% in the unreleased plot to 17.0% in the released plot.

  11. Reduction of high levels of internal radio-contamination by dietary intervention in residents of areas affected by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant disaster: a case series.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaharu Tsubokura

    Full Text Available Maintaining low levels of chronic internal contamination among residents in radiation-contaminated areas after a nuclear disaster is a great public health concern. However, the efficacy of reduction measures for individual internal contamination remains unknown. To reduce high levels of internal radiation exposure in a group of individuals exposed through environmental sources, we performed careful dietary intervention with identification of suspected contaminated foods, as part of mass voluntary radiation contamination screenings and counseling program in Minamisoma Municipal General Hospital and Hirata Central Hospital. From a total of 30,622 study participants, only 9 residents displayed internal cesium-137 (Cs-137 levels of more than 50 Bq/kg. The median level of internal Cs-137 contamination in these residents at the initial screening was 4,830 Bq/body (range: 2,130-15,918 Bq/body and 69.6 Bq/kg (range: 50.7-216.3 Bq/kg. All these residents with high levels of internal contamination consumed homegrown produce without radiation inspection, and often collected mushrooms in the wild or cultivated them on bed-logs in their homes. They were advised to consume distributed food mainly and to refrain from consuming potentially contaminated foods without radiation inspection and local produces under shipment restrictions such as mushrooms, mountain vegetables, and meat of wild life. A few months after the intervention, re-examination of Cs levels revealed remarkable reduction of internal contamination in all residents. Although the levels of internal radiation exposure appear to be minimal amongst most residents in Fukushima, a subset of the population, who unknowingly consumed highly contaminated foodstuffs, experienced high levels of internal contamination. There seem to be similarities in dietary preferences amongst residents with high internal contamination levels, and intervention based on pre- and post-test counseling and dietary advice from

  12. Research Misconduct—Definitions, Manifestations and Extent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz Bornmann

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the international scientific community has been rocked by a number of serious cases of research misconduct. In one of these, Woo Suk Hwang, a Korean stem cell researcher published two articles on research with ground-breaking results in Science in 2004 and 2005. Both articles were later revealed to be fakes. This paper provides an overview of what research misconduct is generally understood to be, its manifestations and the extent to which they are thought to exist.

  13. Rate and extent of aqueous perchlorate removal by iron surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Angela M; De Leon, Corinne H; Young, Thomas M

    2003-07-15

    The rate and extent of perchlorate reduction on several types of iron metal was studied in batch and column reactors. Mass balances performed on the batch experiments indicate that perchlorate is initially sorbed to the iron surface, followed by a reduction to chloride. Perchlorate removal was proportional to the iron dosage in the batch reactors, with up to 66% removal in 336 h in the highest dosage system (1.25 g mL(-1)). Surface-normalized reaction rates among three commercial sources of iron filings were similar for acid-washed samples. The most significant perchlorate removal occurred in solutions with slightly acidic or near-neutral initial pH values. Surface mediation of the reaction is supported by the absence of reduction in batch experiments with soluble Fe2+ and also by the similarity in specific reaction rate constants (kSA) determined for three different iron types. Elevated soluble chloride concentrations significantly inhibited perchlorate reduction, and lower removal rates were observed for iron samples with higher amounts of background chloride contamination. Perchlorate reduction was not observed on electrolytic sources of iron or on a mixed-phase oxide (Fe3O4), suggesting that the reactive iron phase is neither pure zerovalent iron nor the mixed oxide alone. A mixed valence iron hydr(oxide) coating or a sorbed Fe2+ surface complex represent the most likely sites for the reaction. The observed reaction rates are too slow for immediate use in remediation system design, but the findings may provide a basis for future development of cost-effective abiotic perchlorate removal techniques.

  14. Reduction of radon concentration in a basement workplace: study of the problem and characterization of the main parameters affecting the radon concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiaberto, E.M.; Magnoni, M.; Righino, F.; Costa Laia, R.

    2002-01-01

    In this work is described the method used for the mitigation of high radon concentrations found in a basement workplace, the ARPA laboratory used for the metrology of EMF. In this lab was in fact measured a radon concentration up to 1900 Bq/m 3 , a value largely exceeding the Italian limit for workplaces (500 Bq/m 3 ). The basement workplace affected by radon is a room of around 500 m 3 with no windows and only one door, during work usually close, and therefore with a very low ventilation rate. In this workplace, usually two persons spent about 6 hour per day. Therefore their exposure to the radon and its decay products can attain a considerable value. For this people, accordingly to the accepted dosimetric models, an effective dose of several mSv per year could be estimated (ICRP Publication n. 65, 1993). It is thus important to reduce the radon concentration to acceptable levels, i.e. at least lower than 500 Bq/m 3 . This paper deals not only with the simple method used for the remedial action, but also to the investigation of the relevant parameters affecting the radon concentration. In particular, the monitoring of the radon concentration before and after the remedial action, allowed the calculation of the radon entry rates (Bq/s) and the ventilation rates (s-1) in the different experimental condition

  15. Ammonia production in poultry houses can affect health of humans, birds, and the environment-techniques for its reduction during poultry production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseem, Sadia; King, Annie J

    2018-06-01

    Due to greater consumption of poultry products and an increase in exports, more poultry houses will be needed. Therefore, it is important to investigate ways that poultry facilities can coexist in close proximity to residential areas without odors and environmental challenges. Ammonia (NH 3 ) is the greatest concern for environmental pollution from poultry production. When birds consume protein, they produce uric acid, ultimately converted to NH 3 under favorable conditions. Factors that increase production include pH, temperature, moisture content, litter type, bird age, manure age, relative humidity, and ventilation rate (VR). NH 3 concentration and emissions in poultry houses depend on VR; seasons also have effects on NH 3 production. Modern ventilation systems can minimize NH 3 in enclosed production spaces quickly but increase its emissions to the environment. NH 3 adversely affects the ecosystem, environment, and health of birds and people. Less than 10 ppm is the ideal limit for exposure, but up to 25 ppm is also not harmful. NH 3 can be minimized by housing type, aerobic and anaerobic conditions, manure handling practices, litter amendment, and diet manipulation without affecting performance and production. Antibiotics can minimize NH 3 , but consumers have concerns about health effects. Administration of probiotics seems to be a useful replacement for antibiotics. More studies have been conducted on broilers, necessitating the need to evaluate the effect of probiotics on NH 3 production in conjunction with laying hen performance and egg quality. This comprehensive review focuses on research from 1950 to 2018.

  16. Reservoir Sedimentation: Impact, Extent, and Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Richard F.

    Storage reservoirs play an important role in water resources development throughout the world. The one problem with reservoirs that is universal is the continual reduction in usable capacity caused by siltation. This book reviews the world picture of erosion and sediment yield, the large variations that exist, and the physical phenomena related to reservoir siltation. The book is in the Technical Paper series of The World Bank (Technical Paper 71) and is not a formal publication. Rather, it is intended to be circulated to encourage discussion and comment and to communicate results quickly. The book is reproduced from typescript, but this does not detract from the value of the contents as a useful text for hydrologrsts, engineers, and soil conservationists in developing countries.

  17. Selective termination, fetal reduction and analogical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennings, G

    2013-06-01

    Analogical reasoning is a basic method in bioethics. Its main purpose is to transfer the rule from an existing or known situation to a new and problematic situation. This commentary applies the lifeboat analogy to the context of selective termination and fetal reduction. It turns out that the analogy is only partially helpful as the main principle in the case of selective termination is the procreative beneficence principle. However, the wide person-affecting form of this principle doubly justifies selective termination: i.e. one prevents the harm caused by the birth of an affected child and one increases the life chances of the remaining fetuses. I conclude, however, that all analogies are basically flawed since they assume that fetuses as such have interests. I argue that fetuses only have interests to the extent that they are potential future persons. Copyright © 2013 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Beef alliances: motivations, extent, and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Ted C; Kovanda, Joseph

    2003-07-01

    With their growth, it is important to consider how alliances will impact the beef industry in the future. Alliances have the potential to make sweeping changes to cattle production, live and feeder cattle marketing, food safety protocols, use of government grades and standards, ownership structure, supply chain management, wholesale and retail product marketing, risk management, and many other industry activities. In an effort to address these issues, this article addresses the following questions: What is an alliance? What has motivated their proliferation? What have we learned from alliances? What aspects of alliances affect their likelihood of success or failure? What is the future of alliances? Are they a fad or a long-term evolving industry structural change?

  19. Reduction redux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Lawrence

    2018-04-01

    Putnam's criticisms of the identity theory attack a straw man. Fodor's criticisms of reduction attack a straw man. Properly interpreted, Nagel offered a conception of reduction that captures everything a physicalist could want. I update Nagel, introducing the idea of overlap, and show why multiple realization poses no challenge to reduction so construed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The extent and importance of intragenic recombination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Silva Eric

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have studied the recombination rate behaviour of a set of 140 genes which were investigated for their potential importance in inflammatory disease. Each gene was extensively sequenced in 24 individuals of African descent and 23 individuals of European descent, and the recombination process was studied separately in the two population samples. The results obtained from the two populations were highly correlated, suggesting that demographic bias does not affect our population genetic estimation procedure. We found evidence that levels of recombination correlate with levels of nucleotide diversity. High marker density allowed us to study recombination rate variation on a very fine spatial scale. We found that about 40 per cent of genes showed evidence of uniform recombination, while approximately 12 per cent of genes carried distinct signatures of recombination hotspots. On studying the locations of these hotspots, we found that they are not always confined to introns but can also stretch across exons. An investigation of the protein products of these genes suggested that recombination hotspots can sometimes separate exons belonging to different protein domains; however, this occurs much less frequently than might be expected based on evolutionary studies into the origins of recombination. This suggests that evolutionary analysis of the recombination process is greatly aided by considering nucleotide sequences and protein products jointly.

  1. Quantifying the extent of North American mammal extinction relative to the pre-anthropogenic baseline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Marc A; Barnosky, Anthony D; Graham, Russell W

    2009-12-16

    Earth has experienced five major extinction events in the past 450 million years. Many scientists suggest we are now witnessing a sixth, driven by human impacts. However, it has been difficult to quantify the real extent of the current extinction episode, either for a given taxonomic group at the continental scale or for the worldwide biota, largely because comparisons of pre-anthropogenic and anthropogenic biodiversity baselines have been unavailable. Here, we compute those baselines for mammals of temperate North America, using a sampling-standardized rich fossil record to reconstruct species-area relationships for a series of time slices ranging from 30 million to 500 years ago. We show that shortly after humans first arrived in North America, mammalian diversity dropped to become at least 15%-42% too low compared to the "normal" diversity baseline that had existed for millions of years. While the Holocene reduction in North American mammal diversity has long been recognized qualitatively, our results provide a quantitative measure that clarifies how significant the diversity reduction actually was. If mass extinctions are defined as loss of at least 75% of species on a global scale, our data suggest that North American mammals had already progressed one-fifth to more than halfway (depending on biogeographic province) towards that benchmark, even before industrialized society began to affect them. Data currently are not available to make similar quantitative estimates for other continents, but qualitative declines in Holocene mammal diversity are also widely recognized in South America, Eurasia, and Australia. Extending our methodology to mammals in these areas, as well as to other taxa where possible, would provide a reasonable way to assess the magnitude of global extinction, the biodiversity impact of extinctions of currently threatened species, and the efficacy of conservation efforts into the future.

  2. Quantifying the extent of North American mammal extinction relative to the pre-anthropogenic baseline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A Carrasco

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Earth has experienced five major extinction events in the past 450 million years. Many scientists suggest we are now witnessing a sixth, driven by human impacts. However, it has been difficult to quantify the real extent of the current extinction episode, either for a given taxonomic group at the continental scale or for the worldwide biota, largely because comparisons of pre-anthropogenic and anthropogenic biodiversity baselines have been unavailable. Here, we compute those baselines for mammals of temperate North America, using a sampling-standardized rich fossil record to reconstruct species-area relationships for a series of time slices ranging from 30 million to 500 years ago. We show that shortly after humans first arrived in North America, mammalian diversity dropped to become at least 15%-42% too low compared to the "normal" diversity baseline that had existed for millions of years. While the Holocene reduction in North American mammal diversity has long been recognized qualitatively, our results provide a quantitative measure that clarifies how significant the diversity reduction actually was. If mass extinctions are defined as loss of at least 75% of species on a global scale, our data suggest that North American mammals had already progressed one-fifth to more than halfway (depending on biogeographic province towards that benchmark, even before industrialized society began to affect them. Data currently are not available to make similar quantitative estimates for other continents, but qualitative declines in Holocene mammal diversity are also widely recognized in South America, Eurasia, and Australia. Extending our methodology to mammals in these areas, as well as to other taxa where possible, would provide a reasonable way to assess the magnitude of global extinction, the biodiversity impact of extinctions of currently threatened species, and the efficacy of conservation efforts into the future.

  3. Extent and Persistence of Secondary Water Quality Impacts after Enhanced Reductive Bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Magnetite precipitation was not considered in these simulations based on limited magnetite production at Bemidji. CH4 produced by fermentation ...from 47 ERB sites, geochemical model simulations , field studies at sites where organic-rich materials have entered the subsurface (e.g., wastewater...7 2.3.5 Substrate Fermentation

  4. Multisensor Analyzed Sea Ice Extent - Northern Hemisphere (MASIE-NH)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Multisensor Analyzed Sea Ice Extent Northern Hemisphere (MASIE-NH) products provide measurements of daily sea ice extent and sea ice edge boundary for the...

  5. Affects and Affect Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    MONSEN, JON T.; EILERTSEN, DAG ERIK; MELGÅRD, TROND; ØDEGÅRD, PÅL

    1996-01-01

    Affect consciousness (AC) was operationalized as degrees of awareness, tolerance, nonverbal expression, and conceptual expression of nine specific affects. A semistructured interview (ACI) and separate scales were developed to assess these aspects of affect integration. Their psychometric properties were preliminarily explored by having 20 former psychiatric outpatients complete the interview. Concurrent validity was assessed by using DSM-III-R Axis I and II diagnoses, the Health-Sickness Rating Scale, SCL-90-R, and several indexes from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Satisfactory interrater reliability and high levels of internal consistency supported the construct validity of the measure. Results suggest the most meaningful use of this instrument is in measuring specific affect and overall AC. Clinically, the ACI has provided highly specific and relevant qualitative data for use in planning psychotherapeutic interventions. PMID:22700292

  6. Low-intensity electromagnetic irradiation of 70.6 and 73 GHz frequencies enhances the effects of disulfide bonds reducer on Escherichia coli growth and affects the bacterial surface oxidation-reduction state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torgomyan, Heghine [Department of Biophysics of Biology Faculty, Yerevan State University, Yerevan 0025 (Armenia); Trchounian, Armen, E-mail: Trchounian@ysu.am [Department of Biophysics of Biology Faculty, Yerevan State University, Yerevan 0025 (Armenia)

    2011-10-14

    Highlights: {yields} Low intensity 70.6 and 73 GHz electromagnetic irradiation (EMI) strongly suppressed Escherichia coli growth at 73 GHz and pH 7.3. {yields} Reducer DL-dithiothreitol had bactericidal effect and disturbed the SH-groups number. {yields} EMI enhanced E. coli sensitivity toward dithiothreitol. {yields} EMI decreased the SH-groups number of membrane disturbed by ATP and N,N'-dicyclohexycarbodiimide. {yields} The changed membrane oxidation-reduction state could be the primary mechanisms in EMI effects. -- Abstract: Low-intensity electromagnetic irradiation (EMI) of 70.6 and 73 GHz frequencies (flux capacity - 0.06 mW cm{sup -2}) had bactericidal effects on Escherichia coli. This EMI (1 h) exposure suppressed the growth of E. coli K-12({lambda}). The pH value (6.0-8.0) did not significantly affect the growth. The lag-phase duration was prolonged, and the growth specific rate was inhibited, and these effects were more noticeable after 73 GHz irradiation. These effects were enhanced by the addition of DL-dithiothreitol (DTT), a strong reducer of disulfide bonds in surface membrane proteins, which in its turn also has bactericidal effect. Further, the number of accessible SH-groups in membrane vesicles was markedly decreased by EMI that was augmented by N,N'-dicyclohexycarbodiimide and DTT. These results indicate a change in the oxidation-reduction state of bacterial cell membrane proteins that could be the primary membranous mechanism in the bactericidal effects of low-intensity EMI of the 70.6 and 73 GHz frequencies.

  7. Low-intensity electromagnetic irradiation of 70.6 and 73 GHz frequencies enhances the effects of disulfide bonds reducer on Escherichia coli growth and affects the bacterial surface oxidation-reduction state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torgomyan, Heghine; Trchounian, Armen

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Low intensity 70.6 and 73 GHz electromagnetic irradiation (EMI) strongly suppressed Escherichia coli growth at 73 GHz and pH 7.3. → Reducer DL-dithiothreitol had bactericidal effect and disturbed the SH-groups number. → EMI enhanced E. coli sensitivity toward dithiothreitol. → EMI decreased the SH-groups number of membrane disturbed by ATP and N,N'-dicyclohexycarbodiimide. → The changed membrane oxidation-reduction state could be the primary mechanisms in EMI effects. -- Abstract: Low-intensity electromagnetic irradiation (EMI) of 70.6 and 73 GHz frequencies (flux capacity - 0.06 mW cm -2 ) had bactericidal effects on Escherichia coli. This EMI (1 h) exposure suppressed the growth of E. coli K-12(λ). The pH value (6.0-8.0) did not significantly affect the growth. The lag-phase duration was prolonged, and the growth specific rate was inhibited, and these effects were more noticeable after 73 GHz irradiation. These effects were enhanced by the addition of DL-dithiothreitol (DTT), a strong reducer of disulfide bonds in surface membrane proteins, which in its turn also has bactericidal effect. Further, the number of accessible SH-groups in membrane vesicles was markedly decreased by EMI that was augmented by N,N'-dicyclohexycarbodiimide and DTT. These results indicate a change in the oxidation-reduction state of bacterial cell membrane proteins that could be the primary membranous mechanism in the bactericidal effects of low-intensity EMI of the 70.6 and 73 GHz frequencies.

  8. To What Extent Does Advertising Affect Brand Equity: The Food Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Cooke-Yarborough, Julie-Anna

    2009-01-01

    The importance of brand equity to the success of businesses has become increasingly apparent in recent years, in particular as it is an incredibly powerful means of gaining competitive advantage. The significance of competitive advantage is especially noticeable in the food industry, where there is such vigorous competition among food firms to compete for success in the market. Resultantly, it is essential for these firms to create strong and unique brands that will appeal to a vast number of...

  9. Timing and extent of tissue removal affect reproduction characteristics of an invasive species Heracleum mantegazzianum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pyšek, Petr; Krinke, L.; Jarošík, Vojtěch; Perglová, Irena; Pergl, Jan; Moravcová, Lenka

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 3 (2007), s. 335-351 ISSN 1387-3547 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06073 Grant - others:Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development Programme(XE) EVK2-CT-2001-00128 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Allien plant * Fruit production * Fruit weight Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.125, year: 2007

  10. Environmental conditions unexpectedly affect the long-term extent of cell death following an hypoxic episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacson, Robert L; Fahey, Jeanne M; Mughairbi, Fadwa Al

    2003-05-01

    Previously we reported delayed cell death, defined by clear-cut cell loss 60 days after a nitrite-induced hypoxic episode. The loss of cells was not apparent two weeks after the treatment, although some changes in cellular appearance were observed at that time. A similar delayed loss of neurons in the hippocampus after hypoxia induced by blood vessel occlusion has also been found. In addition, we reported that the amount of methemoglobinemia induced by the sodium nitrite can be reduced by the stress produced by handling and the injection of saline 2 or 24 h before the nitrite administration. The degree of methemoglobin formed is directly related to cell death in certain areas of the brain, including regions within the hippocampus. Considering the many effects that can be produced by chronic and acute stress of several kinds and the length of time during which these effects manifest themselves, we undertook to determine the histologic effects of the stresses of transport on the neuroanatomic effects of sodium nitrite administration 60 days post administration. Comparisons were made of the effects of two methods of transport from the laboratory in which the animals (male CD-1 mice) were injected with the sodium nitrite or saline (Tufts Medical School) to the laboratory in which the histologic evaluations were made (Binghamton University). The animals began their travel several hours after the injections. One transport method was by commuter airline and the other was by automobile. All animals had the same transport from the supplier to the Boston location (truck). Thus, the stress of experimental interest occurred after the nitrite administration. Upon arrival at Binghamton University, the animals were housed at the University in their own colony room for 60 days before sacrifice. After sacrifice, sections from their brains were subjected to a number of histologic staining procedures, including PTAH, the Bielschowsky silver method, GFAP, and the standard Nissl procedure. Although special attention was paid to hippocampal areas, changes in cells in the habenulae and the linings of ventricular areas were also prominent. Surprisingly, the nitrite treatment before transport to Binghamton offered partial protection against the very substantial and lasting effects of the injections, transport, and handling found in the control animals. Differential effects caused by the two methods of transport were also noted.

  11. Estimation of steam-chamber extent using 4D seismic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, M. [Waseda Univ., Waseda (Japan); Endo, K. [Japan Canada Oil Sands Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Onozuka, S. [Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2009-07-01

    The steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) technique is among the most effective steam injection methods and is widely applied in Canadian oil-sand reservoirs. The SAGD technology uses hot steam to decrease bitumen viscosity and allow it to flow. Japan Canada Oil Sands Limited (JACOS) has been developing an oil-sand reservoir in the Alberta's Hangingstone area since 1997. This paper focused on the western area of the reservoir and reported on a study that estimated the steam-chamber extent generated by horizontal well pairs. It listed steam injection start time for each well of the western area. Steam-chamber distribution was determined by distinguishing high temperature and high pore-pressure zones from low temperature and high pore-pressure zones. The bitumen recovery volume in the steam-chamber zone was estimated and compared with the actual cumulative production. This paper provided details of the methodology and interpretation procedures for the quantitative method to interpret 4D-seismic data for a SAGD process. A procedure to apply a petrophysical model was demonstrated first by scaling laboratory measurements to field-scale applications, and then by decoupling pressure and temperature effects. The first 3D seismic data in this study were already affected by higher pressures and temperatures. 11 refs., 3 tabs., 12 figs.

  12. Extent and modes of physics instruction in European dental schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letić, Milorad; Popović, Gorjana

    2013-01-01

    Changes in dental education towards integration of sciences and convergence of curricula have affected instruction in physics. Earlier studies of undergraduate curricula make possible comparisons in physics instruction. For this study, the websites of 245 European dental schools were explored, and information about the curriculum was found on 213 sites. Physics instruction in the form of a separate course was found in 63 percent of these schools, with eighty-two hours and 5.9 European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) credits on average. Physics integrated with other subjects or into modules was found in 19 percent of these schools. Half of these schools had on average sixty-one hours and 6.9 ECTS credits devoted to physics. Eighteen percent of the schools had no noticeable obligatory physics instruction, but in half of them physics was found to be required or accepted on admission, included in other subjects, or appeared as an elective course. In 122 dental schools, the extent of physics instruction was found to be between forty and 120 contact hours. Physics instruction has been reduced by up to 14 percent in the last fourteen years in the group of eleven countries that were members of the European Union (EU) in 1997, but by approximately 30 percent in last five years in the group of ten Accession Countries to the EU.

  13. In vitro estimation of the rate and extent of ruminal digestion of cereal feed fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahir, M.N.; Lund, Peter; Hetta, M.

    2011-01-01

    by their physical and chemical properties and might be ranked as highly and poorly degrading starch after their extent and rate of degradation in rumen (Nocek and Tamminga, 1991). It is hypothesized that rumen fermentation rate of cereal starch varies considerably and that this might affect fibre digestibility...

  14. Recycling Mixed Plastics Waste as Reductant in Ironmaking*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael O. Mensah

    2015-12-02

    Dec 2, 2015 ... Keywords: Reduction, Metallurgical coke, Mixed plastics waste, Extent of reduction. 1 Introduction. Globally .... reactions in a custom-made horizontal resistance .... emissions arising out of the electrical energy that was used to ...

  15. Effects of picture size reduction and blurring on emotional engagement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea De Cesarei

    Full Text Available The activity of basic motivational systems is reflected in emotional responses to arousing stimuli, such as natural pictures. The manipulation of picture properties such as size or detail allows for investigation into the extent to which separate emotional reactions are similarly modulated by perceptual changes, or, rather, may subserve different functions. Pursuing this line of research, the present study examined the effects of two types of perceptual degradation, namely picture size reduction and blurring, on emotional responses. Both manipulations reduced picture relevance and dampened affective modulation of skin conductance, possibly because of a reduced action preparation in response to degraded or remote pictures. However, the affective modulation of the startle reflex did not vary with picture degradation, suggesting that the identification of these degraded affective cues activated the neural circuits mediating appetitive or defensive motivation.

  16. Successes and challenges from formation to implementation of eleven broad-extent conservation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beever, Erik A; Mattsson, Brady J; Germino, Matthew J; Burg, Max Post Van Der; Bradford, John B; Brunson, Mark W

    2014-04-01

    Integration of conservation partnerships across geographic, biological, and administrative boundaries is increasingly relevant because drivers of change, such as climate shifts, transcend these boundaries. We explored successes and challenges of established conservation programs that span multiple watersheds and consider both social and ecological concerns. We asked representatives from a diverse set of 11 broad-extent conservation partnerships in 29 countries 17 questions that pertained to launching and maintaining partnerships for broad-extent conservation, specifying ultimate management objectives, and implementation and learning. Partnerships invested more funds in implementing conservation actions than any other aspect of conservation, and a program's context (geographic extent, United States vs. other countries, developed vs. developing nation) appeared to substantially affect program approach. Despite early successes of these organizations and benefits of broad-extent conservation, specific challenges related to uncertainties in scaling up information and to coordination in the face of diverse partner governance structures, conflicting objectives, and vast uncertainties regarding future system dynamics hindered long-term success, as demonstrated by the focal organizations. Engaging stakeholders, developing conservation measures, and implementing adaptive management were dominant challenges. To inform future research on broad-extent conservation, we considered several challenges when we developed detailed questions, such as what qualities of broad-extent partnerships ensure they complement, integrate, and strengthen, rather than replace, local conservation efforts and which adaptive management processes yield actionable conservation strategies that account explicitly for dynamics and uncertainties regarding multiscale governance, environmental conditions, and knowledge of the system? © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  17. 241-AY-101 Tank Construction Extent of Condition Review for Tank Integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Travis J.; Gunter, Jason R.

    2013-08-26

    This report provides the results of an extent of condition construction history review for tank 241-AY-101. The construction history of tank 241-AY-101 has been reviewed to identify issues similar to those experienced during tank AY-102 construction. Those issues and others impacting integrity are discussed based on information found in available construction records, using tank AY-102 as the comparison benchmark. In tank 241-AY-101, the second double-shell tank constructed, similar issues as those with tank 241-AY-102 construction reoccurred. The overall extent of similary and affect on tank 241-AY-101 integrity is described herein.

  18. 241-AW Tank Farm Construction Extent of Condition Review for Tank Integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Travis J.; Gunter, Jason R.; Reeploeg, Gretchen E.

    2013-11-19

    This report provides the results of an extent of condition construction history review for the 241-AW tank farm. The construction history of the 241-AW tank farm has been reviewed to identify issues similar to those experienced during tank AY-102 construction. Those issues and others impacting integrity are discussed based on information found in available construction records, using tank AY-102 as the comparison benchmark. In the 241-AW tank farm, the fourth double-shell tank farm constructed, similar issues as those with tank 241-AY-102 construction occured. The overall extent of similary and affect on 241-AW tank farm integrity is described herein.

  19. Reduction corporoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakky, Tariq S; Martinez, Daniel; Yang, Christopher; Carrion, Rafael E

    2015-01-01

    Here we present the first video demonstration of reduction corporoplasty in the management of phallic disfigurement in a 17 year old man with a history sickle cell disease and priapism. Surgical management of aneurysmal dilation of the corpora has yet to be defined in the literature. We preformed bilateral elliptical incisions over the lateral corpora as management of aneurysmal dilation of the corpora to correct phallic disfigurement. The patient tolerated the procedure well and has resolution of his corporal disfigurement. Reduction corporoplasty using bilateral lateral elliptical incisions in the management of aneurysmal dilation of the corpora is a safe an feasible operation in the management of phallic disfigurement.

  20. The extent of continental crust beneath the Seychelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, J. O. S.; Kendall, J.-M.; Collier, J. S.; Rümpker, G.

    2013-11-01

    The granitic islands of the Seychelles Plateau have long been recognised to overlie continental crust, isolated from Madagascar and India during the formation of the Indian Ocean. However, to date the extent of continental crust beneath the Seychelles region remains unknown. This is particularly true beneath the Mascarene Basin between the Seychelles Plateau and Madagascar and beneath the Amirante Arc. Constraining the size and shape of the Seychelles continental fragment is needed for accurate plate reconstructions of the breakup of Gondwana and has implications for the processes of continental breakup in general. Here we present new estimates of crustal thickness and VP/VS from H-κ stacking of receiver functions from a year long deployment of seismic stations across the Seychelles covering the topographic plateau, the Amirante Ridge and the northern Mascarene Basin. These results, combined with gravity modelling of historical ship track data, confirm that continental crust is present beneath the Seychelles Plateau. This is ˜30-33 km thick, but with a relatively high velocity lower crustal layer. This layer thins southwards from ˜10 km to ˜1 km over a distance of ˜50 km, which is consistent with the Seychelles being at the edge of the Deccan plume prior to its separation from India. In contrast, the majority of the Seychelles Islands away from the topographic plateau show no direct evidence for continental crust. The exception to this is the island of Desroche on the northern Amirante Ridge, where thicker low density crust, consistent with a block of continental material is present. We suggest that the northern Amirantes are likely continental in nature and that small fragments of continental material are a common feature of plume affected continental breakup.

  1. Migratory decisions in birds: Extent of genetic versus environmental control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogonowski, M.S.; Conway, C.J.

    2009-01-01

    Migration is one of the most spectacular of animal behaviors and is prevalent across a broad array of taxa. In birds, we know much about the physiological basis of how birds migrate, but less about the relative contribution of genetic versus environmental factors in controlling migratory tendency. To evaluate the extent to which migratory decisions are genetically determined, we examined whether individual western burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) change their migratory tendency from one year to the next at two sites in southern Arizona. We also evaluated the heritability of migratory decisions by using logistic regression to examine the association between the migratory tendency of burrowing owl parents and their offspring. The probability of migrating decreased with age in both sexes and adult males were less migratory than females. Individual owls sometimes changed their migratory tendency from one year to the next, but changes were one-directional: adults that were residents during winter 2004-2005 remained residents the following winter, but 47% of adults that were migrants in winter 2004-2005 became residents the following winter. We found no evidence for an association between the migratory tendency of hatch-year owls and their male or female parents. Migratory tendency of hatch-year owls did not differ between years, study sites or sexes or vary by hatching date. Experimental provision of supplemental food did not affect these relationships. All of our results suggest that heritability of migratory tendency in burrowing owls is low, and that intraspecific variation in migratory tendency is likely due to: (1) environmental factors, or (2) a combination of environmental factors and non-additive genetic variation. The fact that an individual's migratory tendency can change across years implies that widespread anthropogenic changes (i.e., climate change or changes in land use) could potentially cause widespread changes in the migratory tendency of

  2. Entropy as a measure of the noise extent in a two-level quantum feedback controlled system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Tao-Bo; Fang Mao-Fa; Hu Yao-Hua

    2007-01-01

    By introducing the von Neumann entropy as a measure of the extent of noise, this paper discusses the entropy evolution in a two-level quantum feedback controlled system. The results show that the feedback control can induce the reduction of the degree of noise, and different control schemes exhibit different noise controlling ability, the extent of the reduction also related with the position of the target state on the Bloch sphere. It is shown that the evolution of entropy can provide a real time noise observation and a systematic guideline to make reasonable choice of control strategy.

  3. Geographic extent and variation of a coral reef trophic cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClanahan, T R; Muthiga, N A

    2016-07-01

    Trophic cascades caused by a reduction in predators of sea urchins have been reported in Indian Ocean and Caribbean coral reefs. Previous studies have been constrained by their site-specific nature and limited spatial replication, which has produced site and species-specific understanding that can potentially preclude larger community-organization nuances and generalizations. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the extent and variability of the cascade community in response to fishing across ~23° of latitude and longitude in coral reefs in the southwestern Indian Ocean. The taxonomic composition of predators of sea urchins, the sea urchin community itself, and potential effects of changing grazer abundance on the calcifying benthic organisms were studied in 171 unique coral reef sites. We found that geography and habitat were less important than the predator-prey relationships. There were seven sea urchin community clusters that aligned with a gradient of declining fishable biomass and the abundance of a key predator, the orange-lined triggerfish (Balistapus undulatus). The orange-lined triggerfish dominated where sea urchin numbers and diversity were low but the relative abundance of wrasses and emperors increased where sea urchin numbers were high. Two-thirds of the study sites had high sea urchin biomass (>2,300 kg/ha) and could be dominated by four different sea urchin species, Echinothrix diadema, Diadema savignyi, D. setosum, and Echinometra mathaei, depending on the community of sea urchin predators, geographic location, and water depth. One-third of the sites had low sea urchin biomass and diversity and were typified by high fish biomass, predators of sea urchins, and herbivore abundance, representing lightly fished communities with generally higher cover of calcifying algae. Calcifying algal cover was associated with low urchin abundance where as noncalcifying fleshy algal cover was not clearly associated with herbivore abundance. Fishing of the orange

  4. Reconstructed North American Snow Extent, 1900-1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains reconstructed monthly North American snow extent values for November through March, 1900-1993. Investigators used a combination of satellite...

  5. Exploring the extent to which ELT students utilise smartphones for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zehra

    2015-11-09

    Nov 9, 2015 ... aimed to explore the extent to which English Language Teaching (ELT) students utilise ... Given the fact that almost all students have a personal smartphone, and use it ..... ears as a disadvantage for smartphones (Kétyi,.

  6. Reduction Corporoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq S. Hakky

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective Here we present the first video demonstration of reduction corporoplasty in the management of phallic disfigurement in a 17 year old man with a history sickle cell disease and priapism. Introduction Surgical management of aneurysmal dilation of the corpora has yet to be defined in the literature. Materials and Methods: We preformed bilateral elliptical incisions over the lateral corpora as management of aneurysmal dilation of the corpora to correct phallic disfigurement. Results The patient tolerated the procedure well and has resolution of his corporal disfigurement. Conclusions Reduction corporoplasty using bilateral lateral elliptical incisions in the management of aneurysmal dilation of the corpora is a safe an feasible operation in the management of phallic disfigurement.

  7. Successes and challenges from formation to implementation of eleven broad-extent conservation programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beever, Erik A.; Bradford, John B.; Germino, Matthew J.; Mattsson, Brady J.; Post van der Burg, Max; Brunson, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Integration of conservation partnerships across geographic, biological, and administrative boundaries is increasingly relevant because drivers of change, such as climate shifts, transcend these boundaries. We explored successes and challenges of established conservation programs that span multiple watersheds and consider both social and ecological concerns. We asked representatives from a diverse set of 11 broadextent conservation partnerships in 29 countries 17 questions that pertained to launching and maintaining partnerships for broad-extent conservation, specifying ultimate management objectives, and implementation and learning. Partnerships invested more funds in implementing conservation actions than any other aspect of conservation, and a program’s context (geographic extent, United States vs. other countries, developed vs. developing nation) appeared to substantially affect program approach. Despite early successes of these organizations and benefits of broad-extent conservation, specific challenges related to uncertainties in scaling up information and to coordination in the face of diverse partner governance structures, conflicting objectives, and vast uncertainties regarding future system dynamics hindered long-term success, as demonstrated by the focal organizations. Engaging stakeholders, developing conservation measures, and implementing adaptive management were dominant challenges. To inform future research on broad-extent conservation, we considered several challenges when we developed detailed questions, such as what qualities of broad-extent partnerships ensure they complement, integrate, and strengthen, rather than replace, local conservation efforts and which adaptive management processes yield actionable conservation strategies that account explicitly for dynamics and uncertainties regarding multiscale governance, environmental conditions, and knowledge of the system?

  8. Principal Components as a Data Reduction and Noise Reduction Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhoff, M. L.; Campbell, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    The potential of principal components as a pipeline data reduction technique for thematic mapper data was assessed and principal components analysis and its transformation as a noise reduction technique was examined. Two primary factors were considered: (1) how might data reduction and noise reduction using the principal components transformation affect the extraction of accurate spectral classifications; and (2) what are the real savings in terms of computer processing and storage costs of using reduced data over the full 7-band TM complement. An area in central Pennsylvania was chosen for a study area. The image data for the project were collected using the Earth Resources Laboratory's thematic mapper simulator (TMS) instrument.

  9. Snubber reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, D.E.; Singh, A.K.

    1986-01-01

    Many safety-related piping systems in nuclear power plants have been oversupported. Since snubbers make up a large percentage of the pipe supports or restraints used in a plant, a plant's snubber population is much larger than required to adequately restrain the piping. This has resulted in operating problems and unnecessary expenses for maintenance and inservice inspections (ISIs) of snubbers. This paper presents an overview of snubber reduction, including: the incentives for removing snubbers, a historical perspective on how piping became oversupported, why it is possible to remove snubbers, and the costs and benefits of doing so

  10. Identification of Biokinetic Models Using the Concept of Extents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mašić, Alma; Srinivasan, Sriniketh; Billeter, Julien; Bonvin, Dominique; Villez, Kris

    2017-07-05

    The development of a wide array of process technologies to enable the shift from conventional biological wastewater treatment processes to resource recovery systems is matched by an increasing demand for predictive capabilities. Mathematical models are excellent tools to meet this demand. However, obtaining reliable and fit-for-purpose models remains a cumbersome task due to the inherent complexity of biological wastewater treatment processes. In this work, we present a first study in the context of environmental biotechnology that adopts and explores the use of extents as a way to simplify and streamline the dynamic process modeling task. In addition, the extent-based modeling strategy is enhanced by optimal accounting for nonlinear algebraic equilibria and nonlinear measurement equations. Finally, a thorough discussion of our results explains the benefits of extent-based modeling and its potential to turn environmental process modeling into a highly automated task.

  11. Extent, accuracy, and credibility of breastfeeding information on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Ulfat; Scott, Barbara J

    2005-05-01

    Our objective was to test and describe a model for evaluating Websites related to breastfeeding. Forty Websites most likely to be accessed by the public were evaluated for extent, accuracy, credibility, presentation, ease of use, and adherence to ethical and medical Internet publishing standards. Extent and accuracy of Website content were determined by a checklist of critical information. The majority of Websites reviewed provided accurate information and complied with the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes. Approximately half the Websites complied with standards of medical Internet publishing. While much information on breastfeeding on the Internet is accurate, there is wide variability in the extent of information, usability of Websites, and compliance with standards of medical Internet publishing. Results of this study may be helpful to health care professionals as a model for evaluating breastfeeding-related Websites and to highlight considerations when recommending or designing Websites.

  12. Radon reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    During a radon gas screening program, elevated levels of radon gas were detected in homes on Mackinac Island, Mich. Six homes on foundations with crawl spaces were selected for a research project aimed at reducing radon gas concentrations, which ranged from 12.9 to 82.3 pCi/l. Using isolation and ventilation techniques, and variations thereof, radon concentrations were reduced to less than 1 pCi/l. This paper reports that these reductions were achieved using 3.5 mil cross laminated or 10 mil high density polyethylene plastic as a barrier without sealing to the foundation or support piers, solid and/or perforated plastic pipe and mechanical fans. Wind turbines were found to be ineffective at reducing concentrations to acceptable levels. Homeowners themselves installed all materials

  13. Evolutionary history, immigration history, and the extent of diversification in community assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knope, Matthew L; Forde, Samantha E; Fukami, Tadashi

    2011-01-01

    During community assembly, species may accumulate not only by immigration, but also by in situ diversification. Diversification has intrigued biologists because its extent varies even among closely related lineages under similar ecological conditions. Recent research has suggested that some of this puzzling variation may be caused by stochastic differences in the history of immigration (relative timing and order of immigration by founding populations), indicating that immigration and diversification may affect community assembly interactively. However, the conditions under which immigration history affects diversification remain unclear. Here we propose the hypothesis that whether or not immigration history influences the extent of diversification depends on the founding populations' prior evolutionary history, using evidence from a bacterial experiment. To create genotypes with different evolutionary histories, replicate populations of Pseudomonas fluorescens were allowed to adapt to a novel environment for a short or long period of time (approximately 10 or 100 bacterial generations) with or without exploiters (viral parasites). Each evolved genotype was then introduced to a new habitat either before or after a standard competitor genotype. Most genotypes diversified to a greater extent when introduced before, rather than after, the competitor. However, introduction order did not affect the extent of diversification when the evolved genotype had previously adapted to the environment for a long period of time without exploiters. Diversification of these populations was low regardless of introduction order. These results suggest that the importance of immigration history in diversification can be predicted by the immigrants' evolutionary past. The hypothesis proposed here may be generally applicable in both micro- and macro-organisms.

  14. LEVEL AND EXTENT OF MERCURY CONTAMINATION IN OREGON LOTIC FISH

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of the U.S. EPA's EMAP Oregon Pilot project, we conducted a probability survey of 154 Oregon streams and rivers to assess the spatial extent of mercury (Hg) contamination in fish tissue across the state. Samples consisted of whole fish analyses of both small (< 120 mm) a...

  15. The Extent of Immature Fish Harvesting by the Commercial Fishery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sustainability of a given fishery is a function of the number of sexually matured fish present in water. If there is intensive immature fishing, the population of fish reaching the stage of recruitment will decrease, which in turn results in lower yield and biomass. The present study was conducted to estimate the extent of ...

  16. Does Trust Influence the Extent of Inter-Organizational Barter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek

    2014-01-01

    The 1999 World Business Environment Survey investigated, among many other things, the extent of inter-organizational barter in various countries. Reported values differed a lot, e.g. it was less than 1% in Hungary but more than 30% in neighboring Croatia. Since in many such contracts goods and...

  17. Veterinary drug prescriptions: to what extent do pet owners comply ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Separate questionnaires were designed for pet owners (clients) and veterinarians to ascertain the existence and extent of noncompliance in veterinary practice in lbadan and to elucidate the influence of such factors as logistics, education, economy, attitudes and veterinarian/client relationship on non-compliance. Analyses ...

  18. Extent of reaction in open systems with multiple heterogeneous reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedly, John C.

    1991-01-01

    The familiar batch concept of extent of reaction is reexamined for systems of reactions occurring in open systems. Because species concentrations change as a result of transport processes as well as reactions in open systems, the extent of reaction has been less useful in practice in these applications. It is shown that by defining the extent of the equivalent batch reaction and a second contribution to the extent of reaction due to the transport processes, it is possible to treat the description of the dynamics of flow through porous media accompanied by many chemical reactions in a uniform, concise manner. This approach tends to isolate the reaction terms among themselves and away from the model partial differential equations, thereby enabling treatment of large problems involving both equilibrium and kinetically controlled reactions. Implications on the number of coupled partial differential equations necessary to be solved and on numerical algorithms for solving such problems are discussed. Examples provided illustrate the theory applied to solute transport in groundwater flow.

  19. Extent and Distribution of Groundwater Resources in Parts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The extent and distribution of groundwater resources in parts of Anambra State, Nigeria has been investigated. The results show that the study area is directly underlain by four different geological formations including, Alluvial Plain Sands, Ogwashi-Asaba Formation, Ameki/Nanka Sands and Imo Shale, with varying water ...

  20. Extent of implementation of collection development policies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study is a survey research on the extent of implementation of collection development policies in academic libraries in Imo state. The population of the study comprises five (5) academic libraries in the area of study. The academic libraries understudy are: Imo State University Owerri (IMSU), Federal University of ...

  1. An investigation into Nigerian teacher's attitude towards and extent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The attitude of Biology teachers towards and their extent of improvisation, were investigated 80 teachers from 50 randomly selected secondary schools in Oyo state of Nigeria participated in the study. Analysis of the twenty item questionnaire administered to the teachers revealed that though many of them exhibited positive ...

  2. Extent of implementation of Collection Development Policies (CDP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was on the extent of implementation of collection development policies by public University libraries in the Niger Delta Area, Nigeria. Descriptive survey design was employed. Population for the study consisted of all the 16 Colle ction Development Librarians in the Area studied. No sample was used because the ...

  3. The extent of groundwater use for domestic and irrigation activities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AKMENSAH

    2015-06-04

    Jun 4, 2015 ... Albert Kobina Mensah1*, Evans Appiah Kissi2, Kwabena Krah3 and Okoree D. Mireku4. 1Department of Geography, Kenyatta University, Nairobi. 2Department of .... catchment in Kiambu County in Kenya had limited themselves to the assessment of water quality. Little work has been done on the extent to ...

  4. Forest extent and deforestation in tropical Africa since 1900.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Julie C; Jarzyna, Marta A; Staver, A Carla

    2018-01-01

    Accurate estimates of historical forest extent and associated deforestation rates are crucial for quantifying tropical carbon cycles and formulating conservation policy. In Africa, data-driven estimates of historical closed-canopy forest extent and deforestation at the continental scale are lacking, and existing modelled estimates diverge substantially. Here, we synthesize available palaeo-proxies and historical maps to reconstruct forest extent in tropical Africa around 1900, when European colonization accelerated markedly, and compare these historical estimates with modern forest extent to estimate deforestation. We find that forests were less extensive in 1900 than bioclimatic models predict. Resultantly, across tropical Africa, ~ 21.7% of forests have been deforested, yielding substantially slower deforestation than previous estimates (35-55%). However, deforestation was heterogeneous: West and East African forests have undergone almost complete decline (~ 83.3 and 93.0%, respectively), while Central African forests have expanded at the expense of savannahs (~ 1.4% net forest expansion, with ~ 135,270 km 2 of savannahs encroached). These results suggest that climate alone does not determine savannah and forest distributions and that many savannahs hitherto considered to be degraded forests are instead relatively old. These data-driven reconstructions of historical biome distributions will inform tropical carbon cycle estimates, carbon mitigation initiatives and conservation planning in both forest and savannah systems.

  5. The Extent of Reversibility of Polychlorinated Biphenyl Adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    The extent of reversibility of PCB bonding to sediments has been characterized in studies on the partitioning behavior of a hexachlorobiphenyl isomer. Linear non-singular isotherms have been observed for the adsorption and desorption of 2.4.5.2?,4?,5? hexachlorobiphenyl (HCBP) to...

  6. The Extent of Educational Technology's Influence on Contemporary Educational Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Bradford-Watts

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates how advances in educational technologies have influenced contemporary educational practices.It discusses the nature of educational technology, the limitations imposed by the digital divide and other factors of uptake, and the factors leading to successful implementation of educational technologies.The extent of influence is then discussed,together with the probable implications for educational sites for the future.

  7. Determining wetland spatial extent and seasonal variations of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study, done in the Witbank Dam Catchment in Mpumalanga Province of South Africa, explores a remote-sensing technique to delineate wetland extent and assesses the seasonal variations of the inundated area. The objective was to monitor the spatio-temporal changes of wetlands over time through remote sensing ...

  8. 32 CFR 728.12 - Extent of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 728.12 Extent of care. Members who are away from their duty stations or are on duty where there is no... providing authorization for non-Federal care at DHHS expense. (b) Maternity episode for active duty female... facilities (once the mother has been admitted to the USMTF) from funds available for care of active duty...

  9. 27 CFR 24.158 - Extent of relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Extent of relief. 24.158 Section 24.158 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT..., until all tax is fully paid. (d) Wine vinegar plant bond. The surety will be relieved of liability for...

  10. Assessing the Global Extent of Rivers Observable by SWOT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavelsky, T.; Durand, M. T.; Andreadis, K.; Beighley, E.; Allen, G. H.; Miller, Z.

    2013-12-01

    Flow of water through rivers is among the key fluxes in the global hydrologic cycle and its knowledge would advance the understanding of flood hazards, water resources management, ecology, and climate. However, gauges providing publicly accessible measurements of river stage or discharge remain sparse in many regions. The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission is a joint project of NASA and the French Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) that would provide the first high-resolution images of simultaneous terrestrial water surface height, inundation extent, and ocean surface elevation. Among SWOT's primary goals is the direct observation of variations in river water surface elevation and, where possible, estimation of river discharge from SWOT measurements. The mission science requirements specify that rivers wider than 100 m would be observed globally, with a goal of observing rivers wider than 50m. However, the extent of anticipated SWOT river observations remains fundamentally unknown because no high-resolution, global dataset of river widths exists. Here, we estimate the global extent of rivers wider than 50 m-100 m thresholds using established relationships among river width, discharge, and drainage area. We combine a global digital elevation model with in situ river discharge data to estimate the global extent of SWOT-observable rivers, and validate these estimates against satellite-derived measurements of river width in two large river basins (the Yukon and the Ohio). We then compare the extent of SWOT-observed rivers with the current publicly-available, global gauge network included in the Global Runoff Data Centre (GRDC) database to examine the impact of SWOT on the availability of river observation over continental and global scales. Results suggest that if SWOT observes 100 m wide rivers, river basins with areas greater than 50,000 km2 will commonly be measured. If SWOT could observe 50 m wide rivers, then most 10,000 km2 basins

  11. Discrete Routh reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalnapurkar, Sameer M; Leok, Melvin; Marsden, Jerrold E; West, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    This paper develops the theory of Abelian Routh reduction for discrete mechanical systems and applies it to the variational integration of mechanical systems with Abelian symmetry. The reduction of variational Runge-Kutta discretizations is considered, as well as the extent to which symmetry reduction and discretization commute. These reduced methods allow the direct simulation of dynamical features such as relative equilibria and relative periodic orbits that can be obscured or difficult to identify in the unreduced dynamics. The methods are demonstrated for the dynamics of an Earth orbiting satellite with a non-spherical J 2 correction, as well as the double spherical pendulum. The J 2 problem is interesting because in the unreduced picture, geometric phases inherent in the model and those due to numerical discretization can be hard to distinguish, but this issue does not appear in the reduced algorithm, where one can directly observe interesting dynamical structures in the reduced phase space (the cotangent bundle of shape space), in which the geometric phases have been removed. The main feature of the double spherical pendulum example is that it has a non-trivial magnetic term in its reduced symplectic form. Our method is still efficient as it can directly handle the essential non-canonical nature of the symplectic structure. In contrast, a traditional symplectic method for canonical systems could require repeated coordinate changes if one is evoking Darboux' theorem to transform the symplectic structure into canonical form, thereby incurring additional computational cost. Our method allows one to design reduced symplectic integrators in a natural way, despite the non-canonical nature of the symplectic structure

  12. The extent of emphysema in patients with COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Saher Burhan; Stavngaard, Trine; Hestad, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The global initiative for COPD (GOLD) adopted the degree of airway obstruction as a measure of the severity of the disease. The objective of this study was to apply CT to assess the extent of emphysema in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and relate...... measurement and visual and quantitative assessment of CT, from which the relative area of emphysema below -910 Hounsfield units (RA-910) was extracted. RESULTS: Mean RA-910 was 7.4% (n = 5) in patients with GOLD stage I, 17.0% (n = 119) in stage II, 24.2% (n = 79) in stage III and 33.9% (n = 6) in stage IV....... Regression analysis showed a change in RA-910 of 7.8% with increasing severity according to GOLD stage (P emphysema, whereas 25 patients had no emphysema. CONCLUSION: The extent of emphysema...

  13. Extent of hippocampal atrophy predicts degree of deficit in recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patai, Eva Zita; Gadian, David G; Cooper, Janine M; Dzieciol, Anna M; Mishkin, Mortimer; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh

    2015-10-13

    Which specific memory functions are dependent on the hippocampus is still debated. The availability of a large cohort of patients who had sustained relatively selective hippocampal damage early in life enabled us to determine which type of mnemonic deficit showed a correlation with extent of hippocampal injury. We assessed our patient cohort on a test that provides measures of recognition and recall that are equated for difficulty and found that the patients' performance on the recall tests correlated significantly with their hippocampal volumes, whereas their performance on the equally difficult recognition tests did not and, indeed, was largely unaffected regardless of extent of hippocampal atrophy. The results provide new evidence in favor of the view that the hippocampus is essential for recall but not for recognition.

  14. Reduction of U3O8 to U by a metallic reductant, Li

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin-Mok Hur; Sun-Seok Hong; Hansoo Lee

    2010-01-01

    Reduction of U 3 O 8 was investigated for the recycling of spent oxide fuel from a commercial nuclear power plant. The possible reduction methods were proposed and compared. Based on the thermodynamic analysis, Li metal was selected as a reductant. The optimum reaction temperature for the reduction of U 3 O 8 was investigated at the wider reaction temperature range. The adverse oxidation of U metal by Li 2 O at 1,000 deg C was experimentally verified. Ellingham diagram was constructed to investigate the extent of the uranium oxides reduction when the reaction was carried out above melting point of U metal. (author)

  15. A 21-Year Record of Arctic Sea Ice Extents and Their Regional, Seasonal, and Monthly Variability and Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Claire L.; Cavalieri, Donald J.; Zukor, Dorothy J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Satellite passive-microwave data have been used to calculate sea ice extents over the period 1979-1999 for the north polar sea ice cover as a whole and for each of nine regions. Over this 21-year time period, the trend in yearly average ice extents for the ice cover as a whole is -32,900 +/- 6,100 sq km/yr (-2.7 +/- 0.5 %/decade), indicating a reduction in sea ice coverage that has decelerated from the earlier reported value of -34,000 +/- 8,300 sq km/yr (-2.8 +/- 0.7 %/decade) for the period 1979-1996. Regionally, the reductions are greatest in the Arctic Ocean, the Kara and Barents Seas, and the Seas of Okhotsk and Japan, whereas seasonally, the reductions are greatest in summer, for which season the 1979-1999 trend in ice extents is -41,600 +/- 12,900 sq km/ yr (-4.9 +/- 1.5 %/decade). On a monthly basis, the reductions are greatest in July and September for the north polar ice cover as a whole, in September for the Arctic Ocean, in June and July for the Kara and Barents Seas, and in April for the Seas of Okhotsk and Japan. Only two of the nine regions show overall ice extent increases, those being the Bering Sea and the Gulf of St. Lawrence.For neither of these two regions is the increase statistically significant, whereas the 1079 - 1999 ice extent decreases are statistically significant at the 99% confidence level for the north polar region as a whole, the Arctic Ocean, the Seas of Okhotsk and Japan, and Hudson Bay.

  16. A report on the extent of radioisotope usage in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    A market survey was carried out to study the extent of radioisotope usage in Malaysia. From the survey, the radioisotopes and their activities/quantities that are used in Industry, Medicine and Research were identified. The radioisotopes that are frequently needed or routinely used were also determined and this formed the basis of the recommendations put forward in this report. It is proposed that PUSPATI adopt the concept of a Distribution Centre in order to provide a service to the Malaysian community. (author)

  17. The extent and impact of outsourcing: evidence from Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Craig P. Aubuchon; Subhayu Bandyopadhyay; Sumon Bhaumik

    2012-01-01

    The authors use data from several sources, including plant-level data from the manufacturing sector in Germany, to expand the literature on outsourcing. They find that, in Germany, the extent of outsourcing among manufacturing industries is higher than among service industries and that the outsourcing intensity of these industries did not change much between 1995 and 2005. They also find a statistically significantly positive impact of industry-level outsourcing intensity on German plant-leve...

  18. Statistics of Radial Ship Extent as Seen by a Seeker

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Auckland in pure and applied mathematics and physics, and a Master of Science in physics from the same university with a thesis in applied accelerator...does not demand contributions from two angle bins to one extent bin, unlike the rectangle; this is a very big advantage of the ellipse model. However...waveform that mimics the full length of a ship. This allows more economical use to be made of available false-target generation resources. I wish to

  19. To what extent can the nuclear public relations be effective?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnishi, Teruaki [CRC Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-06-01

    The effect of public relations (PRs) on the public`s attitude to nuclear energy was assessed using a model developed under the assumption that the extent of attitude change of the public by the PRs activity is essentially the same as that by the nuclear information released by the newsmedia. The attitude change of the public was quantitatively estimated by setting variables explicitly manifesting the activities such as the circulation of exclusive publicity and the area of advertising messages in the newspaper as parameters. The public`s attitude became clear to have a nonlinear dependence on the amount of activity, the extent of its change being varied considerably with demographic classes. Under a given financial condition, the offer of PRs information to the people, as many as possible in a target region, in spite of its little force of appeal, was found to be more effective for the amelioration of public attitude than the repeated offer of the information to a limited member of the public. It also became clear that there exists the most effective media mix for the activity depending on the extent of target region and on the target class of demography, therefore, it is quite significant to determine beforehand the proper conditions for the activity to be executed, such a situation indicating the need for the introduction of nuclear PRs management. (Author).

  20. Regional Mapping of Plantation Extent Using Multisensor Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbick, N.; Ledoux, L.; Hagen, S.; Salas, W.

    2016-12-01

    Industrial forest plantations are expanding rapidly across the tropics and monitoring extent is critical for understanding environmental and socioeconomic impacts. In this study, new, multisensor imagery were evaluated and integrated to extract the strengths of each sensor for mapping plantation extent at regional scales. Three distinctly different landscapes with multiple plantation types were chosen to consider scalability and transferability. These were Tanintharyi, Myanmar, West Kalimantan, Indonesia, and southern Ghana. Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI), Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar-2 (PALSAR-2), and Sentinel-1A images were fused within a Classification and Regression Tree (CART) framework using random forest and high-resolution surveys. Multi-criteria evaluations showed both L-and C-band gamma nought γ° backscatter decibel (dB), Landsat reflectance ρλ, and texture indices were useful for distinguishing oil palm and rubber plantations from other land types. The classification approach identified 750,822 ha or 23% of the Taninathryi, Myanmar, and 216,086 ha or 25% of western West Kalimantan as plantation with very high cross validation accuracy. The mapping approach was scalable and transferred well across the different geographies and plantation types. As archives for Sentinel-1, Landsat-8, and PALSAR-2 continue to grow, mapping plantation extent and dynamics at moderate resolution over large regions should be feasible.

  1. To what extent can the nuclear public relations be effective?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Teruaki

    1996-01-01

    The effect of public relations (PRs) on the public's attitude to nuclear energy was assessed using a model developed under the assumption that the extent of attitude change of the public by the PRs activity is essentially the same as that by the nuclear information released by the newsmedia. The attitude change of the public was quantitatively estimated by setting variables explicitly manifesting the activities such as the circulation of exclusive publicity and the area of advertising messages in the newspaper as parameters. The public's attitude became clear to have a nonlinear dependence on the amount of activity, the extent of its change being varied considerably with demographic classes. Under a given financial condition, the offer of PRs information to the people, as many as possible in a target region, in spite of its little force of appeal, was found to be more effective for the amelioration of public attitude than the repeated offer of the information to a limited member of the public. It also became clear that there exists the most effective media mix for the activity depending on the extent of target region and on the target class of demography, therefore, it is quite significant to determine beforehand the proper conditions for the activity to be executed, such a situation indicating the need for the introduction of nuclear PRs management. (Author)

  2. Exploring the Origin, Extent, and Future of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertka, Constance M.

    2009-09-01

    1. Astrobiology in societal context Constance Bertka; Part I. Origin of Life: 2. Emergence and the experimental pursuit of the origin of life Robert Hazen; 3. From Aristotle to Darwin, to Freeman Dyson: changing definitions of life viewed in historical context James Strick; 4. Philosophical aspects of the origin-of-life problem: the emergence of life and the nature of science Iris Fry; 5. The origin of terrestrial life: a Christian perspective Ernan McMullin; 6. The alpha and the omega: reflections on the origin and future of life from the perspective of Christian theology and ethics Celia Deane-Drummond; Part II. Extent of Life: 7. A biologist's guide to the Solar System Lynn Rothschild; 8. The quest for habitable worlds and life beyond the Solar System Carl Pilcher; 9. A historical perspective on the extent and search for life Steven J. Dick; 10. The search for extraterrestrial life: epistemology, ethics, and worldviews Mark Lupisella; 11. The implications of discovering extraterrestrial life: different searches, different issues Margaret S. Race; 12. God, evolution, and astrobiology Cynthia S. W. Crysdale; Part III. Future of Life: 13. Planetary ecosynthesis on Mars: restoration ecology and environmental ethics Christopher P. McKay; 14. The trouble with intrinsic value: an ethical primer for astrobiology Kelly C. Smith; 15. God's preferential option for life: a Christian perspective on astrobiology Richard O. Randolph; 16. Comparing stories about the origin, extent, and future of life: an Asian religious perspective Francisca Cho; Index.

  3. Monitoring the Extent of Forests on National to Global Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townshend, J.; Townshend, J.; Hansen, M.; DeFries, R.; DeFries, R.; Sohlberg, R.; Desch, A.; White, B.

    2001-05-01

    Information on forest extent and change is important for many purposes, including understanding the global carbon cycle and managing natural resources. International statistics on forest extent are generated using many different sources often producing inconsistent results spatially and through time. Results will be presented comparing forest extent derived from the recent global Food and Agricultural Organization's (FAO) FRA 2000 report with products derived using wall-to-wall Landsat, AVHRR and MODIS data sets. The remotely sensed data sets provide consistent results in terms of total area despite considerable differences in spatial resolution. Although the location of change can be satisfactorily detected with all three remotely sensed data sets, reliable measurement of change can only be achieved through use of Landsat-resolution data. Contrary to the FRA 2000 results we find evidence of an increase in deforestation rates in the late 1990s in several countries. Also we have found evidence of considerable changes in some countries for which little or no change is reported by FAO. The results indicate the benefits of globally consistent analyses of forest cover based on multiscale remotely sensed data sets rather than a reliance on statistics generated by individual countries with very different definitions of forest and methods used to derive them.

  4. The extent of emphysema in patients with COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, Saher Burhan; Stavngaard, Trine; Hestad, Marianne; Bach, Karen Skjoelstrup; Tonnesen, Philip; Dirksen, Asger

    2009-01-01

    The global initiative for COPD (GOLD) adopted the degree of airway obstruction as a measure of the severity of the disease. The objective of this study was to apply CT to assess the extent of emphysema in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and relate this extent to the GOLD stage of airway obstruction. We included 209 patients with COPD. COPD was defined as FEV(1)/FVC or=20 pack-years. Patients were assessed by lung function measurement and visual and quantitative assessment of CT, from which the relative area of emphysema below -910 Hounsfield units (RA-910) was extracted. Mean RA-910 was 7.4% (n = 5) in patients with GOLD stage I, 17.0% (n = 119) in stage II, 24.2% (n = 79) in stage III and 33.9% (n = 6) in stage IV. Regression analysis showed a change in RA-910 of 7.8% with increasing severity according to GOLD stage (P < 0.001). Combined visual and quantitative assessment of CT showed that 184 patients had radiological evidence of emphysema, whereas 25 patients had no emphysema. The extent of emphysema increases with increasing severity of COPD and most patients with COPD have emphysema. Tissue destruction by emphysema is therefore an important determinant of disease severity in COPD.

  5. A touch of affect: mediated social touch and affect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Gijs

    2012-01-01

    This position paper outlines the first stages in an ongoing PhD project on mediated social touch, and the effects mediated touch can have on someone's affective state. It is argued that touch is a profound communication channel for humans, and that communication through touch can, to some extent,

  6. Inhibition of bacterial U(VI) reduction by calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, Scott C.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Carroll, S. L.; Kennedy, David W.; Zachara, John M.; Plymale, Andrew E.; Kelly, S. D.; Kemner, K. M.; Fendorf, S.

    2003-01-01

    The rapid kinetics of bacterial U(VI) reduction and low solubility of uraninite (UO2,cr) make this process an attractive option for removing uranium from groundwater. Nevertheless, conditions that may promote or inhibit U(VI) reduction are not well-defined. Recent descriptions of Ca-UO2-CO3 complexes indicate that these species may dominate the aqueous speciation of U(VI) in many environments. We monitored the bacterial reduction of U(VI) in bicarbonate-buffered solution in the presence and absence of Ca. XAFS measurements confirmed the presence of a Ca-U(VI)-CO3 complex in the initial solutions containing calcium. Calcium, at millimolar concentrations (0.45-5 mM), caused a significant decrease in the rate and extent of bacterial U(VI) reduction. Both facultative (Shewanella putrefaciens strain CN32) and obligate (Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, Geobacter sulfurreducens) anaerobic bacteria were affected by the presence of calcium. Reduction of U(VI) ceased when the calculated system Eh re ached -0.046+/- 0.001 V, based on the Ca2UO2(CO3)(3) -- > UO2,cr couple. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that U is a less energetically favorable electron acceptor when the Ca-UO2-CO3 complexes are present. The results do not support Ca inhibition caused by direct interactions with the cells or with the electron donor as the reduction of fumarate or Tc(VII)O-4(-) under identical conditions was unaffected by the presence of Ca

  7. A Global Geospatial Database of 5000+ Historic Flood Event Extents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellman, B.; Sullivan, J.; Doyle, C.; Kettner, A.; Brakenridge, G. R.; Erickson, T.; Slayback, D. A.

    2017-12-01

    A key dataset that is missing for global flood model validation and understanding historic spatial flood vulnerability is a global historical geo-database of flood event extents. Decades of earth observing satellites and cloud computing now make it possible to not only detect floods in near real time, but to run these water detection algorithms back in time to capture the spatial extent of large numbers of specific events. This talk will show results from the largest global historical flood database developed to date. We use the Dartmouth Flood Observatory flood catalogue to map over 5000 floods (from 1985-2017) using MODIS, Landsat, and Sentinel-1 Satellites. All events are available for public download via the Earth Engine Catalogue and via a website that allows the user to query floods by area or date, assess population exposure trends over time, and download flood extents in geospatial format.In this talk, we will highlight major trends in global flood exposure per continent, land use type, and eco-region. We will also make suggestions how to use this dataset in conjunction with other global sets to i) validate global flood models, ii) assess the potential role of climatic change in flood exposure iii) understand how urbanization and other land change processes may influence spatial flood exposure iv) assess how innovative flood interventions (e.g. wetland restoration) influence flood patterns v) control for event magnitude to assess the role of social vulnerability and damage assessment vi) aid in rapid probabilistic risk assessment to enable microinsurance markets. Authors on this paper are already using the database for the later three applications and will show examples of wetland intervention analysis in Argentina, social vulnerability analysis in the USA, and micro insurance in India.

  8. Extent of pyrolysis impacts on fast pyrolysis biochar properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Catherine E; Hu, Yan-Yan; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus; Loynachan, Thomas E; Laird, David A; Brown, Robert C

    2012-01-01

    A potential concern about the use of fast pyrolysis rather than slow pyrolysis biochars as soil amendments is that they may contain high levels of bioavailable C due to short particle residence times in the reactors, which could reduce the stability of biochar C and cause nutrient immobilization in soils. To investigate this concern, three corn ( L.) stover fast pyrolysis biochars prepared using different reactor conditions were chemically and physically characterized to determine their extent of pyrolysis. These biochars were also incubated in soil to assess their impact on soil CO emissions, nutrient availability, microorganism population growth, and water retention capacity. Elemental analysis and quantitative solid-state C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed variation in O functional groups (associated primarily with carbohydrates) and aromatic C, which could be used to define extent of pyrolysis. A 24-wk incubation performed using a sandy soil amended with 0.5 wt% of corn stover biochar showed a small but significant decrease in soil CO emissions and a decrease in the bacteria:fungi ratios with extent of pyrolysis. Relative to the control soil, biochar-amended soils had small increases in CO emissions and extractable nutrients, but similar microorganism populations, extractable NO levels, and water retention capacities. Corn stover amendments, by contrast, significantly increased soil CO emissions and microbial populations, and reduced extractable NO. These results indicate that C in fast pyrolysis biochar is stable in soil environments and will not appreciably contribute to nutrient immobilization. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  9. Detecting the Extent of Eutectoid Transformation in U-10Mo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devaraj, Arun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jana, Saumyadeep [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McInnis, Colleen A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lombardo, Nicholas J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Joshi, Vineet V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sweet, Lucas E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Manandhar, Sandeep [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lavender, Curt A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-08-31

    During eutectoid transformation of U-10Mo alloy, uniform metastable γ UMo phase is expected to transform to a mixture of α-U and γ’-U2Mo phase. The presence of transformation products in final U-10Mo fuel, especially the α phase is considered detrimental for fuel irradiation performance, so it is critical to accurately evaluate the extent of transformation in the final U-10Mo alloy. This phase transformation can cause a volume change that induces a density change in final alloy. To understand this density and volume change, we developed a theoretical model to calculate the volume expansion and resultant density change of U-10Mo alloy as a function of the extent of eutectoid transformation. Based on the theoretically calculated density change for 0 to 100% transformation, we conclude that an experimental density measurement system will be challenging to employ to reliably detect and quantify the extent of transformation. Subsequently, to assess the ability of various methods to detect the transformation in U-10Mo, we annealed U-10Mo alloy samples at 500°C for various times to achieve in low, medium, and high extent of transformation. After the heat treatment at 500°C, the samples were metallographically polished and subjected to optical microscopy and x-ray diffraction (XRD) methods. Based on our assessment, optical microscopy and image processing can be used to determine the transformed area fraction, which can then be correlated with the α phase volume fraction measured by XRD analysis. XRD analysis of U-10Mo aged at 500°C detected only α phase and no γ’ was detected. To further validate the XRD results, atom probe tomography (APT) was used to understand the composition of transformed regions in U-10Mo alloys aged at 500°C for 10 hours. Based on the APT results, the lamellar transformation product was found to comprise α phase with close to 0 at% Mo and γ phase with 28–32 at% Mo, and the Mo concentration was highest at the

  10. Extent of the Immirzi ambiguity in quantum general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marugan, Guillermo A Mena

    2002-01-01

    The Ashtekar-Barbero formulation of general relativity admits a one-parameter family of canonical transformations that preserves the expressions of the Gauss and diffeomorphism constraints. The loop quantization of the connection formalism based on each of these canonical sets leads to different predictions. This phenomenon is called the Immirzi ambiguity. It has been recently argued that this ambiguity could be generalized to the extent of a spatially dependent function instead of a parameter. This would ruin the predictability of loop quantum gravity. We prove that such expectations are not realized, so that the Immirzi ambiguity introduces exclusively a freedom in the choice of a real number. (letter to the editor)

  11. Determination of extent of surgical intervention for endometrial carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smakhtina, O.L.; Nugmanova, M.I.; Nigaj, S.V.

    1986-01-01

    Clinical, cytologic, histologic and X-ray procedures were used in examining 120 patients with endometrial carcinoma. The results of pre- and intraoperative determination of clinical stage were compared in 65 cases of uterine extirpation with appendages and lymphadenectomy. Errors in preoperative identification of the extent of tumor expansion were made in 9 cases (13.8+-4.3%). It was found that determinations of the site and expansion of tumor make the case for hysterocervico-angiolymphography whereas identification of tumor pattern and degree of cell differentiation-for cytologic and histologic assays

  12. Detecting the Extent of Eutectoid Transformation in U-10Mo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devaraj, Arun; Jana, Saumyadeep; McInnis, Colleen A.; Lombardo, Nicholas J.; Joshi, Vineet V.; Sweet, Lucas E.; Manandhar, Sandeep; Lavender, Curt A.

    2016-01-01

    During eutectoid transformation of U-10Mo alloy, uniform metastable ? UMo phase is expected to transform to a mixture of ?-U and ?'-U_2Mo phase. The presence of transformation products in final U-10Mo fuel, especially the ? phase is considered detrimental for fuel irradiation performance, so it is critical to accurately evaluate the extent of transformation in the final U-10Mo alloy. This phase transformation can cause a volume change that induces a density change in final alloy. To understand this density and volume change, we developed a theoretical model to calculate the volume expansion and resultant density change of U-10Mo alloy as a function of the extent of eutectoid transformation. Based on the theoretically calculated density change for 0 to 100% transformation, we conclude that an experimental density measurement system will be challenging to employ to reliably detect and quantify the extent of transformation. Subsequently, to assess the ability of various methods to detect the transformation in U-10Mo, we annealed U-10Mo alloy samples at 500°C for various times to achieve in low, medium, and high extent of transformation. After the heat treatment at 500°C, the samples were metallographically polished and subjected to optical microscopy and x-ray diffraction (XRD) methods. Based on our assessment, optical microscopy and image processing can be used to determine the transformed area fraction, which can then be correlated with the ? phase volume fraction measured by XRD analysis. XRD analysis of U-10Mo aged at 500°C detected only ? phase and no ?' was detected. To further validate the XRD results, atom probe tomography (APT) was used to understand the composition of transformed regions in U-10Mo alloys aged at 500°C for 10 hours. Based on the APT results, the lamellar transformation product was found to comprise ? phase with close to 0 at% Mo and ? phase with 28-32 at% Mo, and the Mo concentration was highest at the ?/? interface.

  13. Measurement of extent of intense ion beam charge neutralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelko, V [Efremov Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Giese, H; Schalk, S [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany). INR

    1997-12-31

    Various diagnostic tools were employed to study and optimize the extent of space charge neutralization in the pulsed intense proton beam facility PROFA, comprising Langmuir probes, capacitive probes, and a novel type of the three electrode collector. The latter does not only allow us to measure ion and electron beam current densities in a high magnetic field environment, but also to deduce the density spectrum of the beam electrons. Appropriate operating conditions were identified to attain a complete space charge neutralisation. (author). 5 figs., 4 refs.

  14. Rapid Estimates of Rupture Extent for Large Earthquakes Using Aftershocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polet, J.; Thio, H. K.; Kremer, M.

    2009-12-01

    The spatial distribution of aftershocks is closely linked to the rupture extent of the mainshock that preceded them and a rapid analysis of aftershock patterns therefore has potential for use in near real-time estimates of earthquake impact. The correlation between aftershocks and slip distribution has frequently been used to estimate the fault dimensions of large historic earthquakes for which no, or insufficient, waveform data is available. With the advent of earthquake inversions that use seismic waveforms and geodetic data to constrain the slip distribution, the study of aftershocks has recently been largely focused on enhancing our understanding of the underlying mechanisms in a broader earthquake mechanics/dynamics framework. However, in a near real-time earthquake monitoring environment, in which aftershocks of large earthquakes are routinely detected and located, these data may also be effective in determining a fast estimate of the mainshock rupture area, which would aid in the rapid assessment of the impact of the earthquake. We have analyzed a considerable number of large recent earthquakes and their aftershock sequences and have developed an effective algorithm that determines the rupture extent of a mainshock from its aftershock distribution, in a fully automatic manner. The algorithm automatically removes outliers by spatial binning, and subsequently determines the best fitting “strike” of the rupture and its length by projecting the aftershock epicenters onto a set of lines that cross the mainshock epicenter with incremental azimuths. For strike-slip or large dip-slip events, for which the surface projection of the rupture is recti-linear, the calculated strike correlates well with the strike of the fault and the corresponding length, determined from the distribution of aftershocks projected onto the line, agrees well with the rupture length. In the case of a smaller dip-slip rupture with an aspect ratio closer to 1, the procedure gives a measure

  15. Extent and application of patient diaries in Austria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heindl, Patrik; Bachlechner, Adelbert; Nydahl, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Background: Diaries written for patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) are offered in many European countries. In Austria, ICU diaries have been relatively unknown, but since 2012, they have started to emerge. Aim: The aim of this study was to explore the extent and application of ICU diaries...... in Austria in 2015. Method: The study had a prospective multiple methods design of survey and interviews. All ICUs in Austria were surveyed in 2015 to identify which ICUs used diaries. ICUs using diaries were selected for semi-structured key-informant telephone interviews on the application of ICU diaries...

  16. Integrating remotely sensed surface water extent into continental scale hydrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revilla-Romero, Beatriz; Wanders, Niko; Burek, Peter; Salamon, Peter; de Roo, Ad

    2016-12-01

    In hydrological forecasting, data assimilation techniques are employed to improve estimates of initial conditions to update incorrect model states with observational data. However, the limited availability of continuous and up-to-date ground streamflow data is one of the main constraints for large-scale flood forecasting models. This is the first study that assess the impact of assimilating daily remotely sensed surface water extent at a 0.1° × 0.1° spatial resolution derived from the Global Flood Detection System (GFDS) into a global rainfall-runoff including large ungauged areas at the continental spatial scale in Africa and South America. Surface water extent is observed using a range of passive microwave remote sensors. The methodology uses the brightness temperature as water bodies have a lower emissivity. In a time series, the satellite signal is expected to vary with changes in water surface, and anomalies can be correlated with flood events. The Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) is a Monte-Carlo implementation of data assimilation and used here by applying random sampling perturbations to the precipitation inputs to account for uncertainty obtaining ensemble streamflow simulations from the LISFLOOD model. Results of the updated streamflow simulation are compared to baseline simulations, without assimilation of the satellite-derived surface water extent. Validation is done in over 100 in situ river gauges using daily streamflow observations in the African and South American continent over a one year period. Some of the more commonly used metrics in hydrology were calculated: KGE', NSE, PBIAS%, R 2 , RMSE, and VE. Results show that, for example, NSE score improved on 61 out of 101 stations obtaining significant improvements in both the timing and volume of the flow peaks. Whereas the validation at gauges located in lowland jungle obtained poorest performance mainly due to the closed forest influence on the satellite signal retrieval. The conclusion is that

  17. Ultrasonic variables affecting inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lautzenheiser, C.E.; Whiting, A.R.; McElroy, J.T.

    1977-01-01

    There are many variables which affect the detection of the effects and reproducibility of results when utilizing ultrasonic techniques. The most important variable is the procedure, as this document specifies, to a great extent, the controls that are exercised over the other variables. The most important variable is personnel with regards to training, qualification, integrity, data recording, and data analysis. Although the data is very limited, these data indicate that, if the procedure is carefully controlled, reliability of defect detection and reproducibility of results are both approximately 90 percent for reliability of detection, this applies to relatively small defects as reliability increases substantially as defect size increases above the recording limit. (author)

  18. Hilar cholangiocarcinoma: controversies on the extent of surgical resection aiming at cure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Shuai; Lau, Wan Yee; Chen, Xiao-ping

    2015-02-01

    Hilar cholangiocarcinoma is the most common malignant tumor affecting the extrahepatic bile duct. Surgical treatment offers the only possibility of cure, and it requires removal of all tumoral tissues with adequate resection margins. The aims of this review are to summarize the findings and to discuss the controversies on the extent of surgical resection aiming at cure for hilar cholangiocarcinoma. The English medical literatures on hilar cholangiocarcinoma were studied to review on the relevance of adequate resection margins, routine caudate lobe resection, extent of liver resection, and combined vascular resection on perioperative and long-term survival outcomes of patients with resectable hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Complete resection of tumor represents the most important prognostic factor of long-term survival for hilar cholangiocarcinoma. The primary aim of surgery is to achieve R0 resection. When R1 resection is shown intraoperatively, further resection is recommended. Combined hepatic resection is now generally accepted as a standard procedure even for Bismuth type I/II tumors. Routine caudate lobe resection is also advocated for cure. The extent of hepatic resection remains controversial. Most surgeons recommend major hepatic resection. However, minor hepatic resection has also been advocated in most patients. The decision to carry out right- or left-sided hepatectomy is made according to the predominant site of the lesion. Portal vein resection should be considered when its involvement by tumor is suspected. The curative treatment of hilar cholangiocarcinoma remains challenging. Advances in hepatobiliary techniques have improved the perioperative and long-term survival outcomes of this tumor.

  19. Does oxygen exposure time control the extent of organic matter decomposition in peatlands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philben, Michael; Kaiser, Karl; Benner, Ronald

    2014-05-01

    The extent of peat decomposition was investigated in four cores collected along a latitudinal gradient from 56°N to 66°N in the West Siberian Lowland. The acid:aldehyde ratios of lignin phenols were significantly higher in the two northern cores compared with the two southern cores, indicating peats at the northern sites were more highly decomposed. Yields of hydroxyproline, an amino acid found in plant structural glycoproteins, were also significantly higher in northern cores compared with southern cores. Hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins are not synthesized by microbes and are generally less reactive than bulk plant carbon, so elevated yields indicated that northern cores were more extensively decomposed than the southern cores. The southern cores experienced warmer temperatures, but were less decomposed, indicating that temperature was not the primary control of peat decomposition. The plant community oscillated between Sphagnum and vascular plant dominance in the southern cores, but vegetation type did not appear to affect the extent of decomposition. Oxygen exposure time appeared to be the strongest control of the extent of peat decomposition. The northern cores had lower accumulation rates and drier conditions, so these peats were exposed to oxic conditions for a longer time before burial in the catotelm, where anoxic conditions prevail and rates of decomposition are generally lower by an order of magnitude.

  20. Reassessing the extent of the Q classification for containment paint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spires, G.

    1995-01-01

    A mounting number of site-specific paint debris transport and screen clogging analyses submitted to justify substandard containment paint work have been deemed persuasive by virtue of favorable U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission safety evaluation report (SER) findings. These lay a strong foundation for a standardized approach to redefining the extent to which paint in containment needs to be considered open-quotes Q.close quotes This information justifies an initiative by licensees to roll back paint work quality commitments made at the design phase. This paper questions the validity of the basic premise that all primary containment paint can significantly compromise core and containment cooling [emergency core cooling system/engineered safeguard feature (ECCS/ESF)]. It is posited that the physical extent of painted containment surfaces for which extant material qualification and quality control (QC) structures need apply can be limited to zones relatively proximate to ECCS/ESF suction points. For other painted containment surfaces, simplified criteria should be allowed

  1. The regional extent of suppression: strabismics versus nonstrabismics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Raiju Jacob; Clavagnier, Simon R; Bobier, William; Thompson, Benjamin; Hess, Robert F

    2013-10-09

    Evidence is accumulating that suppression may be the cause of amblyopia rather than a secondary consequence of mismatched retinal images. For example, treatment interventions that target suppression may lead to better binocular and monocular outcomes. Furthermore, it has recently been demonstrated that the measurement of suppression may have prognostic value for patching therapy. For these reasons, the measurement of suppression in the clinic needs to be improved beyond the methods that are currently available, which provide a binary outcome. We describe a novel quantitative method for measuring the regional extent of suppression that is suitable for clinical use. The method involves a dichoptic perceptual matching procedure at multiple visual field locations. We compare a group of normal controls (mean age: 28 ± 5 years); a group with strabismic amblyopia (four with microesotropia, five with esotropia, and one with exotropia; mean age: 35 ± 10 years); and a group with nonstrabismic anisometropic amblyopia (mean age: 33 ± 12 years). The extent and magnitude of suppression was similar for observers with strabismic and nonstrabismic amblyopia. Suppression was strongest within the central field and extended throughout the 20° field that we measured. Suppression extends throughout the central visual field in both strabismic and anisometropic forms of amblyopia. The strongest suppression occurs within the region of the visual field corresponding to the fovea of the fixing eye.

  2. Corticocortical feedback increases the spatial extent of normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassi, Jonathan J; Gómez-Laberge, Camille; Kreiman, Gabriel; Born, Richard T

    2014-01-01

    Normalization has been proposed as a canonical computation operating across different brain regions, sensory modalities, and species. It provides a good phenomenological description of non-linear response properties in primary visual cortex (V1), including the contrast response function and surround suppression. Despite its widespread application throughout the visual system, the underlying neural mechanisms remain largely unknown. We recently observed that corticocortical feedback contributes to surround suppression in V1, raising the possibility that feedback acts through normalization. To test this idea, we characterized area summation and contrast response properties in V1 with and without feedback from V2 and V3 in alert macaques and applied a standard normalization model to the data. Area summation properties were well explained by a form of divisive normalization, which computes the ratio between a neuron's driving input and the spatially integrated activity of a "normalization pool." Feedback inactivation reduced surround suppression by shrinking the spatial extent of the normalization pool. This effect was independent of the gain modulation thought to mediate the influence of contrast on area summation, which remained intact during feedback inactivation. Contrast sensitivity within the receptive field center was also unaffected by feedback inactivation, providing further evidence that feedback participates in normalization independent of the circuit mechanisms involved in modulating contrast gain and saturation. These results suggest that corticocortical feedback contributes to surround suppression by increasing the visuotopic extent of normalization and, via this mechanism, feedback can play a critical role in contextual information processing.

  3. Corticocortical feedback increases the spatial extent of normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassi, Jonathan J.; Gómez-Laberge, Camille; Kreiman, Gabriel; Born, Richard T.

    2014-01-01

    Normalization has been proposed as a canonical computation operating across different brain regions, sensory modalities, and species. It provides a good phenomenological description of non-linear response properties in primary visual cortex (V1), including the contrast response function and surround suppression. Despite its widespread application throughout the visual system, the underlying neural mechanisms remain largely unknown. We recently observed that corticocortical feedback contributes to surround suppression in V1, raising the possibility that feedback acts through normalization. To test this idea, we characterized area summation and contrast response properties in V1 with and without feedback from V2 and V3 in alert macaques and applied a standard normalization model to the data. Area summation properties were well explained by a form of divisive normalization, which computes the ratio between a neuron's driving input and the spatially integrated activity of a “normalization pool.” Feedback inactivation reduced surround suppression by shrinking the spatial extent of the normalization pool. This effect was independent of the gain modulation thought to mediate the influence of contrast on area summation, which remained intact during feedback inactivation. Contrast sensitivity within the receptive field center was also unaffected by feedback inactivation, providing further evidence that feedback participates in normalization independent of the circuit mechanisms involved in modulating contrast gain and saturation. These results suggest that corticocortical feedback contributes to surround suppression by increasing the visuotopic extent of normalization and, via this mechanism, feedback can play a critical role in contextual information processing. PMID:24910596

  4. 32 CFR 536.56 - Negotiations-purpose and extent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... However, the settlement should reflect diminished value where contributory negligence or other value... be used if the divergence is due to an issue of law affecting either liability or damages. For...

  5. Assessing the extent and determinates of induced growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Transportation improvements affect the accessibility of places, which in turn can result in changes in land use in : combination with factors that support or discourage development (such as land prices, market demand, local land : use regulations, an...

  6. Tolerância da soja ao desfolhamento afetada pela redução do espaçamento entre fileiras Soybean tolerance to defoliation as affected by row spacing reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovano Parcianello

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available A redução do espaçamento entre fileiras de 40 para 20cm incrementa a interceptação da radiação, o índice de área foliar e o rendimento de grãos. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar se a redução do espaçamento entre fileiras influencia a tolerância da soja à perda de área fotossintética. O experimento foi conduzido, em semeadura direta na Estação Experimental Agronômica da UFRGS, na safra 2000/01. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, em parcelas sub-subdivididas. Os tratamentos foram desfolhamento em três estádios de desenvolvimento (V9 - nono nó, R2 - floração e R5 - inicio enchimento de grãos, dois espaçamentos entre fileiras (20 e 40cm e quatro níveis de desfolhamento (0 - testemunha, 33, 67 e 100%. Foi utilizada a cultivar FT-Abyara. Os desfolhamentos realizados no período reprodutivo reduziram o rendimento, sendo o estádio R5 o mais crítico. O rendimento médio de grãos da testemunha não desfolhada foi 21% maior no espaçamento de 20cm (4134kg ha-1 do que no de 40cm (3413kg ha-1 e manteve-se sempre superior, em todos os níveis de desfolhamento. O componente que mais influenciou o rendimento foi o número de legumes m-2. Estes resultados indicam que a redução do espaçamento entre fileiras de 40cm para 20cm é uma prática cultural favorável tanto para as plantas com área foliar intacta quando desfolhadas.The row spacing reduction from 40 to 20 cm increase radiation interception, leaf area index and grain yield. This experiment aimed to evaluate if the row spacing reduction influence soybean tolerance to loss of photosynthetic area. The research was performed using no-till tillage system at the Agronomic Experimental Station of Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, during the 2000/01 growing season. Treatments were arranged in a split-split plot randomized complete block design, with four replications. Treatments included five combination of defoliation in

  7. Moving in the Anthropocene: Global reductions in terrestrial mammalian movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Marlee A.; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Fagan, William F.; Fryxell, John; Van Moorter, Bram; Alberts, Susan C; Ali, Abdullahi H.; Allen, Andrew M.; Attias, Nina; Avgar, Tal; Bartlam-Brooks, Hattie; Bayarbaatar, Buuveibaatar; Belant, Jerrold L.; Bertassoni, Alessandra; Beyer, Dean; Bidner, Laura; M. van Beest, Floris; Blake, Stephen; Blaum, Niels; Bracis, Chloe; Brown, Danielle; Nico de Bruyn, P. J.; Cagnacci, Francesca; Calabrese, J.M.; Camilo-Alves, Constança; Chamaillé-Jammes, Simon; Chiaradia, Andre; Davidson, Sarah C.; Dennis, Todd; DeStefano, Stephen; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Fennessy, Julian; Fichtel, Claudia; Fiedler, Wolfgang; Fischer, Christina; Fischhoff, Ilya; Fleming, Christen H.; Ford, Adam T.; Fritz, Susanne A.; Gehr, Benedikt; Goheen, Jacob R.; Gurarie, Eliezer; Hebblewhite, Mark; Heurich, Marco; Mark Hewison, A.J.; Hof, Christian; Hurme, Edward; Isbell, Lynne A.; Janssen, René; Jeltsch, Florian; Kaczensky, Petra; Kane, Adam; Kappeler, Peter M.; Kauffman, Matthew J.; Kays, Roland; Kimuyu, Duncan; Koch, Flavia; Kranstauber, Bart; LaPoint, Scott; Leimgruber, Peter; Linnell, John D. C.; López-López, Pascual; Markham, A. Catherine; Mattisson, Jenny; Medici, Emilia Patricia; Mellone, Ugo; Merrill, E.; de Miranda Mourão, Guilherme; Morato, Ronaldo G.; Morellet, Nicolas; Morrison, Thomas A.; Díaz-Muñoz, Samuel L.; Mysterud, Atle; Nandintsetseg, Dejid; Nathan, Ran; Niamir, Aidin; Odden, John; O'Hara, Robert B.; Oliveira-Santos, Luiz G. R.; Olson, Kirk A.; Patterson, Bruce D.; Cunha de Paula, Rogerio; Pedrotti, Luca; Reineking, Björn; Rimmler, Martin; Rogers, T.L.; Rolandsen, Christer Moe; Rosenberry, Christopher S.; Rubenstein, Daniel I.; Safi, Kamran; Saïd, Sonia; Sapir, Nir; Sawyer, Hall; Schmidt, Niels Martin; Selva, Nuria; Sergiel, Agnieszka; Shiilegdamba, Enkhtuvshin; Silva, João Paulo; Singh, N.; Solberg, Erling J.; Spiegel, Orr; Strand, Olav; Sundaresan, S.R.; Ullmann, Wiebke; Voigt, Ulrich; Wall, J.; Wattles, David W.; Wikelski, Martin; Wilmers, Christopher C.; Wilson, Jon W.; Wittemyer, George; Zięba, Filip; Zwijacz-Kozica, Tomasz; Mueller, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Animal movement is fundamental for ecosystem functioning and species survival, yet the effects of the anthropogenic footprint on animal movements have not been estimated across species. Using a unique GPS-tracking database of 803 individuals across 57 species, we found that movements of mammals in areas with a comparatively high human footprint were on average one-half to one-third the extent of their movements in areas with a low human footprint. We attribute this reduction to behavioral changes of individual animals and to the exclusion of species with long-range movements from areas with higher human impact. Global loss of vagility alters a key ecological trait of animals that affects not only population persistence but also ecosystem processes such as predator-prey interactions, nutrient cycling, and disease transmission.

  8. A framework for quantifying the extent of impact to plants from linear construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jun; Shi, Peng; Wang, Ya-Feng; Yu, Yang; Yang, Lei

    2017-05-30

    We present a novel framework that accurately evaluates the extent of a linear project's effect from the variability of the structure of the plant community while avoiding interference caused by pioneer species and invasive species. This framework was based on the change of dominant species in the plant community affected by construction. TWINSPAN classification and variation of the integrated importance value (IIV) of each plant species group were used to characterize the process of change in the structure of the plant community. Indicator species group and its inflection point were defined and used to judge the extent of the effects of pipelines. Our findings revealed that dominant species in the working area of the pipeline construction were different from the original plant communities. With the disturbance decreased, the composition and structure of the plant communities gradually changed. We considered the outer limit of the area affected by the construction to be the first area in which the plant community reached a steady state and was similar to the original community. The framework could be used in the post eco-environment impact assessment of linear construction to estimate the intensity of disturbance and recovery condition.

  9. Extent and application of ICU diaries in Germany in 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nydahl, Peter; Knueck, Dirk; Egerod, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    in keeping ICU diaries. CONCLUSION: Six years after the introduction of ICU diaries, ICU nurses in Germany are becoming familiar with the concept. Nursing shortage and bureaucratic challenges have impeded the process of implementation, but the adaption of ICU diaries to German conditions appears......, newsletters, newspapers, lectures and publications in German nursing journals. AIM: The aim of the study was to update our knowledge of the extent and application of ICU diaries in Germany in 2014. DESIGN: The study had a prospective mixed methods multicenter design. METHOD: All 152 ICUs in the two German...... of Germany had implemented diaries and three units were planning to do so. Interviews were conducted with nurses at 14 selected ICUs. Informants reported successful adaption of the diary concept to their culture, but variability in application. No units were identified where all nursing staff participated...

  10. Lymphadenectomy in bladder cancer: What should be the extent?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Muruganandham

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The extent of Lymh node dissection (LND during radical cystectomy is a subject of increasing importance with several studies suggesting that an extended LND may improve staging accuracy and outcome. Significant numbers of patients have lymph node metastasis above the boundaries of standard LND. Extended LND yields higher number of lymph nodes which may result in better staging. Various retrospective studies have reported better oncological outcomes with extended LND compared to limited LND. No difference in the mortality and the incidence of lymphocele formation has been found between ′standard′ and ′extended′ LND. Till we have a well-designed randomized controlled trial to address these issues for level 1 evidence, it is not justified to deny our patients the advantages of ′extended′ lymphadenectomy based on the current level of evidence.

  11. Peritoneum and mesenterium. Radiological anatomy and extent of peritoneal diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ba-Ssalamah, A.; Bastati, N.; Uffmann, M.; Schima, W.

    2009-01-01

    The abdominal cavity is subdivided into the peritoneal cavity, lined by the parietal peritoneum, and the extraperitoneal space. It extends from the diaphragm to the pelvic floor. The visceral peritoneum covers the intraperitoneal organs and part of the pelvic organs. The parietal and visceral layers of the peritoneum are in sliding contact; the potential space between them is called the peritoneal cavity and is a part of the embryologic abdominal cavity or primitive coelomic duct. To understand the complex anatomical construction of the different variants of plicae and recesses of the peritoneum, an appreciation of the embryologic development of the peritoneal cavity is crucial. This knowledge reflects the understanding of the peritoneal anatomy, deep knowledge of which is very important in determining the cause and extent of peritoneal diseases as well as in decision making when choosing the appropriate therapeutic approach, whether surgery, conservative treatment, or interventional radiology. (orig.) [de

  12. Obesity and extent of emphysema depicted at CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, S.; Li, R.; Leader, J.K.; Zheng, B.; Bon, J.; Gur, D.; Sciurba, F.; Jin, C.; Pu, J.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the underlying relationship between obesity and the extent of emphysema depicted at CT. Methods and materials: A dataset of 477 CT examinations was retrospectively collected from a study of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The low attenuation areas (LAAs; ≤950 HU) of the lungs were identified. The extent of emphysema (denoted as %LAA) was defined as the percentage of LAA divided by the lung volume. The association between log-transformed %LAA and body mass index (BMI) adjusted for age, sex, the forced expiratory volume in one second as percent predicted value (FEV1% predicted), and smoking history (pack years) was assessed using multiple linear regression analysis. Results: After adjusting for age, gender, smoking history, and FEV1% predicted, BMI was negatively associated with severe emphysema in patients with COPD. Specifically, one unit increase in BMI is associated with a 0.93-fold change (95% CI: 0.91–0.96, p < 0.001) in %LAA; the estimated %LAA for males was 1.75 (95% CI: 1.36–2.26, p < 0.001) times that of females; per 10% increase in FEV1% predicated is associated with a 0.72-fold change (95% CI: 0.69–0.76, p < 0.001) in %LAA. Conclusion: Increasing obesity is negatively associated with severity of emphysema independent of gender, age, and smoking history. - Highlights: • BMI is inversely associated with emphysema depicted on CT. • Emphysema severity in men was higher than that in women. • ∼50% of the subjects with COPD in our dataset were either overweight or obese. • Age and smoking status are not significantly associated with %LAA

  13. Measuring the extent of overlaps in protected area designations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguignet, Marine; Arnell, Andy; Juffe-Bignoli, Diego; Shi, Yichuan; Bingham, Heather; MacSharry, Brian; Kingston, Naomi

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decades, a number of national policies and international conventions have been implemented to promote the expansion of the world's protected area network, leading to a diversification of protected area strategies, types and designations. As a result, many areas are protected by more than one convention, legal instrument, or other effective means which may result in a lack of clarity around the governance and management regimes of particular locations. We assess the degree to which different designations overlap at global, regional and national levels to understand the extent of this phenomenon at different scales. We then compare the distribution and coverage of these multi-designated areas in the terrestrial and marine realms at the global level and among different regions, and we present the percentage of each county's protected area extent that is under more than one designation. Our findings show that almost a quarter of the world's protected area network is protected through more than one designation. In fact, we have documented up to eight overlapping designations. These overlaps in protected area designations occur in every region of the world, both in the terrestrial and marine realms, but are more common in the terrestrial realm and in some regions, notably Europe. In the terrestrial realm, the most common overlap is between one national and one international designation. In the marine realm, the most common overlap is between any two national designations. Multi-designations are therefore a widespread phenomenon but its implications are not well understood. This analysis identifies, for the first time, multi-designated areas across all designation types. This is a key step to understand how these areas are managed and governed to then move towards integrated and collaborative approaches that consider the different management and conservation objectives of each designation.

  14. Estimating Global Cropland Extent with Multi-year MODIS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher O. Justice

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the suitability of 250 m MODIS (MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data for mapping global cropland extent. A set of 39 multi-year MODIS metrics incorporating four MODIS land bands, NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and thermal data was employed to depict cropland phenology over the study period. Sub-pixel training datasets were used to generate a set of global classification tree models using a bagging methodology, resulting in a global per-pixel cropland probability layer. This product was subsequently thresholded to create a discrete cropland/non-cropland indicator map using data from the USDA-FAS (Foreign Agricultural Service Production, Supply and Distribution (PSD database describing per-country acreage of production field crops. Five global land cover products, four of which attempted to map croplands in the context of multiclass land cover classifications, were subsequently used to perform regional evaluations of the global MODIS cropland extent map. The global probability layer was further examined with reference to four principle global food crops: corn, soybeans, wheat and rice. Overall results indicate that the MODIS layer best depicts regions of intensive broadleaf crop production (corn and soybean, both in correspondence with existing maps and in associated high probability matching thresholds. Probability thresholds for wheat-growing regions were lower, while areas of rice production had the lowest associated confidence. Regions absent of agricultural intensification, such as Africa, are poorly characterized regardless of crop type. The results reflect the value of MODIS as a generic global cropland indicator for intensive agriculture production regions, but with little sensitivity in areas of low agricultural intensification. Variability in mapping accuracies between areas dominated by different crop types also points to the desirability of a crop-specific approach rather than attempting

  15. Affective Urbanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    Urban design and architecture are increasingly used as material and affective strategies for setting the scene, for manipulation and the production of urban life: The orchestration of atmospheres, the framing and staging of urban actions, the programming for contemplation, involvement, play......, experience and consumption are all strategic design tools applied by planners and architects. Whereas urban design in former modernist planning served merely functional or political means, urban design has increasingly become an aesthetical mediator of ideologies embedded in the urban field of life forces....... Under these circumstances affective aesthetics operate strategically within the urban field of interests, capital flows and desires of the social. This ‘affective urbanism’ (Anderson & Holden 2008) is linked to a society influenced by new kinds of information flows, where culture is mediated and enacted...

  16. Posterior dental size reduction in hominids: the Atapuerca evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez de Castro, J M; Nicolas, M E

    1995-04-01

    In order to reassess previous hypotheses concerning dental size reduction of the posterior teeth during Pleistocene human evolution, current fossil dental evidence is examined. This evidence includes the large sample of hominid teeth found in recent excavations (1984-1993) in the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene cave site of the Sierra de Atapuerca (Burgos, Spain). The lower fourth premolars and molars of the Atapuerca hominids, probably older than 300 Kyr, have dimensions similar to those of modern humans. Further, these hominids share the derived state of other features of the posterior teeth with modern humans, such as a similar relative molar size and frequent absence of the hypoconulid, thus suggesting a possible case of parallelism. We believe that dietary changes allowed size reduction of the posterior teeth during the Middle Pleistocene, and the present evidence suggests that the selective pressures that operated on the size variability of these teeth were less restrictive than what is assumed by previous models of dental reduction. Thus, the causal relationship between tooth size decrease and changes in food-preparation techniques during the Pleistocene should be reconsidered. Moreover, the present evidence indicates that the differential reduction of the molars cannot be explained in terms of restriction of available growth space. The molar crown area measurements of a modern human sample were also investigated. The results of this study, as well as previous similar analyses, suggest that a decrease of the rate of cell proliferation, which affected the later-forming crown regions to a greater extent, may be the biological process responsible for the general and differential dental size reduction that occurred during human evolution.

  17. Rate and extent of ruminal degradation of crude protein from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Predicted crude protein degradation was calculated at rate constants for outflow of 0.04 and 0.06/h respect- ively. ... as buffers, an ionophore and an antibiotic according to general .... the non-bird resistant ('sweet') varieties. Ruminal .... have been affected by both the particle type and the math- ematical model we used.

  18. Improving Global Flood Forecasting using Satellite Detected Flood Extent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Revilla Romero, B.

    2016-01-01

    Flooding is a natural global phenomenon but in many cases is exacerbated by human activity. Although flooding generally affects humans in a negative way, bringing death, suffering, and economic impacts, it also has potentially beneficial effects. Early flood warning and forecasting systems, as well

  19. Significance of microscopic extention from 1162 esophageal carcinoma specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jun; Zhu Shuchai; Han Chun; Zhang Xin; Xiao Aiqin; Ma Guoxin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the subclinical microscopic tumor extention along the long axis in 1162 specimens of esophageal carcinoma so as to help define the clinical target volume(CTV) according to the degree of microscopic extention(ME) for radiotherapy for esophageal carcinoma. Methods: 1162 resected esophageal carcinoma specimens originally located in the neck and thorax were studied with special reference to the correlation between upper and lower resection length from the tumor and positive microscopic margin. Another 52 resected esophageal carcinoma specimens were made into pathological giant sections: the actual resection length of upper and para-esophageal normal tissues was compared with that of the lower nor- mal tissues from the tumor, there by, the ratio of shrinkage was obtained and compared. Results: After fixation, microscopic positive margin ratio of the upper resection border in length ≤0.5 cm group was higher than that in length > 0.5 cm group (16.4% vs 4.1%, P=0.000). Microscopic positive margin ratio of the lower resection border in length ≤1.5 cm group was higher than that in length > 1.5 cm group( 8.1% vs 0.4%, P = 0.000). This showed that the positive margin ratio of the upper border was higher than that of the lower border in resection length > 1.5 cm group(3.5% vs 0.4%, P=0. 000). The actual length of upper and lower normal esophageal tissue after having been made into pathological giant sections in 52 patients, was 30% ± 14% and 44% ± 19% of that measured in the operation. Conclusions: Considering the shrinkage of the normal esophagus during fixation, a CTV margin of 2.0 cm along the upper long axis and 3.5 cm along the lower long axis should be chosen for radiotherapy for esophageal carcinoma, according to the ratio of shrinkage. Ascending invasion proportion is higher than the descending invasion in that tumor. (authors)

  20. Estimated impact of global population growth on future wilderness extent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, E.

    2012-06-01

    Wilderness areas in the world are threatened by the environmental impacts of the growing global human population. This study estimates the impact of birth rate on the future surface area of biodiverse wilderness and on the proportion of this area without major extinctions. The following four drivers are considered: human population growth (1), agricultural efficiency (2), groundwater drawdown by irrigation (3), and non-agricultural space used by humans (buildings, gardens, roads, etc.) (4). This study indicates that the surface area of biodiverse unmanaged land will reduce with about 5.4% between 2012 and 2050. Further, it indicates that the biodiverse land without major extinctions will reduce with about 10.5%. These percentages are based on a commonly used population trajectory which assumes that birth rates across the globe will reduce in a similar way as has occurred in the past in many developed countries. Future birth rate is however very uncertain. Plausible future birth rates lower than the expected rates lead to much smaller reductions in surface area of biodiverse unmanaged land (0.7% as opposed to 5.4%), and a reduction in the biodiverse land without major extinctions of about 5.6% (as opposed to 10.5%). This indicates that birth rate is an important factor influencing the quality and quantity of wilderness remaining in the future.

  1. Parental Sensitivity, Infant Affect, and Affect Regulation: Predictors of Later Attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braungart-Rieker, Julia M.; Garwood, Molly M.; Powers, Bruce P.; Wang, Xiaoyu

    2001-01-01

    Examined extent to which parent sensitivity, infant affect, and affect regulation at 4 months predicted mother- and father-infant attachment classifications at 1 year. Found that affect regulation and maternal sensitivity discriminated infant-mother attachment groups. The association between maternal sensitivity and infant-mother attachment was…

  2. Distracted walking: Examining the extent to pedestrian safety problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Mwakalonge

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrians, much like drivers, have always been engaged in multi-tasking like using hand-held devices, listening to music, snacking, or reading while walking. The effects are similar to those experienced by distracted drivers. However, distracted walking has not received similar policies and effective interventions as distracted driving to improve pedestrian safety. This study reviewed the state-of-practice on policies, campaigns, available data, identified research needs, and opportunities pertaining to distracted walking. A comprehensive review of literature revealed that some of the agencies/organizations disseminate useful information about certain distracting activities that pedestrians should avoid while walking to improve their safety. Various walking safety rules/tips have been given, such as not wearing headphones or talking on a cell phone while crossing a street, keeping the volume down, hanging up the phone while walking, being aware of traffic, and avoiding distractions like walking with texting. The majority of the past observational-based and experimental-based studies reviewed in this study on distracted walking is in agreement that there is a positive correlation between distraction and unsafe walking behavior. However, limitations of the existing crash data suggest that distracted walking may not be a severe threat to the public health. Current pedestrian crash data provide insufficient information for researchers to examine the extent to which distracted walking causes and/or contributes to actual pedestrian safety problems.

  3. The extent and nature of alcohol advertising on Australian television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Simone; Roberts, Michele; Pescud, Melanie; Chapman, Kathy; Quester, Pascale; Miller, Caroline

    2012-09-01

    Current alcohol guidelines in Australia recommend minimising alcohol consumption, especially among minors. This study investigated (i) the extent to which children and the general population are exposed to television advertisements that endorse alcohol consumption and (ii) the themes used in these advertisements. A content analysis was conducted on alcohol advertisements aired over two months in major Australian cities. The advertisements were coded according to the products that were promoted, the themes that were employed, and the time of exposure. Advertising placement expenditure was also captured. In total, 2810 alcohol advertisements were aired, representing one in 10 beverage advertisements. Advertisement placement expenditure for alcohol products in the five cities over the two months was $15.8 million. Around half of all alcohol advertisements appeared during children's popular viewing times. The most common themes used were humour, friendship/mateship and value for money. Children and adults are regularly exposed to advertisements that depict alcohol consumption as fun, social and inexpensive. Such messages may reinforce existing alcohol-related cultural norms that prevent many Australians from meeting current intake guidelines. © 2012 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  4. The nature and extent of college student hazing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Elizabeth J; Madden, Mary

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the nature and extent of college student hazing in the USA. Hazing, a form of interpersonal violence, can jeopardize the health and safety of students. Using a web-based survey, data were collected from 11,482 undergraduate students, aged 18-25 years, who attended one of 53 colleges and universities. Additionally, researchers interviewed 300 students and staff at 18 of the campuses. Results reveal hazing among USA college students is widespread and involves a range of student organizations and athletic teams. Alcohol consumption, humiliation, isolation, sleep-deprivation and sex acts are hazing practices common across student groups. Furthermore, there is a large gap between the number of students who report experience with hazing behaviors and those that label their experience as hazing. To date, hazing prevention efforts in post-secondary education have focused largely on students in fraternities/sororities and intercollegiate athletes. Findings from this study can inform development of more comprehensive and research-based hazing prevention efforts that target a wider range of student groups. Further, data can serve as a baseline from which to measure changes in college student hazing over time.

  5. Daily events are important for age differences in mean and duration for negative affect but not positive affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Susan T; Mogle, Jacqueline; Urban, Emily J; Almeida, David M

    2016-11-01

    Across midlife and into old age, older adults often report lower levels of negative affect and similar if not higher levels of positive affect than relatively younger adults. Researchers have offered a simple explanation for this result: Age is related to reductions in stressors and increases in pleasurable activities that result in higher levels of well-being. The current study examines subjective reports of emotional experience assessed across 8 days in a large sample of adults (N = 2,022) ranging from 35 to 84 years old. By modeling age differences before and after adjusting for daily positive uplifts and negative stressors, this article assesses the extent to which daily events account for age differences in positive and negative affect reports. Consistent with previous research, the authors found that older age is related to lower mean levels and shorter duration of a negative emotional experience in a model only adjusting for gender, education, and ethnicity. After adjusting for daily events, however, the linear age-related effects were no longer significant. For positive affect, adjusting for daily events did not alter age-related patterns of experiencing higher mean levels and longer positive experience duration, suggesting that other factors underlie age-related increases in positive affect. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Finding optimal exact reducts

    KAUST Repository

    AbouEisha, Hassan M.

    2014-01-01

    The problem of attribute reduction is an important problem related to feature selection and knowledge discovery. The problem of finding reducts with minimum cardinality is NP-hard. This paper suggests a new algorithm for finding exact reducts

  7. Breast Reduction Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... considering breast reduction surgery, consult a board-certified plastic surgeon. It's important to understand what breast reduction surgery entails — including possible risks and complications — as ...

  8. Mechanistic investigation of Fe(III) oxide reduction by low molecular weight organic sulfur species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitel, Eryn M.; Taillefert, Martial

    2017-10-01

    Low molecular weight organic sulfur species, often referred to as thiols, are known to be ubiquitous in aquatic environments and represent important chemical reductants of Fe(III) oxides. Thiols are excellent electron shuttles used during dissimilatory iron reduction, and in this capacity could indirectly affect the redox state of sediments, release adsorbed contaminants via reductive dissolution, and influence the carbon cycle through alteration of bacterial respiration processes. Interestingly, the reduction of Fe(III) oxides by thiols has not been previously investigated in environmentally relevant conditions, likely due to analytical limitations associated with the detection of thiols and their oxidized products. In this study, a novel electrochemical method was developed to simultaneously determine thiol/disulfide pair concentrations in situ during the reduction of ferrihydrite in batch reactors. First order rate laws with respect to initial thiol concentration were confirmed for Fe(III) oxyhydroxide reduction by four common thiols: cysteine, homocysteine, cysteamine, and glutathione. Zero order was determined for both Fe(III) oxyhydroxide and proton concentration at circumneutral pH. A kinetic model detailing the molecular mechanism of the reaction was optimized with proposed intermediate surface structures. Although metal oxide overall reduction rate constants were inversely proportional to the complexity of the thiol structure, the extent of metal reduction increased with structure complexity, indicating that surface complexes play a significant role in the ability of these thiols to reduce iron. Taken together, these results demonstrate the importance of considering the molecular reaction mechanism at the iron oxide surface when investigating the potential for thiols to act as electron shuttles during dissimilatory iron reduction in natural environments.

  9. Sound transit climate risk reduction project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The Climate Risk Reduction Project assessed how climate change may affect Sound Transit commuter rail, light rail, and express bus : services. The project identified potential climate change impacts on agency operations, assets, and long-term plannin...

  10. Extent of lymph node dissection for adenocarcinoma of the stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocellin, Simone; McCulloch, Peter; Kazi, Hussain; Gama-Rodrigues, Joaquin J; Yuan, Yuhong; Nitti, Donato

    2015-08-12

    The impact of lymphadenectomy extent on the survival of patients with primary resectable gastric carcinoma is debated. We aimed to systematically review and meta-analyze the evidence on the impact of the three main types of progressively more extended lymph node dissection (that is, D1, D2 and D3 lymphadenectomy) on the clinical outcome of patients with primary resectable carcinoma of the stomach. The primary objective was to assess the impact of lymphadenectomy extent on survival (overall survival [OS], disease specific survival [DSS] and disease free survival [DFS]). The secondary aim was to assess the impact of lymphadenectomy on post-operative mortality. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE and EMBASE until 2001, including references from relevant articles and conference proceedings. We also contacted known researchers in the field. For the updated review, CENTRAL, MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched from 2001 to February 2015. We considered randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the three main types of lymph node dissection (i.e., D1, D2 and D3 lymphadenectomy) in patients with primary non-metastatic resectable carcinoma of the stomach. Two authors independently extracted data from the included studies. Hazard ratios (HR) and relative risks (RR) along with their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to measure differences in survival and mortality rates between trial arms, respectively. Potential sources of between-study heterogeneity were investigated by means of subgroup and sensitivity analyses. The same two authors independently assessed the risk of bias of eligible studies according to the standards of the Cochrane Collaboration and the quality of the overall evidence based on the GRADE (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) criteria. Eight RCTs (enrolling 2515 patients) met the inclusion criteria. Three RCTs (all performed in Asian countries) compared D3 with D2 lymphadenectomy: data suggested no significant difference in OS

  11. Reduction in gesture during the production of repeated references

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoetjes, M.W.; Koolen, R.M.F.; Goudbeek, M.B.; Krahmer, E.J.; Swerts, M.G.J.

    2015-01-01

    In dialogue, repeated references contain fewer words (which are also acoustically reduced) and fewer gestures than initial ones. In this paper, we describe three experiments studying to what extent gesture reduction is comparable to other forms of linguistic reduction. Since previous studies showed

  12. Assessing the extent of non-stationary biases in GCMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Jannatun; Johnson, Fiona; Sharma, Ashish

    2017-06-01

    General circulation models (GCMs) are the main tools for estimating changes in the climate for the future. The imperfect representation of climate models introduces biases in the simulations that need to be corrected prior to their use for impact assessments. Bias correction methods generally assume that the bias calculated over the historical period does not change and can be applied to the future. This study investigates this assumption by considering the extent and nature of bias non-stationarity using 20th century precipitation and temperature simulations from six CMIP5 GCMs across Australia. Four statistics (mean, standard deviation, 10th and 90th quantiles) in monthly and seasonal biases are obtained for three different time window lengths (10, 25 and 33 years) to examine the properties of bias over time. This approach is repeated for two different phases of the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO), which is known to have strong influences on the Australian climate. It is found that bias non-stationarity at decadal timescales is indeed an issue over some of Australia for some GCMs. When considering interdecadal variability there are significant difference in the bias between positive and negative phases of the IPO. Regional analyses confirmed these findings with the largest differences seen on the east coast of Australia, where IPO impacts tend to be the strongest. The nature of the bias non-stationarity found in this study suggests that it will be difficult to modify existing bias correction approaches to account for non-stationary biases. A more practical approach for impact assessments that use bias correction maybe to use a selection of GCMs where the assumption of bias non-stationarity holds.

  13. The extent of use of online pharmacies in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abanmy, Norah

    2017-09-01

    Online pharmacies sell medicine over the Internet and deliver them by mail. The main objective of this study is to explore the extent of use of online pharmacies in Saudi Arabia which will be useful for the scientific community and regulators. An Arabic survey questionnaire was developed for this study. The questionnaire was distributed via email and social media. Four sections were created to cover the objectives: experience with online shopping in general, demographics, awareness of the existence and customer experiences of buying medicine online, and reasons for buying/not buying medicine online. A total of 633 responses were collected. Around 69% (437) of them were female and the majority (256, 40.4%) was in the age range 26-40. Only 23.1% (146) were aware of the existence of online pharmacies where 2.7% (17) of them had bought a medicine over the Internet and 15 (88.2%) respondents out of the 17 was satisfied with the process. Lack of awareness of the availability of such services was the main reason for not buying medicines online. Many respondents (263, 42.7%) were willing to try an online pharmacy, although majorities (243, 45.9%) were unable to differentiate between legal and illegal online pharmacies. The largest categories of products respondents were willing to buy them online were nonprescription medicines and cosmetics. The popularity of purchasing medicines over the Internet is still low in Saudi Arabia. However, because the majority of respondents are willing to purchase medicines online, efforts should be made by the Saudi FDA to set regulations and monitor this activity.

  14. Hamstring Injuries in Professional Soccer Players: Extent of MRI-Detected Edema and the Time to Return to Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crema, Michel D; Godoy, Ivan R B; Abdalla, Rene J; de Aquino, Jose Sanchez; Ingham, Sheila J McNeill; Skaf, Abdalla Y

    Discrepancies exist in the literature regarding the association of the extent of injuries assessed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with recovery times. MRI-detected edema in grade 1 hamstring injuries does not affect the return to play (RTP). Retrospective cohort study. Level 4. Grade 1 hamstring injuries from 22 professional soccer players were retrospectively reviewed. The extent of edema-like changes on fluid-sensitive sequences from 1.5-T MRI were evaluated using craniocaudal length, percentage of cross-sectional area, and volume. The time needed to RTP was the outcome. Negative binomial regression analysis tested the measurements of MRI-detected edema-like changes as prognostic factors. The mean craniocaudal length was 7.6 cm (SD, 4.9 cm; range, 0.9-19.1 cm), the mean percentage of cross-sectional area was 23.6% (SD, 20%; range, 4.4%-89.6%), and the mean volume was 33.1 cm 3 (SD, 42.6 cm 3 ; range, 1.1-161.3 cm 3 ). The mean time needed to RTP was 13.6 days (SD, 8.9 days; range, 3-32 days). None of the parameters of extent was associated with RTP. The extent of MRI edema in hamstring injuries does not have prognostic value. Measuring the extent of edema in hamstring injuries using MRI does not add prognostic value in clinical practice.

  15. Clinical evidence of parietal cortex dysfunction and correlation with extent of allodynia in CRPS type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, H; McCabe, C; Harris, N; Hall, J; Lewis, J; Blake, D R

    2013-04-01

    Unusual symptoms such as digit misidentification and neglect-like phenomena have been reported in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), which we hypothesized could be explained by parietal lobe dysfunction. Twenty-two patients with chronic CRPS attending an in-patient rehabilitation programme underwent standard neurological examination followed by clinical assessment of parietal lobe function and detailed sensory testing. Fifteen (68%) patients had evidence of parietal lobe dysfunction. Six (27%) subjects failed six or more test categories and demonstrated new clinical signs consistent with their parietal testing impairments, which were impacting significantly on activities of daily living. A higher incidence was noted in subjects with >1 limb involvement, CRPS affecting the dominant side and in left-handed subjects. Eighteen patients (82%) had mechanical allodynia covering 3-57.5% of the body surface area. Allochiria (unilateral tactile stimulation perceived only in the analogous location on the opposite limb), sensory extinction (concurrent bilateral tactile stimulation perceived only in one limb), referred sensations (unilateral tactile stimulation perceived concurrently in another discrete body area) and dysynchiria (unilateral non-noxious tactile stimulation perceived bilaterally as noxious) were present in some patients. Greater extent of body surface allodynia was correlated with worse parietal function (Spearman's rho = -0.674, p = 0.001). In patients with chronic CRPS, detailed clinical examination may reveal parietal dysfunction, with severity relating to the extent of allodynia. © 2012 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters.

  16. The Extent and Implications of the Microclimatic Conditions in the Urban Environment: A Vienna Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Vuckovic

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent challenges in the realm of urban studies concern better understanding of microclimatic conditions. Changes in urban climate affect cities at local and global scales, with consequences for human health, thermal comfort, building energy use, and anthropogenic emissions. The extent of these impacts may vary due to different morphologies and materials of the built environment. The present contribution summarizes the results of a multi-year effort concerned with the extent and implications of urban heat in Vienna, Austria. For this purpose, high-resolution weather data across six locations are obtained and analyzed. This allowed for an objective assessment of urban-level climatic circumstances across distinct low-density and high-density typologies. Subsequently, a systematic framework was developed for identification of essential properties of the built environment (geometric and material-related that are hypothesized to influence microclimate variation. Results point to a number of related (positive and negative correlations with microclimatic tendencies. Additionally, the impact of this location-specific weather data on building performance simulation results is evaluated. The results suggest that buildings' thermal performance is significantly influenced by location-specific microclimatic conditions with variation of mean annual heating load across locations of up to 16.1 kWhm−2·a−1. The use of location-independent weather data sources (e.g., standardized weather files for building performance estimations can, thus, result in considerable errors.

  17. Extent of palatal lengthening after cleft palate repair as a contributing factor to the speech outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Yong-Chan; Choi, Soo-Jong; Lee, Jae-Woo; Seo, Hyoung-Joon

    2015-03-01

    Operative techniques in performing cleft palate repair have gradually evolved to achieve better speech ability with its main focus on palatal lengthening and accurate approximation of the velar musculature. The authors doubted whether the extent of palatal lengthening would be directly proportional to the speech outcome. Patients with incomplete cleft palates who went into surgery before 18 months of age were intended for this study. Cases with associated syndromes, mental retardation, hearing loss, or presence of postoperative complications were excluded from the analysis. Palatal length was measured by the authors' devised method before and immediately after the cleft palate repair. Postoperative speech outcome was evaluated around 4 years by a definite pronunciation scoring system. Statistical analysis was carried out between the extent of palatal lengthening and the postoperative pronunciation score by Spearman correlation coefficient method. However, the authors could not find any significant correlation. Although the need for additional research on other variables affecting speech outcome is unequivocal, we carefully conclude that other intraoperative constituents such as accurate reapproximation of the velar musculature should be emphasized more in cleft palate repair rather than palatal lengthening itself.

  18. MRI-based radiologic scoring system for extent of brain injury in children with hemiplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiran, S I; Weinstein, M; Sirota-Cohen, C; Myers, V; Ben Bashat, D; Fattal-Valevski, A; Green, D; Schertz, M

    2014-12-01

    Brain MR imaging is recommended in children with cerebral palsy. Descriptions of MR imaging findings lack uniformity, due to the absence of a validated quantitative approach. We developed a quantitative scoring method for brain injury based on anatomic MR imaging and examined the reliability and validity in correlation to motor function in children with hemiplegia. Twenty-seven children with hemiplegia underwent MR imaging (T1, T2-weighted sequences, DTI) and motor assessment (Manual Ability Classification System, Gross Motor Functional Classification System, Assisting Hand Assessment, Jebsen Taylor Test of Hand Function, and Children's Hand Experience Questionnaire). A scoring system devised in our center was applied to all scans. Radiologic score covered 4 domains: number of affected lobes, volume and type of white matter injury, extent of gray matter damage, and major white matter tract injury. Inter- and intrarater reliability was evaluated and the relationship between radiologic score and motor assessments determined. Mean total radiologic score was 11.3 ± 4.5 (range 4-18). Good inter- (ρ = 0.909, P classification systems (ρ = 0.708, P high inter- and intrarater reliability and significant associations with manual ability classification systems and motor evaluations. This score provides a standardized radiologic assessment of brain injury extent in hemiplegic patients with predominantly unilateral injury, allowing comparison between groups, and providing an additional tool for counseling families. © 2014 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  19. Affective Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    . In particular, mapping environmental damage, endangered species, and human made disasters has become one of the focal point of affective knowledge production. These ‘more-than-humangeographies’ practices include notions of species, space and territory, and movement towards a new political ecology. This type...... of digital cartographies has been highlighted as the ‘processual turn’ in critical cartography, whereas in related computational journalism it can be seen as an interactive and iterative process of mapping complex and fragile ecological developments. This paper looks at computer-assisted cartography as part...

  20. Soil-water salinity pollution: extent, management and potential impacts on agricultural sustain ability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javid, M.A.; Ali, K.; Javed, M.; Mahmood, A.

    1999-01-01

    One of the significant environmental hazards of irrigated agriculture is the accumulation of salts in the soil. The presence of large quantities of certain soluble salts badly affects the physical, chemical, biological and fertility characteristics of the soils. This pollution of soil salinity and its toxic degradation directly affects plants, hence impacting the air filters of nature. The soil and water salinity has adversely reduced the yield of our major agricultural crops to an extent that agricultural sustainability is being threatened. Salinity has also dwindled the survival of marine life, livestock, in addition to damaging of construction works. The problem can be estimated from the fact that out of 16.2 m.ha of irrigated land of Pakistan, 6.3 . ha are salt affected in the Indus Plain. The state of water pollution can further be assessed from the fact that presently about 106 MAF of water is diverted from the rivers into the canals of the Indus Plain which contains 28 MT of salts. Due to soil and water pollution more than 40,000 ha of good irrigated land goes out of cultivation every year. This it has drastically reduced the potential of our agricultural lands. Hence, an estimated annual loss of Rs. 14,000 million has been reported due to this soil-water salinity pollution in Pakistan. Some management options to mitigate the soil - water salinity pollution are proposed. (author)

  1. Is Immersion of Any Value? Whether, and to What Extent, Game Immersion Experience during Serious Gaming Affects Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Meng-Tzu; Lin, Yu-Wen; She, Hsiao-Ching; Kuo, Po-Chih

    2017-01-01

    Many studies have shown the positive impact of serious gaming on learning outcomes, but few have explored the relationships between game immersion and science learning. Accordingly, this study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of learning by playing, as well as the dynamic process of game immersion experiences, and to further identify…

  2. Extent of digestion affects the success of amplifying human DNA from blood meals of Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mukabana, W.R.; Takken, W.; Seda, P.; Killeen, G.F.; Hawley, W.A.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2002-01-01

    The success of distinguishing blood meal sources of Anopheles gambiae Giles through deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) profiling was investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification at the TC-11 and VWA human short tandem repeats (STR) loci. Blood meal size and locus had no significant effect

  3. Extent of Cropland and Related Soil Erosion Risk in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidele Karamage

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Land conversion to cropland is one of the major causes of severe soil erosion in Africa. This study assesses the current cropland extent and the related soil erosion risk in Rwanda, a country that experienced the most rapid population growth and cropland expansion in Africa over the last decade. The land cover land use (LCLU map of Rwanda in 2015 was developed using Landsat-8 imagery. Based on the obtained LCLU map and the spatial datasets of precipitation, soil properties and elevation, the soil erosion rate of Rwanda was assessed at 30-m spatial resolution, using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE model. According to the results, the mean soil erosion rate was 250 t·ha−1·a−1 over the entire country, with a total soil loss rate of approximately 595 million tons per year. The mean soil erosion rate over cropland, which occupied 56% of the national land area, was estimated at 421 t·ha−1·a−1 and was responsible for about 95% of the national soil loss. About 24% of the croplands in Rwanda had a soil erosion rate larger than 300 t·ha−1·a−1, indicating their unsuitability for cultivation. With a mean soil erosion rate of 1642 t·ha−1·a−1, these unsuitable croplands were responsible for 90% of the national soil loss. Most of the unsuitable croplands are distributed in the Congo Nile Ridge, Volcanic Range mountain areas in the west and the Buberuka highlands in the north, regions characterized by steep slopes (>30% and strong rainfall. Soil conservation practices, such as the terracing cultivation method, are paramount to preserve the soil. According to our assessment, terracing alone could reduce the mean cropland soil erosion rate and the national soil loss by 79% and 75%, respectively. After terracing, only a small proportion of 7.6% of the current croplands would still be exposed to extreme soil erosion with a rate >300 t·ha−1·a−1. These irremediable cropland areas should be returned to mountain forest to

  4. Evaluation of nature and extent of injuries during Dahihandi festival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemade, P; Wade, R; Patwardhan, A R; Kale, S

    2012-01-01

    Injuries related to the Hindu festival of Dahihandi where a human pyramid is formed and a pot of money kept at a height is broken, celebrated in the state of Maharashtra, have seen a significant rise in the past few years. The human pyramid formed is multi-layered and carries with it a high risk of injury including mortality. To evaluate the nature, extent and influencing factors of injuries related to Dahihandi festival. We present a retrospective analysis of patients who presented in a tertiary care center with injuries during the Dahihandi festival in the year 2010. 124 patients' records were evaluated for timing of injury, height of the Dahihandi pyramid, position of the patient in the multi-layered pyramid, mode of pyramid collapse and mechanism of an injury. A binary regression logistic analysis for risk factors was done at 5% significance level. Univariate and multi-variate binary logistic regression of the risk factors for occurrence of a major or minor injury was done using Minitab™ version 16.0 at 5% significance. Out of 139 patients presented to the center, 15 were not involved directly in the formation of pyramid, rest 124 were included in the analysis. A majority of the patients were above 15 years of age [110 (83.6%)]. 46 (37.1%) patients suffered major injuries. There were 39 fractures, 3 cases of chest wall trauma with 10 cases of head injuries and 1 death. More than half of the patients [78 (56.1%)] were injured after 1800 hours. 73 (58.9%) injured participants were part of the pyramid constructed to reach the Dahihandi placed at 30 feet or more above the ground. 72 (51.8%) participants were part of the middle layers of the pyramid. Fall of a participant from upstream layers on the body was the main mechanism of injury, and majority [101 (81.5%)] of the patients suffered injury during descent phase of the pyramid. There is a considerable risk of serious, life-threatening injuries inherent to human pyramid formation and descent in the Dahihandi

  5. A Fully Automated Classification for Mapping the Annual Cropland Extent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldner, F.; Defourny, P.

    2015-12-01

    Mapping the global cropland extent is of paramount importance for food security. Indeed, accurate and reliable information on cropland and the location of major crop types is required to make future policy, investment, and logistical decisions, as well as production monitoring. Timely cropland information directly feed early warning systems such as GIEWS and, FEWS NET. In Africa, and particularly in the arid and semi-arid region, food security is center of debate (at least 10% of the population remains undernourished) and accurate cropland estimation is a challenge. Space borne Earth Observation provides opportunities for global cropland monitoring in a spatially explicit, economic, efficient, and objective fashion. In the both agriculture monitoring and climate modelling, cropland maps serve as mask to isolate agricultural land for (i) time-series analysis for crop condition monitoring and (ii) to investigate how the cropland is respond to climatic evolution. A large diversity of mapping strategies ranging from the local to the global scale and associated with various degrees of accuracy can be found in the literature. At the global scale, despite efforts, cropland is generally one of classes with the poorest accuracy which make difficult the use for agricultural. This research aims at improving the cropland delineation from the local scale to the regional and global scales as well as allowing near real time updates. To that aim, five temporal features were designed to target the key- characteristics of crop spectral-temporal behavior. To ensure a high degree of automation, training data is extracted from available baseline land cover maps. The method delivers cropland maps with a high accuracy over contrasted agro-systems in Ukraine, Argentina, China and Belgium. The accuracy reached are comparable to those obtained with classifiers trained with in-situ data. Besides, it was found that the cropland class is associated with a low uncertainty. The temporal features

  6. Harnessing ISO/IEC 12207 to Examine the Extent of SPI Activity in an Organisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Paul; O'Connor, Rory

    The quality of the software development process directly affects the quality of the software product. To be successful, software development organisations must respond to changes in technology and business circumstances, and therefore software process improvement (SPI) is required. SPI activity relates to any modification that is performed to the software process in order to improve an aspect of the process. Although multiple process assessments could be employed to examine SPI activity, they present an inefficient tool for such an examination. This paper presents an overview of a new survey-based resource that utilises the process reference model in ISO/IEC 12207 in order to expressly and directly determine the level of SPI activity in a software development organisation. This survey instrument can be used by practitioners, auditors and researchers who are interested in determining the extent of SPI activity in an organisation.

  7. Traffic accidents involving fatigue driving and their extent of casualties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangnan; Yau, Kelvin K W; Zhang, Xun; Li, Yanyan

    2016-02-01

    The rapid progress of motorization has increased the number of traffic-related casualties. Although fatigue driving is a major cause of traffic accidents, the public remains not rather aware of its potential harmfulness. Fatigue driving has been termed as a "silent killer." Thus, a thorough study of traffic accidents and the risk factors associated with fatigue-related casualties is of utmost importance. In this study, we analyze traffic accident data for the period 2006-2010 in Guangdong Province, China. The study data were extracted from the traffic accident database of China's Public Security Department. A logistic regression model is used to assess the effect of driver characteristics, type of vehicles, road conditions, and environmental factors on fatigue-related traffic accident occurrence and severity. On the one hand, male drivers, trucks, driving during midnight to dawn, and morning rush hours are identified as risk factors of fatigue-related crashes but do not necessarily result in severe casualties. Driving at night without street-lights contributes to fatigue-related crashes and severe casualties. On the other hand, while factors such as less experienced drivers, unsafe vehicle status, slippery roads, driving at night with street-lights, and weekends do not have significant effect on fatigue-related crashes, yet accidents associated with these factors are likely to have severe casualties. The empirical results of the present study have important policy implications on the reduction of fatigue-related crashes as well as their severity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Testing the Grandchildren's Received Affection Scale using Affection Exchange Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansson, Daniel H

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the Grandchildren's Received Affection Scale (GRAS) using Affection Exchange Theory (Floyd, 2006). In accordance with Affection Exchange Theory, it was hypothesized that grandchildren's scores on the Trait Affection Received Scale (i.e., the extent to which individuals by nature receive affection) would be related significantly and positively to their reports of received affection from their grandparents (i.e., their scores on the GRAS). Additionally, a research question was asked to explore if grandchildren's received affection from their grandparents is dependent on their grandparent's biological sex or lineage (i.e., maternal vs paternal). Thus, young adult grandchildren (N = 422) completed the GRAS and the Trait Affection Received Scale. The results of zero-order Pearson correlational analyses provided support for the hypothesis, whereas the results of MANOVAs tests only partially support extant grandparent-grandchild theory and research. These findings broaden the scope of Affection Exchange Theory and also bolster the GRAS's utility in future grandparent-grandchild affectionate communication research.

  9. The extent of man from Vitruvius to Marfan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, G D

    It is frequently stated that patients with Marfan's syndrome have an arm span greater than height. This implies a characteristic different from the proportions in normal adult man, in whom span and height are often thought to be equal. Such equality of span and height, which allows man to be portrayed within a square, has been a widely held concept, immortalised by Leonardo da Vinci, that dates from the Roman Vitruvius. However, in the past two hundred years, anthropometry has shown that span exceeds height in 59-78% of normal adult white men. Thus not only is the classic concept of equality of span and height generally incorrect, but also a span greater than height cannot be considered characteristic of Marfan's syndrome. Paradoxically, in some affected individuals, Vitruvian equality of height and span may occur.

  10. Infinitary Combinatory Reduction Systems: Normalising Reduction Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketema, J.; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2010-01-01

    We study normalising reduction strategies for infinitary Combinatory Reduction Systems (iCRSs). We prove that all fair, outermost-fair, and needed-fair strategies are normalising for orthogonal, fully-extended iCRSs. These facts properly generalise a number of results on normalising strategies in

  11. [Affective dependency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy.

  12. Exposure reduction in panoramic radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapa, S.F.; Platin, E.

    1990-01-01

    Increased receptor speed in panoramic radiography is useful in reducing patient exposure if it doesn't substantially decrease the diagnostic quality of the resultant image. In a laboratory investigation four rare earth screen/film combinations were evaluated ranging in relative speed from 400 to 1200. The results indicated that an exposure reduction of approximately 15 percent can be achieved by substituting a 1200 speed system for a 400 speed system without significantly affecting the diagnostic quality of the image

  13. Influence of the enzyme dissimilatory sulfite reductase on stable isotope fractionation during sulfate reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangalo, Muna; Einsiedl, Florian; Meckenstock, Rainer U.; Stichler, Willibald

    2008-03-01

    The stable isotopes of sulfate are often used as a tool to assess bacterial sulfate reduction on the macro scale. However, the mechanisms of stable isotope fractionation of sulfur and oxygen at the enzymatic level are not yet fully understood. In batch experiments with water enriched in 18O we investigated the effect of different nitrite concentrations on sulfur isotope fractionation by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans. With increasing nitrite concentrations, we found sulfur isotope enrichment factors ranging from -11.2 ± 1.8‰ to -22.5 ± 3.2‰. Furthermore, the δ18O values in the remaining sulfate increased from approximately 50-120‰ when 18O-enriched water was supplied. Since 18O-exchange with ambient water does not take place in sulfate, but rather in intermediates of the sulfate reduction pathway (e.g. SO32-), we suggest that nitrite affects the steady-state concentration and the extent of reoxidation of the metabolic intermediate sulfite to sulfate during sulfate reduction. Given that nitrite is known to inhibit the production of the enzyme dissimilatory sulfite reductase, our results suggest that the activity of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase regulates the kinetic isotope fractionation of sulfur and oxygen during bacterial sulfate reduction. Our novel results also imply that isotope fractionation during bacterial sulfate reduction strongly depends on the cell internal enzymatic regulation rather than on the physico-chemical features of the individual enzymes.

  14. Extent and kinetics of recovery of occult spinal cord injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ang, K. Kian; Jiang, G.-L.; Feng Yan; Stephens, L. Clifton; Tucker, Susan L.; Price, Roger E.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain clinically useful quantitative data on the extent and kinetics of recovery of occult radiation injury in primate spinal cord, after a commonly administered elective radiation dose of 44 Gy, given in about 2 Gy per fraction. Methods and Materials: A group of 56 rhesus monkeys was assigned to receive two radiation courses to the cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord, given in 2.2 Gy per fraction. The dose of the initial course was 44 Gy in all monkeys. Reirradiation dose was 57.2 Gy, given after 1-year (n 16) or 2-year (n = 20) intervals, or 66 Gy, given after 2-year (n = 4) or 3-year (n = 14) intervals. Two animals developed intramedullary tumors before reirradiation and, therefore, did not receive a second course. The study endpoint was myeloparesis, manifesting predominantly as lower extremity weakness and decrease in balance, occurring within 2.5 years after reirradiation, complemented by histologic examination of the spinal cord. The data obtained were analyzed along with data from a previous study addressing single-course tolerance, and data from a preliminary study of reirradiation tolerance. Results: Only 4 of 45 monkeys completing the required observation period (2-2.5 years after reirradiation, 3-5.5 years total) developed myeloparesis. The data revealed a substantial recovery of occult injury induced by 44 Gy within the first year, and suggested additional recovery between 1 and 3 years. Fitting the data with a model, assuming that all (single course and reirradiation) dose-response curves were parallel, yielded recovery estimates of 33.6 Gy (76%), 37.6 Gy (85%), and 44.6 Gy (101%) of the initial dose, after 1, 2, and 3 years, respectively, at the 5% incidence (D 5 ) level. The most conservative estimate, using a model in which it was assumed that there was no recovery between 1 and 3 years following initial irradiation and that the combined reirradiation curve was not necessarily parallel to the single-course curve, still showed an

  15. Do recruitment ties affect wages?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Folke; Rand, John; Torm, Nina Elisabeth

    This paper examines the extent to which recruitment ties affect individual wage outcomes in small and medium scale manufacturing firms. Based on a unique matched employer-employee dataset from Vietnam we find that there is a significant positive wage premium associated with obtaining a job through...... an informal contact, when controlling for standard determinants of wage compensation. Moreover, we show that the mechanism through which informal contacts affect wages depends on the type of recruitment tie used. The findings are robust across location, firm size categories and different worker types....

  16. Explosion Amplitude Reduction due to Fractures in Water-Saturated and Dry Granite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroujkova, A. F.; Leidig, M.; Bonner, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    Empirical observations made at the Semipalatinsk Test Site suggest that nuclear tests in the fracture zones left by previous explosions ('repeat shots') show reduced seismic amplitudes compared to the nuclear tests in virgin rocks. Likely mechanisms for the amplitude reduction in the repeat shots include increased porosity and reduced strength and elastic moduli, leading to pore closing and frictional sliding. Presence of pore water significantly decreases rock compressibility and strength, thus affecting seismic amplitudes. A series of explosion experiments were conducted in order to define the physical mechanism responsible for the amplitude reduction and to quantify the degree of the amplitude reduction in fracture zones of previously detonated explosions. Explosions in water-saturated granite were conducted in central New Hampshire in 2011 and 2012. Additional explosions in dry granite were detonated in Barre, VT in 2013. The amplitude reduction is different between dry and water-saturated crystalline rocks. Significant reduction in seismic amplitudes (by a factor of 2-3) in water-saturated rocks was achieved only when the repeat shot was detonated in the extensive damage zone created by a significantly larger (by a factor of 5) explosion. In case where the first and the second explosions were similar in yield, the amplitude reduction was relatively modest (5-20%). In dry rocks the amplitude reduction reached a factor of 2 even in less extensive damage zones. In addition there are differences in frequency dependence of the spectral amplitude ratios between explosions in dry and water-saturated rocks. Thus the amplitude reduction is sensitive to the extent of the damage zone as well as the pore water content.

  17. FACTORS AFFECTING BLOOD LOSS DURING OpEN REDUCTION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of diathermy and positioning of the patient in a way that encourages free venous drainage at the operative site (1) is a practical and inexpensive way of minimising blood loss during surgery. The operative site should be a little above the level of the heart (1). Good anaesthetic technique reduces episodes of.

  18. Experimental reduction in interaction intensity strongly affects biotic selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sletvold, Nina; Ågren, Jon

    2016-11-01

    The link between biotic interaction intensity and strength of selection is of fundamental interest for understanding biotically driven diversification and predicting the consequences of environmental change. The strength of selection resulting from biotic interactions is determined by the strength of the interaction and by the covariance between fitness and the trait under selection. When the relationship between trait and absolute fitness is constant, selection strength should be a direct function of mean population interaction intensity. To test this prediction, we excluded pollinators for intervals of different length to induce five levels of pollination intensity within a single plant population. Pollen limitation (PL) increased from 0 to 0.77 across treatments, accompanied by a fivefold increase in the opportunity for selection. Trait-fitness covariance declined with PL for number of flowers, but varied little for other traits. Pollinator-mediated selection on plant height, corolla size, and spur length increased by 91%, 34%, and 330%, respectively, in the most severely pollen-limited treatment compared to open-pollinated plants. The results indicate that realized biotic selection can be predicted from mean population interaction intensity when variation in trait-fitness covariance is limited, and that declines in pollination intensity will strongly increase selection on traits involved in the interaction. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  19. Arsenic: it's extent of pollution and toxicosis: An animal perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapan Kumar Das

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic poisoning is now considered as one of the biggest environmental disaster and a major public health issue. Incidence of arsenicpoisoning has been reported from many parts of the world. While Bangladesh and West Bengal (India account for the most of the incidence, occasional reports from Mexico, Taiwan and mainland China have also appeared.It is a natural metalloid found in low concentrations in virtually every part of the environment as it is used in a wide variety of industrial applications, from computers to fireworks. Ground water arsenic is the major source of poisoning in animals and human. About 80% of ingested arsenic is absorbed and metabolized in liver and then excreted through urine and faeces while upon chronic exposure, it is deposited in liver, kidney and skin. Human populations are also being exposed to this poison by consuming the milk of affected animal.Inorganic forms of arsenic are more toxic compared to organic forms. Acute toxicity is rare in nature in comparison to chronic toxicity, which is prevalent in contaminated areas. Most non-ruminants are more susceptible to intoxication than ruminants. Chronic exposure of arsenic in animals and human beings causes severe adverse effects in the form of lowered immunity, diseases and production performances. [Vet World 2013; 6(1.000: 53-58

  20. Assessment of trends in inundation extent in the Barotse Floodplain, upper Zambezi River Basin: A remote sensing-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Zimba

    2018-02-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: The results revealed that there is observable inter-annual variability in inundation extent in the Barotse Floodplain with prominent differences demonstrated in both the flood ascending/peak and receding period. For the period 2003–2013 the results indicated a rising trend in inundation extent with a Mann–Kendall Z statistic of 1.71 and increase in magnitude of 33.1 km2 at significance level alpha of 0.05. Strong correlations between inundation extent and water level and between inundation extent and discharge with correlation coefficients of determination of 0.86 and 0.89 respectively were observed. For the period 2000–2011 water level time series showed a rising trend with the Mann–Kendall Z statistic of 2.97 and increase in magnitude of 0.1 m at significance level alpha of 0.05. Overall, during the period 1952–2004 discharge in the floodplain showed a declining trend with Mann–Kendall Z statistics of −2.88 and −3.38 at the inlet and outlet of the floodplain respectively. By correlation inference, the overall inundation extent trend in the floodplain was in a downward movement. Rainfall and discharge variability, high evapotranspiration and the changes in the land cover-use in the catchment of the floodplain are largely the factors affecting the observed variability and trends in inundation extent in the floodplain. The presented remote sensing based approach significantly reduces the need for the expensive and time limiting traditional physical field based wetland inundation mapping methods that form a limitation for achieving progress in wetland monitoring especially in open and sparsely gauged floodplains such as the Barotse.

  1. Reduction in language testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimova, Slobodanka; Jensen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    /video recorded speech samples and written reports produced by two experienced raters after testing. Our findings suggest that reduction or reduction-like pronunciation features are found in tested L2 speech, but whenever raters identify and comment on such reductions, they tend to assess reductions negatively......This study represents an initial exploration of raters' comments and actual realisations of form reductions in L2 test speech performances. Performances of three L2 speakers were selected as case studies and illustrations of how reductions are evaluated by the raters. The analysis is based on audio...

  2. Earthquake Loss Scenarios: Warnings about the Extent of Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyss, M.; Tolis, S.; Rosset, P.

    2016-12-01

    It is imperative that losses expected due to future earthquakes be estimated. Officials and the public need to be aware of what disaster is likely in store for them in order to reduce the fatalities and efficiently help the injured. Scenarios for earthquake parameters can be constructed to a reasonable accuracy in highly active earthquake belts, based on knowledge of seismotectonics and history. Because of the inherent uncertainties of loss estimates however, it would be desirable that more than one group calculate an estimate for the same area. By discussing these estimates, one may find a consensus of the range of the potential disasters and persuade officials and residents of the reality of the earthquake threat. To model a scenario and estimate earthquake losses requires data sets that are sufficiently accurate of the number of people present, the built environment, and if possible the transmission of seismic waves. As examples we use loss estimates for possible repeats of historic earthquakes in Greece that occurred between -464 and 700. We model future large Greek earthquakes as having M6.8 and rupture lengths of 60 km. In four locations where historic earthquakes with serious losses have occurred, we estimate that 1,000 to 1,500 people might perish, with an additional factor of four people injured. Defining the area of influence of these earthquakes as that with shaking intensities larger and equal to V, we estimate that 1.0 to 2.2 million people in about 2,000 settlements may be affected. We calibrate the QLARM tool for calculating intensities and losses in Greece, using the M6, 1999 Athens earthquake and matching the isoseismal information for six earthquakes, which occurred in Greece during the last 140 years. Comparing fatality numbers that would occur theoretically today with the numbers reported, and correcting for the increase in population, we estimate that the improvement of the building stock has reduced the mortality and injury rate in Greek

  3. Drag Reduction through Pulsed Plasma Actuators, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Drag reduction is a fundamental necessity in all aerodynamic designs, as it directly affects aircraft fuel efficiency which in turn affects endurance, range, and...

  4. MCNP variance reduction overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, J.S.; Booth, T.E.

    1985-01-01

    The MCNP code is rich in variance reduction features. Standard variance reduction methods found in most Monte Carlo codes are available as well as a number of methods unique to MCNP. We discuss the variance reduction features presently in MCNP as well as new ones under study for possible inclusion in future versions of the code

  5. Modern Reduction Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, Pher G

    2008-01-01

    With its comprehensive overview of modern reduction methods, this book features high quality contributions allowing readers to find reliable solutions quickly and easily. The monograph treats the reduction of carbonyles, alkenes, imines and alkynes, as well as reductive aminations and cross and heck couplings, before finishing off with sections on kinetic resolutions and hydrogenolysis. An indispensable lab companion for every chemist.

  6. An essay on the extent and significance of the Greek athletic culture in the classical period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Heine

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the extent of the Greek athletic culture in the classical period. It is demonstrated that the athletic culture had a surprising extent, and the article goes on the discuss the historical significance of this fact.......This article discusses the extent of the Greek athletic culture in the classical period. It is demonstrated that the athletic culture had a surprising extent, and the article goes on the discuss the historical significance of this fact....

  7. Flow variation in Astore river under assumed glaciated extents due to climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naeem, U.A.

    2012-01-01

    Various researchers have concluded the existence of many glaciers in doubt by the end of this century due to global warming phenomenon. The great Himalayas are also under such stress. The recent acceleration in rainfall pattern resulted the ever worst destruction due to floods (2010) in Pakistan. Many Watershed models, capable of incorporating the climate change scenarios have been developed in this regard to predict the future flows. But it is not easy to select the most appropriate model for a particular watershed to get the best results. In this regard. the paper is an effort where the analysis has been made on Astore Watershed, Pakistan, by considering the model results obtained from the three watershed models i.e. UBC Watershed Model, HBV-Met and HBV-PRECIS. The results are obtained by considering different glaciated extents of 100%, 50% and 0% under future climate scenario (SRES A2), simulated by PRECIS Regional Climate Model for (2071-2100). For changed climate scenario, discharges for the simulations at 100% reduction in glaciated area were -72%, -15% and-46% for HBV-Met, HBV-PRECIS and UBC Watershed Model respectively. (author)

  8. Prediction of the extent of formation damage caused by water injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Homadhi, Emad S. [King Saud Univ., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Petroleum Engineering Dept.

    2013-06-15

    As a general practice water is injected along the O/W contact to maintain reservoir pressure during production. Down hole analysis of the injected water shows that, even after surface treatment, it still can contain a considerable amount of solid particles. These particles can bridge formation pores and cause a considerable reduction in the injectivity. To ensure good injectivity over a longer term, the concentration and size of these solids should not exceed certain limits. In this article core flood tests were carried out to simulate high rate injectors. The injected brine contained solid particles in different concentrations and sizes. Particle concentration was between 5 and 20 ppm and the particle mean size was between 2 and 9 {mu}m. The results were presented as damaging ratio versus pore volume injected. Contrarily to previous studies instead of using experimental results in calibrating or evaluating certain theoretical models, the results in this study were directly fitted to produce equations which can predict the extent of damage caused by injected water by knowing the mean size and concentration of the solid particles contained in that water. (orig.)

  9. Azithromycin and erythromycin ameliorate the extent of colonic damage induced by acetic acid in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahgoub, Afaf; El-Medany, Azza; Mustafa, Ali; Arafah, Maha; Moursi, Mahmoud

    2005-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis is a common inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) of unknown etiology. Recent studies have revealed the role of some microorganisms in the initiation and perpetuation of IBD. The role of antibiotics in the possible modulation of colon inflammation is still uncertain. In this study, we evaluated the effects of two macrolides, namely azithromycin and erythromycin, at different doses on the extent and severity of ulcerative colitis caused by intracolonic administration of 3% acetic acid in rats. The lesions and the inflammatory response were assessed by histology and measurement of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, nitric oxide synthetase (NOS) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) in colonic tissues. Inflammation following acetic acid instillation was characterized by oedema, diffuse inflammatory cell infiltration and necrosis. Increase in MPO, NOS and TNFα was detected in the colonic tissues. Administration of either azithromycin or erythromycin at different dosage (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg orally, daily for 5 consecutive days) significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the colonic damage, MPO and NOS activities as well as TNFα level. This reduction was highly significant with azithromycin when given at a dose of 40 mg/kg. It is concluded that azithromycin and erythromycin may have a beneficial therapeutic role in ulcerative colitis

  10. Uranium isotopic compositions of the crust and ocean: Age corrections, U budget and global extent of modern anoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissot, François L. H.; Dauphas, Nicolas

    2015-10-01

    The 238U/235U isotopic composition of uranium in seawater can provide important insights into the modern U budget of the oceans. Using the double spike technique and a new data reduction method, we analyzed an array of seawater samples and 41 geostandards covering a broad range of geological settings relevant to low and high temperature geochemistry. Analyses of 18 seawater samples from geographically diverse sites from the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, Mediterranean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Persian Gulf, and English Channel, together with literature data (n = 17), yield a δ238U value for modern seawater of -0.392 ± 0.005‰ relative to CRM-112a. Measurements of the uranium isotopic compositions of river water, lake water, evaporites, modern coral, shales, and various igneous rocks (n = 64), together with compilations of literature data (n = 380), allow us to estimate the uranium isotopic compositions of the various reservoirs involved in the modern oceanic uranium budget, as well as the fractionation factors associated with U incorporation into those reservoirs. Because the incorporation of U into anoxic/euxinic sediments is accompanied by large isotopic fractionation (ΔAnoxic/Euxinic-SW = +0.6‰), the size of the anoxic/euxinic sink strongly influences the δ238U value of seawater. Keeping all other fluxes constant, the flux of uranium in the anoxic/euxinic sink is constrained to be 7.0 ± 3.1 Mmol/yr (or 14 ± 3% of the total flux out of the ocean). This translates into an areal extent of anoxia into the modern ocean of 0.21 ± 0.09% of the total seafloor. This agrees with independent estimates and rules out a recent uranium budget estimate by Henderson and Anderson (2003). Using the mass fractions and isotopic compositions of various rock types in Earth's crust, we further calculate an average δ238U isotopic composition for the continental crust of -0.29 ± 0.03‰ corresponding to a 238U/235U isotopic ratio of 137.797 ± 0.005. We discuss the implications of

  11. The nature, extent and effect of skills shortages on skills migration in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Rasool

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: South Africa is currently experiencing a serious shortage of skilled workers. It has a negative effect on South Africa’s economic prospects and on global participation in South Africa (SA. This skills shortage severely affects socioeconomic growth and development in SA. Research purpose: This study focuses on the causes and effects of the skills shortages in South Africa. Motivation for the study: The researchers undertook this study to highlight the role that skilled foreign workers can play in supplementing the shortage of skilled workers in South Africa. The shortage is partly because of the failure of the national education and training system to supply the economy with much-needed skills. Research design, approach and method: The researchers undertook a literature study to identify the nature, extent and effect of skills shortages in South Africa. They consulted a wide range of primary and secondary resources in order to acquire an in-depth understanding of the problem. The article explains the research approach and method comprehensively. It also outlines the research method the researchers used. Main findings: This study shows that several factors cause serious skills shortages in SA. Practical/managerial implications: The researchers mention only two significant implications. Firstly, this article provides a logical description of the nature, extent and effect of skills shortages on the economy. Secondly, it indicates clearly the implications of skills shortages for immigration policy. Contribution/value-add: This study confirms the findings of similar studies the Centre for Development and Enterprise (CDE conducted. Opening the doors to highly skilled immigrants can broaden the skills pool.

  12. An improved strategy for evaluating the extent of chronic arterial baroreceptor denervation in conscious rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rodríguez-Martínez

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available There is no index or criterion of aortic barodenervation, nor can we differentiate among rats that have suffered chronic sham, aortic or sino-aortic denervation. The objective of this study was to develop a procedure to generate at least one quantitative, reproducible and validated index that precisely evaluates the extent of chronic arterial barodenervation performed in conscious rats. Data from 79 conscious male Wistar rats of about 65-70 days of age with diverse extents of chronic arterial barodenervation and used in previous experiments were reanalyzed. The mean arterial pressure (MAP and the heart rate (HR of all rats were measured systematically before (over 1 h and after three consecutive iv bolus injections of phenylephrine (PHE and sodium nitroprusside (SNP. Four expressions of the effectiveness of barodenervation (MAP lability, PHE ratio, SNP ratio, and SNP-PHE slope were assessed with linear fixed models, three-level average variance, average separation among levels, outlier box plot analysis, and overlapping graphic analysis. The analysis indicated that a neither MAP lability nor SNP-PHE slope was affected by the level of chronic sodium intake; b even though the Box-Cox transformations of both MAP lability [transformed lability index (TLI] and SNP-PHE slope [transformed general sensitivity index (TGSI, {((3-(ΔHRSNP-ΔHRPHE/ΔMAPSNP-ΔMAPPHE-0.4-1/-0.04597}] could be two promising indexes, TGSI proved to be the best index; c TLI and TGSI were not freely interchangeable indexes for this purpose. TGSI ranges that permit differentiation between sham (10.09 to 11.46, aortic (8.40 to 9.94 and sino-aortic (7.68 to 8.24 barodenervated conscious rats were defined.

  13. Climate-induced seasonal changes in smallmouth bass growth rate potential at the southern range extent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middaugh, Christopher R.; Kessinger, Brin; Magoulick, Daniel D.

    2018-01-01

    Temperature increases due to climate change over the coming century will likely affect smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) growth in lotic systems at the southern extent of their native range. However, the thermal response of a stream to warming climate conditions could be affected by the flow regime of each stream, mitigating the effects on smallmouth bass populations. We developed bioenergetics models to compare change in smallmouth bass growth rate potential (GRP) from present to future projected monthly stream temperatures across two flow regimes: runoff and groundwater-dominated. Seasonal differences in GRP between stream types were then compared. The models were developed for fourteen streams within the Ozark–Ouachita Interior Highlands in Arkansas, Oklahoma and Missouri, USA, which contain smallmouth bass. In our simulations, smallmouth bass mean GRP during summer months decreased by 0.005 g g−1 day−1 in runoff streams and 0.002 g g−1 day−1 in groundwater streams by the end of century. Mean GRP during winter, fall and early spring increased under future climate conditions within both stream types (e.g., 0.00019 g g−1 day−1 in runoff and 0.0014 g g−1 day−1 in groundwater streams in spring months). We found significant differences in change in GRP between runoff and groundwater streams in three seasons in end-of-century simulations (spring, summer and fall). Potential differences in stream temperature across flow regimes could be an important habitat component to consider when investigating effects of climate change as fishes from various flow regimes that are relatively close geographically could be affected differently by warming climate conditions.

  14. Nature and Extent of Person Recognition Impairments Associated with Capgras Syndrome in Lewy Body Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris M. Fiacconi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Patients with Capgras Syndrome (CS adopt the delusional belief that persons well-known to them have been replaced by an imposter. Several current theoretical models of CS attribute such misidentification problems to deficits in covert recognition processes related to the generation of appropriate affective autonomic signals. These models assume intact overt recognition processes for the imposter and, more broadly, for other individuals. As such, it has been suggested that CS could reflect the ‘mirror image’ of prosopagnosia. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether overt person recognition abilities are indeed always spared in CS. Furthermore, we examined whether CS might be associated with any impairments in overt affective judgments of facial expressions. We pursued these goals by studying a patient with Lewy Body Dementia (DLB who showed clear signs of CS, and by comparing him to another patient with DLB who did not experience CS, as well as to a group of healthy control participants. We assessed overt person recognition with three fame recognition tasks, using faces, voices, and names as cues. We also included measures of confidence and probed pertinent semantic knowledge. In addition, participants rated the intensity of fearful facial expressions. We found that CS was associated with overt person recognition deficits when probed with faces and voices, but not with names. Critically, these deficits were not present in the DLB patient without CS. In addition, CS was associated with impairments in overt judgments of affect intensity. Taken together, our findings cast doubt on the traditional view that CS is the mirror-image of prosopagnosia and that it spares overt recognition abilities. These findings can still be accommodated by models of CS that emphasize deficits in autonomic responding, to the extent that the potential role of interoceptive awareness in overt judgments is taken into account.

  15. The use of remote sensing to estimate changes of seagrass extent and biomass in Cockburn Sound, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidyan, S.

    2018-05-01

    The extent of seagrasses in Cockburn Sound was examined using Nearmap images of year 2010, 2012, 2014, and 2016 to be compared to the last assessment in 1999. It was identified that the seagrass coverage has increased by 231 Ha since 1999, with most of the growth occurred in the southern part. While the water quality in Cockburn Sound has improved, it is believed that there are other pressures affecting the slow growth rate of the seagrasses. Seagrass biomass was also evaluated using Landsat images of year 1994, 1999, 2010, 2012, 2014, and 2016 in addition to a field survey data of leaf biomass in 2016. Despite its increasing extent, seagrass in Cockburn Sound indicated a declining biomass since 1994, which is believed due to the changing nutrient content.

  16. Seasonal and interannual variability of fast ice extent in the southeastern Laptev Sea between 1999 and 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selyuzhenok, V.; Krumpen, T.; Mahoney, A.; Janout, M.; Gerdes, R.

    2015-12-01

    Along with changes in sea ice extent, thickness, and drift speed, Arctic sea ice regime is characterized by a decrease of fast ice season and reduction of fast ice extent. The most extensive fast ice cover in the Arctic develops in the southeastern Laptev Sea. Using weekly operational sea ice charts produced by Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI, Russia) from 1999 to 2013, we identified five main key events that characterize the annual evolution of fast ice in the southeastern Laptev Sea. Linking the occurrence of the key events with the atmospheric forcing, bathymetry, freezeup, and melt onset, we examined the processes driving annual fast ice cycle. The analysis revealed that fast ice in the region is sensitive to thermodynamic processes throughout a season, while the wind has a strong influence only on the first stages of fast ice development. The maximal fast ice extent is closely linked to the bathymetry and local topography and is primarily defined by the location of shoals, where fast ice is likely grounded. The annual fast ice cycle shows significant changes over the period of investigation, with tendencies toward later fast ice formation and earlier breakup. These tendencies result in an overall decrease of the fast ice season by 2.8 d/yr, which is significantly higher than previously reported trends.

  17. Mapping Daily and Maximum Flood Extents at 90-m Resolution During Hurricanes Harvey and Irma Using Passive Microwave Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galantowicz, J. F.; Picton, J.; Root, B.

    2017-12-01

    Passive microwave remote sensing can provided a distinct perspective on flood events by virtue of wide sensor fields of view, frequent observations from multiple satellites, and sensitivity through clouds and vegetation. During Hurricanes Harvey and Irma, we used AMSR2 (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2, JAXA) data to map flood extents starting from the first post-storm rain-free sensor passes. Our standard flood mapping algorithm (FloodScan) derives flooded fraction from 22-km microwave data (AMSR2 or NASA's GMI) in near real time and downscales it to 90-m resolution using a database built from topography, hydrology, and Global Surface Water Explorer data and normalized to microwave data footprint shapes. During Harvey and Irma we tested experimental versions of the algorithm designed to map the maximum post-storm flood extent rapidly and made a variety of map products available immediately for use in storm monitoring and response. The maps have several unique features including spanning the entire storm-affected area and providing multiple post-storm updates as flood water shifted and receded. From the daily maps we derived secondary products such as flood duration, maximum flood extent (Figure 1), and flood depth. In this presentation, we describe flood extent evolution, maximum extent, and local details as detected by the FloodScan algorithm in the wake of Harvey and Irma. We compare FloodScan results to other available flood mapping resources, note observed shortcomings, and describe improvements made in response. We also discuss how best-estimate maps could be updated in near real time by merging FloodScan products and data from other remote sensing systems and hydrological models.

  18. Critical Mechanisms for the Formation of Extreme Arctic Sea-Ice Extent in the Summers of 2007 and 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Xiquan [Beijing Normal Univ. (China); Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Zib, Benjamin J. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Xi, Baike [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Stanfield, Ryan [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Deng, Yi [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Zhang, Xiangdong [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States); Lin, B. [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States); Long, Charles N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-08-29

    A warming Arctic climate is undergoing significant e 21 nvironmental change, most evidenced by the reduction of Arctic sea-ice extent during the summer. In this study, we examine two extreme anomalies of September sea-ice extent in 2007 and 1996, and investigate the impacts of cloud fraction (CF), atmospheric precipitable water vapor (PWV), downwelling longwave flux (DLF), surface air temperature (SAT), pressure and winds on the sea-ice variation in 2007 and 1996 using both satellite-derived sea-ice products and MERRA reanalysis. The area of the Laptev, East Siberian and West Chukchi seas (70-90oN, 90-180oE) has experienced the largest variation in sea-ice extent from year-to-year and defined here as the Area Of Focus (AOF). The record low September sea-ice extent in 2007 was associated with positive anomalies 30 of CF, PWV, DLF, and SAT over the AOF. Persistent anti-cyclone positioned over the Beaufort Sea coupled with low pressure over Eurasia induced easterly zonal and southerly meridional winds. In contrast, negative CF, PWV, DLF and SAT anomalies, as well as opposite wind patterns to those in 2007, characterized the 1996 high September sea-ice extent. Through this study, we hypothesize the following positive feedbacks of clouds, water vapor, radiation and atmospheric variables on the sea-ice retreat during the summer 2007. The record low sea-ice extent during the summer 2007 is initially triggered by the atmospheric circulation anomaly. The southerly winds across the Chukchi and East Siberian seas transport warm, moist air from the north Pacific, which is not only enhancing sea-ice melt across the AOF, but also increasing clouds. The positive cloud feedback results in higher SAT and more sea-ice melt. Therefore, 40 more water vapor could be evaporated from open seas and higher SAT to form more clouds, which will enhance positive cloud feedback. This enhanced positive cloud feedback will then further increase SAT and accelerate the sea-ice retreat during the

  19. Reduction - competitive tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worley, L.; Bargerstock, S.

    1995-01-01

    Inventory reduction is one of the few initiatives that represent significant cost-reduction potential that does not result in personnel reduction. Centerior Energy's Perry nuclear power plant has embarked on an aggressive program to reduce inventory while maintaining plant material availability. Material availability to the plant was above 98%, but at an unacceptable 1994 inventory book value of $47 million with inventory carrying costs calculated at 30% annually

  20. Pediatric radiology fellows' experience with intussusception reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein-Wexler, Rebecca; Bateni, Cyrus; Wootton-Gorges, Sandra L.; Li, Chin-Shang

    2011-01-01

    Intussusception reduction allows young children to avoid surgery. However, graduating residents have had relatively little training in intussusception reduction and, for the most part, consider themselves ill-prepared to perform this procedure. The goal of this study was to assess the extent of training in intussusception reduction during one year of a pediatric radiology fellowship and to determine whether graduating fellows consider themselves adequately trained in this technique. Pediatric radiology fellows were surveyed during June 2010 and asked to characterize their fellowship, to indicate the number of intussusception reductions performed (both the total number and those performed with faculty oversight but without active faculty involvement), and to assess the adequacy of their training. There were 31 responses, representing almost 1/3 of current fellows. Pediatric radiology fellows perform on average 6.9 reductions, 3.8 of which are with faculty oversight but without active faculty involvement. Ninety percent consider themselves well-trained in the technique, whereas 10% are uncertain (none consider their training inadequate). Almost all pediatric radiology fellows consider their training in intussusception reduction to be adequate. (orig.)

  1. Process energy reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowthian, W.E.

    1993-01-01

    Process Energy Reduction (PER) is a demand-side energy reduction approach which complements and often supplants other traditional energy reduction methods such as conservation and heat recovery. Because the application of PER is less obvious than the traditional methods, it takes some time to learn the steps as well as practice to become proficient in its use. However, the benefit is significant, often far outweighing the traditional energy reduction approaches. Furthermore, the method usually results in a better process having less waste and pollution along with improved yields, increased capacity, and lower operating costs

  2. Finding optimal exact reducts

    KAUST Repository

    AbouEisha, Hassan M.

    2014-01-01

    The problem of attribute reduction is an important problem related to feature selection and knowledge discovery. The problem of finding reducts with minimum cardinality is NP-hard. This paper suggests a new algorithm for finding exact reducts with minimum cardinality. This algorithm transforms the initial table to a decision table of a special kind, apply a set of simplification steps to this table, and use a dynamic programming algorithm to finish the construction of an optimal reduct. I present results of computer experiments for a collection of decision tables from UCIML Repository. For many of the experimented tables, the simplification steps solved the problem.

  3. Metallothermic reduction of molybdate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, T.K.; Bose, D.K.

    1987-01-01

    This paper gives a brief account of the investigations conducted so far on metallothermic reduction of high grade molybdenite with particular emphasis on the work carried out in Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. Based on thermochemical considerations, the paper first introduces a number of metallic reductants suitable for use in metallothermic reduction of molybdenite. Aluminium, sodium and tin are found to be suitable reducing agents and very rightly they have found most applications in the research and development efforts on metallothermic reduction of molybdenite. The reduction with tin was conducted on fairly large scale both in vacuum and hydrogen atmosphere. The reaction was reported to be invariant depending mainly on the reduction temperature and a temperature of the order of 1250deg to 1300degC was required for good metal recovery. In comparison to tin, aluminothermic reduction of molybdenite was studied more extensively and it was conducted in closed bomb, vacuum and also in open atmosphere. In aluminothermic reduction, the influence of amount of reducing agent, amount of heat booster, preheating temperature and charging procedure on these metal yield was studied in detail. The reduction generally yielded massive molybdenum metal contaminated with aluminium as the major impurity element. Efforts were made to purify the reduced metal by arc melting, electron beam melting and molten salt electrorefining. 9 refs. (author)

  4. Pathogen reduction of blood components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solheim, Bjarte G

    2008-08-01

    Thanks to many blood safety interventions introduced in developed countries the risk of transfusion transmitted infections has become exceedingly small in these countries. However, emerging pathogens still represent a serious challenge, as demonstrated by West Nile virus in the US and more recently by Chikungunya virus in the Indian Ocean. In addition bacterial contamination, particularly in platelets, and protozoa transmitted by blood components still represent sizeable risks in developed countries. In developing countries the risk of all transfusion transmitted infections is still high due to insufficient funding and organisation of the health service. Pathogen reduction of pooled plasma products has virtually eliminated the risk of transfusion transmitted infections, without compromising the quality of the products significantly. Pathogen reduction of blood components has been much more challenging. Solvent detergent treatment which has been so successfully applied for plasma products dissolves cell membranes, and can, therefore, only be applied for plasma and not for cellular blood components. Targeting of nucleic acids has been another method for pathogen inactivation of plasma and the only approach possible for cellular blood products. As documented in more than 15 year's track record, solvent detergent treatment of pooled plasma can yield high quality plasma. The increased risk for contamination by unknown viruses due to pooling is out weighed by elimination of TRALI, significant reduction in allergic reactions and standardisation of the product. Recently, a promising method for solvent detergent treatment of single donor plasma units has been published. Methylene blue light treatment of single donor plasma units has a similar long track record as pooled solvent detergent treated plasma; but the method is less well documented and affects coagulation factor activity more. Psoralen light treated plasma has only recently been introduced (CE marked in Europe

  5. Assessing the Extent of Sediment Contamination Around Creosote-treated Pilings Through Chemical and Biological Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefansson, E. S.

    2008-12-01

    Creosote is a common wood preservative used to treat marine structures, such as docks and bulkheads. Treated dock pilings continually leach polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other creosote compounds into the surrounding water and sediment. Over time, these compounds can accumulate in marine sediments, reaching much greater concentrations than those in seawater. The purpose of this study was to assess the extent of creosote contamination in sediments, at a series of distances from treated pilings. Three pilings were randomly selected from a railroad trestle in Fidalgo Bay, WA and sediment samples were collected at four distances from each: 0 meters, 0.5 meters, 1 meter, and 2 meters. Samples were used to conduct two bioassays: an amphipod bioassay (Rhepoxynius abronius) and a sand dollar embryo bioassay. Grain size and PAH content (using a fluorometric method) were also measured. Five samples in the amphipod bioassay showed significantly lower effective survival than the reference sediment. These consisted of samples closest to the piling at 0 and 0.5 meters. One 0 m sample in the sand dollar embryo bioassay also showed a significantly lower percentage of normal embryos than the reference sediment. Overall, results strongly suggest that creosote-contaminated sediments, particularly those closest to treated pilings, can negatively affect both amphipods and echinoderm embryos. Although chemical data were somewhat ambiguous, 0 m samples had the highest levels of PAHs, which corresponded to the lowest average survival in both bioassays. Relatively high levels of PAHs were found as far as 2 meters away from pilings. Therefore, we cannot say how far chemical contamination can spread from creosote-treated pilings, and at what distance this contamination can still affect marine organisms. These results, as well as future research, are essential to the success of proposed piling removal projects. In addition to creosote-treated pilings, contaminated sediments must

  6. Ocean Acidification and the End-Permian Mass Extinction: To What Extent does Evidence Support Hypothesis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Béatrice Forel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification in modern oceans is linked to rapid increase in atmospheric CO2, raising concern about marine diversity, food security and ecosystem services. Proxy evidence for acidification during past crises may help predict future change, but three issues limit confidence of comparisons between modern and ancient ocean acidification, illustrated from the end-Permian extinction, 252 million years ago: (1 problems with evidence for ocean acidification preserved in sedimentary rocks, where proposed marine dissolution surfaces may be subaerial. Sedimentary evidence that the extinction was partly due to ocean acidification is therefore inconclusive; (2 Fossils of marine animals potentially affected by ocean acidification are imperfect records of past conditions; selective extinction of hypercalcifying organisms is uncertain evidence for acidification; (3 The current high rates of acidification may not reflect past rates, which cannot be measured directly, and whose temporal resolution decreases in older rocks. Thus large increases in CO2 in the past may have occurred over a long enough time to have allowed assimilation into the oceans, and acidification may not have stressed ocean biota to the present extent. Although we acknowledge the very likely occurrence of past ocean acidification, obtaining support presents a continuing challenge for the Earth science community.

  7. Sensitivity Analysis of Arctic Sea Ice Extent Trends and Statistical Projections Using Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Peng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available An ice-free Arctic summer would have pronounced impacts on global climate, coastal habitats, national security, and the shipping industry. Rapid and accelerated Arctic sea ice loss has placed the reality of an ice-free Arctic summer even closer to the present day. Accurate projection of the first Arctic ice-free summer year is extremely important for business planning and climate change mitigation, but the projection can be affected by many factors. Using an inter-calibrated satellite sea ice product, this article examines the sensitivity of decadal trends of Arctic sea ice extent and statistical projections of the first occurrence of an ice-free Arctic summer. The projection based on the linear trend of the last 20 years of data places the first Arctic ice-free summer year at 2036, 12 years earlier compared to that of the trend over the last 30 years. The results from a sensitivity analysis of six commonly used curve-fitting models show that the projected timings of the first Arctic ice-free summer year tend to be earlier for exponential, Gompertz, quadratic, and linear with lag fittings, and later for linear and log fittings. Projections of the first Arctic ice-free summer year by all six statistical models appear to converge to the 2037 ± 6 timeframe, with a spread of 17 years, and the earliest first ice-free Arctic summer year at 2031.

  8. Growth and development in internationally adopted children: extent and timing of recovery after early adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Jesús; Román, Maite; Camacho, Carlos

    2011-03-01

    Following initial adversity, internationally adopted children arrive with significant growth and developmental delays. Post-placement recovery has been widely documented, but little has been known about its extent and timing several years after placement and in children with diverse pre-adoptive experiences. A total of 289 children adopted from six countries into Spanish families were studied. Growth and psychological development were considered on arrival and after an average of over 3 years. Growth and developmental initial delays affected a substantial percentage of the children. Post-adoption recovery seemed quicker and more complete in weight and height than in head circumference and psychological development. Initial and later values were correlated, but growth-development relation on arrival subsequently lost significance. Most of the catch-up happened in the first three post-adoption years. Adoption offers an impressive opportunity for recovery after previous adversity, although continuity between past and present persists. The improvement is more marked in some areas than in others and more substantial in the first post-adoption years. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Threshold responses of Amazonian stream fishes to timing and extent of deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brejão, Gabriel L; Hoeinghaus, David J; Pérez-Mayorga, María Angélica; Ferraz, Silvio F B; Casatti, Lilian

    2017-12-06

    Deforestation is a primary driver of biodiversity change through habitat loss and fragmentation. Stream biodiversity may not respond to deforestation in a simple linear relationship. Rather, threshold responses to extent and timing of deforestation may occur. Identification of critical deforestation thresholds is needed for effective conservation and management. We tested for threshold responses of fish species and functional groups to degree of watershed and riparian zone deforestation and time since impact in 75 streams in the western Brazilian Amazon. We used remote sensing to assess deforestation from 1984 to 2011. Fish assemblages were sampled with seines and dip nets in a standardized manner. Fish species (n = 84) were classified into 20 functional groups based on ecomorphological traits associated with habitat use, feeding, and locomotion. Threshold responses were quantified using threshold indicator taxa analysis. Negative threshold responses to deforestation were common and consistently occurred at very low levels of deforestation (70% deforestation and >10 years after impact. Findings were similar at the community level for both taxonomic and functional analyses. Because most negative threshold responses occurred at low levels of deforestation and soon after impact, even minimal change is expected to negatively affect biodiversity. Delayed positive threshold responses to extreme deforestation by a few species do not offset the loss of sensitive taxa and likely contribute to biotic homogenization. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  10. Psychological disturbance in atopic eczema: the extent of the problem in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absolon, C M; Cottrell, D; Eldridge, S M; Glover, M T

    1997-08-01

    Although psychological factors are widely considered to be important in atopic eczema, there have been few controlled studies to assess the extent of disturbance in affected children and the problems experienced by their parents. This study was designed to find out the degree of psychological difficulty experienced by children with atopic eczema, whether their mothers show higher levels of mental distress than a comparison group, and whether the families of children with atopic eczema have less social support than the comparison group. We investigated 30 school-aged children with atopic eczema for psychological problems using the Rutter parent scale and compared them with 30 children with relatively minor skin lesions such as viral warts. Mental distress in mothers was assessed using the General Health Questionnaire. The Family Support Scale was used to get a measure of the social support experienced by the families. We found twice the rate of psychological disturbance in children in the eczema group compared with the control group. This difference was statistically significant for children with moderately severe eczema and severe eczema, but not for children with very mild eczema. Levels of mental distress were no greater in mothers of children with eczema than in parents of the control group and there was no difference in the degree of social support experienced by their families. These findings indicate that school-aged children with moderate and severe atopic eczema are at high risk of developing psychological difficulties, which may have implications for their academic and social development.

  11. Serum ox-LDL Level is Reduced with the Extent of Stenosis in Coronary Arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Najafi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Oxidized LDL (ox-LDL lipoproteins are proposed as important modified particles triggering pro-inflammatory events through receptor-mediated pathways. We evaluated the circulating ox-LDL level on the concept that the chronic immune events may affect ox-LDL clearance as the vessel stenosis develops in coronary arteries. One hundred sixty five subjects underwent coronary angiography and then, subdivided into four subgroups controls (n=85; SVD, 2VD and 3VD (n=80. The serum ox-LDL level and other biochemical parameters were measured using ELISA method and routine laboratory techniques, respectively. The serum ox-LDL level in the control group (4.81±1.41 mU/mg was significantly higher than patients (4.28±1.73 mU/mg, P<0.05. The ox-LDL/LDL ratio was conversely reduced with the extent of stenosis as compared with the controls (P<0.05. Furthermore, no difference was observed in the ox-LDL/LDL ratio between the 2VD and 3VD patients. We suggested the atherosclerosis process increases the total clearing capacities of the circulating ox-LDL particles.

  12. Extent of Stream Burial and Relationships to Watershed Area, Topography, and Impervious Surface Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy E. Weitzell

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Stream burial—the routing of streams through culverts, pipes, and concrete lined channels, or simply paving them over—is common during urbanization, and disproportionately affects small, headwater streams. Burial undermines the physical and chemical processes governing life in streams, with consequences for water quality and quantity that may amplify from headwaters to downstream receiving waters. Knowledge of the extent of stream burial is critical for understanding cumulative impacts to stream networks, and for future decision-making allowing for urban development while protecting ecosystem function. We predicted stream burial across the urbanizing Potomac River Basin (USA for each 10-m stream segment in the basin from medium-resolution impervious cover data and training observations obtained from high-resolution aerial photography in a GIS. Results were analyzed across a range in spatial aggregation, including counties and independent cities, small watersheds, and regular spatial grids. Stream burial was generally correlated with total impervious surface area (ISA, with areas exhibiting ISA above 30% often subject to elevated ratios of stream burial. Recurring patterns in burial predictions related to catchment area and topographic slope were also detected. We discuss these results in the context of physiographic constraints on stream location and urban development, including implications for environmental management of aquatic resources.

  13. Nitrogen speciation and trends, and prediction of denitrification extent, in shallow US groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkle, Stephen R.; Tesoriero, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    Uncertainties surrounding nitrogen cycling complicate assessments of the environmental effects of nitrogen use and our understanding of the global carbon–nitrogen cycle. In this paper, we synthesize data from 877 ambient-monitoring wells across the US to frame broad patterns of nitrogen speciation and trends. At these sites, groundwater frequently contains substantial co-occurring NO3− and XSN2 (N2 from denitrification), reflecting active/ongoing denitrification and/or a mixture of undenitrified and denitrified groundwater. NO3− and NH4+ essentially do not co-occur, indicating that the dominant source of NH4+ at these sites likely is not dissimilatory reduction of NO3− to NH4+. Positive correlations of NH4+ with apparent age, CH4, dissolved organic carbon, and indicators of reduced conditions are consistent with NH4+ mobilization from degradation of aquifer organic matter and contraindicate an anthropogenic source of NH4+ for most sites. Glacial aquifers and eastern sand and gravel aquifers generally have lower proportions of NO3− and greater proportions of XSN2 than do fractured rock and karst aquifers and western sand and gravel aquifers. NO3− dominates in the youngest groundwater, but XSN2 increases as residence time increases. Temporal patterns of nitrogen speciation and concentration reflect (1) changing NO3− loads over time, (2) groundwater residence-time controls on NH4+ mobilization from solid phases, and (3) groundwater residence-time controls on denitrification. A simple classification tree using readily available variables (a national coverage of soil water depth, generalized geology) or variables reasonably estimated in many aquifers (residence time) identifies categorical denitrification extent (50%) with 79% accuracy in an independent testing set, demonstrating a predictive application based on the interconnected effects of redox, geology, and residence time.

  14. Microbial reductive dehalogenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohn, W W; Tiedje, J M

    1992-01-01

    A wide variety of compounds can be biodegraded via reductive removal of halogen substituents. This process can degrade toxic pollutants, some of which are not known to be biodegraded by any other means. Reductive dehalogenation of aromatic compounds has been found primarily in undefined, syntrophic anaerobic communities. We discuss ecological and physiological principles which appear to be important in these communities and evaluate how widely applicable these principles are. Anaerobic communities that catalyze reductive dehalogenation appear to differ in many respects. A large number of pure cultures which catalyze reductive dehalogenation of aliphatic compounds are known, in contrast to only a few organisms which catalyze reductive dehalogenation of aromatic compounds. Desulfomonile tiedjei DCB-1 is an anaerobe which dehalogenates aromatic compounds and is physiologically and morphologically unusual in a number of respects, including the ability to exploit reductive dehalogenation for energy metabolism. When possible, we use D. tiedjei as a model to understand dehalogenating organisms in the above-mentioned undefined systems. Aerobes use reductive dehalogenation for substrates which are resistant to known mechanisms of oxidative attack. Reductive dehalogenation, especially of aliphatic compounds, has recently been found in cell-free systems. These systems give us an insight into how and why microorganisms catalyze this activity. In some cases transition metal complexes serve as catalysts, whereas in other cases, particularly with aromatic substrates, the catalysts appear to be enzymes. Images PMID:1406492

  15. The association of ABO blood groups with extent of coronary atherosclerosis in Croatian patients suffering from chronic coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabuva, Svjetlana; Carević, Vedran; Radić, Mislav; Fabijanić, Damir

    2013-01-01

    The aim of study was to: 1) examine the relationship between ABO blood groups and extent of coronary atherosclerosis in patients with chronic coronary artery disease (CAD), 2) compare ABO blood groups distribution in CAD patients and general population, 3) examine possible differences in traditional risk factors frequency in CAD patients with different ABO blood groups. In the 646 chronic CAD patients (72.4% males) coronary angiograms were scored by quantitative assessment using multiple angiographic scoring system, Traditional risk factors were self reported or measured by standard methods. ABO blood distribution of patients was compared with group of 651 healthy blood donors (74.6% males). Among all ABO blood group patients there was no significant difference between the extent of coronary atherosclerosis with regard to all the three scoring systems: number of affected coronary arteries (P = 0.857), Gensini score (P = 0.818), and number of segments narrowed > 50% (P = 0.781). There was no significant difference in ABO blood group distribution between CAD patients and healthy blood donors. Among CAD patients, men with blood group AB were significantly younger than their pairs with non-AB blood groups (P = 0.008). Among CAD patients with AB blood group, males groups (P = 0.003). No association between ABO blood groups and the extent of coronary atherosclerosis in Croatian CAD patients is observed. Observation that AB blood group might possibly identify Croatian males at risk to develop the premature CAD has to be tested in larger cohort of patients.

  16. Influence of Arctic Sea Ice Extent on Polar Cloud Fraction and Vertical Structure and Implications for Regional Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Stephen P.; Strey, Sara T.; Spinhirne, James; Markus, Thorsten

    2010-01-01

    Recent satellite lidar measurements of cloud properties spanning a period of 5 years are used to examine a possible connection between Arctic sea ice amount and polar cloud fraction and vertical distribution. We find an anticorrelation between sea ice extent and cloud fraction with maximum cloudiness occurring over areas with little or no sea ice. We also find that over ice!free regions, there is greater low cloud frequency and average optical depth. Most of the optical depth increase is due to the presence of geometrically thicker clouds over water. In addition, our analysis indicates that over the last 5 years, October and March average polar cloud fraction has increased by about 7% and 10%, respectively, as year average sea ice extent has decreased by 5% 7%. The observed cloud changes are likely due to a number of effects including, but not limited to, the observed decrease in sea ice extent and thickness. Increasing cloud amount and changes in vertical distribution and optical properties have the potential to affect the radiative balance of the Arctic region by decreasing both the upwelling terrestrial longwave radiation and the downward shortwave solar radiation. Because longwave radiation dominates in the long polar winter, the overall effect of increasing low cloud cover is likely a warming of the Arctic and thus a positive climate feedback, possibly accelerating the melting of Arctic sea ice.

  17. The Influence of Arctic Sea Ice Extent on Polar Cloud Fraction and Vertical Structure and Implications for Regional Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Stephen P.; Strey, Sara T.; Spinhirne, James; Markus, Thorsten

    2010-01-01

    Recent satellite lidar measurements of cloud properties spanning a period of five years are used to examine a possible connection between Arctic sea ice amount and polar cloud fraction and vertical distribution. We find an anti-correlation between sea ice extent and cloud fraction with maximum cloudiness occurring over areas with little or no sea ice. We also find that over ice free regions, there is greater low cloud frequency and average optical depth. Most of the optical depth increase is due to the presence of geometrically thicker clouds over water. In addition, our analysis indicates that over the last 5 years, October and March average polar cloud fraction has increased by about 7 and 10 percent, respectively, as year average sea ice extent has decreased by 5 to 7 percent. The observed cloud changes are likely due to a number of effects including, but not limited to, the observed decrease in sea ice extent and thickness. Increasing cloud amount and changes in vertical distribution and optical properties have the potential to affect the radiative balance of the Arctic region by decreasing both the upwelling terrestrial longwave radiation and the downward shortwave solar radiation. Since longwave radiation dominates in the long polar winter, the overall effect of increasing low cloud cover is likely a warming of the Arctic and thus a positive climate feedback, possibly accelerating the melting of Arctic sea ice.

  18. Active3 noise reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzfuss, J.

    1996-01-01

    Noise reduction is a problem being encountered in a variety of applications, such as environmental noise cancellation, signal recovery and separation. Passive noise reduction is done with the help of absorbers. Active noise reduction includes the transmission of phase inverted signals for the cancellation. This paper is about a threefold active approach to noise reduction. It includes the separation of a combined source, which consists of both a noise and a signal part. With the help of interaction with the source by scanning it and recording its response, modeling as a nonlinear dynamical system is achieved. The analysis includes phase space analysis and global radial basis functions as tools for the prediction used in a subsequent cancellation procedure. Examples are given which include noise reduction of speech. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  19. Catalytic selective reduction of NO with ethylene over a series of copper catalysts on amorphous silicas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carniti, P.; Gervasini, A.; Modica, V.H.; Ravasio, N.

    2000-01-01

    Catalytic selective reduction of NO to N 2 was studied comparing a series of Cu-based catalysts (ca. 8wt.%) supported over amorphous pure and modified silicas: SiO 2 , SiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 , SiO 2 -TiO 2 , SiO 2 -ZrO 2 . The catalysts were prepared by the chemisorption-hydrolysis method which ensured the formation of a unique copper phase well dispersed over all supports, as confirmed by scanning electron micrographs (SEMs). Temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) analyses confirmed the presence of dispersed copper species which underwent complete reduction at a temperature of about 220C, independently of the support. It was found that the support affects the extent of NO reduction as well as the selectivity to N 2 formation. Maximum N 2 yield was found in the range 275-300C. The catalyst prepared over SiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 was the most active and selective with respect to the other silicas. Competitiveness factors (c.f.'s) as high as 13-20% in the temperature range 200-250C could be calculated. For all catalysts, the temperature of the N 2 peak maximum did not correspond to that of the maximum C 2 H 4 oxidation to CO 2 , suggesting the presence of two different sites for the oxidation and the reduction activity. On the catalyst prepared on SiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 , a kinetic interpretation of catalytic data collected at different contact times and temperatures permitted evaluating the ratio between kinetic coefficients as well as the difference between activation energies of NO reduction by C 2 H 4 and C 2 H 4 oxidation by O 2

  20. The common and distinct neural bases of affect labeling and reappraisal in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Jane Burklund

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Emotion regulation is commonly characterized as involving conscious and intentional attempts to change felt emotions, such as, for example, through reappraisal whereby one intentionally decreases the intensity of one’s emotional response to a particular stimulus or situation by reinterpreting it in a less threatening way. However, there is growing evidence and appreciation that some types of emotion regulation are unintentional or incidental, meaning that affective modulation is a consequence but not an explicit goal. For example, affect labeling involves simply verbally labeling the emotional content of an external stimulus or one’s own affective responses without an intentional goal of altering emotional responses, yet has been associated with reduced affective responses at the neural and experiential levels. Although both intentional and incidental emotional regulation strategies have been associated with diminished limbic responses and self-reported distress, little previous research has directly compared their underlying neural mechanisms. In this study, we examined the extent to which incidental and intentional emotion regulation, namely, affect labeling and reappraisal, produced common and divergent neural and self-report responses to aversive images relative to an observe-only control condition in a sample of healthy older adults (N=39. Affect labeling and reappraisal produced common activations in several prefrontal regulatory regions, with affect labeling producing stronger responses in direct comparisons. Affect labeling and reappraisal were also associated with similar decreases in amygdala activity. Finally, affect labeling and reappraisal were associated with correlated reductions in self-reported distress. Together these results point to common neurocognitive mechanisms involved in affect labeling and reappraisal, supporting the idea that intentional and incidental emotion regulation may utilize overlapping neural processes.

  1. 34 CFR 600.10 - Date, extent, duration, and consequence of eligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Date, extent, duration, and consequence of eligibility... EDUCATION ACT OF 1965, AS AMENDED General § 600.10 Date, extent, duration, and consequence of eligibility... statutory and regulatory requirements governing its eligibility. (e) Consequence of eligibility. (1) If, as...

  2. Prevalence, Vascular Distribution, and Multiterritorial Extent of Subclinical Atherosclerosis in a Middle-Aged Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández-Friera, Leticia; Peñalvo, José L; Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    age, 45.8 years; 63% male) to evaluate the systemic extent of atherosclerosis in the carotid, abdominal aortic, and iliofemoral territories by 2-/3-dimensional ultrasound and coronary artery calcification by computed tomography. The extent of subclinical atherosclerosis, defined as presence of plaque...

  3. Extent of resection and timing of surgery in adult low grade glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Mirza, Farhan; Shamim, Muhammad Shahzad

    2017-06-01

    Low grade glioma is a group of WHO grade II tumours including diffuse astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, and oligoastrocytoma. Strong evidence exists in literature now to support early surgery and higher extent of safe resection in improving outcomes. In this review, we are highlighting some of the important studies done in the last few years specifically addressing timing of surgery and extent of resection.

  4. Effects of geographical extent on the determinants of woody plant diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhiheng; Rahbek, Carsten; Fang, Jingyun

    2012-01-01

    the quantitative effects of geographical extent are rarely tested. Here, using distribution maps of 11,405 woody species found in China and associated environmental data to the domain, we investigated the influence of geographical extent on the determinants of species richness patterns. Our results revealed...

  5. Breast reduction (mammoplasty) - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100189.htm Breast reduction (mammoplasty) - series—Indications To use the sharing features ... Lickstein, MD, FACS, specializing in cosmetic and reconstructive plastic surgery, Palm Beach Gardens, FL. Review provided by ...

  6. Medical Errors Reduction Initiative

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mutter, Michael L

    2005-01-01

    The Valley Hospital of Ridgewood, New Jersey, is proposing to extend a limited but highly successful specimen management and medication administration medical errors reduction initiative on a hospital-wide basis...

  7. Microbial reductive dehalogenation.

    OpenAIRE

    Mohn, W W; Tiedje, J M

    1992-01-01

    A wide variety of compounds can be biodegraded via reductive removal of halogen substituents. This process can degrade toxic pollutants, some of which are not known to be biodegraded by any other means. Reductive dehalogenation of aromatic compounds has been found primarily in undefined, syntrophic anaerobic communities. We discuss ecological and physiological principles which appear to be important in these communities and evaluate how widely applicable these principles are. Anaerobic commun...

  8. Aspects of reduction clorination of pyrochlore concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gameiro, D.H.; Brocchi, E.A.

    1985-01-01

    Reduction chlorination experiments were carried out with two different Brazilian pyrochlore concentrates in order to evaluate the effects of some variables on the extent of niobium pentoxide gaseification as well as to compare the behavior of concentrate under the same chlorination conditions. The pyrochlore concentrates from Araxa (MG) and Catalao (GO), Brazil, were submitted to X ray diffraction and X ray fluorescence analysis for determining their chemical compositions. Kinetic curves were obtained with the main variables being temperature and percentage of reducing agent. Analysis of the condensed material in terms of Nb 2 O 5 indicated that chlorination can be used to produce niobium pentoxide. (Author) [pt

  9. Systematic thermal reduction of neutronization in core-collapse supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantina, A.F.; Donati, P.; Pizzochero, P.M.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate to what extent the temperature dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy can affect the neutronization of the stellar core prior to neutrino trapping during gravitational collapse. To this end, we implement a one-zone simulation to follow the collapse until β-equilibrium is reached and the lepton fraction remains constant. Since the strength of electron capture on the neutron-rich nuclei associated to the supernova scenario is still an open issue, we keep it as a free parameter. We find that the temperature dependence of the symmetry energy consistently yields a small reduction of deleptonization, which corresponds to a systematic effect on the shock wave energetics: the gain in dissociation energy of the shock has a small yet non-negligible value of about 0.4 foe (1 foe=10 51 erg) and this result is almost independent from the strength of nuclear electron capture. The presence of such a systematic effect and its robustness under changes of the parameters of the one-zone model are significant enough to justify further investigations with detailed numerical simulations of supernova explosions.

  10. Beyond the learning curve: factors influencing cost reductions in photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemet, Gregory F.

    2006-01-01

    The extent and timing of cost-reducing improvements in low-carbon energy systems are important sources of uncertainty in future levels of greenhouse-gas emissions. Models that assess the costs of climate change mitigation policy, and energy policy in general, rely heavily on learning curves to include technology dynamics. Historically, no energy technology has changed more dramatically than photovoltaics (PV), the cost of which has declined by a factor of nearly 100 since the 1950s. Which changes were most important in accounting for the cost reductions that have occurred over the past three decades? Are these results consistent with the notion that learning from experience drove technical change? In this paper, empirical data are assembled to populate a simple model identifying the most important factors affecting the cost of PV. The results indicate that learning from experience, the theoretical mechanism used to explain learning curves, only weakly explains change in the most important factors-plant size, module efficiency, and the cost of silicon. Ways in which the consideration of a broader set of influences, such as technical barriers, industry structure, and characteristics of demand, might be used to inform energy technology policy are discussed

  11. Microbial minimalism: genome reduction in bacterial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Nancy A

    2002-03-08

    When bacterial lineages make the transition from free-living or facultatively parasitic life cycles to permanent associations with hosts, they undergo a major loss of genes and DNA. Complete genome sequences are providing an understanding of how extreme genome reduction affects evolutionary directions and metabolic capabilities of obligate pathogens and symbionts.

  12. Air Layer Drag Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccio, Steven; Elbing, Brian; Winkel, Eric; Dowling, David; Perlin, Marc

    2008-11-01

    A set of experiments have been conducted at the US Navy's Large Cavitation Channel to investigate skin-friction drag reduction with the injection of air into a high Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer. Testing was performed on a 12.9 m long flat-plate test model with the surface hydraulically smooth and fully rough at downstream-distance-based Reynolds numbers to 220 million and at speeds to 20 m/s. Local skin-friction, near-wall bulk void fraction, and near-wall bubble imaging were monitored along the length of the model. The instrument suite was used to access the requirements necessary to achieve air layer drag reduction (ALDR). Injection of air over a wide range of air fluxes showed that three drag reduction regimes exist when injecting air; (1) bubble drag reduction that has poor downstream persistence, (2) a transitional regime with a steep rise in drag reduction, and (3) ALDR regime where the drag reduction plateaus at 90% ± 10% over the entire model length with large void fractions in the near-wall region. These investigations revealed several requirements for ALDR including; sufficient volumetric air fluxes that increase approximately with the square of the free-stream speed, slightly higher air fluxes are needed when the surface tension is reduced, higher air fluxes are required for rough surfaces, and the formation of ALDR is sensitive to the inlet condition.

  13. Data-mining Based Detection of Glaciers: Quantifying the Extent of Alpine Valley Glaciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Luo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The extent of glaciation in alpine valleys often gives clues to past climates, plate movement, mountain landforms, bedrock geology and more. However, without field investigation, the degree to which a valley was affected by a glacier has been difficult to assess. We developed a model that uses quantitative parameters derived from digital elevations model (DEM data to predict whether a glacier was likely present in an alpine valley. The model's inputs are mainly derived from the basin hypsometry, and a new parameter termed the Hypothetical Basin Equilibrium Elevation (HBEE, which is based on the equilibrium elevation altitude (ELA of a glacier. We used data mining techniques that comb through large data sets to find patterns for classification and prediction as the basis for the model. Four classifiers were utilized, and each was tested with two different training set/test data ratios of nearly 150 basins that were previously delineated as fully- or non-glaciated. The classifiers had a predictive accuracy of up to 90% with none falling below 72%. Two of the classifiers, classification tree and naïve-Bayes, have graphical outputs that visually describe the classification process, predictive results, and in the naïve-Bayes case, the relative effectiveness towards the model of each attribute. In all scenarios, the HBEE was found to be an accurate predictor for the model. The model can be applied to any area where glaciation may have occurred, but is particularly useful in areas where the valley is inaccessible for detailed field investigation.

  14. Halogen species record Antarctic sea ice extent over glacial–interglacial periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Spolaor

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Sea ice is an integral part of the earth's climate system because it affects planetary albedo, sea-surface salinity, and the atmosphere–ocean exchange of reactive gases and aerosols. Bromine and iodine chemistry is active at polar sea ice margins with the occurrence of bromine explosions and the biological production of organoiodine from sea ice algae. Satellite measurements demonstrate that concentrations of bromine oxide (BrO and iodine oxide (IO decrease over sea ice toward the Antarctic interior. Here we present speciation measurements of bromine and iodine in the TALDICE (TALos Dome Ice CorE ice core (159°11' E, 72°49' S; 2315 m a.s.l. spanning the last 215 ky. The Talos Dome ice core is located 250 km inland and is sensitive to marine air masses intruding onto the Antarctic Plateau. Talos Dome bromide (Br− is positively correlated with temperature and negatively correlated with sodium (Na. Based on the Br−/Na seawater ratio, bromide is depleted in the ice during glacial periods and enriched during interglacial periods. Total iodine, consisting of iodide (I− and iodate (IO3−, peaks during glacials with lower values during interglacial periods. Although IO3− is considered the most stable iodine species in the atmosphere it was only observed in the TALDICE record during glacial maxima. Sea ice dynamics are arguably the primary driver of halogen fluxes over glacial–interglacial timescales, by altering the distance between the sea ice edge and the Antarctic plateau and by altering the surface area of sea ice available to algal colonization. Based on our results we propose the use of both halogens for examining Antarctic variability of past sea ice extent.

  15. Extent of Spine Deformity Predicts Lung Growth and Function in Rabbit Model of Early Onset Scoliosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Casey Olson

    Full Text Available Early onset deformity of the spine and chest wall (initiated <8 years of age is associated with increased morbidity at adulthood relative to adolescent onset deformity of comparable severity. Presumably, inhibition of thoracic growth during late stage alveolarization leads to an irreversible loss of pulmonary growth and thoracic function; however the natural history of this disease from onset to adulthood has not been well characterized. In this study we establish a rabbit model of early onset scoliosis to establish the extent that thoracic deformity affects structural and functional respiratory development. Using a surgical right unilateral rib-tethering procedure, rib fusion with early onset scoliosis was induced in 10 young New Zealand white rabbits (3 weeks old. Progression of spine deformity, functional residual capacity, total lung capacity, and lung mass was tracked through longitudinal breath-hold computed tomography imaging up to skeletal maturity (28 weeks old. Additionally at maturity forced vital capacity and regional specific volume were calculated as functional measurements and histo-morphometry performed with the radial alveolar count as a measure of acinar complexity. Data from tethered rib rabbits were compared to age matched healthy control rabbits (N = 8. Results show unilateral rib-tethering created a progressive spinal deformity ranging from 30° to 120° curvature, the severity of which was strongly associated with pulmonary growth and functional outcomes. At maturity rabbits with deformity greater than the median (55° had decreased body weight (89%, right (59% and left (86% lung mass, right (74% and left (69% radial alveolar count, right lung volume at total lung capacity (60%, and forced vital capacity (75%. Early treatment of spinal deformity in children may prevent pulmonary complications in adulthood and these results provide a basis for the prediction of pulmonary development from thoracic structure. This model may

  16. To what extent does IQ 'explain' socio-economic variations in function?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Eijk Jacques

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of this study were to examine the extent to which higher intellectual abilities protect higher socio-economic groups from functional decline and to examine whether the contribution of intellectual abilities is independent of childhood deprivation and low birth weight and other socio-economic and developmental factors in early life. Methods The Maastricht Aging Study (MAAS is a prospective cohort study based upon participants in a registration network of general practices in The Netherlands. Information was available on 1211 men and women, 24 – 81 years old, who were without cognitive impairment at baseline (1993 – 1995, who ever had a paid job, and who participated in the six-year follow-up. Main outcomes were longitudinal decline in important components of quality of life and successful aging, i.e., self-reported physical, affective, and cognitive functioning. Results Persons with a low occupational level at baseline showed more functional decline than persons with a high occupational level. Socio-economic and developmental factors from early life hardly contributed to the adult socio-economic differences in functional decline. Intellectual abilities, however, took into account more than one third of the association between adult socio-economic status and functional decline. The contribution of the intellectual abilities was independent of the early life factors. Conclusion Rather than developmental and socio-economic characteristics of early life, the findings substantiate the importance of intellectual abilities for functional decline and their contribution – as potential, but neglected confounders – to socio-economic differences in functioning, successful aging, and quality of life. The higher intellectual abilities in the higher socio-economic status groups may also underlie the higher prevalences of mastery, self-efficacy and efficient coping styles in these groups.

  17. THE EFFECT OF CARDIOVSCULAR REHABILITATION ON THE EXTENT OF OBESITY AND LIPID RISK FACTORS IN RELATION TO PATIENTS' AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Petrović

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been established that multifactorial rehabilitation programs that include physical activity, nutritional education, consulting, psychological support and pharmacological treatment, have the most favourable influence on lipid level.The Objective was to establish the effect of cardiovascular rehabilitation on the extent of obesity and lipid risk factors depending on the age of patients after myocardial infarction.The investigated group included 65 years old and older (n=67 patients, average age 72.1±3.2, and the control group with patients younger than 65 years old (n=46 average age 50.7±4.1. Laboraory tests were performed on all the examined both in and out patients (glycemia, lipid status, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride, as well as waist circumference measurement, body mass (BM and body mass index (BMI.A group of older patients, in comparison to a control group of younger patients, did not significantly differ in the extent or type of obesity. The analyses of values, before and after the rehabilitation treatment showed that in both groups of the examined patients and in all patients on CV rehabilitation program, significant reduction in BMI and waist circumeference was found after the RH treatment. In both groups of patients values of lipid parameters (total, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride and morning glucemia were significantly lower after the RH program had been finished, while the values of HDL cholesterol showed significant increase after the RH program. Values of most atherogenic indexes were significantly higher in younger patients in comparison to the group of older patients.In both groups of patients on cardiovascular rehabilitation program there were significant reductions of BMI and OS, as well as improvement of lipid disorders and impaired glicoregulation. After the CV rehabilitation, values of all atherogenic indexes were significantly reduced. This is the indicator of the importance

  18. Coupling Mars' Dust and Water Cycles: Effects on Dust Lifting Vigor, Spatial Extent and Seasonality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahre, M. A.; Hollingsworth, J. L.; Haberle, R. M.; Montmessin, F.

    2012-01-01

    , thereby modifying the thermal structure of the atmosphere and its circulation. Results presented in other papers at this workshop show that including the radiative effects of water ice clouds greatly influence the water cycle and the vigor of weather systems in both the northern and southern hemispheres. Our goal is to investigate the effects of fully coupling the dust and water cycles on the dust cycle. We show that including water ice clouds and their radiative effects greatly affect the magnitude, spatial extent and seasonality of dust lifting and the season of maximum atmospheric dust loading.

  19. Affect Intensity: An Individual Difference Response to Advertising Appeals.

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, David J; Harris, William D; Chen, Hong C

    1995-01-01

    The Affect Intensity Measurement (AIM) scale assesses the strength of the emotions with which individuals respond to an affect-laden stimulus. This study investigated the extent to which individual differences in affect intensity influence the message recipient's responses to emotional advertising appeals. In two experiments high affect intensity individuals, compared with those who scored low on the AIM scale, (1) manifested significantly stronger emotional responses to the emotional adverti...

  20. Capturing heterogeneity: The role of a study area's extent for estimating mean throughfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Alexander; Voss, Sebastian; Metzger, Johanna Clara; Hildebrandt, Anke; Zimmermann, Beate

    2016-11-01

    The selection of an appropriate spatial extent of a sampling plot is one among several important decisions involved in planning a throughfall sampling scheme. In fact, the choice of the extent may determine whether or not a study can adequately characterize the hydrological fluxes of the studied ecosystem. Previous attempts to optimize throughfall sampling schemes focused on the selection of an appropriate sample size, support, and sampling design, while comparatively little attention has been given to the role of the extent. In this contribution, we investigated the influence of the extent on the representativeness of mean throughfall estimates for three forest ecosystems of varying stand structure. Our study is based on virtual sampling of simulated throughfall fields. We derived these fields from throughfall data sampled in a simply structured forest (young tropical forest) and two heterogeneous forests (old tropical forest, unmanaged mixed European beech forest). We then sampled the simulated throughfall fields with three common extents and various sample sizes for a range of events and for accumulated data. Our findings suggest that the size of the study area should be carefully adapted to the complexity of the system under study and to the required temporal resolution of the throughfall data (i.e. event-based versus accumulated). Generally, event-based sampling in complex structured forests (conditions that favor comparatively long autocorrelations in throughfall) requires the largest extents. For event-based sampling, the choice of an appropriate extent can be as important as using an adequate sample size.

  1. Age, extent and carbon storage of the central Congo Basin peatland complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargie, Greta C; Lewis, Simon L; Lawson, Ian T; Mitchard, Edward T A; Page, Susan E; Bocko, Yannick E; Ifo, Suspense A

    2017-02-02

    Peatlands are carbon-rich ecosystems that cover just three per cent of Earth's land surface, but store one-third of soil carbon. Peat soils are formed by the build-up of partially decomposed organic matter under waterlogged anoxic conditions. Most peat is found in cool climatic regions where unimpeded decomposition is slower, but deposits are also found under some tropical swamp forests. Here we present field measurements from one of the world's most extensive regions of swamp forest, the Cuvette Centrale depression in the central Congo Basin. We find extensive peat deposits beneath the swamp forest vegetation (peat defined as material with an organic matter content of at least 65 per cent to a depth of at least 0.3 metres). Radiocarbon dates indicate that peat began accumulating from about 10,600 years ago, coincident with the onset of more humid conditions in central Africa at the beginning of the Holocene. The peatlands occupy large interfluvial basins, and seem to be largely rain-fed and ombrotrophic-like (of low nutrient status) systems. Although the peat layer is relatively shallow (with a maximum depth of 5.9 metres and a median depth of 2.0 metres), by combining in situ and remotely sensed data, we estimate the area of peat to be approximately 145,500 square kilometres (95 per cent confidence interval of 131,900-156,400 square kilometres), making the Cuvette Centrale the most extensive peatland complex in the tropics. This area is more than five times the maximum possible area reported for the Congo Basin in a recent synthesis of pantropical peat extent. We estimate that the peatlands store approximately 30.6 petagrams (30.6 × 10 15  grams) of carbon belowground (95 per cent confidence interval of 6.3-46.8 petagrams of carbon)-a quantity that is similar to the above-ground carbon stocks of the tropical forests of the entire Congo Basin. Our result for the Cuvette Centrale increases the best estimate of global tropical peatland carbon stocks by

  2. To what extent does recurrent government health expenditure in Uganda reflect its policy priorities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabyonga-Orem Juliet

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The National Health Policy 2000 - 2009 and Health sector strategic plans I & II emphasized that Primary Health Care (PHC would be the main strategy for national development and would be operationalized through provision of the minimum health care package. Commitment was to spend an increasing proportion of the health budget for the provision of the basic minimum package of health services which was interpreted to mean increasing spending at health centre level. This analysis was undertaken to gain a better understanding of changes in the way recurrent funding is allocated in the health sector in Uganda and to what extent it has been in line with agreed policy priorities. Methods Government recurrent wage and non-wage expenditures - based on annual releases by the Uganda Ministry of Finance, Planning and Economic Development were compiled for the period 1997/1998 to financial year 2007/2008. Additional data was obtained from a series of Ministry of Health annual health sector reports as well as other reports. Data was verified by key government officials in Ministry of Finance, Planning and Economic Development and Ministry of Health. Analysis of expenditures was done at sector level, by the different levels in the health care system and the different levels of care. Results There was a pronounced increase in the amount of funds released for recurrent expenditure over the review period fueled mainly by increases in the wage component. PHC services showed the greatest increase, increasing more than 70 times in ten years. At hospital level, expenditures remained fairly constant for the last 10 years with a slight reduction in the wage component. Conclusion The policy aspiration of increasing spending on PHC was attained but key aspects that would facilitate its realization were not addressed. At any given level of funding for the health sector, there is need to work out an optimal balance in investment in the different inputs to

  3. The true extent of agriculture's contribution to national greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, M.J.; Cloy, J.M.; Rees, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Quantification of agricultural GHG emissions is required under legislation. • Alternative approaches to calculating agricultural GHG inventories were compared. • The Scottish Government and IPCC attribute different emissions to the agricultural sector. • High emissions from agriculture are calculated when land-use change is included. • Agriculture is a greater source of emissions using the Scottish Government approach. - Abstract: The agricultural sector is a significant contributor to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and a growing global population means that agricultural production will remain high if food demands are to be met. Mitigation methods to reduce emissions from this sector are thus required, along with identification and quantification of emission sources, so that the agricultural community can act and measure its progress. International legislation requires the submission of annual reports quantifying GHG emissions from agriculture. The importance of attributing the correct sources of emissions to the agricultural sector is clear; however the current approach taken by the IPCC, and reported to the UNFCCC, omits emissions from soils during agricultural land-use change from its agricultural inventory. This paper questions the IPCC approach, and the attribution of agricultural land-use change emissions to a separate category: ‘Land-use, Land-use change and Forestry’. Here a new approach adopted by the Scottish Government is examined, and compared to IPCC guidelines and national communications submitted to the Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) and the UNFCCC. The new Scottish Government approach attributes emissions from both land-use conversion and agricultural land under continuous use to the agricultural sector, in addition to those emissions from livestock and energy use on farms. The extent of emissions attributed to the agricultural sector using the Scottish Government approach is much greater than that using

  4. Evaluation of extent of UTI related renal parenchymal damage in pediatric patient population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, A.R.; Charan, S.; Silva, I.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is important cause of morbidity in childhood. UTI may lead to involvement of renal parenchyma ranging from recoverable acute inflammation, renal scarring of Reflux nephropathy, hypertension and ultimately end stage renal disease. Hence, extent of renal parenchymal involvement bears prognostic significance in pediatric population. Laboratory and clinical parameters have inherent limitations in detecting and localizing renal parenchymal involvement in the settings of UTI. Objectives: The present study has been designed with the aim to determine the frequency and degree of renal parenchymal involvement in pediatric patients having urinary tract infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From May to December 2003, 33 consecutive children (65 Kidneys, 32-paired, I-solitary) aged one month to 12 years (mean age 3 years, 20M, 13F) with positive past history and culture documented urinary tract infection were enrolled in the study. They were subjected to Renal cortical scan using Tc-99m DMSA (20-100 MBq) on Dual detectors gamma camera (e.cam) fitted with LEHR collimator in anterior, posterior and posterior oblique projections. DMSA renal scans were interpreted as per Clarke's interpretation criteria. Renal ultrasound (RUS) and cystourethrogram (MCUG) were available in all the cases. Results: As per Clarke's classification, there were 19 children with no evidence of renal cortical involvement (Type-1). Renal parenchymal involvement found to be unilateral (Type-4 to Type-6) and bilateral (Type-7 and 8) in 8 and 6 children respectively. DMSA scan was abnormal in 20 of 65 kidneys (31%). MCUG was positive for presence of VUR in 34 kidneys (Group A) and negative for VUR in remaining 31 units (Group B). In Gp A, 18 of 34 kidneys (53%) showed renal parenchymal involvement on DMSA Scan. In Gp A, presence or absence of renal parenchymal damage on DMSA scan did not show any statistically significant difference in age, sex and grade of VUR. Whereas

  5. Coordinated Changes in Mutation and Growth Rates Induced by Genome Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issei Nishimura

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Genome size is determined during evolution, but it can also be altered by genetic engineering in laboratories. The systematic characterization of reduced genomes provides valuable insights into the cellular properties that are quantitatively described by the global parameters related to the dynamics of growth and mutation. In the present study, we analyzed a small collection of W3110 Escherichia coli derivatives containing either the wild-type genome or reduced genomes of various lengths to examine whether the mutation rate, a global parameter representing genomic plasticity, was affected by genome reduction. We found that the mutation rates of these cells increased with genome reduction. The correlation between genome length and mutation rate, which has been reported for the evolution of bacteria, was also identified, intriguingly, for genome reduction. Gene function enrichment analysis indicated that the deletion of many of the genes encoding membrane and transport proteins play a role in the mutation rate changes mediated by genome reduction. Furthermore, the increase in the mutation rate with genome reduction was highly associated with a decrease in the growth rate in a nutrition-dependent manner; thus, poorer media showed a larger change that was of higher significance. This negative correlation was strongly supported by experimental evidence that the serial transfer of the reduced genome improved the growth rate and reduced the mutation rate to a large extent. Taken together, the global parameters corresponding to the genome, growth, and mutation showed a coordinated relationship, which might be an essential working principle for balancing the cellular dynamics appropriate to the environment.

  6. How does real affect affect affect recognition in speech?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truong, Khiet Phuong

    2009-01-01

    The automatic analysis of affect is a relatively new and challenging multidisciplinary research area that has gained a lot of interest over the past few years. The research and development of affect recognition systems has opened many opportunities for improving the interaction between man and

  7. Quantum theory without reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cini, Marcello; Levy-Leblond, J.-M.

    1990-01-01

    Quantum theory offers a strange, and perhaps unique, case in the history of science. Although research into its roots has provided important results in recent years, the debate goes on. Some theorists argue that quantum theory is weakened by the inclusion of the so called 'reduction of the state vector' in its foundations. Quantum Theory without Reduction presents arguments in favour of quantum theory as a consistent and complete theory without this reduction, and which is capable of explaining all known features of the measurement problem. This collection of invited contributions defines and explores different aspects of this issue, bringing an old debate into a new perspective, and leading to a more satisfying consensus about quantum theory. (author)

  8. Measuring mandibular ridge reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steen, W.H.A.

    1984-01-01

    This thesis investigates the mandibular reduction in height of complete denture wearers and overdenture wearers. To follow this reduction in the anterior region as well as in the lateral sections of the mandible, an accurate and reproducible measuring method is a prerequisite. A radiologic technique offers the best chance. A survey is given of the literature concerning the resorption process after the extraction of teeth. An oblique cephalometric radiographic technique is introduced as a promising method to measure mandibular ridge reduction. The reproducibility and the accuracy of the technique are determined. The reproducibility in the positioning of the mandible is improved by the introduction of a mandibular support which permits a precise repositioning of the edentulous jaw, even after long periods of investigation. (Auth.)

  9. The extent of the perihemorrhagic perfusion zone correlates with hematoma volume in patients with lobar intracerebral hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beseoglu, Kerim; Etminan, Nima; Steiger, Hans-Jakob; Haenggi, Daniel; Turowski, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Existing data on perfusion imaging assumes the perihemorrhagic zone (PHZ) in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) to be size steady. This study investigates the size of the perihemorrhagic zone (PHZ) in patients with lobar ICH in relation to hematoma volume during the course of treatment using perfusion CT (PCT). The present analysis is based on a previously reported cohort of 20 patients undergoing surgical evacuation for lobar SICH, with pre- and early postoperative PCT scanning. Time to peak of the residue function (T max ) was measured based on the 360 cortical banding method and singular value decomposition. The size of PHZ was determined before and after treatment and correlated with hematoma volume. Preoperative mean hematoma volume constituted 63.0 ml (interquartile ranges (IQR) 39.7-99.4 ml), which correlated significantly (r = 0.563, p = 0.010) with mean PHZ size (5.67 cm, IQR 5.44-8.17 cm). Following a surgical hematoma evacuation, mean hematoma volume was reduced to 2.5 ml IQR 0.0-9.5 ml, which also resulted in a significant reduction of PHZ size to 0.45 cm(IQR 0.0-1.36 cm; p < 0.001). There was no association between postoperative hematoma volume and size of the PHZ. Our findings illustrate that the extent of the PHZ cannot be generally assumed to be constant in size and that this differs significantly following hematoma reduction in patients with space occupying lobar SICH. (orig.)

  10. The extent of the perihemorrhagic perfusion zone correlates with hematoma volume in patients with lobar intracerebral hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beseoglu, Kerim; Etminan, Nima; Steiger, Hans-Jakob; Haenggi, Daniel [Heinrich-Heine-Universitaet Duesseldorf, Department of Neurosurgery, Medical Faculty, Duesseldorf (Germany); Turowski, Bernd [Heinrich-Heine-Universitaet Duesseldorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Medical Faculty, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2014-07-15

    Existing data on perfusion imaging assumes the perihemorrhagic zone (PHZ) in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) to be size steady. This study investigates the size of the perihemorrhagic zone (PHZ) in patients with lobar ICH in relation to hematoma volume during the course of treatment using perfusion CT (PCT). The present analysis is based on a previously reported cohort of 20 patients undergoing surgical evacuation for lobar SICH, with pre- and early postoperative PCT scanning. Time to peak of the residue function (T{sub max}) was measured based on the 360 cortical banding method and singular value decomposition. The size of PHZ was determined before and after treatment and correlated with hematoma volume. Preoperative mean hematoma volume constituted 63.0 ml (interquartile ranges (IQR) 39.7-99.4 ml), which correlated significantly (r = 0.563, p = 0.010) with mean PHZ size (5.67 cm, IQR 5.44-8.17 cm). Following a surgical hematoma evacuation, mean hematoma volume was reduced to 2.5 ml IQR 0.0-9.5 ml, which also resulted in a significant reduction of PHZ size to 0.45 cm(IQR 0.0-1.36 cm; p < 0.001). There was no association between postoperative hematoma volume and size of the PHZ. Our findings illustrate that the extent of the PHZ cannot be generally assumed to be constant in size and that this differs significantly following hematoma reduction in patients with space occupying lobar SICH. (orig.)

  11. REDUCTIONS WITHOUT REGRET: SUMMARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swegle, J.; Tincher, D.

    2013-09-16

    This paper briefly summarizes the series in which we consider the possibilities for losing, or compromising, key capabilities of the U.S. nuclear force in the face of modernization and reductions. The first of the three papers takes an historical perspective, considering capabilities that were eliminated in past force reductions. The second paper is our attempt to define the needed capabilities looking forward in the context of the current framework for force modernization and the current picture of the evolving challenges of deterrence and assurance. The third paper then provides an example for each of our undesirable outcomes: the creation of roach motels, box canyons, and wrong turns.

  12. Reconstructed North American, Eurasian, and Northern Hemisphere Snow Cover Extent, 1915-1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains time series of monthly snow cover extent (SCE) for North America, Eurasia, and the Northern Hemisphere from 1915 to 1997, based on snow cover...

  13. Quantifying emphysema extent from weakly labeled CT scans of the lungs using label proportions learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørting, Silas Nyboe; Petersen, Jens; Wille, Mathilde

    2016-01-01

    Quantification of emphysema extent is important in diagnosing and monitoring patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Several studies have shown that emphysema quantification by supervised texture classification is more robust and accurate than traditional densitometry. Current...... techniques require highly time consuming manual annotations of patches or use only weak labels indicating overall disease status (e.g, COPD or healthy). We show how visual scoring of regional emphysema extent can be exploited in a learning with label proportions (LLP) framework to both predict presence...... of emphysema in smaller patches and estimate regional extent. We evaluate performance on 195 visually scored CT scans and achieve an intraclass correlation of 0.72 (0.65–0.78) between predicted region extent and expert raters. To our knowledge this is the first time that LLP methods have been applied...

  14. extent of use of ict by fish farmers in isoko agricultural zone of delta

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mr. TONY A

    Abstract. The study examined the extent of use of ICTs by fish farmers in Isoko .... TABLE 1: Percentage distribution of respondents selected socioeconomics ... fish breeds, feeds and management), and made inquiries about market predictions.

  15. To what extent do science ESP learning materials fit the purpose for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To what extent do science ESP learning materials fit the purpose for which they have been devised? An evaluation in terms of Cronje's (1993) criteria. ... Journal for Language Teaching. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced ...

  16. LBA-ECO LC-07 Wetland Extent, Vegetation, and Inundation: Lowland Amazon Basin

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides a map of wetland extent, vegetation type, and dual-season flooding state of the entire lowland Amazon basin. The map was derived from mosaics...

  17. Sea Ice Edge Location and Extent in the Russian Arctic, 1933-2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Sea Ice Edge Location and Extent in the Russian Arctic, 1933-2006 data are derived from sea ice charts from the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI),...

  18. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Northern Hemisphere (NH) Snow Cover Extent (SCE), Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) is a record for the Northern Hemisphere (NH) Snow Cover Extent (SCE) spanning from October 4, 1966 to present, updated monthly...

  19. The extent of unwanted infrared photoacoustic signals from polymer sampling tubings exposed to ultraviolet radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bicanic, D.; Solyom, A.; Angeli, G.; Wegh, H.; Postumus, M.; Jalink, H.

    1995-01-01

    The extent of unwanted photoacoustic (PA) signals due to volatiles released from various polymer tubing materials [transparent, red and black polyethylene (PE), polymer of tetrafluorethylene (PTFE) and copolymer of tetrafluorethylene and hexafluorethylene (FEP)] when exposed to 245 nm radiation was

  20. Comment on ''Canonical formalism for Lagrangians with nonlocality of finite extent''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llosa, Josep

    2003-01-01

    The paper by Woodward [Phys. Rev. A 62, 052105 (2000)] claimed to have proved that Lagrangian theories with a nonlocality of finite extent are necessarily unstable. In this Comment we propose that this conclusion is false

  1. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: ICE (Ice Extent Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains locations of ice extent in Cook Inlet, Alaska. Vector lines in the data set represent 50 percent ice coverage. Location-specific type and...

  2. Global extent and determinants of savanna and forest as alternative biome states

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Staver, C

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Theoretically, fire–tree cover feedbacks can maintain savanna and forest as alternative stable states. However, the global extent of fire- driven discontinuities in tree cover is unknown, especially accounting for seasonality and soils. The authors...

  3. The value and extent of religious participation of members of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-01-14

    Jan 14, 2013 ... ... of Human. Resource Management, .... This is why employees of the SAPS, as human beings, to a large extent ... everywhere, supporting us in the workplace, at home and in hospitals. ..... such as diversity interventions).

  4. The extent of problematic alcohol and other drug use within selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To describe the nature and extent of AOD problems in selected workplace ... compiled by an Employee Assistance Programme (EAP) service provider in SA. As part of an EAP risk audit, assessments for AOD-related problems were ...

  5. Global Human Built-up And Settlement Extent (HBASE) Dataset From Landsat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Human Built-up And Settlement Extent (HBASE) Dataset from Landsat is a global map of HBASE derived from the Global Land Survey (GLS) Landsat dataset for...

  6. Extent of Surgery Does Not Influence 30-Day Mortality in Surgery for Metastatic Bone Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Michala Skovlund; Hindsø, Klaus; Hovgaard, Thea Bechmann

    2016-01-01

    describing the extent of the surgical trauma were found to be associated with 30-day mortality. The 30-day mortality in patients undergoing surgery for MBD is highly dependent on the general health status of the patients as measured by the ASA score and the Karnofsky performance status. The extent of surgery......, measured as duration of surgery, blood loss, and degree of bone resection were not associated with 30-day mortality....

  7. The Extent of computerization in big companies of the Spanish hotel sector

    OpenAIRE

    Infante Moro, Alfonso; Martínez López, Francisco José; Infante Moro, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    This is the first study of the hotel sector regarding the extent of computerization in its big companies. This study examines the extent of computerization in big companies of the Spanish hotel sector with the aim of confirming the viability and sustainability of this sector relative to changes in ICT, a stage which is defined by the extensive use of the Internet and online social networks, and the handling of large quantities of information generated within these new env...

  8. Correlation between left ventricular filling and ischemic extent during exercise-induced myocardial ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Akitada; Yokota, Mitsuhiro; Iwase, Mitsunori

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how the extent of exercise-induced myocardial ischemia influence left ventricular filling. Twenty-two consecutive patients with effort angina, consisting of 16 with single vessel disease and 6 with double vessel disease, underwent exercise studies in lying and sitting positions. Extent score (ES) and severity score (SS) were calculated on polar map prepared from early exercise Tl-201 myocardial SPECT images to determine ischemic extent. Pulmonary arterial wedge pressure (PAWP), as obtained at exercise in lying position, correlated significantly well with both ES (r=0.75, p<0.001) and SS (r=0.61, p<0.01). There was, however, no significant correlation between the other hemodynamic parameters, such as heart rate, systolic pressure, rate-pressure product, cardiac index and stroke index, and both ES and SS. Either increased PAWP or ischemic extent was not dependent on the number of diseased vessels. In conclusion, the extent of increased left ventricular filling did not correlate with the number of diseased vessels, but correlated positively with ischemic extent. (N.K.)

  9. Association between the extent of urinary albumin excretion and glycaemic variability indices measured by continuous glucose monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, S-M; Kim, T-H; Oh, S; Baek, J; Joung, J Y; Park, S-M; Cho, Y Y; Sohn, S Y; Hur, K Y; Lee, M-S; Lee, M-K; Kim, J H

    2015-02-01

    The contribution of glycaemic variability to the microvascular complication of diabetes has not been established. We examined whether there is an independent association between indices of glycaemic variability in continuous glucose monitoring and extent of albuminuria. A total of 173 patients with Type 2 diabetes (without insulin therapy, n = 96; with insulin therapy, n = 77) who had unexplained large fluctuations in blood glucose values underwent three-day continuous glucose monitoring. We used a multinomial logistic regression model to determine whether the indices of glycaemic variability independently affected the odds of having a spot urine albumin/creatinine ratio of 30-299 mg/g and ≥ 300 mg/g. Higher standard deviation (P = 0.002), mean of daily differences (P = 0.023) and mean amplitude of glycaemic excursion (P = 0.043) significantly increased the odds of having a urine albumin/creatinine ratio of ≥ 300 mg/g. In multivariable analysis, only higher standard deviation, but not mean amplitude of glycaemic excursion and mean of daily differences, independently increased the odds of having a urine albumin/creatinine ratio of ≥ 300 mg/g (P = 0.025). Coefficient of variation (sd/mean) was not associated with the odds of having a urine albumin/creatinine ratio of 30-299 or ≥ 300 mg/g. The independent association between standard deviation and the extent of albuminuria was lost when the measures were normalized by mean glucose level. At least in terms of relative measures of glycaemic variability, we failed to demonstrate an independent association between glycaemic variability and albuminuria extent in patients with inadequately controlled Type 2 diabetes. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2014 Diabetes UK.

  10. Integrating Radarsat-2, Lidar, and Worldview-3 Imagery to maximize detection of forested inundation extent in the Delmarva Peninsula, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhoof, Melanie; Distler, Hayley; Mendiola, Di Ana; Lang, Megan

    2017-01-01

    Natural variability in surface-water extent and associated characteristics presents a challenge to gathering timely, accurate information, particularly in environments that are dominated by small and/or forested wetlands. This study mapped inundation extent across the Upper Choptank River Watershed on the Delmarva Peninsula, occurring within both Maryland and Delaware. We integrated six quad-polarized Radarsat-2 images, Worldview-3 imagery, and an enhanced topographic wetness index in a random forest model. Output maps were filtered using light detection and ranging (lidar)-derived depressions to maximize the accuracy of forested inundation extent. Overall accuracy within the integrated and filtered model was 94.3%, with 5.5% and 6.0% errors of omission and commission for inundation, respectively. Accuracy of inundation maps obtained using Radarsat-2 alone were likely detrimentally affected by less than ideal angles of incidence and recent precipitation, but were likely improved by targeting the period between snowmelt and leaf-out for imagery collection. Across the six Radarsat-2 dates, filtering inundation outputs by lidar-derived depressions slightly elevated errors of omission for water (+1.0%), but decreased errors of commission (−7.8%), resulting in an average increase of 5.4% in overall accuracy. Depressions were derived from lidar datasets collected under both dry and average wetness conditions. Although antecedent wetness conditions influenced the abundance and total area mapped as depression, the two versions of the depression datasets showed a similar ability to reduce error in the inundation maps. Accurate mapping of surface water is critical to predicting and monitoring the effect of human-induced change and interannual variability on water quantity and quality.

  11. Use of a screening method to determine excipients which optimize the extent and stability of supersaturated drug solutions and application of this system to solid formulation design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandecruys, Roger; Peeters, Jef; Verreck, Geert; Brewster, Marcus E

    2007-09-05

    Assessing the effect of excipients on the ability to attain and maintain supersaturation of drug-based solution may provide useful information for the design of solid formulations. Judicious selection of materials that affect either the extent or stability of supersaturating drug delivery systems may be enabling for poorly soluble drug candidates or other difficult-to-formulate compounds. The technique suggested herein is aimed at providing a screening protocol to allow preliminary assessment of these factors based on small to moderate amounts of drug substance. A series of excipients were selected that may, by various mechanisms, affect supersaturation including pharmaceutical polymers such as HMPC and PVP, surfactants such as Polysorbate 20, Cremophor RH40 and TPGS and hydrophilic cyclodextrins such as HPbetaCD. Using a co-solvent based method and 25 drug candidates, the data suggested, on the whole, that the surfactants and the selected cyclodextrin seemed to best augment the extent of supersaturation but had variable benefits as stabilizers, while the pharmaceutical polymers had useful effect on supersaturation stability but were less helpful in increasing the extent of supersaturation. Using these data, a group of simple solid dosage forms were prepared and tested in the dog for one of the drug candidates. Excipients that gave the best extent and stability for the formed supersaturated solution in the screening assay also gave the highest oral bioavailability in the dog.

  12. Reduction of dinitrogen ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    Processes of dinitrogen ligand reduction in complexes of transition metals are considered. The basic character of the dinitrogen ligand is underlined. Data on X-ray photoelectronic spectroscopy and intensities of bands ν (N 2 ) in IR-spectra of nitrogen complexes are given. The mechanism of protonation of an edge dinitrogen ligand is discussed. Model systems and mechanism of nitrogenogenase are compared

  13. Infinitary Combinatory Reduction Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ketema, Jeroen; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2011-01-01

    We define infinitary Combinatory Reduction Systems (iCRSs), thus providing the first notion of infinitary higher-order rewriting. The systems defined are sufficiently general that ordinary infinitary term rewriting and infinitary ¿-calculus are special cases. Furthermore,we generalise a number...

  14. Galactorrhea after reduction mammaplasty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, A. H.; Assies, J.; van der Horst, C. M.; Bos, K. E.

    1993-01-01

    A case of extremely painful swelling of the breasts following a reduction mammaplasty is presented. There were no signs of an abscess or hematoma. A milky white fluid due to galactorrhea was evacuated at operation, and further galactorrhea was inhibited by medication. The pathogenesis of

  15. (MTT) dye reduction assay.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to inhibit proliferation of HeLa cells was determined using the 3443- dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) dye reduction assay. Extracts from roots of Agathisanthemum bojeri, Synaptolepis kirkii and Zanha africana and the leaf extract of Physalis peruviana at a concentration of 10 pg/ml inhibited cell ...

  16. Streaming Reduction Circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerards, Marco Egbertus Theodorus; Kuper, Jan; Kokkeler, Andre B.J.; Molenkamp, Egbert

    2009-01-01

    Reduction circuits are used to reduce rows of floating point values to single values. Binary floating point operators often have deep pipelines, which may cause hazards when many consecutive rows have to be reduced. We present an algorithm by which any number of consecutive rows of arbitrary lengths

  17. Pterins and affective disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Hoekstra (Rocco)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThe pathophysiology of affective disorders is largely unknown. In patients with various affective disorders the activity of pterins and related amino acids were investigated before and after clinical treatment. In particular the bipolar affective disorder could be

  18. Radiation therapy rather than prior surgery reduces extent of resection during endonasal endoscopic reoperation for craniopharyngioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younus, Iyan; Forbes, Jonathan A; Ordóñez-Rubiano, Edgar G; Avendano-Pradel, Rafael; La Corte, Emanuele; Anand, Vijay K; Schwartz, Theodore H

    2018-07-01

    Radiation therapy is often advocated for residual or recurrent craniopharyngioma following surgical resection to prevent local recurrence. However, radiation therapy is not always effective and may render tumors more difficult to remove. If this is the case, patients may benefit more from reoperation if gross total resection can be achieved. Nevertheless, there is little data on the impact of radiation on reoperations for craniopharyngioma. In this study, we sought to analyze whether a history of previous radiation therapy (RT) affected extent of resection in patients with recurrent craniopharyngiomas subsequently treated with reoperation via endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA). The authors reviewed a prospectively acquired database of EEA reoperations of craniopharyngiomas over 13 years at Weill Cornell, NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital. All procedures were performed by the senior author. The operations were separated into two groups based on whether the patient had surgery alone (group A) or surgery and RT (group B) prior to recurrence. A total of 24 patients (16 male, 8 female) who underwent surgery for recurrent craniopharyngioma were identified. The average time to recurrence was 7.64 ± 4.34 months (range 3-16 months) for group A and 16.62 ± 12.1 months (range 6-45 months) for group B (p < 0.05). The average tumor size at recurrence was smaller in group A (1.85 ± 0.72 cm; range 0.5-3.2) than group B (2.59 ± 0.91 cm; range 1.5-4.6; p = 0.00017). Gross total resection (GTR) was achieved in 91% (10/11) of patients in group A and 54% (7/13) of patients in group B (p = 0.047). There was a near significant trend for higher average Karnofsky performance status (KPS) score at last follow-up for group A (83 ± 10.6) compared with group B (70 ± 16.3, p = 0.056). While RT for residual or recurrent craniopharyngioma may delay time to recurrence, ability to achieve GTR with additional surgery is reduced. In the case of

  19. Structural, mechanical and chemical evaluation of molar-incisor hypomineralization-affected enamel: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhennawy, Karim; Manton, David John; Crombie, Felicity; Zaslansky, Paul; Radlanski, Ralf J; Jost-Brinkmann, Paul-Georg; Schwendicke, Falk

    2017-11-01

    To systematically assess and contrast reported differences in microstructure, mineral density, mechanical and chemical properties between molar-incisor-hypomineralization-affected (MIH) enamel and unaffected enamel. Studies on extracted human teeth, clinically diagnosed with MIH, reporting on the microstructure, mechanical properties or the chemical composition and comparing them to unaffected enamel were reviewed. Electronic databases (PubMed, Embase and Google Scholar) were screened; hand searches and cross-referencing were also performed. Twenty-two studies were included. Fifteen studies on a total of 201 teeth investigated the structural properties, including ten (141 teeth) on microstructure and seven (60 teeth) on mineral density; six (29 teeth) investigated the mechanical properties and eleven (87 teeth) investigated the chemical properties of MIH-affected enamel and compared them to unaffected enamel. Studies unambiguously found a reduction in mineral quantity and quality (reduced Ca and P content), reduction of hardness and modulus of elasticity (also in the clinically sound-appearing enamel bordering the MIH-lesion), an increase in porosity, carbon/carbonate concentrations and protein content compared to unaffected enamel. were ambiguous with regard to the extent of the lesion through the enamel to the enamel-dentin junction, the Ca/P ratio and the association between clinical appearance and defect severity. There is an understanding of the changes related to MIH-affected enamel. The association of these changes with the clinical appearance and resulting implications for clinical management are unclear. MIH-affected enamel is greatly different from unaffected enamel. This has implications for management strategies. The possibility of correlating the clinical appearance of MIH-affected enamel with the severity of enamel changes and deducing clinical concepts (risk stratification etc.) is limited. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All

  20. Effect of Emphysema Extent on Serial Lung Function in Patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottin, Vincent; Hansell, David M; Sverzellati, Nicola; Weycker, Derek; Antoniou, Katerina M; Atwood, Mark; Oster, Gerry; Kirchgaessler, Klaus-Uwe; Collard, Harold R; Wells, Athol U

    2017-11-01

    Patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema may have artificially preserved lung volumes. In this post hoc analysis, we investigated the relationship between baseline emphysema and fibrosis extents, as well as pulmonary function changes, over 48 weeks. Data were pooled from two phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of IFN-γ-1b in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (GIPF-001 [NCT00047645] and GIPF-007 [NCT00075998]). Patients with Week 48 data, baseline high-resolution computed tomographic images, and FEV 1 /FVC ratios less than 0.8 or greater than 0.9 (0.9 in GIPF-007), as well as randomly selected patients with ratios of 0.8-0.9 and 0.7-0.8, were included. Changes from baseline in pulmonary function at Week 48 were analyzed by emphysema extent. The relationship between emphysema and fibrosis extents and change in pulmonary function was assessed using multivariate linear regression. Emphysema was identified in 38% of patients. A negative correlation was observed between fibrosis and emphysema extents (r = -0.232; P emphysema extent (28 to 65%) showed the smallest FVC decline, with a difference of 3.32% at Week 48 versus patients with no emphysema (P = 0.047). In multivariate analyses, emphysema extent greater than or equal to 15% was associated with significantly reduced FVC decline over 48 weeks versus no emphysema or emphysema less than 15%. No such association was observed for diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide or composite physiologic index. FVC measurements may not be appropriate for monitoring disease progression in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema extent greater than or equal to 15%.

  1. Well-being and environmental quality: Does pollution affect life satisfaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orru, Kati; Orru, Hans; Maasikmets, Marek; Hendrikson, Reigo; Ainsaar, Mare

    2016-03-01

    We aimed to explore the effect of ambient air pollution on individual persons' levels of subjective well-being. Our research question was: to what extent is an individual's life satisfaction shaped by exposure to PM10? We used regression models to analyse data on subjective well-being indicators from the last two waves of the European social survey (ESS) and detailed information on local levels of the air pollutant PM10. An increase in PM10 annual concentrations by 1 μg/m(3) was associated with a significant reduction in life satisfaction of .017 points on the ESS 10-point life satisfaction scale. Our findings suggest that even in cases of relatively low levels of PM10 air pollution (mean annual concentration of 8.3 ± 3.9 μg/m(3)), in addition to the effects on physical health, exposure negatively affects subjective assessments of well-being.

  2. 29 CFR 778.306 - Salary reductions in short workweeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Salary reductions in short workweeks. 778.306 Section 778... Special Problems How Deductions Affect the Regular Rate § 778.306 Salary reductions in short workweeks. (a... an employee is compensated at a fixed salary for a fixed workweek and if this salary is reduced by...

  3. How does MBCT for depression work? studying cognitive and affective mediation pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Batink

    Full Text Available Mindfulness based cognitive therapy (MBCT is a non-pharmacological intervention to reduce current symptoms and to prevent recurrence of major depressive disorder. At present, it is not well understood which underlying mechanisms during MBCT are associated with its efficacy. The current study (n = 130 was designed to examine the roles of mindfulness skills, rumination, worry and affect, and the interplay between those factors, in the mechanisms of change in MBCT for residual depressive symptoms. An exploratory but systematic approach was chosen using Sobel-Goodman mediation analyses to identify mediators on the pathway from MBCT to reduction in depressive symptoms. We replicated earlier findings that therapeutic effects of MBCT are mediated by changes in mindfulness skills and worry. Second, results showed that changes in momentary positive and negative affect significantly mediated the efficacy of MBCT, and also mediated the effect of worry on depressive symptoms. Third, within the group of patients with a prior history of ≤ 2 episodes of MDD, predominantly changes in cognitive and to a lesser extent affective processes mediated the effect of MBCT. However, within the group of patients with a prior history of ≥ 3 episodes of MDD, only changes in affect were significant mediators for the effect of MBCT.[corrected] Nederlands Trial Register NTR1084.

  4. Factors influencing the spatial extent of mobile source air pollution impacts: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy Jonathan I

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been growing interest among exposure assessors, epidemiologists, and policymakers in the concept of "hot spots", or more broadly, the "spatial extent" of impacts from traffic-related air pollutants. This review attempts to quantitatively synthesize findings about the spatial extent under various circumstances. Methods We include both the peer-reviewed literature and government reports, and focus on four significant air pollutants: carbon monoxide, benzene, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter (including both ultrafine particle counts and fine particle mass. From the identified studies, we extracted information about significant factors that would be hypothesized to influence the spatial extent within the study, such as the study type (e.g., monitoring, air dispersion modeling, GIS-based epidemiological studies, focus on concentrations or health risks, pollutant under study, background concentration, emission rate, and meteorological factors, as well as the study's implicit or explicit definition of spatial extent. We supplement this meta-analysis with results from some illustrative atmospheric dispersion modeling. Results We found that pollutant characteristics and background concentrations best explained variability in previously published spatial extent estimates, with a modifying influence of local meteorology, once some extreme values based on health risk estimates were removed from the analysis. As hypothesized, inert pollutants with high background concentrations had the largest spatial extent (often demonstrating no significant gradient, and pollutants formed in near-source chemical reactions (e.g., nitrogen dioxide had a larger spatial extent than pollutants depleted in near-source chemical reactions or removed through coagulation processes (e.g., nitrogen oxide and ultrafine particles. Our illustrative dispersion model illustrated the complex interplay of spatial extent definitions, emission rates

  5. Spontaneous wave packet reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghirardi, G.C.

    1994-06-01

    There are taken into account the main conceptual difficulties met by standard quantum mechanics in dealing with physical processes involving macroscopic system. It is stressed how J.A.Wheeler's remarks and lucid analysis have been relevant to pinpoint and to bring to its extreme consequences the puzzling aspects of quantum phenomena. It is shown how the recently proposed models of spontaneous dynamical reduction represent a consistent way to overcome the conceptual difficulties of the standard theory. Obviously, many nontrivial problems remain open, the first and more relevant one being that of generalizing the model theories considered to the relativistic case. This is the challenge of the dynamical reduction program. 43 refs, 2 figs

  6. Mapping US Urban Extents from MODIS Data Using One-Class Classification Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Wan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Urban areas are one of the most important components of human society. Their extents have been continuously growing during the last few decades. Accurate and timely measurements of the extents of urban areas can help in analyzing population densities and urban sprawls and in studying environmental issues related to urbanization. Urban extents detected from remotely sensed data are usually a by-product of land use classification results, and their interpretation requires a full understanding of land cover types. In this study, for the first time, we mapped urban extents in the continental United States using a novel one-class classification method, i.e., positive and unlabeled learning (PUL, with multi-temporal Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS data for the year 2010. The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS night stable light data were used to calibrate the urban extents obtained from the one-class classification scheme. Our results demonstrated the effectiveness of the use of the PUL algorithm in mapping large-scale urban areas from coarse remote-sensing images, for the first time. The total accuracy of mapped urban areas was 92.9% and the kappa coefficient was 0.85. The use of DMSP-OLS night stable light data can significantly reduce false detection rates from bare land and cropland far from cities. Compared with traditional supervised classification methods, the one-class classification scheme can greatly reduce the effort involved in collecting training datasets, without losing predictive accuracy.

  7. BP volume reduction equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Yoshinori; Muroo, Yoji; Hamanaka, Isao

    2003-01-01

    A new type of burnable poison (BP) volume reduction system is currently being developed. Many BP rods, a subcomponent of spent fuel assemblies are discharged from nuclear power reactors. This new system reduces the overall volume of BP rods. The main system consists of BP rod cutting equipment, equipment for the recovery of BP cut pieces, and special transport equipment for the cut rods. The equipment is all operated by hydraulic press cylinders in water to reduce operator exposure to radioactivity. (author)

  8. Anaerobic azo dye reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Zee, van der, F.P.

    2002-01-01

    Azo dyes, aromatic moieties linked together by azo (-N=N-) chromophores, represent the largest class of dyes used in textile-processing and other industries. The release of these compounds into the environment is undesirable, not only because of their colour, but also because many azo dyes and their breakdown products are toxic and/or mutagenic to life. To remove azo dyes from wastewater, a biological treatment strategy based on anaerobic reduction of the azo dye...

  9. Thermochemical nitrate reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, J.L.; Lilga, M.A.; Hallen, R.T.

    1992-09-01

    A series of preliminary experiments was conducted directed at thermochemically converting nitrate to nitrogen and water. Nitrates are a major constituent of the waste stored in the underground tanks on the Hanford Site, and the characteristics and effects of nitrate compounds on stabilization techniques must be considered before permanent disposal operations begin. For the thermochemical reduction experiments, six reducing agents (ammonia, formate, urea, glucose, methane, and hydrogen) were mixed separately with ∼3 wt% NO 3 - solutions in a buffered aqueous solution at high pH (13); ammonia and formate were also mixed at low pH (4). Reactions were conducted in an aqueous solution in a batch reactor at temperatures of 200 degrees C to 350 degrees C and pressures of 600 to 2800 psig. Both gas and liquid samples were analyzed. The specific components analyzed were nitrate, nitrite, nitrous oxide, nitrogen, and ammonia. Results of experimental runs showed the following order of nitrate reduction of the six reducing agents in basic solution: formate > glucose > urea > hydrogen > ammonia ∼ methane. Airnmonia was more effective under acidic conditions than basic conditions. Formate was also effective under acidic conditions. A more thorough, fundamental study appears warranted to provide additional data on the mechanism of nitrate reduction. Furthermore, an expanded data base and engineering feasibility study could be used to evaluate conversion conditions for promising reducing agents in more detail and identify new reducing agents with improved performance characteristics

  10. The importance of benchmarking habitat structure and composition for understanding the extent of fishing impacts in soft sediment ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Sean J.; Willis, Trevor J.; Cole, Russell G.; Bradley, Anna; Cairney, Daniel J.; Brown, Stephen N.; Carter, Megan E.

    2014-02-01

    Trawling and dredge fisheries remove vulnerable fauna, homogenise sediments and assemblages, and break down biogenic habitats, but the full extent of these effects can be difficult to quantify in the absence of adequate control sites. Our study utilised rare control sites containing biogenic habitat, the Separation Point exclusion zone, formally protected for 28 years, as the basis for assessing the degree of change experienced by adjacent areas subject to benthic fishing. Sidescan sonar surveys verified that intensive trawling and dredging occurred in areas adjacent to, but not inside, the exclusion area. We compared sediment composition, biogenic cover, macrofaunal assemblages, biomass, and productivity of the benthos, inside and outside the exclusion zone. Disturbed sites were dominated by fine mud, with little or no shell-gravel, reduced number of species, and loss of large bodied animals, with concomitant reductions in biomass and productivity. At protected sites, large, rarer molluscs were more abundant and contributed the most to size-based estimates of productivity and biomass. Functional changes in fished assemblages were consistent with previously reported relative increases in scavengers, predators and deposit feeders at the expense of filter feeders and a grazer. We propose that the colonisation of biogenic species in protected sites was contingent on the presence of shell-gravel atop these soft sediments. The process of sediment homogenisation by bottom fishing and elimination of shell-gravels from surficial sediments appeared to have occurred over decades - a ‘shifting baseline’. Therefore, benchmarking historical sediment structure at control site like the Separation Point exclusion zone is necessary to determine the full extent of physical habitat change wrought by contact gears on sheltered soft sediment habitats to better underpin appropriate conservation, restoration or fisheries management goals.

  11. Human activities on the deep seafloor in the North East Atlantic: an assessment of spatial extent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela R Benn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Environmental impacts of human activities on the deep seafloor are of increasing concern. While activities within waters shallower than 200 m have been the focus of previous assessments of anthropogenic impacts, no study has quantified the extent of individual activities or determined the relative severity of each type of impact in the deep sea. METHODOLOGY: The OSPAR maritime area of the North East Atlantic was chosen for the study because it is considered to be one of the most heavily impacted by human activities. In addition, it was assumed data would be accessible and comprehensive. Using the available data we map and estimate the spatial extent of five major human activities in the North East Atlantic that impact the deep seafloor: submarine communication cables, marine scientific research, oil and gas industry, bottom trawling and the historical dumping of radioactive waste, munitions and chemical weapons. It was not possible to map military activities. The extent of each activity has been quantified for a single year, 2005. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Human activities on the deep seafloor of the OSPAR area of the North Atlantic are significant but their footprints vary. Some activities have an immediate impact after which seafloor communities could re-establish, while others can continue to make an impact for many years and the impact could extend far beyond the physical disturbance. The spatial extent of waste disposal, telecommunication cables, the hydrocarbon industry and marine research activities is relatively small. The extent of bottom trawling is very significant and, even on the lowest possible estimates, is an order of magnitude greater than the total extent of all the other activities. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: To meet future ecosystem-based management and governance objectives for the deep sea significant improvements are required in data collection and availability as well as a greater awareness of the relative impact of

  12. Vietnam; Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2004-01-01

    This paper assesses the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper of Vietnam, known as the Comprehensive Poverty Reduction and Growth Strategy (CPRGS). It is an action program to achieve economic growth and poverty reduction objectives. This paper reviews the objectives and tasks of socio-economic development and poverty reduction. The government of Vietnam takes poverty reduction as a cutting-through objective in the process of country socio-economic development and declares its commitment to impleme...

  13. A method for determining the extent of thermal burns in elephants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shakespeare

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A practical method was developed to assess the extent of burns suffered by elephants caught in bush fires. In developing this method, the surface areas of the different body parts of juvenile, subadult and adult elephants were first determined using standard equations, and then expressed as a percentage of the total body surface area. When viewed from a distance, the burnt proportion of all body segments is estimated, converted to percentages of total body surface area, and then summed to determine the extent of burns suffered.

  14. Role of extent of resection on quality of life in patients with newly diagnosed GBM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudry, Usama Khalid; Shaikh, Huzaifa Ismail; Nisar, Areeba; Khan, Saad Akhtar; Shamim, Muhammad Shahzad

    2018-01-01

    Glioblastomas known for their adverse outcomes are most reportedly managed by surgical resection. Studies on the impact of (Extent of Resection) EOR against Quality of Life (QOL) are very limited. We have collected data from recent studies in this review to extract a general consensus among the neurosurgeons regarding the EOR. Key parameters like functional independence, neurocognitive improvements and global health status have been explored in the context of QOL. The currently available data suggests that an increased EOR may help improve QOL in GBM patients. With the help of recent advancements it may be possible to attain a better extent of resection while operating on GBMs.

  15. Diabetes and male sex are key risk factor correlates of the extent of coronary artery calcification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicoll, Rachel; Zhao, Ying; Wiklund, Urban

    2017-01-01

    for CAC scoring. RESULTS: Among all patients, male sex (OR = 4.85, pdyslipidemia and smoking also showing a relationship. Among patients with CAC, age, diabetes, hypertension...... and dyslipidemia were associated with an increasing CAC score in males and females, with diabetes being the strongest dichotomous risk factor (p... males and females. To a lesser extent, hypertension and dyslipidemia were also associated in the high CAC quantiles and the low CAC quantiles respectively. CONCLUSION: In addition to age and male sex in the total population, diabetes is the most important correlate of CAC extent in both sexes....

  16. Policy packages to achieve demand reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boardman, Brenda

    2005-01-01

    In many sectors and many countries, energy demand is still increasing, despite decades of policies to reduce demand. Controlling climate change is becoming more urgent, so there is a need to devise policies that will, virtually, guarantee demand reduction. This has to come from policy, at least in the UK, as the conditions do not exist, yet, when the consumers will 'pull' the market for energy efficiency or the manufacturers will use technological development to 'push' it. That virtuous circle has to be created by a mixture of consumer education and restrictions on manufacturers (for instance, permission to manufacture). The wider policy options include higher prices for energy and stronger product policies. An assessment of the effectiveness of different policy packages indicates some guiding principles, for instance that improved product policy must precede higher prices, otherwise consumers are unable to react effectively to price rises. The evidence will be assessed about the ways in which national and EU policies can either reinforce, duplicate or undermine each other. Another area of examination will be timescales: what is the time lag between the implementation of a policy (whether prices or product based) and the level of maximum reductions. In addition, the emphasis given to factors such as equity, raising investment funds and speed of delivery also influence policy design and the extent to which absolute carbon reductions can be expected

  17. Pollution reduction technology program for turboprop engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, J. G.

    1977-01-01

    The reduction of CO, HC, and smoke emissions while maintaining acceptable NO(x) emissions without affecting fuel consumption, durability, maintainability, and safety was accomplished. Component combustor concept screening directed toward the demonstration of advanced combustor technology required to meet the EPA exhaust emissions standards for class P2 turboprop engines was covered. The combustion system for the Allison 501-D22A engine was used, and three combustor design concepts - reverse flow, prechamber, and staged fuel were evaluated.

  18. Kinetic modeling of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) reduction of titania in MATLAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Tan Wei; Ramakrishnan, Sivakumar; Rezan, Sheikh Abdul; Noor, Ahmad Fauzi Mohd; Izah Shoparwe, Noor; Alizadeh, Reza; Roohi, Parham

    2017-04-01

    In the present study, reduction of Titania (TiO2) by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)-hydrogen-argon gas mixture was investigated by experimental and kinetic modelling in MATLAB. The reduction experiments were carried out in the temperature range of 1100-1200°C with a reduction time from 1-3 hours and 10-20 minutes of LPG flowing time. A shrinking core model (SCM) was employed for the kinetic modelling in order to determine the rate and extent of reduction. The highest experimental extent of reduction of 38% occurred at a temperature of 1200°C with 3 hours reduction time and 20 minutes of LPG flowing time. The SCM gave a predicted extent of reduction of 82.1% due to assumptions made in the model. The deviation between SCM and experimental data was attributed to porosity, thermodynamic properties and minute thermal fluctuations within the sample. In general, the reduction rates increased with increasing reduction temperature and LPG flowing time.

  19. A curve fitting approach to estimate the extent of fermentation of indigestible carbohydrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, H.; Weening, D.; Jonkers, E.; Boer, T.; Stellaard, F.; Small, A. C.; Preston, T.; Vonk, R. J.; Priebe, M. G.

    Background Information about the extent of carbohydrate digestion and fermentation is critical to our ability to explore the metabolic effects of carbohydrate fermentation in vivo. We used cooked (13)C-labelled barley kernels, which are rich in indigestible carbohydrates, to develop a method which

  20. Flood extent and water level estimation from SAR using data-model integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajadi, O. A.; Meyer, F. J.

    2017-12-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images have long been recognized as a valuable data source for flood mapping. Compared to other sources, SAR's weather and illumination independence and large area coverage at high spatial resolution supports reliable, frequent, and detailed observations of developing flood events. Accordingly, SAR has the potential to greatly aid in the near real-time monitoring of natural hazards, such as flood detection, if combined with automated image processing. This research works towards increasing the reliability and temporal sampling of SAR-derived flood hazard information by integrating information from multiple SAR sensors and SAR modalities (images and Interferometric SAR (InSAR) coherence) and by combining SAR-derived change detection information with hydrologic and hydraulic flood forecast models. First, the combination of multi-temporal SAR intensity images and coherence information for generating flood extent maps is introduced. The application of least-squares estimation integrates flood information from multiple SAR sensors, thus increasing the temporal sampling. SAR-based flood extent information will be combined with a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) to reduce false alarms and to estimate water depth and flood volume. The SAR-based flood extent map is assimilated into the Hydrologic Engineering Center River Analysis System (Hec-RAS) model to aid in hydraulic model calibration. The developed technology is improving the accuracy of flood information by exploiting information from data and models. It also provides enhanced flood information to decision-makers supporting the response to flood extent and improving emergency relief efforts.

  1. The extent of permafrost in China during the local Last Glacial Maximum (LLGM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, L.; Jin, H.; Li, C.; Cui, Z.; Chang, X.; Marchenko, S.S.; Vandenberghe, J.; Zhang, T.; Luo, D.; Liu, G.; Yi, C.

    2014-01-01

    Recent investigations into relict periglacial phenomena in northern and western China and on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau provide information for delineating the extent of permafrost in China during the Late Pleistocene. Polygonal and wedge-shaped structures indicate that, during the local Last Glacial

  2. To What Extent Do Student Teachers Have the Values Required for the Profession?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Vives, Fabia; Camps, Misericordia; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to determine to what extent the values held by student teachers at the start of a university degree programme coincide with the values that practising teachers consider important for their profession. Our findings show that student teachers and practising teachers have different value profiles, and that there is…

  3. Fascin expression in cholesteatoma: correlation with destruction of the ossicular chain and extent of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binnetoglu, A; Sari, M; Baglam, T; Erbarut Seven, I; Yumusakhuylu, A C; Topuz, M F; Batman, C

    2015-08-01

    Fascin is an actin-bundling protein found in cell membrane protrusions and increases cell motility. The expression of fascin in epithelial neoplasms has been described only recently. No data are available concerning the role of this protein in invasive cholesteatoma. Thus, we investigated the expression of fascin in cholesteatoma tissue and the relationship between fascin expression and intraoperative evaluation of the destruction of the ossicular chain and extent of disease. Cholesteatoma specimens of 28 patients and external auditory canal (EAC) skin specimens of the same patients (as the control group) were collected from mastoidectomies. Immunohistochemical technique was used to investigate the fascin expression in all cholesteatoma tissues and EAC skin specimens. Immunohistochemical staining was assessed semiquantitatively based on the thickness of epithelium. SPSS software version 16.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) was performed to statistically analyse the relationships between fascin expression and intraoperative evaluation destruction of ossicular chain and extent of the disease. Immunohistochemically, there was no or very low fascin expression observed in normal epithelial cells of EAC skin, while expressed in cholesteatoma tissue. Also, fascin expression in cholesteatoma tissues was significantly correlated with destruction of ossicular chain and extent of the disease. Fascin expression is usually found in cholesteatoma epithelium and is correlated with destruction of the ossicular chain and extent of disease. Considering all of the correlations between the clinical and histopathological findings, 'fascin immunoexpression scoring' may be used for histological grading of cholesteatoma. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Interdependence between measures of extent and severity of myocardial perfusion defects provided by automatic quantification programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Ali, Henrik Hussein; Palmer, John; Carlsson, Marcus

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of the values of lesion extent and severity provided by the two automatic quantification programs AutoQUANT and 4D-MSPECT using myocardial perfusion images generated by Monte Carlo simulation of a digital phantom. The combination between a realistic computer phantom and a...

  5. Estimating the seaward extent of sea breeze from QuickSCAT scatterometry

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Aparna, M.; Shetye, S.R.; Shankar, D.; Shenoi, S.S.C.; Mehra, P.; Desai, R.G.P.

    An objective method for quantifying the seaward extent of the sea breeze is presented. The underlying assumption is that the offshore decay in the strength of the sea breeze results in an offshore decay of the vector correlation between the wind...

  6. To What Extent Can Motor Imagery Replace Motor Execution While Learning a Fine Motor Skill?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobierajewicz, Jagna; Szarkiewicz, Sylwia; Prekoracka-Krawczyk, Anna; Jaskowski, Wojciech; van der Lubbe, Robert Henricus Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Motor imagery is generally thought to share common mechanisms with motor execution. In the present study, we examined to what extent learning a fine motor skill by motor imagery may substitute physical practice. Learning effects were assessed by manipulating the proportion of motor execution and

  7. 26 CFR 1.731-1 - Extent of recognition of gain or loss on distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., that is, capital gain or loss. (b) Gain or loss recognized by partnership. A distribution of property... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Distributions by A Partnership § 1.731-1 Extent of... gain. (i) Where money is distributed by a partnership to a partner, no gain shall be recognized to the...

  8. Extent of availability and utilization of law reports by law students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the extent of availability and utilization of law reports by final year lawstudents in the Universities of Uyo and Calabar law libraries. Survey research design was adopted for the study. A total of 450 under graduate final year Law students projects were examined to determine thefrequencyofcitations of ...

  9. Accuracy of determining preoperative cancer extent measured by automated breast ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozaki, Mitsuhiro; Fukuma, Eisuke

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of measuring preoperative cancer extent using automated breast ultrasonography (US). This retrospective study consisted of 40 patients with histopathologically confirmed breast cancer. All of the patients underwent automated breast US (ABVS; Siemens Medical Solutions, Mountain View, CA, USA) on the day before the surgery. The sizes of the lesions on US were measured on coronal multiplanar reconstruction images using the ABVS workstation. Histopathological measurement of tumor size included not only the invasive foci but also any in situ component and was used as the gold standard. The discrepancy of the tumor extent between automated breast US and the histological examination was calculated. Automated breast US enabled visualization of the breast carcinomas in all patients. The mean size of the lesions on US was 12 mm (range 4-62 mm). The histopathological diagnosis was ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) in seven patients and invasive ductal carcinoma in 33 patients (18 without an intraductal component, 15 with an intraductal component). Lesions ranged in diameter from 4 to 65 mm (mean 16 mm). The accuracy of determination of the tumor extent with a deviation in length of <2 cm was 98% (39/40). Automated breast US is thought to be useful for evaluating tumor extent preoperatively.

  10. The Extent to which the Chemistry Textbook of Grade 11 is ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to identify the extent to which the chemistry textbook of grade 11 in Ethiopian schools is appropriate for learner-centered approach. The content of the new chemistry textbook for grade 11 was analyzed vis-à-vis the suggested evidence of learnercentered techniques. The analysis covered the ...

  11. To What Extent Does Current Scientific Research and Textbook Content Align? A Methodology and Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierema, Andrea M.-K.; Schwartz, Renee S.; Gill, Sharon A.

    2017-01-01

    Recent calls for reform in education recommend science curricula to be based on central ideas instead of a larger number of topics and for alignment between current scientific research and curricula. Because alignment is rarely studied, especially for central ideas, we developed a methodology to discover the extent of alignment between primary…

  12. Extent of reference services to users in Ebonyi State Public Libraary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Users are very satisfied with the extent of reference services provided to them by the public library studied. Findings further show that the reference section of Ebonyi State Public Library, Abakiliki is faced with the problems of inadequate reading space, equipment and furniture, reference information sources, unconducive ...

  13. a research tool for analysing and monitoring the Extent to which ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    practice at the majority of under-resourced rural schools in the country. ... into the extent to which they integrate natural resource management issues. ... education is promoted as the best educational strategy to deal with the ... environmental sustainability and human wellbeing. ..... Comparative Education, 38(2), 171–187.

  14. Total Quality Management in Secondary Schools in Kenya: Extent of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngware, Moses Waithanji; Wamukuru, David Kuria; Odebero, Stephen Onyango

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the extent to which secondary schools practiced aspects of total quality management (TQM). Design/methodology/approach: A cross-sectional research design was used in this study. A sample of 300 teachers in a residential session during a school holiday provided their perceptions on the practice of TQM in their schools. Data…

  15. Detecting the Extent of Cellular Decomposition after Sub-Eutectoid Annealing in Rolled UMo Foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kautz, Elizabeth J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jana, Saumyadeep [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Devaraj, Arun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lavender, Curt A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sweet, Lucas E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Joshi, Vineet V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-07-31

    This report presents an automated image processing approach to quantifying microstructure image data, specifically the extent of eutectoid (cellular) decomposition in rolled U-10Mo foils. An image processing approach is used here to be able to quantitatively describe microstructure image data in order to relate microstructure to processing parameters (time, temperature, deformation).

  16. The Extent and Effects of Peer Pressure among High School Students: A Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, B. Bradford

    1982-01-01

    The extent of peer pressure in high school and its influences on behavior were examined in accounts from college undergraduates. One-third of both genders identified peer pressure as difficult, being stronger for females. Pressure areas included dating, sexual activity, and drug and alcohol use, but not parent-child relationships. (Author/CM)

  17. Effect of dietary molasses on the site and extent of digestion of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this experiment was to determine the site and extent of digestion of nutrients in sheep fed broiler litter alone (100% litter treatment), broiler litter plus 7.5% sugarcane molasses (92.5% litter treatment) and broiler litter plus 15% molasses (85% litter treatment). Voluntary intake was increased by molasses, ...

  18. Duodenal Derotation and Extent Tapering Jejunoplasty as Primary Repair for Neonates With High Jejunal Atresia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Cheng Luo

    2010-10-01

    Conclusion: In very proximal high atresia, the extent of tapering is limited by the proximity of the ligament of Treitz. Duodenal derotation provides better access to the high atresia. The results of this limited experience suggest that the DDETJ procedure could provide an alternative therapy in patients with high jejunal atresia.

  19. Efficacy of helical CT in evaluating local tumor extent of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, Yutaka

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify the diagnostic accuracy of helical CT (HCT) in the determination of local tumor extent of breast cancer. One hundred forty consecutive patients with breast cancer, including 87 invasive ductal carcinomas without extensive intraductal components (EIC), 44 invasive ductal carcinomas with EIC, 2 non-invasive ductal carcinomas, and 7 invasive lobular carcinomas, were included in the study. Three-dimensional tumor diameter including whole extent was measured on HCT, and the amount of invasion to fat tissue, skin, pectoral muscle, and chest wall was estimated using a three-step scale. These results were then compared with the pathological findings. Breast cancers appeared as areas of high attenuation compared with the surrounding breast tissue in all patients. Tumor extent was correctly diagnosed by HCT to within a maximum difference of 1 cm in 88 patients (63%) and within 2 cm in 122 patients (87%). Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy in diagnosing muscular invasion of breast cancer using HCT were 100%, 99%, and 99%, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy in diagnosing skin invasion of breast cancer using HCT were 84%, 93%, and 91%, respectively. HCT was able to visualize all of the tumors and detect the correct tumor extent in most patients. (author)

  20. Efficacy of helical CT in evaluating local tumor extent of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozaki, Yutaka [Juntendo Univ., Chiba (Japan). Urayasu Hospital

    2001-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify the diagnostic accuracy of helical CT (HCT) in the determination of local tumor extent of breast cancer. One hundred forty consecutive patients with breast cancer, including 87 invasive ductal carcinomas without extensive intraductal components (EIC), 44 invasive ductal carcinomas with EIC, 2 non-invasive ductal carcinomas, and 7 invasive lobular carcinomas, were included in the study. Three-dimensional tumor diameter including whole extent was measured on HCT, and the amount of invasion to fat tissue, skin, pectoral muscle, and chest wall was estimated using a three-step scale. These results were then compared with the pathological findings. Breast cancers appeared as areas of high attenuation compared with the surrounding breast tissue in all patients. Tumor extent was correctly diagnosed by HCT to within a maximum difference of 1 cm in 88 patients (63%) and within 2 cm in 122 patients (87%). Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy in diagnosing muscular invasion of breast cancer using HCT were 100%, 99%, and 99%, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy in diagnosing skin invasion of breast cancer using HCT were 84%, 93%, and 91%, respectively. HCT was able to visualize all of the tumors and detect the correct tumor extent in most patients. (author)

  1. The visual extent of an object: suppose we know the object locations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uijlings, J.R.R.; Smeulders, A.W.M.; Scha, R.J.H.

    2012-01-01

    The visual extent of an object reaches beyond the object itself. This is a long standing fact in psychology and is reflected in image retrieval techniques which aggregate statistics from the whole image in order to identify the object within. However, it is unclear to what degree and how the visual

  2. 41 CFR 102-118.60 - To what extent must my agency use electronic commerce?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... agency use electronic commerce? 102-118.60 Section 102-118.60 Public Contracts and Property Management... Services § 102-118.60 To what extent must my agency use electronic commerce? Your agency must use electronic commerce in all areas of your transportation program. This includes the use of electronic systems...

  3. Less ice on the Baltic reduces the extent of hypoxic bottom waters and sedimentary phosphorus release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermaat, J.E.; Bouwer, L.M.

    2009-01-01

    A significant relation was established between the maximum extent of sea ice covering the Baltic Sea and the hypoxic area in the deeper parts of the Baltic Proper, with a lag of 2 years: for the period 1970-2000, less ice was correlated with a smaller anoxic area. At the same time, maximum ice

  4. A curve fitting approach to estimate the extent of fermentation of indigestible carbohydrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, H.; Weening, D.; Jonkers, E.; Boer, T.; Stellaard, F.; Small, A. C.; Preston, T.; Vonk, R. J.; Priebe, M. G.

    2008-01-01

    Background Information about the extent of carbohydrate digestion and fermentation is critical to our ability to explore the metabolic effects of carbohydrate fermentation in vivo. We used cooked (13)C-labelled barley kernels, which are rich in indigestible carbohydrates, to develop a method which

  5. Northern Alaskan land surface response to reduced Arctic sea ice extent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, Matthew E. [University of Colorado, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, Boulder, CO (United States); Cassano, John J. [University of Colorado, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2012-05-15

    With Arctic sea ice extent at near-record lows, an improved understanding of the relationship between sea ice and the land surface is warranted. We examine the land surface response to changing sea ice by first conducting a simulation using the Community Atmospheric Model version 3.1 with end of the twenty-first century sea ice extent. This future atmospheric response is then used to force the Weather and Research Forecasting Model version 3.1 to examine the terrestrial land surface response at high resolution over the North Slope of Alaska. Similar control simulations with twentieth century sea ice projections are also performed, and in both simulations only sea ice extent is altered. In the future sea ice extent experiment, atmospheric temperature increases significantly due to increases in latent and sensible heat flux, particularly in the winter season. Precipitation and snow pack increase significantly, and the increased snow pack contributes to warmer soil temperatures for most seasons by insulating the land surface. In the summer, however, soil temperatures are reduced due to increased albedo. Despite warmer near-surface atmospheric temperatures, it is found that spring melt is delayed throughout much of the North Slope due to the increased snow pack, and the growing season length is shortened. (orig.)

  6. DOD Service Academies. Update on Extent of Sexual Harassment. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. National Security and International Affairs Div.

    This report provides an update on the nature and extent of sexual harassment at the three Department of Defense (DOD) service academies. It is based on a stratified random survey of 430 Military Academy cadets, 470 Naval Academy midshipmen, and 428 Air Force Academy cadets, which oversampled women to ensure that a statistically significant number…

  7. The effects of curvature on haptic judgments of extent in sighted and blind people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heller, Morton A.; Kappers, Astrid M L; McCarthy, Melissa; Clark, Ashley; Riddle, Tara; Fulkerson, Erin; Wemple, Lindsay; Walk, Anne McClure; Basso, Andreana; Wanek, Crystal; Russler, Kristen

    2008-01-01

    A series of experiments was carried out to examine the effect of curvature on haptic judgments of extent in sighted and blind individuals. Experiment 1 showed that diameters connecting the endpoints of semicircular lines were underestimated with respect to straight lines, but failed to show an

  8. Economical benzene emission reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuetz, R.

    1999-01-01

    Benzene has been classified as a toxic compound under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act. This has prompted the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (AEUB) to introduce specific reporting and monitoring guidelines for the oil and gas industry regarding excessive benzene emissions. Glycol dehydration units have been determined to be the major single source of benzene emissions causing air and soil pollution. DualTank Corp. has designed a condensation and storage tank unit to enhance emission reduction, odour elimination and liquid recovery from dehydration units. Their newly designed combined tank unit consists of a large, uninsulated surface area for cooling, and an excessive internal volume for increased retention time. The first prototype was installed in December 1998 at an Enerplus Resources Site. The system provides excellent benzene emission reduction and the elimination of odours and visual plumes. Effective January 1, 1999, the petroleum and natural gas industry must either clean up excessive emissions voluntarily or face government imposed regulations, facility shutdowns and/or fines. 1 fig

  9. LOFT data reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, N.L.

    1975-08-01

    The Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) Facility is an experimental facility built around a ''scaled'' version of a large pressurized water reactor (LPWR). LOFT will be used to run loss-of-coolant experiments (LOCEs) and to acquire the necessary data required ''to evaluate the adequacy and improve the analytical methods currently used to predict the loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) response of LPWRs'' and ''to identify and investigate any unexpected event(s) or threshold(s) in the response of either the plant or the engineered safety features and develop analytical techniques that adequately describe and account for the unexpected behavior(s)''. During the LOCE this required data will be acquired and recorded in both analog and digital modes. Subsequent to the test the analog data will also be converted to the raw digital mode. This raw digital data will be converted to the desired engineering units using the LOFT Data Reduction System. This system is implemented on the IBM 360/75 and is a part of a commercially available data processing program called MAC/RAN III. The theory of reducing LOFT data to engineering units and the application of the MAC/ RAN III system to accomplish this reduction is given. (auth)

  10. Islam and harm reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarulzaman, A; Saifuddeen, S M

    2010-03-01

    Although drugs are haram and therefore prohibited in Islam, illicit drug use is widespread in many Islamic countries throughout the world. In the last several years increased prevalence of this problem has been observed in many of these countries which has in turn led to increasing injecting drug use driven HIV/AIDS epidemic across the Islamic world. Whilst some countries have recently responded to the threat through the implementation of harm reduction programmes, many others have been slow to respond. In Islam, The Quran and the Prophetic traditions or the Sunnah are the central sources of references for the laws and principles that guide the Muslims' way of life and by which policies and guidelines for responses including that of contemporary social and health problems can be derived. The preservation and protection of the dignity of man, and steering mankind away from harm and destruction are central to the teachings of Islam. When viewed through the Islamic principles of the preservation and protection of the faith, life, intellect, progeny and wealth, harm reduction programmes are permissible and in fact provide a practical solution to a problem that could result in far greater damage to the society at large if left unaddressed. Copyright (c) 2009. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Emergency planning zone reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, C.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the process used by a large industrial Department of Energy (DOE) site to communicate changing hazards to its stakeholders and install the confidence necessary to implement the resulting emergency planning changes. Over the last decade as the sites missions have shifted from full-scale production to a greater emphasis on environmental restoration and waste management, the off-site threat from its operations has substantially decreased. The challenge was to clearly communicate the reduced hazards, install confidence in the technical analysis that documented the hazard reduction, and obtain stakeholder buy-in on the path forward to change the emergency management program. The most significant change to the emergency management program was the proposed reduction of the sites Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ). As the EPZ is defined as an area for which planning is needed to protect the public in the event of an accident, the process became politically challenging. An overview of how the site initially approached this problem and then learned to more substantially involve the state and local emergency preparedness agencies and the local Citizens Advisory Board will be presented. (author)

  12. Inability to determine tissue health is main indication of allograft use in intermediate extent burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, John L; Cancio, Leopoldo C; Sinha, Indranil; Leung, Kai P; Renz, Evan M; Chan, Rodney K

    2015-12-01

    Cutaneous allograft is commonly used in the early coverage of excised burns when autograft is unavailable. However, allograft is also applied in intermediate-extent burns (25-50%), during cases in which it is possible to autograft. In this population, there is a paucity of data on the indications for allograft use. This study explores the indications for allograft usage in moderate size burns. Under an IRB-approved protocol, patients admitted to our burn unit between March 2003 and December 2010 were identified through a review of the burn registry. Data on allograft use, total burn surface area, operation performed, operative intent, number of operations, intensive care unit length of stay, and overall length of stay were collected and analyzed. Data are presented as means±standard deviations, except where noted. In the study period, 146 patients received allograft during their acute hospitalization. Twenty-five percent of allograft recipients sustained intermediate-extent burns. Patients with intermediate-extent burns received allograft later in their hospitalization than those with large-extent (50-75% TBSA) burns (6.8 days vs. 3.4 days, p=0.01). Allografted patients with intermediate-extent burns underwent more operations (10.8 vs. 6.1, p=0.002) and had longer hospitalizations (78.3 days vs. 40.9 days, ppatients, when controlled for TBSA. Clinical rationale for placement of allograft in this population included autograft failure, uncertain depth of excision, lack of autograft donor site, and wound complexity. When uncertain depth of excision was the indication, allograft was universally applied onto the face. In half of allografted intermediate-extent burn patients the inability to identify a viable recipient bed was the ultimate reason for allograft use. Unlike large body surface area burns, allograft skin use in intermediate-extent injury occurs later in the hospitalization and is driven by the inability to determine wound bed suitability for autograft

  13. Amplification volume reduction on DNA database samples using FTA™ Classic Cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Hang Yee; Lim, Eng Seng Simon; Tan-Siew, Wai Fun

    2012-03-01

    The DNA forensic community always strives towards improvements in aspects such as sensitivity, robustness, and efficacy balanced with cost efficiency. Therefore our laboratory decided to study the feasibility of PCR amplification volume reduction using DNA entrapped in FTA™ Classic Card and to bring cost savings to the laboratory. There were a few concerns the laboratory needed to address. First, the kinetics of the amplification reaction could be significantly altered. Second, an increase in sensitivity might affect interpretation due to increased stochastic effects even though they were pristine samples. Third, statics might cause FTA punches to jump out of its allocated well into another thus causing sample-to-sample contamination. Fourth, the size of the punches might be too small for visual inspection. Last, there would be a limit to the extent of volume reduction due to evaporation and the possible need of re-injection of samples for capillary electrophoresis. The laboratory had successfully optimized a reduced amplification volume of 10 μL for FTA samples. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Reduction operators of Burgers equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocheketa, Oleksandr A; Popovych, Roman O

    2013-02-01

    The solution of the problem on reduction operators and nonclassical reductions of the Burgers equation is systematically treated and completed. A new proof of the theorem on the special "no-go" case of regular reduction operators is presented, and the representation of the coefficients of operators in terms of solutions of the initial equation is constructed for this case. All possible nonclassical reductions of the Burgers equation to single ordinary differential equations are exhaustively described. Any Lie reduction of the Burgers equation proves to be equivalent via the Hopf-Cole transformation to a parameterized family of Lie reductions of the linear heat equation.

  15. Extent and distribution of skeletal muscle necrosis after graded periods of complete ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labbe, R.; Lindsay, T.; Walker, P.M.

    1987-01-01

    The management of an acutely ischemic extremity requires knowledge of the response of skeletal muscle (the largest component of the lower limb) to prolonged periods of complete normothermic ischemia. We have used the canine gracilis muscle model to evaluate the extent and distribution of ischemic necrosis after 3 and 5 hours of ischemia and 48 hours of reperfusion. Each muscle was cut into six slices, and the extent and distribution of postischemic necrosis identified by means of nitroblue tetrazolium staining and 99mTc pyrophosphate uptake. After 3, 4, and 5 hours of ischemia the extent of necrosis was 2.0% +/- 0.9%, 30.3% +/- 6.0%, and 90.1% +/- 3.5% (mean +/- SEM), respectively. A statistically significant correlation exists between the extent of necrosis and the uptake of 99mTc pyrophosphate uptake per gram of tissue (y = 1574.9x - 8.4, r = 0.84, p less than 0.001). Most necrosis was centrally located and found in the thickest portion of the muscle. We conclude that there is a graded response in the extent of skeletal muscle necrosis related to the length of ischemic stress rather than an ''all-or-none'' phenomenon. This central distribution of necrosis makes the usual external evaluation of ischemic damage clinically unreliable. In addition, since there was no enveloping fascia in this model, a compartment release alone may not prevent the development of skeletal muscle necrosis. This knowledge of the response of skeletal muscle to ischemia may lead to an improved clinical approach to an extremity suffering a prolonged ischemic insult

  16. Automated Snow Extent Mapping Based on Orthophoto Images from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedzielski, Tomasz; Spallek, Waldemar; Witek-Kasprzak, Matylda

    2018-04-01

    The paper presents the application of the k-means clustering in the process of automated snow extent mapping using orthophoto images generated using the Structure-from-Motion (SfM) algorithm from oblique aerial photographs taken by unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). A simple classification approach has been implemented to discriminate between snow-free and snow-covered terrain. The procedure uses the k-means clustering and classifies orthophoto images based on the three-dimensional space of red-green-blue (RGB) or near-infrared-red-green (NIRRG) or near-infrared-green-blue (NIRGB) bands. To test the method, several field experiments have been carried out, both in situations when snow cover was continuous and when it was patchy. The experiments have been conducted using three fixed-wing UAVs (swinglet CAM by senseFly, eBee by senseFly, and Birdie by FlyTech UAV) on 10/04/2015, 23/03/2016, and 16/03/2017 within three test sites in the Izerskie Mountains in southwestern Poland. The resulting snow extent maps, produced automatically using the classification method, have been validated against real snow extents delineated through a visual analysis and interpretation offered by human analysts. For the simplest classification setup, which assumes two classes in the k-means clustering, the extent of snow patches was estimated accurately, with areal underestimation of 4.6% (RGB) and overestimation of 5.5% (NIRGB). For continuous snow cover with sparse discontinuities at places where trees or bushes protruded from snow, the agreement between automatically produced snow extent maps and observations was better, i.e. 1.5% (underestimation with RGB) and 0.7-0.9% (overestimation, either with RGB or with NIRRG). Shadows on snow were found to be mainly responsible for the misclassification.

  17. Assimilation of flood extent data with 2D flood inundation models for localised intense rainfall events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, J. C.; Wood, M.; Bermúdez, M.; Hostache, R.; Freer, J. E.; Bates, P. D.; Coxon, G.

    2017-12-01

    Remote sensing of flood inundation extent has long been a potential source of data for constraining and correcting simulations of floodplain inundation. Hydrodynamic models and the computing resources to run them have developed to the extent that simulation of flood inundation in two-dimensional space is now feasible over large river basins in near real-time. However, despite substantial evidence that there is useful information content within inundation extent data, even from low resolution SAR such as that gathered by Envisat ASAR in wide swath mode, making use of the information in a data assimilation system has proved difficult. He we review recent applications of the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) and Particle Filter for assimilating SAR data, with a focus on the River Severn UK and compare these with complementary research that has looked at the internal error sources and boundary condition errors using detailed terrestrial data that is not available in most locations. Previous applications of the EnKF to this reach have focused on upstream boundary conditions as the source of flow error, however this description of errors was too simplistic for the simulation of summer flood events where localised intense rainfall can be substantial. Therefore, we evaluate the introduction of uncertain lateral inflows to the ensemble. A further limitation of the existing EnKF based methods is the need to convert flood extent to water surface elevations by intersecting the shoreline location with a high quality digital elevation model (e.g. LiDAR). To simplify this data processing step, we evaluate a method to directly assimilate inundation extent as a EnKF model state rather than assimilating water heights, potentially allowing the scheme to be used where high-quality terrain data are sparse.

  18. Mediatised affective activism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reestorff, Camilla Møhring

    2014-01-01

    bodies by addressing affective registers. The mediatised ‘affective environment’ (Massumi, 2009) cues bodies and generates spreadability, yet it also produces disconnections. These disconnections might redistribute the ‘economy of recognizability’ (Butler and Athanasiou, 2013); however, the Femen...

  19. Moving in the Anthropocene: Global reductions in terrestrial mammalian movements

    OpenAIRE

    Boehning-Gaese, Katrin; Fagan, William F.; Fryxell, John M.; Van Moorter, Bram; Alberts, Susan C.; Ali, Abdullahi H.; Allen, Andrew M.; Attias, Nina; Avgar, Tal; Bartlam-Brooks, Hattie; Bayarbaatar, Buuveibaatar; Belant, Jerrold L.; Bertassoni, Alessandra; Beyer, Dean; Bidner, Laura

    2018-01-01

    Animal movement is fundamental for ecosystem functioning and species survival, yet the effects of the anthropogenic footprint on animal movements have not been estimated across species. Using a unique GPS-tracking database of 803 individuals across 57 species, we found that movements of mammals in areas with a comparatively high human footprint were on average one-half to one-third the extent of their movements in areas with a low human footprint. We attribute this reduction to behavioral cha...

  20. Monkeys preferentially process body information while viewing affective displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Moadab, Gilda; Machado, Christopher J

    2017-08-01

    Despite evolutionary claims about the function of facial behaviors across phylogeny, rarely are those hypotheses tested in a comparative context-that is, by evaluating how nonhuman animals process such behaviors. Further, while increasing evidence indicates that humans make meaning of faces by integrating contextual information, including that from the body, the extent to which nonhuman animals process contextual information during affective displays is unknown. In the present study, we evaluated the extent to which rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) process dynamic affective displays of conspecifics that included both facial and body behaviors. Contrary to hypotheses that they would preferentially attend to faces during affective displays, monkeys looked for longest, most frequently, and first at conspecifics' bodies rather than their heads. These findings indicate that macaques, like humans, attend to available contextual information during the processing of affective displays, and that the body may also be providing unique information about affective states. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Kinetics of uncatalyzed thermochemical sulfate reduction by sulfur-free paraffin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tongwei; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Ma, Qisheng; Amrani, Alon; Tang, Yongchun

    2012-01-01

    To determine kinetic parameters of sulfate reduction by hydrocarbons (HC) without the initial presence of low valence sulfur, we carried out a series of isothermal gold-tube hydrous-pyrolysis experiments at 320, 340, and 360 °C under a constant confined pressure of 24.1 MPa. The reactants used consisted of saturated HC (sulfur-free) and CaSO4 in an aqueous solution buffered to three different pH conditions without the addition of elemental sulfur (S8) or H2S as initiators. H2S produced in the course of reaction was proportional to the extent of the reduction of CaSO4 that was initially the only sulfur-containing reactant. Our results show that the in situ pH of the aqueous solution (herein, in situ pH refers to the calculated pH value of the aqueous solution at certain experimental conditions) can significantly affect the rate of the thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR) reaction. A substantial increase in the TSR reaction rate was observed with a decrease in the in situ pH. Our experimental results show that uncatalyzed TSR is a first-order reaction. The temperature dependence of experimentally measured H2S yields from sulfate reduction was fit with the Arrhenius equation. The determined activation energy for HC (sulfur-free) reacting with View the MathML sourceHSO4− in our experiments is 246.6 kJ/mol at pH values ranging from 3.0 to 3.5, which is slightly higher than the theoretical value of 227.0 kJ/mol using ab initio quantum chemical calculations on a similar reaction. Although the availability of reactive sulfate significantly affects the rate of reaction, a consistent rate constant was determined by accounting for the HSO4− ion concentration. Our experimental and theoretical approach to the determination of the kinetics of TSR is further validated by a reevaluation of several published experimental TSR datasets without the initial presence of native sulfur or H2S. When the effect of reactive sulfate concentration is appropriately accounted for, the

  2. To what extent have high schools in California been able to implement state-mandated nutrition standards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Sarah E; Bullock, Sally Lawrence; Woodward-Lopez, Gail; Clark, Sarah E; Kao, Janice; Craypo, Lisa; Barry, Jay; Crawford, Patricia B

    2009-09-01

    To determine extent and factors associated with implementation of California's school nutrition standards 1 year after standards became active. Information on competitive foods and beverages available in schools was collected from a representative sample of 56 public high schools in California. Adherence to nutrition standards was calculated for each item and summarized for each school by venue. The association between schools' sociodemographic characteristics and adherence to standards was determined by multivariate analysis. The majority of schools were adhering to the required beverage standards. None of the schools selling competitive foods were 100% adherent to the food standards. Adherence to both standards tended to be highest in food service venues. In univariate analyses, percent nonwhite enrollment, population density, percent free/reduced-price (FRP) meal eligibility, and school size were significantly correlated with the beverage adherence rate. Percent nonwhite enrollment and population density remained significant in the multivariate regression model. Percent nonwhite enrollment and percent FRP meal eligibility were significantly correlated with the food adherence rate in univariate analysis, but neither remained significant in the multiple regression model. California high schools are making progress toward implementation of the state nutrition standards. Beverage standards appear easier to achieve than nutrient-based food standards. Additional support is needed to provide schools with resources to implement and monitor these policies. Simpler standards and/or a reduction in the foods and beverages sold could better enable schools to achieve and monitor adherence.

  3. The role of empowerment and quality of life in depression severity among unemployed people with affective disorders receiving mental healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanson, Suzanne; Bejerholm, Ulrika

    2017-09-01

    Sick leave and unemployment are highly prevalent among people with affective disorders. Their depression severity is disabling and inversely related to having employment. No evidence-based vocational rehabilitation exists for this target group. Knowledge is therefore needed to understand the psychosocial factors that affect depression severity in order to develop new rehabilitation interventions. This study examined relationships between depression severity and empowerment, working life aspirations, occupational engagement, and quality of life in unemployed people with affective disorders receiving mental healthcare. In this cross-sectional study of 61 participants, instruments on psychosocial factors and questions on descriptive sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were administered. Descriptive, correlation, and regression statistics were applied. Correlation and regression analyses showed significant inverse relations between depression severity and empowerment and quality of life. The odds for more severe depression decreased with higher empowerment and quality of life. However, neither extent of engagement in daily life nor working life aspiration was related to depression severity. An empowerment approach and strategies, which support the quality of life, are needed in development of vocational rehabilitation interventions, and bridging of mental healthcare and vocational services. Implications for Rehabilitation Enhancing empowerment and quality life in the return to work process can decrease depression severity in unemployed people with affective disorder. There is a need to address work issues in addition to symptom reduction in primary and mental healthcare. Bridging the service and time gap between vocational rehabilitation and healthcare is recommended for mitigating long-term unemployment for people with affective disorders who want to work.

  4. Oxygen Reduction on Platinum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nesselberger, Markus

    . The influence of the ion adsorption strength, which is observed in the “particle size studies” on the oxygen reduction rate on Pt/C catalysts, is further investigated under similar reaction conditions by infrared spectroscopy. The designed in situ electrochemical ATR-FTIR setup features a high level...... of instrument automation and online data treatment, and provides welldefined mass transport conditions enabling kinetic measurements. A modified electrochemical / spectroscopic interface is presented allowing the exclusive investigation of the Pt/C catalyst layer. Three types of potential dependent adsorption...... adsorption on Pt does not block the ORR directly. Instead, the onset of oxide formation with the concomitant conversion of the anion adsorbate layer is the decisive blocking mechanism....

  5. Multiple gas reduction strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Kurosawa [Institute of Applied Energy, Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    Future global warming has a close relationship with the abatement potential of six greenhouse gases (GHGs), including carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). Therefore, multiple gas reduction flexibility should be assessed. The emission of each non-CO{sub 2} GHG is calculated endogenously by the sum of the product of the emission factor and the endogenous activity index using an integrated assessment model, GRAPE (Global Relationship Assessment to Protect the Environment). The model consists of five modules dealing with issues on energy, climate, land use, macroeconomics and environmental impacts. The uncertainty in the non-CO{sub 2} GHG emission inventory and emission factors is discussed. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Minimal Reducts with Grasp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Iddaly Mendez Gurrola

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The proper detection of patient level of dementia is important to offer the suitable treatment. The diagnosis is based on certain criteria, reflected in the clinical examinations. From these examinations emerge the limitations and the degree in which each patient is in. In order to reduce the total of limitations to be evaluated, we used the rough set theory, this theory has been applied in areas of the artificial intelligence such as decision analysis, expert systems, knowledge discovery, classification with multiple attributes. In our case this theory is applied to find the minimal limitations set or reduct that generate the same classification that considering all the limitations, to fulfill this purpose we development an algorithm GRASP (Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure.

  7. Aircraft engine pollution reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of engine operation on the types and levels of the major aircraft engine pollutants is described and the major factors governing the formation of these pollutants during the burning of hydrocarbon fuel are discussed. Methods which are being explored to reduce these pollutants are discussed and their application to several experimental research programs are pointed out. Results showing significant reductions in the levels of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen obtained from experimental combustion research programs are presented and discussed to point out potential application to aircraft engines. An experimental program designed to develop and demonstrate these and other advanced, low pollution combustor design methods is described. Results that have been obtained to date indicate considerable promise for reducing advanced engine exhaust pollutants to levels significantly below current engines.

  8. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) Information 6 Things You ... Disease and Dementia (12/20/13) Research Spotlights Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction, Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Shown To ...

  9. Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Labs and Research Centers Radon Contact Us Share Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction: How to Fix Your ... See EPA’s About PDF page to learn more. Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction: How to Fix Your ...

  10. Confluence reduction for Markov automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, Mark; Katoen, Joost P.; van de Pol, Jaco; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette

    2016-01-01

    Markov automata are a novel formalism for specifying systems exhibiting nondeterminism, probabilistic choices and Markovian rates. As expected, the state space explosion threatens the analysability of these models. We therefore introduce confluence reduction for Markov automata, a powerful reduction

  11. Hazardous material reduction initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, D.H.

    1995-02-01

    The Hazardous Material Reduction Initiative (HMRI) explores using the review of purchase requisitions to reduce both the use of hazardous materials and the generation of regulated and nonregulated wastes. Based on an 11-month program implemented at the Hanford Site, hazardous material use and waste generation was effectively reduced by using a centralized procurement control program known as HMRI. As expected, several changes to the original proposal were needed during the development/testing phase of the program to accommodate changing and actual conditions found at the Hanford Site. The current method requires a central receiving point within the Procurement Organization to review all purchase requisitions for potentially Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) hazardous products. Those requisitions (approximately 4% to 6% of the total) are then forwarded to Pollution Prevention personnel for evaluation under HMRI. The first step is to determine if the requested item can be filled by existing or surplus material. The requisitions that cannot filled by existing or surplus material are then sorted into two groups based on applicability to the HMRI project. For example, laboratory requests for analytical reagents or standards are excluded and the purchase requisitions are returned to Procurement for normal processing because, although regulated, there is little opportunity for source reduction due to the strict protocols followed. Each item is then checked to determine if it is regulated or not. Regulated items are prioritized based on hazardous contents, quantity requested, and end use. Copies of these requisitions are made and the originals are returned to Procurement within 1-hr. Since changes to the requisition can be made at later stages during procurement, the HMRI fulfills one of its original premises in that it does not slow the procurement process

  12. Dose Reduction Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WAGGONER, L.O.

    2000-01-01

    As radiation safety specialists, one of the things we are required to do is evaluate tools, equipment, materials and work practices and decide whether the use of these products or work practices will reduce radiation dose or risk to the environment. There is a tendency for many workers that work with radioactive material to accomplish radiological work the same way they have always done it rather than look for new technology or change their work practices. New technology is being developed all the time that can make radiological work easier and result in less radiation dose to the worker or reduce the possibility that contamination will be spread to the environment. As we discuss the various tools and techniques that reduce radiation dose, keep in mind that the radiological controls should be reasonable. We can not always get the dose to zero, so we must try to accomplish the work efficiently and cost-effectively. There are times we may have to accept there is only so much you can do. The goal is to do the smart things that protect the worker but do not hinder him while the task is being accomplished. In addition, we should not demand that large amounts of money be spent for equipment that has marginal value in order to save a few millirem. We have broken the handout into sections that should simplify the presentation. Time, distance, shielding, and source reduction are methods used to reduce dose and are covered in Part I on work execution. We then look at operational considerations, radiological design parameters, and discuss the characteristics of personnel who deal with ALARA. This handout should give you an overview of what it takes to have an effective dose reduction program

  13. Dose Reduction Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WAGGONER, L.O.

    2000-05-16

    As radiation safety specialists, one of the things we are required to do is evaluate tools, equipment, materials and work practices and decide whether the use of these products or work practices will reduce radiation dose or risk to the environment. There is a tendency for many workers that work with radioactive material to accomplish radiological work the same way they have always done it rather than look for new technology or change their work practices. New technology is being developed all the time that can make radiological work easier and result in less radiation dose to the worker or reduce the possibility that contamination will be spread to the environment. As we discuss the various tools and techniques that reduce radiation dose, keep in mind that the radiological controls should be reasonable. We can not always get the dose to zero, so we must try to accomplish the work efficiently and cost-effectively. There are times we may have to accept there is only so much you can do. The goal is to do the smart things that protect the worker but do not hinder him while the task is being accomplished. In addition, we should not demand that large amounts of money be spent for equipment that has marginal value in order to save a few millirem. We have broken the handout into sections that should simplify the presentation. Time, distance, shielding, and source reduction are methods used to reduce dose and are covered in Part I on work execution. We then look at operational considerations, radiological design parameters, and discuss the characteristics of personnel who deal with ALARA. This handout should give you an overview of what it takes to have an effective dose reduction program.

  14. Affectivity in the Liminal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn

    In this paper I propose a return to the work of Arnold van Gennep, in order to briefly discuss how the terms of liminality and affectivity were always already connected. By linking the concept of liminality that van Gennep made famous to affectivity, we are actually not proposing new...... at the threshold. The paper contains three sections: a) liminality and affectivity in van Gennep’s life; b) liminality and affectivity as a theme in his work; c) liminality and affectivity as developed in the early reception of his work....

  15. Assessment of the depth and extent of myometrial invasion in uterine adenomyosis using MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Mi Gyung; Cho, Jae Ho; Chang, Jay Chun; Park, Bok Hwan

    2000-01-01

    To determine the detection rate of MRI in the diagnosis of adenomyosis and ascertain the accuracy of MRI in assessing the extent and depth of the myometrial invasion. By retrospective analysis of MR images of the pelvis in 65 pathologically proven cases of uterine adenomyosis, we investigated the detection rate and differences of in the detection rate when this was based on (a) the extent, and (b) the depth of myometrial invasion. The condition was classified as diffuse or focal according to the extent of invasion, and mild, moderate, or severe according to its depth. Pathologically, there were 35 cases of focal adenomyosis (53.8%), and 30 of diffuse adenomyosis (46.2%). Among patients with the focal variety of this condition, 12 cases were mild, 14 were mild, 14 were moderate, and nine were severe, while among those with the diffuse variety, two were mild, ten were moderate and 18 were severe. A total of 48 cases (73.8%) were detected on MR images; the detection rate of focal adenomyosis was 60.0% (21/35) and that of diffuse adenomyosis was 90.0% (27/30). The detection rates of mild, moderate, and severe adenomyosis were 42.9% (6/14), 79.2% (19/24), and 85.2% (23/27), respectively. Among the 48 cases detected on MR images, the pathologic and MR findings were consistent with regard to both the extent and depth of myometrial invasion in 26 (54.2%). For diffuse adenomyosis, the consistency rate was higher than for the focal variety (81.5%, 22/27; compared with 19%, 4/21). The extent of myometrial invasion was correctly evaluated in 32 cases (66.7%); the consistency rate for the diffuse form was higher than for the focal form (96.3%(26/27), compared with 28.6% (6/21)). In 42 cases (87.5%), the depth of invasion was correctly evaluated, though differences in this depth were not significant. MR imaging was a useful imaging modality in the diagnosis of uterine adenomyosis. With regard to the extent of myometrial invasion, the detection rate was higher among cases of the

  16. Model reduction for the dynamics and control of large structural systems via neutral network processing direct numerical optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becus, Georges A.; Chan, Alistair K.

    1993-01-01

    Three neural network processing approaches in a direct numerical optimization model reduction scheme are proposed and investigated. Large structural systems, such as large space structures, offer new challenges to both structural dynamicists and control engineers. One such challenge is that of dimensionality. Indeed these distributed parameter systems can be modeled either by infinite dimensional mathematical models (typically partial differential equations) or by high dimensional discrete models (typically finite element models) often exhibiting thousands of vibrational modes usually closely spaced and with little, if any, damping. Clearly, some form of model reduction is in order, especially for the control engineer who can actively control but a few of the modes using system identification based on a limited number of sensors. Inasmuch as the amount of 'control spillover' (in which the control inputs excite the neglected dynamics) and/or 'observation spillover' (where neglected dynamics affect system identification) is to a large extent determined by the choice of particular reduced model (RM), the way in which this model reduction is carried out is often critical.

  17. Engaging in Affective Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galløe, Lotte Rannveig

    schools, the paper develops an affective-power approach drawing on Foucault’s notion of power and Whetherell’s conceptualisation of affect. The approach captures the affective dimension of governing and resistance in interactional practice that engages teachers and pupils. This enables a research focus......The paper presents how the merging of the theoretical concepts ‘Affect’ and ‘Power’ faces methodological and ethical challenges when entangled in teachers’ and pupils’ practice. Based on a study of pedagogical methods aiming to shape certain affective relations and avoid conflicts in Danish primary....... Witnessing tense conflict situations taking place I as a researcher get affected as well, and in turn affect the practice myself. Because, both the teacher, pupil, and I are well aware of my research focus on power and affect, being observed in conflictual situations contributes to pervasive shame...

  18. Reduction of hexavalent chromium in water samples acidified for preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stollenwerk, K.G.; Grove, D.B.

    1985-01-01

    Reduction of hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), in water samples, preserved by standard techniques, was investigated. The standard preservation technique for water samples that are to be analyzed for Cr(VI) consists of filtration through a 0.45-??m membrane, acidification to a pH plastic bottles. Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of H+ concentration, NO2, temperature, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) on the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III). The rate of reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) increased with increasing NO2, DOC, H+, and temperature. Reduction of Cr(VI) by organic matter occurred in some samples even though the samples were unacidified. Reduction of Cr(VI) is inhibited to an extent by storing the sample at 4??C. Stability of Cr(VI) in water is variable and depends on the other constituents present in the sample. Water samples collected for the determination of Cr(VI) should be filtered (0.45-??m membrane), refrigerated, and analyzed as quickly as possible. Water samples should not be acidified. Measurement of total Cr in addition to Cr(VI) can serve as a check for Cr(VI) reduction. If total Cr is greater than Cr(VI), the possibility that Cr(VI) reduction has occurred needs to be considered.The rate of reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) increased with increasing NO//2, DOC, H** plus , and temperature. Reduction of Cr(VI) by organic matter occurred in some samples even though the samples were unacidified. Reduction of Cr(VI) is inhibited to an extent by storing the sample at 4 degree C. Stability of Cr(VI) in water is variable and depends on the other constituents present in the sample. Water samples collected for the determination of Cr(VI) should be filtered (0. 45- mu m membrane), refrigerated, and analyzed as quickly as possible. Water samples should not be acidified. Measurement of total Cr in addition to Cr(VI) can serve as a check for Cr(VI) reduction. If total Cr is greater than Cr(VI), the possibility that Cr(VI) reduction has occurred needs

  19. Alcohol harm reduction in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herring, Rachel; Betsy, Thom; Beccaria, Franca

    2010-01-01

    The EMCDDA’s 10th scientific monograph, entitled Harm reduction: evidence, impacts and challenges provides a comprehensive overview of the harm reduction field. Part I of the monograph looks back at the emergence of harm reduction approaches and their diffusion, and explores the concept from diff...

  20. Manipulating affective state influences conditioned appetitive responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaudova, Inna; Krypotos, Angelos-Miltiadis; Effting, Marieke; Kindt, Merel; Beckers, Tom

    2017-10-06

    Affective states influence how individuals process information and behave. Some theories predict emotional congruency effects (e.g. preferential processing of negative information in negative affective states). Emotional congruency should theoretically obstruct the learning of reward associations (appetitive learning) and their ability to guide behaviour under negative mood. Two studies tested the effects of the induction of a negative affective state on appetitive Pavlovian learning, in which neutral stimuli were associated with chocolate (Experiment 1) or alcohol (Experiment 2) rewards. In both experiments, participants showed enhanced approach tendencies towards predictors of reward after a negative relative to a positive performance feedback manipulation. This increase was related to a reduction in positive affect in Experiment 1 only. No effects of the manipulation on conditioned reward expectancies, craving, or consumption were observed. Overall, our findings support the idea of counter-regulation, rather than emotional congruency effects. Negative affective states might therefore serve as a vulnerability factor for addiction, through increasing conditioned approach tendencies.

  1. Strategic environmental assessment in tourism planning - Extent of application and quality of documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho Lemos, Clara, E-mail: clara@sc.usp.br [Environmental Engineering Science, Engineering School of Sao Carlos, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Trabalhador Saocarlense, 400, Caixa Postal 292, Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo, 13566-590 (Brazil); Fischer, Thomas B., E-mail: fischer@liverpool.ac.uk [Department of Civic Design, University of Liverpool, 74 Bedford Street South, Liverpool, L69 7ZQ (United Kingdom); Pereira Souza, Marcelo, E-mail: mps@usp.br [Environmental Engineering Science, Engineering School of Sao Carlos, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Trabalhador Saocarlense, 400, Caixa Postal 292, Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo, 13566-590 (Brazil)

    2012-07-15

    Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) has been applied throughout the world in different sectors and in various ways. This paper reports on results of a PhD research on SEA applied to tourism development planning, reflecting the situation in mid-2010. First, the extent of tourism specific SEA application world-wide is established. Then, based on a review of the quality of 10 selected SEA reports, good practice, as well as challenges, trends and opportunities for tourism specific SEA are identified. Shortcomings of SEA in tourism planning are established and implications for future research are outlined. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The extent of tourism specific SEA practice is identified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Selected SEA/Tourism reports are evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SEA application to tourism planning is still limited. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A number of shortcomings can be pointed out.

  2. Strategic environmental assessment in tourism planning — Extent of application and quality of documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho Lemos, Clara; Fischer, Thomas B.; Pereira Souza, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) has been applied throughout the world in different sectors and in various ways. This paper reports on results of a PhD research on SEA applied to tourism development planning, reflecting the situation in mid-2010. First, the extent of tourism specific SEA application world-wide is established. Then, based on a review of the quality of 10 selected SEA reports, good practice, as well as challenges, trends and opportunities for tourism specific SEA are identified. Shortcomings of SEA in tourism planning are established and implications for future research are outlined. - Highlights: ► The extent of tourism specific SEA practice is identified. ► Selected SEA/Tourism reports are evaluated. ► SEA application to tourism planning is still limited. ► A number of shortcomings can be pointed out.

  3. Spatial and Temporal Extent of Ion Spectral Structures at the Inner Edge of the Plasma Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferradas, C.; Reeves, G. D.; Zhang, J.; Spence, H. E.; Kistler, L. M.; Larsen, B.; Skoug, R. M.; Funsten, H. O.

    2017-12-01

    Several ion spectral structures are observed near the inner edge of the plasma sheet and constitute the signatures of ion drift and loss in the highly dynamic environment of the inner magnetosphere. Their study helps us understand ion access and losses in this region. Several studies have found that these structures vary with geomagnetic activity, local time, and ion species, but their spatial and temporal extent remain undetermined. We use data from the Helium, Oxygen, Proton, and Electron (HOPE) mass spectrometers onboard the Van Allen Probes to analyze the spectral structures in the energy range of 1- 50 keV. HOPE measurements on both Van Allen Probes spacecraft enable us to resolve the extent of these ion structures in space and time. As the structures respond to changes in the convection electric field on a variety of time scales, the lapping of the two spacecraft on time scales of minutes to hours helps determine their spatial and temporal evolution.

  4. Role of 5-ALA in improving extent of tumour resection in patients with Glioblastoma Multiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waqas, Muhammad; Khan, Inamullah; Shamim, Muhammad Shahzad

    2017-10-01

    Goal of surgery for patients with Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is gross total resection with no new neurological deficits. Surgical resection is often restricted due the difficulty in differentiating the tumour from surrounding normal brain using either naked eye, or standard intra-operative white light microscopy. GBM uptakes orally administered 5-ALA becomes fluorescent when viewed by a special light, and this property has been used to improve intra-operative tumour identification. This technique should therefore allow better extent of tumour resection. The hypothesis has been tested through several studies and even though most studies are of low quality, they strongly favour the use of 5- ALA in improving the extent of resection when compared to white light microscopy. A systematic review on the topic had a similar conclusion. Few studies have also hinted on a high false negative rate with the use of this technique..

  5. To what extent do food purchases reflect shoppers? diet quality and nutrient intake?

    OpenAIRE

    Appelhans, Bradley M.; French, Simone A.; Tangney, Christy C.; Powell, Lisa M.; Wang, Yamin

    2017-01-01

    Background Food purchasing is considered a key mediator between the food environment and eating behavior, and food purchasing patterns are increasingly measured in epidemiologic and intervention studies. However, the extent to which food purchases actually reflect individuals? dietary intake has not been rigorously tested. This study examined cross-sectional agreement between estimates of diet quality and nutrient densities derived from objectively documented household food purchases and thos...

  6. Extent of linkage disequilibrium in the domestic cat, Felis silvestris catus, and its breeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Alhaddad

    Full Text Available Domestic cats have a unique breeding history and can be used as models for human hereditary and infectious diseases. In the current era of genome-wide association studies, insights regarding linkage disequilibrium (LD are essential for efficient association studies. The objective of this study is to investigate the extent of LD in the domestic cat, Felis silvestris catus, particularly within its breeds. A custom illumina GoldenGate Assay consisting of 1536 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs equally divided over ten 1 Mb chromosomal regions was developed, and genotyped across 18 globally recognized cat breeds and two distinct random bred populations. The pair-wise LD descriptive measure (r(2 was calculated between the SNPs in each region and within each population independently. LD decay was estimated by determining the non-linear least-squares of all pair-wise estimates as a function of distance using established models. The point of 50% decay of r(2 was used to compare the extent of LD between breeds. The longest extent of LD was observed in the Burmese breed, where the distance at which r(2 ≈ 0.25 was ∼380 kb, comparable to several horse and dog breeds. The shortest extent of LD was found in the Siberian breed, with an r(2 ≈ 0.25 at approximately 17 kb, comparable to random bred cats and human populations. A comprehensive haplotype analysis was also conducted. The haplotype structure of each region within each breed mirrored the LD estimates. The LD of cat breeds largely reflects the breeds' population history and breeding strategies. Understanding LD in diverse populations will contribute to an efficient use of the newly developed SNP array for the cat in the design of genome-wide association studies, as well as to the interpretation of results for the fine mapping of disease and phenotypic traits.

  7. The Nature and Extent of Mutational Pleiotropy in Gene Expression of Male Drosophila serrata

    OpenAIRE

    McGuigan, Katrina; Collet, Julie M.; McGraw, Elizabeth A.; Ye, Yixin H.; Allen, Scott L.; Chenoweth, Stephen F.; Blows, Mark W.

    2014-01-01

    The nature and extent of mutational pleiotropy remain largely unknown, despite the central role that pleiotropy plays in many areas of biology, including human disease, agricultural production, and evolution. Here, we investigate the variation in 11,604 gene expression traits among 41 mutation accumulation (MA) lines of Drosophila serrata. We first confirmed that these expression phenotypes were heritable, detecting genetic variation in 96% of them in an outbred, natural population of D. serr...

  8. Genetic Dissection of the Canq1 Locus Governing Variation in Extent of the Collateral Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiliang; Zhang, Hua; Wiltshire, Tim; Sealock, Robert; Faber, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Native (pre-existing) collaterals are arteriole-to-arteriole anastomoses that interconnect adjacent arterial trees and serve as endogenous bypass vessels that limit tissue injury in ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, coronary and peripheral artery disease. Their extent (number and diameter) varies widely among mouse strains and healthy humans. We previously identified a major quantitative trait locus on chromosome 7 (Canq1, LOD = 29) responsible for 37% of the heritable variation in collateral extent between C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice. We sought to identify candidate genes in Canq1 responsible for collateral variation in the cerebral pial circulation, a tissue whose strain-dependent variation is shared by similar variation in other tissues. Methods and Findings Collateral extent was intermediate in a recombinant inbred line that splits Canq1 between the C57BL/6 and BALB/c strains. Phenotyping and SNP-mapping of an expanded panel of twenty-one informative inbred strains narrowed the Canq1 locus, and genome-wide linkage analysis of a SWRxSJL-F2 cross confirmed its haplotype structure. Collateral extent, infarct volume after cerebral artery occlusion, bleeding time, and re-bleeding time did not differ in knockout mice for two vascular-related genes located in Canq1, IL4ra and Itgal. Transcript abundance of 6 out of 116 genes within the 95% confidence interval of Canq1 were differentially expressed >2-fold (p-valuecollateral formation. Conclusions These findings refine the Canq1 locus and identify several genes as high-priority candidates important in specifying native collateral formation and its wide variation. PMID:22412848

  9. Modelling of the effect of discontinuities on the extent of the fracture zone surrounding deep tunnels

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sellers, EJ

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available - ments in sandstone and granite indicate that the breakout shape may be altered by the applied stress path, the strain rate, the boundary conditions and the excavation shape. (Ewy and Cook 1990a, 1990b; Gay 1973; Barla 1972... of sandstone containing cylindrical holes tested under increasing hy- drostatic pressures, up to 275 MPa, indicate that the extent of the fracture zone size increases with increasing pressure, until the entire sample fails (Gay...

  10. Relation between extent of myostatin depletion and muscle growth in mature mice

    OpenAIRE

    Welle, Stephen; Burgess, Kerri; Thornton, Charles A.; Tawil, Rabi

    2009-01-01

    Myostatin is a negative regulator of muscle growth and fiber size. Changes in myostatin expression might contribute to changes in muscle mass associated with various conditions, and reducing the amount of active myostatin is a potential strategy for preventing or reversing muscle atrophy. The present study was done to determine the extent to which myostatin levels must decline to induce growth of mature muscles. Myostatin expression was reduced by activating Cre recombinase in adult mice with...

  11. The Role of Deposition in Limiting the Hazard Extent of Dense-Gas Plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, M B

    2008-01-29

    Accidents involving release of large (multi-ton) quantities of toxic industrial chemicals often yield far fewer fatalities and causalities than standard, widely-used assessment and emergency response models predict. While recent work has suggested that models should incorporate the protection provided by buildings, more refined health effect methodologies, and more detailed consideration of the release process; investigations into the role of deposition onto outdoor surfaces has been lacking. In this paper, we examine the conditions under which dry deposition may significantly reduce the extent of the downwind hazard zone. We provide theoretical arguments that in congested environments (e.g. suburbs, forests), deposition to vertical surfaces (such as building walls) may play a significant role in reducing the hazard zone extent--particularly under low-wind, stable atmospheric conditions which are often considered to be the worst-case scenario for these types of releases. Our analysis suggests that in these urban or suburban environments, the amount of toxic chemicals lost to earth's surface is typically a small fraction of overall depositional losses. For isothermal gases such as chlorine, the degree to which the chemicals stick to (or react with) surfaces (i.e. surface resistance) is demonstrated to be a key parameter controlling hazard extent (the maximum distance from the release at which hazards to human health are expected). This analysis does not consider the depositional effects associated with particulate matter or gases that undergo significant thermal change in the atmosphere. While no controlled experiments were available to validate our hypothesis, our analysis results are qualitatively consistent with the observed downwind extent of vegetation damage in two chlorine accidents.

  12. Arterial Stiffness and its Correlation with the Extent of Coronary Artery Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hourak Poorzand

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Coronary artery disease secondary to atherosclerosis is the most common cause of mortality. Coronary angiography is the most precise method for determining the extent of disease in the coronary vascular bed. Arterial stiffness has been proposed as a marker of atherosclerosis in some studies. One of the noninvasive methods for the determination of arterial stiffness is Doppler echocardiography. In this study, we aimed to find the correlation between arterial stiffness as measured by echocardiography and the extent of coronary artery disease as evaluated through angiography. Materials and Methods: Aortic pulse wave velocity (APWV was measured by using the Doppler method in 70 patients, who were candidates for coronary angiography. The extent of coronary artery disease was determined quantitatively in terms of Friesinger index and semi-quantitatively as the number of vessels with stenosis of over 50%. Then, the correlation between arterial stiffness and these factors was evaluated. Results: The mean APWV was 9.1±5 m/s. There was a direct relationship between APWV and Friesinger index, which was not statistically significant (P=0.67. The mean APWV for patients with one-vessel disease was 4.4±1.8 m/s, while it was 9.9±3.6 m/s in patients with two and 7.9±4 m/s in three-vessel disease which did not show statistically significant difference. Conclusion: Doppler echocardiography to measure APWV was not considered as a promising tool to predict the extent of coronary artery disease.

  13. To what extent do student teachers develop their mathematical problem solving ability by self-study?

    OpenAIRE

    Kool, Marjolein; Keijzer, Ronald

    2017-01-01

    A primary teacher needs mathematical problem solving ability. That is why Dutch student teachers have to show this ability in a nationwide mathematics test that contains many non-routine problems. Most student teachers prepare for this test by working on their own solving test-like problems. To what extent does these individual problem solving activities really contribute to their mathematical problem solving ability? Developing mathematical problem solving ability requires reflective mathema...

  14. The decline of cisco Coregonus artedi at its southern range extent: Stock biology and management implications

    OpenAIRE

    Honsey, Andrew E.

    2014-01-01

    The cisco Coregonus artedi is distributed throughout northern North America and is relegated to coldwater, oligotrophic systems. Populations of cisco located at the species' southern range extent, including northern Indiana and southern Michigan, have drastically declined over the past century, seemingly due to a combination of climate warming and exacerbation of hypolimnetic hypoxic conditions via intensive land-use and resulting increases in nutrient loading. Apart from their decline, infor...

  15. Factors Affecting Behaviours that address HIV Risk among Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of this study was to identify factors affecting HIV risk reduction ... Main outcome measures: Sexual behavior and condom use, knowledge about ... attitudes, normative beliefs, and subjective norms about condoms, HIV/AIDS ...

  16. Model Reduction in Biomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yan

    mechanical parameters from experimental results. However, in real biological world, these homogeneous and isotropic assumptions are usually invalidate. Thus, instead of using hypothesized model, a specific continuum model at mesoscopic scale can be introduced based upon data reduction of the results from molecular simulations at atomistic level. Once a continuum model is established, it can provide details on the distribution of stresses and strains induced within the biomolecular system which is useful in determining the distribution and transmission of these forces to the cytoskeletal and sub-cellular components, and help us gain a better understanding in cell mechanics. A data-driven model reduction approach to the problem of microtubule mechanics as an application is present, a beam element is constructed for microtubules based upon data reduction of the results from molecular simulation of the carbon backbone chain of alphabeta-tubulin dimers. The data base of mechanical responses to various types of loads from molecular simulation is reduced to dominant modes. The dominant modes are subsequently used to construct the stiffness matrix of a beam element that captures the anisotropic behavior and deformation mode coupling that arises from a microtubule's spiral structure. In contrast to standard Euler-Bernoulli or Timoshenko beam elements, the link between forces and node displacements results not from hypothesized deformation behavior, but directly from the data obtained by molecular scale simulation. Differences between the resulting microtubule data-driven beam model (MTDDBM) and standard beam elements are presented, with a focus on coupling of bending, stretch, shear deformations. The MTDDBM is just as economical to use as a standard beam element, and allows accurate reconstruction of the mechanical behavior of structures within a cell as exemplified in a simple model of a component element of the mitotic spindle.

  17. Changes in the areal extents of the Athabasca River, Birch River, and Cree Creek Deltas, 1950-2014, Peace-Athabasca Delta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timoney, Kevin; Lee, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Deltas form where riverborne sediment accumulates at the interface of river mouths and their receiving water bodies. Their areal extent is determined by the net effect of processes that increase their extent, such as sediment accumulation, and processes that decrease their extent, such as erosion and subsidence. Through sequential mapping and construction of river discharge and sediment histories, this study examined changes in the subaerial extents of the Cree Creek and Athabasca River Deltas (both on the Athabasca River system) and the Birch River Delta in northern Canada over the period 1950-2014. The purpose of the study was to determine how, when, and why the deltas changed in areal extent. Temporal growth patterns were similar across the Athabasca and Birch River systems indicative of a climatic signal. Little or no areal growth occurred from 1950 to 1968; moderate growth occurred between 1968 and the early to mid-1980s; and rapid growth occurred between 1992 and 2012. Factors that affected delta progradation included dredging, sediment supply, isostatic drowning, delta front bathymetry, sediment capture efficiency, and storms. In relation to sediment delivered, areal growth rates were lowest in the Athabasca Delta, intermediate in the Birch Delta, and highest in the Cree Creek Delta. Annual sediment delivery is increasing in the Cree Creek Delta; there were no significant trends in annual sediment delivery in the Birch and Athabasca Deltas. There was a lag of up to several years between sediment delivery events and progradation. Periods of delta progradation were associated with low water levels of the receiving basins. Predicted climate-change driven declines in river discharge and lake levels may accelerate delta progradation in the region. In the changing ecosystems of northeastern Alberta, inadequate monitoring of vegetation, landforms, and sediment regimes hampers the elucidation of the nature, rate, and causality of ecosystem changes.

  18. Automated flood extent identification using WorldView imagery for the insurance industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Christina

    2017-10-01

    Flooding is the most common and costly natural disaster around the world, causing the loss of human life and billions in economic and insured losses each year. In 2016, pluvial and fluvial floods caused an estimated 5.69 billion USD in losses worldwide with the most severe events occurring in Germany, France, China, and the United States. While catastrophe modeling has begun to help bridge the knowledge gap about the risk of fluvial flooding, understanding the extent of a flood - pluvial and fluvial - in near real-time allows insurance companies around the world to quantify the loss of property that their clients face during a flooding event and proactively respond. To develop this real-time, global analysis of flooded areas and the associated losses, a new methodology utilizing optical multi-spectral imagery from DigitalGlobe (DGI) WorldView satellite suite is proposed for the extraction of pluvial and fluvial flood extents. This methodology involves identifying flooded areas visible to the sensor, filling in the gaps left by the built environment (i.e. buildings, trees) with a nearest neighbor calculation, and comparing the footprint against an Industry Exposure Database (IE) to calculate a loss estimate. Full-automation of the methodology allows production of flood extents and associated losses anywhere around the world as required. The methodology has been tested and proven effective for the 2016 flood in Louisiana, USA.

  19. Northward extent of East Asian monsoon covaries with intensity on orbital and millennial timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Yonaton; Broecker, Wallace S.; Xu, Hai; Polissar, Pratigya J.; deMenocal, Peter B.; Porat, Naomi; Lan, Jianghu; Cheng, Peng; Zhou, Weijian; An, Zhisheng

    2017-02-01

    The magnitude, rate, and extent of past and future East Asian monsoon (EAM) rainfall fluctuations remain unresolved. Here, late Pleistocene-Holocene EAM rainfall intensity is reconstructed using a well-dated northeastern China closed-basin lake area record located at the modern northwestern fringe of the EAM. The EAM intensity and northern extent alternated rapidly between wet and dry periods on time scales of centuries. Lake levels were 60 m higher than present during the early and middle Holocene, requiring a twofold increase in annual rainfall, which, based on modern rainfall distribution, requires a ˜400 km northward expansion/migration of the EAM. The lake record is highly correlated with both northern and southern Chinese cave deposit isotope records, supporting rainfall “intensity based” interpretations of these deposits as opposed to an alternative “water vapor sourcing” interpretation. These results indicate that EAM intensity and the northward extent covary on orbital and millennial timescales. The termination of wet conditions at 5.5 ka BP (˜35 m lake drop) triggered a large cultural collapse of Early Neolithic cultures in north China, and possibly promoted the emergence of complex societies of the Late Neolithic.

  20. Variability of the extent of the Hadley circulation in the southern hemisphere: a regional perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, H.; Hendon, H. H.; Lim, E.-P.; Boschat, G.; Maloney, E.; Timbal, B.

    2018-01-01

    In order to understand the regional impacts of variations in the extent of the Hadley circulation in the Southern Hemisphere, regional Hadley circulations are defined in three sectors centered on the main tropical heat sources over Africa, Asia-Pacific (Maritime Continent) and the Americas. These regional circulations are defined by computing a streamfunction from the divergent component of the meridional wind. A major finding from this study is that year-to-year variability in the extent of the hemispheric Hadley circulation in the Southern Hemisphere is primarily governed by variations of the extent of the Hadley circulation in the Asia-Pacific sector, especially during austral spring and summer when there is little co-variability with the African sector, and the American sector exhibits an out of phase behavior. An expanded Hadley circulation in the Southern Hemisphere (both hemispherically and in the Asia-Pacific sector) is associated with La Niña conditions and a poleward expansion of the tropical wet zone in the Asia-Pacific sector. While La Niña also promotes expansion in the American and African sectors during austral winter, these tropical conditions tend to promote contraction in the two sectors during austral summer as a result of compensating convergence over the Americas and Africa sectors: a process driven by variations in the Walker circulation and Rossby wave trains emanating from the tropical Indian Ocean.

  1. Northward extent of East Asian monsoon covaries with intensity on orbital and millennial timescales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Yonaton; Broecker, Wallace S; Xu, Hai; Polissar, Pratigya J; deMenocal, Peter B; Porat, Naomi; Lan, Jianghu; Cheng, Peng; Zhou, Weijian; An, Zhisheng

    2017-02-21

    The magnitude, rate, and extent of past and future East Asian monsoon (EAM) rainfall fluctuations remain unresolved. Here, late Pleistocene-Holocene EAM rainfall intensity is reconstructed using a well-dated northeastern China closed-basin lake area record located at the modern northwestern fringe of the EAM. The EAM intensity and northern extent alternated rapidly between wet and dry periods on time scales of centuries. Lake levels were 60 m higher than present during the early and middle Holocene, requiring a twofold increase in annual rainfall, which, based on modern rainfall distribution, requires a ∼400 km northward expansion/migration of the EAM. The lake record is highly correlated with both northern and southern Chinese cave deposit isotope records, supporting rainfall "intensity based" interpretations of these deposits as opposed to an alternative "water vapor sourcing" interpretation. These results indicate that EAM intensity and the northward extent covary on orbital and millennial timescales. The termination of wet conditions at 5.5 ka BP (∼35 m lake drop) triggered a large cultural collapse of Early Neolithic cultures in north China, and possibly promoted the emergence of complex societies of the Late Neolithic.

  2. Flood Extent Mapping for Namibia Using Change Detection and Thresholding with SAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Stephanie; Fatoyinbo, Temilola E.; Policelli, Frederick

    2014-01-01

    A new method for flood detection change detection and thresholding (CDAT) was used with synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery to delineate the extent of flooding for the Chobe floodplain in the Caprivi region of Namibia. This region experiences annual seasonal flooding and has seen a recent renewal of severe flooding after a long dry period in the 1990s. Flooding in this area has caused loss of life and livelihoods for the surrounding communities and has caught the attention of disaster relief agencies. There is a need for flood extent mapping techniques that can be used to process images quickly, providing near real-time flooding information to relief agencies. ENVISAT/ASAR and Radarsat-2 images were acquired for several flooding seasons from February 2008 to March 2013. The CDAT method was used to determine flooding from these images and includes the use of image subtraction, decision based classification with threshold values, and segmentation of SAR images. The total extent of flooding determined for 2009, 2011 and 2012 was about 542 km2, 720 km2, and 673 km2 respectively. Pixels determined to be flooded in vegetation were typically flooding in vegetation was much greater (almost one third of the total flooded area). The time to maximum flooding for the 2013 flood season was determined to be about 27 days. Landsat water classification was used to compare the results from the new CDAT with SAR method; the results show good spatial agreement with Landsat scenes.

  3. Dynamic and thermodynamic impacts of the winter Arctic Oscillation on summer sea ice extent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H. S.; Stewart, A.

    2017-12-01

    Arctic summer sea ice extent exhibits substantial interannual variability, as is highlighted by the remarkable recovery in sea ice extent in 2013 following the record minimum in the summer of 2012. Here, we explore the mechanism via which Arctic Oscillation (AO)-induced ice thickness changes impact summer sea ice, using observations and reanalysis data. A positive AO weakens the basin-scale anticyclonic sea ice drift and decreases the winter ice thickness by 15cm and 10cm in the Eurasian and the Pacific sectors of the Arctic respectively. Three reanalysis datasets show that the (upward) surface heat fluxes are reduced over wide areas of the Arctic, suppressing the ice growth during the positive AO winters. The winter dynamic and thermodynamic thinning preconditions the ice for enhanced radiative forcing via the ice-albedo feedback in late spring-summer, leading to an additional 8-10 cm of thinning over the Pacific sector of the Arctic. Because of these winter AO-induced dynamic and thermodynamics effects, the winter AO explains about 22% (r = -0.48) of the interannual variance of September sea ice extent from year 1980 to 2015.

  4. Measures of extents of laterality for high-frequency ``transposed'' stimuli under conditions of binaural interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Leslie R.; Trahiotis, Constantine

    2005-09-01

    Our purpose in this study was to determine whether across-frequency binaural interference would occur if ITD-based extents of laterality were measured using high-frequency transposed stimuli as targets. The results of an earlier study [L. R. Bernstein and C. Trahiotis, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 116, 3062-3069 (2004)], which focused on threshold-ITDs, rather than extents of laterality, suggested that high-frequency transposed stimuli might be ``immune'' to binaural interference effects resulting from the addition of a spectrally remote, low-frequency interferer. In contrast to the earlier findings, the data from this study indicate that high-frequency transposed targets are susceptible to binaural interference. Nevertheless, high-frequency transposed targets, even when presented along with an interferer, yielded greater extents of ITD-based laterality than did high-frequency Gaussian noise targets presented in isolation. That is, the ``enhanced potency'' of ITDs conveyed by transposed stimuli persisted, even in the presence of a low-frequency interferer. Predictions made using an extension of the model of Heller and Trahiotis [L. M. Heller and C. Trahiotis, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 99, 3632-3637 (1996)] accounted well for across-frequency binaural interference obtained with conventional Gaussian noise targets but, in all but one case, overpredicted the amounts of interference found with the transposed targets.

  5. RANGELAND DEGRADATION: EXTENT, IMPACTS, AND ALTERNATIVE RESTORATION TECHNIQUES IN THE RANGELANDS OF ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Mussa Abdulahi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rangeland degradation remains a serious impediment to improve pastoral livelihoods in the lowlands of Ethiopia. This review paper presents an overview of the extent of rangeland degradation, explores its drivers, discusses the potential impacts of rangeland degradation and also suggests alternative rangeland restoration techniques. It is intended to serve as an exploratory tool for ensuing more detailed quantitative analyses to support policy and investment programs to address rangeland degradation in Ethiopia. The extent of rangeland degradation increases with time, and the productivity of rangelands are losing if not given due attention. The major drivers leading to rangeland degradation includes climate change, overgrazing, bush encroachment, population pressure, drought, and government policy, encroachment of rain fed agriculture and decline of traditional resource management institution. Degradation of rangeland has resulted in substantial declines in rangeland condition, water potential, soil status, and animal performance, livestock holding at the household level and community become destitute. Another consequence of rangeland degradation is linked to food insecurity, poverty to the extent of food aid, expansion of aridity and the need for alternative livelihood and income diversification. Moreover, it has increasingly become a threat to the pastoral production systems, and has contributed towards increases in poverty and tribal conflicts over grazing land and water resources. In spite of these impacts, the adoption of alternative restoration techniques in the country is highly insufficient. To address rangeland degradation problems, there is a strong need to substantially increase the investments and strengthen the policy support for sustainable land management.

  6. Measuring the relative extent of pulmonary infiltrates by hierarchical classification of patient-specific image features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsevas, S.; Iakovidis, D. K.

    2011-11-01

    Pulmonary infiltrates are common radiological findings indicating the filling of airspaces with fluid, inflammatory exudates, or cells. They are most common in cases of pneumonia, acute respiratory syndrome, atelectasis, pulmonary oedema and haemorrhage, whereas their extent is usually correlated with the extent or the severity of the underlying disease. In this paper we propose a novel pattern recognition framework for the measurement of the extent of pulmonary infiltrates in routine chest radiographs. The proposed framework follows a hierarchical approach to the assessment of image content. It includes the following: (a) sampling of the lung fields; (b) extraction of patient-specific grey-level histogram signatures from each sample; (c) classification of the extracted signatures into classes representing normal lung parenchyma and pulmonary infiltrates; (d) the samples for which the probability of belonging to one of the two classes does not reach an acceptable level are rejected and classified according to their textural content; (e) merging of the classification results of the two classification stages. The proposed framework has been evaluated on real radiographic images with pulmonary infiltrates caused by bacterial infections. The results show that accurate measurements of the infiltration areas can be obtained with respect to each lung field area. The average measurement error rate on the considered dataset reached 9.7% ± 1.0%.

  7. Assessing the extent of bone degradation using glutamine deamidation in collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Julie; van Doorn, Nienke L; Collins, Matthew J

    2012-11-06

    Collagen peptides are analyzed using a low-cost, high-throughput method for assessing deamidation using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). For each chosen peptide, the theoretical distribution is calculated and the measured distribution for each sample compared with this to determine the extent of glutamine deamidation. The deamidation of glutamine (Q) to glutamic acid (E) results in a mass shift of +0.984 Da. Thus, from the resolution of our data, the second peak in the isotope distribution for a peptide containing one glutamine residue coincides with the first peak of the isotope distribution for the peptide in which the residue is deamidated. A genetic algorithm is used to determine the extent of deamidation that gives the best fit to the measured distribution. The method can be extended to peptides containing more than one glutamine residue. The extent of protein degradation assessed in this way could be used, for example, to assess the damage of collagen, and screen samples for radiocarbon dating and DNA analysis.

  8. The Role of Deposition in Limiting the Hazard Extent of Dense-Gas Plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, M B

    2008-05-11

    Accidents that involve large (multi-ton) releases of toxic industrial chemicals and form dense-gas clouds often yield far fewer fatalities, casualties and environmental effects than standard assessment and emergency response models predict. This modeling study, which considers both dense-gas turbulence suppression and deposition to environmental objects (e.g. buildings), demonstrates that dry deposition to environmental objects may play a significant role in reducing the distance at which adverse impacts occur - particularly under low-wind, stable atmospheric conditions which are often considered to be the worst-case scenario for these types of releases. The degree to which the released chemical sticks to (or reacts with) environmental surfaces is likely a key parameter controlling hazard extents. In all modeled cases, the deposition to vertical surfaces of environmental objects (e.g. building walls) was more efficient in reducing atmospheric chemical concentrations than deposition to the earth's surface. This study suggests that (1) hazard extents may vary widely by release environment (e.g. grasslands vs. suburbia) and release conditions (e.g. sunlight or humidity may change the rate at which chemicals react with a surface) and (2) greenbelts (or similar structures) may dramatically reduce the impacts of large-scale releases. While these results are demonstrated to be qualitatively consistent with the downwind extent of vegetation damage in two chlorine releases, critical knowledge gaps exist and this study provides recommendations for additional experimental studies.

  9. Extent and impact of industry sponsorship conflicts of interest in dermatology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlis, Clifford S; Harwood, Michael; Perlis, Roy H

    2005-06-01

    Many published clinical trials are authored by investigators with financial conflicts of interest. The general medical literature documents the pervasive extent and sometimes problematic impact of these conflicts. Accordingly, there is renewed discussion about author disclosure and clinical trial registry to minimize publication bias from financial conflicts of interest. Despite this evolving discussion in the general medical literature, little is known about the extent or role of financial conflicts of interest in dermatology research. Our purpose was to determine the extent and impact of industry sponsorship conflicts of interest in dermatology research. We recorded potential financial conflicts of interest, study design, and study outcome in 179 clinical trials published between Oct 1, 2000 and Oct 1, 2003 in four leading dermatology journals. Forty-three percent of analyzed studies included at least one author with a reported conflict of interest. These studies were more likely to report a positive result, demonstrate higher methodological quality, and include a larger sample size. Conflict of interest in clinical investigations in dermatology appears to be prevalent and associated with potentially significant differences in study methodology and reporting.

  10. The sign, magnitude and potential drivers of change in surface water extent in Canadian tundra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Mark L.; Loboda, Tatiana V.

    2018-04-01

    The accelerated rate of warming in the Arctic has considerable implications for all components of ecosystem functioning in the High Northern Latitudes. Changes to hydrological cycle in the Arctic are particularly complex as the observed and projected warming directly impacts permafrost and leads to variable responses in surface water extent which is currently poorly characterized at the regional scale. In this study we take advantage of the 30 plus years of medium resolution (30 m) Landsat data to quantify the spatial patterns of change in the extent of water bodies in the Arctic tundra in Nunavut, Canada. Our results show a divergent pattern of change—growing surface water extent in the north-west and shrinking in the south-east—which is not a function of the overall distribution of surface water in the region. The observed changes cannot be explained by latitudinal stratification, nor is it explained by available temperature and precipitation records. However, the sign of change appears to be consistent within the boundaries of individual watersheds defined by the Canada National Hydro Network based on the random forest analysis. Using land cover maps as a proxy for ecological function we were able to link shrinking tundra water bodies to substrates with shallow soil layers (i.e. bedrock and barren landscapes) with a moderate correlation (R 2 = 0.46, p evaporation as an important driver of surface water decrease in these cases.

  11. Optical coherence tomography to evaluate variance in the extent of carious lesions in depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung-Jin; Schneider, Hartmut; Ziebolz, Dirk; Krause, Felix; Haak, Rainer

    2018-05-03

    Evaluation of variance in the extent of carious lesions in depth at smooth surfaces within the same ICDAS code group using optical coherence tomography (OCT) in vitro and in vivo. (1) Verification/validation of OCT to assess non-cavitated caries: 13 human molars with ICDAS code 2 at smooth surfaces were imaged using OCT and light microscopy. Regions of interest (ROI) were categorized according to the depth of carious lesions. Agreement between histology and OCT was determined by unweighted Cohen's Kappa and Wilcoxon test. (2) Assessment of 133 smooth surfaces using ICDAS and OCT in vitro, 49 surfaces in vivo. ROI were categorized according to the caries extent (ICDAS: codes 0-4, OCT: scoring based on lesion depth). A frequency distribution of the OCT scores for each ICDAS code was determined. (1) Histology and OCT agreed moderately (κ = 0.54, p ≤ 0.001) with no significant difference between both methods (p = 0.25). The lesions (76.9% (10 of 13)) _were equally scored. (2) In vitro, OCT revealed caries in 42% of ROI clinically assessed as sound. OCT detected dentin-caries in 40% of ROIs visually assessed as enamel-caries. In vivo, large differences between ICDAS and OCT were observed. Carious lesions of ICDAS codes 1 and 2 vary largely in their extent in depth.

  12. AFFECTIVE ASSESSMENT IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Mariam

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Affective aspect plays important role in man’s life, mainly in making decision, perception, interaction, communication and intelligence. A second behavior domain is the affective domain. The affective domain involves feelings, attitude, interests, preferences, values, and emotions. Emotional stability, motivation, trustworthiness, self-control, and personality are all examples of affective characteristics. Although affective behaviors are rarely assessed formally in schools and classrooms, teachers constantly assess affective behaviors informally, especially when sizing up students. Teachers need to know who can be trusted to work unsupervised and who cannot, who can maintain self-control when the teacher has to leave the classroom and who cannot, who needs to be encouraged to speak in class and who does not, who is interested in science but not in social studies, and who needs to be prodded to start class work and who does not. Most classroom teachers can describe their students’ affective characteristics based on their informal observations and interactions with the students. Statement of the Problem. a Exploration Phase. (1 Can affective aspects improve students’ achievement of English subject for university students of non-English Departments ? (2 Which affective aspects are potentially be used to improve students’ achievement of English subject for university students of non-English Department ? (3 To what extent is the affective assessment of English subject needed by English teachers of non-English Departments ? b Prototype Development Phase. (4 How should the affective assessment model of English subject for university students of non-English Departments be constructed ? (5 How high is the effectiveness of affective assessment model of English subject for university students of non – English Departments ? c Field Assessment Phase. (6 To what extent can the model of affective assessment draft be used to enhance students

  13. Risk reduction by combining nature values with flood protection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Loon-Steensma Jantsje M.

    2016-01-01

    foreland into the dike design does not automatically mean that nature values and flood protection are well integrated. Flood protection imposes rather different requirements on the extent and features of marshes than nature conservation and development. Wave damping is most effective with a high and stable marsh, while nature thrives with dynamic processes and differences in elevation. Therefore, only a design that allows natural marsh dynamics and includes different marsh zones could combine nature values with flood protection. In practice, this means a dike design with an uncertain foreland, that offers space for natural processes. The uncertainty in foreland development reduces the possible flood risk reduction. In our paper we describe the critical points of interest concerning risk reduction in this system.

  14. Affective health bias in older adults: Considering positive and negative affect in a general health context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Brenda R; Bergeman, C S

    2016-09-01

    Because subjective health reports are a primary source of health information in a number of medical and research-based contexts, much research has been devoted to establishing the extent to which these self-reports of health correspond to health information from more objective sources. One of the key factors considered in this area is trait affect, with most studies emphasizing the impact of negative affect (negative emotions) over positive affect (positive emotions), and focusing on high-arousal affect (e.g., anger, excitement) over moderate- or low-arousal affect (e.g., relaxed, depressed). The present study examines the impact of both Positive and Negative Affect (PA/NA)-measured by items of both high and low arousal-on the correspondence between objective health information and subjective health reports. Another limitation of existing literature in the area is the focus on samples suffering from a particular diagnosis or on specific symptom reports; here, these effects are investigated in a sample of community-dwelling older adults representing a broader spectrum of health. 153 older adults (Mage = 71.2) took surveys assessing Perceived Health and Affect and underwent an objective physical health assessment. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate the extent to which the relationship between Objective Health and Perceived Health was moderated by PA or NA, which would indicate the presence of affective health bias. Results reveal a significant moderation effect for NA, but not for PA; PA appeared to serve a more mediational function, indicating that NA and PA operate on health perceptions in distinct ways. These findings provide evidence that in our high-functioning, community-dwelling sample of older adults, a) affective health bias is present within a general health context, and not only within specific symptom or diagnostic categories; and b) that both PA and NA play important roles in the process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  15. Reduction of blue tungsten oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilken, T.; Wert, C.; Woodhouse, J.; Morcom, W.

    1975-01-01

    A significant portion of commercial tungsten is produced by hydrogen reduction of oxides. Although several modes of reduction are possible, hydrogen reduction is used where high purity tungsten is required and where the addition of other elements or compounds is desired for modification of the metal, as is done for filaments in the lamp industry. Although several investigations of the reduction of oxides have been reported (1 to 5), few principles have been developed which can aid in assessment of current commercial practice. The reduction process was examined under conditions approximating commercial practice. The specific objectives were to determine the effects of dopants, of water vapor in the reducing atmosphere, and of reduction temperature upon: (1) the rate of the reaction by which blue tungsten oxide is reduced to tungsten metal, (2) the intermediate oxides associated with reduction, and (3) the morphology of the resulting tungsten powder

  16. Size reduction machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fricke, V.

    1999-01-01

    The Size Reduction Machine (SRM) is a mobile platform capable of shearing various shapes and types of metal components at a variety of elevations. This shearing activity can be performed without direct physical movement and placement of the shear head by the operator. The base unit is manually moved and roughly aligned to each cut location. The base contains the electronics: hydraulic pumps, servos, and actuators needed to move the shear-positioning arm. The movable arm allows the shear head to have six axes of movement and to cut to within 4 inches of a wall surface. The unit has a slick electrostatic capture coating to assist in external decontamination. Internal contamination of the unit is controlled by a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter on the cooling inlet fan. The unit is compact enough to access areas through a 36-inch standard door opening. This paper is an Innovative Technology Summary Report designed to provide potential users with the information they need to quickly determine if a technology would apply to a particular environmental management problem. They also are designed for readers who may recommend that a technology be considered by prospective users

  17. Electrochemical reduction of NOx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traulsen, Marie Lund

    NO and NO2 (collectively referred to as NOx) are air pollutants, and the largest single contributor to NOx pollution is automotive exhaust. This study investigates electrochemical deNOx, a technology which aims to remove NOx from automotive diesel exhaust by electrochemical reduction of NOx to N2...... and O2. The focus in this study is on improving the activity and selectivity of solid oxide electrodes for electrochemical deNOx by addition of NOx storage compounds to the electrodes. Two different composite electrodes, La0.85Sr0.15MnO3-δ-Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 (LSM15-CGO10) and La0.85Sr0.15FeO3-δ-Ce0.9Gd0.1O......1.95 (LSF15-CGO10), have been investigated in combination with three different NOx storage compounds: BaO, K2O and MnOx. The main focus in the investigation has been on conversion measurements and electrochemical characterization, the latter by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy...

  18. Syncrude emissions reduction project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedler, M.A. [Alstom Power Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Ibbotson, P. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This paper described an emissions reduction project conducted by Syncrude Canada and various other companies currently developing and processing oil sands in Alberta. Syncrude's upgrader expansion program included the installation of an ammonia-based wet flue gas desulfurizer (FGD) designed to remove sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) from a coker train. Syncrude is also installing the FGD technology at its existing plants. It is expected that installation of the FGDs will reduced total site emissions of SO{sub 2} by 60 per cent. The fluid cokers are used to crack the long hydrocarbon chain bitumen molecules into shorter molecules. It is expected that the FGD system will also reduce particulate and SO{sub 3} levels. The FGD system was selected after an evaluation of technologies used by the coal-fired power industry. A dry FGD system was selected to operate above the water saturation temperature of the flue gas. Calcium oxide was used as a reagent. Hot gas was quenched in a spray dryer absorber with a slurry of calcium hydroxide. Rotary atomizers were used to developer uniform droplets of slurry. The system's fabric filter was a low ratio reverse gas-cleaned unit. Particulate matter from the gases was deposited on the interior of the filter bags. Clean hot gas was drawn through reverse gas fans into a reverse gas manifold. A timeline of the FGD technology installation process was included. 3 tabs., 28 figs.

  19. Chromosphere of K giant stars. Geometrical extent and spatial structure detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berio, P.; Merle, T.; Thévenin, F.; Bonneau, D.; Mourard, D.; Chesneau, O.; Delaa, O.; Ligi, R.; Nardetto, N.; Perraut, K.; Pichon, B.; Stee, P.; Tallon-Bosc, I.; Clausse, J. M.; Spang, A.; McAlister, H.; ten Brummelaar, T.; Sturmann, J.; Sturmann, L.; Turner, N.; Farrington, C.; Goldfinger, P. J.

    2011-11-01

    Context. Interferometers provide accurate diameter measurements of stars by analyzing both the continuum and the lines formed in photospheres and chromospheres. Tests of the geometrical extent of the chromospheres are therefore possible by comparing the estimated radius in the continuum of the photosphere and the estimated radii in chromospheric lines. Aims: We aim to constrain the geometrical extent of the chromosphere of non-binary K giant stars and detect any spatial structures in the chromosphere. Methods: We performed observations with the CHARA interferometer and the VEGA beam combiner at optical wavelengths. We observed seven non-binary K giant stars (β and η Cet, δ Crt, ρ Boo, β Oph, 109 Her, and ι Cep). We measured the ratio of the radii of the photosphere to the chromosphere using the interferometric measurements in the Hα and the Ca II infrared triplet line cores. For β Cet, spectro-interferometric observations are compared to a non-local thermal equilibrium (NLTE) semi-empirical model atmosphere including a chromosphere. The NLTE computations provide line intensities and contribution functions that indicate the relative locations where the line cores are formed and can constrain the size of the limb-darkened disk of the stars with chromospheres. We measured the angular diameter of seven K giant stars and deduced their fundamental parameters: effective temperatures, radii, luminosities, and masses. We determined the geometrical extent of the chromosphere for four giant stars (β and η Cet, δ Crt and ρ Boo). Results: The chromosphere extents obtained range between 16% to 47% of the stellar radius. The NLTE computations confirm that the Ca II/849 nm line core is deeper in the chromosphere of β Cet than either of the Ca II/854 nm and Ca II/866 nm line cores. We present a modified version of a semi-empirical model atmosphere derived by fitting the Ca II triplet line cores of this star. In four of our targets, we also detect the signature of a

  20. Disaster risk reduction and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khurshedi, N.

    2005-01-01

    During the past four decades, natural hazards such as earthquakes, volcanic activity, and slides, tsunami tropical cyclones and other severe storms, tornadoes and high winds, river floods and coastal flooding, wildfire and associated haze drought, sand/dust storms, and insect infestations have caused major loss of human lives and livelihoods, the destruction of economic and social infrastructure, as well as environmental damages. Economic losses have increased almost ten times during this period. As it happen in recent Asia Tsunami, in which over 2, 00,000 people reportedly killed, estimated five million homeless, and resulted in massive displacement of population and extensive damage to infrastructure. The escalation of severe disaster events triggered by natural hazards and related technological and environment disasters is increasingly threatening both sustainable development and poverty-reduction initiatives. The loss of human lives and the rise in the cost of reconstruction efforts and loss of development assets has forced the issue of disaster reduction and risk management higher on the policy agenda of affected governments as well a multilateral and bilateral agencies and NGOs. For this Disaster risk reduction-.strategies are aimed at enabling societies at risk to become engaged in the conscious management of risk and the reduction of vulnerability. The adoption of appropriate development policies can reduce disaster risk. These policies should be gender sensitive and need the necessary political commitment. They involve the adoption of suitable regulatory and other legal measures, institutional reform, improved analytical and methodological capabilities, financial planning, education and awareness. (author)

  1. Deliberating emission reduction options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowd, A. M.; Rodriguez, M.; Jeanneret, T. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation CSIRO, 37 Graham Rd, Highett VIC 3190 (Australia); De Best-Waldhober, M.; Straver, K.; Mastop, J.; Paukovic, M. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    For more than 20 years there has been a concerted international effort toward addressing climate change. International conventions, such as the United Nations Foreign Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC; ratified in 1994), have been established by committed nations seeking to address global climate change through the reduction of greenhouse gases emitted into the Earth's atmosphere (Global CCS Institute, 2011). Long recognised as the most crucial of the greenhouse gases to impact global warming, the majority of carbon dioxide's anthropogenic global emissions are directly related to fuel combustion of which both Australia and the Netherlands' energy production is significantly reliant. Both these nations will need to consider many opinions and make hard decisions if alternative energy options are to be implemented at the scale that is required to meet international emission targets. The decisions that are required not only need to consider the many options available but also their consequences. Along with politicians, policy developers and industry, the general public also need to be active participants in deciding which energy options, and their subsequent consequences, are acceptable for implementation at the national level. Access to balanced and factual information is essential in establishing informed opinions on the many policy options available. Past research has used several methods to measure public perceptions and opinions yet for complex issues, such as emission reduction, some of these methods have shown to be problematic. For example, semi structured interviews can provide data that is flexible and context rich yet is does also come with the limitations such as it seldom provides a practical assessment that can be utilised from researcher to researcher, across disciplines and public participation techniques. Surveys on the other hand usually address these limitations but surveys that do not encourage comparison of information or ask participants to

  2. Deliberating emission reduction options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowd, A.M.; Rodriguez, M.; Jeanneret, T. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation CSIRO, 37 Graham Rd, Highett VIC 3190 (Australia); De Best-Waldhober, M.; Straver, K.; Mastop, J.; Paukovic, M. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    For more than 20 years there has been a concerted international effort toward addressing climate change. International conventions, such as the United Nations Foreign Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC; ratified in 1994), have been established by committed nations seeking to address global climate change through the reduction of greenhouse gases emitted into the Earth's atmosphere (Global CCS Institute, 2011). Long recognised as the most crucial of the greenhouse gases to impact global warming, the majority of carbon dioxide's anthropogenic global emissions are directly related to fuel combustion of which both Australia and the Netherlands' energy production is significantly reliant. Both these nations will need to consider many opinions and make hard decisions if alternative energy options are to be implemented at the scale that is required to meet international emission targets. The decisions that are required not only need to consider the many options available but also their consequences. Along with politicians, policy developers and industry, the general public also need to be active participants in deciding which energy options, and their subsequent consequences, are acceptable for implementation at the national level. Access to balanced and factual information is essential in establishing informed opinions on the many policy options available. Past research has used several methods to measure public perceptions and opinions yet for complex issues, such as emission reduction, some of these methods have shown to be problematic. For example, semi structured interviews can provide data that is flexible and context rich yet is does also come with the limitations such as it seldom provides a practical assessment that can be utilised from researcher to researcher, across disciplines and public participation techniques. Surveys on the other hand usually address these limitations but surveys that do not encourage comparison of information or ask

  3. Stability of Facial Affective Expressions in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Fatouros-Bergman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-two videorecorded interviews were conducted by two interviewers with eight patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. Each patient was interviewed four times: three weekly interviews by the first interviewer and one additional interview by the second interviewer. 64 selected sequences where the patients were speaking about psychotic experiences were scored for facial affective behaviour with Emotion Facial Action Coding System (EMFACS. In accordance with previous research, the results show that patients diagnosed with schizophrenia express negative facial affectivity. Facial affective behaviour seems not to be dependent on temporality, since within-subjects ANOVA revealed no substantial changes in the amount of affects displayed across the weekly interview occasions. Whereas previous findings found contempt to be the most frequent affect in patients, in the present material disgust was as common, but depended on the interviewer. The results suggest that facial affectivity in these patients is primarily dominated by the negative emotions of disgust and, to a lesser extent, contempt and implies that this seems to be a fairly stable feature.

  4. To what extent can isotopes help substantiate natural attenuation of chlorinated ethenes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badin, A.; Broholm, Mette Martina; Hunkeler, D.

    to which isotopes could help substantiate natural attenuation of chlorinated ethenes at the field scale. Our work hence aims at exploring the latter based on data acquired in 2006 in a site located in Denmark which is contaminated with PCE and its end-products TCE, cDCE, and VC. Previous work on this site...... has enabled to demonstrate that PCE and TCE were undergoing reductive dechlorination while cDCE would be at least partially degraded through reductive dechlorination1. However, the magnitude of the contaminants attenuation by biodegradation was not evaluated. Based on simple modeling including...

  5. Initial mortality rates and extent of damage to loblolly and longleaf pine plantations affected by an ice storm in South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don C. Bragg

    2016-01-01

    A major ice storm struck Georgia and the Carolinas in February of 2014, damaging or destroying hundreds of thousands of hectares of timber worth hundreds of millions of dollars. Losses were particularly severe in pine plantations in west-central South Carolina, including many on the Savannah River Site (SRS). An array of paired, mid-rotation loblolly (Pinus...

  6. Characteristics of peak streamflows and extent of inundation in areas of West Virginia and southwestern Virginia affected by flooding, June 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Samuel H.; Watson, Kara M.; Lotspeich, R. Russell; Cauller, Stephen J.; White , Jeremy S.; Wicklein, Shaun M.

    2017-11-17

    Heavy rainfall occurred across central and southern West Virginia in June 2016 as a result of repeated rounds of torrential thunderstorms. The storms caused major flooding and flash flooding in central and southern West Virginia with Kanawha, Fayette, Nicholas, and Greenbrier Counties among the hardest hit. Over the duration of the storms, from 8 to 9.37 inches of rain was reported in areas in Greenbrier County. Peak streamflows were the highest on record at 7 locations, and streamflows at 18 locations ranked in the top five for the period of record at U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations used in this study. Following the storms, U.S. Geological Survey hydrographers identified and documented 422 high-water marks in West Virginia, noting location and height of the water above land surface. Many of these high-water marks were used to create flood-inundation maps for selected communities of West Virginia that experienced flooding in June 2016. Digital datasets of the inundation areas, mapping boundaries, and water depth rasters are available online.

  7. Reduction of nitric oxide by arc vaporized carbons (AVC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsang, S C; Chen, Y K; Green, M L.H. [The Catalysis Centre, Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    1996-07-04

    The reduction of nitric oxide by arc vaporized carbons (AVC) including the compound C{sub 6}0, fullerene soot and carbon nanotubes, giving dinitrogen and carbon oxides has been studied. It is found that the AVC carbons are more active towards oxidation by NO than by oxygen gas at low temperatures (300-400C). In contrast, conventional carbons such as graphite and microporous carbons are more readily oxidised by oxygen than by NO. The addition of copper salts and to a lesser extent, cobalt salts, to fullerene soot substantially promote NO reduction. The high intrinsic activity for NO reduction by AVC carbons compared to graphitic carbons is attributed to the presence of five membered carbon rings in the AVC carbons

  8. Affected in the nightclub

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob Johan

    2013-01-01

    simultaneously with the affects of love, joy, sympathy and so on. Alcohol, illicit drugs, bouncers, music and other human or non-human actants are part of the place. It is within this heterogeneous assemblage that affects become embodied. The data consists of 273 cases from a large Copenhagen nightclub where...

  9. Evaluation of the extent of initial Maillard reaction during cooking some vegetables by direct measurement of the Amadori compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiahao; Zhang, Shuqin; Zhang, Lianfu

    2018-01-01

    During vegetable cooking, one of the most notable and common chemical reactions is the Maillard reaction, which occurs as a result of thermal treatment and dehydration. Amadori compound determination provides a very sensitive indicator for early detection of quality changes caused by the Maillard reaction, as well as to retrospectively assess the heat treatment or storage conditions to which the product has been subjected. In this paper, a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatographic-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometric method was developed for the analysis of eight Amadori compounds, and the initial steps of the Maillard reaction during cooking (steaming, frying and baking) bell pepper, red pepper, yellow onion, purple onion, tomato and carrot were also assessed by quantitative determination of these Amadori compounds. These culinary treatments reduced moisture and increased the total content of Amadori compounds, which was not dependent on the type of vegetable or cooking method. Moreover, the effect of steaming on Amadori compound content and water loss was less than that by baking and frying vegetables. Further studies showed that the combination of high temperature and short time may lead to lower formation of Amadori compounds when baking vegetables. Culinary methods differently affected the extent of initial Maillard reaction when vegetables were made into home-cooked products. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Zonal frequency analysis of the gyral and sulcal extent of cerebral infarcts. Part III: Middle cerebral artery and watershed infarcts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidich, T.P.; Firestone, M.I.; Blum, J.T.; Abrams, K.J.

    2003-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that frequency analysis of the anatomic zones affected by single anterior (A), posterior (P), and middle (M) cerebral artery (CA), multivessel, and watershed infarcts will disclose specific sites (peak zones) most frequently involved by each type, sites most frequently injured by multiple different types (vulnerable zones), and overlapping sites of equal relative frequency for two or more different types of infarct (equal frequency zones). We adopted precise definitions of each vascular territory. CT and MRI studies of 50 MCA, 20 ACA-MCA, three PCA-MCA, and 30 parasagittal watershed infarcts were mapped onto a standard template. Relative infarct frequencies in each zone were analyzed within and across infarct types to identify the centers and peripheries of each, vulnerable zones, and equal frequency zones. These data were then correlated with the prior analysis of 47 ACA, PCA, dual ACA-PCA, and ACA-PCA-MCA infarcts. Zonal frequency data for MCA and watershed infarcts, the sites of peak infarct frequency, the sites of vulnerability to diverse infarcts, and the overlapping sites of equal infarct frequency are tabulated and displayed in standardized format for direct comparison of different infarcts. This method successfully displays the nature, sites, and extent of individual infarct types, illustrates the shifts in zonal frequency and lesion center that attend dual and triple infarcts, and clarifies the relationships among the diverse types of infarct. (orig.)

  11. Interplay between Affect and Arousal in Recognition Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Greene, Ciara M.; Bahri, Pooja; Soto, David

    2010-01-01

    Background: Emotional states linked to arousal and mood are known to affect the efficiency of cognitive performance. However, the extent to which memory processes may be affected by arousal, mood or their interaction is poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings: Following a study phase of abstract shapes, we altered the emotional state of participants by means of exposure to music that varied in both mood and arousal dimensions, leading to four different emotional states: (i) positive...

  12. Elementary Music Teachers' Perceptions of the Effect of Budget Reductions on Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Jimmy

    2018-01-01

    Since 2007, many U.S. music education programs have been negatively affected by budget reductions at the local, state, and national levels. Although researchers have studied the effect of budget reductions on music education, they have not widely examined the perspectives of teachers who have experienced these reductions. The purpose of this study…

  13. Uranium tetrafluoride reduction closed bomb. Part I: Reduction process general conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anca Abati, R.; Lopez Rodriguez, M.

    1961-01-01

    General conditions about the metallo thermic reduction in small bombs (250 and 800 gr. of uranium) has been investigated. Factors such as kind and granulometry of the magnesium used, magnesium excess and preheating temperature, which affect yields and metal quality have been considered. magnesium excess increased yields in a 15% in the small bomb, about the preheating temperature, there is a range between which yields and metal quality does not change. All tests have been made with graphite linings. (Author) 18 refs

  14. Extent of linkage disequilibrium and effective population size in four South African Sanga cattle breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sithembile Olga Makina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD in livestock populations is essential to determine the minimum distance between markers required for effective coverage when conducting genome-wide association studies. This study evaluated the extent of LD, persistence of allelic phase and effective population size (Ne for four Sanga cattle breeds in South Africa including the Afrikaner (n=44, Nguni (n=54, Drakensberger (n=47 and Bonsmara breeds (n=46, using Angus (n=31 and Holstein (n=29 as reference populations. We found that moderate LD extends up to inter-marker distances of 40-60 kb in Angus (0.21 and Holstein (0.21 and up to 100 kb in Afrikaner (0.20. This suggests that genomic selection and association studies performed within these breeds using an average inter-marker r2 ≥ 0.20 would require about 30,000 -50,000 SNPs. However, r2 ≥ 0.20 extended only up to 10-20 kb in the Nguni and Drakensberger and 20-40 kb in the Bonsmara indicating that 75,000 to 150,000 SNPs would be necessary for genome-wide association studies in these breeds. Correlation between alleles at contiguous loci indicated that phase was not strongly preserved between breeds. This suggests the need for breed-specific reference populations in which a much greater density of markers should be scored to identify breed specific haplotypes which may then be imputed into multi-breed commercial populations. Analysis of effective population size based on the extent of LD, revealed Ne=95 (Nguni, Ne=87 (Drakensberger, Ne=77 (Bonsmara and Ne=41 (Afrikaner. Results of this study form the basis for implementation of genomic selection programs in the Sanga breeds of South Africa.

  15. Flood extent mapping for Namibia using change detection and thresholding with SAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, Stephanie; Fatoyinbo, Temilola E; Policelli, Frederick

    2014-01-01

    A new method for flood detection change detection and thresholding (CDAT) was used with synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery to delineate the extent of flooding for the Chobe floodplain in the Caprivi region of Namibia. This region experiences annual seasonal flooding and has seen a recent renewal of severe flooding after a long dry period in the 1990s. Flooding in this area has caused loss of life and livelihoods for the surrounding communities and has caught the attention of disaster relief agencies. There is a need for flood extent mapping techniques that can be used to process images quickly, providing near real-time flooding information to relief agencies. ENVISAT/ASAR and Radarsat-2 images were acquired for several flooding seasons from February 2008 to March 2013. The CDAT method was used to determine flooding from these images and includes the use of image subtraction, decision-based classification with threshold values, and segmentation of SAR images. The total extent of flooding determined for 2009, 2011 and 2012 was about 542 km 2 , 720 km 2 , and 673 km 2 respectively. Pixels determined to be flooded in vegetation were typically <0.5% of the entire scene, with the exception of 2009 where the detection of flooding in vegetation was much greater (almost one third of the total flooded area). The time to maximum flooding for the 2013 flood season was determined to be about 27 days. Landsat water classification was used to compare the results from the new CDAT with SAR method; the results show good spatial agreement with Landsat scenes. (paper)

  16. Filling the gap: Using fishers' knowledge to map the extent and intensity of fishing activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szostek, Claire L; Murray, Lee G; Bell, Ewen; Kaiser, Michel J

    2017-08-01

    Knowledge of the extent and intensity of fishing activities is critical to inform management in relation to fishing impacts on marine conservation features. Such information can also provide insight into the potential socio-economic impacts of closures (or other restrictions) of fishing grounds that could occur through the future designation of Marine Conservation Zones (MCZs). We assessed the accuracy and validity of fishing effort data (spatial extent and relative effort) obtained from Fishers' Local Knowledge (LK) data compared to that derived from Vessel Monitoring System (VMS) data for a high-value shellfish fishery, the king scallop (Pecten maximus L.) dredge fishery in the English Channel. The spatial distribution of fishing effort from LK significantly correlated with VMS data and the correlation increased with increasing grid cell resolution. Using a larger grid cell size for data aggregation increases the estimation of the total area of seabed impacted by the fishery. In the absence of historical VMS data for vessels ≤15 m LOA (Length Overall), LK data for the inshore fleet provided important insights into the relative effort of the inshore (<6 NM from land) king scallop fishing fleet in the English Channel. The LK data provided a good representation of the spatial extent of inshore fishing activity, whereas representation of the offshore fishery was more precautionary in terms of defining total impact. Significantly, the data highlighted frequently fished areas of particular importance to the inshore fleet. In the absence of independent sources of geospatial information, the use of LK can inform the development of marine planning in relation to both sustainable fishing and conservation objectives, and has application in both developed and developing countries where VMS technology is not utilised in fisheries management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. THE USE OF LIDAR AND VOLUNTEERED GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION TO MAP FLOOD EXTENTS AND INUNDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. McDougall

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Floods are one of the most destructive natural disasters that threaten communities and properties. In recent decades, flooding has claimed more lives, destroyed more houses and ruined more agricultural land than any other natural hazard. The accurate prediction of the areas of inundation from flooding is critical to saving lives and property, but relies heavily on accurate digital elevation and hydrologic models. The 2011 Brisbane floods provided a unique opportunity to capture high resolution digital aerial imagery as the floods neared their peak, allowing the capture of areas of inundation over the various city suburbs. This high quality imagery, together with accurate LiDAR data over the area and publically available volunteered geographic imagery through repositories such as Flickr, enabled the reconstruction of flood extents and the assessment of both area and depth of inundation for the assessment of damage. In this study, approximately 20 images of flood damaged properties were utilised to identify the peak of the flood. Accurate position and height values were determined through the use of RTK GPS and conventional survey methods. This information was then utilised in conjunction with river gauge information to generate a digital flood surface. The LiDAR generated DEM was then intersected with the flood surface to reconstruct the area of inundation. The model determined areas of inundation were then compared to the mapped flood extent from the high resolution digital imagery to assess the accuracy of the process. The paper concludes that accurate flood extent prediction or mapping is possible through this method, although its accuracy is dependent on the number and location of sampled points. The utilisation of LiDAR generated DEMs and DSMs can also provide an excellent mechanism to estimate depths of inundation and hence flood damage

  18. The Use of LIDAR and Volunteered Geographic Information to Map Flood Extents and Inundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, K.; Temple-Watts, P.

    2012-07-01

    Floods are one of the most destructive natural disasters that threaten communities and properties. In recent decades, flooding has claimed more lives, destroyed more houses and ruined more agricultural land than any other natural hazard. The accurate prediction of the areas of inundation from flooding is critical to saving lives and property, but relies heavily on accurate digital elevation and hydrologic models. The 2011 Brisbane floods provided a unique opportunity to capture high resolution digital aerial imagery as the floods neared their peak, allowing the capture of areas of inundation over the various city suburbs. This high quality imagery, together with accurate LiDAR data over the area and publically available volunteered geographic imagery through repositories such as Flickr, enabled the reconstruction of flood extents and the assessment of both area and depth of inundation for the assessment of damage. In this study, approximately 20 images of flood damaged properties were utilised to identify the peak of the flood. Accurate position and height values were determined through the use of RTK GPS and conventional survey methods. This information was then utilised in conjunction with river gauge information to generate a digital flood surface. The LiDAR generated DEM was then intersected with the flood surface to reconstruct the area of inundation. The model determined areas of inundation were then compared to the mapped flood extent from the high resolution digital imagery to assess the accuracy of the process. The paper concludes that accurate flood extent prediction or mapping is possible through this method, although its accuracy is dependent on the number and location of sampled points. The utilisation of LiDAR generated DEMs and DSMs can also provide an excellent mechanism to estimate depths of inundation and hence flood damage

  19. Associations of Drug Lipophilicity and Extent of Metabolism with Drug-Induced Liver Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEuen, Kristin; Borlak, Jürgen; Tong, Weida; Chen, Minjun

    2017-06-22

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI), although rare, is a frequent cause of adverse drug reactions resulting in warnings and withdrawals of numerous medications. Despite the research community's best efforts, current testing strategies aimed at identifying hepatotoxic drugs prior to human trials are not sufficiently powered to predict the complex mechanisms leading to DILI. In our previous studies, we demonstrated lipophilicity and dose to be associated with increased DILI risk and, and in our latest work, we factored reactive metabolites into the algorithm to predict DILI. Given the inconsistency in determining the potential for drugs to cause DILI, the present study comprehensively assesses the relationship between DILI risk and lipophilicity and the extent of metabolism using a large published dataset of 1036 Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs by considering five independent DILI annotations. We found that lipophilicity and the extent of metabolism alone were associated with increased risk for DILI. Moreover, when analyzed in combination with high daily dose (≥100 mg), lipophilicity was statistically significantly associated with the risk of DILI across all datasets ( p < 0.05). Similarly, the combination of extensive hepatic metabolism (≥50%) and high daily dose (≥100 mg) was also strongly associated with an increased risk of DILI among all datasets analyzed ( p < 0.05). Our results suggest that both lipophilicity and the extent of hepatic metabolism can be considered important risk factors for DILI in humans, and that this relationship to DILI risk is much stronger when considered in combination with dose. The proposed paradigm allows the convergence of different published annotations to a more uniform assessment.

  20. To what extent do fiscal regimes equalize opportunities for income acquisition among citizens?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roemer, John E; Aaberge, Rolf; Colombino, Ugo

    2003-01-01

    This paper employs the theory of equality of opportunity, described in Roemer’s book (Equality of Opportunity, Harvard University Press, 1998), to compute the extent to which tax-and-transfer regimes in 11 countries equalize opportunities among citizens for income acquisition. Roughly speaking......, equality of opportunity for incomes has been achieved in a country when it is the case that the distributions of post-fisc income are the same for different types of citizen, where a citizen’s type is defined by the socio-economic status of his parents. Intuitively, a country will have equalized...

  1. Collaborative, Rapid Mapping of Water Extents During Hurricane Harvey Using Optical and Radar Satellite Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muench, R.; Jones, M.; Herndon, K. E.; Bell, J. R.; Anderson, E. R.; Markert, K. N.; Molthan, A.; Adams, E. C.; Shultz, L.; Cherrington, E. A.; Flores, A.; Lucey, R.; Munroe, T.; Layne, G.; Pulla, S. T.; Weigel, A. M.; Tondapu, G.

    2017-12-01

    On August 25, 2017, Hurricane Harvey made landfall between Port Aransas and Port O'Connor, Texas, bringing with it unprecedented amounts of rainfall and flooding. In times of natural disasters of this nature, emergency responders require timely and accurate information about the hazard in order to assess and plan for disaster response. Due to the extreme flooding impacts associated with Hurricane Harvey, delineations of water extent were crucial to inform resource deployment. Through the USGS's Hazards Data Distribution System, government and commercial vendors were able to acquire and distribute various satellite imagery to analysts to create value-added products that can be used by these emergency responders. Rapid-response water extent maps were created through a collaborative multi-organization and multi-sensor approach. One team of researchers created Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) water extent maps using modified Copernicus Sentinel data (2017), processed by ESA. This group used backscatter images, pre-processed by the Alaska Satellite Facility's Hybrid Pluggable Processing Pipeline (HyP3), to identify and apply a threshold to identify water in the image. Quality control was conducted by manually examining the image and correcting for potential errors. Another group of researchers and graduate student volunteers derived water masks from high resolution DigitalGlobe and SPOT images. Through a system of standardized image processing, quality control measures, and communication channels the team provided timely and fairly accurate water extent maps to support a larger NASA Disasters Program response. The optical imagery was processed through a combination of various band thresholds by using Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), Modified Normalized Water Index (MNDWI), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and cloud masking. Several aspects of the pre-processing and image access were run on internal servers to expedite the provision of images to

  2. [Accident-induced lesions of the facial nerve in relation to the extent of pyramidal pneumatization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadoori, S; Limberg, C

    1985-12-01

    Perilabyrinthine pneumatisation of the petrous pyramid constitutes a risk factor for the facial nerve in its labyrinthine part in a fracture of the temporal bone because serious splintering of bone is possible. Splinters dislocated into the Fallopian canal may damage the nerve seriously. On the other hand a perineural haematoma can flow out of the canal into the neighbouring cells through dehiscences or through the fractured canal walls and a compression of the nerve may be avoided. The decision to undertake early surgical intervention must take into account the degree of pneumatisation of the pyramid in posttraumatic lesions of the facial nerve. The timing and extent of recovery cannot be predicted.

  3. Collaborative, Rapid Mapping of Water Extents During Hurricane Harvey Using Optical and Radar Satellite Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muench, Rebekke; Jones, Madeline; Herndon, Kelsey; Schultz, Lori; Bell, Jordan; Anderson, Eric; Markert, Kel; Molthan, Andrew; Adams, Emily; Cherrington, Emil; hide

    2017-01-01

    On August 25, 2017, Hurricane Harvey made landfall between Port Aransas and Port O'Connor, Texas, bringing with it unprecedented amounts of rainfall and record flooding. In times of natural disasters of this nature, emergency responders require timely and accurate information about the hazard in order to assess and plan for disaster response. Due to the extreme flooding impacts associated with Hurricane Harvey, delineations of water extent were crucial to inform resource deployment. Through the USGS's Hazards Data Distribution System, government and commercial vendors were able to acquire and distribute various satellite imagery to analysts to create value-added products that can be used by these emergency responders. Rapid-response water extent maps were created through a collaborative multi-organization and multi-sensor approach. One team of researchers created Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) water extent maps using modified Copernicus Sentinel data (2017), processed by ESA. This group used backscatter images, pre-processed by the Alaska Satellite Facility's Hybrid Pluggable Processing Pipeline (HyP3), to identify and apply a threshold to identify water in the image. Quality control was conducted by manually examining the image and correcting for potential errors. Another group of researchers and graduate student volunteers derived water masks from high resolution DigitalGlobe and SPOT images. Through a system of standardized image processing, quality control measures, and communication channels the team provided timely and fairly accurate water extent maps to support a larger NASA Disasters Program response. The optical imagery was processed through a combination of various band thresholds and by using Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), Modified Normalized Water Index (MNDWI), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and cloud masking. Several aspects of the pre-processing and image access were run on internal servers to expedite the provision of

  4. The extent and nature of television food advertising to children in Xi?an, China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Danyang; Wang, Ting; Cheng, Yue; Zhang, Min; Yang, Xue; Zhu, Zhonghai; Liu, Danli; Yang, Wenfang; Zeng, Lingxia

    2016-01-01

    Background To explore the extent and nature of television food advertising especially unhealthy food advertising to primary school children in Xi?an, China. Methods Television data were recorded for 2 weekdays and 2 weekend days between 6:00 and 22:00 during May and June in 2012 from a total of five television channels most popular with children in Xi?an. Pearson ? 2 tests and logistic regression were applied to determine differences in the proportion of healthy food, unhealthy food and misce...

  5. Assessing the extent and effects of herbicide drift into Danish hedgerows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marianne Bruus; Andersen, H. V.; Strandberg, M. T.

    Very low dosages of herbicides are known to cause effects on bird cherry (Prunus avium) and hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna). It is not yet known whether other hedgerow trees and shrubs are equally sensitive to herbicide drift, to which extent spray drift into hedges and other habitats close to fiel...... were assessed. Metsulfuron methyl effects on Sambucus nigra (elder) and Sorbus intermedia were studied in separate experiments and will include second year effects. Methods and preliminary results are presented and discussed in relation to pesticide regulation....

  6. Windstorm of the eighteenth century in the Czech Lands: course, extent, impacts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brázdil, Rudolf; Szabó, Péter; Dobrovolný, Petr; Řezníčková, Ladislava; Kotyza, O.; Suchánková, Silvie; Valášek, H.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 129, 1-2 (2017), s. 623-632 ISSN 0177-798X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-11805S Institutional support: RVO:67179843 ; RVO:67985939 Keywords : course * extent * impacts of a windstorm * windstorm * Czech Lands * eighteenth century Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology; EH - Ecology, Behaviour (BU-J) OBOR OECD: Meteorology and atmospheric sciences; Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) (BU-J) Impact factor: 2.640, year: 2016

  7. 241-SY Tank Farm Construction Extent of Condition Review for Tank Integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Travis J.; Boomer, Kayle D.; Gunter, Jason R.; Venetz, Theodore J.

    2013-07-25

    This report provides the results of an extent of condition construction history review for tanks 241-SY-101, 241-SY-102, and 241-SY-103. The construction history of the 241-SY tank farm has been reviewed to identify issues similar to those experienced during tank 241-AY-102 construction. Those issues and others impacting integrity are discussed based on information found in available construction records, using tank 241-AY-102 as the comparison benchmark. In the 241-SY tank farm, the third DST farm constructed, refractory quality and stress relief were improved, while similar tank and liner fabrication issues remained.

  8. 241-AZ Tank Farm Construction Extent of Condition Review for Tank Integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Travis J.; Boomer, Kayle D.; Gunter, Jason R.; Venetz, Theodore J.

    2013-07-30

    This report provides the results of an extent of condition construction history review for tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102. The construction history of the 241-AZ tank farm has been reviewed to identify issues similar to those experienced during tank AY-102 construction. Those issues and others impacting integrity are discussed based on information found in available construction records, using tank AY-102 as the comparison benchmark. In the 241-AZ tank farm, the second DST farm constructed, both refractory quality and tank and liner fabrication were improved.

  9. The structure and extent of data files for research management and planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankowski, L.

    1981-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the structure and extent of the data files which are necessary for the efficient planning and management of a research institute. An analysis is made of the interrelations between decision-making and the amount of information, its content and structure, including consequences to be drawn for planning an in-house data bank for an institute. Special emphasis is placed on the type and structure of data files. The interrelations of the individual data with each other, the frequency of access and the necessity of involving individual agencies and services providing research guidance. (author)

  10. The extent of immission damage to coniferous forests in the GDR around the year 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, E.

    1991-01-01

    The economic effects of air pollution extend to the economic result of forestry and also directly to the state of forests; the latter damage includes loss of supplies, growth and unsuitability for felling and the adverse effect on forests as a place for rest and recreation. In this publication, results of calculations on the extent of this damage to the coniferous forests of the former DDR (differentiated according to spruce and pine and to the degree of damage) are submitted. The knowledge of the amount of this damage is of economic and forestry policy interest and it is gaining increasing trade importance. (orig.) [de

  11. Elaboration Likelihood and the Counseling Process: The Role of Affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltenberg, Cal D.; And Others

    The role of affect in counseling has been examined from several orientations. The depth of processing model views the efficiency of information processing as a function of the extent to which the information is processed. The notion of cognitive processing capacity states that processing information at deeper levels engages more of one's limited…

  12. Huntingtin gene repeat size variations affect risk of lifetime depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardiner, Sarah L.; van Belzen, Martine J.; Boogaard, Merel W.

    2017-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder caused by a cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) repeat expansion in the HTT gene. Although HD is frequently complicated by depression, it is still unknown to what extent common HTT CAG repeat size variations in the normal range could affect...

  13. The extent to which Latina/o preservice teachers demonstrate culturally responsive teaching practices during science and mathematics instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Cecilia M.

    2011-12-01

    Complex social, racial, economic, and political issues involved in the practice of teaching today require beginning teachers to be informed, skilled, and culturally responsive when entering the classroom. Teacher educators must educate future teachers in ways that will help them teach all children regardless of language, cultural background, or prior knowledge. The purpose of this study was to explore the extent to which culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) novice teachers described and demonstrated culturally responsive teaching strategies using their students' cultural and academic profiles to inform practice in science and mathematics instruction. This qualitative exploratory case study considered the culturally responsive teaching practices of 12, non-traditional, Latina/o students as they progressed through a distance-based collaborative teacher education program. Qualitative techniques used throughout this exploratory case study investigated cultural responsiveness of these student teachers as they demonstrated their abilities to: a) integrate content and facilitate knowledge construction; b) illustrate social justice and prejudice reduction; and c) develop students academically. In conclusion, student teachers participating in this study demonstrated their ability to integrate content by: (1) including content from other cultures, (2) building positive teacher-student relationships, and (3) holding high expectations for all students. They also demonstrated their ability to facilitate knowledge construction by building on what students knew. Since there is not sufficient data to support the student teachers' abilities to assist students in learning to be critical, independent thinkers who are open to other ways of knowing, no conclusions regarding this subcategory could be drawn. Student teachers in this study illustrated prejudice reduction by: (1) using native language support to assist students in learning and understanding science and math content

  14. Dental anxiety reduction and dental attendance after treatment in a dental fear clinic: A follow-up study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aartman, I.H.A.; de Jongh, A.; Makkes, P.C.; Hoogstraten, J.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess treatment outcome in terms of dental anxiety reduction at a post-treatment assessment and dental anxiety reduction and dental attendance one year later. Furthermore, it was determined to what extent psychopathological characteristics were related to

  15. Robust methods for data reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Farcomeni, Alessio

    2015-01-01

    Robust Methods for Data Reduction gives a non-technical overview of robust data reduction techniques, encouraging the use of these important and useful methods in practical applications. The main areas covered include principal components analysis, sparse principal component analysis, canonical correlation analysis, factor analysis, clustering, double clustering, and discriminant analysis.The first part of the book illustrates how dimension reduction techniques synthesize available information by reducing the dimensionality of the data. The second part focuses on cluster and discriminant analy

  16. Reduction in thermal conductivity of ceramics due to radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemens, P.G.; Hurley, G.F.; Clinard, F.W. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Ceramics are required for a number of applications in fusion reactors. In several of these applications, the thermal conductivity is an important design parameter as it affects the level of temperature and thermal stress in service. Ceramic insulators are known to suffer substantial reduction in thermal conductivity due to neutron irradiation damage. The present study estimates the reduction in thermal conductivity at high temperature due to radiation induced defects. Point, extended, and extended partly transparent defects are considered

  17. Equilibrium calculation for the electrolytic reduction process of the ACP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Byung Heung; Seo, Chung Seok; Yoon, Ji Sup

    2006-01-01

    The electrolytic reduction process is the most critical process of the advanced spent fuel conditioning process (ACP) since most of the chemical reactions take place during this reduction process in a molten salt bath. However, it is very difficult to observe the behavior of all the spent fuel elements by experiments. Therefore, a perspective calculation is required to predict how much the chemicals are distributed between the phases and which forms are stable in each phase. Chemical equilibria take place during the electrolytic reduction process. The reduction process uses a porous magnesia filter and the materials to be reduced are loaded into the filter, which means the filter, the cathode of the electrolytic reduction cell, acts as a packed-bed reactor. Lithium metal is produced by an electrolytic reaction in a molten Li 2 O-LiCl cell and the reaction is denoted as Eq. In this work, attention has been paid to the chemical reactions of Eq. since an electrochemical reaction is controlled easily by the supplied current and the extents of the chemical reactions are determined by considering many candidates species. Uranium oxides, for example, can be reduced to U 4 O 9 , UO 2 , and/or U when U 3 O 8 is fed to the electrolytic reduction process

  18. Galleria mellonella larvae are capable of sensing the extent of priming agent and mounting proportionatal cellular and humoral immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gongqing; Xu, Li; Yi, Yunhong

    2016-06-01

    Larvae of Galleria mellonella are useful models for studying the innate immunity of invertebrates or for evaluating the virulence of microbial pathogens. In this work, we demonstrated that prior exposure of G. mellonella larvae to high doses (1×10(4), 1×10(5) or 1×10(6) cells/larva) of heat-killed Photorhabdus luminescens TT01 increases the resistance of larvae to a lethal dose (50 cells/larva) of viable P. luminescens TT01 infection administered 48h later. We also found that the changes in immune protection level were highly correlated to the changes in levels of cellular and humoral immune parameters when priming the larvae with different doses of heat-killed P. luminescens TT01. Priming the larvae with high doses of heat-killed P. luminescens TT01 resulted in significant increases in the hemocytes activities of phagocytosis and encapsulation. High doses of heat-killed P. luminescens TT01 also induced an increase in total hemocyte count and a reduction in bacterial density within the larval hemocoel. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that genes coding for cecropin and gallerimycin and galiomycin increased in expression after priming G. mellonella with heat-killed P. luminescens TT01. All the immune parameters changed in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicate that the insect immune system is capable of sensing the extent of priming agent and mounting a proportionate immune response. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of climate and plant phenology on recruitment of moose at the southern extent of their range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteith, Kevin L.; Klaver, Robert W.; Hersey, Kent R.; Holland, A. Andrew; Thomas, Timothy P.; Kauffman, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Climate plays a fundamental role in limiting the range of a species, is a key factor in the dynamics of large herbivores, and is thought to be involved in declines of moose populations in recent decades. We examined effects of climate and growing-season phenology on recruitment (8–9 months old) of young Shiras moose (Alces alces shirasi) over three decades, from 18 herds, across a large geographic area encompassing much of the southern extent of their range. Recruitment declined in 8 of 18 herds during 1980–2009, whereas others did not exhibit a temporal trend (none showed a positive trend). During those three decades, seasonal temperatures increased, spring–summer precipitation decreased, and spring occurred earlier, became shorter in duration, and green-up occurred faster. Recruitment was influenced negatively by warm temperatures during the year before young were born, but only for herds with declining recruitment. Dry spring–summers of the previous year and rapid rates of spring green-up in the year of birth had similar negative influences across declining and stable herds. Those patterns indicate both direct (year t ) and delayed (year t−1) effects of weather and plant phenology on recruitment of young, which we hypothesize was mediated through effects on maternal nutritional condition. Suppressed nutrition could have been induced by (1) increased thermoregulatory costs associated with warming temperatures and (2) shortened duration of availability of high-quality forage in spring. Progressive reductions in net energetic gain for species that are sensitive to climate may continue to hamper individual fitness and population dynamics.

  20. Fraction Reduction in Membrane Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fraction reduction is a basic computation for rational numbers. P system is a new computing model, while the current methods for fraction reductions are not available in these systems. In this paper, we propose a method of fraction reduction and discuss how to carry it out in cell-like P systems with the membrane structure and the rules with priority designed. During the application of fraction reduction rules, synchronization is guaranteed by arranging some special objects in these rules. Our work contributes to performing the rational computation in P systems since the rational operands can be given in the form of fraction.

  1. Logistics Reduction: Heat Melt Compactor

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Logistics Reduction (LR) project Heat Melt Compactor (HMC) technology is a waste management technology. Currently, there are...

  2. Nonlinear Model Reduction for RTCVD

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Newman, Andrew J; Krishnaprasad, P. S

    1998-01-01

    ...) for semiconductor manufacturing. They focus on model reduction for the ordinary differential equation model describing heat transfer to, from, and within a semiconductor wafer in the RTCVD chamber...

  3. Prevalence, intensity and extent of Oral Impacts on Daily Performances associated with self-perceived malocclusion in 11-12-year-old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flores-Mir Carlos

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the prevalence, intensity and extent of the Oral Impacts on Daily Performances associated with self-perceived malocclusion among Peruvian schoolchildren. Methods Eight hundred and five children aged 11 to 12 years attending 4 of 7 randomly selected schools linked to a Health Centre in Lima, Peru, participated in the study. The Spanish (PeruChild-OIDP was used to assess the prevalence, intensity and extent of oral impacts on 8 daily performances (eating, speaking, teeth cleaning, sleeping, smiling, studying, emotion and social contact. Self-perceived malocclusion included complaints about position of teeth, spacing of teeth and deformity of mouth or face. The prevalence of oral impacts was compared by covariables using the Chi-square test, whereas the intensity and extent of oral impacts were compared by covariables through the Mann-Whitney test. Results Only 15.5% of children reported impacts associated with self-perceived malocclusion during the last 3 months. Of them, 18.4% reported impacts of severe or very severe intensity and 76.0% reported impacts on only one daily performance. Psychosocial activities such as smiling, emotion and social contact were the most frequently and severely impacted everyday activities. Conclusion Impacts of self-perceived malocclusion primarily affected psychological and social everyday activities. These findings provide further evidence to support the importance of psychological and social components of oral health on children's lives.

  4. Affectivity and race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    on the role of feelings in the formation of subjectivities, how race and whiteness are affectively circulated in public life and the ways in which emotions contribute to regimes of inclusion and exclusion. As such it will appeal to scholars across the social sciences, with interests in sociology, anthropology...... of the Nordic countries, Affectivity and Race draws on a variety of sources, including television programmes, news media, fictional literature, interviews, ethnographic observations, teaching curricula and policy documents, to explore the ways in which ideas about affectivity and emotion afford new insights...

  5. Enhancing interaural-delay-based extents of laterality at high frequencies by using ``transposed stimuli''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Leslie R.; Trahiotis, Constantine

    2003-06-01

    An acoustic pointing task was used to determine whether interaural temporal disparities (ITDs) conveyed by high-frequency ``transposed'' stimuli would produce larger extents of laterality than ITDs conveyed by bands of high-frequency Gaussian noise. The envelopes of transposed stimuli are designed to provide high-frequency channels with information similar to that conveyed by the waveforms of low-frequency stimuli. Lateralization was measured for low-frequency Gaussian noises, the same noises transposed to 4 kHz, and high-frequency Gaussian bands of noise centered at 4 kHz. Extents of laterality obtained with the transposed stimuli were greater than those obtained with bands of Gaussian noise centered at 4 kHz and, in some cases, were equivalent to those obtained with low-frequency stimuli. In a second experiment, the general effects on lateral position produced by imposed combinations of bandwidth, ITD, and interaural phase disparities (IPDs) on low-frequency stimuli remained when those stimuli were transposed to 4 kHz. Overall, the data were fairly well accounted for by a model that computes the cross-correlation subsequent to known stages of peripheral auditory processing augmented by low-pass filtering of the envelopes within the high-frequency channels of each ear.

  6. IceMap250—Automatic 250 m Sea Ice Extent Mapping Using MODIS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Gignac

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The sea ice cover in the North evolves at a rapid rate. To adequately monitor this evolution, tools with high temporal and spatial resolution are needed. This paper presents IceMap250, an automatic sea ice extent mapping algorithm using MODIS reflective/emissive bands. Hybrid cloud-masking using both the MOD35 mask and a visibility mask, combined with downscaling of Bands 3–7 to 250 m, are utilized to delineate sea ice extent using a decision tree approach. IceMap250 was tested on scenes from the freeze-up, stable cover, and melt seasons in the Hudson Bay complex, in Northeastern Canada. IceMap250 first product is a daily composite sea ice presence map at 250 m. Validation based on comparisons with photo-interpreted ground-truth show the ability of the algorithm to achieve high classification accuracy, with kappa values systematically over 90%. IceMap250 second product is a weekly clear sky map that provides a synthesis of 7 days of daily composite maps. This map, produced using a majority filter, makes the sea ice presence map even more accurate by filtering out the effects of isolated classification errors. The synthesis maps show spatial consistency through time when compared to passive microwave and national ice services maps.

  7. Estimating the Spatial Extent of Unsaturated Zones in Heterogeneous River-Aquifer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Oliver S.; Irvine, Dylan J.; Hendricks Franssen, Harrie-Jan; Brunner, Philip

    2017-12-01

    The presence of unsaturated zones at the river-aquifer interface has large implications on numerous hydraulic and chemical processes. However, the hydrological and geological controls that influence the development of unsaturated zones have so far only been analyzed with simplified conceptualizations of flow processes, or homogeneous conceptualizations of the hydraulic conductivity in either the aquifer or the riverbed. We systematically investigated the influence of heterogeneous structures in both the riverbed and the aquifer on the development of unsaturated zones. A stochastic 1-D criterion that takes both riverbed and aquifer heterogeneity into account was developed using a Monte Carlo sampling technique. The approach allows the reliable estimation of the upper bound of the spatial extent of unsaturated areas underneath a riverbed. Through systematic numerical modeling experiments, we furthermore show that horizontal capillary forces can reduce the spatial extent of unsaturated zones under clogged areas. This analysis shows how the spatial structure of clogging layers and aquifers influence the propensity for unsaturated zones to develop: In riverbeds where clogged areas are made up of many small, spatially disconnected patches with a diameter in the order of 1 m, unsaturated areas are less likely to develop compared to riverbeds where large clogged areas exist adjacent to unclogged areas. A combination of the stochastic 1-D criterion with an analysis of the spatial structure of the clogging layers and the potential for resaturation can help develop an appropriate conceptual model and inform the choice of a suitable numerical simulator for river-aquifer systems.

  8. Large extents of intensive land use limit community reorganization during climate warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Tom H; Gillings, Simon; Pearce-Higgins, James W; Brereton, Tom; Crick, Humphrey Q P; Duffield, Simon J; Morecroft, Michael D; Roy, David B

    2017-06-01

    Climate change is increasingly altering the composition of ecological communities, in combination with other environmental pressures such as high-intensity land use. Pressures are expected to interact in their effects, but the extent to which intensive human land use constrains community responses to climate change is currently unclear. A generic indicator of climate change impact, the community temperature index (CTI), has previously been used to suggest that both bird and butterflies are successfully 'tracking' climate change. Here, we assessed community changes at over 600 English bird or butterfly monitoring sites over three decades and tested how the surrounding land has influenced these changes. We partitioned community changes into warm- and cold-associated assemblages and found that English bird communities have not reorganized successfully in response to climate change. CTI increases for birds are primarily attributable to the loss of cold-associated species, whilst for butterflies, warm-associated species have tended to increase. Importantly, the area of intensively managed land use around monitoring sites appears to influence these community changes, with large extents of intensively managed land limiting 'adaptive' community reorganization in response to climate change. Specifically, high-intensity land use appears to exacerbate declines in cold-adapted bird and butterfly species, and prevent increases in warm-associated birds. This has broad implications for managing landscapes to promote climate change adaptation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The extent of problematic alcohol and other drug use within selected South African workplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harker Burnhams, Nadine; Dada, Siphokazi; Linda, Betty; Myers, Bronwyn; Parry, Charles

    2013-09-30

    The use of alcohol and other drugs (AODs) in the workplace has a major impact on the health and productivity of the workforce globally. Yet information on this issue is limited in South Africa (SA). To describe the nature and extent of AOD problems in selected workplace settings in SA. Secondary data analysis was conducted on a large dataset compiled by an Employee Assistance Programme (EAP) service provider in SA. As part of an EAP risk audit, assessments for AOD-related problems were completed for each employee accessing EAP services (n=10 428) between 2005 and 2011. Data on the socio-demographic profiles, AOD use and impact of AOD use on the work performance of employees were analysed. Findings indicate that employed men are more likely to experience alcohol-related problems than women, the latter demonstrating a higher percentage of drug-related problems. The majority of referrals to the EAPs emanate from the public, industrial and financial sectors. AOD-related problems were also found to significantly impact on employee work performance. The study begins to address the knowledge gap on the extent of AOD use in SA workplaces and points to the need for further investigations into the exact nature of AOD use. In addition, the study highlights the need for intervention programmes and policies suited to the workplace.

  10. Modulation of the Extent of Cooperative Structural Change During Protein Folding by Chemical Denaturant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jethva, Prashant N; Udgaonkar, Jayant B

    2017-09-07

    Protein folding and unfolding reactions invariably appear to be highly cooperative reactions, but the structural and sequence determinants of cooperativity are poorly understood. Importantly, it is not known whether cooperative structural change occurs throughout the protein, or whether some parts change cooperatively and other parts change noncooperatively. In the current study, hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry has been used to show that the mechanism of unfolding of the PI3K SH3 domain is similar in the absence and presence of 5 M urea. The data are well described by a four state N ↔ I N ↔ I 2 ↔ U model, in which structural changes occur noncooperatively during the N ↔ I N and I N ↔ I 2 transitions, and occur cooperatively during the I 2 ↔ U transition. The nSrc-loop and RT-loop, as well as β strands 4 and 5 undergo noncooperative unfolding, while β strands 1, 2, and 3 unfold cooperatively in the absence of urea. However, in the presence of 5 M urea, the unfolding of β strand 4 switches to become cooperative, leading to an increase in the extent of cooperative structural change. The current study highlights the relationship between protein stability and cooperativity, by showing how the extent of cooperativity can be varied, using chemical denaturant to alter protein stability.

  11. What is the microscopic tumor extent beyond clinically delineated gross tumor boundary in nonmelanoma skin cancers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choo, Richard; Woo, Tony; Assaad, Dalal; Antonyshyn, Oleh; Barnes, Elizabeth A.; McKenzie, David; Fialkov, Jeffrey; Breen, Dale; Mamedov, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the microscopic tumor extension beyond clinically delineated gross tumor boundary in nonmelanoma skin cancers. Methods and Materials: A prospective, single arm, study. Preoperatively, a radiation oncologist outlined the boundary of a gross lesion, and drew 5-mm incremental marks in four directions from the delineated border. Under local anesthesia, the lesion was excised, and resection margins were assessed microscopically by frozen section. Once resection margins were clear, the microscopic tumor extent was calculated using the presurgical incremental markings as references. A potential relationship between the distance of microscopic tumor extension and other variables was analyzed. Results: A total of 71 lesions in 64 consecutive patients, selected for surgical excision with frozen-section-assisted assessment of resection margins, were accrued. The distance of microscopic tumor extension beyond a gross lesion varied from 1 mm to 15 mm, with a mean of 5.2 mm. A margin of 10 mm was required to provide a 95% chance of obtaining clear resection margins. The microscopic tumor extent was positively correlated with the size of gross lesion, but not with other variables. Conclusions: The distance of microscopic tumor extension beyond a gross nonmelanoma skin cancer was variable, with a mean of 5.2 mm. Such information is critical for the proper radiation planning of skin cancer therapy

  12. What is the microscopic tumor extent beyond clinically delineated gross tumor boundary in nonmelanoma skin cancers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Richard; Woo, Tony; Assaad, Dalal; Antonyshyn, Oleh; Barnes, Elizabeth A; McKenzie, David; Fialkov, Jeffrey; Breen, Dale; Mamedov, Alexander

    2005-07-15

    To quantify the microscopic tumor extension beyond clinically delineated gross tumor boundary in nonmelanoma skin cancers. A prospective, single arm, study. Preoperatively, a radiation oncologist outlined the boundary of a gross lesion, and drew 5-mm incremental marks in four directions from the delineated border. Under local anesthesia, the lesion was excised, and resection margins were assessed microscopically by frozen section. Once resection margins were clear, the microscopic tumor extent was calculated using the presurgical incremental markings as references. A potential relationship between the distance of microscopic tumor extension and other variables was analyzed. A total of 71 lesions in 64 consecutive patients, selected for surgical excision with frozen-section-assisted assessment of resection margins, were accrued. The distance of microscopic tumor extension beyond a gross lesion varied from 1 mm to 15 mm, with a mean of 5.2 mm. A margin of 10 mm was required to provide a 95% chance of obtaining clear resection margins. The microscopic tumor extent was positively correlated with the size of gross lesion, but not with other variables. The distance of microscopic tumor extension beyond a gross nonmelanoma skin cancer was variable, with a mean of 5.2 mm. Such information is critical for the proper radiation planning of skin cancer therapy.

  13. Extent of Playing-Related Musculoskeletal Problems in the Irish Traditional Music Community: A Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Mark; Wilson, Iseult M; Doherty, Liz; Magee, Justin

    2018-03-01

    The literature related to playing-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMDs) primarily includes classical musicians and instrument-specific studies. Previous work by our team identified that PRMDs are an issue for Irish traditional fiddle players; however, the extent of the problem was not known. To identify the type and extent of PRMDs in the Irish traditional music population, specifically fiddle players. A questionnaire was developed and administered to faculty and students related to all Irish traditional music courses in all higher education institutions in Ireland. Seven institutions were included. The response rate was 77.5% (n=79 of 102 possible respondents). A fifth of respondents never had a PRMD, 36.7% (n=29) currently had a PRMD, and 34.2% (n=27) had a previous experience of a PRMD. The main symptoms were pain (62%, n=49), stiffness (41.8%, n=33), and tingling (35.4%, n=28). There was a positive association between the development of PRMDs and increased hours of play (p=0.017). PRMDs are a problem for Irish traditional fiddle players, especially during times of intense playing such as festivals.

  14. Gene expression patterns in peripheral blood correlate with the extent of coronary artery disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter R Sinnaeve

    Full Text Available Systemic and local inflammation plays a prominent role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease, but the relationship of whole blood gene expression changes with coronary disease remains unclear. We have investigated whether gene expression patterns in peripheral blood correlate with the severity of coronary disease and whether these patterns correlate with the extent of atherosclerosis in the vascular wall. Patients were selected according to their coronary artery disease index (CADi, a validated angiographical measure of the extent of coronary atherosclerosis that correlates with outcome. RNA was extracted from blood of 120 patients with at least a stenosis greater than 50% (CADi > or = 23 and from 121 controls without evidence of coronary stenosis (CADi = 0. 160 individual genes were found to correlate with CADi (rho > 0.2, P<0.003. Prominent differential expression was observed especially in genes involved in cell growth, apoptosis and inflammation. Using these 160 genes, a partial least squares multivariate regression model resulted in a highly predictive model (r(2 = 0.776, P<0.0001. The expression pattern of these 160 genes in aortic tissue also predicted the severity of atherosclerosis in human aortas, showing that peripheral blood gene expression associated with coronary atherosclerosis mirrors gene expression changes in atherosclerotic arteries. In conclusion, the simultaneous expression pattern of 160 genes in whole blood correlates with the severity of coronary artery disease and mirrors expression changes in the atherosclerotic vascular wall.

  15. Effect of electronic spatial extents (ESE) of ions on overpotential of lithium ion capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Fan; Lee, Chung ho; Koo, Chong Min; Jung, Cheolsoo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Electronic spatial extent (ESE) of ion characterizes its electron density volume. •The ESE of ion proposes to assess overpotential of nanoporous capacitor. •Anion with low ESE shows low overpotential of the capacitor. •The ESE is more realistic to assess overpotential than conductivity or ion size. -- Abstract: The electronic spatial extent (ESE) of ions was defined as a major concept for assessing the cause of overpotential in the charging and discharging processes of a nanoporous activated carbon (AC) electrode. The performance degradation of AC/Li half-cells was caused by the overpotential, which was in discord with the electrolyte conductivity and ion size. Compared to the overpotential with the salt concentration, the AC/Li half-cell with a high concentration had a smaller overpotential, and its discharge patterns were similar to the curves obtained from the half-cells with a smaller ESE of BF 4 − ion. The ESE is a more realistic solution for determining the overpotential of the nanoporous capacitor, such as supercapacitor and Li ion capacitor, because its capacity is dependent on the electron density at the electric double layer of the capacitor electrode

  16. Snowmelt runoff in the Green River basin derived from MODIS snow extent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, J. S.; Hall, D. K.

    2011-12-01

    The Green River represents a vital water supply for southwestern Wyoming, northern Colorado, eastern Utah, and the Lower Colorado River Compact states (Arizona, Nevada, and California). Rapid development in the southwestern United States combined with the recent drought has greatly stressed the water supply of the Colorado River system, and concurrently increased the interest in long-term variations in stream flow. Modeling of snowmelt runoff represents a means to predict flows and reservoir storage, which is useful for water resource planning. An investigation is made into the accuracy of the Snowmelt Runoff Model of Martinec and Rango, driven by Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow maps for predicting stream flow within the Green River basin. While the moderate resolution of the MODIS snow maps limits the spatial detail that can be captured, the daily coverage is an important advantage of the MODIS imagery. The daily MODIS snow extent is measured using the most recent clear observation for each 500-meter pixel. Auxiliary data used include temperature and precipitation time series from the Snow Telemetry (SNOTEL) and Remote Automated Weather Station (RAWS) networks as well as from National Weather Service records. Also from the SNOTEL network, snow-water equivalence data are obtained to calibrate the conversion between snow extent and runoff potential.

  17. Data-adaptive Harmonic Decomposition and Real-time Prediction of Arctic Sea Ice Extent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrashov, Dmitri; Chekroun, Mickael; Ghil, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Decline in the Arctic sea ice extent (SIE) has profound socio-economic implications and is a focus of active scientific research. Of particular interest is prediction of SIE on subseasonal time scales, i.e. from early summer into fall, when sea ice coverage in Arctic reaches its minimum. However, subseasonal forecasting of SIE is very challenging due to the high variability of ocean and atmosphere over Arctic in summer, as well as shortness of observational data and inadequacies of the physics-based models to simulate sea-ice dynamics. The Sea Ice Outlook (SIO) by Sea Ice Prediction Network (SIPN, http://www.arcus.org/sipn) is a collaborative effort to facilitate and improve subseasonal prediction of September SIE by physics-based and data-driven statistical models. Data-adaptive Harmonic Decomposition (DAH) and Multilayer Stuart-Landau Models (MSLM) techniques [Chekroun and Kondrashov, 2017], have been successfully applied to the nonlinear stochastic modeling, as well as retrospective and real-time forecasting of Multisensor Analyzed Sea Ice Extent (MASIE) dataset in key four Arctic regions. In particular, DAH-MSLM predictions outperformed most statistical models and physics-based models in real-time 2016 SIO submissions. The key success factors are associated with DAH ability to disentangle complex regional dynamics of MASIE by data-adaptive harmonic spatio-temporal patterns that reduce the data-driven modeling effort to elemental MSLMs stacked per frequency with fixed and small number of model coefficients to estimate.

  18. Thoracic neuroblastoma: what is the best imaging modality for evaluating extent of disease?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovis, T.L.; Meza, M.P.; Cushing, B.; Elkowitz, S.S.; Leonidas, J.C.; Festa, R.; Kogutt, M.S.; Fletcher, B.D.

    1997-01-01

    Thoracic neuroblastoma accounts for 15% of all cases of neuroblastoma. A minority of children with thoracic neuroblastoma will have dumbbell tumors, i.e., intraspinal extension, but only half these patients will have neurologic signs or symptoms. Hypothesis. MR imaging is the single best test to evaluate the extent of thoracic and spinal disease in thoracid neuroblastoma after the diagnosis of a mass is estbalished on plain film. A retrospective multi-institutional investigation over 7 years of all cases of thoracic neuroblastoma (n=26) imaged with CT and/or MR were reviewed for detection of the extent of disease. The chest film, nuclear bone scan, and other imaging modalities were also reviewed. The surgical and histologic correlation in each case, as well as the patients' staging and outcome, were tabulated. The chest radiography was 100% sensitive in suggesting the diagnosis. MR imaging was 100% sensitive in predicting enlarged lymph nodes, intraspinal extension, and chest wall involvement. CT was 88% sensitive for intraspinal extension but only 20% sensitive for lymph node enlargement. CT was 100% sensitive in detecting chest wall involvement. Direct comparison of CT and MR imaging in six cases revealed no difference in detection of enlarged lymph nodes or chest wall involvement. Neither test was able to detect remote disease, as noted by bone scan. The chest film is 100% sensitive in suggesting the diagnosis of thoracic neuroblastoma; MR imaging appears to be the single best test for detecting nodal involvement, intraspinal extension, and chest wall involvement. (orig.)

  19. Short article: Presence, extent and location of pancreatic necrosis are independent of aetiology in acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonk, Robert C; Sternby, Hanna; Dimova, Alexandra; Ignatavicius, Povilas; Koiva, Peter; Penttila, Anne K; Ilzarbe, Lucas; Regner, Sara; Rosendahl, Jonas; Bollen, Thomas L

    2018-03-01

    The most common aetiologies of acute pancreatitis (AP) are gallstones, alcohol and idiopathic. The impact of the aetiology of AP on the extent and morphology of pancreatic and extrapancreatic necrosis (EXPN) has not been clearly established. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of aetiology on the presence and location of pancreatic necrosis in patients with AP. We carried out a post-hoc analysis of a previously established multicentre cohort of patients with AP in whom a computed tomography was available for review. Clinical data were obtained from the medical records. All computed tomographies were revised by the same expert radiologist. The impact of aetiology on pancreatic and EXPN was calculated. In total, 159 patients with necrotizing pancreatitis were identified from a cohort of 285 patients. The most frequent aetiologies were biliary (105 patients, 37%), followed by alcohol (102 patients, 36%) and other aetiologies including idiopathic (78 patients, 27%). No relationship was found between the aetiology and the presence of pancreatic necrosis, EXPN, location of pancreatic necrosis or presence of collections. We found no association between the aetiology of AP and the presence, extent and anatomical location of pancreatic necrosis.

  20. A Streaming Algorithm for Online Estimation of Temporal and Spatial Extent of Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittipong Hiriotappa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowing traffic congestion and its impact on travel time in advance is vital for proactive travel planning as well as advanced traffic management. This paper proposes a streaming algorithm to estimate temporal and spatial extent of delays online which can be deployed with roadside sensors. First, the proposed algorithm uses streaming input from individual sensors to detect a deviation from normal traffic patterns, referred to as anomalies, which is used as an early indication of delay occurrence. Then, a group of consecutive sensors that detect anomalies are used to temporally and spatially estimate extent of delay associated with the detected anomalies. Performance evaluations are conducted using a real-world data set collected by roadside sensors in Bangkok, Thailand, and the NGSIM data set collected in California, USA. Using NGSIM data, it is shown qualitatively that the proposed algorithm can detect consecutive occurrences of shockwaves and estimate their associated delays. Then, using a data set from Thailand, it is shown quantitatively that the proposed algorithm can detect and estimate delays associated with both recurring congestion and incident-induced nonrecurring congestion. The proposed algorithm also outperforms the previously proposed streaming algorithm.